Science.gov

Sample records for reluctance machines conception

  1. Analysis and design of asymmetrical reluctance machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harianto, Cahya A.

    Over the past few decades the induction machine has been chosen for many applications due to its structural simplicity and low manufacturing cost. However, modest torque density and control challenges have motivated researchers to find alternative machines. The permanent magnet synchronous machine has been viewed as one of the alternatives because it features higher torque density for a given loss than the induction machine. However, the assembly and permanent magnet material cost, along with safety under fault conditions, have been concerns for this class of machine. An alternative machine type, namely the asymmetrical reluctance machine, is proposed in this work. Since the proposed machine is of the reluctance machine type, it possesses desirable feature, such as near absence of rotor losses, low assembly cost, low no-load rotational losses, modest torque ripple, and rather benign fault conditions. Through theoretical analysis performed herein, it is shown that this machine has a higher torque density for a given loss than typical reluctance machines, although not as high as the permanent magnet machines. Thus, the asymmetrical reluctance machine is a viable and advantageous machine alternative where the use of permanent magnet machines are undesirable.

  2. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  3. Prediction of Radial Vibration in Switched Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2013-12-01

    Origins of vibration in switched reluctance machines (SRMs) are investigated. Accordingly, an input-output model based on the mechanical impulse response of the SRMis developed. The proposed model is derived using an experimental approach. Using the proposed approach, vibration of the stator frame is captured and experimentally verified.

  4. Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, R.H.

    2005-10-07

    In a conventional permanent magnet (PM) machine, the air-gap flux produced by the PM is fixed. It is difficult to enhance the air-gap flux density due to limitations of the PM in a series-magnetic circuit. However, the air-gap flux density can be weakened by using power electronic field weakening to the limit of demagnetization of the PMs. This paper presents the test results of controlling the PM air-gap flux density through the use of a stationary brushless excitation coil in a reluctance interior permanent magnet with brushless field excitation (RIPM-BFE) motor. Through the use of this technology the air-gap flux density can be either enhanced or weakened. There is no concern with demagnetizing the PMs during field weakening. The leakage flux of the excitation coil through the PMs is blocked. The prototype motor built on this principle confirms the concept of flux enhancement and weakening through the use of excitation coils.

  5. A non linear analytical model of switched reluctance machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiane, Y.; Tounzi, A.; Piriou, F.

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays, the switched reluctance machine are widely used. To determine their performances and to elaborate control strategy, we generally use the linear analytical model. Unhappily, this last is not very accurate. To yield accurate modelling results, we use then numerical models based on either 2D or 3D Finite Element Method. However, this approach is very expensive in terms of computation time and remains suitable to study the behaviour of eventually a whole device. However, it is not, a priori, adapted to elaborate control strategy for electrical machines. This paper deals with a non linear analytical model in terms of variable inductances. The theoretical development of the proposed model is introduced. Then, the model is applied to study the behaviour of a whole controlled switched reluctance machine. The parameters of the structure are identified from a 2D numerical model. They can also be determined from an experimental bench. Then, the results given by the proposed model are compared to those issue from the 2D-FEM approach and from the classical linear analytical model.

  6. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  7. Control system of mutually coupled switched reluctance motor drive of mining machines in generator mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Kalanchin, I. Yu; Pugacheva, E. E.

    2017-09-01

    One of the first electric motors, based on the use of electromagnets, was a reluctance motor in the XIX century. Due to the complexities in the implementation of control system the development of switched reluctance electric machines was repeatedly initiated only in 1960 thanks to the development of computers and power electronic devices. The main feature of these machines is the capacity to work both in engine mode and in generator mode. Thanks to a simple and reliable design in which there is no winding of the rotor, commutator, permanent magnets, a reactive gate-inductor electric drive operating in the engine mode is actively being introduced into various areas such as car industry, production of household appliances, wind power engineering, as well as responsible production processes in the oil and mining industries. However, the existing shortcomings of switched reluctance electric machines, such as nonlinear pulsations of electromagnetic moment, the presence of three or four phase supply system and sensor of rotor position prevent wide distribution of this kind of electric machines.

  8. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-05-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ϕ≥0.7 to 0.8).

  9. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    PubMed

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  10. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    PubMed Central

    Bucak, İhsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

  11. A novel design and driving strategy for a hybrid electric machine with torque performance enhancement both taking reluctance and electromagnetic attraction effects into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Nan; Chen, Wan-Pei; Teng, Ching-Cheng; Chen, Mu-Ping

    2006-09-01

    A novel design, the hybrid electric machine, that owns improved competence for the output torque regulation as well as enlarged power density comparing to the conventional brushless machines by making use of the simultaneous performance overlapping concept based on magnetism is proposed in this paper. The developed design concept is focused on electric machine structure and its counterpart drive for applying two main magnetic-power transmitting paths by combination of both features of magnetic tendencies of flux generation that may flow in the path with minimum reluctance and direction owning the electromagnetic motive attraction. The verifications demonstrate that the outputted torque owns effective improvement by the presented concept of the electric machine based on the equivalent 3-hp frame than the conventional brushless motors.

  12. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  13. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine

    2017-10-01

    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  14. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shoujun; Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-01

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  15. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-15

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  16. An Improved Model Predictive Current Controller of Switched Reluctance Machines Using Time-Multiplexed Current Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingchu; Ling, Xiao; Huang, Yixiang; Gong, Liang; Liu, Chengliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fixed-switching-frequency model predictive current controller using multiplexed current sensor for switched reluctance machine (SRM) drives. The converter was modified to distinguish currents from simultaneously excited phases during the sampling period. The only current sensor installed in the converter was time division multiplexing for phase current sampling. During the commutation stage, the control steps of adjacent phases were shifted so that sampling time was staggered. The maximum and minimum duty ratio of pulse width modulation (PWM) was limited to keep enough sampling time for analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. Current sensor multiplexing was realized without complex adjustment of either driver circuit nor control algorithms, while it helps to reduce the cost and errors introduced in current sampling due to inconsistency between sensors. The proposed controller is validated by both simulation and experimental results with a 1.5 kW three-phase 12/8 SRM. Satisfied current sampling is received with little difference compared with independent phase current sensors for each phase. The proposed controller tracks the reference current profile as accurately as the model predictive current controller with independent phase current sensors, while having minor tracking errors compared with a hysteresis current controller. PMID:28513554

  17. Collaborative Tracking Control of Dual Linear Switched Reluctance Machines Over Communication Network With Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li; Shi, Yang; Pan, Jianfei; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Gang

    2016-10-11

    This paper investigates the collaborative tracking control for dual linear switched reluctance machines (LSRMs) over a communication network with random time delays. Considering the spatio-temporal constraint relationship of the dual LSRMs in complex industrial processes, the collaborative tracking control scheme is proposed based on the networked motion control method. The stability conditions and the controller design method for the networked dual LSRMs are obtained from the two motors relative position error by using Lyapunov theory and delay systems approach. Four different allocation schemes combined with two kinds of external control signals are applied onto the collaborative tracking control experiment platform of the dual LSRMs to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The maximum steady-state relative position error within 0.104 mm can be achieved under the constant absolute position reference input signal of 3 mm, and the maximum absolute relative position error within ±0.46 mm can be achieved under the sinusoidal reference of 8 mm amplitude and 0.2 Hz.

  18. An Improved Model Predictive Current Controller of Switched Reluctance Machines Using Time-Multiplexed Current Sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingchu; Ling, Xiao; Huang, Yixiang; Gong, Liang; Liu, Chengliang

    2017-05-17

    This paper presents a fixed-switching-frequency model predictive current controller using multiplexed current sensor for switched reluctance machine (SRM) drives. The converter was modified to distinguish currents from simultaneously excited phases during the sampling period. The only current sensor installed in the converter was time division multiplexing for phase current sampling. During the commutation stage, the control steps of adjacent phases were shifted so that sampling time was staggered. The maximum and minimum duty ratio of pulse width modulation (PWM) was limited to keep enough sampling time for analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. Current sensor multiplexing was realized without complex adjustment of either driver circuit nor control algorithms, while it helps to reduce the cost and errors introduced in current sampling due to inconsistency between sensors. The proposed controller is validated by both simulation and experimental results with a 1.5 kW three-phase 12/8 SRM. Satisfied current sampling is received with little difference compared with independent phase current sensors for each phase. The proposed controller tracks the reference current profile as accurately as the model predictive current controller with independent phase current sensors, while having minor tracking errors compared with a hysteresis current controller.

  19. 16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Burress, T.A.; Lee, S.T.; Wiles, R.H.; Coomer, C.L.; McKeever, J.W.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-10-31

    The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to the d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend

  20. Permanent Magnet Machine And Method With Reluctance Poles For High Strength Undiffused Brushless Operation.

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-06

    A method and apparatus in which a rotor (11) and a stator (17) define a radial air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one, and preferably two, DC excitation assemblies (23, 24) are positioned at opposite ends of the rotor (20) to define secondary air gaps (21, 22). Portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are provided as boundaries separating the rotor pole portions (12a, 12b) of opposite polarity from other portions of the rotor (11) and from each other to define PM poles (12a, 12b) for conveying the DC flux to or from the primary air gap (20) and for inhibiting flux from leaking from the pole portions prior to reaching the primary air gap (20). The portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are spaced from each other so as to include reluctance poles (15) of ferromagnetic material between the PM poles (12a, 12b) to interact with the AC flux in the primary-air gap (20).

  1. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  2. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  3. Intention concepts and brain-machine interfacing.

    PubMed

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret ("decode") the agent's intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent's intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications.

  4. Man/machine interface development for the REMOTEX concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garin, J.; Clarke, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a man/machine interface system that can be used to remotely control a system composed of a transporter base and a force-reflecting, survocontrolled manipulator is reported. The concept features the incorporation of totally remote operation. A simulator is build to optimize man/machine interface requirements.

  5. Single bus star connected reluctance drive and method

    DOEpatents

    Fahimi, Babak; Shamsi, Pourya

    2016-05-10

    A system and methods for operating a switched reluctance machine includes a controller, an inverter connected to the controller and to the switched reluctance machine, a hysteresis control connected to the controller and to the inverter, a set of sensors connected to the switched reluctance machine and to the controller, the switched reluctance machine further including a set of phases the controller further comprising a processor and a memory connected to the processor, wherein the processor programmed to execute a control process and a generation process.

  6. Absorption of language concepts in the machine mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In our approach, the machine mind is the applicative dynamic system represented by its algorithmically evolvable internal language. By other words, the mind and the language of mind are synonyms. Coming out from Shaumyan's semiotic theory of languages, we present the representation of language concepts in the machine mind as a result of our experiment, to show non-redundancy of the language of mind. To provide useful restriction for further research, we also introduce the hypothesis of semantic saturation in Computer-Computer communication, which indicates that a set of machines is not self-evolvable. The goal of our research is to increase the abstraction of Human-Computer and Computer-Computer communication. If we want humans and machines comunicate as a parent with the child, using different symbols and media, we must find the language of mind commonly usable by both machines and humans. In our opinion, there exist a kind of calm language of thinking, which we try to propose for machines in this paper. We separate the layers of a machine mind, we present the structure of the evolved mind and we discuss the selected properties. We are concentrating on the representation of symbolized concepts in the mind, that are languages, not just grammars, since they have meaning.

  7. Teaching Sewing Machine Tension Concepts to Blind and Sighted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Nora M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An experimental lesson plan on sewing machine tension was developed for blind and sighted students in an attempt to teach this concept more effectively. Tactile/verbal aids were used in the experimental lesson to increase the potential for student comprehension. The experimental lesson produced better results for both groups of students even…

  8. Motivating Reluctant Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Joyce; And Others

    This report describes a program for motivating reluctant writers. The targeted population consisted of one fourth-grade and four fifth-grade classrooms in three elementary schools. All three schools were located in the western suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. The problems of reluctant writers were documented with timed writing samples, student and…

  9. Retrofit concept for small safety related stationary machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epple, S.; Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Jung, R.

    2017-05-01

    More and more old machines have the problem that their control electronics’ lifecycle comes to its intended end of life, whilst the mechanics itself and process capability is still in very good condition. This article shows an example of a reactive ion etcher originally built in 1988, which was refitted with a new control concept. The original control unit was repaired several times based on manufacturer’s obsolescence management. At start of the retrofit project the integrated circuits were no longer available for further repair of the original control unit. Safety, repeatability and stability of the process were greatly improved.

  10. Commande vectorielle de la machine a reluctance variable à stator lisse. Prise en compte de la saturation et de l'amortissement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tounzi, A.; Meibody-Tabar, F.; Sargos, F. M.

    1997-04-01

    This paper deals with the field-oriented control of a smooth stator, non excited salient rotor synchronous machine. First, a nonlinear modelling of the machine, taking into account both damping and saturation effects, is developed in PARK's rotor-bound frame. Then, a vector control strategy, which maintains a constant saturation level in the machine, is set-up. This strategy, wich consists in keeping the stator direct current at a high constant value, allows to linearize the model of the machine and to control it in the same way as a DC machine. A numerical simulation of a VRM, fed by a PWM-VSI and controlled thanks to this control strategy, is built up and the computed results are given and commented. Cet article est consacré à la commande vectorielle d'une machine à réluctance variable à stator lisse et rotor massif. D'abord, une modélisation non linéaire de la machine a été effectuée dans le repère de Park. Cette dernière permet de prendre en compte l'effet d'amortissement dû au rotor massif, ainsi que celui de la saturation inhérent à ce genre de machine. Ensuite, une stratégie de contrôle vectoriel, qui maintient un niveau de saturation constant dans la machine, a été élaborée. Cette stratégie, qui consiste à maintenir le courant direct statorique à une valeur élevée, permet de linéariser le modèle de la machine et ainsi de pouvoir la contrôler comme une machine à courant continu. Une simulation numérique de la machine à réluctance variable, alimentée par un onduleur de tension à MLI et commandée par la stratégie mise au point, a été effectuée. Les résultats de cette simulation sont donnés et commentés à la fin de l'article.

  11. Multimode vibration reduction concept for machine tools and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Kranz, Burkhard; Kunze, Holger

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports a numerical and experimental study on a new multi mode vibration reduction concept for struts of machine tools or shafts of automotives. The example described in detail validates this new concept for high dynamic parallel kinematic struts. The structural advantages of parallel kinematic mechanisms are undisputed. However statical and dynamical bending and torsional loads must be considered during the design process of the structure and thus effect the shape of the strut geometry. The here described new actuator concept for multi mode vibration reduction is to influence these bending and torsional loads. It uses piezopatches based on the MFC technology licensed by NASA. Initial simulation and experimental tests were done at an one side clamped aluminium beam with applicated 45°-MFC's on both sides. Simulation results show, that driving the piezos in opposite direction leads to a bending deflection of the beam, driving them in the same phase leads to a torsional deflection of the aluminium beam. Experimental measurements confirm the simulation results. The benefit we get is a decreased number of actuators for multimode vibration reduction. Likewise these actuators allow the separation or selective combination of bending and torsion. This new actuation concept is not limited on beams. Further simulations for cylindrical struts result in a design of a MFC-ring with eight segments with changing fiber orientation for separation of bending and torsion on struts and shafts. The selective controlled activation of each of the segments leads to bending in x-direction, bending in y-direction or torsion.

  12. The Reluctant Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Aidan

    This book is concerned with the approximately 60% of capable adolescent readers who have little or no inclination to read creative literature. The possible causes of this reluctance to read are examined and various solutions to the problems are discussed. Chapters focus on the reading interests and motivations of teenagers, on the reasons that…

  13. Motivating the Reluctant Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzard, Barbara; Jarosz, Diane; Lato, Kelly; Zimmermann, Lori

    This report describes a program for increasing student reading motivation through the use of cooperative learning activities, differentiating reading instruction, and active reading strategies. The students of the targeted second, fourth, sixth and eighth grade classes exhibited a reluctance to read that interfered with academic growth. Probable…

  14. Machining Strategy to Adapt Cutting Conditions under Digital Copy Milling Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi

    Most machining tools are controlled by numerical control (NC) programs in order to achieve unmanned machining operations with high precision and improved productivity. However, all the movements of the machining tool are predetermined, and all instructions coded in the NC program are performed sequentially. Therefore, since the cutting process is not adaptable during unmanned machining, the cutting conditions should be set conservatively to avoid cutting difficulties. In this study, machining strategies for adapting the cutting process during a milling operation to avoid tool breakage and to stabilize cutting load have been integrated into an autonomous NC machining tool developed under the Digital Copy Milling (DCM) concept for generating a tool path in real time. In machining strategies, feed speed, radial and axial depths of cut are adapted according to cutting load detected from load cells in the machining table. Successful endmilling experiments verified the effectiveness of the developed machining strategy.

  15. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  16. Vending machines and the self-care concept.

    PubMed

    Steinfirst, J L; Cowell, S A; Presley, B A; Reifler, C B

    1985-08-01

    For the past 3 years (1980-83), students at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York, have had 24-hour access to a vending machine which dispenses over the counter medicines and contraceptives. The machine is located in a small health facility near the undergraduate residence halls. The health facility is staffed by a registered nurse who provides treatment for minor illnesses, health education information, and referrals to the university's medical center. The facility stresses self-care, and a bulletin board located near the vending machine provides numerous health education brochures. The vending machine program represents a continuation of the emphasis on self-care. Instead of fostering dependency on the nursing staff the vending machine helps the students become self-reliant in reference to assessing their own health needs. Items dispensed by the machine include condoms, condoms and foam, aspirin, Sudafed, Robitussin, Acetaminiphen, Chlortrimeton, Cepacol, bandages, and thermometers. The items are sold to the students at cost. Condoms are the most popular item, and in 1982-83, 404 condom packages, priced at US$.50, were sold. Students who know what kind of medicine or health aid they want no longer are required to obtain these items by visiting the nursing staff. The image of the nurses at the facility is no longer that of a dispenser of over the counter drugs but that of someone who provides counseling, health education, and referrals. A survey conducted in 1983 revealed that the majority of the student body knew about the vending machine. This awareness reached 100% among senior class males. The purpose of the vending machine project is to make nonprescription medicines readily available to students, to make contraceptives available on a 24-hour basis, and to emphasize that the primary role of the facility's nursing staff is to provide education, counseling, and referral services.

  17. The Morrison Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors typically consist of pairs of poles protruding outward from a central rotor, surrounded by pairs of coils protruding inward from a stator. The pairs of coils, positioned a short distance from opposing sides of the rotor, are connected in series. A current runs through the coils, generating a magnetic flux between the coils. This attracts the protruding poles on the rotor, and just as the poles on the rotor approach the coils, the current to the coils is inverted, repelling the rotor s poles as they pass the coils. This current switching, back and forth, provides a continuous rotational torque to the rotor. reliability, durability, low cost, and operation in adverse environments such as high temperatures, extreme temperature variations, and high rotational speeds. However, because rotors are often manufactured with minute flaws due to imperfections in the machining process, traditional switched reluctance motors often suffer from substantial amounts of vibration. In addition, the current in the coils imparts a strong radial magnetic force on the rotor; the continuous alternating of the direction of this force also causes vibration. As a result, switched reluctance motors require bearings that, run at high speeds, can require lubrication apparatus and are subject to problems with heat and wear. My mentor s recent invention, the "Bearingless" Switched Reluctance Motor, actually uses magnetic bearings instead of traditional physical bearings. Sensors are used to continuously determine the position of the rotor. A computer reads the position sensor input, performs calculations, and outputs a current to a set of extra coils (in addition to the coils rotating the rotor). This current provides a magnetic force that counters and damps the vibration. The sense-calculate-update loop iterates more than thirty thousand times per second. For now, our goal is to have the rotor rotate at about 6000 rprn, and at that speed, the magnetic bearing is

  18. Teaching Mathematical and Scientific Concepts through the Use of a Pneumatic Arm Wrestling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a learning activity in which students build a pneumatic arm wrestling machine, thus combining their interest in arm wrestling while making direct applications to many scientific and mathematical concepts. (JOW)

  19. Recognizing Disjoint Clinical Concepts in Clinical Text Using Machine Learning-based Methods.

    PubMed

    Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical concept recognition (CCR) is a fundamental task in clinical natural language processing (NLP) field. Almost all current machine learning-based CCR systems can only recognize clinical concepts of consecutive words (called consecutive clinical concepts, CCCs), but can do nothing about clinical concepts of disjoint words (called disjoint clinical concepts, DCCs), which widely exist in clinical text. In this paper, we proposed two novel types of representations for disjoint clinical concepts, and applied two state-of-the-art machine learning methods to recognizing consecutive and disjoint concepts. Experiments conducted on the 2013 ShARe/CLEF challenge corpus showed that our best system achieved a "strict" F-measure of 0.803 for CCCs, a "strict" F-measure of 0.477 for DCCs, and a "strict" F-measure of 0.783 for all clinical concepts, significantly higher than the baseline systems by 4.2% and 4.1% respectively.

  20. Development of a Flexible Laser Hardening & Machining Center and Proof of Concept on C-45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquet, Jan; Van Camp, Dries; Vanhove, Hans; Clijsters, Stijn; Amirahmad, Mohammadi; Lauwers, Bert

    The production of hardened precision parts is conventionally done in 3 steps. Rough machining of a workpiece in soft stage is followed by a hardening step, usually a batch process, and finalized by a hard machining finishing step. To omit the inevitable time delay and loss of accuracy because of part re-clamping, these steps should be incorporated within one flexible machining center. This paper describes the development of this machining center which allowsmachining and laser hardening in one setup, followed by a proof of concept for hardening C45 steel on this setup.

  1. How a time machine concept aids dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Lorna; Smith, Karin; James, Ian

    People with Alzheimer's disease may be able to recall events from their past clearly yet unable to remember events from minutes or hours ago. They often hold outdated beliefs about themselves, which can trigger challenging behaviour. This article explains how the simple analogy of the "time machine" can help staff in all settings to understand belief systems in dementia.

  2. Characterization of a variable reluctance harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, M.; Moll, N.; Ravindran, S. K. T.; Mehne, P.; Woias, P.

    2014-11-01

    In our last year's PowerMEMS contribution we presented a proof-of-concept of a variable reluctance harvester for the application in a railroad surveillance system. It was shown that intermittently closing a magnetic circuit could supply power output in the range of mW's. The test setup used showed unwanted energy pickup from the electro motor used. In this paper we present thorough measurements of the reluctance circuit with a compressed air motor to exclude the effects of the above mentioned magnetic stray fields. The effects of eddy currents and moment of inertia on the output power, the optimal coil position on the stators, and effects of different magnetic field strengths are studied. The gap width is set to a fixed value of 14 mm, representing a realistic scenario.

  3. Using machine learning for concept extraction on clinical documents from multiple data sources

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Liu, Hongfang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Concept extraction is a process to identify phrases referring to concepts of interests in unstructured text. It is a critical component in automated text processing. We investigate the performance of machine learning taggers for clinical concept extraction, particularly the portability of taggers across documents from multiple data sources. Methods We used BioTagger-GM to train machine learning taggers, which we originally developed for the detection of gene/protein names in the biology domain. Trained taggers were evaluated using the annotated clinical documents made available in the 2010 i2b2/VA Challenge workshop, consisting of documents from four data sources. Results As expected, performance of a tagger trained on one data source degraded when evaluated on another source, but the degradation of the performance varied depending on data sources. A tagger trained on multiple data sources was robust, and it achieved an F score as high as 0.890 on one data source. The results also suggest that performance of machine learning taggers is likely to improve if more annotated documents are available for training. Conclusion Our study shows how the performance of machine learning taggers is degraded when they are ported across clinical documents from different sources. The portability of taggers can be enhanced by training on datasets from multiple sources. The study also shows that BioTagger-GM can be easily extended to detect clinical concept mentions with good performance. PMID:21709161

  4. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  5. Recognizing Disjoint Clinical Concepts in Clinical Text Using Machine Learning-based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical concept recognition (CCR) is a fundamental task in clinical natural language processing (NLP) field. Almost all current machine learning-based CCR systems can only recognize clinical concepts of consecutive words (called consecutive clinical concepts, CCCs), but can do nothing about clinical concepts of disjoint words (called disjoint clinical concepts, DCCs), which widely exist in clinical text. In this paper, we proposed two novel types of representations for disjoint clinical concepts, and applied two state-of-the-art machine learning methods to recognizing consecutive and disjoint concepts. Experiments conducted on the 2013 ShARe/CLEF challenge corpus showed that our best system achieved a “strict” F-measure of 0.803 for CCCs, a “strict” F-measure of 0.477 for DCCs, and a “strict” F-measure of 0.783 for all clinical concepts, significantly higher than the baseline systems by 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. PMID:26958258

  6. Applying Switched Reluctance Motor to Oil Hydraulic Pump Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamai, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Yuzo; Ohyama, Kazunobu

    Hydraulic pump units are widely used to operate hydraulic actuators. In a typical machine shop, conventional constant speed hydraulic pump units consume more than 20% of the total electric power necessary to operate CNC machine tools. Most of that energy are wasted to run the axial piston pump at idle. This paper describes a variable speed hydraulic pump unit using a switched reluctance motor (SRM), which saves energy drastically. SRM was selected as the most suitable motor for this application. Design and control strategy of this motor are described. Application examples to machine tools shows the effectiveness of the new hybrid pump system in saving energy and in reducing acoustic noise.

  7. Design Methodology for Low-Speed Variable Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, John Riden

    Lowering the gear reduction in actuators by utilizing high-torque low-speed motors enables the use of less expensive and simpler gear systems and decreases the overall system inertia. Variable reluctance machines can produce high torque at low speeds. Their static torque, a critical quantity for determination of low speed operation, is compared for three variable reluctance motor design variations using linear analysis. Saturation effects, which are crucial to the accurate determination of static torque, are modeled using a dual energy technique first proposed by Lord Rayleigh. Dual energy techniques utilizing flux tubes and magnetomotive force slices are developed into a numerical method for predicting nonlinear three-dimensional magnetostatic field parameters. The dual energy method offers a compromise between the accurate but laborious finite element method and the speed of simplified lumped parameter magnetic circuit calculations. A two-dimensional dual energy model of a variable reluctance motor is developed. Results of calculations on a 4 kW Oulton machine are compared to measurements and other calculation methods. Finally, as a demonstration, the model is used to evaluate two competing variable reluctance motors for use as replacements for a DC windshield wiper motor.

  8. Inductance and Active Phase Vector Based Torque Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpathi, Ramani Raman

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drive technology has developed significantly over the last few years. The simplicity in both motor design and power converter requirement along with the availability of high frequency, high power semiconductor switches have made SRMs compete with conventional adjustable speed drive technologies. The subject of winding current control in switched reluctance machines has always been associated with the shaft position information. The use of inductance for direct commutation control is the central subject of this dissertation. In contrast to the conventional methods based on position commutation, new methods of control based on inductance commutation are presented. The object of a commutation algorithm is to switch the currents in the phase coils, in order to provide continuous energy conversion with maximum torque output for a given unit of input current. Since torque production in a SRM is based on the concept of variable reluctance, it makes more sense to observe the instantaneous phase inductance or reluctance instead of estimating the rotor position. The inductance sensors observe the machine parameters and provide sufficient information on the electrical characteristics of the coils. This control strategy avoids the inductance to position transformation blocks conventionally used in SRM control systems. In a typical SRM, the phase coils have a nonlinear behavior of inductance due to effects of current saturation. Also the parameters of one phase coil differ from those of the other due to manufacturing tolerances or due to bearing wear. In such cases, the algorithms written during the stage of manufacturing may not be valid after parameter changes. Optimizing torque production in the event of phase asymmetry and saturation is developed in this research. Indirect sensors connected to the active phase coil of the SRM are based on sensing the flux level in the active coil. New commutation algorithms based on flux sensing concepts

  9. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  10. The metered delivery of solids into pressure: A radically new machine concept

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, M.M.; Hay, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    This is the second report on the development of a machine concept for the continuous movement and accurately metered delivery of particulate solids (e.g., coal), wet or dry, into environments of ambient or differential fluid or mechanical pressure. It includes the first disclosure of continuous, direct delivery of US power plant coal into 26 psi gas pressure. The pump has only one moving part and is self-cleaning.

  11. Machine vision based on the concept of contrast sensitivity of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzubik, Vitali; Belashenkov, Nikolai; Vdovin, Gleb

    2014-09-01

    The model of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of machine vision system, based on the CSF of the human visual system is proposed. By analogy with the human eye, we employ the concept of ganglion cell receptive field to the artificial light-sensitive elements. By further following this concept, we introduced quantative metrics of local and global contrast of digital image. We suggested that the contrast sensitivity threshold forms an iso-line in the parameter space contrast - spatial frequency. The model, implemented in a computer vision system, has been compared to the results of contrast sensitivity research, conducted directly with the human visual system, and demonstrated a good match.

  12. Meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine for imbalanced and concept-drifting data classification.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Bilal; Lin, Zhiping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine (MOS-ELM) is proposed for class imbalance and concept drift learning. In MOS-ELM, meta-cognition is used to self-regulate the learning by selecting suitable learning strategies for class imbalance and concept drift problems. MOS-ELM is the first sequential learning method to alleviate the imbalance problem for both binary class and multi-class data streams with concept drift. In MOS-ELM, a new adaptive window approach is proposed for concept drift learning. A single output update equation is also proposed which unifies various application specific OS-ELM methods. The performance of MOS-ELM is evaluated under different conditions and compared with methods each specific to some of the conditions. On most of the datasets in comparison, MOS-ELM outperforms the competing methods.

  13. The reluctant entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Veit, K

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a lot of corporate executives, Ken Veit never longed to be his own boss. But after 30 years on the fast track, he lost his high-powered job at one of the world's largest insurance companies and was forced to take an entrepreneurial leap of faith. In 1989, Veit signed a franchise agreement to own and operate a Cartoon Corner store in a mall in Scottsdale, Arizona. Cartoon Corner was based on the Disney store idea, but it carried hundreds of products featuring cartoon characters from every movie studio. Most important, Cartoon Corner offered extensive training and an elaborate management support system for its franchisees. The company planned to franchise 100 stores over the next few years, then go public. If all went well, its young executives claimed, the Cartoon Corner chain would build a market valuation of up to $100 million by the mid-1990s. In addition, the mall, which was in the planning stages when Veit signed on, was supposed to become a new kind of entertainment mall, with seven movie theaters, a space-flight simulator, and a shark-filled aquarium. It had all sounded too good to be true--and it was. Despite Veit's careful forecasting, he suffered a series of unexpected catastrophes. The mall failed to keep its promises. The franchisor lost its venture capital. The Gulf War dried up retail traffic. But it was too late to back out. Veit went forward on his own, truly alone for the first time in his life. When the mall and his store finally opened in May 1991, they did so in the midst of a recession. Despite the inspirational stories of other former executives, Veit has learned that the life of an entrepreneur is not all it's cracked up to be. As he notes, "I began with well-above-average experience, a proven concept, and excellent capitalization, yet in my case, personal bankruptcy remains a distinct possibility."

  14. Machine learning-based coreference resolution of concepts in clinical documents

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Henry; Mullett, Charles J; El-Rawas, Oussama

    2012-01-01

    Objective Coreference resolution of concepts, although a very active area in the natural language processing community, has not yet been widely applied to clinical documents. Accordingly, the 2011 i2b2 competition focusing on this area is a timely and useful challenge. The objective of this research was to collate coreferent chains of concepts from a corpus of clinical documents. These concepts are in the categories of person, problems, treatments, and tests. Design A machine learning approach based on graphical models was employed to cluster coreferent concepts. Features selected were divided into domain independent and domain specific sets. Training was done with the i2b2 provided training set of 489 documents with 6949 chains. Testing was done on 322 documents. Results The learning engine, using the un-weighted average of three different measurement schemes, resulted in an F measure of 0.8423 where no domain specific features were included and 0.8483 where the feature set included both domain independent and domain specific features. Conclusion Our machine learning approach is a promising solution for recognizing coreferent concepts, which in turn is useful for practical applications such as the assembly of problem and medication lists from clinical documents. PMID:22582205

  15. Torquemeter With Variable Reluctance Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Julio

    1987-01-01

    A new variable reluctance transducer is described. Two static coils constitute two branches of a Wheastone bridge. The magnetic circuit of each one of the windings is closed through two gear wheels attached to the shaft. These are related to each other in such a way as to leave two air gaps, each of these in front of one of the coils in the stator assambly. These gaps change with the torque.

  16. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  17. Optimizing Multi Characterstics in Machining of AISI 4340 Steel Using Taguchi's Approach and Utility Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Munish Kumar; Sood, Pardeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to develop the multi response optimization technique for predict and select the optimal setting of machining parameters while machining AISI 4340 steel using utility concept. The experimental studies in machining were carried out under varying conditions of process parameters, such as cutting speed (v), feed (f) and different cooling conditions (i.e. dry, wet and cryogenic in which liquid nitrogen used as a coolant) by using uncoated tungsten carbide insert tool. Experiments were carried out as per Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array with the utility concept and multi response optimization were performed for minimization of specific cutting force ( K S ) and surface roughness ( R a ). Further statistical analysis of variation (ANOVA) and analysis of mean (ANOM) were used to determine the effect of process parameters on responses K S and R a based on their P value and F value at 95 % confidence level. The optimization results proved that, cutting speed 57 m/min, feed 0.248 mm/min and cryogenic cooling is required for minimizes K S and R a .

  18. The machine conception of the organism in development and evolution: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in contemporary biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. The analysis presented here focuses on the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the contexts of development and evolution. In developmental biology the MCO underlies a logically incoherent model of ontogeny, the genetic program, which serves to legitimate three problematic theses about development: genetic animism, neo-preformationism, and developmental computability. In evolutionary biology the MCO is responsible for grounding unwarranted theoretical appeals to the concept of design as well as to the interpretation of natural selection as an engineer, which promote a distorted understanding of the process and products of evolutionary change. Overall, it is argued that, despite its heuristic value, the MCO today is impeding rather than enabling further progress in our comprehension of living systems.

  19. Adaptability of optimization concept in the context of cryogenic distribution for superconducting magnets of fusion machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Ritendra Nath; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Shah, Nitin Dineshkumar; Choukekar, Ketan; Badgujar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic distribution system (CDS) plays a vital role for reliable operation of largescale fusion machines in a Tokamak configuration. Managing dynamic heat loads from the superconducting magnets, namely, toroidal field, poloidal field, central solenoid and supporting structure is the most important function of the CDS along with the static heat loads. Two concepts are foreseen for the configuration of the CDS: singular distribution and collective distribution. In the first concept, each magnet is assigned with one distribution box having its own sub-cooler bath. In the collective concept, it is possible to share one common bath for more than one magnet system. The case study has been performed with an identical dynamic heat load profile applied to both concepts in the same time domain. The choices of a combined system from the magnets are also part of the study without compromising the system functionality. Process modeling and detailed simulations have been performed for both the options using Aspen HYSYS®. Multiple plasma pulses per day have been considered to verify the residual energy deposited in the superconducting magnets at the end of the plasma pulse. Preliminary 3D modeling using CATIA® has been performed along with the first level of component sizing.

  20. Reluctant partners: Implementing federal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Reluctant Partners examines how the federal government can secure the cooperation it needs to effect national policy goals whtn the implementation process itself empowers potential adversaries. The current battle over how and where to permanently store the nation's high-level nuclear waste poses one of the greatest challenges to federalism since the Civil War. Authority has been legislatively diffused among the federal government, the states, the counties, and certain affected Indian tribes. The situation also epitomizes the conflict that arises when Congress delegates final decisionmaking authority to the bureaucracy. The book contributes to the body of implementation literature by moving past organizational theory to consider issues of governance and leadership. However, it will disappoint the empiricist who sees an opportunity for the application of a theory go by the boards.

  1. Turning Reluctant Learners into Inspired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor in promoting academic success, and intrinsic motivation is especially important for developing autonomous learners. Reluctant learners, in particular, benefit from intrinsic motivation that makes learning relevant to their lives. In this article, the author describes commonalities of reluctant learners and presents…

  2. The Role of Reluctance in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-06-16

    The international research community has lately focused efforts on interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors to produce a traction motor for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). One of the beneficial features of this technology is the additional torque produced by reluctance. The objective of this report is to analytically describe the role that reluctance plays in permanent magnet (PM) motors, to explore ways to increase reluctance torque without sacrificing the torque produced by the PMs, and to compare three IPM configurations with respect to torque, power, amount of magnet material required (cost), and percentage of reluctance torque. Results of this study will be used to determine future research directions in utilizing reluctance to obtain maximum torque and power while using a minimum amount of magnet material.

  3. A Microprocessor Control Scheme For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, A. R.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.

    1987-10-01

    A microprocessor control scheme for a switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive is discussed. A SRM is inherently a variable speed machine since it requires a converter even for constant speed running. Starting with a conceptual development, a particular hardware scheme is discussed for controller implementation. Hardware-software tradeoffs incorporated in the design are discussed. Some results of an actual system are evaluated. It is shown that a microprocessor controller has many advantages over conventional controllers. The controller design uses rotor position and speed feedbacks. Self-starting is incorporated into the design. Use of off-the-shelf components makes the controller simple, reliable, and economical.

  4. Prediction and analysis of variable reluctance stepmotor drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulle, D. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between the electric terminal parameters and output/input power is derived for conventional doubly-salient synchronous machines and extended to include the variable reluctance motor. The advantages and limitations of the drive-schemes are shown in Blondel diagrams and torque speed curves. A general method for obtaining a quantitative assessment of drive-schemes is developed by the introduction of so-called performance figures, related to the output power and efficiency. From this method applied to four drive schemes, it is concluded that severe performance degradation is the result of using a forging resistance in a drive-scheme. A forced decay unipolar chopper drive is presented.

  5. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by stratigraphy.net and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  6. Simulations of Carnival Rides and Rube Goldberg Machines for the Visualization of Concepts of Statics and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William; Williams, Richard; Yao, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Solid modeling is widely used as a teaching tool in summer activities with high school students. The addition of motion analysis allows concepts from statics and dynamics to be introduced to students in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Two sets of solid modeling projects--carnival rides and Rube Goldberg machines--are shown to allow the…

  7. Simulations of Carnival Rides and Rube Goldberg Machines for the Visualization of Concepts of Statics and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William; Williams, Richard; Yao, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Solid modeling is widely used as a teaching tool in summer activities with high school students. The addition of motion analysis allows concepts from statics and dynamics to be introduced to students in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Two sets of solid modeling projects--carnival rides and Rube Goldberg machines--are shown to allow the…

  8. Finding Hooks to Catch Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marijo

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a list of books of varying lengths and difficulty that the reading teacher can use to help reluctant readers find that all-important breakthrough book to discover what reading can do for them. (KEH)

  9. Analysis of a display and control system man-machine interface concept. Volume 1: Final technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the feasibility of utilizing a simplified man machine interface concept to manage and control a complex space system involving multiple redundant computers that control multiple redundant subsystems. The concept involves the use of a CRT for display and a simple keyboard for control, with a tree-type control logic for accessing and controlling mission, systems, and subsystem elements. The concept was evaluated in terms of the Phase B space shuttle orbiter, to utilize the wide scope of data management and subsystem control inherent in the central data management subsystem provided by the Phase B design philosophy. Results of these investigations are reported in four volumes.

  10. Development of Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor Suitable for Variable-Speed Drive for Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Takahashi, Norio; Shimomura, Eiji; Arata, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Yousuke; Tajima, Toshinobu

    Regarding environmental and energy issues, increasing importance has been placed on energy saving in various systems. To save energy, it would be desirable if the total efficiency of various types of equipment were increased.Recently, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and an electric vehicle (EV) have been developed. The use of new technologies will eventually lead to the realization of the new- generation vehicle with high efficiency. One new technology is the variable-speed drive over a wide range of speeds. The motor driving systems of the EV or the HEV must operate in the variable-speed range of up to 1:5. This has created the need for a high-efficiency motor that is capable of operation over a wide speed range. In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel permanent magnet reluctance motor (PRM) and discuss its characteristics. We developed the PRM, which has the capability of operating over a wide speed range with high efficiency. The PRM has a rotor with a salient pole, which generates magnetic anisotropy. In addition, the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor core counter the q-axis flux by the armature reaction. Then, the power density and the power factor increase. The PRM produces reluctance torque and torque by permanent magnet (PM) flux. The reluctance torque is 1 to 2 times larger than the PM torque. When the PRM operates over a constant-power speed range, the field component of the current will be regulated to maintain a constant voltage. The output power of the developed PRM is 8 to 250kW. It is clarified that the PRM operates at a wide variable-speed range (1:5) with high efficiency (92-97%). It is concluded that the PRM has high performance over a wide constant-power speed range. In addition, the PRM is constructed using a small PM, so that we can solve the problem of cost. Thus, the PRM is a superior machine that is suited for variable-speed drive applications.

  11. Computer aided design of multi-phase switched reluctance motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, N. K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive computer-aided design (CAD) procedure of multiphase switched reluctance motor (SRM) is presented. Better approach for calculation of the outer dimensions, phase inductance, flux linkage and losses, and also a different concept for calculating the average torque of the motor are incorporated in the CAD program. The average torque is calculated based on the most effective 15° (for 8/6 SRM) of the static torque profile of the motor. A sample design of a 5hp SRM is presented in detail and the design is validated by conducting a two-dimensional finite element analysis of the motor.

  12. Development of hardware system using temperature and vibration maintenance models integration concepts for conventional machines monitoring: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani; Kareem, Buliaminu

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the integration of temperature and vibration models for maintenance monitoring of conventional machinery parts in which their optimal and best functionalities are affected by abnormal changes in temperature and vibration values thereby resulting in machine failures, machines breakdown, poor quality of products, inability to meeting customers' demand, poor inventory control and just to mention a few. The work entails the use of temperature and vibration sensors as monitoring probes programmed in microcontroller using C language. The developed hardware consists of vibration sensor of ADXL345, temperature sensor of AD594/595 of type K thermocouple, microcontroller, graphic liquid crystal display, real time clock, etc. The hardware is divided into two: one is based at the workstation (majorly meant to monitor machines behaviour) and the other at the base station (meant to receive transmission of machines information sent from the workstation), working cooperatively for effective functionalities. The resulting hardware built was calibrated, tested using model verification and validated through principles pivoted on least square and regression analysis approach using data read from the gear boxes of extruding and cutting machines used for polyethylene bag production. The results got therein confirmed related correlation existing between time, vibration and temperature, which are reflections of effective formulation of the developed concept.

  13. Laboratory Test of Vending Machine with Advanced Defrosting Technology and Integrated Accumulatory/Expander Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bryne, M E; Domitrovic, R E; Mei, V C; Chen, F C; Fransson, J H.M.

    2000-10-01

    The manufacturer delivered an off-the-shelf soft drink vending machine for testing to ORNL. The machine was tested for baseline performance and it was found that the cold air passage was not properly designed. An inadequate cold air supply to the product resulted in recirculation of the evaporator air and heavy frost accumulation on the evaporator coil.

  14. Operation of micro and molecular machines: a new concept with its origins in interface science.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Izawa, Hironori; Xia, Hong; Hill, Jonathan P

    2011-03-21

    A landmark accomplishment of nanotechnology would be successful fabrication of ultrasmall machines that can work like tweezers, motors, or even computing devices. Now we must consider how operation of micro- and molecular machines might be implemented for a wide range of applications. If these machines function only under limited conditions and/or require specialized apparatus then they are useless for practical applications. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the access of functionality of the molecular or nanoscale systems by conventional stimuli at the macroscopic level. In this perspective, we will outline the position of micro- and molecular machines in current science and technology. Most of these machines are operated by light irradiation, application of electrical or magnetic fields, chemical reactions, and thermal fluctuations, which cannot always be applied in remote machine operation. We also propose strategies for molecular machine operation using the most conventional of stimuli, that of macroscopic mechanical force, achieved through mechanical operation of molecular machines located at an air-water interface. The crucial roles of the characteristics of an interfacial environment, i.e. connection between macroscopic dimension and nanoscopic function, and contact of media with different dielectric natures, are also described.

  15. Study of the Synchronous Reluctance Motor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper focuses on studying the external-rotor synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis is performed to estimate the influence of the number of stator slots and non-magnetic areas in the rotor (i.e., flux barriers) on the electromagnetic torque and torque ripple of the studied motor. It is concluded that the increase in the number of stator slots Z = 6 to Z = 18 causes an approximately twofold decrease in the ripple factor, but torque increases by 5 %. Electromagnetic torque will be increased approximately by 24 %, if non-magnetic flux barriers are created in the rotor of the studied synchronous reluctance motor.

  16. Algebraic logic of concepts and its machine implementation in the algebras of deontic and axiological notions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manerowska, Anna; Nieznański, Edward; Mulawka, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Our aim is to present the algebra of concepts in two formal languages. First, after introducing a primary relation between concepts, which is subsumption, we shall specify in a language that uses quantifiers, the Boolean algebra of general concepts. Next, we shall note down the same algebra in simplified non-quantifying language, in order to use it as basis for two specific implementations, i.e. to create the Boolean algebras of deontic concepts and axiological concepts.

  17. Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J.; Arnold, N.; Nawrocki, G.; Decker, G.; Chung, Y.

    1995-07-01

    The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused.

  18. Design of a variable reluctance asymmetric stepping millimotor

    SciTech Connect

    GARCIA,ERNEST J.; GREENWOOD,WILLIAM H.; OLIVER,ANDREW D.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, and preliminary testing of a three phase variable reluctance stepping motor. This motor is pancake-shaped with an overall outside diameter of 8 mm and a height of 3 mm. The outside diameter of the rotor is 4.7 mm. The rotor and stators occupy 2 mm of the height with the remaining 1 mm reserved for a 6:1 planetary gear reductor. The rotor and stators were constructed of Hyperco 50 using conventional miniature machining. The reductor was assembled using copper and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) components that were constructed using the LIGA (Lithographic Galvanoformung Abformung) microfabrication process. The maximum measured stall torque of the motor without the reductor is 0.47mNm at 4W and the maximum speed is 2,400 rpm.

  19. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  20. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  1. Performance Analysis of a Self-Excited Synchronous Reluctance Generator with Multiple-Barrier Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Kouichi; Fukami, Tadashi; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    The modeling and steady-state performance of a self-excited synchronous reluctance generator (SESRG) that has a multiple-barrier (MB) rotor is set forth in this paper. In addition to the core loss, the magnetic saturation in both d-q axes is included in the developed model. Experimental results conducted on a 0.75-kVA testing machine are provided to justify the analytical approach and performance calculations.

  2. Finite Element Structural Analysis of a Low Energy Micro Sheet Forming Machine Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, A. R.; Ann, C. T.; Ahmad, A. F.; Shariff, H. M.; Kasim, N. I.; Musa, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    It is forecasted that with the miniaturization of materials being processed, energy consumption will also be ‘miniaturized’ proportionally. The aim of this researchis to design a low energy micro-sheet-forming machine for the application of thin sheet metal. A fewconcept designsof machine structure were produced. With the help of FE software, the structure is then subjected to a forming force to observe deflection in the structure for the selection of the best and simplest design. Comparison studies between mild steel and aluminium alloys 6061 were made with a view to examine the most suitable material to be used. Based on the analysis, allowable maximum tolerance was set at 2.5µm and it was found that aluminium alloy 6061 suffice to be used.

  3. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.

    PubMed

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  4. Mathematical concepts for modeling human behavior in complex man-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Many human behavior (e.g., manual control) models have been found to be inadequate for describing processes in certain real complex man-machine systems. An attempt is made to find a way to overcome this problem by examining the range of applicability of existing mathematical models with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in real complex tasks. Automobile driving is chosen as a baseline scenario, and a hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing this task in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy.

  5. Mathematical concepts for modeling human behavior in complex man-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Many human behavior (e.g., manual control) models have been found to be inadequate for describing processes in certain real complex man-machine systems. An attempt is made to find a way to overcome this problem by examining the range of applicability of existing mathematical models with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in real complex tasks. Automobile driving is chosen as a baseline scenario, and a hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing this task in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy.

  6. Conception et mise au point d'un emulateur de machine Synchrone trapezoidale a aimants permanents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Francois

    The development of technology leads inevitably to higher systems' complexity faced by engineers. Over time, tools are often developed in parallel with the main systems to ensure their sustainability. The work presented in this document provides a new tool for testing motor drives. In general, this project refers to active loads, which are complex dynamic loads emulated electronically with a static converter. Specifically, this document proposes and implements a system whose purpose is to recreate the behaviour of a trapezoidal permanent magnets synchronous machine. The ultimate goal is to connect a motor drive to the three terminal of the motor emulator, as it would with a real motor. The emulator's response then obtained, when subjected to disturbances of the motor drive, is ideally identical to the one of a real motor. The motor emulator led to a significant versatility of a test bench because the electrical and mechanical parameters of the application can be easily modified. The work is divided into two main parts: the static converter and real-rime. Overall, these two entities form a PHIL (Power Hardware-in-the-loop) real-time simulation. The static converter enables the exchange of real power between the drive motor and the real-time simulation. The latter gives the application the intelligence needed to interact with the motor drive in a way which the desired behaviour is recreated. The main partner of this project, Opal-RT, ensures this development. Keywords: virtual machine, PHIL, real-time simulation, electronic load

  7. Improved Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2003-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a bearingless switched-reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in a prior bearingless switched-reluctance motor, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motor, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation in that it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration-suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that the stator contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. A prototype includes six rotor poles and eight stator poles (see figure). During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative lengths of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to levitation load capacity and stiffness, and vice versa.

  8. Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a switched reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in prior bearingless switched-reluctance motors, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motors, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation because it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that it contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. Simultaneous levitation and rotation at 6000 rpm were achieved with a prototype that included six rotor poles and eight stator poles. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative length of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to the levitation

  9. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  10. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  11. Machine learning algorithms for the prediction of conception success to a given insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hempstalk, K; McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately predict the conception outcome for a future mating would be of considerable benefit for producers in deciding what mating plan (i.e., expensive semen or less expensive semen) to implement for a given cow. The objective of the present study was to use herd- and cow-level factors to predict the likelihood of conception success to a given insemination (i.e., conception outcome not including embryo loss); of particular interest in the present study was the usefulness of milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data in augmenting the accuracy of the prediction model. A total of 4,341 insemination records with conception outcome information from 2,874 lactations on 1,789 cows from 7 research herds for the years 2009 to 2014 were available. The data set was separated into a calibration data set and a validation data set using either of 2 approaches: (1) the calibration data set contained records from all 7 farms for the years 2009 to 2011, inclusive, and the validation data set included data from the 7 farms for the years 2012 to 2014, inclusive, or (2) the calibration data set contained records from 5 farms for all 6 yr and the validation data set contained information from the other 2 farms for all 6 yr. The prediction models were developed with 8 different machine learning algorithms in the calibration data set using standard 10-times 10-fold cross-validation and also by evaluating in the validation data set. The area under curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve varied from 0.487 to 0.675 across the different algorithms and scenarios investigated. Logistic regression was generally the best-performing algorithm. The AUC was generally inferior for the external validation data sets compared with the calibration data sets. The inclusion of milk MIR in the prediction model generally did not improve the accuracy of prediction. Despite the fair AUC for predicting conception outcome under the different scenarios investigated, the model provided a

  12. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  13. The influence of different screw concepts while processing fibre reinforced thermoplastics with the concept of inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, E.; Müller, E.; Kleeschulte, R.

    2014-05-01

    Today, the global market poses major challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, the wide range of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to fulfil. Product series additionally have shorter and shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaptation, polymers are increasingly able to substitute traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals in various fields of application [1]. But polymers can only substitute other materials if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important [2]. The problem is that the traditional development process for new polymer formulations is much too complex, too slow and therefore too expensive. Product-specific material development is thus out of the question for most processors. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process would lead to a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, providing an opportunity to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. In order to develop this innovative formulation concept, with the focus on fibre reinforced thermoplastics, different screw-concepts are compared with regard to the resultant performance characteristics in the part, such as mechanical properties and fibre length distribution.

  14. Wireless Energy Transfer Through Magnetic Reluctance Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillatsch, P.

    2014-11-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion for body worn or implanted devices faces the problem of the wearer being still, e.g. while asleep. Especially for medical devices this can become an issue if a patient is bed-bound for prolonged periods of time and the internal battery of a harvesting system is not recharged. This article introduces a mechanism for wireless energy transfer based on a previously presented energy harvesting device. The internal rotor of the energy harvester is made of mild steel and can be actuated through a magnetic reluctance coupling to an external motor. The internal piezoelectric transducer is consequently actuated and generates electricity. This paper successfully demonstrates energy transfer over a distance of 16 mm in air and an achieved power output of 85 μW at 25 Hz. The device functional volume is 1.85 cm3. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increasing the driving frequency beyond 25 Hz did not yield a further increase in power output. Future research will focus on improving the reluctance coupling, e.g. by investigating the use of multiple or stronger magnets, in order to increase transmission distance.

  15. High output power reluctance electric motors with bulk high-temperature superconductor elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Larionoff, A. E.; M-A Koneev, S.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Poltavets, V. N.; Akimov, I. I.; Alexandrov, V. V.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2002-05-01

    We present new types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) - YBCO and Bi-Ag - elements. We discuss different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed synchronous HTS machines. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. We give the test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with an output power rating of 0.1-18 kW and current frequencies 50 Hz and 400 Hz. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one unit weight of the HTS motor is four to seven times better than for conventional electric machines. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. We discuss the test results for a liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with a hysteresis 500 W HTS motor. We describe several designs of new HTS motors operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with an output power 125 kW (and more) and a power factor of more than 0.8. We discuss future applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems.

  16. Control Code for Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    A computer program has been devised for controlling a machine that is an integral combination of magnetic bearings and a switched-reluctance motor. The motor contains an eight-pole stator and a hybrid rotor, which has both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a six-pole lamination stack for rotation. The program computes drive and levitation currents for the stator windings with real-time feedback control. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. This version is executable in a control-loop time of 40 s on a Pentium (or equivalent) processor that operates at a clock speed of 400 MHz. The program can be expanded, by addition of logic blocks, to enable control of position along additional axes. The code enables adjustment of operational parameters (e.g., motor speed and stiffness, and damping parameters of magnetic bearings) through computer keyboard key presses.

  17. Machine intelligence for health information: capturing concepts and trends in social media via query expansion.

    PubMed

    Su, Xing Yu; Suominen, Hanna; Hanlen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    We aim to improve retrieval of health information from Twitter. The popularity of social media and micro-blogs has emphasised their potential for knowledge discovery and trend building. However, capturing and relating concepts in these short-spoken and lexically extensive sources of information requires search engines with increasing intelligence. Our approach uses query expansion techniques to associate query terms with the most similar Twitter terms to capture trends in the gamut of information. We demonstrated the value, defined as improved precision, of our search engine by considering three search tasks and two independent annotators. We also showed the stability of the engine with an increasing number of tweets; this is crucial as large data sets are needed for capturing trends with high confidence. These results encourage us to continue developing the engine for discovering trends in health information available at Twitter.

  18. Modeling Reluctance-Assisted PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2006-01-13

    This report contains a derivation of the fundamental equations used to calculate the base speed, torque delivery, and power output of a reluctance-assisted PM motor which has a saliency ratio greater than 1 as a function of its terminal voltage, current, voltage-phase angle, and current-phase angle. The equations are applied to model Motor X using symbolically-oriented methods with the computer tool Mathematica to determine: (1) the values of current-phase angle and voltage-phase angle that are uniquely determined once a base speed has been selected; (2) the attainable current in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of terminal voltage, speed, and current-phase angle; (3) the attainable current in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of terminal voltage, speed, and voltage-phase angle; (4) the maximum-power output in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of speed; (5) the optimal voltage-phase angle in the voltage-limited region above base speed required to obtain maximum-power output; (6) the maximum-power speed curve which was linear from rest to base speed in the current limited region below base speed; (7) the current angle as a function of saliency ratio in the current-limited region below base speed; and (8) the torque as a function of saliency ratio which is almost linear in the current-limited region below base speed. The equations were applied to model Motor X using numerically-oriented methods with the computer tool LabVIEW. The equations were solved iteratively to find optimal current and voltage angles that yield maximum power and maximum efficiency from rest through the current-limited region to base speed and then through the voltage-limited region to high-rotational speeds. Currents, voltages, and reluctance factors were all calculated and external loops were employed to perform additional optimization with respect to PM pitch angle (magnet fraction) and with respect to magnet strength

  19. The reluctant imperialism of the medical profession.

    PubMed

    de Swaan, A

    1989-01-01

    Medical authority is invoked ever more frequently, also in situations that are outside the scope of scientific medicine. The main but latent function of this medicalization is the resolution of social conflict. This occurs more often than not in tacit collusion between a work organization (or the wider community) on the one hand, the individualized 'patient' on the other hand and the doctor as the arbiter who defines socially contested issues in terms of medical problems. As scientific medicine provides insufficient justification of these medical interventions, they threaten to become the subject of open controversy within the organized medical profession and thus to undermine professional unanimity, and with it the authority of the profession as a whole. This explains the reluctance of organized medicine to claim these new fields as its legitimate province.

  20. Testing the Value of Silent Super 8MM Single Concept Loop Films as an Aid to the Acquisition of Manipulative Skills in the Machine Trades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, John N.; McNeill, Joseph G.

    1973-01-01

    A study, conducted to determine the effects of silent single concept loop films on student production and teacher dependency for machine trade instruction, is examined and discussed. The results showed no significant effect on student production; however, students' dependency on the teacher was reduced. (DS)

  1. Rotor Losses in a Switched Reluctance Motor - Analysis and Reduction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweighofer, B.; Recheis, M.; Fulmek, P.; Wegleiter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing hybridization and electrification of vehicles, flywheel energy storage devices are an important area of research. In automotive application besides the weight criteria, some additionally constrains, such as size, efficiency and especially cost have to be fulfilled. Therefore typically a compact design, in which the rotor of the needed electrical machine simultaneously acts as storage mass is chosen. Since the machine is running in vacuum and the rotor can dissipate its heat only by means of thermal radiation or through the bearings if conventional bearings are used, the rotor losses play a vital role. In this work the rotor losses of a switched reluctance machine are analyzed in detail and a method to reduce the rotor losses is proposed.

  2. Stabilization of large space structures by linear reluctance actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Saroj K.; Sendaula, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    Application of magnetic forces are considered for stabilization of vibrations of flexible space structures. Three electromagnetic phenomena are studied, such as: (1) magnetic body force; (2) reluctance torque; and (3) magnetostriction, and their application is analyzed for stabilization of a beam. The magnetic body force actuator uses the force that exists between poles of magnets. The reluctance actuator is configured in such a way that the reluctance of the magnetic circuit will be minimum when the beam is straight. Any bending of the beam increases the reluctance and hence generates a restoring torque that reduces bending. The gain of the actuator is controlled by varying the magnetizing current. Since the energy density of a magnetic device is much higher compared to piezoelectric or thermal actuators, it is expected that the reluctance actuator will be more effective in controlling the structural vibrations.

  3. Electromagnetic Forces in a Hybrid Magnetic-Bearing Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnetic force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel hybrid magnetic-bearing switched-reluctance motor (MBSRM) have been performed. A MBSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The MBSRM discussed in this report has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of four stator poles, while a second set of four stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Static torque and radial force analysis were done for rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental and the theoretical radial force loads predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  4. Machine grading of lumber : practical concerns for lumber producers

    Treesearch

    William L. Galligan; Kent A. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Machine lumber grading has been applied in commercial operations in North America since 1963, and research has shown that machine grading can improve the efficient use of wood. However, industry has been reluctant to apply research findings without clear evidence that the change from visual to machine grading will be a profitable one. For instance, mill managers need...

  5. Reconstruction of the Switched Reluctance Motor Stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kharashi, Eyhab; Hassanien, Hany M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper re-designs the conventional 6/8 switched reluctance motor (SRM) by a particular way to minimize the losses. The flux loops are shortened by making each two stator teeth incorporated in one magnetic circuit only. Subsequently the flux does not cross in some iron parts of the stator core backs. These unused iron sections are taken off consequently the iron losses decreased. Now the stator consists of three separated sections and they are fixed inside non-magnetic cylinder. The copper losses also are decreased because less copper windings are used to produce the same amount of the output torque as the flux paths become short then the flux density increases. The analysis and comparison of the 6/8 SRM before and after the re-design process are presented. A m files Matlab software is used to simulate the dynamic performance. Then the paper proceeds to examine different control techniques to the new design. The hysteresis and PI controllers are used as classical method to control the SRM. Then the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to test the new control techniques.

  6. Improved variable-reluctance transducer measures transient pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, R. W.; Patterson, J. L.

    1964-01-01

    A flush-diaphragm pickup and a feedback stabilized carrier amplifier are among the features incorporated into an improved variable-reluctance transducer. This low impedance device responds to steady-state as well as transient pressures.

  7. Switched reluctance motor systems poised for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, A.B.; Howe, B.

    1992-12-31

    The emergence of a rugged, versatile, and highly efficient alternative to conventional electric motors promises to have a major impact on drivepower markets over the next decade. Although switched reluctance drives are not yet available ``off the shelf`` from major motor manufacturers, they are likely to compete favorably across a broad range of applications, due to their superior performance characteristics. Switched reluctance drives maintain higher torque and efficiency over broader speed ranges than can be achieved with other advanced variable-speed systems, can be programmed to precisely match the loads they serve and, in high-volume production, are likely to be less expensive than competing systems. The principal obstacle to rapid commercialization of switched reluctance motors is the fact that few engineers are trained to perform the exacting and specialized design that this technology requires. This hurdle is gradually being overcome as over two dozen firms now design or manufacture switched reluctance drives, and several are moving into mass production applications. As these and other firms gain experience with the technology, new opportunities will arise for utilities, energy users, and original equipment manufacturers to capture the benefits of switched reluctance motor systems. This report appraises recent progress toward moving switched reluctance drives to mass production and provides an inventory of major manufacturers.

  8. Conception d'une methodologie generale d'evaluation de la traduction automatique (Conception of a General Methodology for Evaluating Machine Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Slype, Georges

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that assessment of human translation versus machine translation programs use methods and criteria that measure efficiency and cost effectiveness and are efficient and cost-effective in themselves. A variety of methods and criteria are evaluated and discussed. (MSE)

  9. Effects of anisotropy on the performance characteristics of an axially laminated anisotropic-rotor synchronous reluctance motor drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, F.N.; Arkadan, A.A.; Russell, A.A.; El-Antably, A.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, increased attention has been paid to the performance characterization and evaluation of the performance of synchronous reluctance machines. Extensive research has concentrated on different rotor structures in order to achieve high performance variable speed drives for applications such as electric vehicles. The effects of accounting for anisotropy on the performance characteristics of Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) rotor Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) drive systems are studied. These effects are evaluated from the simulations of a computer aided model. The model is based on the use of an iterative approach which indirectly couples a two dimensional (2D) nonlinear finite element (FE) model, which accounts for anisotropy, to a state space model describing the SynRM drive system. The simulation results are also validated by comparison to test data of a prototype ALA rotor SynRM drive system.

  10. Why are junior doctors reluctant to consult attending physicians?

    PubMed

    Swank, Otto H

    2010-03-01

    A physician performs two tasks: making diagnoses and determining treatments. To reduce medical error, junior doctors are supposed to consult their supervisors when they face uncommon circumstances. However, recent research shows that junior doctors are reluctant to do so. This paper presents a model that explains (i) which junior doctors shy away from consulting; (ii) when junior doctors are reluctant; (iii) the importance of protocols in the medical sector; and (iv) when consulting is a sign of strength or a sign of weakness. Furthermore, I show that encouraging junior doctors to consult by investigating mishaps leads to another distortion: they will give too much weight to own assessments.

  11. The Comparative Analysis of Inductor and Reluctance Wind Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoliņš, Edmunds

    2009-01-01

    In the presented work two designs of brushless generators are compared: inductor and reluctance. Both designs are multipolar and also can be applied as directly driven wind generators. Both one and the second designs are basically similar, but in the inductor generator are windings of excitation or permanent magnets which complicate a design, increase consumption of the copper and energy losses. In work shown that reluctance generator has no winding of excitation, it is simple and more reliable, it has less weight. It's more competitive for use in low power wind plants.

  12. Reinforcement procedure in the treatment of reluctant speech.

    PubMed

    Morin, C; Ladouceur, R; Cloutier, R

    1982-06-01

    The efficacy of a positive reinforcement contingency procedure was evaluated in the treatment of a 6-year old boy with reluctant speech. The intervention was conducted in the kindergarten classroom and the teacher served as therapist. Using an ABABB' single case experimental design, positive reinforcement was found to be effective for increasing the child's verbal responsiveness. At a 1-year follow-up, therapeutic benefits were maintained at an optimal level. The present results bring support to the use of reinforcement procedures in the case of reluctant speech.

  13. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  14. An inductance Fourier decomposition-based current-hysteresis control strategy for switched reluctance motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Qi, Ji; Jia, Meng

    2017-05-01

    Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) have attracted extensive attentions due to the inherent advantages, including simple and robust structure, low cost, excellent fault-tolerance and wide speed range, etc. However, one of the bottlenecks limiting the SRMs for further applications is its unfavorable torque ripple, and consequently noise and vibration due to the unique doubly-salient structure and pulse-current-based power supply method. In this paper, an inductance Fourier decomposition-based current-hysteresis-control (IFD-CHC) strategy is proposed to reduce torque ripple of SRMs. After obtaining a nonlinear inductance-current-position model based Fourier decomposition, reference currents can be calculated by reference torque and the derived inductance model. Both the simulations and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. Analysis and comparison of end effects in linear switched reluctance and hybrid motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoumi, El Manaa; Abo-Khalil, Ahmed Galal; Berrouche, Youcef; Wurtz, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents and discusses the longitudinal and transversal end effects which affects the propulsive force of linear motors. Generally, the modeling of linear machine considers the forces distortion due to the specific geometry of linear actuators. The insertion of permanent magnets on the stator allows improving the propulsive force produced by switched reluctance linear motors. Also, the inserted permanent magnets in the hybrid structure allow reducing considerably the ends effects observed in linear motors. The analysis was conducted using 2D and 3D finite elements method. The permanent magnet reinforces the flux produced by the winding and reorients it which allows modifying the impact of end effects. Presented simulations and discussions show the importance of this study to characterize the end effects in two different linear motors.

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Dual-Winding Reluctance Generator with a Multiple-Barrier Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Masashi; Fukami, Tadashi; Shima, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    This paper presents a novel type of dual-winding reluctance generator (DWRG) which uses a multiple-barrier (MB) rotor. The stator of the DWRG is equipped with an armature winding and a field winding. By changing the stator field current, the constant voltage control is easily achieved over a wide range of speeds. The structure and operating principle of the DWRG are described, and its performance is evaluated by the equivalent circuit approach, finite-element (FE) analysis, and experiments conducted on a prototype machine. Compared to a salient-pole (SP) rotor used in a conventional DWRG, the studied MB rotor provides good magnetic coupling between the two stator windings and was found to have great potential as a DWRG rotor.

  17. More Rip-Roaring Reads for Reluctant Teen Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Bette D.; Sherman, Gale W.

    This publication describes 40 fiction and nonfiction titles for grades 5 through 12 that will get the attention of even the most reluctant readers. Books range from humor and romance to adventure, mystery, and the supernatural. The titles were chosen based on the following criteria: recent publication date; relatively short length; appealing…

  18. American Fiction for Reluctant Readers (Resources and Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Milton E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a high school course in American fiction in which students read an excerpt from a work of literature, watch the film adaptation of the work, and study both from a particular literary standpoint. Notes that such an approach appeals to reluctant readers. (RS)

  19. The Story of Sam: Advancing Proficiency in Reluctant Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Tammy Dann, describes the issues presented by a reluctant learner in a foreign language class and the strategies required to see effective change. The student described in the article struggled to learn or had difficulty paying attention in the Spanish language class. One strategy used was "LinguaFolio Jr." for students…

  20. Giving Voice to Reluctant Learners: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to hear from reluctant learners about their perceptions of their experiences in middle school and the meanings they make from these. This study will give voice to students, a stakeholder group that has been traditionally silent in the literature on K-12 learning and achievement. Capturing the perceptions…

  1. Engaging Reluctant Readers in a French Immersion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capina, Amanda Borton; Bryan, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Reading engagement is like a puzzle consisting of many pieces to emplace for successful engagement to occur. The author, a French Immersion teacher/researcher, found that many of her grade one reluctant readers--those students who could read but chose not to--approached reading with some pieces of the puzzle. They had strategies and knowledge but…

  2. More Rip-Roaring Reads for Reluctant Teen Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Bette D.; Sherman, Gale W.

    This publication describes 40 fiction and nonfiction titles for grades 5 through 12 that will get the attention of even the most reluctant readers. Books range from humor and romance to adventure, mystery, and the supernatural. The titles were chosen based on the following criteria: recent publication date; relatively short length; appealing…

  3. Reluctant Middle School ELLs: Creating Conditions for Quality Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide middle level educators with an orientation to an intervention designed to facilitate reluctant middle school English language learners (ELLs) engagement in quality schoolwork. The article introduces a new investigation of English language learning through the lens of Glasser's Quality School and Choice…

  4. Giving Voice to Reluctant Learners: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to hear from reluctant learners about their perceptions of their experiences in middle school and the meanings they make from these. This study will give voice to students, a stakeholder group that has been traditionally silent in the literature on K-12 learning and achievement. Capturing the perceptions…

  5. Successful Teachers Develop Academic Momentum with Reluctant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, David

    2008-01-01

    In a series of investigations, the author and his colleagues have examined ways that students who once did poorly in school made progress and how their teachers nurtured their accomplishments. They have chronicled ways that successful teachers learned to understand why students are reluctant to do their work, how to help them think through their…

  6. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  7. Variable-reluctance motors for electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Vallese, F.J.; Lang, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, operation, and expected performance of a 60-kW variable-reluctance motor and inverter-designed for electric vehicle propulsion. To substantiate the performance of this system, experimental data obtained with a prototype 3.8-kW motor and inverter are provided.

  8. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  9. Electromagnetic Radial Forces in a Hybrid Eight-Stator-Pole, Six-Rotor-Pole Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  10. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  11. Machine learning for large-scale wearable sensor data in Parkinson's disease: Concepts, promises, pitfalls, and futures.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Ken J; Chen, Jason A; Little, Max A

    2016-09-01

    For the treatment and monitoring of Parkinson's disease (PD) to be scientific, a key requirement is that measurement of disease stages and severity is quantitative, reliable, and repeatable. The last 50 years in PD research have been dominated by qualitative, subjective ratings obtained by human interpretation of the presentation of disease signs and symptoms at clinical visits. More recently, "wearable," sensor-based, quantitative, objective, and easy-to-use systems for quantifying PD signs for large numbers of participants over extended durations have been developed. This technology has the potential to significantly improve both clinical diagnosis and management in PD and the conduct of clinical studies. However, the large-scale, high-dimensional character of the data captured by these wearable sensors requires sophisticated signal processing and machine-learning algorithms to transform it into scientifically and clinically meaningful information. Such algorithms that "learn" from data have shown remarkable success in making accurate predictions for complex problems in which human skill has been required to date, but they are challenging to evaluate and apply without a basic understanding of the underlying logic on which they are based. This article contains a nontechnical tutorial review of relevant machine-learning algorithms, also describing their limitations and how these can be overcome. It discusses implications of this technology and a practical road map for realizing the full potential of this technology in PD research and practice. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Optimization of a Small Scale Linear Reluctance Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Thor; Beard, Robby

    2011-11-01

    Reluctance accelerators are extremely promising future methods of transportation. Several problems still plague these devices, most prominently low efficiency. Variables to overcoming efficiency problems are many and difficult to correlate how they affect our accelerator. The study examined several differing variables that present potential challenges in optimizing the efficiency of reluctance accelerators. These include coil and projectile design, power supplies, switching, and the elusive gradient inductance problem. Extensive research in these areas has been performed from computational and theoretical to experimental. Findings show that these parameters share significant similarity to transformer design elements, thus general findings show current optimized parameters the research suggests as a baseline for further research and design. Demonstration of these current findings will be offered at the time of presentation.

  13. A computational proof of concept of a machine-intelligent artificial pancreas using Lyapunov stability and differential game theory.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Nigel J C; Gunton, Jenny E

    2014-07-01

    This study demonstrated the novel application of a "machine-intelligent" mathematical structure, combining differential game theory and Lyapunov-based control theory, to the artificial pancreas to handle dynamic uncertainties. Realistic type 1 diabetes (T1D) models from the literature were combined into a composite system. Using a mixture of "black box" simulations and actual data from diabetic medical histories, realistic sets of diabetic time series were constructed for blood glucose (BG), interstitial fluid glucose, infused insulin, meal estimates, and sometimes plasma insulin assays. The problem of underdetermined parameters was side stepped by applying a variant of a genetic algorithm to partial information, whereby multiple candidate-personalized models were constructed and then rigorously tested using further data. These formed a "dynamic envelope" of trajectories in state space, where each trajectory was generated by a hypothesis on the hidden T1D system dynamics. This dynamic envelope was then culled to a reduced form to cover observed dynamic behavior. A machine-intelligent autonomous algorithm then implemented game theory to construct real-time insulin infusion strategies, based on the flow of these trajectories through state space and their interactions with hypoglycemic or near-hyperglycemic states. This technique was tested on 2 simulated participants over a total of fifty-five 24-hour days, with no hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic events, despite significant uncertainties from using actual diabetic meal histories with 10-minute warnings. In the main case studies, BG was steered within the desired target set for 99.8% of a 16-hour daily assessment period. Tests confirmed algorithm robustness for ±25% carbohydrate error. For over 99% of the overall 55-day simulation period, either formal controller stability was achieved to the desired target or else the trajectory was within the desired target. These results suggest that this is a stable, high

  14. A Computational Proof of Concept of a Machine-Intelligent Artificial Pancreas Using Lyapunov Stability and Differential Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gunton, Jenny E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study demonstrated the novel application of a “machine-intelligent” mathematical structure, combining differential game theory and Lyapunov-based control theory, to the artificial pancreas to handle dynamic uncertainties. Methods: Realistic type 1 diabetes (T1D) models from the literature were combined into a composite system. Using a mixture of “black box” simulations and actual data from diabetic medical histories, realistic sets of diabetic time series were constructed for blood glucose (BG), interstitial fluid glucose, infused insulin, meal estimates, and sometimes plasma insulin assays. The problem of underdetermined parameters was side stepped by applying a variant of a genetic algorithm to partial information, whereby multiple candidate-personalized models were constructed and then rigorously tested using further data. These formed a “dynamic envelope” of trajectories in state space, where each trajectory was generated by a hypothesis on the hidden T1D system dynamics. This dynamic envelope was then culled to a reduced form to cover observed dynamic behavior. A machine-intelligent autonomous algorithm then implemented game theory to construct real-time insulin infusion strategies, based on the flow of these trajectories through state space and their interactions with hypoglycemic or near-hyperglycemic states. Results: This technique was tested on 2 simulated participants over a total of fifty-five 24-hour days, with no hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic events, despite significant uncertainties from using actual diabetic meal histories with 10-minute warnings. In the main case studies, BG was steered within the desired target set for 99.8% of a 16-hour daily assessment period. Tests confirmed algorithm robustness for ±25% carbohydrate error. For over 99% of the overall 55-day simulation period, either formal controller stability was achieved to the desired target or else the trajectory was within the desired target. Conclusions

  15. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  16. Controlled power transfer from wind driven reluctance generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rahim, Y.H.A.; Al-Sabbagh, A.M.L.

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes the dynamic performance of a wind driven reluctance generator connected to an electric network of large capacity. A controller that makes possible the regular flow of power to the network has been considered. Controller parameters that successfully suppress unwanted mechanical and electrical stresses and overshoots due to wind gust, have been estimated. The performance of the controller has also been examined for short-circuit faults at the terminals of the generators.

  17. Why Psychiatrists are Reluctant to Diagnose: Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians can be reluctant to make a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). One reason is that BPD is a complex syndrome with symptoms that overlap many Axis I disorders. This paper will examine interfaces between BPD and depression, between BPD and bipolar disorder, and between BPD and psychoses. It will suggest that making a BPD diagnosis does more justice to patients than avoiding it.

  18. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  19. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Livesey, M

    1991-01-01

    A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

  20. Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain–machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications

    PubMed Central

    Astrand, Elaine; Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2014-01-01

    Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenous cognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitive disorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy, and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from non-invasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decode attention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked-in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any

  1. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  2. Reluctant entrepreneurs: professionally qualified Asian migrants in small business.

    PubMed

    Ip, D F

    1993-01-01

    "The abandonment of the White Australia Policy after World War II and the implementation of a points system in Australia's immigration program have led to a dramatic increase in the number of highly educated Asian migrants in the country. A study of 144 entrepreneurs of small business in the Indian and Chinese communities in Brisbane and Sydney found that, faced with institutionalized blockages, few of these highly educated migrants could practice what they were originally trained for. The majority of them, with their class resources, determination and optimism, became reluctant entrepreneurs."

  3. Parameter measurement of synchronous reluctance motor using LC resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joonseon; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Ju

    2006-04-01

    The motor characterizing parameters are most important factors to drive precisely, effectively, and robustly. Especially, the exact knowledge of synchronous inductance is necessary to control the torque precisely in synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM). Therefore many works have been done for the exact measurement of motor parameters. In this paper, we propose the simple method of measuring the motor parameters, especially measuring the synchronous inductance of SynRM, which can overcome the demerits of conventional methods and measure the exact values. The proposed method uses the resonance phenomenon between the phase inductance and capacitors externally connected.

  4. Petroleum staff reluctance and adjustment to innovative changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makasheva, Yu S.; Makasheva, N. P.; Remnyakov, V. V.; Burykhin, B. S.; Shenderova, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    The modern economy is developing in the direction of innovations implementation. Innovations are becoming the basic prerequisite for the competitiveness of the enterprises. The Russian oil and gas sector innovation issue is very crucial. Low innovation activity of companies could result in a serious threat due to the strong global competition, increased uncertainty and risks. The need for innovative changes often meets reluctance. The reasons of it vary and require serious research. Managers should give special attention to the development of adjustment ability of the staff, to introduce modern methods for improving the adjustment potential of the enterprise staff.

  5. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  6. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program. Phase 5: A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Neukom, Christian; Nishimura, Sayuri; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell; Smith, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This is the Software Concept Document for the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) being developed as part of Phase V of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Progam. The approach taken in this program since its inception in 1984 is that of incremental development with clearly defined phases. Phase 1 began in 1984 and subsequent phases have progressed at approximately 10-16 month intervals. Each phase of development consists of planning, setting requirements, preliminary design, detailed design, implementation, testing, demonstration and documentation. Phase 5 began with an off-site planning meeting in November, 1990. It is expected that Phase 5 development will be complete and ready for demonstration to invited visitors from industry, government and academia in May, 1992. This document, produced during the preliminary design period of Phase 5, is intended to record the top level design concept for MIDAS as it is currently conceived. This document has two main objectives: (1) to inform interested readers of the goals of the MIDAS Phase 5 development period, and (2) to serve as the initial version of the MIDAS design document which will be continuously updated as the design evolves. Since this document is written fairly early in the design period, many design issues still remain unresolved. Some of the unresolved issues are mentioned later in this document in the sections on specific components. Readers are cautioned that this is not a final design document and that, as the design of MIDAS matures, some of the design ideas recorded in this document will change. The final design will be documented in a detailed design document published after the demonstrations.

  7. Finite element analysis and performance study of switched reluctance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianhan; Guo, Yingjun; Xu, Qi; Yu, Xiaoying; Guo, Yajie

    2017-03-01

    Analyses a three-phase 12/8 switched reluctance generator (SRG) which is based on its structure and performance principle. The initial size data were calculated by MathCAD, and the simulation model was set up in the ANSOFT software environment with the maximum efficiency and the maximum output power as the main reference parameters. The outer diameter of the stator and the inner diameter of the rotor were parameterized. The static magnetic field distribution, magnetic flux, magnetic energy, torque, inductance characteristics, back electromotive force and phase current waveform of SRG is obtained by analyzing the static magnetic field and the steady state motion of two-dimensional transient magnetic field in ANSOFT environment. Finally, the experimental data of the prototype are compared with the simulation results, which provide a reliable basis for the design and research of SRG wind turbine system.

  8. Development of a Switched Reluctance Motor made of Permendur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Ichinokura, O.

    2011-01-01

    A switched reluctance (SR) motor consists of stator and rotor cores, and windings. Both the stator and rotor have salient poles. The stator has concentrated windings on each salient pole. On the other hand, the rotor has no windings and no permanent magnets. Therefore, the SR motor is a low cost, extremely robust, and wide-range variable-speed motor. The performance of the SR motor greatly depends on magnetic properties of core material since it consists of only iron cores and windings. This paper presents the development of a novel SR motor made of permendur which has extremely high saturation flux density and very low core loss. Two types of SR motors, one is made of conventional non-oriented Si steel, the other is made of permendur, are compared by simulation and experiment. It is demonstrated that the torque of the SR motor made of permendur is greater than that of the conventional Si steel by 20%.

  9. Variable reluctance proximity sensors for cryogenic valve position indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloyd, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A test was conducted to determine the performance of a variable reluctance proximity sensor system when installed in a space shuttle external tank vent/relief valve. The sensors were used as position indicators. The valve and sensors were cycled through a series of thermal transients; while the valve was being opened and closed pneumatically, the sensor's performance was being monitored. During these thermal transients, the vent valve was cooled ten times by liquid nitrogen and two times by liquid hydrogen. It was concluded that the sensors were acceptable replacements for the existing mechanical switches. However, the sensors need a mechanical override for the target similar to what is presently used with the mechanical switches. This override could insure contact between sensor and target and eliminate any problems of actuation gap growth caused by thermal gradients.

  10. A Study on Temperature Analysis of Switched Reluctance Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, Shingo; Sawa, Koichiro

    This paper describes the temperature analysis of a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) taking into account the temperature rise in the inside air. The temperature of motor will be known to be important for motor design, because the rated values such as voltage, current, and output considerably depend on it. Moreover the temperature rise affects the magnetic characteristics of material e.g. permanent magnet, electrical steel sheets.In this paper, we introduced the equation of temperature rise in the inside air which includes the heat convection to the iron and the outside air for analysis. Finite Element Method (FEM) was combined with it and solved simultaneously by iterative method. In comparison with measured value, it is clear that the model of the temperature rise is effective for highly accurate analysis.Furthermore, the distribution of temperature in SRM is obtained, which makes it possible to estimate the local heat generation.

  11. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  12. Writing in Context: Reluctant Writers and Their Writing at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the engagement with writing of reluctant writers in the contexts of home and school. A structured and semi-structured survey method was used to capture responses from 106 reluctant writers in 9 primary schools (age range 6--9 year olds) in the UK. Findings show that although these students were deemed to be reluctant…

  13. What Happens When Readers Do Not Read? The Problem of Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mark E.

    Noting that what becomes of reluctant readers should be of great concern to a nation that advocates education and has traditionally been committed to principles of the higher order, this paper identifies the characteristics of reluctant or unmotivated readers and discusses what happens to them. Following background reflection on the limits people…

  14. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  15. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  16. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  17. Torque ripple reduction in electric machines

    DOEpatents

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; Huh, Kum-Kang; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Galioto, Steven Joseph

    2017-08-22

    An electric machine, such as an Internal Permanent magnet or Synchronous Reluctance machine, having X phases, that includes a stator assembly, having M slots, with a stator core and stator teeth, that is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface that defines a cavity; and a rotor assembly, having N poles, disposed within the cavity which is configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis, wherein the rotor assembly includes a shaft, a rotor core located circumferentially around the shaft. The machine is configured such that a value k=M/(X*N) wherein k is a non-integer greater than about 1.3. The electric machine may alternatively, or additionally, include a non-uniformed gap between the exterior surface of the rotor spokes and the interior stator surface of the stator.

  18. Approaches to Machine Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-16

    The field of machine learning strives to develop methods and techniques to automatic the acquisition of new information, new skills, and new ways of organizing existing information. In this article, we review the major approaches to machine learning in symbolic domains, covering the tasks of learning concepts from examples, learning search methods, conceptual clustering, and language acquisition. We illustrate each of the basic approaches with paradigmatic examples. (Author)

  19. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  20. Negotiating vaccine acceptance in an era of reluctance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J

    2013-08-01

    Studies to better understand the determinants of vaccine acceptance have expanded to include more investigation into dynamics of individual decision-making as well as the influences of peers and social networks. Vaccine acceptance is determined by a range of factors, from structural issues of supply, costs and access to services, as well as the more demand-side determinants. The term vaccine hesitancy is increasingly used in the investigation of demand-side determinants, moving away from the more polarized framing of pro- and anti-vaccine groups to recognizing the importance of understanding and engaging those who are delaying vaccination, accepting only some vaccines, or who are yet undecided, but reluctant. As hesitancy is a state of indecision, it is difficult to measure, but the stage of indecision is a critical time to engage and support the decision-making process. This article suggests modes of investigating the determinants of vaccine confidence and levers of vaccine acceptance toward better engagement and dialogue early in the process of decision-making. Pressure to vaccinate can be counter-productive. Listening and dialog can support individual decision-making and more effectively inform the public health community of the issues and concerns influencing vaccine hesitancy.

  1. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, J. H.; Vallese, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output.

  2. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  3. Design Method of ILQ Robust Current Control System for Synchronous Reluctance Electrical Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Yoko; Takami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takao

    In this paper, a robust current control system for a synchronous reluctance electrical motor by an ILQ (Inverse Linear Quadratic) design method is proposed newly. First, for performing simultaneously decouple and large region linearization of an d-q axes system in the synchronous reluctance electrical motor using nonlinear state feedback, it is derived that a linear current-voltage state equation linearized model by the d-q axes decouple of the synchronous reluctance electrical motor. Next, according to the ILQ design method, an optimum solution and an optimal condition that achieve the robust current control system for the synchronous reluctance electrical motor are analytically derived, then the robust current control system can be designed. Finally, in practical experiments, we compare the proposed method with the PI (Proportional Integral) control method, the creativity and the usefulness of the proposed method are confirmed by experimental results.

  4. Electrical machines and assemblies including a yokeless stator with modular lamination stacks

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Lopez, Fulton Jose

    2010-04-06

    An electrical machine includes a rotor with an inner rotor portion and an outer rotor portion, and a double-sided yokeless stator. The yokeless stator includes modular lamination stacks and is configured for radial magnetic flux flow. The double-sided yokeless stator is concentrically disposed between the inner rotor portion and the outer rotor portion of the electrical machine. Examples of particularly useful embodiments for the electrical machine include wind turbine generators, ship propulsion motors, switch reluctance machines and double-sided synchronous machines.

  5. Adaptive Machining Of Large, Somewhat Flexible Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David; Wagner, Garrett; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive machining is method of machining large, somewhat flexible workpieces to close tolerances. Devised for machining precise weld lands on aft skirts of rocket nozzles, but underlying concept generally applicable to precise machining of any of large variety of workpieces deformed by thermal, gravitational, and/or machining forces. For example, in principle, method used to bore precise hole on unanchored end of long cantilever beam.

  6. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications. PMID:22969364

  7. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    PubMed

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  8. Reluctance to start medication for Parkinson's disease: a mutual misunderstanding by patients and physicians.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Tiago A; Teodoro, Tiago; Reginold, William; Graf, Julia; Kasten, Maike; Sale, Joanna; Zurowski, Mateusz; Miyasaki, Janis; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Marras, Connie

    2014-06-01

    Reluctance to start medication has never been investigated before in PD. We studied reluctance to start medication for PD motor symptoms, namely its prevalence, underlying reasons, drug-specificity, and associated delay in the start of PD medication. A cross-sectional observational international study was conducted. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD advised to start antiparkinsonian medication in the previous 5 years were invited to complete a questionnaire in three centers located in North America and Europe. An electronic online survey was sent to physicians through the mailing list of the Movement Disorder Society. 469 participants (201 PD patients, 268 physicians). 40.2% (n = 82) of the patients reported reluctance to start medication, but 88.6% (n = 234/264) of the physicians estimated that ≤20% of their patients with PD had been reluctant to start medication. The most common reasons reported by patients were the fear of side effects (n = 35, 55.6%), followed by non-acceptance of diagnosis (n = 23, 36.5%); fear of a temporally limited benefit was more commonly selected by physicians (n = 92/267, 34.5%). Patients indicated reluctance to start DAs more frequently compared with L-DOPA (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.30, 9.03; p = 0.013) while physicians perceived L-DOPA to be associated with more reluctance (OR: 4.7, 95% CI: 3.41; 6.59; p < 0.0001). Patients with PD and physicians have a different perspective on the issue of reluctance to start medication. There is a need to bring physicians and patients with PD closer to a shared vision of the problem reluctance to start medication. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Rick, Albert J.; Cha, Jennifer; Bastani, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they are reluctant to recommend colorectal cancer screening to their Korean patients. Results Physicians identified barriers attributable to themselves (i.e., lack of knowledge, fear of medicolegal liability), their patients (i.e., patient’s unfamiliarity with the concept of screening), and the health care system (i.e., lack of referral network, poor reimbursement). Discussion Our results suggest the need for multi-faceted interventions directed at the physicians, their patients, and the health care system. Further research is needed to validate our results and to assess the extent to which they apply to physicians from other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18607728

  10. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  11. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  12. Life Style Counseling for a Reluctant Leisure Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Jean

    1972-01-01

    The author suggests that mature women seek life styles that can provide integration, structure, meaning, and the opportunity for growth and creativity. Traditional career theories don't fit, but a life style counseling concept does. (Author)

  13. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  14. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  15. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video…

  16. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  17. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  18. Contribution a l'etude et a la conception d'une machine synchrone a flux transverse destinee au degivrage d'aeronefs en cours de vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussetoua, Mohammed

    feeding the hearting system. In recent years, numerous research studies have started on the development of electromechanical system converters for various applications, such as transport by road, rail or aviation. The development of new low-speed, low-weight electric machines and their very high degree of compactness has become a very promising alternative. This project strongly interests many industries in the field of air transport. The transverse flux machine is considered as a compact structure having better mass power compared to other electrical machines. The design of transverse flux machine was the subject of an electromagnetic study. Also, the analytical study helped to determine the overall dimensions of the machine. The study was followed by a validation phase of the analytical model using numerical simulations. These two studies were intended to determine changes in the characteristics of the transverse flux machine according to the different geometric dimensions of its active parts. From the calculations made using analytical and numerical models, a prototype of the transverse flux machine (600 W, 320 RPM) was designed and manufactured in the AMIL laboratory at the Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi (UQAC). A bench test was conducted to compare the theoretical and experimental results. The measurements obtained on this prototype were compared with the theoretical results. This phase of the study demonstrates with satisfaction, the reliability of the theoretical models developed. Finally, a new configuration of this machine has been proposed. Numerical simulation results of this structure are particularly encouraging and require further investigations. For logistical and financial reasons, the prototype of this configuration has not been manufactured. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Performances comparées des machines à aimants et à réluctance variable. Maximisation du couple massique ou volumique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, D.; Llibre, J. F.

    1995-10-01

    The subject of this article is to compare the performances of electrical machines using three different principles of functioning which are recently exploited. We consider possibilities to realise actuators with high torque and power per unit of mass for direct drive applications. The three different machines involved in the comparison are: (i) the classical synchronous structure with permanent magnets in the inductor, (ii) the vernier reluctance structure, (iii) the vernier reluctance structure with permanent magnets. To allow a good comparison, the architecture of those three motors has to be identical, particularly the shape of the main elements. L'objet de cet article est de comparer directement, pour la première fois à notre connaissance, les performances de machines électriques mettant en oeuvre trois principes de fonctionnement différents, très récemment exploités. Nous examinons les possibilités de réalisation d'actionneurs à fort couple et puissance massique élevée, pour des applications d'entraînement direct, conçus à partir soit d'une structure synchrone classique utilisant des aimants pour l'inducteur, soit d'une structure à réluctance variable vernier soit, enfin, d'un dispositif combinant l'effet de réluctance variable à l'utilisation d'aimants. Pour permettre une comparaison réellement directe, l'architecture des trois moteurs exploitant les concepts évoqués, ainsi que la forme de leurs principales pièces, seront pratiquement identiques.

  20. Counseling Involuntary and Reluctant Students: An Obsolete Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMay, Morris L.

    1971-01-01

    The methods compared in an attempt to identify a practical means of working with disciplinary referrals all became obsolete by the time the study was completed. The changing nature of the college scene and the demise of the concept of in loco parentis probably have negated any practical value of this study. (Author)

  1. Addressing Reticence: The Challenge of Engaging Reluctant Adult ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…

  2. Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

  3. Optimization of Pole and Slot Widths for Reluctance Torque Reduction in a Brushless DC Spindle Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Lieu, D. K.; McAllister, J. S.

    A parametric study was conducted to determine the effect of motor stator slot widths and rotor permanent magnet pole separation widths on the reluctance torque. This study is based on a finite element analysis of a particular 6-pole/9-slot motor. The analysis can be expanded to other slot/pole combinations. Force and torque calculations were based on an integration of the Maxwell stresses along the center of the airgap. As a general rule, the reluctance torque may be reduced by decreasing the slot width for any given pole separation. For any given slot width, the reluctance torque can be reduced to zero by selection of the proper pole separation. The optimum slot widths are slightly different than those predicted by past analytical formulation. There will be, however, a noticeable effect on the main drive torque and the torque ripple.

  4. Detailed design of a 30-kW switched reluctance starter/generator system for a gas turbine engine application

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.A.; Jones, S.R.; Heglund, W.S.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-05-01

    A new switched reluctance starter/generator (SR S/G) system has been developed for an aircraft engine application. The system is rated at 30 kW, 270 Vdc, 52 k r/min maximum operating speed. The system also provides 17 hp to start the 1,400-hp engine. The system consists of an SR machine directly coupled to the gas turbine engine, an inverter converter unit (ICU), and an electronic controller. The system is designed to meet requirements such as power quality per MIL-STD-704E, 300% (9 kW) step loads, 75% constant power loads, operation over a wide speed range, and a {minus}51 C to +125 C environment. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of the system. The SR S/G system is currently undergoing design assurance tests. Test results are given to validate the system design and performance. System efficiency is about 80% when generating 30 kW.

  5. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  6. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  7. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  8. Culture and demography: from reluctant bedfellows to committed partners.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Christine A

    2014-02-01

    Demography and culture have had a long but ambivalent relationship. Cultural influences are widely recognized as important for demographic outcomes but are often "backgrounded" in demographic research. I argue that progress toward a more successful integration is feasible and suggest a network model of culture as a potential tool. The network model bridges both traditional (holistic and institutional) and contemporary (tool kit) models of culture used in the social sciences and offers a simple vocabulary for a diverse set of cultural concepts, such as attitudes, beliefs, and norms, as well as quantitative measures of how culture is organized. The proposed model conceptualizes culture as a nested network of meanings represented by schemas that range in complexity from simple concepts to multifaceted cultural models. I illustrate the potential value of a model using accounts of the cultural changes underpinning the transformation of marriage in the United States and point to developments in the social, cognitive, and computational sciences that could facilitate the application of the model in empirical demographic research.

  9. Culture and Demography: From Reluctant Bedfellows to Committed Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Demography and culture have had a long but ambivalent relationship. Cultural influences are widely recognized as important for demographic outcomes, but are often “backgrounded” in demographic research. I argue that progress towards a more successful integration is feasible and suggest a network model of culture as a potential tool. The network model bridges both traditional (holistic and institutional) and contemporary (tool kit) models of culture used in the social sciences and offers a simple vocabulary for the diverse set of cultural concepts such as attitudes, beliefs and norms, and quantitative measures of how culture is organized. The proposed model conceptualizes culture as a nested network of meanings which are represented by schemas that range in complexity from simple concepts to multifaceted cultural models. I illustrate the potential value of a model using accounts of the cultural changes underpinning the transformation of marriage in the U.S. and point to developments in the social, cognitive and computational sciences that could facilitate the application of the model in empirical demographic research. PMID:24338643

  10. Design and implementation of a five-hp, switched reluctance, fuel-lube, pump motor drive for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.A.; Jones, S.R.; Drager, B.T.; Heglund, W.S. )

    1995-01-01

    A new switched reluctance (SR) fuel/lube (F/L) pump system has been developed for a gas turbine engine application. The system is rated at 5 hp, 270 Vdc, 12.5 krpm maximum operating speed, and consists of a SR machine mounted on the F/L pump shaft, an inverter, and an electronic controller. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and performance of the system. The system can use one of two methods for rotor position sensing, either a resolver or electronic position sensing (EPS). The F/L pump system has undergone extensive performance testing with the resolver. Currently, testing is underway using electronic position sensing. Test results are given to validate the system design and compare the performance using both approaches to position sensing. System efficiency is about 82% at full load.

  11. Farm Owners' Reluctance to Embrace Family Succession and the Implications for Extension: The Case of Family Farms in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, P. L.; Old, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the benefits of early planning for business succession, and plan implementation, many owners/managers fail to act expeditiously. Factors such as a reluctance to accept ageing, a concern over the risks involved and inappropriate objectives may be causative. This research moves towards explaining this reluctance and, consequently,…

  12. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system. PMID:26175672

  13. Farm Owners' Reluctance to Embrace Family Succession and the Implications for Extension: The Case of Family Farms in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, P. L.; Old, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the benefits of early planning for business succession, and plan implementation, many owners/managers fail to act expeditiously. Factors such as a reluctance to accept ageing, a concern over the risks involved and inappropriate objectives may be causative. This research moves towards explaining this reluctance and, consequently,…

  14. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system.

  15. High/Low Handbook: Best Books and Web Sites for Reluctant Teen Readers. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiBretto, Ellen V.; Barr, Catherine

    This handbook is a practical guide to the selection of high-interest, low-reading-level books and Web sites that will inspire a love of reading in teenagers who fall within the category of reluctant readers. It is especially useful for professionals in school and public libraries charged with building collections of suitable titles for these…

  16. Mathematical Tasks without Words and Word Problems: Perceptions of Reluctant Problem Solvers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, Sydney Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study used a multiple, holistic case study approach (Yin, 2009) to explore the perceptions of reluctant problem solvers related to mathematical tasks without words and word problems. Participants were given a choice of working a mathematical task without words or a word problem during four problem-solving sessions. Data…

  17. The Reasons for the Reluctance of Princess Alia University College Students' from Practicing Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odat, Jebril

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the reasons lying behind the reluctance of participation in sport activities among Alia Princess College female students, using descriptive approach. The population of the study consisted of (2000) female students, whereas the sample was of (200) students. They were randomly selected and a questionnaire of 31…

  18. The Integrated Curriculum: Books for Reluctant Readers, Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    Demonstrating that reading can and should be part of every curricular area, this book provides a wide selection of activities developed for 39 books selected on the basis of their interest level and application to the needs of reluctant readers in grades 2 through 5. The first part of the book presents guidelines for motivating students and…

  19. "You Play on Them. They're Active." Enhancing the Mathematics Learning of Reluctant Teenage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Nigel; Campbell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that examined the beliefs and attitudes of reluctant 16 to 18-year-old learners when using apps in their numeracy and literacy programmes. In particular, it considers the students' change of attitude towards numeracy learning. The data were consistent that the use of apps in the numeracy programme was…

  20. Identification of multi-modal plasma responses to applied magnetic perturbations using the plasma reluctance

    DOE PAGES

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Park, Jong-Kyu; ...

    2016-05-03

    Using the plasma reluctance, the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code is able to efficiently identify the structure of multi-modal magnetic plasma response measurements and the corresponding impact on plasma performance in the DIII-D tokamak. Recent experiments demonstrated that multiple kink modes of comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n = 2. This multi-modal response is in good agreement with ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, but detailed decompositions presented here show that the mode structures are not fully described by either the least stable modes or the resonant plasma response. This paper identifies the measured response fieldsmore » as the first eigenmodes of the plasma reluctance, enabling clear diagnosis of the plasma modes and their impact on performance from external sensors. The reluctance shows, for example, how very stable modes compose a significant portion of the multi-modal plasma response field and that these stable modes drive significant resonant current. Finally, this work is an overview of the first experimental applications using the reluctance to interpret the measured response and relate it to multifaceted physics, aimed towards providing the foundation of understanding needed to optimize nonaxisymmetric fields for independent control of stability and transport.« less

  1. The Integrated Curriculum: Books for Reluctant Readers, Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    Demonstrating that reading can and should be part of every curricular area, this book provides a wide selection of activities developed for 39 books selected on the basis of their interest level and application to the needs of reluctant readers in grades 2 through 5. The first part of the book presents guidelines for motivating students and…

  2. Success with Reluctant Researchers: Real Life Experiences in a Rural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Hall, Meada; Branson, Terri A.

    For five years, a collaborative team consisting of a special education teacher, a general education teacher, and a university professor conducted research studies in a rural secondary school. Although the general education teacher initially was reluctant to participate in a research project, especially one that involved students with disabilities,…

  3. My Bluford High Boys: How a Book Club for Reluctant Readers Proved the Naysayers Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sara

    2009-01-01

    As a middle school librarian in Austin, Texas, the author has been running weekly book clubs for years, which covered many genres that appeal to a wide cross section of kids. When approached by a group of Latino boys from low-income families, the author was inspired to run a Bluford High book club for reluctant readers. The author shares how she…

  4. Turning Them on: How Does a Teacher Reach the Reluctant Learner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmann, David

    2007-01-01

    Over a 27-year teaching career in schools in North London and the Zambian bush I have relished the challenge of helping the disaffected or reluctant learner. Most of my teaching was in the area of business and vocational education, where learners have often been placed not through choice but because they were not seen as high enough achievers to…

  5. Mathematical Modelling and Parameter Determination of Reluctance Synchronous Motor with Squirrel Cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudák, Peter; Hrabovcová, Valéria

    2010-11-01

    The paper provides an analysis of reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with asymmetrical rotor cage. Its performances during its starting up is investigated. A mathematical model is created on the basis of detailed investigation of model parameters. The RSM starting up by switching it directly across the line was simulated and verified by measurements.

  6. On Being a Social Change Agent in a Reluctant Collegial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Emes, Claudia; Ellard, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews a collaborative process established at the University of Calgary in the earliest stages of strategic planning and maintained throughout undergraduate curriculum redesign and implementation. Offers some lessons learned by the change agents operating within a reluctant environment, including: start with serious self-reflection, understand…

  7. High/Low Handbook: Best Books and Web Sites for Reluctant Teen Readers. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiBretto, Ellen V.; Barr, Catherine

    This handbook is a practical guide to the selection of high-interest, low-reading-level books and Web sites that will inspire a love of reading in teenagers who fall within the category of reluctant readers. It is especially useful for professionals in school and public libraries charged with building collections of suitable titles for these…

  8. The "Reluctant" State and the Beginning of the End of State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that English education policy has come full-circle--from the first constitution of a state system of education in 1870 to the beginning of the end of state education in 2010--and that this circularity can be understood in relation to the reluctant state. That is, in the nineteenth century, the English state hesitantly and slowly…

  9. Online Statistics Labs in MSW Research Methods Courses: Reducing Reluctance toward Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Choi, Eunhee; Friedline, Terri

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of an online statistics lab as part of a foundations research methods course for master's-level social work students. The article discusses factors that contribute to an environment in social work that fosters attitudes of reluctance toward learning and teaching statistics in research methods…

  10. Identification of multi-modal plasma responses to applied magnetic perturbations using the plasma reluctance

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Park, Jong-Kyu; Nazikian, Raffi

    2016-05-03

    Using the plasma reluctance, the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code is able to efficiently identify the structure of multi-modal magnetic plasma response measurements and the corresponding impact on plasma performance in the DIII-D tokamak. Recent experiments demonstrated that multiple kink modes of comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n = 2. This multi-modal response is in good agreement with ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, but detailed decompositions presented here show that the mode structures are not fully described by either the least stable modes or the resonant plasma response. This paper identifies the measured response fields as the first eigenmodes of the plasma reluctance, enabling clear diagnosis of the plasma modes and their impact on performance from external sensors. The reluctance shows, for example, how very stable modes compose a significant portion of the multi-modal plasma response field and that these stable modes drive significant resonant current. Finally, this work is an overview of the first experimental applications using the reluctance to interpret the measured response and relate it to multifaceted physics, aimed towards providing the foundation of understanding needed to optimize nonaxisymmetric fields for independent control of stability and transport.

  11. Online Statistics Labs in MSW Research Methods Courses: Reducing Reluctance toward Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Choi, Eunhee; Friedline, Terri

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of an online statistics lab as part of a foundations research methods course for master's-level social work students. The article discusses factors that contribute to an environment in social work that fosters attitudes of reluctance toward learning and teaching statistics in research methods…

  12. The "Reluctant" State and the Beginning of the End of State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that English education policy has come full-circle--from the first constitution of a state system of education in 1870 to the beginning of the end of state education in 2010--and that this circularity can be understood in relation to the reluctant state. That is, in the nineteenth century, the English state hesitantly and slowly…

  13. Identification of multi-modal plasma responses to applied magnetic perturbations using the plasma reluctance

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Park, Jong-Kyu; Nazikian, Raffi

    2016-05-03

    Using the plasma reluctance, the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code is able to efficiently identify the structure of multi-modal magnetic plasma response measurements and the corresponding impact on plasma performance in the DIII-D tokamak. Recent experiments demonstrated that multiple kink modes of comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n = 2. This multi-modal response is in good agreement with ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, but detailed decompositions presented here show that the mode structures are not fully described by either the least stable modes or the resonant plasma response. This paper identifies the measured response fields as the first eigenmodes of the plasma reluctance, enabling clear diagnosis of the plasma modes and their impact on performance from external sensors. The reluctance shows, for example, how very stable modes compose a significant portion of the multi-modal plasma response field and that these stable modes drive significant resonant current. Finally, this work is an overview of the first experimental applications using the reluctance to interpret the measured response and relate it to multifaceted physics, aimed towards providing the foundation of understanding needed to optimize nonaxisymmetric fields for independent control of stability and transport.

  14. Reluctant Mathematician: Skills-Based MOOC Scaffolds Wide Range of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The University of Wollongong's first locally developed and hosted Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) "The Reluctant Mathematician" was run in the last four weeks of our summer holiday, prior to Autumn session in 2014. It was developed to lift maths skills at our university and also in the community--where maths skills continue to be a…

  15. Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    DTIC i.LE COPY RADC-TR-90-25 Final Technical Report April 1990 MACHINE LEARNING The MITRE Corporation Melissa P. Chase Cs) CTIC ’- CT E 71 IN 2 11990...S. FUNDING NUMBERS MACHINE LEARNING C - F19628-89-C-0001 PE - 62702F PR - MOlE S. AUTHO(S) TA - 79 Melissa P. Chase WUT - 80 S. PERFORMING...341.280.5500 pm I " Aw Sig rill Ia 2110-01 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Research in machine learning has taken two directions in the problem of

  16. Organisms ≠ Machines.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2013-12-01

    The machine conception of the organism (MCO) is one of the most pervasive notions in modern biology. However, it has not yet received much attention by philosophers of biology. The MCO has its origins in Cartesian natural philosophy, and it is based on the metaphorical redescription of the organism as a machine. In this paper I argue that although organisms and machines resemble each other in some basic respects, they are actually very different kinds of systems. I submit that the most significant difference between organisms and machines is that the former are intrinsically purposive whereas the latter are extrinsically purposive. Using this distinction as a starting point, I discuss a wide range of dissimilarities between organisms and machines that collectively lay bare the inadequacy of the MCO as a general theory of living systems. To account for the MCO's prevalence in biology, I distinguish between its theoretical, heuristic, and rhetorical functions. I explain why the MCO is valuable when it is employed heuristically but not theoretically, and finally I illustrate the serious problems that arise from the rhetorical appeal to the MCO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of interviewers' supportive comments and children's reluctance to cooperate during sexual abuse disclosure.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Jennifer; Cyr, Mireille; Dion, Jacinthe

    2015-05-01

    In the field of child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, many studies have been conducted on the impact of interviewers' questioning style, but few have examined the impact of interviewers' supportive comments on children's cooperative and reluctant disclosure of substantive details. This field study used a sample of children ranging from 4 to 13 years of age who have all disclosed CSA. The first objective was to examine if the interviewer's and the child's comments during CSA interviews would vary as a function of the use of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol. The second objective was to identify the strongest correlates of the proportion of details disclosed by the children during forensic interviews. A total of 90 matched NICHD Protocol and non-Protocol interviews done by the same interviewers were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using verbal subscales. The goal was to explore if differences exist between the interviewers' supportive and non-supportive comments as well as children's cooperative and reluctant statements during investigative interviews conducted prior to or after the NICHD Protocol training. Results of a MANCOVA showed that the use of the NICHD Protocol had no influence on interviewers' and children's demeanors. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis controlling for relevant variables (e.g., child's age and NICHD Protocol) showed that children's reluctance and interviewers' non-support were associated with a lesser proportion of details. Overall, these results indicate that in order to promote detailed disclosure of CSA, interviewers should decrease their non-supportive comments and learn to deal more effectively with children's reluctance during forensic interviews. As such, protocols and training should encourage investigative interviewers to devote more time identifying early signs of children's verbal reluctance and to understand the negative impact of non-supportive comments on the disclosure of

  18. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  19. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  20. Machine characterization based on an abstract high-level language machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.; Smith, Alan Jay; Miya, Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Measurements are presented for a large number of machines ranging from small workstations to supercomputers. The authors combine these measurements into groups of parameters which relate to specific aspects of the machine implementation, and use these groups to provide overall machine characterizations. The authors also define the concept of pershapes, which represent the level of performance of a machine for different types of computation. A metric based on pershapes is introduced that provides a quantitative way of measuring how similar two machines are in terms of their performance distributions. The metric is related to the extent to which pairs of machines have varying relative performance levels depending on which benchmark is used.

  1. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  2. Loading characteristic and optimum switching conditions of multistack variable reluctance type stepping motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. F.; Bell, R.

    1984-02-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between the angular positional error of the rotor of a multistack variable reluctance type stepping motor and the average motor torque at various operating speeds. The relationships have been established theoretically using a linear model and experimentally using a lag measuring circuit over the slewing range of stepping rates. With the help of this approach the dynamic performance of this type of steppers has been studied and its limits defined.

  3. Influence of magnetic reluctances of magnetic elements on servo valve torque motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changhai; Jiang, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The current research of electro-hydraulic servo valves mainly focuses on the vibration, pressure oscillating and source of noise. Unfortunately, literatures relating to the study of the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements are rarely available. This paper aims to analyze the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements on torque motor. Considering these magnetic reluctances ignored in previous literatures, a new mathematical model of servo valve torque motor is developed and proposed based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. By using this new mathematical model and the previous models, electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness are evaluated for a given set of torque motor parameters. A computer simulation by using AMESim software is also performed for the same set of torque motor parameters to verify the proposed model. The theoretical results of electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness evaluated by the proposed model render closer agreement with the simulation results than those evaluated by the previous models. In addition, an experimental measurement of the magnetic flux densities in the air-gaps is carried out by using SFL218 servo valve torque motor. Compared with the theoretical results of the magnetic flux densities in the air-gaps evaluated by the previous models, the theoretical results evaluated by the proposed model also show better agreement with the experimental data. The proposed model shows the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements on the servo valve torque motor, and offers modified and analytical expressions to electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness. These modified and analytical expressions could provide guidance more accurately for a linear control design approach and sensitivity analysis on electro-hydraulic servo valves than the previous expressions.

  4. Experimental Manufacture and Performance Evaluation of Linear Switched Reluctance Motor with HTS Excitation Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Oto, Satoshi; Higashijima, Atsushi; Kawabata, Shuma

    This paper presents an experimental manufacture and performance evaluation of prototype linear switched reluctance motor with HTS excitation windings (HTS-LSRM). The Ag-alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes are used for HTS coils. We first present a structure of the prototype HTS-LSRM. Next, current-carrying properties of the HTS coils are measured. Furthermore, current and voltage waveforms are measured and we evaluation a control performance of the current and voltage.

  5. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Treesearch

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  6. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Plass, Anne Marie C; Lems, Willem F; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Background The Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial has proved that combination therapy with prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine is superior to sulphasalazine monotherapy in suppressing disease activity and radiological progression of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, 5 years of follow‐up proved that COBRA therapy results in sustained reduction of the rate of radiological progression. Despite this evidence, Dutch rheumatologists seem reluctant to prescribe COBRA therapy. Objective To explore the reasons for the reluctance in Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe COBRA therapy. Methods A short structured questionnaire based on social–psychological theories of behaviour was sent to all Dutch rheumatologists (n = 230). Results The response rate was 50%. COBRA therapy was perceived as both effective and safe, but complex to administer. Furthermore, rheumatologists expressed their concern about the large number of pills that had to be taken, the side effects of high‐dose prednisolone and the low dose of methotrexate. Although the average attitude towards the COBRA therapy was slightly positive (above the neutral point), the majority of responding rheumatologists had a negative intention (below the neutral point) to prescribe COBRA therapy in the near future. Conclusion The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient‐related consequences of the therapy. PMID:17392349

  7. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Plass, Anne Marie C; Lems, Willem F; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2007-07-01

    The Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial has proved that combination therapy with prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine is superior to sulphasalazine monotherapy in suppressing disease activity and radiological progression of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, 5 years of follow-up proved that COBRA therapy results in sustained reduction of the rate of radiological progression. Despite this evidence, Dutch rheumatologists seem reluctant to prescribe COBRA therapy. To explore the reasons for the reluctance in Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe COBRA therapy. A short structured questionnaire based on social-psychological theories of behaviour was sent to all Dutch rheumatologists (n = 230). The response rate was 50%. COBRA therapy was perceived as both effective and safe, but complex to administer. Furthermore, rheumatologists expressed their concern about the large number of pills that had to be taken, the side effects of high-dose prednisolone and the low dose of methotrexate. Although the average attitude towards the COBRA therapy was slightly positive (above the neutral point), the majority of responding rheumatologists had a negative intention (below the neutral point) to prescribe COBRA therapy in the near future. The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient-related consequences of the therapy.

  8. The complex initial reluctivity, permeability and susceptibility spectra of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, N. C.

    2015-03-01

    The HF complex permeability spectrum of a magnetic material is deduced from the measured impedance spectrum, which is then normalized to a series permeability spectrum. However, this series permeability spectrum has previously been shown to correspond to a parallel magnetic circuit, which is not appropriate. Some of the implications of this truth are examined. This electric/magnetic duality has frustrated efforts to interpret the shape of the complex magnetic permeability spectra of materials, and has hindered the application of impedance spectroscopy to magnetic materials. In the presence of magnetic loss, the relationship between the relative magnetic permeability and the magnetic susceptibility is called into question. The use of reluctivity spectra for expressing magnetic material properties is advocated. The relative loss factor, tanδm/μi is shown to be an approximation for the imaginary part of the reluctivity. A single relaxation model for the initial reluctivity spectra of magnetic materials is presented, and its principles are applied to measurements of a high permeability ferrite. The results are presented as contour plots of the spectra as a function of temperature.

  9. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  10. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  11. Research on Electromagnetic Force Distribution and Vibration Performance of A Novel 10/4 Switched Reluctance Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ziyu; Wang, Xinyu; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Meng; Wang, Kangxi

    2017-06-01

    Radial electromagnetic force is one of the main reasons causing the vibration and noise of the switched reluctance motor. Based on this, the novel structure of 10/4 pole switched reluctance motor is proposed, which increases the air gap flux and electromagnetic torque by increasing the number of stator poles. In addition, the excitation current of the stator winding is reduced by early turn-off angle. Through the finite element modelling analysis, the results show the superiority of the new type of switched reluctance motor. In the end, the vibration characteristics of the conventional motor and the new motor are compared and analysed, and the effect of the structure of this new type of switched reluctance motor is verified.

  12. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  13. Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.

  14. Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

  15. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  16. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  17. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  18. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

  19. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  20. Basic Machines. Navy Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This document is a reference for the enlisted men in the Navy whose duties require knowledge of the fundamentals of machinery. Beginning with the simplest of machines--the lever--the book proceeds with the discussion of block and tackle, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw and gears. It explains the concepts of work and power, and differentiates…

  1. A Description of a Design Method of a Claw Teeth Motor on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Reluctance Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Koyama, Takayuki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) have the following advantages: three-dimensional magnetic isotropy, high resistivity, and recyclability. By using SMC, therefore, a new concept motor with a three-dimensional structure can be developed. Its power-to-space ratio and efficiency can be improved since the space factor of winding and the space utilization factor of the motor is increased. This paper describes a design method of a claw teeth motor made of SMC by reluctance network analysis (RNA)-based experimental design. First, a three-dimensional RNA model of the claw teeth motor is presented. Next, the RNA-based experimental design of the claw teeth motor is presented. As a result, the average torque is improved by approximately 50%. In addition, the calculation time required for the design is significantly reduced by the proposed design method.

  2. Induction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.H.

    1980-10-14

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizes, a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  3. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  4. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  5. Viruses: sophisticated biological machines.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-01

    Virus infection involves coordination of a series of molecular machines, including entry machines, replication machines, assembly machines, and genome packaging machines, leading to the production of infectious virions. This chapter provides an introduction to various viral molecular machines described in this book.

  6. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  7. Reluctance to Accept Alcohol Treatment by Alcoholic Liver Disease Transplant Patients: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cathy M.; Schofield, Toni; Gribble, Robert; Day, Carolyn A.; Haber, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation (LT) is the optimum treatment for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, despite a recognized risk of relapse to harmful drinking, ALD transplant patients are reluctant to use speciality alcohol treatment to support their abstinence, even when offered within the LT context. This study aimed to understand and identify factors contributing to alcohol treatment reluctance by ALD patients undergoing transplantation. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study of ALD transplant patients. Minimally structured face-to-face interviews explored participants' alcohol-related experiences and their reasons for not using alcohol treatment during the course of their transplantation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret interview data to understand treatment reluctance based on participants' experiences. Results Five major themes were identified among 3 subgroups of patients (pretransplant and posttransplant abstainers and posttransplant relapsers): (i) the “contract” of mandatory abstinence, (ii) the “gap in the program” involving the lack of candour between patient and staff about alcohol-related matters and the lack of addiction services, (iii) a preference by participants to self-manage their alcohol use disorder, (iv) social support as a facilitator of abstinence and the risk of relapse when social support is diminished, and (v) the fear of stigmatization. Each of these factors were dynamically interrelated and differed slightly for each subgroup. Conclusions The LT services may benefit from the inclusion of integrated specialist addiction services in their model of care. Such an approach may enhance the acceptability of alcohol treatment and reduce the risk of relapse among ALD transplant participants, especially for those whose social supports have diminished. PMID:27795986

  8. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  9. Facial attractiveness: beauty and the machine.

    PubMed

    Eisenthal, Yael; Dror, Gideon; Ruppin, Eytan

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a novel study of the notion of facial attractiveness in a machine learning context. To this end, we collected human beauty ratings for data sets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face. The trained predictor achieves a significant correlation of 0.65 with the average human ratings. The results clearly show that facial beauty is a universal concept that a machine can learn. Analysis of the accuracy of the beauty prediction machine as a function of the size of the training data indicates that a machine producing human-like attractiveness rating could be obtained given a moderately larger data set.

  10. Rough set models of Physarum machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancerz, Krzysztof; Schumann, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider transition system models of behaviour of Physarum machines in terms of rough set theory. A Physarum machine, a biological computing device implemented in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (true slime mould), is a natural transition system. In the behaviour of Physarum machines, one can notice some ambiguity in Physarum motions that influences exact anticipation of states of machines in time. To model this ambiguity, we propose to use rough set models created over transition systems. Rough sets are an appropriate tool to deal with rough (ambiguous, imprecise) concepts in the universe of discourse.

  11. A miniature Hopkinson experiment device based on multistage reluctance coil electromagnetic launch.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenkai; Huan, Shi; Xiao, Ying

    2017-09-01

    A set of seven-stage reluctance miniaturized Hopkinson bar electromagnetic launcher has been developed in this paper. With the characteristics of high precision, small size, and little noise pollution, the device complies with the requirements of miniaturized Hopkinson bar for high strain rate. The launcher is a seven-stage accelerating device up to 65.5 m/s. A high performance microcontroller is used to control accurately the discharge of capacitor sets, by means of which the outlet velocity of the projectile can be controlled within a certain velocity range.

  12. A miniature Hopkinson experiment device based on multistage reluctance coil electromagnetic launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenkai; Huan, Shi; Xiao, Ying

    2017-09-01

    A set of seven-stage reluctance miniaturized Hopkinson bar electromagnetic launcher has been developed in this paper. With the characteristics of high precision, small size, and little noise pollution, the device complies with the requirements of miniaturized Hopkinson bar for high strain rate. The launcher is a seven-stage accelerating device up to 65.5 m/s. A high performance microcontroller is used to control accurately the discharge of capacitor sets, by means of which the outlet velocity of the projectile can be controlled within a certain velocity range.

  13. Improvements of Power Factor and Torque of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor with a Slit Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashiki, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshimitu; Kawai, Youichi; Yokochi, Takanori; Satake, Akiyoshi; Okuma, Shigeru

    Power factor and torque of synchronous reluctance motors with a slit rotor are studied. In there stators, divided teeth made of powder magnetic core are adopted and windings are improved to get high space factor of stator windings and to shorten coil ends. In there rotors, stainless sheets are inserted among soft magnetic metal sheets with adhesive to strengthen the rotors and rotor structure is improved to enlarge the saliency ratio (Ld/Lq). As the result, the power factor 0.78 and 1.6 times torque at same motor size are attained.

  14. A new two-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mi-Ching; Huang, Chien-Chin; Huang, Zheng-Yi

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor (SRM), whose design successfully avoids dead-zone problems that afflict low cost 1- and/or 2-phase SRMs. Unlike conventional radial-winding-radial-gap motors, the proposed SRM has an interior stator that is of the pancake type with axial winding. Such a design allows for a high slot-fill factor and is suitable for implementation as a flat pancake-shaped stator. An efficient, compact prototype was produced with TMS320F240 DSP driving control unit. Experimental results indicate that the present SRM design has the potential to be used for electric bicycles and scooters.

  15. Extensive Reading Program Which Changes Reluctant Engineering Students into Autonomous Learners of English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Takayoshi; Itoh, Kazuaki

    This article introduces extensive reading (ER) as an approach to improve fundamental communication skills in English of reluctant EFL learners : average Japanese engineering students. It is distinct from concurrent translation approach from a perspective that the learners use English instead of Japanese to grasp the meaning of what they read and enjoy reading. In the ER program at Toyota National College of Technology, many students developed more positive attitude toward English, increased their reading speed, and achieved higher TOEIC scores, which was compared to those of the students before this ER program was introduced. Comparison between three groups of the students showed strong correlation between their TOEIC scores and the reading amount.

  16. Position Estimation for Switched Reluctance Motor Based on the Single Threshold Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Pang; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a position estimate model of switched reluctance motor based on the single threshold angle. In view of the relationship of between the inductance and rotor position, the position is estimated by comparing the real-time dynamic flux linkage with the threshold angle position flux linkage (7.5° threshold angle, 12/8SRM). The sensorless model is built by Maltab/Simulink, the simulation are implemented under the steady state and transient state different condition, and verified its validity and feasibility of the method..

  17. My snowflake is so unique … Experiences of a reluctant Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Kearns, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    As with many data scientists, this wasn't my initial career objective. In fact it wasn't even seen as a viable option at that time. However I needed to manage data for my physical science projects and the teams I supported, so I reluctantly accepted this task as part of my "real" science job. Over the years, many challenges have been solved, that then allow us the ability to address more difficult issues. This presentation will address current data scientist challenges from a "real" scientist's perspective at a federal archive.

  18. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  19. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  20. Model-based machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  1. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  2. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  3. Torque Ripple Reduction of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors Using Asymmetric Flux Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramoto, Kenji; Takeda, Yoji; Sanada, Masayuki; Morimoto, Shigeo

    Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is efficient and can be operated in wide speed region; therefore it is used widely. However, torque ripple of reluctance torque assisted motors, for example IPMSM and synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM), is very large. The skew is known in the prior art as a torque ripple reduction method of AC motors. Although the skew is effective for torque ripple reduction, structure is complicated and it has the disadvantage that average torque will decrease. The discontinuous variation of magnetic resistance between flux barriers and teeth cause the torque ripple. In this paper, in order to ease the discontinuous variation of magnetic resistance, flux barriers are asymmetrically designed so that the relative position relation between flux barriers and teeth may not be in agreement as much as possible. As a result, the torque ripple can be reduced dramatically without the average torque decrease. The experimental motor has been fabricated and the results of measuring torque ripple prove the validity of the torque ripple reduction using asymmetric flux barriers.

  4. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  5. The Influence of Training, Reluctance, Efficacy, and Stigma on Suicide Intervention Behavior Among NCOs in the Army and Marine Corps.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Lynsay; Ramchand, Rajeev; Geyer, Lily; Burgette, Lane; Kofner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    The Army and Marine Corps have consistently experienced the highest rates of suicide relative to the other services. In both the Army and Marine Corps, the service members responsible for identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide are called "gatekeepers" and are typically noncommissioned officers (NCOs). We used structural equation modeling on survey responses from 1184 Army soldiers and 796 marines to estimate the relationships between training, intervention efficacy, reluctance, and mental health stigma on NCO intervention behaviors. Efficacy and reluctance were independently associated with intervention behaviors, and stigma was only associated with intervention behaviors among Army NCOs. Study results suggest that while quantity of training may help NCOs feel more confident about their ability to intervene, other efforts such as changing training content and delivery mode (e.g., interactive vs. didactic training) may be necessary in order to reduce reluctance and stigma to intervene with service members at risk for suicide.

  6. Formation of failure matrix and failure-free control algorithm for multi-sectioned Switched-reluctance drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Rozayev, I.

    2014-10-01

    We review fault-tolerant switched reluctance drive with sectioning of the three-phase stator winding. In the operating process of an electric drive, there will be continuous monitoring of the operating state on the basis of a developed algorithm to analyse drive operability and formation tabulate a failure matrix. The paper introduces a failure-free control algorithm for multi-section switch - reluctance motor with formation the assignment values of amplitude phase currents taking into account the failure matrix. We show that in an emergency such single failure or multiple failure in switched-reluctance drive it is possible to provide reduction of torque fall and pro-gressively stock depletion with providing fault-tolerance of drive system. A method of residual life evaluation is proposed on the basis of calculating the coefficient of operability of the electric drive system that gives possibility to control the endurance of electric drive in real time from operational to completely unusable.

  7. The AERA Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    electrgnic tabular displays ( ETABS ). - , This concept document was prepared by a team of ATC experts to review prior work, the on-going AERA program, and to...Address Beacon System (DABS), trajectory modeling and planning algorithms, and electronic tabular displays ( ETABS ). This concept document was...capability, and a Flight Management System. The development of AERA requires major efforts in system design and software and man-machine interface

  8. Calculation and Measurement of Coil Inductance Profile in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor and its Validation by Three Dimensional FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosallanejad, Ali; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports a study of coil inductance profile in all positions of plunger in tubular linear reluctance motors (TLRMs) with open type magnetic circuits. In this paper, maximum inductance calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motors are described based on energy method. Furthermore, in order to calculate the maximum inductance, equivalent permeability is measured. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis for simulation and calculation of coil inductance in this motor is used. Simulation results of coil inductance calculation using 3-D FEM with coil current excitation is compared to theoretical and experimental results. The comparison yields a good agreement.

  9. The machine intelligence Hex project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-12-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students’ progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex players and evaluating them in an automated tournament of all programs developed by the class. This article surveys educational aspects of the MIHex project. Additionally, fundamental techniques for game programming as well as specific concepts for Hex board evaluation are reviewed. The MIHex game server and possibilities of tournament organisation are described. We summarise and discuss our experiences from running the MIHex project assignment over four consecutive years. The impact on student motivation and learning benefits are evaluated using questionnaires and interviews.

  10. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor for High Specific Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Siebert, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A 12-8 switched-reluctance motor (SRM) is studied in bearingless (or self-levitated) operation with coil currents limited to the linear region to avoid magnetic saturation. The required motoring and levitating currents are summed and go into a single motor coil per pole to obtain the highest power output of the motor by having more space for motor coil winding. Two controllers are investigated for the bearingless SRM operation. First, a model-based controller using the radial force, which is adjusted by a factor derived from finite element analysis, is presented. Then a simple and practical observation-based controller using a PD (proportional-derivative) control algorithm is presented. Both controllers were experimentally demonstrated to 6500 rpm. This paper reports the initial efforts toward eventual self levitation of a SRM operating into strong magnetic core saturation at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  12. Modeling and controller performance assessment for a switched reluctance motor drive based on setpoint relay.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, L L N; Coelho, A A R; Almeida, O M; Campos, J C T

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the implementation of a current control method for switched reluctance motors (SRMs) and presents a novel approach to the accurate on-line modeling of an SRM drive. A simple autotuning technique for the SRM drives using a PWM controller is considered. Furthermore, conventional PI control and Internal Model Control (IMC) are considered to validate this method and present corresponding robust control analysis for the process. The control structures are comparatively analyzed using standard robustness measures for stability and performance. The proposed PWM controller is simulated and a hardware prototype is then implemented using digital signal processor control to evaluate the method using a 12/8, three-phase SRM. The experimental results of the SRM drive model validates the performance of the current loop.

  13. Conoco gives shot of CO/sub 2/ to reluctant reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wash, R.

    1981-06-01

    The Ford-Geraldine Field in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas, has earned itself the title reluctant reservoir. Through initial production and a secondary recovery attempt by waterflood, the unit has yielded only approximately 1/4 of the estimated 93 million bbl of original oil in place, leaving field operators to discover a way of retrieving the approximately 70 million bbl remaining in the ground. As a solution to the field's stubbornness in giving up its oil reserves, Conoco Inc. has implemented a third recovery project involving the injection of 96.9 billion cu ft of carbon dioxide over an 8-yr period. The company hopes to recover an additional 8.45 million bbl which is 11.6% of the remaining oil in place and 9.1% of the original oil in place.

  14. High-performance prediction for variable-speed switched reluctance drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, F.; Wahsh, S.; Mohamed, A.Z.

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a simple developed nonlinear dynamic model of variable reluctance motor (VRM) based on its magnetic characteristics, considering the saturation effect. Most preliminary design work is centered on a fixed speed, or a small number of fixed speeds, even when the requirement is for operation over a wide speed range. This work deals with both constant and variable speed operation. Model development is motivated by the good performance predictions required to support and simplify the design of a high performance controller. Because the magnetization curves do not need to be pre-calculated, measured, stored, curve-fitted, or idealized the model is extremely simple, fast, and accurate. Simulation results of the phase current and torque on both chopping and single-pulse mode of operations are presented.

  15. 2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malé, G.; Lubin, T.; Mezani, S.; Lévêque, J.

    2011-03-01

    An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.

  16. Steady State Analysis Of The Variable Speed Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materu, P.; Krishnan, R.; Farzanehfard, H.

    1987-10-01

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive has recently received attention mainly because of its simple motor construction and unidirectional converter requirement. The principle of operation of the motor drive demands that the motor and converter be treated as one unit. Little has been done to develop a complete analysis of this motor-converter combination 1'2. This paper presents an approach to the steady state analysis of the SRM drive including the effects of stator winding resistance, input filter dynamics and snubber circuits which are often neglected. The analysis yields phase current waveforms providing guidelines to the optimal design of the converter and motor. A novel single-switch-per phase converter developed by one of the authors is used. The approach can be used for any other motor-converter combination.

  17. Optimal design of switched reluctance motor using two-dimensional finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Hak; Jung, Sung-In; Chun, Yon-Do; Kim, Sol; Lee, Ju; Chu, Min-Sik; Hong, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Dong-Hoon

    2002-05-01

    Switched reluctance motor (SRM) has some advantages such as low cost, high torque density, etc., but SRM has essentially high torque ripple due to its salient structure. To apply SRM to the industrial field, we have to minimize torque ripple, which is the weak point of SRM. This article introduces optimal design process of SRM using a numerical method such as two-dimensional (2D) finite element method. The electrical and geometrical design parameters have been adopted as 2D design variables. From this work, we can obtain the optimal design, which minimizes the torque ripple. We also can obtain the optimal design, which maximizes the average torque. Finally, this article presents performance comparison of two optimal designs, the minimized torque ripple, and the maximized average torque.

  18. A Global Sliding-Mode Control Scheme with Adjustable Robustness for A Linear Variable Reluctance Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin-Yuan; Lu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Jian-Shiang

    A novel global sliding-mode control (GSMC) scheme with adjustable robustness is presented in this article. The proposed scheme offers a switching function together with unperturbed system dynamics to weigh the contribution from SMC such that all of the closed-loop poles can be located within predefined regions to provide design flexibility, and the robustness of system can thus be adjusted. By this scheme, the maximal control effort and chattering level can be reduced according to designer's specifications directly. Since the switching function can initially be made to equal to zero, the adjustable performance during the entire response can be guaranteed, and the reaching condition is thus lifted. The efficacy of this scheme is demonstrated via successful implementation on a linear variable reluctance motor (LVRM) servo system. Both simulation and experimental studies further demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  19. Algebraic dual-energy magnetic analysis with application to variable reluctance motor design

    SciTech Connect

    Tolikas, M.; Lang, J.H.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The dual-energy method has been successfully employed in the calculation of static resistances, capacitances and inductances, yielding fast and accurate solutions. Two different directions can be followed in applying the method, one is the more widely known method of tubes and slices, the other is the algebraic approach and is explored further in this paper. The present literature on the algebraic dual-energy method involves trivial examples with boundaries, boundary conditions and source distributions that are easily handled. However, the geometry of the variable reluctance motor at the unaligned position, the dominating curvatures characterizing its electromagnetic field distribution and the presence of a large number of boundary conditions arising at the steel boundaries, provide a challenging exercise in the application, behavior and effectiveness of the dual-energy method in a realistic framework.

  20. An analysis of noise reduction in variable reluctance motors using pulse position randomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, Melissa C.

    1994-05-01

    The design and implementation of a control system to introduce randomization into the control of a variable reluctance motor (VRM) is presented. The goal is to reduce noise generated by radial vibrations of the stator. Motor phase commutation angles are dithered by 1 or 2 mechanical degrees to investigate the effect of randomization on acoustic noise. VRM commutation points are varied using a uniform probability density function and a 4 state Markov chain among other methods. The theory of VRM and inverter operation and a derivation of the major source of acoustic noise are developed. The experimental results show the effects of randomization. Uniform dithering and Markov chain dithering both tend to spread the noise spectrum, reducing peak noise components. No clear evidence is found to determine which is the optimum randomization scheme. The benefit of commutation angle randomization in reducing VRM loudness as perceived by humans is found to be questionable.

  1. [Reluctant partner: Canada's relationship with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Klaudia

    2006-01-01

    Despite a strong commitment to multilateralism and international health cooperation in the post World War II era, Canada refrained form joining the Pan American Health Organization - PAHO until 1971. Drawing on letters and memos sent between Canadian diplomats and government representatives, this paper explores official Canadian accounts of the factors that delayed Canada's membership in PAHO. These factors include the initial lack of official relations between Canada and Latin America, US hegemony in the region, and budgetary constraints. Canada's cautious position regarding PAHO is also placed within the context of Canada's overall foreign policy to the region, emphasizing the parallels between Canada's reluctant association with PAHO and the evolution of Canada's engagement with the region as a whole.

  2. Identification of reluctant factors in using footpaths based on the pedestrians' perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadiyanto, Wahyu; Handayani, Dewi; Yulianto, Budi

    2017-06-01

    Footpath is a path intended particularly for pedestrians to avoid any conflicts with motor vehicles. However in reality, most of the pedestrians are unwilling to use paths and they prefer to walk on the roads. This research was conducted with the aim to identify the existing condition of pedestrian footpaths based on field observations and to determine the factors that cause the pedestrians are reluctant to walk on the trails. The method used to investigate the pedestrians' perception was by distributing questionnaires to the pedestrians. The results of this study found that the factors that caused the pedestrians did not want to use footpaths were the footpath width, the existence of barriers and obstacles, unstable height (not continuous), damaged surface, non-standard driveway that intersects sidewalk, suboptimal function of ramp, transverse steep slope, and the absence of bollard that could protect footpaths from the access of motorcycles.

  3. Sexual conflict in Sepsis cynipsea: female reluctance, fertility and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Hosken, D J; Martin, O Y; Born, J; Huber, F

    2003-05-01

    Sexual conflict can elevate mating costs via male inflicted damage to females. Possible selective advantages to males include decreasing the likelihood that females remate and/or increasing females' current reproductive investment in a manner analogous to terminal reproductive investment. We investigated female mating behaviour relative to their number of previous copulations in the fly Sepsis cynipsea, and whether males accepted as first mates were more likely to be accepted again. Females were more likely to remate with new rather than original males, although there was no associated fitness benefit, and in contrast to theoretical predictions, females became less reluctant to remate as the number of previous copulations increased. Additionally, females did not increase reproductive investment as would be expected if they were ensuring their final reproductive efforts were maximized by remating. This suggests that damaging females is a pleiotropic effect which inadvertently leads to increased, not decreased, polyandry.

  4. Sensorless control for switched reluctance motor based on special position detection.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Deng, Zhiquan; Gu, Yu

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new sensorless control approach for switched reluctance motor (SRM) in the single pulse control mode in high speed operation. The sensorless method uses the cross point position of transformer electromotive force (EMF) and motional back electromotive force (BEMF) to estimate the rotor position. The cross point position can be derived from the inductance model of SRM, and it is regarded as reference position. The rotor position can be calculated by detecting the special position for each electrical cycle. The proposed position estimation method is not affected by the magnetic saturation of SRM. Importantly, no additional hardware and no complicated computation or memory storage are required with the proposed method. Finally, the simulation and experimental results on a three-phase 12/8-pole SRM demonstrate the validity of the proposed sensorless scheme. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical design of walking machines.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

    2007-01-15

    The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.

  6. The nurse educator as teacher: exploring the construction of the 'reluctant instructor'.

    PubMed

    Bruni, N

    1997-03-01

    This paper explores the discursive construction of the category of teacher identified as the 'reluctant instructor'. Data are drawn from my doctoral study, an ethnography of a school of nursing located in the higher education sector in which I was employed. This study explored the question: What shapes nurse educators and what do they, in turn, shape? Participants included nurse educators who taught a pre-registration programme. Data were gathered through interview and observations of classroom teaching. Analysis focused on the discursive constitution of participants' sense of being a nurse educator and on the implications of their ways of 'knowing and doing' for students. The analysis suggests that the dominant subject positions adopted by participants were those of 'academic' and 'victim'. They employed an ideal/real dichotomy to give a sense of coherence to the inconsistencies or contradications that they saw as structuring their daily activities. Being an academic entailed being an educator, specifically a facilitator, as being competent and having some degree of autonomy. However, participants saw the reality of their situation as markedly different from their ideal; as exhibiting traits of the 'outmoded', oppressive, hospital system of nurse training. Within this context most participants positioned themselves as a 'reluctant instructor'. The implications of their practices for the creation of the 'passive student' are suggested in the paper. In this analysis the nurse educator is viewed as implicated in the formation and maintenance of the context in which she or he is located. Such a view challenges the neutrality that is implicated in understandings of the nurse educator that inform nursing texts and that helped constitute participants' sense of self.

  7. Selection for reluctance to avoid humans during the domestication of mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Tanave, A; Moriwaki, K; Shiroishi, T; Koide, T

    2013-11-01

    Many animal species have been domesticated over the course of human history and became tame as a result of domestication. Tameness is a behavioral characteristic with 2 potential components: (1) reluctance to avoid humans and (2) motivation to approach humans. However, the specific behavioral characteristics selected during domestication processes remain to be clarified for many species. To quantify these 2 different components of tameness separately, we established 3 behavioral tests: the 'active tame', 'passive tame' and 'stay-on-hand' tests. We subjected genetically diverse mouse strains to these tests, including 10 wild strains (BFM/2Ms, PGN2/Ms, HMI/Ms, BLG2/Ms, NJL/Ms, KJR/Ms, SWN/Ms, CHD/Ms, MSM/Ms and CAST/Ei), a fancy strain (JF1/Ms) and 6 standard laboratory strains (C3H/HeNJcl, CBA/J, BALB/cAnNCrlCrlj, DBA/2JJcl, 129(+Ter) /SvJcl and C57BL/6JJcl). To analyze the effects of domestication, these 17 strains were divided into 2 groups: domesticated strains (fancy and laboratory strains) and wild strains. Significant differences between strains were observed in all traits, and the calculated estimates of broad-sense heritability were 0.15-0.72. These results illustrate that tameness in mice is significantly influenced by genetic background. In addition, they clearly show the differences in the features of tameness in domesticated and wild strains. Most of the domesticated strains showed significantly greater reluctance to avoid humans than wild strains, whereas there was no significant difference in the level of motivation to approach humans between these 2 groups. These results might help to clarify the genetic basis of tameness in mice. © 2013 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MEMS electrostatic influence machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of MEMS electrostatic influence machines using electromechanical switches like the historical predecessors did two centuries ago. We find that a generator design relying entirely on standard silicon-on-insulator(SOI) micromachining is conceivable and analyze its performance by simulations. The concept appears preferable over comparable diode circuits due to its higher maximum energy, faster charging and low precharging voltage. A full electromechanical lumped-model including parasitic capacitances of the switches is built to capture the dynamic of the generator. Simulation results show that the output voltage can be exponentially bootstrapped from a very low precharging voltage so that otherwise inadequately small voltage differences or charge imbalances can be made useful.

  9. Flotation machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

    1993-08-10

    A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

  10. Using the Learning Sciences and Knowledge about How People Learn to Support Reluctant and Disengaged Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    As secondary educators seek strategies to support reluctant and disengaged learners, a greater understanding of the learning sciences (how people learn) becomes more important. This article examines the emerging knowledge base on the learning sciences and investigates how what has been discoveries about how and why people learn have practical…

  11. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  12. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  13. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  14. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  16. Machine Shop Lathes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  17. Time (hole?) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchak, John Byron

    2014-11-01

    Within the context of general relativity, we consider a type of "time machine" and introduce the related "hole machine". We review what is known about each and add results of our own. We conclude that (so far) the hole machine advocate is in a better position than the time machine advocate.

  18. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  19. Using Phun to Study ``Perpetual Motion'' Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koreš, Jaroslav

    2012-05-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th- century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over the centuries numerous proposals for PM have been made, involving ever more elements of modern science in their construction. It is possible to test a variety of PM machines in the classroom using a program called Phun2 or its commercial version Algodoo.3 The programs are designed to simulate physical processes and we can easily simulate mechanical machines using them. They provide an intuitive graphical environment controlled with a mouse; a programming language is not needed. This paper describes simulations of four different (supposed) PM machines.4

  20. Modular Pick-and-Bucket Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Concept for improved conventional pick-and-bucket mining machine offered as backup for hydrojet-jaw mining machine. Picks on chain dislodge coal and buckets on chain scoop it up. Depending on width cut, unit composed of only two end modules or end modules plus one, two, or three incremental modules. Folding curved shields protect sides of miner from falling coal and rock. Two side stabilizers - extendable hydraulic members - anchor miner against lateral drift. Unlike conventional machines, new version tilts cutters vertically and skews them horizontally to changing floor slopes and seam heights.

  1. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oupický, P.; Jareš, D.; Václavík, J.; Vápenka, D.

    2013-04-01

    The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process) for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR) for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  2. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  3. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  4. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  5. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai‘i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger’s focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being “on the radar” of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through “real talk” (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai‘i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  6. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    PubMed

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  7. Performance analysis of photovoltaic-powered water-pumping systems using switched reluctance motor drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Hamid M. B.; Anis, Wagdy R.

    A photovoltaic-powered (PV) pumping system that uses a switched reluctance motor (SRM) is investigated. The motor is supplied by a d.c. voltage through a switching circuit. The drive circuit is much simpler than the normal d.c./a.c. inverter that is required to supply the induction motor. The efficiency of the SRM is considerably higher than that of equivalent d.c. or induction motors. In addition, because of the simple construction, the SRM is cheaper. By virtue of these advantages of the SRM, the proposed system has higher efficiency and lower cost compared with other systems. A design example is studied in detail to explore the advantages of PV pumping systems based on this new drive. It is found that the operating efficiency of the motor is about 85% during most of its working time. The matching efficiency between the PV array and the proposed system approaches 95%. The major part of the losses takes place in the pump and the riser pipes; this loss represents one-third of the total available energy.

  8. Simplified Evaluation Method of Drive Characteristics for Computer-Aided Design of Switched Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yoshiaki; Fubuki, Shingo; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    Since Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM) have simple and rugged construction, they are suitable for low-cost variable speed drives in many industrial applications. However, it is rather difficult to design the motor and to predict the drive performance because of high magnetic non-linearity of the motors. Although FEM is useful for the SRM design, one of disadvantages is a long computation time. This paper proposes a simplified and fast evaluation method of the drive characteristics of SRM whose dimensions are given. The proposed method is composed of an analytical expression of magnetizing curvebased modeling approach and a simple non-linear magnetic analysis. At first, the comparative studies using 12/8 SRM show that the calculated current waveform and stiffness characteristic of the proposed modeling approach are in good agreement with those of experiment. Secondly, it is shown that the proposed magnetic analysis provides accurate and extremely fast magnetizing curves computation for the given motor dimensions compared to 3D-FEM. From the standpoints of analytical accuracy and the required computation time, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the comparisons with 3D-FEM using two SRMs with different specifications.

  9. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.H.; Vallese, F.J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. This model agrees favorably with data available in the literature as well as experimental results presented in this thesis. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output. The corresponding inverter was designed with only three high-power switches so as to reduce its cost.

  10. From Persuasion to Coercion: Responding to the Reluctant Patient in Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynley; Delany, Clare

    2016-08-01

    Early mobilization of patients while in hospital has been demonstrated to provide better outcomes for patients and use fewer resources. Physical therapy-based rehabilitation is central to achieving those goals. Successful rehabilitation requires that patient's and therapist's goals align, and this is commonly the case. However, occasionally, physical therapists will come across patients who are competent but reluctant to mobilize. This situation leaves the physical therapist in an ethical quandary: either accept the patient's right to refuse proposed treatment or utilize other strategies to encourage the patient to adhere to treatment. Practically, physical therapists will use a range of treatment pressures, including persuasion, offering incentives, inducements, possibly threatening or coercing, and even explicitly overriding the patient's wishes (compulsion). Deciding which treatment pressure is ethically acceptable involves the physical therapist balancing his or her therapeutic view of what is in a patient's best interests against the therapist's ethical responsibility to respect patient autonomy. This article evaluates some common strategies used by physical therapists to influence, persuade, or perhaps pressure patients to adhere to rehabilitation. The work of Szmukler and Appelbaum is utilized in analyzing treatment pressures. The authors conclude that there is a spectrum of treatment pressures, with some (persuasion and incentives) being more acceptable than others (threats and compulsion). As physical therapists balance health system pressures for rapid turnover of beds with obligations to benefit patients within limited reimbursement models, while respecting the patients' autonomy, they must be mindful of the effects of treatment pressure on patient care. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales.

  12. Air Bearings Machined On Ultra Precision, Hydrostatic CNC-Lathe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knol, Pierre H.; Szepesi, Denis; Deurwaarder, Jan M.

    1987-01-01

    Micromachining of precision elements requires an adequate machine concept to meet the high demand of surface finish, dimensional and shape accuracy. The Hembrug ultra precision lathes have been exclusively designed with hydrostatic principles for main spindle and guideways. This concept is to be explained with some major advantages of hydrostatics compared with aerostatics at universal micromachining applications. Hembrug has originally developed the conventional Mikroturn ultra precision facing lathes, for diamond turning of computer memory discs. This first generation of machines was followed by the advanced computer numerically controlled types for machining of complex precision workpieces. One of these parts, an aerostatic bearing component has been succesfully machined on the Super-Mikroturn CNC. A case study of airbearing machining confirms the statement that a good result of the micromachining does not depend on machine performance alone, but also on the technology applied.

  13. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  14. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  15. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  16. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  17. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  18. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  19. Machining lead wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Recently, MEC-6 machined some 4-inch-diameter lead wafers to precision tolerances. The tolerance on the wafer thickness was +-0.000080 inch. A diamond tool was used to machine the wafers on a Moore No. 3 lathe. This report discusses the methods used to machine the wafers, the fixtures used to hold the wafers, and the inspection methods and results.

  20. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  1. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  2. NuFact'03 machine working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    T.R. Edgecock; S. Machida; R.A. Rimmer

    2004-10-01

    The machine working group sessions at NuFact workshops have always been characterized by the presentation and discussion of both new ideas and the developments in existing concepts and by lively debate. The machine sessions at NuFact'03 were no exception to this. In this article, we will try and summarize the work presented and the discussion that took place.

  3. Computer Programmed Milling Machine Operations. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Dennis

    This learning module for a high school metals and manufacturing course is designed to introduce the concept of computer-assisted machining (CAM). Through it, students learn how to set up and put data into the controller to machine a part. They also become familiar with computer-aided manufacturing and learn the advantages of computer numerical…

  4. Development of synchronous machines with HTS rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Frank, M.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    Optimized design of synchronous machines can be achieved by use of HTS tape conductors. The introduction of an iron-free air-core stator winding and replacement of the rotor's copper windings by Bi-2223 tapes allows to develop very compact HTS machines with less than half the weight and volume, higher efficiency and excellent operational behavior compared to conventional devices. In consequence these rotating machines with HTS rotors become very attractive for ship drives, power generation and industrial applications. A 400 kW synchronous HTS machine was designed, manufactured and tested at Siemens. Main goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. Development of a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is currently under way.

  5. Motivation, masochism, and slot machine gambling.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David V

    2015-03-01

    In the interaction between the rapidly proliferating slot gambling machines and Americans' minds and brains, there are subtle lures that keep people playing, and that even the game devisers do not fully understand. As they project onto the random machines, people enter a zone that resembles a meditative trance I have called praying to the god of chance. Masochism as it applies to gambling is a dynamic concept that requires the suffering to be viewed by imagined and projected parental imagos, who reward the gambler with love if not gambling success. Other motivations are evident in slot machine players, such as grief gambling and a fantasy of controlling losses. While gambling is as universal as religious instincts, state sponsorship of machine gambling is a conflict of interest for government, which is established to promote the general welfare, not addict the citizenry to raise revenues.

  6. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  7. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  8. Designing Educational Social Machines for Effective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee-King, Matthew; Krivenski, Maria; Brenton, Harry; Grimalt-Reynes, Andreu; d'Inverno, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We report on our development of an educational social machine based on the concept that feedback in communities is an effective means to support the development of communities of learning and practice. Key challenges faced by this work are how best to support educational and social interactions, how to deliver personalised tuition, and how to…

  9. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  10. Quantum machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-01

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  11. Quantum machine learning.

    PubMed

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  12. From dictatorship to a reluctant democracy: stroke therapists talking about self-management

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Self-management is being increasingly promoted within chronic conditions including stroke. Concerns have been raised regarding professional ownership of some programmes, yet little is known of the professional’s experience. This paper aims to present the views of trained therapists about the utility of a specific self-management approach in stroke rehabilitation. Method Eleven stroke therapists trained in the self-management approach participated in semi-structured interviews. These were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Two overriding themes emerged. The first was the sense that in normal practice therapists act as “benign dictators”, committed to help their patients, but most comfortable when they, the professional, are in control. Following the adoption of the self-management approach therapists challenged themselves to empower stroke survivors to take control of their own recovery. However, therapists had to confront many internal and external challenges in this transition of power resulting in the promotion of a somewhat “reluctant democracy”. Conclusions This study illustrates that stroke therapists desire a more participatory approach to rehabilitation. However, obstacles challenged the successful delivery of this goal. If self-management is an appropriate model to develop in post stroke pathways, then serious consideration must be given to how and if these obstacles can be overcome. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke therapists perceive that self-management is appropriate for encouraging ownership of rehabilitation post stroke. Numerous obstacles were identified as challenging the implementation of self-management post stroke. These included: professional models, practices and expectations; institutional demands and perceived wishes of stroke survivors. For self-management to be effectively implemented by stroke therapists, these obstacles must be considered and overcome. This should be as part of

  13. A Experimental Investigation and Optimization of a Variable Reluctance Spherical Motor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Ronald B.

    1992-01-01

    In robotic wrist applications, a three degree -of-freedom variable reluctance (VR) spherical motor offers advantages over conventional mechanisms which includes its compact size, the potential of no singularities in its workspace except at its boundaries, and continuous three dimensional motion with uniform resolution. Although the principle of a VR spherical motor has been demonstrated, the modeling techniques remained to be verified. Therefore, this research investigated and further developed the magnetic modeling techniques essential to the design and control law development of a VR spherical motor. A nonlinear magnetic circuit model is presented which is composed of linear (airgap) permeance elements and nonlinear (iron) permeance elements. The model reduces the complex field distribution of the spherical motor magnetic system governed by Maxwell's equations to a tractable magnetic model. A torque prediction model is presented which determines the torque generated by the spherical motor for a given set of input currents to the coils. An experimental airgap permeance function was determined from a VR spherical motor experimental testbed utilizing the linear magnetic circuit model. The permeance function showed good agreement with the theoretical overlapping area permeance model for small pole separation angles. Flux density levels were estimated in iron "choke" points and saturation was successfully predicted. Inclusion of the iron permeance in noncritical motor iron regions improved torque predictions under saturated conditions. Finally, a methodology for optimizing the VR spherical motor's magnetics is presented. The formulation focused on the derivation of inequalities governing geometry, thermal, amplifier, saturation, and leakage flux. An example problem is presented where the motor's geometry is determined by maximizing the output torque at one rotor orientation subject to constraints. The resulting analysis provides experimental verification of modeling

  14. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  15. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  16. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  17. Foundations of support constraint machines.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Giorgio; Gori, Marco; Melacci, Stefano; Sanguineti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The mathematical foundations of a new theory for the design of intelligent agents are presented. The proposed learning paradigm is centered around the concept of constraint, representing the interactions with the environment, and the parsimony principle. The classical regularization framework of kernel machines is naturally extended to the case in which the agents interact with a richer environment, where abstract granules of knowledge, compactly described by different linguistic formalisms, can be translated into the unified notion of constraint for defining the hypothesis set. Constrained variational calculus is exploited to derive general representation theorems that provide a description of the optimal body of the agent (i.e., the functional structure of the optimal solution to the learning problem), which is the basis for devising new learning algorithms. We show that regardless of the kind of constraints, the optimal body of the agent is a support constraint machine (SCM) based on representer theorems that extend classical results for kernel machines and provide new representations. In a sense, the expressiveness of constraints yields a semantic-based regularization theory, which strongly restricts the hypothesis set of classical regularization. Some guidelines to unify continuous and discrete computational mechanisms are given so as to accommodate in the same framework various kinds of stimuli, for example, supervised examples and logic predicates. The proposed view of learning from constraints incorporates classical learning from examples and extends naturally to the case in which the examples are subsets of the input space, which is related to learning propositional logic clauses.

  18. Modification of Upper Thread Tensioner of Sewing Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klouček, P.; Škop, P.

    Standard mechanical upper thread tensioner of sewing machines is more and more limited in use for industrial sewing machines due to increasing requests for quality and raising velocity of machines. If we omit mostly manual settings of force made only by sense, the most problematic things are influence of different friction coefficient of the different batch of threads and strong relation between thread tension and sewing machine velocity. The article describes the development focused to the elimination of the most significant disadvantages of a standard tensioner and mainly finding of new conception of the tensioner with electromagnetic brake, development and testing of its prototype.

  19. Simple Machines. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In today's world, kids are aware that there are machines all around them. What they may not realize is that the function of all machines is to make work easier in some way. Simple Machines uses engaging visuals and colorful graphics to explain the concept of work and how humans use certain basic tools to help get work done. Students will learn…

  20. All about Simple Machines. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    All kids know the word "work." But they probably don't understand that work happens whenever a force is used to move something--whether it's lifting a heavy object or playing on a see-saw. All About Simple Machines introduces kids to the concepts of forces, work and how machines are used to make work easier. Six simple machines are…

  1. Plug Into "The Modernizing Machine"! Danish University Reform and Its Transformable Academic Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John Benedicto

    2013-01-01

    "The modernizing machine" codes individual bodies, things, and symbols with images from New Public Management, neo-liberal, and Knowledge Economy discourses. Drawing on Deleuze and Guattari's concept of machines, this article explores how "the modernizing machine" produces neo-liberal modernization of the public sector. Taking…

  2. All about Simple Machines. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    All kids know the word "work." But they probably don't understand that work happens whenever a force is used to move something--whether it's lifting a heavy object or playing on a see-saw. All About Simple Machines introduces kids to the concepts of forces, work and how machines are used to make work easier. Six simple machines are…

  3. Simple Machines. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In today's world, kids are aware that there are machines all around them. What they may not realize is that the function of all machines is to make work easier in some way. Simple Machines uses engaging visuals and colorful graphics to explain the concept of work and how humans use certain basic tools to help get work done. Students will learn…

  4. Plug Into "The Modernizing Machine"! Danish University Reform and Its Transformable Academic Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John Benedicto

    2013-01-01

    "The modernizing machine" codes individual bodies, things, and symbols with images from New Public Management, neo-liberal, and Knowledge Economy discourses. Drawing on Deleuze and Guattari's concept of machines, this article explores how "the modernizing machine" produces neo-liberal modernization of the public sector. Taking…

  5. Prediction and measurement of heat transfer in a switched reluctance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himes, Marvin Eugene, Jr.

    This research is an experimental investigation of the convective film coefficients on the unique pole faces of a high speed rotor operating within a generator. The specific geometry studied is that of a switched reluctance generator under development by the United States Air Force for use on jet aircraft as an integrated power unit (IPU) to provide auxiliary and emergency power to the aircraft's electrical system. The generator consists of a four pole rotor, nominally 4.30 inches in diameter, housed within a stator assembly. The clearance gap between the rotor pole tip and the stator wall is nominally 0.020 inches. The rotor is designed to rotate at 55,000 rpm. Rotor cooling is achieved by convection to air flowing axially through the rotor cavities. The convective film coefficient for each unique pole face, as well as an overall film coefficient for the four pole faces are inferred from the rate at which insulated test rates cool when subjected to various rates of rotor rotational speed and axial airflows. The high velocity of the rotor tips in close proximity to the stator wall results in aerodynamic heating of the air in the gap region. Convective film coefficients associated with high speed flow must be referenced to the adiabatic wall temperature to account for the effects of viscous heating. An estimate of the adiabatic wall temperature in the rotor gap region is developed analytically starting with the fundamental case of high-speed, wall-driven flow. These analytical results for wall-driven flow are verified experimentally using a smooth poled rotor. The analytically predicted film coefficients are within 10% of the experimental results. Experiments are conducted for rotor speeds ranging from 5,000 to 30,000 rpm and axial airflows ranging from 0.036 to 0.073 kg/s (0.08 to 0.16 lbm/s). The convective film coefficients for each pole face as well as average values representing heat loss from the combined faces are presented in terms of Stanton and Nusselt

  6. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  7. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  8. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  9. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  10. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  11. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  12. Machine listening intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  13. Progress in machine consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

  14. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  15. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  16. Modernization of machines laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mako, T.J.; Kasten, D.; Kent, J.C.; Turner, S.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Ohio State University has maintained an undergraduate machinery laboratory using 10 to 15 hp AC and DC machines. a recent gift from the American Electric Power Service Corporation is being used to modernize the laboratory. This modernization includes the electrical and mechanical refurbishment of the 10 to 15 hp machines, the development of a computerized data acquisition system, and the specification and purchase of a three-machine (1 to 2 hp) table-top unit with variable speed drives. This paper will present information about the computerized data acquisition system and how it is being used by the students to investigate machine characteristics.

  17. Differential Occurrence of Reluctant Openings in G-Protein–Inhibited N- and P/Q-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Colecraft, Henry M.; Patil, Parag G.; Yue, David T.

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent inhibition of N- and P/Q-type calcium channels by G proteins is crucial for presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release, and may contribute importantly to short-term synaptic plasticity. Such calcium-channel modulation could thereby impact significantly the neuro-computational repertoire of neural networks. The differential modulation of N and P/Q channels could even further enrich their impact upon synaptic tuning. Here, we performed in-depth comparison of the G-protein inhibition of recombinant N and P/Q channels, expressed in HEK 293 cells with the m2 muscarinic receptor. While both channel types display classic features of G-protein modulation (kinetic slowing of activation, prepulse facilitation, and voltage dependence of inhibition), we confirmed previously reported quantitative differences, with N channels displaying stronger inhibition and greater relief of inhibition by prepulses. A more fundamental, qualitative difference in the modulation of these two channels was revealed by a modified tail-activation paradigm, as well as by a novel “slope” analysis method comparing time courses of slow activation and prepulse facilitation. The stark contrast in modulatory behavior can be understood within the context of the “willing–reluctant” model, in which binding of G-protein βγ subunits to channels induces a reluctant mode of gating, where stronger depolarization is required for opening. Our experiments suggest that only N channels could be opened in the reluctant mode, at voltages normally spanned by neuronal action potentials. By contrast, P/Q channels appear to remain closed, especially over these physiological voltages. Further, the differential occurrence of reluctant openings is not explained by differences in the rate of G-protein unbinding from the two channels. These two scenarios predict very different effects of G-protein inhibition on the waveform of Ca2+ entry during action potentials, with potentially important

  18. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  19. An approach to selecting the optimal sensing coil configuration structure for switched reluctance motor rotor position measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Deng, Zhiquan

    2015-02-01

    Accurate rotor position signal is highly required for controlling the switched reluctance motor (SRM). The use of galvanic isolated sensing coils can provide independent circuit for position estimation without affecting the SRM actuation. However, the cross-coupling between main winding and sensing coil, and the mutual coupling between adjacent phase sensing coils may affect the position estimation performance seriously. In this paper, three sensing coil configurations in a 12/8 structure SRM are analyzed and compared for selecting an optimal configuration that can effectively minimize the bad effects of the cross-coupling factors. The finite element analysis and experimental results are provided for verification.

  20. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  1. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  2. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Layton Carter

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  3. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  4. Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.

  5. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. The Application of Machine Learning to Student Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, John

    1986-01-01

    Considers possibility of developing a computer tutor around an explicit concept-learning theory derived from machine learning techniques. Some problems with using the focusing (and similar) algorithms in this role are discussed and possible solutions are developed. Design for a guided discovery learning system for tutoring concepts is proposed.…

  9. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  10. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  11. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  12. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  13. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  14. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  15. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  16. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  17. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  18. The Hooey Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  19. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  20. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  1. Biological Molecular Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Michał

    2007-11-01

    Like small molecules taking part in usual chemical reactions, biological molecular machines perform their functions owing to thermal fluctuations and the only difference consists in more complex and specially organized internal dynamics. It is this dynamics that determines processes of free energy transduction in molecular machines. The case of the actomyosin motor is considered in some detail.

  2. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  3. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  4. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  5. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  6. Machine tool evaluation and machining operation development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.; Kegg, R.

    1997-03-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to support Cincinnati Milacron`s needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and Cincinnati Milacron personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. Process characterization, control technologies, machine tool capabilities, and environmental issues were the primary focus areas. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise in machine tool testing and monitoring, and environmental testing on machining fluids to the defined tasks while Cincinnati Milacron personnel provided equipment, operations-specific knowledge and shop-floor services to each task. Cincinnati Milacron was very pleased with the results of all of the CRADA tasks. However, some of the environmental tasks were not carried through to a desired completion due to an expanding realization of need as the work progressed. This expansion of the desired goals then exceeded the time length of the CRADA. Discussions are underway on continuing these tasks under either a Work for Others agreement or some alternate funding.

  7. Measurement method for determining the magnetic hysteresis effects of reluctance actuators by evaluation of the force and flux variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijsen, N. H.; Jansen, J. W.; Compter, J. C.; Lomonova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    A measurement method is presented which identifies the magnetic hysteresis effects present in the force of linear reluctance actuators. The measurement method is applied to determine the magnetic hysteresis in the force of an E-core reluctance actuator, with and without pre-biasing permanent magnet. The force measurements are conducted with a piezoelectric load cell (Kistler type 9272). This high-bandwidth force measurement instrument is identified in the frequency domain using a voice-coil actuator that has negligible magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents. Specifically, the phase delay between the current and force of the voice-coil actuator is used for the calibration of the measurement instrument. This phase delay is also obtained by evaluation of the measured force and flux variation in the E-core actuator, both with and without permanent magnet on the middle tooth. The measured magnetic flux variation is used to distinguish the phase delay due to magnetic hysteresis from the measured phase delay between the current and the force of the E-core actuator. Finally, an open loop steady-state ac model is presented that predicts the magnetic hysteresis effects in the force of the E-core actuator.

  8. Measurement method for determining the magnetic hysteresis effects of reluctance actuators by evaluation of the force and flux variation.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, N H; Jansen, J W; Compter, J C; Lomonova, E A

    2013-07-01

    A measurement method is presented which identifies the magnetic hysteresis effects present in the force of linear reluctance actuators. The measurement method is applied to determine the magnetic hysteresis in the force of an E-core reluctance actuator, with and without pre-biasing permanent magnet. The force measurements are conducted with a piezoelectric load cell (Kistler type 9272). This high-bandwidth force measurement instrument is identified in the frequency domain using a voice-coil actuator that has negligible magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents. Specifically, the phase delay between the current and force of the voice-coil actuator is used for the calibration of the measurement instrument. This phase delay is also obtained by evaluation of the measured force and flux variation in the E-core actuator, both with and without permanent magnet on the middle tooth. The measured magnetic flux variation is used to distinguish the phase delay due to magnetic hysteresis from the measured phase delay between the current and the force of the E-core actuator. Finally, an open loop steady-state ac model is presented that predicts the magnetic hysteresis effects in the force of the E-core actuator.

  9. Simulink(Trademark) Controller for a Reluctance Motor With a Four-Pole Rotor and 36-Tooth Stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Simulink(Trademark) controller logic for driving a room temperature, 36-teeth stator, four-pole rotor reluctance motor. The Simulink logic was extracted from an existing C++ motor controller that was previously employed to achieve a rotor speed of 3000 rpm. The Simulink controller has additional logic refinements that were not available in past C++ controller, such as the per rev logic component and its frequency filter. The filter provides a more accurate reading of the rotor input signals. The controller is versatile, and with slight modifications, can be used to drive other reluctance motor types incorporating dissimilar stator rotor pole combinations. The original C++ controller was designed with the goal (after appropriate modification) of controlling a future superconducting motor. This superconducting motor will be employed as a test bed for developing other superconducting aviation propulsion motors envisioned for future turbo-electric aircrafts. The Simulink results presented in this paper were generated from simulated rotor inputs. However, in an actual application, these simulated inputs are to be replaced by actual proximity probe signals emanating from D-Space hardware inputs.

  10. Why are some HIV/AIDS patients reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible in China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-06-01

    In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient's reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient's mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  12. The Artist Can't Escape: The Artist as (Reluctant) Public Pedagogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caris, Arthur; Cowell, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how artists may recognise art as a public pedagogy whilst staying detached from the role of teacher in the traditional sense. We report on three art practices of citizens engaging in "situation art" to support and illustrate a few theoretical concepts derived from Biesta's theory of public pedagogy.…

  13. The Artist Can't Escape: The Artist as (Reluctant) Public Pedagogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caris, Arthur; Cowell, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how artists may recognise art as a public pedagogy whilst staying detached from the role of teacher in the traditional sense. We report on three art practices of citizens engaging in "situation art" to support and illustrate a few theoretical concepts derived from Biesta's theory of public pedagogy.…

  14. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  15. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  16. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  17. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  18. Inferring Mealy Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, Muzammil; Groz, Roland

    Automata learning techniques are getting significant importance for their applications in a wide variety of software engineering problems, especially in the analysis and testing of complex systems. In recent studies, a previous learning approach [1] has been extended to synthesize Mealy machine models which are specifically tailored for I/O based systems. In this paper, we discuss the inference of Mealy machines and propose improvements that reduces the worst-time learning complexity of the existing algorithm. The gain over the complexity of the proposed algorithm has also been confirmed by experimentation on a large set of finite state machines.

  19. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  20. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  1. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  2. [Concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The concept represents a fundamental element within a discipline. It is therefore essential to have specific, operational definitions of concepts for all areas of activity in nursing care. The concept analysis methodology is a rigorous way of ensuring this objective is achieved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. Machine learning in motion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  5. Machine learning in motion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  6. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  7. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  8. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  9. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  10. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  11. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  12. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  13. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  14. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  15. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  16. The Mind and the Machine. On the Conceptual and Moral Implications of Brain-Machine Interaction.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Maartje

    2009-12-01

    Brain-machine interfaces are a growing field of research and application. The increasing possibilities to connect the human brain to electronic devices and computer software can be put to use in medicine, the military, and entertainment. Concrete technologies include cochlear implants, Deep Brain Stimulation, neurofeedback and neuroprosthesis. The expectations for the near and further future are high, though it is difficult to separate hope from hype. The focus in this paper is on the effects that these new technologies may have on our 'symbolic order'-on the ways in which popular categories and concepts may change or be reinterpreted. First, the blurring distinction between man and machine and the idea of the cyborg are discussed. It is argued that the morally relevant difference is that between persons and non-persons, which does not necessarily coincide with the distinction between man and machine. The concept of the person remains useful. It may, however, become more difficult to assess the limits of the human body. Next, the distinction between body and mind is discussed. The mind is increasingly seen as a function of the brain, and thus understood in bodily and mechanical terms. This raises questions concerning concepts of free will and moral responsibility that may have far reaching consequences in the field of law, where some have argued for a revision of our criminal justice system, from retributivist to consequentialist. Even without such a (unlikely and unwarranted) revision occurring, brain-machine interactions raise many interesting questions regarding distribution and attribution of responsibility.

  17. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  18. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  19. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  20. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  1. Light-operated machines based on threaded molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Credi, Alberto; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Rotaxanes and related species represent the most common implementation of the concept of artificial molecular machines, because the supramolecular nature of the interactions between the components and their interlocked architecture allow a precise control on the position and movement of the molecular units. The use of light to power artificial molecular machines is particularly valuable because it can play the dual role of "writing" and "reading" the system. Moreover, light-driven machines can operate without accumulation of waste products, and photons are the ideal inputs to enable autonomous operation mechanisms. In appropriately designed molecular machines, light can be used to control not only the stability of the system, which affects the relative position of the molecular components but also the kinetics of the mechanical processes, thereby enabling control on the direction of the movements. This step forward is necessary in order to make a leap from molecular machines to molecular motors.

  2. Machine Learning Assessments of Soil Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Wenzel, C.; Gilmore, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural activities require the use of heavy equipment and vehicles on unpaved farmlands. When soil conditions are wet, equipment can cause substantial damage, leaving deep ruts. In extreme cases, implements can sink and become mired, causing considerable delays and expense to extricate the equipment. Farm managers, who are often located remotely, cannot assess sites before allocating equipment, causing considerable difficulty in reliably assessing conditions of countless sites with any reliability and frequency. For example, farmers often trace serpentine paths of over one hundred miles each day to assess the overall status of various tracts of land spanning thirty, forty, or fifty miles in each direction. One means of assessing the moisture content of a field lies in the strategic positioning of remotely-monitored in situ sensors. Unfortunately, land owners are often reluctant to place sensors across their properties due to the significant monetary cost and complexity. This work aspires to overcome these limitations by modeling the process of wetting and drying statistically - remotely assessing field readiness using only information that is publically accessible. Such data includes Nexrad radar and state climate network sensors, as well as Twitter-based reports of field conditions for validation. Three algorithms, classification trees, k-nearest-neighbors, and boosted perceptrons are deployed to deliver statistical field readiness assessments of an agricultural site located in Urbana, IL. Two of the three algorithms performed with 92-94% accuracy, with the majority of misclassifications falling within the calculated margins of error. This demonstrates the feasibility of using a machine learning framework with only public data, knowledge of system memory from previous conditions, and statistical tools to assess "readiness" without the need for real-time, on-site physical observation. Future efforts will produce a workflow assimilating Nexrad, climate network

  3. [End-of-life decisions and reluctant treatment of newborns on the borderline of viability in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2005-09-10

    End-of-life decisions are taken in the majority of deaths below one year of age, especially in neonatal intensive-care units. In the Netherlands, the frequency of such decisions has not increased in recent years. Intentional termination of life occurred in 1% of the deaths, which would be about 10 cases each year. However, only 3 such cases are reported to the public prosecutor for review by the responsible physician. Proposals from the government to facilitate reporting of such cases are awaited. Dutch neonatologists are reluctant to administer full neonatal intensive care to extremely preterm infants. Currently, the policy regarding antenatal referral and treatment of extremely preterm infants is being re-evaluated by obstetricians and neonatologists. Behind the stable frequency of end-of-life decisions, difficult ethical issues remain to be solved.

  4. Community mental health provider reluctance to provide pharmacotherapy may be a barrier to addressing perinatal depression: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Byatt, Nancy; Biebel, Kathleen; Debordes-Jackson, Gifty; Lundquist, Rebecca S; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Weinreb, Linda; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2013-06-01

    This is the first study evaluating obstetrics and gynecology (OB/Gyn) provider and staff perceptions of barriers to accessing pharmacotherapy for perinatal depression outside the obstetric setting. Four, 90 min focus groups were conducted with OB/Gyn physicians, advance practice nurses, and support and nursing staff (n = 28). Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. Participants perceived that community mental health providers and pharmacists often do not want to participate in pharmacotherapy for perinatal women. Participants believed the solution is training for community mental health providers in the risks and benefits of pharmacotherapy for perinatal depression and improved communication between OB/Gyn's and community mental health providers. Community mental health provider and pharmacist reluctance to provide pharmacotherapy hinders OB/Gyn's perceived ability to address perinatal depression. Community mental health provider and pharmacist training are needed to mitigate precipitous discontinuation of treatment and to improve access to pharmacotherapy for perinatal women.

  5. Rosacea Fulminans Precipitated by Acute Stress: A Case Report Describing an Integrative Approach for a Patient Reluctant to Use Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Veerkamp, Patrick; Mousdicas, Nico; Bednarek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Context Rosacea fulminans is a rare skin disorder with a multifactorial etiology. Stress is one of the common precipitating factors of this condition but is not often targeted in treatment. Isotretinoin is considered part of the first-line therapy for this condition but, in cases where its use is restricted, other therapeutic interventions as part of an integrative approach may be effective. Patient Concerns A 38-y-old female presented with rosacea fulminans brought on by an acutely stressful event. After multiple failed therapies, she experienced resolution of her symptoms with a combination of systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, diet modification, and stress reduction, with the treatment of stress playing a significant role. Conclusions Stress management and diet modification are key adjunctive therapies in the treatment of rosacea fulminans and need to be addressed more often in treatment. In cases where patients are reluctant or unable to take isotretinoin, an integrative approach may be effective in achieving symptomatic improvement. PMID:28223895

  6. A New Approach to Nuclear Power The Multi-Module Reactor (MMR) Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Milton E.

    2002-07-01

    While fuel cost for nuclear power is incredibly low relative to fossil fuel, the capital investment needed to build today's nuclear power plant is substantial. Utilities are reluctant to build new nuclear power plants because of the long construction time and the associated uncertainty of investment recovery. This paper introduces a new modular reactor concept, the Multi-Module Reactor (MMR), that reduces both the construction cost and time in an attempt to renew commercial interest in nuclear power. (authors)

  7. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  8. Implementing Machine Learning in Radiology Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Marc; Prevedello, Luciano M; Filice, Ross W; Geis, J Raymond

    2017-04-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe concepts that radiologists should understand to evaluate machine learning projects, including common algorithms, supervised as opposed to unsupervised techniques, statistical pitfalls, and data considerations for training and evaluation, and to briefly describe ethical dilemmas and legal risk. Machine learning includes a broad class of computer programs that improve with experience. The complexity of creating, training, and monitoring machine learning indicates that the success of the algorithms will require radiologist involvement for years to come, leading to engagement rather than replacement.

  9. A novel approach to controlling the phase angle of a variable switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle propulsion using the statistic matrix norm

    SciTech Connect

    Holling, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    Variable switched reluctance (VSR) motors are gaining importance for industrial applications. The paper will introduce a novel approach to simplify the computation involved in the control of VSR motors. Results are shown, that validate the approach and demonstrates the superior performance compared to tabulated control parameters with linear interpolation, which are widely used in implementations.

  10. A College Professor as a Reluctant Learner: Facing Up to the Learning Disabled. Alternative Techniques for Teaching English Composition to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herum, John

    A college professor of English involved with the HELDS project, Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students, describes his own reluctance in accommodating learning disabled students in his classroom. He mentions his discovery that some students have difficulty in dealing with conventional print in textbooks, and that typographic changes and…

  11. Building a Case for the Teaching Library: Using a Culture of Assessment to Reassure Converted Campus Partners while Persuading the Reluctant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Randall; Mashek, Kimberly Babcock

    2007-01-01

    The use of rigorous assessment in an Information Literacy program can be used to persuade reluctant faculty and administrators to buy into a program. A "culture of assessment" also assures quality control for internal and external audiences. Information Literacy at Wartburg College is unique in that it is a required component of five…

  12. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  13. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  14. Development of Preschoolers' Learning, Retention, and Generalization of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith A.; Perlmutter, Marion

    This study, which indicates that both age and variation in training affect children's concept formation, provides a basis for explaining the effect of age. Sixty-four 4- and 5-year-olds learned three novel concepts (animal-like, plant-like, and machine-like). Subjects were presented with either four different examples of each concept (multiple…

  15. Brown coal preparation machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

    1981-05-01

    Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

  16. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  17. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  18. "They take care of their own": healthcare professionals' constructions of Sami persons with dementia and their families' reluctance to seek and accept help through attributions to multiple contexts.

    PubMed

    Blix, Bodil Hansen; Hamran, Torunn

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian government white papers have stated that the Sami population is reluctant to seek help from healthcare services and has traditions of self-help and the use of local networks. In this article we explore healthcare professionals' discursive constructions of Sami persons with dementia and their families' reluctance to seek and accept help from healthcare services. The article is based on an analysis of focus group interviews with healthcare professionals (n = 18) in four municipalities in Northern Norway with multiethnic populations. A narrative context analysis, which involved an examination of sequences of discourse, was employed. Reluctance to seek and accept help among Sami service users and assumptions about self-support were recurring themes in the focus groups. The reluctance was attributed to macro contexts, such as socio-historical processes and cultural norms, and to micro contexts, such as individual and interpersonal factors including the healthcare professionals' cultural backgrounds and language competence. The healthcare professionals' positioning as insiders or outsiders (Sami or non-Sami) affected their attributions. Local healthcare professionals are at the front line for providing and assessing service users' needs for healthcare services. Consequently, their perceptions of service users' needs are pivotal for achieving equity in healthcare. The established opinion that Sami "take care of their own" and are reluctant to seek and accept help may lead to omissions or neglect. Healthcare professionals' awareness about how present encounters in healthcare settings are framed and shaped by the service users' previous and prevailing experiences of marginalisation and subordination is crucial to avoid omissions or neglect resulting from assumptions about cultural preferences. Discursively shaped boundaries and differences between groups may create the impression that the distance between the groups is too wide to traverse, which in turn may

  19. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  20. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  1. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  2. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

  3. Refrigerating machine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  4. Intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  5. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  6. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  7. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  8. Machining in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Graylan

    2003-01-01

    A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

  9. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  10. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  11. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  15. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  16. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  17. Machine Parts as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gerald

    The connection between Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and literature is discussed with examples of technical vocabulary drawn from a variety of writers, with particular attention to a sketch by the British dramatist Harold Pinter, "Trouble in the Works," which makes extensive use of the terminology of machine parts. It is noted…

  18. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  19. History of wood machining

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  20. Copy Machine Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Images created with copy machines make children feel successful, as their work acquires the authority of being printed. Students can learn advanced processes like electrostatic image-making and can get involved in projects like making collages. They acquire an appreciation of design and of two-dimensional composition. (CS)

  1. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  2. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  3. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  4. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  5. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  6. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  7. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  8. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  9. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  10. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  11. THE COMPUTER CONCEPT OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILBERMAN, HARRY F.

    THE COMPUTER SYSTEM CONCEPT WILL BE DEVELOPED IN TWO WAYS--FIRST, A DESCRIPTION WILL BE MADE OF THE SMALL COMPUTER-BASED TEACHING MACHINE WHICH IS BEING USED AS A RESEARCH TOOL, SECOND, A DESCRIPTION WILL BE MADE OF THE LARGE COMPUTER LABORATORY FOR AUTOMATED SCHOOL SYSTEMS WHICH ARE BEING DEVELOPED. THE FIRST MACHINE CONSISTS OF THREE ELEMENTS--…

  12. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Deployment of human-machine dialogue systems.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, D B

    1995-01-01

    The deployment of systems for human-to-machine communication by voice requires overcoming a variety of obstacles that affect the speech-processing technologies. Problems encountered in the field might include variation in speaking style, acoustic noise, ambiguity of language, or confusion on the part of the speaker. The diversity of these practical problems encountered in the "real world" leads to the perceived gap between laboratory and "real-world" performance. To answer the question "What applications can speech technology support today?" the concept of the "degree of difficulty" of an application is introduced. The degree of difficulty depends not only on the demands placed on the speech recognition and speech synthesis technologies but also on the expectations of the user of the system. Experience has shown that deployment of effective speech communication systems requires an iterative process. This paper discusses general deployment principles, which are illustrated by several examples of human-machine communication systems. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479719

  14. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  15. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  17. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  18. Machines and cutters: VersaVIT - potential and perspectives of office-based vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Kawakami-Campos, P Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    The concept of office-based vitrectomy has been a topic for several years; however, the large size of the vitrectomy machines has limited the options for many years. Today, though, smaller machines can offer adequate performance regarding vitrectomy. As a result, we can now make more arguments for this type of surgery to be performed in the office environment, despite the limitations these machines may still have.

  19. The Security of Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-24

    Machine learning has become a fundamental tool for computer security, since it can rapidly evolve to changing and complex situations. That...adaptability is also a vulnerability: attackers can exploit machine learning systems. We present a taxonomy identifying and analyzing attacks against machine ...We use our framework to survey and analyze the literature of attacks against machine learning systems. We also illustrate our taxonomy by showing

  20. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  1. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  2. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  3. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  4. The Chainstitch Machine. Module 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the chainstitch machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the chainstitch machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and…

  5. Audio-Visual Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsett, Loyd G.

    An audiovisual teaching machine (AVTM) presents programed audio and visual material simultaneously to a student and accepts his response. If his response is correct, the machine proceeds with the lesson; if it is incorrect, the machine so indicates and permits another choice (linear) or automatically presents supplementary material (branching).…

  6. Interferometer systems in machine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzepka, Janusz; Pienkowski, Janusz; Sambor, Slawomir; Budzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-10-01

    In the report the arrangements of laser interferometers for machine history are presented; the laser interferometer LSP30 for investigation of geometry of machine tools, the setup for inspection of ball screw and laser liner for CNC machine. Outstanding feature of the interferometers is the stabilization system of laser frequency using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid cells (SSFLC).

  7. A novel concept for a combined-load test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Carl J.; Mcwithey, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    An original concept for a combined-load test machine is presented in the paper. The concept employs a circular test specimen which may be rotated with respect to the biaxially applied loads. The ability to rotate the specimen and to vary the applied loads allows for limitless combinations of in-plane normal and shear loads. The loads generated in the test section reference frame are calculated from simple Mohr's circle relationships. In this paper, the concept is evaluated for isotropic, orthotropic, and discretely stiffened panels using elasticity and finite element methods. Strengths and weaknesses of the test machine concept are also discussed and evaluated.

  8. Thyristor-based current-fed drive with direct power control for permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.; Kwak, S.-S.; Toliyat, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a robust and simple direct power control (DPC) of a thyristor-based current-fed drive for generator applications. A current-fed drive and permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator (PMa-SynRG) are investigated to deliver 3 kW power using a combustion engine. The current-fed drive utilises a thyristor-based three-phase rectifier to convert generator power to DC-link power and a single-phase current-fed inverter to supply a single-phase inductive load. In addition, a new control algorithm is developed based on DPC for the current-fed drive. The DC-link voltage-based DPC is proposed in order to directly control the output power. The goal of the DPC is to maintain the DC-link voltage at the required output power operating point. The DPC has advantages such as a simple algorithm for constant speed operation. Another feature of the developed current-fed drive is its inherent capability to provide generating action by making the PMa-SynRG operates as a generator, rectifying the phase voltages by means of the three-phase rectifier and feeding the power into the load. These features make the current-fed drive a good candidate for driving any type of synchronous generators including the proposed PMa-SynRG.

  9. Characteristic analysis of a less-rare-earth hybrid PM-assisted synchronous reluctance motor for EVs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenye; Zhu, Xiaoyong; Quan, Li; Fan, Deyang; Xiang, Zixuan

    2017-05-01

    Low-energy permanent magnet (PM) such as ferrite is usually adopted in a PM-assisted reluctance (PMAREL) motor to enhance the output torque and reduce costs. However, the relatively low magnetic energy product and remanence in such PMs may lead to the risk of demagnetization. By using two types of materials of rare-earth NdFeB and non-rare-earth ferrite PM, a new less-rare-earth hybrid PMAREL motor is proposed in this paper, where the output torque and the power factor can be improved obviously, and meanwhile the risk of irreversible demagnetization in ferrite PMs can be reduced significantly due to the existence of NdFeB PMs. To verify the validity of the proposed motor, the operating principles of the motor and the positive interaction influences between the two involved types of PMs are analyzed. Moreover, by using the finite element method, the torque characteristics and anti-demagnetization capabilities are also investigated in details. Both the theoretical analysis and simulated results confirm the advantages of the proposed motor.

  10. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Gray, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors. This is likely of particular interest to the radio astronomy community given, for example, that survey projects contain groups dedicated to this topic. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex

  11. Icebreaking Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    saws, wheel force levels for ice thrusting against an trenchers and milling drums , and also on (on- icebreaker bow. tinuous belt machines, as...34 7.9 Frankenstein, G (1965) USACRREL ice chipper CRREL Special Report 73 Large rotary- drum ice miller 70-140 048-1.0 Gifford. S.E. (1966) Ice-grading...R851, Civil Engineering Laboratory. U.S Navy Tests of special ice-, utting drum 710-860 501-59 Vaudrey, 1977 mounted on backhoe boom Tests of 457 mm

  12. Simple Machines. Third Grade. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This publication provides information and activities for teaching concepts about machines and process skills including observing, classifying, collecting and interpreting data, inferring, measuring, and predicting. There are 15 lessons. Lessons 1 through 5 deal with what machines are, measuring force with a spring scale, working with a lever,…

  13. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  14. Simple Machines. Third Grade. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This publication provides information and activities for teaching concepts about machines and process skills including observing, classifying, collecting and interpreting data, inferring, measuring, and predicting. There are 15 lessons. Lessons 1 through 5 deal with what machines are, measuring force with a spring scale, working with a lever,…

  15. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  16. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Ibrahim, Raafat; Khondoker, Noman

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s.

  17. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  18. State machine analysis of sensor data from dynamic processes

    DOEpatents

    Cook, William R.; Brabson, John M.; Deland, Sharon M.

    2003-12-23

    A state machine model analyzes sensor data from dynamic processes at a facility to identify the actual processes that were performed at the facility during a period of interest for the purpose of remote facility inspection. An inspector can further input the expected operations into the state machine model and compare the expected, or declared, processes to the actual processes to identify undeclared processes at the facility. The state machine analysis enables the generation of knowledge about the state of the facility at all levels, from location of physical objects to complex operational concepts. Therefore, the state machine method and apparatus may benefit any agency or business with sensored facilities that stores or manipulates expensive, dangerous, or controlled materials or information.

  19. Parameter Identifiability in Statistical Machine Learning: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ran, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Bao-Gang

    2017-02-09

    This review examines the relevance of parameter identifiability for statistical models used in machine learning. In addition to defining main concepts, we address several issues of identifiability closely related to machine learning, showing the advantages and disadvantages of state-of-the-art research and demonstrating recent progress. First, we review criteria for determining the parameter structure of models from the literature. This has three related issues: parameter identifiability, parameter redundancy, and reparameterization. Second, we review the deep influence of identifiability on various aspects of machine learning from theoretical and application viewpoints. In addition to illustrating the utility and influence of identifiability, we emphasize the interplay among identifiability theory, machine learning, mathematical statistics, information theory, optimization theory, information geometry, Riemann geometry, symbolic computation, Bayesian inference, algebraic geometry, and others. Finally, we present a new perspective together with the associated challenges.

  20. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved