Science.gov

Sample records for reluctance machines conception

  1. Analysis and design of asymmetrical reluctance machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harianto, Cahya A.

    Over the past few decades the induction machine has been chosen for many applications due to its structural simplicity and low manufacturing cost. However, modest torque density and control challenges have motivated researchers to find alternative machines. The permanent magnet synchronous machine has been viewed as one of the alternatives because it features higher torque density for a given loss than the induction machine. However, the assembly and permanent magnet material cost, along with safety under fault conditions, have been concerns for this class of machine. An alternative machine type, namely the asymmetrical reluctance machine, is proposed in this work. Since the proposed machine is of the reluctance machine type, it possesses desirable feature, such as near absence of rotor losses, low assembly cost, low no-load rotational losses, modest torque ripple, and rather benign fault conditions. Through theoretical analysis performed herein, it is shown that this machine has a higher torque density for a given loss than typical reluctance machines, although not as high as the permanent magnet machines. Thus, the asymmetrical reluctance machine is a viable and advantageous machine alternative where the use of permanent magnet machines are undesirable.

  2. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  3. Prediction of Radial Vibration in Switched Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2013-12-01

    Origins of vibration in switched reluctance machines (SRMs) are investigated. Accordingly, an input-output model based on the mechanical impulse response of the SRMis developed. The proposed model is derived using an experimental approach. Using the proposed approach, vibration of the stator frame is captured and experimentally verified.

  4. Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, R.H.

    2005-10-07

    In a conventional permanent magnet (PM) machine, the air-gap flux produced by the PM is fixed. It is difficult to enhance the air-gap flux density due to limitations of the PM in a series-magnetic circuit. However, the air-gap flux density can be weakened by using power electronic field weakening to the limit of demagnetization of the PMs. This paper presents the test results of controlling the PM air-gap flux density through the use of a stationary brushless excitation coil in a reluctance interior permanent magnet with brushless field excitation (RIPM-BFE) motor. Through the use of this technology the air-gap flux density can be either enhanced or weakened. There is no concern with demagnetizing the PMs during field weakening. The leakage flux of the excitation coil through the PMs is blocked. The prototype motor built on this principle confirms the concept of flux enhancement and weakening through the use of excitation coils.

  5. A non linear analytical model of switched reluctance machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiane, Y.; Tounzi, A.; Piriou, F.

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays, the switched reluctance machine are widely used. To determine their performances and to elaborate control strategy, we generally use the linear analytical model. Unhappily, this last is not very accurate. To yield accurate modelling results, we use then numerical models based on either 2D or 3D Finite Element Method. However, this approach is very expensive in terms of computation time and remains suitable to study the behaviour of eventually a whole device. However, it is not, a priori, adapted to elaborate control strategy for electrical machines. This paper deals with a non linear analytical model in terms of variable inductances. The theoretical development of the proposed model is introduced. Then, the model is applied to study the behaviour of a whole controlled switched reluctance machine. The parameters of the structure are identified from a 2D numerical model. They can also be determined from an experimental bench. Then, the results given by the proposed model are compared to those issue from the 2D-FEM approach and from the classical linear analytical model.

  6. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  7. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-05-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ϕ≥0.7 to 0.8).

  8. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    PubMed Central

    Bucak, İhsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

  9. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    PubMed

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  10. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  11. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shoujun; Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-01

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  12. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-15

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  13. Collaborative Tracking Control of Dual Linear Switched Reluctance Machines Over Communication Network With Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li; Shi, Yang; Pan, Jianfei; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Gang

    2016-10-11

    This paper investigates the collaborative tracking control for dual linear switched reluctance machines (LSRMs) over a communication network with random time delays. Considering the spatio-temporal constraint relationship of the dual LSRMs in complex industrial processes, the collaborative tracking control scheme is proposed based on the networked motion control method. The stability conditions and the controller design method for the networked dual LSRMs are obtained from the two motors relative position error by using Lyapunov theory and delay systems approach. Four different allocation schemes combined with two kinds of external control signals are applied onto the collaborative tracking control experiment platform of the dual LSRMs to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The maximum steady-state relative position error within 0.104 mm can be achieved under the constant absolute position reference input signal of 3 mm, and the maximum absolute relative position error within ±0.46 mm can be achieved under the sinusoidal reference of 8 mm amplitude and 0.2 Hz.

  14. 16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Burress, T.A.; Lee, S.T.; Wiles, R.H.; Coomer, C.L.; McKeever, J.W.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-10-31

    The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to the d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend

  15. Permanent Magnet Machine And Method With Reluctance Poles For High Strength Undiffused Brushless Operation.

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-06

    A method and apparatus in which a rotor (11) and a stator (17) define a radial air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one, and preferably two, DC excitation assemblies (23, 24) are positioned at opposite ends of the rotor (20) to define secondary air gaps (21, 22). Portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are provided as boundaries separating the rotor pole portions (12a, 12b) of opposite polarity from other portions of the rotor (11) and from each other to define PM poles (12a, 12b) for conveying the DC flux to or from the primary air gap (20) and for inhibiting flux from leaking from the pole portions prior to reaching the primary air gap (20). The portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are spaced from each other so as to include reluctance poles (15) of ferromagnetic material between the PM poles (12a, 12b) to interact with the AC flux in the primary-air gap (20).

  16. Novel tubular switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings: Design, modeling, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Li, Wei; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, I-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The space utilization of linear switched reluctance machine is relatively low, which unavoidably constrains the improvement of system output performance. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear switched reluctance motor with double excitation windings. The employment of double excitation helps to increase the electromagnetic force of the system. Furthermore, the installation of windings on both stator and mover can make the structure more compact and increase the system force density. The design concept and operating principle are presented. Following that, the major structure parameters of the system are determined. Subsequently, electromagnetic force and reluctance are formulated analytically based on equivalent magnetic circuits, and the result is validated with numerical computation. Then, a research prototype is developed, and experiments are conducted on the system output performance. It shows that the proposed design of electric linear machine can achieve higher thrust force compared with conventional linear switched reluctance machines.

  17. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  18. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  19. Single bus star connected reluctance drive and method

    DOEpatents

    Fahimi, Babak; Shamsi, Pourya

    2016-05-10

    A system and methods for operating a switched reluctance machine includes a controller, an inverter connected to the controller and to the switched reluctance machine, a hysteresis control connected to the controller and to the inverter, a set of sensors connected to the switched reluctance machine and to the controller, the switched reluctance machine further including a set of phases the controller further comprising a processor and a memory connected to the processor, wherein the processor programmed to execute a control process and a generation process.

  20. Absorption of language concepts in the machine mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In our approach, the machine mind is the applicative dynamic system represented by its algorithmically evolvable internal language. By other words, the mind and the language of mind are synonyms. Coming out from Shaumyan's semiotic theory of languages, we present the representation of language concepts in the machine mind as a result of our experiment, to show non-redundancy of the language of mind. To provide useful restriction for further research, we also introduce the hypothesis of semantic saturation in Computer-Computer communication, which indicates that a set of machines is not self-evolvable. The goal of our research is to increase the abstraction of Human-Computer and Computer-Computer communication. If we want humans and machines comunicate as a parent with the child, using different symbols and media, we must find the language of mind commonly usable by both machines and humans. In our opinion, there exist a kind of calm language of thinking, which we try to propose for machines in this paper. We separate the layers of a machine mind, we present the structure of the evolved mind and we discuss the selected properties. We are concentrating on the representation of symbolized concepts in the mind, that are languages, not just grammars, since they have meaning.

  1. Commande vectorielle de la machine a reluctance variable à stator lisse. Prise en compte de la saturation et de l'amortissement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tounzi, A.; Meibody-Tabar, F.; Sargos, F. M.

    1997-04-01

    This paper deals with the field-oriented control of a smooth stator, non excited salient rotor synchronous machine. First, a nonlinear modelling of the machine, taking into account both damping and saturation effects, is developed in PARK's rotor-bound frame. Then, a vector control strategy, which maintains a constant saturation level in the machine, is set-up. This strategy, wich consists in keeping the stator direct current at a high constant value, allows to linearize the model of the machine and to control it in the same way as a DC machine. A numerical simulation of a VRM, fed by a PWM-VSI and controlled thanks to this control strategy, is built up and the computed results are given and commented. Cet article est consacré à la commande vectorielle d'une machine à réluctance variable à stator lisse et rotor massif. D'abord, une modélisation non linéaire de la machine a été effectuée dans le repère de Park. Cette dernière permet de prendre en compte l'effet d'amortissement dû au rotor massif, ainsi que celui de la saturation inhérent à ce genre de machine. Ensuite, une stratégie de contrôle vectoriel, qui maintient un niveau de saturation constant dans la machine, a été élaborée. Cette stratégie, qui consiste à maintenir le courant direct statorique à une valeur élevée, permet de linéariser le modèle de la machine et ainsi de pouvoir la contrôler comme une machine à courant continu. Une simulation numérique de la machine à réluctance variable, alimentée par un onduleur de tension à MLI et commandée par la stratégie mise au point, a été effectuée. Les résultats de cette simulation sont donnés et commentés à la fin de l'article.

  2. Multimode vibration reduction concept for machine tools and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Kranz, Burkhard; Kunze, Holger

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports a numerical and experimental study on a new multi mode vibration reduction concept for struts of machine tools or shafts of automotives. The example described in detail validates this new concept for high dynamic parallel kinematic struts. The structural advantages of parallel kinematic mechanisms are undisputed. However statical and dynamical bending and torsional loads must be considered during the design process of the structure and thus effect the shape of the strut geometry. The here described new actuator concept for multi mode vibration reduction is to influence these bending and torsional loads. It uses piezopatches based on the MFC technology licensed by NASA. Initial simulation and experimental tests were done at an one side clamped aluminium beam with applicated 45°-MFC's on both sides. Simulation results show, that driving the piezos in opposite direction leads to a bending deflection of the beam, driving them in the same phase leads to a torsional deflection of the aluminium beam. Experimental measurements confirm the simulation results. The benefit we get is a decreased number of actuators for multimode vibration reduction. Likewise these actuators allow the separation or selective combination of bending and torsion. This new actuation concept is not limited on beams. Further simulations for cylindrical struts result in a design of a MFC-ring with eight segments with changing fiber orientation for separation of bending and torsion on struts and shafts. The selective controlled activation of each of the segments leads to bending in x-direction, bending in y-direction or torsion.

  3. Machining Strategy to Adapt Cutting Conditions under Digital Copy Milling Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi

    Most machining tools are controlled by numerical control (NC) programs in order to achieve unmanned machining operations with high precision and improved productivity. However, all the movements of the machining tool are predetermined, and all instructions coded in the NC program are performed sequentially. Therefore, since the cutting process is not adaptable during unmanned machining, the cutting conditions should be set conservatively to avoid cutting difficulties. In this study, machining strategies for adapting the cutting process during a milling operation to avoid tool breakage and to stabilize cutting load have been integrated into an autonomous NC machining tool developed under the Digital Copy Milling (DCM) concept for generating a tool path in real time. In machining strategies, feed speed, radial and axial depths of cut are adapted according to cutting load detected from load cells in the machining table. Successful endmilling experiments verified the effectiveness of the developed machining strategy.

  4. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  5. The Morrison Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors typically consist of pairs of poles protruding outward from a central rotor, surrounded by pairs of coils protruding inward from a stator. The pairs of coils, positioned a short distance from opposing sides of the rotor, are connected in series. A current runs through the coils, generating a magnetic flux between the coils. This attracts the protruding poles on the rotor, and just as the poles on the rotor approach the coils, the current to the coils is inverted, repelling the rotor s poles as they pass the coils. This current switching, back and forth, provides a continuous rotational torque to the rotor. reliability, durability, low cost, and operation in adverse environments such as high temperatures, extreme temperature variations, and high rotational speeds. However, because rotors are often manufactured with minute flaws due to imperfections in the machining process, traditional switched reluctance motors often suffer from substantial amounts of vibration. In addition, the current in the coils imparts a strong radial magnetic force on the rotor; the continuous alternating of the direction of this force also causes vibration. As a result, switched reluctance motors require bearings that, run at high speeds, can require lubrication apparatus and are subject to problems with heat and wear. My mentor s recent invention, the "Bearingless" Switched Reluctance Motor, actually uses magnetic bearings instead of traditional physical bearings. Sensors are used to continuously determine the position of the rotor. A computer reads the position sensor input, performs calculations, and outputs a current to a set of extra coils (in addition to the coils rotating the rotor). This current provides a magnetic force that counters and damps the vibration. The sense-calculate-update loop iterates more than thirty thousand times per second. For now, our goal is to have the rotor rotate at about 6000 rprn, and at that speed, the magnetic bearing is

  6. Vending machines and the self-care concept.

    PubMed

    Steinfirst, J L; Cowell, S A; Presley, B A; Reifler, C B

    1985-08-01

    For the past 3 years (1980-83), students at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York, have had 24-hour access to a vending machine which dispenses over the counter medicines and contraceptives. The machine is located in a small health facility near the undergraduate residence halls. The health facility is staffed by a registered nurse who provides treatment for minor illnesses, health education information, and referrals to the university's medical center. The facility stresses self-care, and a bulletin board located near the vending machine provides numerous health education brochures. The vending machine program represents a continuation of the emphasis on self-care. Instead of fostering dependency on the nursing staff the vending machine helps the students become self-reliant in reference to assessing their own health needs. Items dispensed by the machine include condoms, condoms and foam, aspirin, Sudafed, Robitussin, Acetaminiphen, Chlortrimeton, Cepacol, bandages, and thermometers. The items are sold to the students at cost. Condoms are the most popular item, and in 1982-83, 404 condom packages, priced at US$.50, were sold. Students who know what kind of medicine or health aid they want no longer are required to obtain these items by visiting the nursing staff. The image of the nurses at the facility is no longer that of a dispenser of over the counter drugs but that of someone who provides counseling, health education, and referrals. A survey conducted in 1983 revealed that the majority of the student body knew about the vending machine. This awareness reached 100% among senior class males. The purpose of the vending machine project is to make nonprescription medicines readily available to students, to make contraceptives available on a 24-hour basis, and to emphasize that the primary role of the facility's nursing staff is to provide education, counseling, and referral services.

  7. Recognizing Disjoint Clinical Concepts in Clinical Text Using Machine Learning-based Methods.

    PubMed

    Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical concept recognition (CCR) is a fundamental task in clinical natural language processing (NLP) field. Almost all current machine learning-based CCR systems can only recognize clinical concepts of consecutive words (called consecutive clinical concepts, CCCs), but can do nothing about clinical concepts of disjoint words (called disjoint clinical concepts, DCCs), which widely exist in clinical text. In this paper, we proposed two novel types of representations for disjoint clinical concepts, and applied two state-of-the-art machine learning methods to recognizing consecutive and disjoint concepts. Experiments conducted on the 2013 ShARe/CLEF challenge corpus showed that our best system achieved a "strict" F-measure of 0.803 for CCCs, a "strict" F-measure of 0.477 for DCCs, and a "strict" F-measure of 0.783 for all clinical concepts, significantly higher than the baseline systems by 4.2% and 4.1% respectively.

  8. Development of a Flexible Laser Hardening & Machining Center and Proof of Concept on C-45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquet, Jan; Van Camp, Dries; Vanhove, Hans; Clijsters, Stijn; Amirahmad, Mohammadi; Lauwers, Bert

    The production of hardened precision parts is conventionally done in 3 steps. Rough machining of a workpiece in soft stage is followed by a hardening step, usually a batch process, and finalized by a hard machining finishing step. To omit the inevitable time delay and loss of accuracy because of part re-clamping, these steps should be incorporated within one flexible machining center. This paper describes the development of this machining center which allowsmachining and laser hardening in one setup, followed by a proof of concept for hardening C45 steel on this setup.

  9. Characterization of a variable reluctance harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, M.; Moll, N.; Ravindran, S. K. T.; Mehne, P.; Woias, P.

    2014-11-01

    In our last year's PowerMEMS contribution we presented a proof-of-concept of a variable reluctance harvester for the application in a railroad surveillance system. It was shown that intermittently closing a magnetic circuit could supply power output in the range of mW's. The test setup used showed unwanted energy pickup from the electro motor used. In this paper we present thorough measurements of the reluctance circuit with a compressed air motor to exclude the effects of the above mentioned magnetic stray fields. The effects of eddy currents and moment of inertia on the output power, the optimal coil position on the stators, and effects of different magnetic field strengths are studied. The gap width is set to a fixed value of 14 mm, representing a realistic scenario.

  10. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  11. Recognizing Disjoint Clinical Concepts in Clinical Text Using Machine Learning-based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical concept recognition (CCR) is a fundamental task in clinical natural language processing (NLP) field. Almost all current machine learning-based CCR systems can only recognize clinical concepts of consecutive words (called consecutive clinical concepts, CCCs), but can do nothing about clinical concepts of disjoint words (called disjoint clinical concepts, DCCs), which widely exist in clinical text. In this paper, we proposed two novel types of representations for disjoint clinical concepts, and applied two state-of-the-art machine learning methods to recognizing consecutive and disjoint concepts. Experiments conducted on the 2013 ShARe/CLEF challenge corpus showed that our best system achieved a “strict” F-measure of 0.803 for CCCs, a “strict” F-measure of 0.477 for DCCs, and a “strict” F-measure of 0.783 for all clinical concepts, significantly higher than the baseline systems by 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. PMID:26958258

  12. Applying Switched Reluctance Motor to Oil Hydraulic Pump Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamai, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Yuzo; Ohyama, Kazunobu

    Hydraulic pump units are widely used to operate hydraulic actuators. In a typical machine shop, conventional constant speed hydraulic pump units consume more than 20% of the total electric power necessary to operate CNC machine tools. Most of that energy are wasted to run the axial piston pump at idle. This paper describes a variable speed hydraulic pump unit using a switched reluctance motor (SRM), which saves energy drastically. SRM was selected as the most suitable motor for this application. Design and control strategy of this motor are described. Application examples to machine tools shows the effectiveness of the new hybrid pump system in saving energy and in reducing acoustic noise.

  13. Design Methodology for Low-Speed Variable Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, John Riden

    Lowering the gear reduction in actuators by utilizing high-torque low-speed motors enables the use of less expensive and simpler gear systems and decreases the overall system inertia. Variable reluctance machines can produce high torque at low speeds. Their static torque, a critical quantity for determination of low speed operation, is compared for three variable reluctance motor design variations using linear analysis. Saturation effects, which are crucial to the accurate determination of static torque, are modeled using a dual energy technique first proposed by Lord Rayleigh. Dual energy techniques utilizing flux tubes and magnetomotive force slices are developed into a numerical method for predicting nonlinear three-dimensional magnetostatic field parameters. The dual energy method offers a compromise between the accurate but laborious finite element method and the speed of simplified lumped parameter magnetic circuit calculations. A two-dimensional dual energy model of a variable reluctance motor is developed. Results of calculations on a 4 kW Oulton machine are compared to measurements and other calculation methods. Finally, as a demonstration, the model is used to evaluate two competing variable reluctance motors for use as replacements for a DC windshield wiper motor.

  14. Inductance and Active Phase Vector Based Torque Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpathi, Ramani Raman

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drive technology has developed significantly over the last few years. The simplicity in both motor design and power converter requirement along with the availability of high frequency, high power semiconductor switches have made SRMs compete with conventional adjustable speed drive technologies. The subject of winding current control in switched reluctance machines has always been associated with the shaft position information. The use of inductance for direct commutation control is the central subject of this dissertation. In contrast to the conventional methods based on position commutation, new methods of control based on inductance commutation are presented. The object of a commutation algorithm is to switch the currents in the phase coils, in order to provide continuous energy conversion with maximum torque output for a given unit of input current. Since torque production in a SRM is based on the concept of variable reluctance, it makes more sense to observe the instantaneous phase inductance or reluctance instead of estimating the rotor position. The inductance sensors observe the machine parameters and provide sufficient information on the electrical characteristics of the coils. This control strategy avoids the inductance to position transformation blocks conventionally used in SRM control systems. In a typical SRM, the phase coils have a nonlinear behavior of inductance due to effects of current saturation. Also the parameters of one phase coil differ from those of the other due to manufacturing tolerances or due to bearing wear. In such cases, the algorithms written during the stage of manufacturing may not be valid after parameter changes. Optimizing torque production in the event of phase asymmetry and saturation is developed in this research. Indirect sensors connected to the active phase coil of the SRM are based on sensing the flux level in the active coil. New commutation algorithms based on flux sensing concepts

  15. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  16. The metered delivery of solids into pressure: A radically new machine concept

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, M.M.; Hay, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    This is the second report on the development of a machine concept for the continuous movement and accurately metered delivery of particulate solids (e.g., coal), wet or dry, into environments of ambient or differential fluid or mechanical pressure. It includes the first disclosure of continuous, direct delivery of US power plant coal into 26 psi gas pressure. The pump has only one moving part and is self-cleaning.

  17. Machine vision based on the concept of contrast sensitivity of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzubik, Vitali; Belashenkov, Nikolai; Vdovin, Gleb

    2014-09-01

    The model of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of machine vision system, based on the CSF of the human visual system is proposed. By analogy with the human eye, we employ the concept of ganglion cell receptive field to the artificial light-sensitive elements. By further following this concept, we introduced quantative metrics of local and global contrast of digital image. We suggested that the contrast sensitivity threshold forms an iso-line in the parameter space contrast - spatial frequency. The model, implemented in a computer vision system, has been compared to the results of contrast sensitivity research, conducted directly with the human visual system, and demonstrated a good match.

  18. Meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine for imbalanced and concept-drifting data classification.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Bilal; Lin, Zhiping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine (MOS-ELM) is proposed for class imbalance and concept drift learning. In MOS-ELM, meta-cognition is used to self-regulate the learning by selecting suitable learning strategies for class imbalance and concept drift problems. MOS-ELM is the first sequential learning method to alleviate the imbalance problem for both binary class and multi-class data streams with concept drift. In MOS-ELM, a new adaptive window approach is proposed for concept drift learning. A single output update equation is also proposed which unifies various application specific OS-ELM methods. The performance of MOS-ELM is evaluated under different conditions and compared with methods each specific to some of the conditions. On most of the datasets in comparison, MOS-ELM outperforms the competing methods.

  19. Machine learning-based coreference resolution of concepts in clinical documents

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Henry; Mullett, Charles J; El-Rawas, Oussama

    2012-01-01

    Objective Coreference resolution of concepts, although a very active area in the natural language processing community, has not yet been widely applied to clinical documents. Accordingly, the 2011 i2b2 competition focusing on this area is a timely and useful challenge. The objective of this research was to collate coreferent chains of concepts from a corpus of clinical documents. These concepts are in the categories of person, problems, treatments, and tests. Design A machine learning approach based on graphical models was employed to cluster coreferent concepts. Features selected were divided into domain independent and domain specific sets. Training was done with the i2b2 provided training set of 489 documents with 6949 chains. Testing was done on 322 documents. Results The learning engine, using the un-weighted average of three different measurement schemes, resulted in an F measure of 0.8423 where no domain specific features were included and 0.8483 where the feature set included both domain independent and domain specific features. Conclusion Our machine learning approach is a promising solution for recognizing coreferent concepts, which in turn is useful for practical applications such as the assembly of problem and medication lists from clinical documents. PMID:22582205

  20. The reluctant entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Veit, K

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a lot of corporate executives, Ken Veit never longed to be his own boss. But after 30 years on the fast track, he lost his high-powered job at one of the world's largest insurance companies and was forced to take an entrepreneurial leap of faith. In 1989, Veit signed a franchise agreement to own and operate a Cartoon Corner store in a mall in Scottsdale, Arizona. Cartoon Corner was based on the Disney store idea, but it carried hundreds of products featuring cartoon characters from every movie studio. Most important, Cartoon Corner offered extensive training and an elaborate management support system for its franchisees. The company planned to franchise 100 stores over the next few years, then go public. If all went well, its young executives claimed, the Cartoon Corner chain would build a market valuation of up to $100 million by the mid-1990s. In addition, the mall, which was in the planning stages when Veit signed on, was supposed to become a new kind of entertainment mall, with seven movie theaters, a space-flight simulator, and a shark-filled aquarium. It had all sounded too good to be true--and it was. Despite Veit's careful forecasting, he suffered a series of unexpected catastrophes. The mall failed to keep its promises. The franchisor lost its venture capital. The Gulf War dried up retail traffic. But it was too late to back out. Veit went forward on his own, truly alone for the first time in his life. When the mall and his store finally opened in May 1991, they did so in the midst of a recession. Despite the inspirational stories of other former executives, Veit has learned that the life of an entrepreneur is not all it's cracked up to be. As he notes, "I began with well-above-average experience, a proven concept, and excellent capitalization, yet in my case, personal bankruptcy remains a distinct possibility."

  1. Torquemeter With Variable Reluctance Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Julio

    1987-01-01

    A new variable reluctance transducer is described. Two static coils constitute two branches of a Wheastone bridge. The magnetic circuit of each one of the windings is closed through two gear wheels attached to the shaft. These are related to each other in such a way as to leave two air gaps, each of these in front of one of the coils in the stator assambly. These gaps change with the torque.

  2. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  3. The machine conception of the organism in development and evolution: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in contemporary biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. The analysis presented here focuses on the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the contexts of development and evolution. In developmental biology the MCO underlies a logically incoherent model of ontogeny, the genetic program, which serves to legitimate three problematic theses about development: genetic animism, neo-preformationism, and developmental computability. In evolutionary biology the MCO is responsible for grounding unwarranted theoretical appeals to the concept of design as well as to the interpretation of natural selection as an engineer, which promote a distorted understanding of the process and products of evolutionary change. Overall, it is argued that, despite its heuristic value, the MCO today is impeding rather than enabling further progress in our comprehension of living systems.

  4. Adaptability of optimization concept in the context of cryogenic distribution for superconducting magnets of fusion machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Ritendra Nath; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Shah, Nitin Dineshkumar; Choukekar, Ketan; Badgujar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic distribution system (CDS) plays a vital role for reliable operation of largescale fusion machines in a Tokamak configuration. Managing dynamic heat loads from the superconducting magnets, namely, toroidal field, poloidal field, central solenoid and supporting structure is the most important function of the CDS along with the static heat loads. Two concepts are foreseen for the configuration of the CDS: singular distribution and collective distribution. In the first concept, each magnet is assigned with one distribution box having its own sub-cooler bath. In the collective concept, it is possible to share one common bath for more than one magnet system. The case study has been performed with an identical dynamic heat load profile applied to both concepts in the same time domain. The choices of a combined system from the magnets are also part of the study without compromising the system functionality. Process modeling and detailed simulations have been performed for both the options using Aspen HYSYS®. Multiple plasma pulses per day have been considered to verify the residual energy deposited in the superconducting magnets at the end of the plasma pulse. Preliminary 3D modeling using CATIA® has been performed along with the first level of component sizing.

  5. Reluctant partners: Implementing federal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Reluctant Partners examines how the federal government can secure the cooperation it needs to effect national policy goals whtn the implementation process itself empowers potential adversaries. The current battle over how and where to permanently store the nation's high-level nuclear waste poses one of the greatest challenges to federalism since the Civil War. Authority has been legislatively diffused among the federal government, the states, the counties, and certain affected Indian tribes. The situation also epitomizes the conflict that arises when Congress delegates final decisionmaking authority to the bureaucracy. The book contributes to the body of implementation literature by moving past organizational theory to consider issues of governance and leadership. However, it will disappoint the empiricist who sees an opportunity for the application of a theory go by the boards.

  6. The Role of Reluctance in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-06-16

    The international research community has lately focused efforts on interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors to produce a traction motor for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). One of the beneficial features of this technology is the additional torque produced by reluctance. The objective of this report is to analytically describe the role that reluctance plays in permanent magnet (PM) motors, to explore ways to increase reluctance torque without sacrificing the torque produced by the PMs, and to compare three IPM configurations with respect to torque, power, amount of magnet material required (cost), and percentage of reluctance torque. Results of this study will be used to determine future research directions in utilizing reluctance to obtain maximum torque and power while using a minimum amount of magnet material.

  7. A Microprocessor Control Scheme For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, A. R.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.

    1987-10-01

    A microprocessor control scheme for a switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive is discussed. A SRM is inherently a variable speed machine since it requires a converter even for constant speed running. Starting with a conceptual development, a particular hardware scheme is discussed for controller implementation. Hardware-software tradeoffs incorporated in the design are discussed. Some results of an actual system are evaluated. It is shown that a microprocessor controller has many advantages over conventional controllers. The controller design uses rotor position and speed feedbacks. Self-starting is incorporated into the design. Use of off-the-shelf components makes the controller simple, reliable, and economical.

  8. Prediction and analysis of variable reluctance stepmotor drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulle, D. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between the electric terminal parameters and output/input power is derived for conventional doubly-salient synchronous machines and extended to include the variable reluctance motor. The advantages and limitations of the drive-schemes are shown in Blondel diagrams and torque speed curves. A general method for obtaining a quantitative assessment of drive-schemes is developed by the introduction of so-called performance figures, related to the output power and efficiency. From this method applied to four drive schemes, it is concluded that severe performance degradation is the result of using a forging resistance in a drive-scheme. A forced decay unipolar chopper drive is presented.

  9. Linking descriptive geology and quantitative machine learning through an ontology of lithological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Huber, R.; Robertson, J.; Cox, S. J. D.; Woodcock, R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the recent explosion of quantitative geological data, geology remains a fundamentally qualitative science. Numerical data only constitute a certain part of data collection in the geosciences. In many cases, geological observations are compiled as text into reports and annotations on drill cores, thin sections or drawings of outcrops. The observations are classified into concepts such as lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, etc. These descriptions are semantically rich and are generally supported by more quantitative observations using geochemical analyses, XRD, hyperspectral scanning, etc, but the goal is geological semantics. In practice it has been difficult to bring the different observations together due to differing perception or granularity of classification in human observation, or the partial observation of only some characteristics using quantitative sensors. In the past years many geological classification schemas have been transferred into ontologies and vocabularies, formalized using RDF and OWL, and published through SPARQL endpoints. Several lithological ontologies were compiled by stratigraphy.net and published through a SPARQL endpoint. This work is complemented by the development of a Python API to integrate this vocabulary into Python-based text mining applications. The applications for the lithological vocabulary and Python API are automated semantic tagging of geochemical data and descriptions of drill cores, machine learning of geochemical compositions that are diagnostic for lithological classifications, and text mining for lithological concepts in reports and geological literature. This combination of applications can be used to identify anomalies in databases, where composition and lithological classification do not match. It can also be used to identify lithological concepts in the literature and infer quantitative values. The resulting semantic tagging opens new possibilities for linking these diverse sources of data.

  10. Simulations of Carnival Rides and Rube Goldberg Machines for the Visualization of Concepts of Statics and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William; Williams, Richard; Yao, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Solid modeling is widely used as a teaching tool in summer activities with high school students. The addition of motion analysis allows concepts from statics and dynamics to be introduced to students in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Two sets of solid modeling projects--carnival rides and Rube Goldberg machines--are shown to allow the…

  11. Finding Hooks to Catch Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Marijo

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a list of books of varying lengths and difficulty that the reading teacher can use to help reluctant readers find that all-important breakthrough book to discover what reading can do for them. (KEH)

  12. Analysis of a display and control system man-machine interface concept. Volume 1: Final technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the feasibility of utilizing a simplified man machine interface concept to manage and control a complex space system involving multiple redundant computers that control multiple redundant subsystems. The concept involves the use of a CRT for display and a simple keyboard for control, with a tree-type control logic for accessing and controlling mission, systems, and subsystem elements. The concept was evaluated in terms of the Phase B space shuttle orbiter, to utilize the wide scope of data management and subsystem control inherent in the central data management subsystem provided by the Phase B design philosophy. Results of these investigations are reported in four volumes.

  13. Development of Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor Suitable for Variable-Speed Drive for Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Takahashi, Norio; Shimomura, Eiji; Arata, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Yousuke; Tajima, Toshinobu

    Regarding environmental and energy issues, increasing importance has been placed on energy saving in various systems. To save energy, it would be desirable if the total efficiency of various types of equipment were increased.Recently, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and an electric vehicle (EV) have been developed. The use of new technologies will eventually lead to the realization of the new- generation vehicle with high efficiency. One new technology is the variable-speed drive over a wide range of speeds. The motor driving systems of the EV or the HEV must operate in the variable-speed range of up to 1:5. This has created the need for a high-efficiency motor that is capable of operation over a wide speed range. In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel permanent magnet reluctance motor (PRM) and discuss its characteristics. We developed the PRM, which has the capability of operating over a wide speed range with high efficiency. The PRM has a rotor with a salient pole, which generates magnetic anisotropy. In addition, the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor core counter the q-axis flux by the armature reaction. Then, the power density and the power factor increase. The PRM produces reluctance torque and torque by permanent magnet (PM) flux. The reluctance torque is 1 to 2 times larger than the PM torque. When the PRM operates over a constant-power speed range, the field component of the current will be regulated to maintain a constant voltage. The output power of the developed PRM is 8 to 250kW. It is clarified that the PRM operates at a wide variable-speed range (1:5) with high efficiency (92-97%). It is concluded that the PRM has high performance over a wide constant-power speed range. In addition, the PRM is constructed using a small PM, so that we can solve the problem of cost. Thus, the PRM is a superior machine that is suited for variable-speed drive applications.

  14. Development of hardware system using temperature and vibration maintenance models integration concepts for conventional machines monitoring: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani; Kareem, Buliaminu

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the integration of temperature and vibration models for maintenance monitoring of conventional machinery parts in which their optimal and best functionalities are affected by abnormal changes in temperature and vibration values thereby resulting in machine failures, machines breakdown, poor quality of products, inability to meeting customers' demand, poor inventory control and just to mention a few. The work entails the use of temperature and vibration sensors as monitoring probes programmed in microcontroller using C language. The developed hardware consists of vibration sensor of ADXL345, temperature sensor of AD594/595 of type K thermocouple, microcontroller, graphic liquid crystal display, real time clock, etc. The hardware is divided into two: one is based at the workstation (majorly meant to monitor machines behaviour) and the other at the base station (meant to receive transmission of machines information sent from the workstation), working cooperatively for effective functionalities. The resulting hardware built was calibrated, tested using model verification and validated through principles pivoted on least square and regression analysis approach using data read from the gear boxes of extruding and cutting machines used for polyethylene bag production. The results got therein confirmed related correlation existing between time, vibration and temperature, which are reflections of effective formulation of the developed concept.

  15. Laboratory Test of Vending Machine with Advanced Defrosting Technology and Integrated Accumulatory/Expander Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bryne, M E; Domitrovic, R E; Mei, V C; Chen, F C; Fransson, J H.M.

    2000-10-01

    The manufacturer delivered an off-the-shelf soft drink vending machine for testing to ORNL. The machine was tested for baseline performance and it was found that the cold air passage was not properly designed. An inadequate cold air supply to the product resulted in recirculation of the evaporator air and heavy frost accumulation on the evaporator coil.

  16. Study of the Synchronous Reluctance Motor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper focuses on studying the external-rotor synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis is performed to estimate the influence of the number of stator slots and non-magnetic areas in the rotor (i.e., flux barriers) on the electromagnetic torque and torque ripple of the studied motor. It is concluded that the increase in the number of stator slots Z = 6 to Z = 18 causes an approximately twofold decrease in the ripple factor, but torque increases by 5 %. Electromagnetic torque will be increased approximately by 24 %, if non-magnetic flux barriers are created in the rotor of the studied synchronous reluctance motor.

  17. Design of a variable reluctance asymmetric stepping millimotor

    SciTech Connect

    GARCIA,ERNEST J.; GREENWOOD,WILLIAM H.; OLIVER,ANDREW D.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, and preliminary testing of a three phase variable reluctance stepping motor. This motor is pancake-shaped with an overall outside diameter of 8 mm and a height of 3 mm. The outside diameter of the rotor is 4.7 mm. The rotor and stators occupy 2 mm of the height with the remaining 1 mm reserved for a 6:1 planetary gear reductor. The rotor and stators were constructed of Hyperco 50 using conventional miniature machining. The reductor was assembled using copper and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) components that were constructed using the LIGA (Lithographic Galvanoformung Abformung) microfabrication process. The maximum measured stall torque of the motor without the reductor is 0.47mNm at 4W and the maximum speed is 2,400 rpm.

  18. Algebraic logic of concepts and its machine implementation in the algebras of deontic and axiological notions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manerowska, Anna; Nieznański, Edward; Mulawka, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Our aim is to present the algebra of concepts in two formal languages. First, after introducing a primary relation between concepts, which is subsumption, we shall specify in a language that uses quantifiers, the Boolean algebra of general concepts. Next, we shall note down the same algebra in simplified non-quantifying language, in order to use it as basis for two specific implementations, i.e. to create the Boolean algebras of deontic concepts and axiological concepts.

  19. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  20. Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J.; Arnold, N.; Nawrocki, G.; Decker, G.; Chung, Y.

    1995-07-01

    The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused.

  1. Performance Analysis of a Self-Excited Synchronous Reluctance Generator with Multiple-Barrier Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Kouichi; Fukami, Tadashi; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    The modeling and steady-state performance of a self-excited synchronous reluctance generator (SESRG) that has a multiple-barrier (MB) rotor is set forth in this paper. In addition to the core loss, the magnetic saturation in both d-q axes is included in the developed model. Experimental results conducted on a 0.75-kVA testing machine are provided to justify the analytical approach and performance calculations.

  2. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.

    PubMed

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  3. Mathematical concepts for modeling human behavior in complex man-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Many human behavior (e.g., manual control) models have been found to be inadequate for describing processes in certain real complex man-machine systems. An attempt is made to find a way to overcome this problem by examining the range of applicability of existing mathematical models with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in real complex tasks. Automobile driving is chosen as a baseline scenario, and a hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing this task in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy.

  4. Conception et mise au point d'un emulateur de machine Synchrone trapezoidale a aimants permanents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Francois

    The development of technology leads inevitably to higher systems' complexity faced by engineers. Over time, tools are often developed in parallel with the main systems to ensure their sustainability. The work presented in this document provides a new tool for testing motor drives. In general, this project refers to active loads, which are complex dynamic loads emulated electronically with a static converter. Specifically, this document proposes and implements a system whose purpose is to recreate the behaviour of a trapezoidal permanent magnets synchronous machine. The ultimate goal is to connect a motor drive to the three terminal of the motor emulator, as it would with a real motor. The emulator's response then obtained, when subjected to disturbances of the motor drive, is ideally identical to the one of a real motor. The motor emulator led to a significant versatility of a test bench because the electrical and mechanical parameters of the application can be easily modified. The work is divided into two main parts: the static converter and real-rime. Overall, these two entities form a PHIL (Power Hardware-in-the-loop) real-time simulation. The static converter enables the exchange of real power between the drive motor and the real-time simulation. The latter gives the application the intelligence needed to interact with the motor drive in a way which the desired behaviour is recreated. The main partner of this project, Opal-RT, ensures this development. Keywords: virtual machine, PHIL, real-time simulation, electronic load

  5. Improved Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2003-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a bearingless switched-reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in a prior bearingless switched-reluctance motor, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motor, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation in that it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration-suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that the stator contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. A prototype includes six rotor poles and eight stator poles (see figure). During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative lengths of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to levitation load capacity and stiffness, and vice versa.

  6. Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a switched reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in prior bearingless switched-reluctance motors, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motors, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation because it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that it contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. Simultaneous levitation and rotation at 6000 rpm were achieved with a prototype that included six rotor poles and eight stator poles. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative length of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to the levitation

  7. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  8. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  9. The influence of different screw concepts while processing fibre reinforced thermoplastics with the concept of inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, E.; Müller, E.; Kleeschulte, R.

    2014-05-01

    Today, the global market poses major challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, the wide range of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to fulfil. Product series additionally have shorter and shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaptation, polymers are increasingly able to substitute traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals in various fields of application [1]. But polymers can only substitute other materials if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important [2]. The problem is that the traditional development process for new polymer formulations is much too complex, too slow and therefore too expensive. Product-specific material development is thus out of the question for most processors. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process would lead to a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, providing an opportunity to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. In order to develop this innovative formulation concept, with the focus on fibre reinforced thermoplastics, different screw-concepts are compared with regard to the resultant performance characteristics in the part, such as mechanical properties and fibre length distribution.

  10. High output power reluctance electric motors with bulk high-temperature superconductor elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Larionoff, A. E.; M-A Koneev, S.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Poltavets, V. N.; Akimov, I. I.; Alexandrov, V. V.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2002-05-01

    We present new types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) - YBCO and Bi-Ag - elements. We discuss different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed synchronous HTS machines. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. We give the test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with an output power rating of 0.1-18 kW and current frequencies 50 Hz and 400 Hz. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one unit weight of the HTS motor is four to seven times better than for conventional electric machines. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. We discuss the test results for a liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with a hysteresis 500 W HTS motor. We describe several designs of new HTS motors operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with an output power 125 kW (and more) and a power factor of more than 0.8. We discuss future applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems.

  11. Control Code for Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    A computer program has been devised for controlling a machine that is an integral combination of magnetic bearings and a switched-reluctance motor. The motor contains an eight-pole stator and a hybrid rotor, which has both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a six-pole lamination stack for rotation. The program computes drive and levitation currents for the stator windings with real-time feedback control. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. This version is executable in a control-loop time of 40 s on a Pentium (or equivalent) processor that operates at a clock speed of 400 MHz. The program can be expanded, by addition of logic blocks, to enable control of position along additional axes. The code enables adjustment of operational parameters (e.g., motor speed and stiffness, and damping parameters of magnetic bearings) through computer keyboard key presses.

  12. Rotor Losses in a Switched Reluctance Motor - Analysis and Reduction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweighofer, B.; Recheis, M.; Fulmek, P.; Wegleiter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing hybridization and electrification of vehicles, flywheel energy storage devices are an important area of research. In automotive application besides the weight criteria, some additionally constrains, such as size, efficiency and especially cost have to be fulfilled. Therefore typically a compact design, in which the rotor of the needed electrical machine simultaneously acts as storage mass is chosen. Since the machine is running in vacuum and the rotor can dissipate its heat only by means of thermal radiation or through the bearings if conventional bearings are used, the rotor losses play a vital role. In this work the rotor losses of a switched reluctance machine are analyzed in detail and a method to reduce the rotor losses is proposed.

  13. The reluctant imperialism of the medical profession.

    PubMed

    de Swaan, A

    1989-01-01

    Medical authority is invoked ever more frequently, also in situations that are outside the scope of scientific medicine. The main but latent function of this medicalization is the resolution of social conflict. This occurs more often than not in tacit collusion between a work organization (or the wider community) on the one hand, the individualized 'patient' on the other hand and the doctor as the arbiter who defines socially contested issues in terms of medical problems. As scientific medicine provides insufficient justification of these medical interventions, they threaten to become the subject of open controversy within the organized medical profession and thus to undermine professional unanimity, and with it the authority of the profession as a whole. This explains the reluctance of organized medicine to claim these new fields as its legitimate province.

  14. Modeling Reluctance-Assisted PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2006-01-13

    This report contains a derivation of the fundamental equations used to calculate the base speed, torque delivery, and power output of a reluctance-assisted PM motor which has a saliency ratio greater than 1 as a function of its terminal voltage, current, voltage-phase angle, and current-phase angle. The equations are applied to model Motor X using symbolically-oriented methods with the computer tool Mathematica to determine: (1) the values of current-phase angle and voltage-phase angle that are uniquely determined once a base speed has been selected; (2) the attainable current in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of terminal voltage, speed, and current-phase angle; (3) the attainable current in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of terminal voltage, speed, and voltage-phase angle; (4) the maximum-power output in the voltage-limited region above base speed as a function of speed; (5) the optimal voltage-phase angle in the voltage-limited region above base speed required to obtain maximum-power output; (6) the maximum-power speed curve which was linear from rest to base speed in the current limited region below base speed; (7) the current angle as a function of saliency ratio in the current-limited region below base speed; and (8) the torque as a function of saliency ratio which is almost linear in the current-limited region below base speed. The equations were applied to model Motor X using numerically-oriented methods with the computer tool LabVIEW. The equations were solved iteratively to find optimal current and voltage angles that yield maximum power and maximum efficiency from rest through the current-limited region to base speed and then through the voltage-limited region to high-rotational speeds. Currents, voltages, and reluctance factors were all calculated and external loops were employed to perform additional optimization with respect to PM pitch angle (magnet fraction) and with respect to magnet strength

  15. Stabilization of large space structures by linear reluctance actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Saroj K.; Sendaula, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    Application of magnetic forces are considered for stabilization of vibrations of flexible space structures. Three electromagnetic phenomena are studied, such as: (1) magnetic body force; (2) reluctance torque; and (3) magnetostriction, and their application is analyzed for stabilization of a beam. The magnetic body force actuator uses the force that exists between poles of magnets. The reluctance actuator is configured in such a way that the reluctance of the magnetic circuit will be minimum when the beam is straight. Any bending of the beam increases the reluctance and hence generates a restoring torque that reduces bending. The gain of the actuator is controlled by varying the magnetizing current. Since the energy density of a magnetic device is much higher compared to piezoelectric or thermal actuators, it is expected that the reluctance actuator will be more effective in controlling the structural vibrations.

  16. Testing the Value of Silent Super 8MM Single Concept Loop Films as an Aid to the Acquisition of Manipulative Skills in the Machine Trades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, John N.; McNeill, Joseph G.

    1973-01-01

    A study, conducted to determine the effects of silent single concept loop films on student production and teacher dependency for machine trade instruction, is examined and discussed. The results showed no significant effect on student production; however, students' dependency on the teacher was reduced. (DS)

  17. Electromagnetic Forces in a Hybrid Magnetic-Bearing Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnetic force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel hybrid magnetic-bearing switched-reluctance motor (MBSRM) have been performed. A MBSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The MBSRM discussed in this report has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of four stator poles, while a second set of four stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Static torque and radial force analysis were done for rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental and the theoretical radial force loads predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  18. Reconstruction of the Switched Reluctance Motor Stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kharashi, Eyhab; Hassanien, Hany M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper re-designs the conventional 6/8 switched reluctance motor (SRM) by a particular way to minimize the losses. The flux loops are shortened by making each two stator teeth incorporated in one magnetic circuit only. Subsequently the flux does not cross in some iron parts of the stator core backs. These unused iron sections are taken off consequently the iron losses decreased. Now the stator consists of three separated sections and they are fixed inside non-magnetic cylinder. The copper losses also are decreased because less copper windings are used to produce the same amount of the output torque as the flux paths become short then the flux density increases. The analysis and comparison of the 6/8 SRM before and after the re-design process are presented. A m files Matlab software is used to simulate the dynamic performance. Then the paper proceeds to examine different control techniques to the new design. The hysteresis and PI controllers are used as classical method to control the SRM. Then the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to test the new control techniques.

  19. Switched reluctance motor systems poised for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, A.B.; Howe, B.

    1992-12-31

    The emergence of a rugged, versatile, and highly efficient alternative to conventional electric motors promises to have a major impact on drivepower markets over the next decade. Although switched reluctance drives are not yet available ``off the shelf`` from major motor manufacturers, they are likely to compete favorably across a broad range of applications, due to their superior performance characteristics. Switched reluctance drives maintain higher torque and efficiency over broader speed ranges than can be achieved with other advanced variable-speed systems, can be programmed to precisely match the loads they serve and, in high-volume production, are likely to be less expensive than competing systems. The principal obstacle to rapid commercialization of switched reluctance motors is the fact that few engineers are trained to perform the exacting and specialized design that this technology requires. This hurdle is gradually being overcome as over two dozen firms now design or manufacture switched reluctance drives, and several are moving into mass production applications. As these and other firms gain experience with the technology, new opportunities will arise for utilities, energy users, and original equipment manufacturers to capture the benefits of switched reluctance motor systems. This report appraises recent progress toward moving switched reluctance drives to mass production and provides an inventory of major manufacturers.

  20. Effects of anisotropy on the performance characteristics of an axially laminated anisotropic-rotor synchronous reluctance motor drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, F.N.; Arkadan, A.A.; Russell, A.A.; El-Antably, A.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, increased attention has been paid to the performance characterization and evaluation of the performance of synchronous reluctance machines. Extensive research has concentrated on different rotor structures in order to achieve high performance variable speed drives for applications such as electric vehicles. The effects of accounting for anisotropy on the performance characteristics of Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) rotor Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) drive systems are studied. These effects are evaluated from the simulations of a computer aided model. The model is based on the use of an iterative approach which indirectly couples a two dimensional (2D) nonlinear finite element (FE) model, which accounts for anisotropy, to a state space model describing the SynRM drive system. The simulation results are also validated by comparison to test data of a prototype ALA rotor SynRM drive system.

  1. Why are junior doctors reluctant to consult attending physicians?

    PubMed

    Swank, Otto H

    2010-03-01

    A physician performs two tasks: making diagnoses and determining treatments. To reduce medical error, junior doctors are supposed to consult their supervisors when they face uncommon circumstances. However, recent research shows that junior doctors are reluctant to do so. This paper presents a model that explains (i) which junior doctors shy away from consulting; (ii) when junior doctors are reluctant; (iii) the importance of protocols in the medical sector; and (iv) when consulting is a sign of strength or a sign of weakness. Furthermore, I show that encouraging junior doctors to consult by investigating mishaps leads to another distortion: they will give too much weight to own assessments.

  2. The Comparative Analysis of Inductor and Reluctance Wind Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoliņš, Edmunds

    2009-01-01

    In the presented work two designs of brushless generators are compared: inductor and reluctance. Both designs are multipolar and also can be applied as directly driven wind generators. Both one and the second designs are basically similar, but in the inductor generator are windings of excitation or permanent magnets which complicate a design, increase consumption of the copper and energy losses. In work shown that reluctance generator has no winding of excitation, it is simple and more reliable, it has less weight. It's more competitive for use in low power wind plants.

  3. Reinforcement procedure in the treatment of reluctant speech.

    PubMed

    Morin, C; Ladouceur, R; Cloutier, R

    1982-06-01

    The efficacy of a positive reinforcement contingency procedure was evaluated in the treatment of a 6-year old boy with reluctant speech. The intervention was conducted in the kindergarten classroom and the teacher served as therapist. Using an ABABB' single case experimental design, positive reinforcement was found to be effective for increasing the child's verbal responsiveness. At a 1-year follow-up, therapeutic benefits were maintained at an optimal level. The present results bring support to the use of reinforcement procedures in the case of reluctant speech.

  4. Successful Teachers Develop Academic Momentum with Reluctant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, David

    2008-01-01

    In a series of investigations, the author and his colleagues have examined ways that students who once did poorly in school made progress and how their teachers nurtured their accomplishments. They have chronicled ways that successful teachers learned to understand why students are reluctant to do their work, how to help them think through their…

  5. More Rip-Roaring Reads for Reluctant Teen Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Bette D.; Sherman, Gale W.

    This publication describes 40 fiction and nonfiction titles for grades 5 through 12 that will get the attention of even the most reluctant readers. Books range from humor and romance to adventure, mystery, and the supernatural. The titles were chosen based on the following criteria: recent publication date; relatively short length; appealing…

  6. Reluctant Middle School ELLs: Creating Conditions for Quality Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide middle level educators with an orientation to an intervention designed to facilitate reluctant middle school English language learners (ELLs) engagement in quality schoolwork. The article introduces a new investigation of English language learning through the lens of Glasser's Quality School and Choice…

  7. Giving Voice to Reluctant Learners: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to hear from reluctant learners about their perceptions of their experiences in middle school and the meanings they make from these. This study will give voice to students, a stakeholder group that has been traditionally silent in the literature on K-12 learning and achievement. Capturing the perceptions…

  8. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  9. The Story of Sam: Advancing Proficiency in Reluctant Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Tammy Dann, describes the issues presented by a reluctant learner in a foreign language class and the strategies required to see effective change. The student described in the article struggled to learn or had difficulty paying attention in the Spanish language class. One strategy used was "LinguaFolio Jr." for students…

  10. Variable-reluctance motors for electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Vallese, F.J.; Lang, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, operation, and expected performance of a 60-kW variable-reluctance motor and inverter-designed for electric vehicle propulsion. To substantiate the performance of this system, experimental data obtained with a prototype 3.8-kW motor and inverter are provided.

  11. Electromagnetic Radial Forces in a Hybrid Eight-Stator-Pole, Six-Rotor-Pole Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  12. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  13. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  14. Machine learning for large-scale wearable sensor data in Parkinson's disease: Concepts, promises, pitfalls, and futures.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Ken J; Chen, Jason A; Little, Max A

    2016-09-01

    For the treatment and monitoring of Parkinson's disease (PD) to be scientific, a key requirement is that measurement of disease stages and severity is quantitative, reliable, and repeatable. The last 50 years in PD research have been dominated by qualitative, subjective ratings obtained by human interpretation of the presentation of disease signs and symptoms at clinical visits. More recently, "wearable," sensor-based, quantitative, objective, and easy-to-use systems for quantifying PD signs for large numbers of participants over extended durations have been developed. This technology has the potential to significantly improve both clinical diagnosis and management in PD and the conduct of clinical studies. However, the large-scale, high-dimensional character of the data captured by these wearable sensors requires sophisticated signal processing and machine-learning algorithms to transform it into scientifically and clinically meaningful information. Such algorithms that "learn" from data have shown remarkable success in making accurate predictions for complex problems in which human skill has been required to date, but they are challenging to evaluate and apply without a basic understanding of the underlying logic on which they are based. This article contains a nontechnical tutorial review of relevant machine-learning algorithms, also describing their limitations and how these can be overcome. It discusses implications of this technology and a practical road map for realizing the full potential of this technology in PD research and practice. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Optimization of a Small Scale Linear Reluctance Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Thor; Beard, Robby

    2011-11-01

    Reluctance accelerators are extremely promising future methods of transportation. Several problems still plague these devices, most prominently low efficiency. Variables to overcoming efficiency problems are many and difficult to correlate how they affect our accelerator. The study examined several differing variables that present potential challenges in optimizing the efficiency of reluctance accelerators. These include coil and projectile design, power supplies, switching, and the elusive gradient inductance problem. Extensive research in these areas has been performed from computational and theoretical to experimental. Findings show that these parameters share significant similarity to transformer design elements, thus general findings show current optimized parameters the research suggests as a baseline for further research and design. Demonstration of these current findings will be offered at the time of presentation.

  16. Controlled power transfer from wind driven reluctance generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rahim, Y.H.A.; Al-Sabbagh, A.M.L.

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes the dynamic performance of a wind driven reluctance generator connected to an electric network of large capacity. A controller that makes possible the regular flow of power to the network has been considered. Controller parameters that successfully suppress unwanted mechanical and electrical stresses and overshoots due to wind gust, have been estimated. The performance of the controller has also been examined for short-circuit faults at the terminals of the generators.

  17. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  18. A Computational Proof of Concept of a Machine-Intelligent Artificial Pancreas Using Lyapunov Stability and Differential Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gunton, Jenny E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study demonstrated the novel application of a “machine-intelligent” mathematical structure, combining differential game theory and Lyapunov-based control theory, to the artificial pancreas to handle dynamic uncertainties. Methods: Realistic type 1 diabetes (T1D) models from the literature were combined into a composite system. Using a mixture of “black box” simulations and actual data from diabetic medical histories, realistic sets of diabetic time series were constructed for blood glucose (BG), interstitial fluid glucose, infused insulin, meal estimates, and sometimes plasma insulin assays. The problem of underdetermined parameters was side stepped by applying a variant of a genetic algorithm to partial information, whereby multiple candidate-personalized models were constructed and then rigorously tested using further data. These formed a “dynamic envelope” of trajectories in state space, where each trajectory was generated by a hypothesis on the hidden T1D system dynamics. This dynamic envelope was then culled to a reduced form to cover observed dynamic behavior. A machine-intelligent autonomous algorithm then implemented game theory to construct real-time insulin infusion strategies, based on the flow of these trajectories through state space and their interactions with hypoglycemic or near-hyperglycemic states. Results: This technique was tested on 2 simulated participants over a total of fifty-five 24-hour days, with no hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic events, despite significant uncertainties from using actual diabetic meal histories with 10-minute warnings. In the main case studies, BG was steered within the desired target set for 99.8% of a 16-hour daily assessment period. Tests confirmed algorithm robustness for ±25% carbohydrate error. For over 99% of the overall 55-day simulation period, either formal controller stability was achieved to the desired target or else the trajectory was within the desired target. Conclusions

  19. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  20. Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain–machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications

    PubMed Central

    Astrand, Elaine; Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2014-01-01

    Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenous cognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitive disorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy, and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from non-invasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decode attention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked-in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any

  1. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Livesey, M

    1991-01-01

    A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

  2. Petroleum staff reluctance and adjustment to innovative changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makasheva, Yu S.; Makasheva, N. P.; Remnyakov, V. V.; Burykhin, B. S.; Shenderova, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    The modern economy is developing in the direction of innovations implementation. Innovations are becoming the basic prerequisite for the competitiveness of the enterprises. The Russian oil and gas sector innovation issue is very crucial. Low innovation activity of companies could result in a serious threat due to the strong global competition, increased uncertainty and risks. The need for innovative changes often meets reluctance. The reasons of it vary and require serious research. Managers should give special attention to the development of adjustment ability of the staff, to introduce modern methods for improving the adjustment potential of the enterprise staff.

  3. Parameter measurement of synchronous reluctance motor using LC resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joonseon; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Ju

    2006-04-01

    The motor characterizing parameters are most important factors to drive precisely, effectively, and robustly. Especially, the exact knowledge of synchronous inductance is necessary to control the torque precisely in synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM). Therefore many works have been done for the exact measurement of motor parameters. In this paper, we propose the simple method of measuring the motor parameters, especially measuring the synchronous inductance of SynRM, which can overcome the demerits of conventional methods and measure the exact values. The proposed method uses the resonance phenomenon between the phase inductance and capacitors externally connected.

  4. Reluctant entrepreneurs: professionally qualified Asian migrants in small business.

    PubMed

    Ip, D F

    1993-01-01

    "The abandonment of the White Australia Policy after World War II and the implementation of a points system in Australia's immigration program have led to a dramatic increase in the number of highly educated Asian migrants in the country. A study of 144 entrepreneurs of small business in the Indian and Chinese communities in Brisbane and Sydney found that, faced with institutionalized blockages, few of these highly educated migrants could practice what they were originally trained for. The majority of them, with their class resources, determination and optimism, became reluctant entrepreneurs."

  5. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  6. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  7. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program. Phase 5: A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Neukom, Christian; Nishimura, Sayuri; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell; Smith, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This is the Software Concept Document for the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) being developed as part of Phase V of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Progam. The approach taken in this program since its inception in 1984 is that of incremental development with clearly defined phases. Phase 1 began in 1984 and subsequent phases have progressed at approximately 10-16 month intervals. Each phase of development consists of planning, setting requirements, preliminary design, detailed design, implementation, testing, demonstration and documentation. Phase 5 began with an off-site planning meeting in November, 1990. It is expected that Phase 5 development will be complete and ready for demonstration to invited visitors from industry, government and academia in May, 1992. This document, produced during the preliminary design period of Phase 5, is intended to record the top level design concept for MIDAS as it is currently conceived. This document has two main objectives: (1) to inform interested readers of the goals of the MIDAS Phase 5 development period, and (2) to serve as the initial version of the MIDAS design document which will be continuously updated as the design evolves. Since this document is written fairly early in the design period, many design issues still remain unresolved. Some of the unresolved issues are mentioned later in this document in the sections on specific components. Readers are cautioned that this is not a final design document and that, as the design of MIDAS matures, some of the design ideas recorded in this document will change. The final design will be documented in a detailed design document published after the demonstrations.

  8. Writing in Context: Reluctant Writers and Their Writing at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the engagement with writing of reluctant writers in the contexts of home and school. A structured and semi-structured survey method was used to capture responses from 106 reluctant writers in 9 primary schools (age range 6--9 year olds) in the UK. Findings show that although these students were deemed to be reluctant…

  9. Variable reluctance proximity sensors for cryogenic valve position indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloyd, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A test was conducted to determine the performance of a variable reluctance proximity sensor system when installed in a space shuttle external tank vent/relief valve. The sensors were used as position indicators. The valve and sensors were cycled through a series of thermal transients; while the valve was being opened and closed pneumatically, the sensor's performance was being monitored. During these thermal transients, the vent valve was cooled ten times by liquid nitrogen and two times by liquid hydrogen. It was concluded that the sensors were acceptable replacements for the existing mechanical switches. However, the sensors need a mechanical override for the target similar to what is presently used with the mechanical switches. This override could insure contact between sensor and target and eliminate any problems of actuation gap growth caused by thermal gradients.

  10. Finite element analysis and performance study of switched reluctance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianhan; Guo, Yingjun; Xu, Qi; Yu, Xiaoying; Guo, Yajie

    2017-03-01

    Analyses a three-phase 12/8 switched reluctance generator (SRG) which is based on its structure and performance principle. The initial size data were calculated by MathCAD, and the simulation model was set up in the ANSOFT software environment with the maximum efficiency and the maximum output power as the main reference parameters. The outer diameter of the stator and the inner diameter of the rotor were parameterized. The static magnetic field distribution, magnetic flux, magnetic energy, torque, inductance characteristics, back electromotive force and phase current waveform of SRG is obtained by analyzing the static magnetic field and the steady state motion of two-dimensional transient magnetic field in ANSOFT environment. Finally, the experimental data of the prototype are compared with the simulation results, which provide a reliable basis for the design and research of SRG wind turbine system.

  11. Development of a Switched Reluctance Motor made of Permendur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Ichinokura, O.

    2011-01-01

    A switched reluctance (SR) motor consists of stator and rotor cores, and windings. Both the stator and rotor have salient poles. The stator has concentrated windings on each salient pole. On the other hand, the rotor has no windings and no permanent magnets. Therefore, the SR motor is a low cost, extremely robust, and wide-range variable-speed motor. The performance of the SR motor greatly depends on magnetic properties of core material since it consists of only iron cores and windings. This paper presents the development of a novel SR motor made of permendur which has extremely high saturation flux density and very low core loss. Two types of SR motors, one is made of conventional non-oriented Si steel, the other is made of permendur, are compared by simulation and experiment. It is demonstrated that the torque of the SR motor made of permendur is greater than that of the conventional Si steel by 20%.

  12. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  13. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  14. Negotiating vaccine acceptance in an era of reluctance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J

    2013-08-01

    Studies to better understand the determinants of vaccine acceptance have expanded to include more investigation into dynamics of individual decision-making as well as the influences of peers and social networks. Vaccine acceptance is determined by a range of factors, from structural issues of supply, costs and access to services, as well as the more demand-side determinants. The term vaccine hesitancy is increasingly used in the investigation of demand-side determinants, moving away from the more polarized framing of pro- and anti-vaccine groups to recognizing the importance of understanding and engaging those who are delaying vaccination, accepting only some vaccines, or who are yet undecided, but reluctant. As hesitancy is a state of indecision, it is difficult to measure, but the stage of indecision is a critical time to engage and support the decision-making process. This article suggests modes of investigating the determinants of vaccine confidence and levers of vaccine acceptance toward better engagement and dialogue early in the process of decision-making. Pressure to vaccinate can be counter-productive. Listening and dialog can support individual decision-making and more effectively inform the public health community of the issues and concerns influencing vaccine hesitancy.

  15. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, J. H.; Vallese, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output.

  16. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  17. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  18. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  19. Electrical machines and assemblies including a yokeless stator with modular lamination stacks

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Lopez, Fulton Jose

    2010-04-06

    An electrical machine includes a rotor with an inner rotor portion and an outer rotor portion, and a double-sided yokeless stator. The yokeless stator includes modular lamination stacks and is configured for radial magnetic flux flow. The double-sided yokeless stator is concentrically disposed between the inner rotor portion and the outer rotor portion of the electrical machine. Examples of particularly useful embodiments for the electrical machine include wind turbine generators, ship propulsion motors, switch reluctance machines and double-sided synchronous machines.

  20. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications. PMID:22969364

  1. Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Rick, Albert J.; Cha, Jennifer; Bastani, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they are reluctant to recommend colorectal cancer screening to their Korean patients. Results Physicians identified barriers attributable to themselves (i.e., lack of knowledge, fear of medicolegal liability), their patients (i.e., patient’s unfamiliarity with the concept of screening), and the health care system (i.e., lack of referral network, poor reimbursement). Discussion Our results suggest the need for multi-faceted interventions directed at the physicians, their patients, and the health care system. Further research is needed to validate our results and to assess the extent to which they apply to physicians from other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18607728

  2. Performances comparées des machines à aimants et à réluctance variable. Maximisation du couple massique ou volumique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, D.; Llibre, J. F.

    1995-10-01

    The subject of this article is to compare the performances of electrical machines using three different principles of functioning which are recently exploited. We consider possibilities to realise actuators with high torque and power per unit of mass for direct drive applications. The three different machines involved in the comparison are: (i) the classical synchronous structure with permanent magnets in the inductor, (ii) the vernier reluctance structure, (iii) the vernier reluctance structure with permanent magnets. To allow a good comparison, the architecture of those three motors has to be identical, particularly the shape of the main elements. L'objet de cet article est de comparer directement, pour la première fois à notre connaissance, les performances de machines électriques mettant en oeuvre trois principes de fonctionnement différents, très récemment exploités. Nous examinons les possibilités de réalisation d'actionneurs à fort couple et puissance massique élevée, pour des applications d'entraînement direct, conçus à partir soit d'une structure synchrone classique utilisant des aimants pour l'inducteur, soit d'une structure à réluctance variable vernier soit, enfin, d'un dispositif combinant l'effet de réluctance variable à l'utilisation d'aimants. Pour permettre une comparaison réellement directe, l'architecture des trois moteurs exploitant les concepts évoqués, ainsi que la forme de leurs principales pièces, seront pratiquement identiques.

  3. Life Style Counseling for a Reluctant Leisure Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Jean

    1972-01-01

    The author suggests that mature women seek life styles that can provide integration, structure, meaning, and the opportunity for growth and creativity. Traditional career theories don't fit, but a life style counseling concept does. (Author)

  4. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  5. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  6. Contribution a l'etude et a la conception d'une machine synchrone a flux transverse destinee au degivrage d'aeronefs en cours de vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussetoua, Mohammed

    feeding the hearting system. In recent years, numerous research studies have started on the development of electromechanical system converters for various applications, such as transport by road, rail or aviation. The development of new low-speed, low-weight electric machines and their very high degree of compactness has become a very promising alternative. This project strongly interests many industries in the field of air transport. The transverse flux machine is considered as a compact structure having better mass power compared to other electrical machines. The design of transverse flux machine was the subject of an electromagnetic study. Also, the analytical study helped to determine the overall dimensions of the machine. The study was followed by a validation phase of the analytical model using numerical simulations. These two studies were intended to determine changes in the characteristics of the transverse flux machine according to the different geometric dimensions of its active parts. From the calculations made using analytical and numerical models, a prototype of the transverse flux machine (600 W, 320 RPM) was designed and manufactured in the AMIL laboratory at the Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi (UQAC). A bench test was conducted to compare the theoretical and experimental results. The measurements obtained on this prototype were compared with the theoretical results. This phase of the study demonstrates with satisfaction, the reliability of the theoretical models developed. Finally, a new configuration of this machine has been proposed. Numerical simulation results of this structure are particularly encouraging and require further investigations. For logistical and financial reasons, the prototype of this configuration has not been manufactured. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video…

  8. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  9. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  10. Addressing Reticence: The Challenge of Engaging Reluctant Adult ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…

  11. Counseling Involuntary and Reluctant Students: An Obsolete Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMay, Morris L.

    1971-01-01

    The methods compared in an attempt to identify a practical means of working with disciplinary referrals all became obsolete by the time the study was completed. The changing nature of the college scene and the demise of the concept of in loco parentis probably have negated any practical value of this study. (Author)

  12. Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

  13. Farm Owners' Reluctance to Embrace Family Succession and the Implications for Extension: The Case of Family Farms in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, P. L.; Old, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the benefits of early planning for business succession, and plan implementation, many owners/managers fail to act expeditiously. Factors such as a reluctance to accept ageing, a concern over the risks involved and inappropriate objectives may be causative. This research moves towards explaining this reluctance and, consequently,…

  14. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system.

  15. Design and implementation of a five-hp, switched reluctance, fuel-lube, pump motor drive for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.A.; Jones, S.R.; Drager, B.T.; Heglund, W.S. )

    1995-01-01

    A new switched reluctance (SR) fuel/lube (F/L) pump system has been developed for a gas turbine engine application. The system is rated at 5 hp, 270 Vdc, 12.5 krpm maximum operating speed, and consists of a SR machine mounted on the F/L pump shaft, an inverter, and an electronic controller. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and performance of the system. The system can use one of two methods for rotor position sensing, either a resolver or electronic position sensing (EPS). The F/L pump system has undergone extensive performance testing with the resolver. Currently, testing is underway using electronic position sensing. Test results are given to validate the system design and compare the performance using both approaches to position sensing. System efficiency is about 82% at full load.

  16. "You Play on Them. They're Active." Enhancing the Mathematics Learning of Reluctant Teenage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Nigel; Campbell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that examined the beliefs and attitudes of reluctant 16 to 18-year-old learners when using apps in their numeracy and literacy programmes. In particular, it considers the students' change of attitude towards numeracy learning. The data were consistent that the use of apps in the numeracy programme was…

  17. Turning Them on: How Does a Teacher Reach the Reluctant Learner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmann, David

    2007-01-01

    Over a 27-year teaching career in schools in North London and the Zambian bush I have relished the challenge of helping the disaffected or reluctant learner. Most of my teaching was in the area of business and vocational education, where learners have often been placed not through choice but because they were not seen as high enough achievers to…

  18. High/Low Handbook: Best Books and Web Sites for Reluctant Teen Readers. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiBretto, Ellen V.; Barr, Catherine

    This handbook is a practical guide to the selection of high-interest, low-reading-level books and Web sites that will inspire a love of reading in teenagers who fall within the category of reluctant readers. It is especially useful for professionals in school and public libraries charged with building collections of suitable titles for these…

  19. Online Statistics Labs in MSW Research Methods Courses: Reducing Reluctance toward Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Choi, Eunhee; Friedline, Terri

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of an online statistics lab as part of a foundations research methods course for master's-level social work students. The article discusses factors that contribute to an environment in social work that fosters attitudes of reluctance toward learning and teaching statistics in research methods…

  20. The "Reluctant" State and the Beginning of the End of State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that English education policy has come full-circle--from the first constitution of a state system of education in 1870 to the beginning of the end of state education in 2010--and that this circularity can be understood in relation to the reluctant state. That is, in the nineteenth century, the English state hesitantly and slowly…

  1. The Reasons for the Reluctance of Princess Alia University College Students' from Practicing Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odat, Jebril

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the reasons lying behind the reluctance of participation in sport activities among Alia Princess College female students, using descriptive approach. The population of the study consisted of (2000) female students, whereas the sample was of (200) students. They were randomly selected and a questionnaire of 31…

  2. Mathematical Tasks without Words and Word Problems: Perceptions of Reluctant Problem Solvers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, Sydney Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study used a multiple, holistic case study approach (Yin, 2009) to explore the perceptions of reluctant problem solvers related to mathematical tasks without words and word problems. Participants were given a choice of working a mathematical task without words or a word problem during four problem-solving sessions. Data…

  3. Identification of multi-modal plasma responses to applied magnetic perturbations using the plasma reluctance

    DOE PAGES

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Park, Jong-Kyu; ...

    2016-05-03

    Using the plasma reluctance, the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code is able to efficiently identify the structure of multi-modal magnetic plasma response measurements and the corresponding impact on plasma performance in the DIII-D tokamak. Recent experiments demonstrated that multiple kink modes of comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n = 2. This multi-modal response is in good agreement with ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, but detailed decompositions presented here show that the mode structures are not fully described by either the least stable modes or the resonant plasma response. This paper identifies the measured response fieldsmore » as the first eigenmodes of the plasma reluctance, enabling clear diagnosis of the plasma modes and their impact on performance from external sensors. The reluctance shows, for example, how very stable modes compose a significant portion of the multi-modal plasma response field and that these stable modes drive significant resonant current. Finally, this work is an overview of the first experimental applications using the reluctance to interpret the measured response and relate it to multifaceted physics, aimed towards providing the foundation of understanding needed to optimize nonaxisymmetric fields for independent control of stability and transport.« less

  4. Success with Reluctant Researchers: Real Life Experiences in a Rural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Hall, Meada; Branson, Terri A.

    For five years, a collaborative team consisting of a special education teacher, a general education teacher, and a university professor conducted research studies in a rural secondary school. Although the general education teacher initially was reluctant to participate in a research project, especially one that involved students with disabilities,…

  5. The Integrated Curriculum: Books for Reluctant Readers, Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    Demonstrating that reading can and should be part of every curricular area, this book provides a wide selection of activities developed for 39 books selected on the basis of their interest level and application to the needs of reluctant readers in grades 2 through 5. The first part of the book presents guidelines for motivating students and…

  6. Identification of multi-modal plasma responses to applied magnetic perturbations using the plasma reluctance

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Park, Jong-Kyu; Nazikian, Raffi

    2016-05-03

    Using the plasma reluctance, the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code is able to efficiently identify the structure of multi-modal magnetic plasma response measurements and the corresponding impact on plasma performance in the DIII-D tokamak. Recent experiments demonstrated that multiple kink modes of comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n = 2. This multi-modal response is in good agreement with ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, but detailed decompositions presented here show that the mode structures are not fully described by either the least stable modes or the resonant plasma response. This paper identifies the measured response fields as the first eigenmodes of the plasma reluctance, enabling clear diagnosis of the plasma modes and their impact on performance from external sensors. The reluctance shows, for example, how very stable modes compose a significant portion of the multi-modal plasma response field and that these stable modes drive significant resonant current. Finally, this work is an overview of the first experimental applications using the reluctance to interpret the measured response and relate it to multifaceted physics, aimed towards providing the foundation of understanding needed to optimize nonaxisymmetric fields for independent control of stability and transport.

  7. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  8. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  9. Culture and Demography: From Reluctant Bedfellows to Committed Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Demography and culture have had a long but ambivalent relationship. Cultural influences are widely recognized as important for demographic outcomes, but are often “backgrounded” in demographic research. I argue that progress towards a more successful integration is feasible and suggest a network model of culture as a potential tool. The network model bridges both traditional (holistic and institutional) and contemporary (tool kit) models of culture used in the social sciences and offers a simple vocabulary for the diverse set of cultural concepts such as attitudes, beliefs and norms, and quantitative measures of how culture is organized. The proposed model conceptualizes culture as a nested network of meanings which are represented by schemas that range in complexity from simple concepts to multifaceted cultural models. I illustrate the potential value of a model using accounts of the cultural changes underpinning the transformation of marriage in the U.S. and point to developments in the social, cognitive and computational sciences that could facilitate the application of the model in empirical demographic research. PMID:24338643

  10. Impact of interviewers' supportive comments and children's reluctance to cooperate during sexual abuse disclosure.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Jennifer; Cyr, Mireille; Dion, Jacinthe

    2015-05-01

    In the field of child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, many studies have been conducted on the impact of interviewers' questioning style, but few have examined the impact of interviewers' supportive comments on children's cooperative and reluctant disclosure of substantive details. This field study used a sample of children ranging from 4 to 13 years of age who have all disclosed CSA. The first objective was to examine if the interviewer's and the child's comments during CSA interviews would vary as a function of the use of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol. The second objective was to identify the strongest correlates of the proportion of details disclosed by the children during forensic interviews. A total of 90 matched NICHD Protocol and non-Protocol interviews done by the same interviewers were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using verbal subscales. The goal was to explore if differences exist between the interviewers' supportive and non-supportive comments as well as children's cooperative and reluctant statements during investigative interviews conducted prior to or after the NICHD Protocol training. Results of a MANCOVA showed that the use of the NICHD Protocol had no influence on interviewers' and children's demeanors. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis controlling for relevant variables (e.g., child's age and NICHD Protocol) showed that children's reluctance and interviewers' non-support were associated with a lesser proportion of details. Overall, these results indicate that in order to promote detailed disclosure of CSA, interviewers should decrease their non-supportive comments and learn to deal more effectively with children's reluctance during forensic interviews. As such, protocols and training should encourage investigative interviewers to devote more time identifying early signs of children's verbal reluctance and to understand the negative impact of non-supportive comments on the disclosure of

  11. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  12. Machine characterization based on an abstract high-level language machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.; Smith, Alan Jay; Miya, Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Measurements are presented for a large number of machines ranging from small workstations to supercomputers. The authors combine these measurements into groups of parameters which relate to specific aspects of the machine implementation, and use these groups to provide overall machine characterizations. The authors also define the concept of pershapes, which represent the level of performance of a machine for different types of computation. A metric based on pershapes is introduced that provides a quantitative way of measuring how similar two machines are in terms of their performance distributions. The metric is related to the extent to which pairs of machines have varying relative performance levels depending on which benchmark is used.

  13. Loading characteristic and optimum switching conditions of multistack variable reluctance type stepping motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. F.; Bell, R.

    1984-02-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between the angular positional error of the rotor of a multistack variable reluctance type stepping motor and the average motor torque at various operating speeds. The relationships have been established theoretically using a linear model and experimentally using a lag measuring circuit over the slewing range of stepping rates. With the help of this approach the dynamic performance of this type of steppers has been studied and its limits defined.

  14. Influence of magnetic reluctances of magnetic elements on servo valve torque motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changhai; Jiang, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The current research of electro-hydraulic servo valves mainly focuses on the vibration, pressure oscillating and source of noise. Unfortunately, literatures relating to the study of the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements are rarely available. This paper aims to analyze the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements on torque motor. Considering these magnetic reluctances ignored in previous literatures, a new mathematical model of servo valve torque motor is developed and proposed based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. By using this new mathematical model and the previous models, electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness are evaluated for a given set of torque motor parameters. A computer simulation by using AMESim software is also performed for the same set of torque motor parameters to verify the proposed model. The theoretical results of electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness evaluated by the proposed model render closer agreement with the simulation results than those evaluated by the previous models. In addition, an experimental measurement of the magnetic flux densities in the air-gaps is carried out by using SFL218 servo valve torque motor. Compared with the theoretical results of the magnetic flux densities in the air-gaps evaluated by the previous models, the theoretical results evaluated by the proposed model also show better agreement with the experimental data. The proposed model shows the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements on the servo valve torque motor, and offers modified and analytical expressions to electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness. These modified and analytical expressions could provide guidance more accurately for a linear control design approach and sensitivity analysis on electro-hydraulic servo valves than the previous expressions.

  15. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Plass, Anne Marie C; Lems, Willem F; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Background The Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial has proved that combination therapy with prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine is superior to sulphasalazine monotherapy in suppressing disease activity and radiological progression of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, 5 years of follow‐up proved that COBRA therapy results in sustained reduction of the rate of radiological progression. Despite this evidence, Dutch rheumatologists seem reluctant to prescribe COBRA therapy. Objective To explore the reasons for the reluctance in Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe COBRA therapy. Methods A short structured questionnaire based on social–psychological theories of behaviour was sent to all Dutch rheumatologists (n = 230). Results The response rate was 50%. COBRA therapy was perceived as both effective and safe, but complex to administer. Furthermore, rheumatologists expressed their concern about the large number of pills that had to be taken, the side effects of high‐dose prednisolone and the low dose of methotrexate. Although the average attitude towards the COBRA therapy was slightly positive (above the neutral point), the majority of responding rheumatologists had a negative intention (below the neutral point) to prescribe COBRA therapy in the near future. Conclusion The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient‐related consequences of the therapy. PMID:17392349

  16. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  17. A Description of a Design Method of a Claw Teeth Motor on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Reluctance Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Koyama, Takayuki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) have the following advantages: three-dimensional magnetic isotropy, high resistivity, and recyclability. By using SMC, therefore, a new concept motor with a three-dimensional structure can be developed. Its power-to-space ratio and efficiency can be improved since the space factor of winding and the space utilization factor of the motor is increased. This paper describes a design method of a claw teeth motor made of SMC by reluctance network analysis (RNA)-based experimental design. First, a three-dimensional RNA model of the claw teeth motor is presented. Next, the RNA-based experimental design of the claw teeth motor is presented. As a result, the average torque is improved by approximately 50%. In addition, the calculation time required for the design is significantly reduced by the proposed design method.

  18. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  19. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  20. Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.

  1. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  2. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  3. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  4. Basic Machines. Navy Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This document is a reference for the enlisted men in the Navy whose duties require knowledge of the fundamentals of machinery. Beginning with the simplest of machines--the lever--the book proceeds with the discussion of block and tackle, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw and gears. It explains the concepts of work and power, and differentiates…

  5. Reluctance to Accept Alcohol Treatment by Alcoholic Liver Disease Transplant Patients: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cathy M.; Schofield, Toni; Gribble, Robert; Day, Carolyn A.; Haber, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation (LT) is the optimum treatment for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, despite a recognized risk of relapse to harmful drinking, ALD transplant patients are reluctant to use speciality alcohol treatment to support their abstinence, even when offered within the LT context. This study aimed to understand and identify factors contributing to alcohol treatment reluctance by ALD patients undergoing transplantation. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study of ALD transplant patients. Minimally structured face-to-face interviews explored participants' alcohol-related experiences and their reasons for not using alcohol treatment during the course of their transplantation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret interview data to understand treatment reluctance based on participants' experiences. Results Five major themes were identified among 3 subgroups of patients (pretransplant and posttransplant abstainers and posttransplant relapsers): (i) the “contract” of mandatory abstinence, (ii) the “gap in the program” involving the lack of candour between patient and staff about alcohol-related matters and the lack of addiction services, (iii) a preference by participants to self-manage their alcohol use disorder, (iv) social support as a facilitator of abstinence and the risk of relapse when social support is diminished, and (v) the fear of stigmatization. Each of these factors were dynamically interrelated and differed slightly for each subgroup. Conclusions The LT services may benefit from the inclusion of integrated specialist addiction services in their model of care. Such an approach may enhance the acceptability of alcohol treatment and reduce the risk of relapse among ALD transplant participants, especially for those whose social supports have diminished. PMID:27795986

  6. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  7. Extensive Reading Program Which Changes Reluctant Engineering Students into Autonomous Learners of English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Takayoshi; Itoh, Kazuaki

    This article introduces extensive reading (ER) as an approach to improve fundamental communication skills in English of reluctant EFL learners : average Japanese engineering students. It is distinct from concurrent translation approach from a perspective that the learners use English instead of Japanese to grasp the meaning of what they read and enjoy reading. In the ER program at Toyota National College of Technology, many students developed more positive attitude toward English, increased their reading speed, and achieved higher TOEIC scores, which was compared to those of the students before this ER program was introduced. Comparison between three groups of the students showed strong correlation between their TOEIC scores and the reading amount.

  8. My snowflake is so unique … Experiences of a reluctant Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Kearns, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    As with many data scientists, this wasn't my initial career objective. In fact it wasn't even seen as a viable option at that time. However I needed to manage data for my physical science projects and the teams I supported, so I reluctantly accepted this task as part of my "real" science job. Over the years, many challenges have been solved, that then allow us the ability to address more difficult issues. This presentation will address current data scientist challenges from a "real" scientist's perspective at a federal archive.

  9. Improvements of Power Factor and Torque of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor with a Slit Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashiki, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshimitu; Kawai, Youichi; Yokochi, Takanori; Satake, Akiyoshi; Okuma, Shigeru

    Power factor and torque of synchronous reluctance motors with a slit rotor are studied. In there stators, divided teeth made of powder magnetic core are adopted and windings are improved to get high space factor of stator windings and to shorten coil ends. In there rotors, stainless sheets are inserted among soft magnetic metal sheets with adhesive to strengthen the rotors and rotor structure is improved to enlarge the saliency ratio (Ld/Lq). As the result, the power factor 0.78 and 1.6 times torque at same motor size are attained.

  10. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  11. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  12. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  13. Rough set models of Physarum machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancerz, Krzysztof; Schumann, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider transition system models of behaviour of Physarum machines in terms of rough set theory. A Physarum machine, a biological computing device implemented in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (true slime mould), is a natural transition system. In the behaviour of Physarum machines, one can notice some ambiguity in Physarum motions that influences exact anticipation of states of machines in time. To model this ambiguity, we propose to use rough set models created over transition systems. Rough sets are an appropriate tool to deal with rough (ambiguous, imprecise) concepts in the universe of discourse.

  14. Facial attractiveness: beauty and the machine.

    PubMed

    Eisenthal, Yael; Dror, Gideon; Ruppin, Eytan

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a novel study of the notion of facial attractiveness in a machine learning context. To this end, we collected human beauty ratings for data sets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face. The trained predictor achieves a significant correlation of 0.65 with the average human ratings. The results clearly show that facial beauty is a universal concept that a machine can learn. Analysis of the accuracy of the beauty prediction machine as a function of the size of the training data indicates that a machine producing human-like attractiveness rating could be obtained given a moderately larger data set.

  15. Torque Ripple Reduction of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors Using Asymmetric Flux Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramoto, Kenji; Takeda, Yoji; Sanada, Masayuki; Morimoto, Shigeo

    Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is efficient and can be operated in wide speed region; therefore it is used widely. However, torque ripple of reluctance torque assisted motors, for example IPMSM and synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM), is very large. The skew is known in the prior art as a torque ripple reduction method of AC motors. Although the skew is effective for torque ripple reduction, structure is complicated and it has the disadvantage that average torque will decrease. The discontinuous variation of magnetic resistance between flux barriers and teeth cause the torque ripple. In this paper, in order to ease the discontinuous variation of magnetic resistance, flux barriers are asymmetrically designed so that the relative position relation between flux barriers and teeth may not be in agreement as much as possible. As a result, the torque ripple can be reduced dramatically without the average torque decrease. The experimental motor has been fabricated and the results of measuring torque ripple prove the validity of the torque ripple reduction using asymmetric flux barriers.

  16. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  17. The AERA Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    electrgnic tabular displays ( ETABS ). - , This concept document was prepared by a team of ATC experts to review prior work, the on-going AERA program, and to...Address Beacon System (DABS), trajectory modeling and planning algorithms, and electronic tabular displays ( ETABS ). This concept document was...capability, and a Flight Management System. The development of AERA requires major efforts in system design and software and man-machine interface

  18. Formation of failure matrix and failure-free control algorithm for multi-sectioned Switched-reluctance drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Rozayev, I.

    2014-10-01

    We review fault-tolerant switched reluctance drive with sectioning of the three-phase stator winding. In the operating process of an electric drive, there will be continuous monitoring of the operating state on the basis of a developed algorithm to analyse drive operability and formation tabulate a failure matrix. The paper introduces a failure-free control algorithm for multi-section switch - reluctance motor with formation the assignment values of amplitude phase currents taking into account the failure matrix. We show that in an emergency such single failure or multiple failure in switched-reluctance drive it is possible to provide reduction of torque fall and pro-gressively stock depletion with providing fault-tolerance of drive system. A method of residual life evaluation is proposed on the basis of calculating the coefficient of operability of the electric drive system that gives possibility to control the endurance of electric drive in real time from operational to completely unusable.

  19. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  20. Model-based machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  1. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  2. Conoco gives shot of CO/sub 2/ to reluctant reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wash, R.

    1981-06-01

    The Ford-Geraldine Field in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas, has earned itself the title reluctant reservoir. Through initial production and a secondary recovery attempt by waterflood, the unit has yielded only approximately 1/4 of the estimated 93 million bbl of original oil in place, leaving field operators to discover a way of retrieving the approximately 70 million bbl remaining in the ground. As a solution to the field's stubbornness in giving up its oil reserves, Conoco Inc. has implemented a third recovery project involving the injection of 96.9 billion cu ft of carbon dioxide over an 8-yr period. The company hopes to recover an additional 8.45 million bbl which is 11.6% of the remaining oil in place and 9.1% of the original oil in place.

  3. High-performance prediction for variable-speed switched reluctance drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, F.; Wahsh, S.; Mohamed, A.Z.

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a simple developed nonlinear dynamic model of variable reluctance motor (VRM) based on its magnetic characteristics, considering the saturation effect. Most preliminary design work is centered on a fixed speed, or a small number of fixed speeds, even when the requirement is for operation over a wide speed range. This work deals with both constant and variable speed operation. Model development is motivated by the good performance predictions required to support and simplify the design of a high performance controller. Because the magnetization curves do not need to be pre-calculated, measured, stored, curve-fitted, or idealized the model is extremely simple, fast, and accurate. Simulation results of the phase current and torque on both chopping and single-pulse mode of operations are presented.

  4. 2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malé, G.; Lubin, T.; Mezani, S.; Lévêque, J.

    2011-03-01

    An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.

  5. Steady State Analysis Of The Variable Speed Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materu, P.; Krishnan, R.; Farzanehfard, H.

    1987-10-01

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive has recently received attention mainly because of its simple motor construction and unidirectional converter requirement. The principle of operation of the motor drive demands that the motor and converter be treated as one unit. Little has been done to develop a complete analysis of this motor-converter combination 1'2. This paper presents an approach to the steady state analysis of the SRM drive including the effects of stator winding resistance, input filter dynamics and snubber circuits which are often neglected. The analysis yields phase current waveforms providing guidelines to the optimal design of the converter and motor. A novel single-switch-per phase converter developed by one of the authors is used. The approach can be used for any other motor-converter combination.

  6. Optimal design of switched reluctance motor using two-dimensional finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Hak; Jung, Sung-In; Chun, Yon-Do; Kim, Sol; Lee, Ju; Chu, Min-Sik; Hong, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Dong-Hoon

    2002-05-01

    Switched reluctance motor (SRM) has some advantages such as low cost, high torque density, etc., but SRM has essentially high torque ripple due to its salient structure. To apply SRM to the industrial field, we have to minimize torque ripple, which is the weak point of SRM. This article introduces optimal design process of SRM using a numerical method such as two-dimensional (2D) finite element method. The electrical and geometrical design parameters have been adopted as 2D design variables. From this work, we can obtain the optimal design, which minimizes the torque ripple. We also can obtain the optimal design, which maximizes the average torque. Finally, this article presents performance comparison of two optimal designs, the minimized torque ripple, and the maximized average torque.

  7. A Global Sliding-Mode Control Scheme with Adjustable Robustness for A Linear Variable Reluctance Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin-Yuan; Lu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Jian-Shiang

    A novel global sliding-mode control (GSMC) scheme with adjustable robustness is presented in this article. The proposed scheme offers a switching function together with unperturbed system dynamics to weigh the contribution from SMC such that all of the closed-loop poles can be located within predefined regions to provide design flexibility, and the robustness of system can thus be adjusted. By this scheme, the maximal control effort and chattering level can be reduced according to designer's specifications directly. Since the switching function can initially be made to equal to zero, the adjustable performance during the entire response can be guaranteed, and the reaching condition is thus lifted. The efficacy of this scheme is demonstrated via successful implementation on a linear variable reluctance motor (LVRM) servo system. Both simulation and experimental studies further demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  8. Algebraic dual-energy magnetic analysis with application to variable reluctance motor design

    SciTech Connect

    Tolikas, M.; Lang, J.H.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The dual-energy method has been successfully employed in the calculation of static resistances, capacitances and inductances, yielding fast and accurate solutions. Two different directions can be followed in applying the method, one is the more widely known method of tubes and slices, the other is the algebraic approach and is explored further in this paper. The present literature on the algebraic dual-energy method involves trivial examples with boundaries, boundary conditions and source distributions that are easily handled. However, the geometry of the variable reluctance motor at the unaligned position, the dominating curvatures characterizing its electromagnetic field distribution and the presence of a large number of boundary conditions arising at the steel boundaries, provide a challenging exercise in the application, behavior and effectiveness of the dual-energy method in a realistic framework.

  9. An analysis of noise reduction in variable reluctance motors using pulse position randomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, Melissa C.

    1994-05-01

    The design and implementation of a control system to introduce randomization into the control of a variable reluctance motor (VRM) is presented. The goal is to reduce noise generated by radial vibrations of the stator. Motor phase commutation angles are dithered by 1 or 2 mechanical degrees to investigate the effect of randomization on acoustic noise. VRM commutation points are varied using a uniform probability density function and a 4 state Markov chain among other methods. The theory of VRM and inverter operation and a derivation of the major source of acoustic noise are developed. The experimental results show the effects of randomization. Uniform dithering and Markov chain dithering both tend to spread the noise spectrum, reducing peak noise components. No clear evidence is found to determine which is the optimum randomization scheme. The benefit of commutation angle randomization in reducing VRM loudness as perceived by humans is found to be questionable.

  10. A Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor for High Specific Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Siebert, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A 12-8 switched-reluctance motor (SRM) is studied in bearingless (or self-levitated) operation with coil currents limited to the linear region to avoid magnetic saturation. The required motoring and levitating currents are summed and go into a single motor coil per pole to obtain the highest power output of the motor by having more space for motor coil winding. Two controllers are investigated for the bearingless SRM operation. First, a model-based controller using the radial force, which is adjusted by a factor derived from finite element analysis, is presented. Then a simple and practical observation-based controller using a PD (proportional-derivative) control algorithm is presented. Both controllers were experimentally demonstrated to 6500 rpm. This paper reports the initial efforts toward eventual self levitation of a SRM operating into strong magnetic core saturation at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  11. Modeling and controller performance assessment for a switched reluctance motor drive based on setpoint relay.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, L L N; Coelho, A A R; Almeida, O M; Campos, J C T

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the implementation of a current control method for switched reluctance motors (SRMs) and presents a novel approach to the accurate on-line modeling of an SRM drive. A simple autotuning technique for the SRM drives using a PWM controller is considered. Furthermore, conventional PI control and Internal Model Control (IMC) are considered to validate this method and present corresponding robust control analysis for the process. The control structures are comparatively analyzed using standard robustness measures for stability and performance. The proposed PWM controller is simulated and a hardware prototype is then implemented using digital signal processor control to evaluate the method using a 12/8, three-phase SRM. The experimental results of the SRM drive model validates the performance of the current loop.

  12. Sexual conflict in Sepsis cynipsea: female reluctance, fertility and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Hosken, D J; Martin, O Y; Born, J; Huber, F

    2003-05-01

    Sexual conflict can elevate mating costs via male inflicted damage to females. Possible selective advantages to males include decreasing the likelihood that females remate and/or increasing females' current reproductive investment in a manner analogous to terminal reproductive investment. We investigated female mating behaviour relative to their number of previous copulations in the fly Sepsis cynipsea, and whether males accepted as first mates were more likely to be accepted again. Females were more likely to remate with new rather than original males, although there was no associated fitness benefit, and in contrast to theoretical predictions, females became less reluctant to remate as the number of previous copulations increased. Additionally, females did not increase reproductive investment as would be expected if they were ensuring their final reproductive efforts were maximized by remating. This suggests that damaging females is a pleiotropic effect which inadvertently leads to increased, not decreased, polyandry.

  13. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  14. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  15. Using the Learning Sciences and Knowledge about How People Learn to Support Reluctant and Disengaged Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    As secondary educators seek strategies to support reluctant and disengaged learners, a greater understanding of the learning sciences (how people learn) becomes more important. This article examines the emerging knowledge base on the learning sciences and investigates how what has been discoveries about how and why people learn have practical…

  16. Mechanical design of walking machines.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

    2007-01-15

    The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.

  17. MEMS electrostatic influence machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of MEMS electrostatic influence machines using electromechanical switches like the historical predecessors did two centuries ago. We find that a generator design relying entirely on standard silicon-on-insulator(SOI) micromachining is conceivable and analyze its performance by simulations. The concept appears preferable over comparable diode circuits due to its higher maximum energy, faster charging and low precharging voltage. A full electromechanical lumped-model including parasitic capacitances of the switches is built to capture the dynamic of the generator. Simulation results show that the output voltage can be exponentially bootstrapped from a very low precharging voltage so that otherwise inadequately small voltage differences or charge imbalances can be made useful.

  18. Flotation machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

    1993-08-10

    A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

  19. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  20. Using Phun to Study ``Perpetual Motion'' Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koreš, Jaroslav

    2012-05-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th- century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over the centuries numerous proposals for PM have been made, involving ever more elements of modern science in their construction. It is possible to test a variety of PM machines in the classroom using a program called Phun2 or its commercial version Algodoo.3 The programs are designed to simulate physical processes and we can easily simulate mechanical machines using them. They provide an intuitive graphical environment controlled with a mouse; a programming language is not needed. This paper describes simulations of four different (supposed) PM machines.4

  1. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oupický, P.; Jareš, D.; Václavík, J.; Vápenka, D.

    2013-04-01

    The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process) for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR) for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  2. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales.

  3. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai‘i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger’s focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being “on the radar” of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through “real talk” (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai‘i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  4. Simplified Evaluation Method of Drive Characteristics for Computer-Aided Design of Switched Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yoshiaki; Fubuki, Shingo; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    Since Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM) have simple and rugged construction, they are suitable for low-cost variable speed drives in many industrial applications. However, it is rather difficult to design the motor and to predict the drive performance because of high magnetic non-linearity of the motors. Although FEM is useful for the SRM design, one of disadvantages is a long computation time. This paper proposes a simplified and fast evaluation method of the drive characteristics of SRM whose dimensions are given. The proposed method is composed of an analytical expression of magnetizing curvebased modeling approach and a simple non-linear magnetic analysis. At first, the comparative studies using 12/8 SRM show that the calculated current waveform and stiffness characteristic of the proposed modeling approach are in good agreement with those of experiment. Secondly, it is shown that the proposed magnetic analysis provides accurate and extremely fast magnetizing curves computation for the given motor dimensions compared to 3D-FEM. From the standpoints of analytical accuracy and the required computation time, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the comparisons with 3D-FEM using two SRMs with different specifications.

  5. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.H.; Vallese, F.J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. This model agrees favorably with data available in the literature as well as experimental results presented in this thesis. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output. The corresponding inverter was designed with only three high-power switches so as to reduce its cost.

  6. Performance analysis of photovoltaic-powered water-pumping systems using switched reluctance motor drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Hamid M. B.; Anis, Wagdy R.

    A photovoltaic-powered (PV) pumping system that uses a switched reluctance motor (SRM) is investigated. The motor is supplied by a d.c. voltage through a switching circuit. The drive circuit is much simpler than the normal d.c./a.c. inverter that is required to supply the induction motor. The efficiency of the SRM is considerably higher than that of equivalent d.c. or induction motors. In addition, because of the simple construction, the SRM is cheaper. By virtue of these advantages of the SRM, the proposed system has higher efficiency and lower cost compared with other systems. A design example is studied in detail to explore the advantages of PV pumping systems based on this new drive. It is found that the operating efficiency of the motor is about 85% during most of its working time. The matching efficiency between the PV array and the proposed system approaches 95%. The major part of the losses takes place in the pump and the riser pipes; this loss represents one-third of the total available energy.

  7. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  8. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  9. A Experimental Investigation and Optimization of a Variable Reluctance Spherical Motor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Ronald B.

    1992-01-01

    In robotic wrist applications, a three degree -of-freedom variable reluctance (VR) spherical motor offers advantages over conventional mechanisms which includes its compact size, the potential of no singularities in its workspace except at its boundaries, and continuous three dimensional motion with uniform resolution. Although the principle of a VR spherical motor has been demonstrated, the modeling techniques remained to be verified. Therefore, this research investigated and further developed the magnetic modeling techniques essential to the design and control law development of a VR spherical motor. A nonlinear magnetic circuit model is presented which is composed of linear (airgap) permeance elements and nonlinear (iron) permeance elements. The model reduces the complex field distribution of the spherical motor magnetic system governed by Maxwell's equations to a tractable magnetic model. A torque prediction model is presented which determines the torque generated by the spherical motor for a given set of input currents to the coils. An experimental airgap permeance function was determined from a VR spherical motor experimental testbed utilizing the linear magnetic circuit model. The permeance function showed good agreement with the theoretical overlapping area permeance model for small pole separation angles. Flux density levels were estimated in iron "choke" points and saturation was successfully predicted. Inclusion of the iron permeance in noncritical motor iron regions improved torque predictions under saturated conditions. Finally, a methodology for optimizing the VR spherical motor's magnetics is presented. The formulation focused on the derivation of inequalities governing geometry, thermal, amplifier, saturation, and leakage flux. An example problem is presented where the motor's geometry is determined by maximizing the output torque at one rotor orientation subject to constraints. The resulting analysis provides experimental verification of modeling

  10. From dictatorship to a reluctant democracy: stroke therapists talking about self-management

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Self-management is being increasingly promoted within chronic conditions including stroke. Concerns have been raised regarding professional ownership of some programmes, yet little is known of the professional’s experience. This paper aims to present the views of trained therapists about the utility of a specific self-management approach in stroke rehabilitation. Method Eleven stroke therapists trained in the self-management approach participated in semi-structured interviews. These were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Two overriding themes emerged. The first was the sense that in normal practice therapists act as “benign dictators”, committed to help their patients, but most comfortable when they, the professional, are in control. Following the adoption of the self-management approach therapists challenged themselves to empower stroke survivors to take control of their own recovery. However, therapists had to confront many internal and external challenges in this transition of power resulting in the promotion of a somewhat “reluctant democracy”. Conclusions This study illustrates that stroke therapists desire a more participatory approach to rehabilitation. However, obstacles challenged the successful delivery of this goal. If self-management is an appropriate model to develop in post stroke pathways, then serious consideration must be given to how and if these obstacles can be overcome. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke therapists perceive that self-management is appropriate for encouraging ownership of rehabilitation post stroke. Numerous obstacles were identified as challenging the implementation of self-management post stroke. These included: professional models, practices and expectations; institutional demands and perceived wishes of stroke survivors. For self-management to be effectively implemented by stroke therapists, these obstacles must be considered and overcome. This should be as part of

  11. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  12. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  13. NuFact'03 machine working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    T.R. Edgecock; S. Machida; R.A. Rimmer

    2004-10-01

    The machine working group sessions at NuFact workshops have always been characterized by the presentation and discussion of both new ideas and the developments in existing concepts and by lively debate. The machine sessions at NuFact'03 were no exception to this. In this article, we will try and summarize the work presented and the discussion that took place.

  14. Computer Programmed Milling Machine Operations. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Dennis

    This learning module for a high school metals and manufacturing course is designed to introduce the concept of computer-assisted machining (CAM). Through it, students learn how to set up and put data into the controller to machine a part. They also become familiar with computer-aided manufacturing and learn the advantages of computer numerical…

  15. Motivation, masochism, and slot machine gambling.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David V

    2015-03-01

    In the interaction between the rapidly proliferating slot gambling machines and Americans' minds and brains, there are subtle lures that keep people playing, and that even the game devisers do not fully understand. As they project onto the random machines, people enter a zone that resembles a meditative trance I have called praying to the god of chance. Masochism as it applies to gambling is a dynamic concept that requires the suffering to be viewed by imagined and projected parental imagos, who reward the gambler with love if not gambling success. Other motivations are evident in slot machine players, such as grief gambling and a fantasy of controlling losses. While gambling is as universal as religious instincts, state sponsorship of machine gambling is a conflict of interest for government, which is established to promote the general welfare, not addict the citizenry to raise revenues.

  16. Development of synchronous machines with HTS rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Frank, M.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    Optimized design of synchronous machines can be achieved by use of HTS tape conductors. The introduction of an iron-free air-core stator winding and replacement of the rotor's copper windings by Bi-2223 tapes allows to develop very compact HTS machines with less than half the weight and volume, higher efficiency and excellent operational behavior compared to conventional devices. In consequence these rotating machines with HTS rotors become very attractive for ship drives, power generation and industrial applications. A 400 kW synchronous HTS machine was designed, manufactured and tested at Siemens. Main goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. Development of a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is currently under way.

  17. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  18. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  19. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  20. Designing Educational Social Machines for Effective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee-King, Matthew; Krivenski, Maria; Brenton, Harry; Grimalt-Reynes, Andreu; d'Inverno, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We report on our development of an educational social machine based on the concept that feedback in communities is an effective means to support the development of communities of learning and practice. Key challenges faced by this work are how best to support educational and social interactions, how to deliver personalised tuition, and how to…

  1. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  2. Differential Occurrence of Reluctant Openings in G-Protein–Inhibited N- and P/Q-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Colecraft, Henry M.; Patil, Parag G.; Yue, David T.

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent inhibition of N- and P/Q-type calcium channels by G proteins is crucial for presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release, and may contribute importantly to short-term synaptic plasticity. Such calcium-channel modulation could thereby impact significantly the neuro-computational repertoire of neural networks. The differential modulation of N and P/Q channels could even further enrich their impact upon synaptic tuning. Here, we performed in-depth comparison of the G-protein inhibition of recombinant N and P/Q channels, expressed in HEK 293 cells with the m2 muscarinic receptor. While both channel types display classic features of G-protein modulation (kinetic slowing of activation, prepulse facilitation, and voltage dependence of inhibition), we confirmed previously reported quantitative differences, with N channels displaying stronger inhibition and greater relief of inhibition by prepulses. A more fundamental, qualitative difference in the modulation of these two channels was revealed by a modified tail-activation paradigm, as well as by a novel “slope” analysis method comparing time courses of slow activation and prepulse facilitation. The stark contrast in modulatory behavior can be understood within the context of the “willing–reluctant” model, in which binding of G-protein βγ subunits to channels induces a reluctant mode of gating, where stronger depolarization is required for opening. Our experiments suggest that only N channels could be opened in the reluctant mode, at voltages normally spanned by neuronal action potentials. By contrast, P/Q channels appear to remain closed, especially over these physiological voltages. Further, the differential occurrence of reluctant openings is not explained by differences in the rate of G-protein unbinding from the two channels. These two scenarios predict very different effects of G-protein inhibition on the waveform of Ca2+ entry during action potentials, with potentially important

  3. Foundations of support constraint machines.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Giorgio; Gori, Marco; Melacci, Stefano; Sanguineti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The mathematical foundations of a new theory for the design of intelligent agents are presented. The proposed learning paradigm is centered around the concept of constraint, representing the interactions with the environment, and the parsimony principle. The classical regularization framework of kernel machines is naturally extended to the case in which the agents interact with a richer environment, where abstract granules of knowledge, compactly described by different linguistic formalisms, can be translated into the unified notion of constraint for defining the hypothesis set. Constrained variational calculus is exploited to derive general representation theorems that provide a description of the optimal body of the agent (i.e., the functional structure of the optimal solution to the learning problem), which is the basis for devising new learning algorithms. We show that regardless of the kind of constraints, the optimal body of the agent is a support constraint machine (SCM) based on representer theorems that extend classical results for kernel machines and provide new representations. In a sense, the expressiveness of constraints yields a semantic-based regularization theory, which strongly restricts the hypothesis set of classical regularization. Some guidelines to unify continuous and discrete computational mechanisms are given so as to accommodate in the same framework various kinds of stimuli, for example, supervised examples and logic predicates. The proposed view of learning from constraints incorporates classical learning from examples and extends naturally to the case in which the examples are subsets of the input space, which is related to learning propositional logic clauses.

  4. Modification of Upper Thread Tensioner of Sewing Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klouček, P.; Škop, P.

    Standard mechanical upper thread tensioner of sewing machines is more and more limited in use for industrial sewing machines due to increasing requests for quality and raising velocity of machines. If we omit mostly manual settings of force made only by sense, the most problematic things are influence of different friction coefficient of the different batch of threads and strong relation between thread tension and sewing machine velocity. The article describes the development focused to the elimination of the most significant disadvantages of a standard tensioner and mainly finding of new conception of the tensioner with electromagnetic brake, development and testing of its prototype.

  5. Plug Into "The Modernizing Machine"! Danish University Reform and Its Transformable Academic Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John Benedicto

    2013-01-01

    "The modernizing machine" codes individual bodies, things, and symbols with images from New Public Management, neo-liberal, and Knowledge Economy discourses. Drawing on Deleuze and Guattari's concept of machines, this article explores how "the modernizing machine" produces neo-liberal modernization of the public sector. Taking…

  6. Simple Machines. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In today's world, kids are aware that there are machines all around them. What they may not realize is that the function of all machines is to make work easier in some way. Simple Machines uses engaging visuals and colorful graphics to explain the concept of work and how humans use certain basic tools to help get work done. Students will learn…

  7. All about Simple Machines. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    All kids know the word "work." But they probably don't understand that work happens whenever a force is used to move something--whether it's lifting a heavy object or playing on a see-saw. All About Simple Machines introduces kids to the concepts of forces, work and how machines are used to make work easier. Six simple machines are…

  8. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  9. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  10. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  11. Progress in machine consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

  12. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  13. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  14. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  15. Measurement method for determining the magnetic hysteresis effects of reluctance actuators by evaluation of the force and flux variation.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, N H; Jansen, J W; Compter, J C; Lomonova, E A

    2013-07-01

    A measurement method is presented which identifies the magnetic hysteresis effects present in the force of linear reluctance actuators. The measurement method is applied to determine the magnetic hysteresis in the force of an E-core reluctance actuator, with and without pre-biasing permanent magnet. The force measurements are conducted with a piezoelectric load cell (Kistler type 9272). This high-bandwidth force measurement instrument is identified in the frequency domain using a voice-coil actuator that has negligible magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents. Specifically, the phase delay between the current and force of the voice-coil actuator is used for the calibration of the measurement instrument. This phase delay is also obtained by evaluation of the measured force and flux variation in the E-core actuator, both with and without permanent magnet on the middle tooth. The measured magnetic flux variation is used to distinguish the phase delay due to magnetic hysteresis from the measured phase delay between the current and the force of the E-core actuator. Finally, an open loop steady-state ac model is presented that predicts the magnetic hysteresis effects in the force of the E-core actuator.

  16. Why are some HIV/AIDS patients reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible in China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-06-01

    In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient's reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient's mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Measurement method for determining the magnetic hysteresis effects of reluctance actuators by evaluation of the force and flux variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijsen, N. H.; Jansen, J. W.; Compter, J. C.; Lomonova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    A measurement method is presented which identifies the magnetic hysteresis effects present in the force of linear reluctance actuators. The measurement method is applied to determine the magnetic hysteresis in the force of an E-core reluctance actuator, with and without pre-biasing permanent magnet. The force measurements are conducted with a piezoelectric load cell (Kistler type 9272). This high-bandwidth force measurement instrument is identified in the frequency domain using a voice-coil actuator that has negligible magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents. Specifically, the phase delay between the current and force of the voice-coil actuator is used for the calibration of the measurement instrument. This phase delay is also obtained by evaluation of the measured force and flux variation in the E-core actuator, both with and without permanent magnet on the middle tooth. The measured magnetic flux variation is used to distinguish the phase delay due to magnetic hysteresis from the measured phase delay between the current and the force of the E-core actuator. Finally, an open loop steady-state ac model is presented that predicts the magnetic hysteresis effects in the force of the E-core actuator.

  18. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  19. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  20. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Layton Carter

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  1. Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.

  2. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  3. A New Approach to Nuclear Power The Multi-Module Reactor (MMR) Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Milton E.

    2002-07-01

    While fuel cost for nuclear power is incredibly low relative to fossil fuel, the capital investment needed to build today's nuclear power plant is substantial. Utilities are reluctant to build new nuclear power plants because of the long construction time and the associated uncertainty of investment recovery. This paper introduces a new modular reactor concept, the Multi-Module Reactor (MMR), that reduces both the construction cost and time in an attempt to renew commercial interest in nuclear power. (authors)

  4. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  5. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  7. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  8. The Hooey Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  9. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  10. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  11. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  12. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  13. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  14. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  15. The Artist Can't Escape: The Artist as (Reluctant) Public Pedagogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caris, Arthur; Cowell, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how artists may recognise art as a public pedagogy whilst staying detached from the role of teacher in the traditional sense. We report on three art practices of citizens engaging in "situation art" to support and illustrate a few theoretical concepts derived from Biesta's theory of public pedagogy.…

  16. Icebreaking Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    somewhat higher because machine power P, 9) the power density of the a(- of the smaller stress concentration factor. There tive rotor surfate Q , 10...Development, Report No 731343 Tests of 102 mm dia milling 160-190 1.1-1.3 Bonz, 1973 cutters 6n floating .ce Tesis of chain saw on floating ice 1430 9.9 tlonz...toSarea Q , 10) the specific energy of the machine E,. be considered along with clearance of cuttings,* Figure 11 defines some of these symbols. The relevant

  17. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  18. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  19. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  20. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  1. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  2. [End-of-life decisions and reluctant treatment of newborns on the borderline of viability in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2005-09-10

    End-of-life decisions are taken in the majority of deaths below one year of age, especially in neonatal intensive-care units. In the Netherlands, the frequency of such decisions has not increased in recent years. Intentional termination of life occurred in 1% of the deaths, which would be about 10 cases each year. However, only 3 such cases are reported to the public prosecutor for review by the responsible physician. Proposals from the government to facilitate reporting of such cases are awaited. Dutch neonatologists are reluctant to administer full neonatal intensive care to extremely preterm infants. Currently, the policy regarding antenatal referral and treatment of extremely preterm infants is being re-evaluated by obstetricians and neonatologists. Behind the stable frequency of end-of-life decisions, difficult ethical issues remain to be solved.

  3. Rosacea Fulminans Precipitated by Acute Stress: A Case Report Describing an Integrative Approach for a Patient Reluctant to Use Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Veerkamp, Patrick; Mousdicas, Nico; Bednarek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Context Rosacea fulminans is a rare skin disorder with a multifactorial etiology. Stress is one of the common precipitating factors of this condition but is not often targeted in treatment. Isotretinoin is considered part of the first-line therapy for this condition but, in cases where its use is restricted, other therapeutic interventions as part of an integrative approach may be effective. Patient Concerns A 38-y-old female presented with rosacea fulminans brought on by an acutely stressful event. After multiple failed therapies, she experienced resolution of her symptoms with a combination of systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, diet modification, and stress reduction, with the treatment of stress playing a significant role. Conclusions Stress management and diet modification are key adjunctive therapies in the treatment of rosacea fulminans and need to be addressed more often in treatment. In cases where patients are reluctant or unable to take isotretinoin, an integrative approach may be effective in achieving symptomatic improvement. PMID:28223895

  4. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  5. Machine Learning Assessments of Soil Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Wenzel, C.; Gilmore, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural activities require the use of heavy equipment and vehicles on unpaved farmlands. When soil conditions are wet, equipment can cause substantial damage, leaving deep ruts. In extreme cases, implements can sink and become mired, causing considerable delays and expense to extricate the equipment. Farm managers, who are often located remotely, cannot assess sites before allocating equipment, causing considerable difficulty in reliably assessing conditions of countless sites with any reliability and frequency. For example, farmers often trace serpentine paths of over one hundred miles each day to assess the overall status of various tracts of land spanning thirty, forty, or fifty miles in each direction. One means of assessing the moisture content of a field lies in the strategic positioning of remotely-monitored in situ sensors. Unfortunately, land owners are often reluctant to place sensors across their properties due to the significant monetary cost and complexity. This work aspires to overcome these limitations by modeling the process of wetting and drying statistically - remotely assessing field readiness using only information that is publically accessible. Such data includes Nexrad radar and state climate network sensors, as well as Twitter-based reports of field conditions for validation. Three algorithms, classification trees, k-nearest-neighbors, and boosted perceptrons are deployed to deliver statistical field readiness assessments of an agricultural site located in Urbana, IL. Two of the three algorithms performed with 92-94% accuracy, with the majority of misclassifications falling within the calculated margins of error. This demonstrates the feasibility of using a machine learning framework with only public data, knowledge of system memory from previous conditions, and statistical tools to assess "readiness" without the need for real-time, on-site physical observation. Future efforts will produce a workflow assimilating Nexrad, climate network

  6. Machine learning in motion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  7. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  9. Building a Case for the Teaching Library: Using a Culture of Assessment to Reassure Converted Campus Partners while Persuading the Reluctant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Randall; Mashek, Kimberly Babcock

    2007-01-01

    The use of rigorous assessment in an Information Literacy program can be used to persuade reluctant faculty and administrators to buy into a program. A "culture of assessment" also assures quality control for internal and external audiences. Information Literacy at Wartburg College is unique in that it is a required component of five…

  10. A College Professor as a Reluctant Learner: Facing Up to the Learning Disabled. Alternative Techniques for Teaching English Composition to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herum, John

    A college professor of English involved with the HELDS project, Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students, describes his own reluctance in accommodating learning disabled students in his classroom. He mentions his discovery that some students have difficulty in dealing with conventional print in textbooks, and that typographic changes and…

  11. A novel approach to controlling the phase angle of a variable switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle propulsion using the statistic matrix norm

    SciTech Connect

    Holling, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    Variable switched reluctance (VSR) motors are gaining importance for industrial applications. The paper will introduce a novel approach to simplify the computation involved in the control of VSR motors. Results are shown, that validate the approach and demonstrates the superior performance compared to tabulated control parameters with linear interpolation, which are widely used in implementations.

  12. The Mind and the Machine. On the Conceptual and Moral Implications of Brain-Machine Interaction.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Maartje

    2009-12-01

    Brain-machine interfaces are a growing field of research and application. The increasing possibilities to connect the human brain to electronic devices and computer software can be put to use in medicine, the military, and entertainment. Concrete technologies include cochlear implants, Deep Brain Stimulation, neurofeedback and neuroprosthesis. The expectations for the near and further future are high, though it is difficult to separate hope from hype. The focus in this paper is on the effects that these new technologies may have on our 'symbolic order'-on the ways in which popular categories and concepts may change or be reinterpreted. First, the blurring distinction between man and machine and the idea of the cyborg are discussed. It is argued that the morally relevant difference is that between persons and non-persons, which does not necessarily coincide with the distinction between man and machine. The concept of the person remains useful. It may, however, become more difficult to assess the limits of the human body. Next, the distinction between body and mind is discussed. The mind is increasingly seen as a function of the brain, and thus understood in bodily and mechanical terms. This raises questions concerning concepts of free will and moral responsibility that may have far reaching consequences in the field of law, where some have argued for a revision of our criminal justice system, from retributivist to consequentialist. Even without such a (unlikely and unwarranted) revision occurring, brain-machine interactions raise many interesting questions regarding distribution and attribution of responsibility.

  13. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  14. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  15. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  16. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  17. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  18. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  19. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  20. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  1. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  2. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  3. Development of Preschoolers' Learning, Retention, and Generalization of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith A.; Perlmutter, Marion

    This study, which indicates that both age and variation in training affect children's concept formation, provides a basis for explaining the effect of age. Sixty-four 4- and 5-year-olds learned three novel concepts (animal-like, plant-like, and machine-like). Subjects were presented with either four different examples of each concept (multiple…

  4. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  5. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  7. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  8. THE COMPUTER CONCEPT OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILBERMAN, HARRY F.

    THE COMPUTER SYSTEM CONCEPT WILL BE DEVELOPED IN TWO WAYS--FIRST, A DESCRIPTION WILL BE MADE OF THE SMALL COMPUTER-BASED TEACHING MACHINE WHICH IS BEING USED AS A RESEARCH TOOL, SECOND, A DESCRIPTION WILL BE MADE OF THE LARGE COMPUTER LABORATORY FOR AUTOMATED SCHOOL SYSTEMS WHICH ARE BEING DEVELOPED. THE FIRST MACHINE CONSISTS OF THREE ELEMENTS--…

  9. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  10. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  11. The Bateman Flotation Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Bezuidenhout, G.

    1995-12-31

    The newly developed Bateman Flotation Machine has proven its versatility in roughing and cleaning flotation circuits. This mechanical flotation machine has the dual performance capability of suspending solids and dispersing air at relatively low power inputs without compromising these two important fundamentals. This new development has been successfully marketed to a wide cross section of concentrator mineral processes. The mechanical design of the flotation mechanism has been optimized to reduce operational costs and to lower manufacturing costs. Production process environments were utilized for verification of the scale-up of each cell volume size rated mechanism. These thorough investigations produced performance data which could be accurately quoted. This paper is a historical account of the Batement Flotation Machine. Technical details of the development are covered with descriptions of the operational applications.

  12. Brown coal preparation machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

    1981-05-01

    Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

  13. Machining in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Graylan

    2003-01-01

    A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

  14. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  15. Intersecting vane machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  16. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  17. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  18. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  19. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

  20. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  1. A novel concept for a combined-load test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Carl J.; Mcwithey, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    An original concept for a combined-load test machine is presented in the paper. The concept employs a circular test specimen which may be rotated with respect to the biaxially applied loads. The ability to rotate the specimen and to vary the applied loads allows for limitless combinations of in-plane normal and shear loads. The loads generated in the test section reference frame are calculated from simple Mohr's circle relationships. In this paper, the concept is evaluated for isotropic, orthotropic, and discretely stiffened panels using elasticity and finite element methods. Strengths and weaknesses of the test machine concept are also discussed and evaluated.

  2. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  7. Thyristor-based current-fed drive with direct power control for permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.; Kwak, S.-S.; Toliyat, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a robust and simple direct power control (DPC) of a thyristor-based current-fed drive for generator applications. A current-fed drive and permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator (PMa-SynRG) are investigated to deliver 3 kW power using a combustion engine. The current-fed drive utilises a thyristor-based three-phase rectifier to convert generator power to DC-link power and a single-phase current-fed inverter to supply a single-phase inductive load. In addition, a new control algorithm is developed based on DPC for the current-fed drive. The DC-link voltage-based DPC is proposed in order to directly control the output power. The goal of the DPC is to maintain the DC-link voltage at the required output power operating point. The DPC has advantages such as a simple algorithm for constant speed operation. Another feature of the developed current-fed drive is its inherent capability to provide generating action by making the PMa-SynRG operates as a generator, rectifying the phase voltages by means of the three-phase rectifier and feeding the power into the load. These features make the current-fed drive a good candidate for driving any type of synchronous generators including the proposed PMa-SynRG.

  8. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  9. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  10. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  11. Copy Machine Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Images created with copy machines make children feel successful, as their work acquires the authority of being printed. Students can learn advanced processes like electrostatic image-making and can get involved in projects like making collages. They acquire an appreciation of design and of two-dimensional composition. (CS)

  12. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  13. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  14. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  15. Laser machining of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  16. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, Dagmar

    1995-01-01

    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  17. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Deployment of human-machine dialogue systems.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, D B

    1995-01-01

    The deployment of systems for human-to-machine communication by voice requires overcoming a variety of obstacles that affect the speech-processing technologies. Problems encountered in the field might include variation in speaking style, acoustic noise, ambiguity of language, or confusion on the part of the speaker. The diversity of these practical problems encountered in the "real world" leads to the perceived gap between laboratory and "real-world" performance. To answer the question "What applications can speech technology support today?" the concept of the "degree of difficulty" of an application is introduced. The degree of difficulty depends not only on the demands placed on the speech recognition and speech synthesis technologies but also on the expectations of the user of the system. Experience has shown that deployment of effective speech communication systems requires an iterative process. This paper discusses general deployment principles, which are illustrated by several examples of human-machine communication systems. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479719

  19. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  20. Concept Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Four teaching techniques were used to enhance conceptual learning and to increase student performance in a course in physical-chemical principles at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri-Kansas City. One of the techniques, "concept overview," is described. (MLW)

  1. Machines and cutters: VersaVIT - potential and perspectives of office-based vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Kawakami-Campos, P Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    The concept of office-based vitrectomy has been a topic for several years; however, the large size of the vitrectomy machines has limited the options for many years. Today, though, smaller machines can offer adequate performance regarding vitrectomy. As a result, we can now make more arguments for this type of surgery to be performed in the office environment, despite the limitations these machines may still have.

  2. The torque ripple reduction of a concentrated winding synchronous reluctance motor according to stator and rotor structure variations using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yun-Chul; Lee, Jung-Ho; Hong, Jung Pyo

    2008-04-01

    This paper deals with optimum design criteria to minimize the torque ripple of a concentrated winding synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) using response surface methodology (RSM). The feasibility of using RSM with the finite element method in practical engineering problem is investigated with computational examples and comparison between the fitted response and the results obtained from an analytical solution according to the design variables of stator and rotor in concentrated winding SynRM (6slot).

  3. Cavbeta-subunit displacement is a key step to induce the reluctant state of P/Q calcium channels by direct G protein regulation.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Lopez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Grunwald, Didier; Bichet, Delphine; Altafaj, Xavier; Weiss, Norbert; Ronjat, Michel; Dupuis, Alain; De Waard, Michel

    2004-04-20

    P/Q Ca(2+) channel activity is inhibited by G protein-coupled receptor activation. Channel inhibition requires a direct Gbetagamma binding onto the pore-forming subunit, Ca(v)2.1. It is characterized by biophysical changes, including current amplitude reduction, activation kinetic slowing, and an I-V curve shift, which leads to a reluctant mode. Here, we have characterized the contribution of the auxiliary beta(3)-subunit to channel regulation by G proteins. The shift in I-V to a P/Q reluctant mode is exclusively observed in the presence of beta(3). Along with the observation that Gbetagamma has no effect on the I-V curve of Ca(v)2.1 alone, we propose that the reluctant mode promoted by Gbetagamma corresponds to a state in which the beta(3)-subunit has been displaced from its channel-binding site. We validate this hypothesis with a beta(3)-I-II(2.1) loop chimera construct. Gbetagamma binding onto the I-II(2.1) loop portion of the chimera releases the beta(3)-binding domain and makes it available for binding onto the I-II loop of Ca(v)1.2, a G protein-insensitive channel. This finding is extended to the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Gbetagamma injection into Xenopus oocytes displaces a Cy3-labeled beta(3)-subunit from a GFP-tagged Ca(v)2.1 channel. We conclude that beta-subunit dissociation from the channel complex constitutes a key step in P/Q calcium channel regulation by G proteins that underlies the reluctant state and is an important process for modulating neurotransmission through G protein-coupled receptors.

  4. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  5. The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

  6. Using the ideal function concept for machine noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberger, Brian

    2003-10-01

    An engineered system reaches its ideal function when all its input energy is transformed efficiently into creating the output energy. This leaves less energy available for creating unwanted noise and vibration. A large hydraulic pump evaluation is used to demonstrate the relation between energy efficiency and unwanted noise. Measurements were taken while conducting speed sweeps at various load conditions. Sound in the hemisphere surrounding the pump, acceleration at various locations on and around the pump, and shaft rotation instantaneous phase measurements were used to determine the magnitude, character, and source of the sound. A particularly loud noise level associated with a certain operating region was determined to result from driven vibration of the pump case. The disturbance appeared to originate from pulsations in the pump flow and pressure. This operating region also had a several percent drop in pump efficiency. In this example, more efficient energy transformation would have the dual benefit of higher efficiency and lower noise.

  7. Proof of Concept for the Rewrite Rule Machine: Interensemble Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-23

    0 . a w -11U*414 44.44 12 weI. ow33 I k. 1w 80 a ~ 4 u*6~.4 I464. ’c0 1 .. 0 c I 0 K~ 13333 x 14 00 4 a k 0 1. C6 at~ 0 1 3a 3. 3333 cca* s0.. 9 v~* 5...op==SELCELL) for (i=0; i<CELLIUM; i++) cell~iJ.aux = 0; 12 -Always reset port buses. for (i=O; i<PORTNUK; i++) porttiJ.portval = 0. for ( isO ; i

  8. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  9. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  10. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  11. Interferometer systems in machine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzepka, Janusz; Pienkowski, Janusz; Sambor, Slawomir; Budzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-10-01

    In the report the arrangements of laser interferometers for machine history are presented; the laser interferometer LSP30 for investigation of geometry of machine tools, the setup for inspection of ball screw and laser liner for CNC machine. Outstanding feature of the interferometers is the stabilization system of laser frequency using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid cells (SSFLC).

  12. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  13. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  14. Simple Machines. Third Grade. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This publication provides information and activities for teaching concepts about machines and process skills including observing, classifying, collecting and interpreting data, inferring, measuring, and predicting. There are 15 lessons. Lessons 1 through 5 deal with what machines are, measuring force with a spring scale, working with a lever,…

  15. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  16. State machine analysis of sensor data from dynamic processes

    DOEpatents

    Cook, William R.; Brabson, John M.; Deland, Sharon M.

    2003-12-23

    A state machine model analyzes sensor data from dynamic processes at a facility to identify the actual processes that were performed at the facility during a period of interest for the purpose of remote facility inspection. An inspector can further input the expected operations into the state machine model and compare the expected, or declared, processes to the actual processes to identify undeclared processes at the facility. The state machine analysis enables the generation of knowledge about the state of the facility at all levels, from location of physical objects to complex operational concepts. Therefore, the state machine method and apparatus may benefit any agency or business with sensored facilities that stores or manipulates expensive, dangerous, or controlled materials or information.

  17. Parameter Identifiability in Statistical Machine Learning: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ran, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Bao-Gang

    2017-02-09

    This review examines the relevance of parameter identifiability for statistical models used in machine learning. In addition to defining main concepts, we address several issues of identifiability closely related to machine learning, showing the advantages and disadvantages of state-of-the-art research and demonstrating recent progress. First, we review criteria for determining the parameter structure of models from the literature. This has three related issues: parameter identifiability, parameter redundancy, and reparameterization. Second, we review the deep influence of identifiability on various aspects of machine learning from theoretical and application viewpoints. In addition to illustrating the utility and influence of identifiability, we emphasize the interplay among identifiability theory, machine learning, mathematical statistics, information theory, optimization theory, information geometry, Riemann geometry, symbolic computation, Bayesian inference, algebraic geometry, and others. Finally, we present a new perspective together with the associated challenges.

  18. The design and control of linear bidirectional stepping motors - Application to machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrizza, N.

    Theoretical modeling and the results of operation of a model linear stepping motor for producing rapid in-plane translation in machining operations are presented. The theory of linear induction motors and their current implementation in the stepping mode are reviewed. A finite element method is developed for optimizing the contact stud shape through calculation of the magnetic fields and forces the motor experiences in static condition. An investigation into the characteristics of the air cushion which inhibits the motor from contacting the base is reported. Direct control with a microprocessor is described, including programming with an acceleration period at the beginning and deceleration at the end of each motion using circular and linear interpolations to obtain linear and circular motor displacements in the plane. Comparisons between linear step motors with variable reluctance and hybrid motors are made.

  19. An Immanent Machine: Reconsidering Grades, Historical and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocci, Charles

    2010-01-01

    At some point the mechanics of schooling begin running of their own accord. Such has become the case with grades (A's, B's, C's, etc.). This article reconsiders the history of grades through the concepts of immanence and abstract machines from the oeuvre of Deleuze and Guattari. In the first section, the history of grades as presently written…

  20. Image understanding and the man-machine interface II

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, E.B.; Pearson, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include: Image understanding concepts and models, Image understanding systems and applications; and Advanced man-machine interfaces. The papers presented include Update on strategic computing computes vision: taking image understanding to the next plateau and Tiling strategies for image parallelism.

  1. Machine learning: An artificial intelligence approach. Vol. II

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, R.S.; Carbonell, J.G.; Mitchell, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book reflects the expansion of machine learning research through presentation of recent advances in the field. The book provides an account of current research directions. Major topics covered include the following: learning concepts and rules from examples; cognitive aspects of learning; learning by analogy; learning by observation and discovery; and an exploration of general aspects of learning.

  2. Bergsonian Comedy and the Human Machines in "Star Wars."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    While analyzing humor is difficult, Henri Bergson's concept of comedy (a person acting like a machine) outlined in the classic essay, "Le Rire," in 1900, is probably too narrow a definition. Science fiction film, a genre which has evolved since the publication of Bergson's essay, has also speculated about man and society, often to…

  3. Intelligent man/machine interfaces on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtrey, Rodney S.

    1987-01-01

    Some important topics in the development of good, intelligent, usable man/machine interfaces for the Space Station are discussed. These computer interfaces should adhere strictly to three concepts or doctrines: generality, simplicity, and elegance. The motivation for natural language interfaces and their use and value on the Space Station, both now and in the future, are discussed.

  4. Kinematic and stability motion limits for a hexapod walking machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, Elizabeth M.

    1995-03-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is to investigate and implement the basic concepts necessary to lay the groundwork for efficient forms of motion planning, motion control, and gait algorithms with respect to hexapod walking machines. Specifically, the approach taken was to develop and implement the concepts of a stability margin and a joint space motion margin on an object-oriented representation of the Aquarobot. The model was generated in Franz Common Lisp and simulated via Allegro Common Windows. A method by which distance computations can be calculated and applied to the center of mass and triangular support pattern of a walking machine to determine the stability margin is introduced. Inverse kinematics and joint limits are utilized to ascertain the joint space motion margin of the model. Response to impending instability and the effect when a joint hits or approaches a joint kinematic limit on the motion of the hexapod walking machine by stopping the model is also addressed. The results are as follows: the concepts of the joint space motion margin and the stability margin can be successfully implemented on a kinematic model and graphical simulation of a hexapod walking machine. These concepts contribute to future work in the area of more efficient free gait algorithms, specifically asynchronous gait algorithms.

  5. The Physics and Physical Chemistry of Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Astumian, R Dean; Mukherjee, Shayantani; Warshel, Arieh

    2016-06-17

    The concept of a "power stroke"-a free-energy releasing conformational change-appears in almost every textbook that deals with the molecular details of muscle, the flagellar rotor, and many other biomolecular machines. Here, it is shown by using the constraints of microscopic reversibility that the power stroke model is incorrect as an explanation of how chemical energy is used by a molecular machine to do mechanical work. Instead, chemically driven molecular machines operating under thermodynamic constraints imposed by the reactant and product concentrations in the bulk function as information ratchets in which the directionality and stopping torque or stopping force are controlled entirely by the gating of the chemical reaction that provides the fuel for the machine. The gating of the chemical free energy occurs through chemical state dependent conformational changes of the molecular machine that, in turn, are capable of generating directional mechanical motions. In strong contrast to this general conclusion for molecular machines driven by catalysis of a chemical reaction, a power stroke may be (and often is) an essential component for a molecular machine driven by external modulation of pH or redox potential or by light. This difference between optical and chemical driving properties arises from the fundamental symmetry difference between the physics of optical processes, governed by the Bose-Einstein relations, and the constraints of microscopic reversibility for thermally activated processes.

  6. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  7. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  8. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  9. Safety features in anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

  10. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  11. Man-machine interfaces in health care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    The surgeon, like the pilot, is confronted with an ever increasing volume of voice, data, and image input. Simultaneously, the surgeon must control a rapidly growing number of devices to deliver care to the patient. The broad disciplines of man-machine interface design, systems integration, and teleoperation will play a role in the operating room of the future. The purpose of this communication is to report the incorporation of these design concepts into new surgical and laser delivery systems. A review of each general problem area and the systems under development to solve the problems are presented.

  12. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  13. Swinging Atwood's Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas B.; Abbott, Tyler A.; Griffiths, David J.

    1984-10-01

    We examine the motion of an Atwood's Machine in which one of the masses is allowed to swing in a plane. Computer studies reveal a rich variety of trajectories. The orbits are classified (bounded, periodic, singular, and terminating), and formulas for the critical mass ratios are developed. Perturbative techniques yield good approximations to the computer-generated trajectories. The model constitutes a simple example of a nonlinear dynamical system with two degrees of freedom.

  14. Making Atwood's machine ``work''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gordon O.

    2001-03-01

    PASCO scientific's Smart Pulley™, a lightweight, low-friction pulley and a photogate, begs to be used as an Atwood's machine to determine the acceleration of gravity, g. Unfortunately ignoring the mass and friction of the pulley results in poor values of g. In this paper a procedure is outlined that includes the effects of the pulley's inertia and friction. As a result, the value of g may be determined to an accuracy of 0.1%.

  15. Universal Memcomputing Machines.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the notion of universal memcomputing machines (UMMs): a class of brain-inspired general-purpose computing machines based on systems with memory, whereby processing and storing of information occur on the same physical location. We analytically prove that the memory properties of UMMs endow them with universal computing power (they are Turing-complete), intrinsic parallelism, functional polymorphism, and information overhead, namely, their collective states can support exponential data compression directly in memory. We also demonstrate that a UMM has the same computational power as a nondeterministic Turing machine, namely, it can solve nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problems in polynomial time. However, by virtue of its information overhead, a UMM needs only an amount of memory cells (memprocessors) that grows polynomially with the problem size. As an example, we provide the polynomial-time solution of the subset-sum problem and a simple hardware implementation of the same. Even though these results do not prove the statement NP = P within the Turing paradigm, the practical realization of these UMMs would represent a paradigm shift from the present von Neumann architectures, bringing us closer to brain-like neural computation.

  16. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  17. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Current Concepts in Conception Control

    PubMed Central

    Ringrose, C. A. Douglas

    1963-01-01

    The progressive increase in world population has become a most urgent global problem in recent years. Man has, however, been interested in controlling his reproductivity at the family level for many centuries. Historical aspects of this saga are reviewed. The modern era of conception control was ushered in by Makepeace et al. in 1937 when ovulation inhibition by progesterone was demonstrated. Confirmation of this by Pincus and associates, and development of the potent oral progestational agents, the 19-norsteroids, have made efficient reliable contraception a reality. Experience with one of these agents (Ortho-Novum, 2 mg.) in 115 patients through 805 cycles is presented. Conception control was 100% effective at this dosage. Side effects were minimal. Only three of the women discontinued the tablets because of these effects. All but five in this group of 115 preferred the oral contraceptives to methods previously employed. PMID:13973987

  19. Finite machines, mental procedures, and modern physics.

    PubMed

    Lupacchini, Rossella

    2007-01-01

    A Turing machine provides a mathematical definition of the natural process of calculating. It rests on trust that a procedure of reason can be reproduced mechanically. Turing's analysis of the concept of mechanical procedure in terms of a finite machine convinced Gödel of the validity of the Church thesis. And yet, Gödel's later concern was that, insofar as Turing's work shows that "mental procedure cannot go beyond mechanical procedures", it would imply the same kind of limitation on human mind. He therefore deems Turing's argument to be inconclusive. The question then arises as to which extent a computing machine operating by finite means could provide an adequate model of human intelligence. It is argued that a rigorous answer to this question can be given by developing Turing's considerations on the nature of mental processes. For Turing such processes are the consequence of physical processes and he seems to be led to the conclusion that quantum mechanics could help to find a more comprehensive explanation of them.

  20. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  1. Microcompartments and Protein Machines in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic cell was once thought of as a “bag of enzymes” with little or no intracellular compartmentalization. In this view, most reactions essential for life occurred as a consequence of random molecular collisions involving substrates, cofactors and cytoplasmic enzymes. Our current conception of a prokaryote is far from this view. We now consider a bacterium or an archaeon as a highly structured, non-random collection of functional membrane-embedded and proteinaceous molecular machines, each of which serves a specialized function. In this article we shall present an overview of such microcompartments including (i) the bacterial cytoskeleton and the apparati allowing DNA segregation during cells division, (ii) energy transduction apparati involving light-driven proton pumping and ion gradient-driven ATP synthesis, (iii) prokaryotic motility and taxis machines that mediate cell movements in response to gradients of chemicals and physical forces, (iv) machines of protein folding, secretion and degradation, (v) metabolasomes carrying out specific chemical reactions, (vi) 24 hour clocks allowing bacteria to coordinate their metabolic activities with the daily solar cycle and (vii) proteinaceous membrane compartmentalized structures such as sulfur granules and gas vacuoles. Membrane-bounded prokaryotic organelles were considered in a recent JMMB written symposium concerned with membraneous compartmentalization in bacteria [Saier and Bogdanov, 2013]. By contrast, in this symposium, we focus on proteinaceous microcompartments. These two symposia, taken together, provide the interested reader with an objective view of the remarkable complexity of what was once thought of as a simple non-compartmentalized cell. PMID:23920489

  2. Predictive processing simplified: The infotropic machine.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Chris

    2017-03-01

    On a traditional view of cognition, we see the agent acquiring stimuli, interpreting these in some way, and producing behavior in response. An increasingly popular alternative is the predictive processing framework. This sees the agent as continually generating predictions about the world, and responding productively to any errors made. Partly because of its heritage in the Bayesian brain theory, predictive processing has generally been seen as an inherently Bayesian process. The 'hierarchical prediction machine' which mediates it is envisaged to be a specifically Bayesian device. But as this paper shows, a specification for this machine can also be derived directly from information theory, using the metric of predictive payoff as an organizing concept. Hierarchical prediction machines can be built along purely information-theoretic lines, without referencing Bayesian theory in any way; this simplifies the account to some degree. The present paper describes what is involved and presents a series of working models. An experiment involving the conversion of a Braitenberg vehicle to use a controller of this type is also described.

  3. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. Meteorology applied to urban air pollution problems: concepts from COST 715

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P.; Kukkonen, J.; Piringer, M.; Rotach, M. W.; Schatzmann, M.

    2005-08-01

    This selective review of the COST 715 considers simple descriptive concepts in urban meteorology with particular attention to air pollution assessment. It is shown that these are helpful for understanding the complex structure of the urban boundary layer, but that simple concepts only apply under a limited number of occasions. However such concepts are necessary for insight into how both simple and complex air pollution models perform. Wider considerations are needed when considering routine air quality assessments involving an air quality model's formulation and pedigree. It is argued that there is a reluctance from model developers to move away from familiar concepts of the atmospheric boundary layer even if they are not appropriate to urban areas. An example is given from COST 715 as to how routine urban meteorological measurements of wind speed may be used and adapted for air quality assessments. Reference to the full COST 715 study is made which provides further details.

  5. Reluctant Rural Regionalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  6. The Reluctant Collegiate Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Charlie W.; Argenti, Rudy M.

    The effectiveness of an eight week college course for reading/study skills improvement was evaluated by pretesting and posttesting 152 students with the Nelson-Denny Reading Test and the Optimum Reading Achievement Test and running simple correlations between reading rate, comprehension, vocabulary, and 18 variables that included ACT scores, grade…

  7. The Reluctant Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamchur, Carolyn

    Carl Jung labeled people who use sensing or intuition as a preferred function for dealing with their environment as "perceiving" types who prefer to process information, and those whose dominant function is thinking or feeling as "judging" types who prefer to make decisions. The outstanding quality of perceiving types is their…

  8. Remedial/Reluctant Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Eight kits or series are reviewed: Headliners I (EMC Corporation); Pacemaker Bestsellers I and II (Fearon-Pitman); Rocket Reading (AIDS); Vistas (Houghton Mifflin); The New Action Unit (Scholastic); Superstars of Soil and Rock (Steck-Vaughn); Super A and Super B (SRA); and Shoptalk: Vocational Reading Skills (Allyn and Bacon). (SJL)

  9. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  10. Learning thermodynamics with Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2016-10-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a stochastic neural network that has been extensively used in the layers of deep architectures for modern machine learning applications. In this paper, we develop a Boltzmann machine that is capable of modeling thermodynamic observables for physical systems in thermal equilibrium. Through unsupervised learning, we train the Boltzmann machine on data sets constructed with spin configurations importance sampled from the partition function of an Ising Hamiltonian at different temperatures using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The trained Boltzmann machine is then used to generate spin states, for which we compare thermodynamic observables to those computed by direct MC sampling. We demonstrate that the Boltzmann machine can faithfully reproduce the observables of the physical system. Further, we observe that the number of neurons required to obtain accurate results increases as the system is brought close to criticality.

  11. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  12. Why National eHealth Programs Need Dead Philosophers: Wittgensteinian Reflections on Policymakers’ Reluctance to Learn from History

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Ashcroft, Richard E; Parsons, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Context Policymakers seeking to introduce expensive national eHealth programs would be advised to study lessons from elsewhere. But these lessons are unclear, partly because a paradigm war (controlled experiment versus interpretive case study) is raging. England's $20.6 billion National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) ran from 2003 to 2010, but its overall success was limited. Although case study evaluations were published, policymakers appeared to overlook many of their recommendations and persisted with some of the NPfIT's most criticized components and implementation methods. Methods In this reflective analysis, illustrated by a case fragment from the NPfIT, we apply ideas from Ludwig Wittgenstein's postanalytic philosophy to justify the place of the “n of 1” case study and consider why those in charge of national eHealth programs appear reluctant to learn from such studies. Findings National eHealth programs unfold as they do partly because no one fully understands what is going on. They fail when this lack of understanding becomes critical to the programs’ mission. Detailed analyses of the fortunes of individual programs, articulated in such a way as to illuminate the contextualized talk and action (“language games”) of multiple stakeholders, offer unique and important insights. Such accounts, portrayals rather than models, deliver neither statistical generalization (as with experiments) nor theoretical generalization (as with multisite case comparisons or realist evaluations). But they do provide the facility for heuristic generalization (i.e., to achieve a clearer understanding of what is going on), thereby enabling more productive debate about eHealth programs’ complex, interdependent social practices. A national eHealth program is best conceptualized not as a blueprint and implementation plan for a state-of-the-art technical system but as a series of overlapping, conflicting, and mutually misunderstood language games that combine

  13. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  14. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  15. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  16. Earth boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M. E.

    1985-11-19

    An earth boring machine for boring straight and level elongated holes through rock-laden earth. The machine includes a stationary elongated frame upon which a first slide is carried. A second slide is carried on the first slide. An elongated auger guiding sleeve is carried adjacent one end of the first slide and has a cutting edge on a remote end thereof. A power-driven auger assembly is carried on the second slide and includes an auger which extends within the guiding sleeve. A cutting tool is carried on the end of the auger adjacent a remote end of the guiding sleeve. An hydraulic cylinder is provided for advancing the first sleeve for driving the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve into the earth while the power driven auger removes the earth as the guiding sleeve is advanced. Another set of hydraulic cylinders are provided for advancing the second slide on the first slide causing the cutting tool to extend out beyond the remote end of the guiding sleeve for cutting through obstructions in the earth when the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve is prevented from moving forward.

  17. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  18. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-08-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are applied. Equilibrium can be approached from different distributions of balls in the container under different conditions. The Le Châtelier principle can be demonstrated. Kinetic concepts can be demonstrated by changing the nature of the barrier, either changing the height or by having various sized holes in the barrier. Thermodynamic concepts can be demonstrated by taping over some or all of the openings and restricting air flow into container on either side of the barrier.

  19. The reluctance to burden others as a value in end-of-life decision making: a source of inaccuracy in substituted judgment.

    PubMed

    Winter, Laraine; Parks, Susan M

    2012-03-01

    Most patients are decisionally incapacitated at the end of life, leaving final treatment decisions to proxies, whose substituted judgment is often inaccurate. We investigated the reluctance to burden others (RBO), a commonly cited patient value, as a possible source of proxy inaccuracy. In a sample of 202 elders and their proxies, elders responded to three burden-related questions and the Life-prolonging Treatment Preferences Questionnaire. Proxies used substituted judgment to respond to the same questions. Although RBO predicted treatment preferences for both elders and proxies, elders rated RBO significantly more important than did proxies. In addition, larger elder-proxy differences in RBO were associated with more inaccurate substituted judgment.

  20. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  1. A time-shared machine repair problem with mixed spares under N-policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Madhu; Shekhar, Chandra; Shukla, Shalini

    2016-02-01

    The present investigation deals with a machine repair problem consisting of cold and warm standby machines. The machines are subject to breakdown and are repaired by the permanent repairman operating under N-policy. There is provision of one additional removable repairman who is called upon when the work load of failed machines crosses a certain threshold level and is removed as soon as the work load again ceases to that level. Both repairmen recover the failed machines by following the time sharing concept which means that the repairmen share their repair job simultaneously among all the failed machines that have joined the system for repair. Markovian model has been developed by considering the queue dependent rates and solved analytically using the recursive technique. Various performance indices are derived which are further used to obtain the cost function. By taking illustration, numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis have been provided.

  2. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  3. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

  4. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  5. Design and Performance Improvement of AC Machines Sharing a Common Stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lusu

    With the increasing demand on electric motors in various industrial applications, especially electric powered vehicles (electric cars, more electric aircrafts and future electric ships and submarines), both synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are recognized as good candidates for high performance variable speed applications. Developing a single stator design which can be used for both SynRM and IPM motors is a good way to reduce manufacturing and maintenance cost. SynRM can be used as a low cost solution for many electric driving applications and IPM machines can be used in power density crucial circumstances or work as generators to meet the increasing demand for electrical power on board. In this research, SynRM and IPM machines are designed sharing a common stator structure. The prototype motors are designed with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA). Machine performances with different stator slot and rotor pole numbers are compared by FEA. An 18-slot, 4-pole structure is selected based on the comparison for this prototype design. Sometimes, torque pulsation is the major drawback of permanent magnet synchronous machines. There are several sources of torque pulsations, such as back-EMF distortion, inductance variation and cogging torque due to presence of permanent magnets. To reduce torque pulsations in permanent magnet machines, all the efforts can be classified into two categories: one is from the design stage, the structure of permanent magnet machines can be optimized with the aid of finite element analysis. The other category of reducing torque pulsation is after the permanent magnet machine has been manufactured or the machine structure cannot be changed because of other reasons. The currents fed into the permanent magnet machine can be controlled to follow a certain profile which will make the machine generate a smoother torque waveform. Torque pulsation reduction methods in both categories will be

  6. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  7. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, J.I.; King, C.

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  8. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are…

  9. Teaching Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents several fun activities and teacher demonstrations which simplify terms and condense science concepts for teaching about the lever, wedge, wheel and axle, screw, pulley, and the inclined plane. Includes objectives, materials, procedures, suggested follow-up assignments, and diagrams. (RT)

  10. Designing a leaner, cleaner machine

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-05-01

    With factories cutting back on emissions and municipalities stepping up recycling efforts, environmentalists have cast automobiles as the primary pollution culprit. A concept car called the XCAR, which incorporates a fuel-efficient, low-pollution engine from Australia, may one day rehabilitate automobiles` bad environmental reputation. The XCAR is being designed by XCORP in Malibu, Calif. The company was founded in 1991 to transfer cutting-edge aerospace and defense technologies to business and manufacturing applications. Their goals are to design a next-generation automobile that will use less energy; provide a higher degree of safety by being more impact-resistant; reduce stress on roads, highways, and bridges by its lighter weight, thus extending the life of infrastructure; and be easily recycled and repaired. The company is developing a roadster, a subcompact coupe, and a sports/utility version of the XCAR for American civilian use, as well as a general-purpose version for the US military and a multipurpose car for developing nations. The design of the XCAR includes molded thermoplastic panels, which reduces the vehicle`s overall weight. Thermoplastic also lowers the energy needed to stamp steel parts by eliminating the by-products generated from spot-welding, drilling, and riveting, such as welding fumes and spent machining oils. Using large, molded thermoplastic/aluminum sections for much of the chassis and body assemblies will also reduce the number of parts required by a third compared to conventional autos. In addition, paint application and its attendant solvents are eliminated because the color is molded into the plastic body.

  11. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  12. Profile machining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A. J.

    1985-02-26

    The disclosure relates to a profile forming apparatus and in particular a cam grinding machine in which a cam to be ground is mounted for rotation about the axis of the cam shaft in a work-table and a drive motor rotates the cam about its axis at a speed controlled by a predetermined programme. The work-table is mounted for rocking movement about an axis parallel to the cam shaft axis to move towards and away from the rotating grinding wheel which grinds cam surfaces spaced apart along the camshaft. The work-table is driven positively about its axis by a reversible drive motor in accordance with a further programme to rock the camshaft towards and away from the axis of the grinding wheel as the camshaft rotates and thereby determine the shape and dimensions of the profile to which the cam is ground.

  13. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudenz, Kristen L.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2013-05-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. This approach consists of two quantum phases, with some amount of classical preprocessing to set up the quantum problems. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. All quantum processing is strictly limited to two-qubit interactions so as to ensure physical feasibility. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation, with a specific example of the learning phase applied to a problem of interest in flight control systems. Beyond this example, the algorithm can be used to attack a broad class of anomaly detection problems.

  14. An Experimental LISP Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Wang

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-microprocessor LISP machine whose goal is to exploit the inherent parallelism in the LISP programs fully. The base architecture is a MIMD architecture based on a hybrid model for combinating data driven, demand driven and VoN Neumann process schemes. The basic evaluation strategy is data driven. Lazy evaluation mechanism is introduced to avoid unnecessary and unsafe computations. An experimental system with the four processor elements has been built in HIT, China. The system consists of a Z80 microcomputer and three TP8O1s interconnected through three buses. Each processor evaluates a part of programs asynchronously. The shared memory is divided into two parts: list cell area and enviroment area, each of which has the indepen-dent common bus to avoid the bus bottleneck.

  15. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  16. Anaesthesia Machine: Checklist, Hazards, Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered. PMID:24249887

  17. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  18. Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging.

    PubMed

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-09-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20(th) century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  19. Two color machining of composites

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, W.

    1996-12-31

    Quality cutting and drilling of 9 composite materials is possible using diode-pumped neodymium lasers. Machining at 1.06 {mu}m is improved by optimizing the pulse format of the diode-pumped neodymium lasers of the Precision Laser Machining (PLM) Consortium. Further improvements are obtained with the PLM lasers operating at 0.53 {mu}m.

  20. The Blindstitch Machine. Module 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the blindstitch machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  1. Robotics: self-reproducing machines.

    PubMed

    Zykov, Victor; Mytilinaios, Efstathios; Adams, Bryant; Lipson, Hod

    2005-05-12

    Self-reproduction is central to biological life for long-term sustainability and evolutionary adaptation. Although these traits would also be desirable in many engineered systems, the principles of self-reproduction have not been exploited in machine design. Here we create simple machines that act as autonomous modular robots and are capable of physical self-reproduction using a set of cubes.

  2. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  3. Machine Accounting. An Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, E. Noah, Ed.

    Designed to prepare students to operate the types of accounting machines used in many medium-sized businesses, this instructor's guide presents a full-year high school course in machine accounting covering 120 hours of instruction. An introduction for the instructor suggests how to adapt the guide to present a 60-hour module which would be…

  4. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  5. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  6. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  7. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  8. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  9. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems.

  10. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghersallah, M.; Boulanouar, L.; Le Coz, G.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

  11. The Conception of the Control System of Radial Cam Grinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásko, P.; Crhák, V.; Bureš, P.

    VÚTS, a.s., has developed a single-purpose machine for grinding radial cams. The control system is built on Yaskawa's components with MP2310 controller. The paper deals with an entirely new concept of the control system of this single-purpose machine built in variants on the program area of controlled continuous movements and on the PLC program. Furthermore, the specific features of the system and the options of its other variants and industrial applications are declared.

  12. Machine learning for Big Data analytics in plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hao Helen; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2014-12-01

    Rapid advances in high-throughput genomic technology have enabled biology to enter the era of 'Big Data' (large datasets). The plant science community not only needs to build its own Big-Data-compatible parallel computing and data management infrastructures, but also to seek novel analytical paradigms to extract information from the overwhelming amounts of data. Machine learning offers promising computational and analytical solutions for the integrative analysis of large, heterogeneous and unstructured datasets on the Big-Data scale, and is gradually gaining popularity in biology. This review introduces the basic concepts and procedures of machine-learning applications and envisages how machine learning could interface with Big Data technology to facilitate basic research and biotechnology in the plant sciences.

  13. Resource Letter PBM-1: Physics of biomolecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2009-07-01

    All living creatures are made of cells. The cell is the structural and functional unit of life. This Resource Letter serves as a guide to the literature on nano-machines, which drive not only intracellular movements but also motility of the cell. These machines are usually proteins or macromolecular assemblies that require appropriate fuel for their operations. Although, traditionally, these machines were subjects of investigation in biology and biochemistry, increasing use of the concepts and techniques of physics in recent years have contributed to the quantitative understanding of the fundamental principles underlying their operational mechanisms. The possibility of exploiting these principles for the design and control of artificial nanomachines has opened up a new frontier in the bottom-up approach to nanotechnology.

  14. Improved Methods for Teaching Machine Transcription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clara J.

    1980-01-01

    The increased use of machine transcription in business and industry demands that business educators attract and train more highly skilled machine transcriptionists. Realistic production measurement and appropriate vocabulary should be taught to link machine transcription to word processing. (Author)

  15. The concept of mechanism in biology.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    The concept of mechanism in biology has three distinct meanings. It may refer to a philosophical thesis about the nature of life and biology ('mechanicism'), to the internal workings of a machine-like structure ('machine mechanism'), or to the causal explanation of a particular phenomenon ('causal mechanism'). In this paper I trace the conceptual evolution of 'mechanism' in the history of biology, and I examine how the three meanings of this term have come to be featured in the philosophy of biology, situating the new 'mechanismic program' in this context. I argue that the leading advocates of the mechanismic program (i.e., Craver, Darden, Bechtel, etc.) inadvertently conflate the different senses of 'mechanism'. Specifically, they all inappropriately endow causal mechanisms with the ontic status of machine mechanisms, and this invariably results in problematic accounts of the role played by mechanism-talk in scientific practice. I suggest that for effective analyses of the concept of mechanism, causal mechanisms need to be distinguished from machine mechanisms, and the new mechanismic program in the philosophy of biology needs to be demarcated from the traditional concerns of mechanistic biology.

  16. Concept of Operations for Data Fusion Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    T.R. McJunkin; R.L. Boring; M.A. McQueen; L.P. Shunn; J.L. Wright; D.I. Gertman; O. Linda; K. McCarty; M. Manic

    2011-09-01

    Situational awareness in the operations and supervision of a industrial system means that decision making entity, whether machine or human, have the important data presented in a timely manner. An optimal presentation of information such that the operator has the best opportunity accurately interpret and react to anomalies due to system degradation, failures or adversaries. Anticipated problems are a matter for system design; however, the paper will focus on concepts for situational awareness enhancement for a human operator when the unanticipated or unaddressed event types occur. Methodology for human machine interface development and refinement strategy is described for a synthetic fuels plant model. A novel concept for adaptively highlighting the most interesting information in the system and a plan for testing the methodology is described.

  17. Meteorology applied to urban air pollution problems: concepts from COST 715

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; Kukkonen, J.; Piringer, M.; Rotach, M. W.; Schatzmann, M.

    2006-02-01

    The outcome of COST 715 is reviewed from the viewpoint of a potential user who is required to consider urban meteorology within an air pollution assessment. It is shown that descriptive concepts are helpful for understanding the complex structure of the urban boundary layer, but that they only apply under a limited number of conditions. However such concepts are necessary to gain insight into both simple and complex air pollution models. It is argued that wider considerations are needed when considering routine air quality assessments involving an air quality model's formulation and pedigree. Moreover there appears to be a reluctance from model developers to move away from familiar concepts of the atmospheric boundary layer even if they are not appropriate to urban areas. An example is given from COST 715 as to how routine urban meteorological measurements of wind speed may be used and adapted for air quality assessments. Reference to the full COST 715 study is made which provides further details.

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  19. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  20. Machine Learning for Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Bradley J; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Akkus, Zeynettin; Kline, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a technique for recognizing patterns that can be applied to medical images. Although it is a powerful tool that can help in rendering medical diagnoses, it can be misapplied. Machine learning typically begins with the machine learning algorithm system computing the image features that are believed to be of importance in making the prediction or diagnosis of interest. The machine learning algorithm system then identifies the best combination of these image features for classifying the image or computing some metric for the given image region. There are several methods that can be used, each with different strengths and weaknesses. There are open-source versions of most of these machine learning methods that make them easy to try and apply to images. Several metrics for measuring the performance of an algorithm exist; however, one must be aware of the possible associated pitfalls that can result in misleading metrics. More recently, deep learning has started to be used; this method has the benefit that it does not require image feature identification and calculation as a first step; rather, features are identified as part of the learning process. Machine learning has been used in medical imaging and will have a greater influence in the future. Those working in medical imaging must be aware of how machine learning works. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  1. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  2. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-tier structure consisting of organization, coordination, and execution levels forms the architecture of an intelligent machine using the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence from a hierarchically intelligent control. This system has been formulated as a probabilistic model, where uncertainty and imprecision can be expressed in terms of entropies. The optimal strategy for decision planning and task execution can be found by minimizing the total entropy in the system. The focus is on the design of the organization level as a Boltzmann machine. Since this level is responsible for planning the actions of the machine, the Boltzmann machine is reformulated to use entropy as the cost function to be minimized. Simulated annealing, expanding subinterval random search, and the genetic algorithm are presented as search techniques to efficiently find the desired action sequence and illustrated with numerical examples.

  3. Electrical machines with bulk HTS elements.. The achieved results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

    2001-09-01

    Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO and Bi-Ag elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. Two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in these types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in multi-domain and single-domain HTS ceramic samples. The test results of these HTS motors with output power 1-37 kW and current frequencies 50 and 400 Hz are given. The results show that in liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is 4-5 times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  4. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  5. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  6. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  7. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  8. Solid waste comminution machine

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, R.L.

    1986-08-26

    A solid waste comminution machine is described of the type having two sets of interleaving wheels, including a lower set and an upper set of wheel members. Each set includes a pair of shafts on which the wheel members are mounted, the pairs of shafts mounted on upright, mutually facing, movable arms. The improvement consists of: the upper set of wheel members having ripping and shearing tools attached to the circumferential periphery of the wheel members, the pair of shafts associated with the upper set of wheel members mounted on the movable arms, the lower set of wheel members mounted on a pair of fixed, parallel shafts, the shafts supported at one end of the arms with the lower set of wheel members interleaving in a material shearing relation. The shafts form a fixed pivot axis for the arms, the arms having fixed lengths with inward and outward ends, the outward ends extending beyond the shafts associated with the upper set of wheels thereby forming leverage regions, and hydraulic piston means having fixed ends and free ends, the free ends connected to the leverage regions for bringing the arms toward each other to a point at which the upper set of wheels mesh with sufficient force to enable ripping of material between the upper set of wheels.

  9. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  10. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  11. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  12. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  13. [Cybersurgery: human-machine integration for surgery of the future].

    PubMed

    Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele

    2013-10-01

    The concept whereby human-machine collaboration can enhance surgical performance is briefly reviewed in this editorial. Implementation of computer and robotic technologies in the operating room may enhance the safety, efficacy and precision of the surgical procedure and facilitate minimally invasive approaches. The coming cybernetic revolution in surgery is no longer science fiction: a surgical robot equipped with image recognition, specific algorithms and artificial intelligence has the potential replace surgeons and to perform complex procedures autonomously.

  14. Bio-Inspired Human-Level Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-25

    cue integration , grounded concept learning , and interaction of vision and language . We believe that the bio-inspired human-level machine learning ...hypernetwork model, and designed in vitro experimental protocols to implement online language learning from a stream of text corpus. In the third year, we...model, and designed in vitro experimental protocols to implement online language learning from a stream of text corpus. In the third year, we

  15. Microcompartments and protein machines in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Saier, Milton H

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic cell was once thought of as a 'bag of enzymes' with little or no intracellular compartmentalization. In this view, most reactions essential for life occurred as a consequence of random molecular collisions involving substrates, cofactors and cytoplasmic enzymes. Our current conception of a prokaryote is far from this view. We now consider a bacterium or an archaeon as a highly structured, nonrandom collection of functional membrane-embedded and proteinaceous molecular machines, each of which serves a specialized function. In this article we shall present an overview of such microcompartments including (1) the bacterial cytoskeleton and the apparati allowing DNA segregation during cell division; (2) energy transduction apparati involving light-driven proton pumping and ion gradient-driven ATP synthesis; (3) prokaryotic motility and taxis machines that mediate cell movements in response to gradients of chemicals and physical forces; (4) machines of protein folding, secretion and degradation; (5) metabolosomes carrying out specific chemical reactions; (6) 24-hour clocks allowing bacteria to coordinate their metabolic activities with the daily solar cycle, and (7) proteinaceous membrane compartmentalized structures such as sulfur granules and gas vacuoles. Membrane-bound prokaryotic organelles were considered in a recent Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology written symposium concerned with membranous compartmentalization in bacteria [J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2013;23:1-192]. By contrast, in this symposium, we focus on proteinaceous microcompartments. These two symposia, taken together, provide the interested reader with an objective view of the remarkable complexity of what was once thought of as a simple noncompartmentalized cell.

  16. Support Vector Machines and Generalisation in HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethani, A.; Bevan, A. J.; Hays, J.; Stevenson, T. J.

    2016-10-01

    We review the concept of support vector machines (SVMs) and discuss examples of their use. One of the benefits of SVM algorithms, compared with neural networks and decision trees is that they can be less susceptible to over fitting than those other algorithms are to over training. This issue is related to the generalisation of a multivariate algorithm (MVA); a problem that has often been overlooked in particle physics. We discuss cross validation and how this can be used to improve the generalisation of a MVA in the context of High Energy Physics analyses. The examples presented use the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA) based on ROOT and describe our improvements to the SVM functionality and new tools introduced for cross validation within this framework.

  17. Organic synthesis: march of the machines.

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Ingham, Richard J; Myers, Rebecca M

    2015-03-09

    Organic synthesis is changing; in a world where budgets are constrained and the environmental impacts of practice are scrutinized, it is increasingly recognized that the efficient use of human resource is just as important as material use. New technologies and machines have found use as methods for transforming the way we work, addressing these issues encountered in research laboratories by enabling chemists to adopt a more holistic systems approach in their work. Modern developments in this area promote a multi-disciplinary approach and work is more efficient as a result. This Review focuses on the concepts, procedures and methods that have far-reaching implications in the chemistry world. Technologies have been grouped as topics of opportunity and their recent applications in innovative research laboratories are described.

  18. Machine learning applications in cell image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Andrey

    2017-04-04

    Machine learning (ML) refers to a set of automatic pattern recognition methods that have been successfully applied across various problem domains, including biomedical image analysis. This review focuses on ML applications for image analysis in light microscopy experiments with typical tasks of segmenting and tracking individual cells, and modelling of reconstructed lineage trees. After describing a typical image analysis pipeline and highlighting challenges of automatic analysis (for example, variability in cell morphology, tracking in presence of clutters) this review gives a brief historical outlook of ML, followed by basic concepts and definitions required for understanding examples. This article then presents several example applications at various image processing stages, including the use of supervised learning methods for improving cell segmentation, and the application of active learning for tracking. The review concludes with remarks on parameter setting and future directions.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.16.

  19. In situ amplification signaling-based autonomous aptameric machine for the sensitive fluorescence detection of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Xie, Su-Jin; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Dengyou; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ruqin; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2013-06-15

    The development of autonomous DNA machines and their use for specific sensing purpose have recently attracted considerable research attention. In existing autonomous machines, the target recognition process and signal transduction are separated from each other. This results in misunderstanding of the operation behavior, and the assay capability is compromised when serving as a sensing tool. In this communication, the integrated signal transduction-based autonomous aptameric machine, in which the recognition element and signal reporters are integrated into a DNA strand, is developed. This new machine can execute the in situ amplification of target binding-induced signal. The authentic operation behavior of autonomous DNA machine is discovered: the machine's products directly hybridize to the "track" rather than to the signaling probes. Along this line, the machine is employed to detect the cocaine in a more straightforward fashion, and improved assay characteristics (for example, the dynamic response range is widened by more than 500-fold) are achieved. Our efforts not only clarify the concept described in traditional autonomous DNA machines but also have made technological advancements that are expected to be especially valuable in designing nucleic acid-based machines employed in basic research and medical diagnosis.

  20. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  1. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  2. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  3. Z Machine at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-17

    Sandia Labs' Z machine is the largest laboratory source of x-rays in the world. For the few nanoseconds of a Z Machine test, its electrical output equals the output of 50x the electrical generating stations of all the power plants on earth. The Z Machine complex encompasses an area roughly the size of a major college basketball arena. Originally created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z Machine is also considered a "dark horse" in the race for viable fusion energy production. After the famous "arcs and sparks" photo of Z (a photo no longer possible after its refurbishment), this is a fast-motion video of workers completing Z's recent refurbishment.

  4. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  5. Building and simulating protein machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  6. Machine Gun Liner Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    investigation does not constitute a complete analysis of liner failures in the M2 machine gun. The fact that two different liner-failure modes were...An order-of-magnitude estimate can be made of the bond strength in this case using a standard elastic analysis and some reasonable assumptions... analysis of the forces on the machine gun bullet, it was found that the measured bond strength was adequate to resist the reaction forces produced when

  7. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  8. There is no classical analog of a quantum time-translation machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidman, Lev

    1995-11-01

    In a recent article [D. Suter, Phys. Rev. A 51, 45 (1995)] Suter has claimed to present an optical implementation of the quantum time-translation machine that ``shows all the features that the general concept predicts and also allows, besides the quantum-mechanical, a classical description.'' It is argued that the experiment proposed and performed by Suter does not have the features of the quantum time-translation machine and that the latter has no classical analog.

  9. Overview of 3D laser materials processing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukantas, George; Salonitis, Konstantinos; Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Chryssolouris, George

    2003-04-01

    The term of 3D laser processing has been used so far to describe a group of different three-dimensional laser processing concepts. At each of these concepts the 3D aspect refers to a different manipulation of one or more laser beams, as to process and/or produce three-dimensional geometries by performing material removal, welding or heat treating. The most important concepts are focused mainly in laser machining and laser welding processes by incorporating one or two laser beams simultaneously. This paper overviews a number of these concepts that have been developed in research or industrial level, along with their advantages, drawbacks and fields of application.

  10. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  12. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  13. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  14. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  15. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  16. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  18. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  19. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  20. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining…

  1. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power driven... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting...

  2. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power driven... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting...

  3. Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  5. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  6. The body-machine interface: a new perspective on an old theme.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2012-01-01

    Body-machine interfaces establish a way to interact with a variety of devices, allowing their users to extend the limits of their performance. Recent advances in this field, ranging from computer interfaces to bionic limbs, have had important consequences for people with movement disorders. The authors provide an overview of the basic concepts underlying the body-machine interface with special emphasis on their use for rehabilitation and for operating assistive devices. They outline the steps involved in building such an interface and highlight the critical role of body-machine interfaces in addressing theoretical issues in motor control as well as their utility in movement rehabilitation.

  7. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  8. On Machines, Self-Organization, and the Global Traveling of Knowledge, circa 1500-1900.

    PubMed

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How and why does knowledge move from one place in the world to another? This is the key question of this contribution to the Focus section. The essay discusses a number of concepts concerning the global traveling of knowledge that are relevant for both preindustrial and industrial times. It proposes to modify and extend the metaphor of the "machine," introduced by James McClellan and François Regourd. Global traveling of knowledge was in historical reality often not only coordinated by "colonial" (or rather "imperial") machines but also by machines of a "commercial" or "religious" nature. Moreover, flows of knowledge could also be moved by forces from below, which may be analyzed by means of the concept of "self-organization." A range of examples illustrates that these concepts can be usefully applied in European as well as outer-European contexts.

  9. Why Stress Remains an Ambiguous Concept: Reply to McEwen & McEwen (2016) and Cohen et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Kagan, Jerome

    2016-07-01

    This reply to the commentaries by Cohen, Giannaros, and Manuck (2016, this issue) and McEwen and McEwen (2016, this issue) acknowledges investigators' reluctance to relinquish the term stress, despite the lack of agreement on its meaning and the evidence that is a sign of its presence. This brief reply urges scientists studying the exemplars of this ambiguous concept to search for robust relations that specify the type of event, the properties of the agent, the agent's circumstances, and the behavioral or biological consequences. The accumulation of these relations will reveal that the word stress adds little to our understanding.

  10. Risk estimation using probability machines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Logistic regression has been the de facto, and often the only, model used in the description and analysis of relationships between a binary outcome and observed features. It is widely used to obtain the conditional probabilities of the outcome given predictors, as well as predictor effect size estimates using conditional odds ratios. Results We show how statistical learning machines for binary outcomes, provably consistent for the nonparametric regression problem, can be used to provide both consistent conditional probability estimation and conditional effect size estimates. Effect size estimates from learning machines leverage our understanding of counterfactual arguments central to the interpretation of such estimates. We show that, if the data generating model is logistic, we can recover accurate probability predictions and effect size estimates with nearly the same efficiency as a correct logistic model, both for main effects and interactions. We also propose a method using learning machines to scan for possible interaction effects quickly and efficiently. Simulations using random forest probability machines are presented. Conclusions The models we propose make no assumptions about the data structure, and capture the patterns in the data by just specifying the predictors involved and not any particular model structure. So they do not run the same risks of model mis-specification and the resultant estimation biases as a logistic model. This methodology, which we call a “risk machine”, will share properties from the statistical machine that it is derived from. PMID:24581306

  11. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  12. Game-powered machine learning.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  13. Game-powered machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  14. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

    1994-01-01

    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  15. Energy landscapes for machine learning.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Andrew J; Das, Ritankar; Martiniani, Stefano; Mehta, Dhagash; Sagun, Levent; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J

    2017-04-03

    Machine learning techniques are being increasingly used as flexible non-linear fitting and prediction tools in the physical sciences. Fitting functions that exhibit multiple solutions as local minima can be analysed in terms of the corresponding machine learning landscape. Methods to explore and visualise molecular potential energy landscapes can be applied to these machine learning landscapes to gain new insight into the solution space involved in training and the nature of the corresponding predictions. In particular, we can define quantities analogous to molecular structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics, and relate these emergent properties to the structure of the underlying landscape. This Perspective aims to describe these analogies with examples from recent applications, and suggest avenues for new interdisciplinary research.

  16. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  17. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    PubMed

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  18. Biological and biomimetic molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tony J; Juluri, Bala K

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of life facilitates the creation of biological molecular machines. In these so-called 'nanomachines,' nature elegantly shows that when precisely organized and assembled, simple molecular mechanical components can link motions efficiently from the nanometer scale to the macroscopic world, and achieve complex functions such as powering skeletal muscles, synthesizing ATP and producing DNA/RNA. Inspired by nature, researchers are creating artifical molecular machines with tailored structures and properties, with the aim of realizing man-made active nanosystems that operate with the same efficiency and complexity as biological nanomachines. It is anticipated that in the not-too-distant future, unique applications of biological and biomimetic molecular machines will emerge in areas such as biochemical instrumentation and nanomedicine.

  19. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  20. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  1. Information geometry of Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Amari, S; Kurata, K; Nagaoka, H

    1992-01-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a network of stochastic neurons. The set of all the Boltzmann machines with a fixed topology forms a geometric manifold of high dimension, where modifiable synaptic weights of connections play the role of a coordinate system to specify networks. A learning trajectory, for example, is a curve in this manifold. It is important to study the geometry of the neural manifold, rather than the behavior of a single network, in order to know the capabilities and limitations of neural networks of a fixed topology. Using the new theory of information geometry, a natural invariant Riemannian metric and a dual pair of affine connections on the Boltzmann neural network manifold are established. The meaning of geometrical structures is elucidated from the stochastic and the statistical point of view. This leads to a natural modification of the Boltzmann machine learning rule.

  2. The lean service machine.

    PubMed

    Swank, Cynthia Karen

    2003-10-01

    Jefferson Pilot Financial, a life insurance and annuities firm, like many U.S. service companies at the end of the 1990s was looking for new ways to grow. Its top managers recognized that JPF needed to differentiate itself in the eyes of its customers, the independent life-insurance advisers who sell and service policies. To establish itself as these advisers' preferred partner, it set out to reduce the turnaround time on policy applications, simplify the submission process, and reduce errors. JPF's managers looked to the "lean production" practices that U.S. manufacturers adopted in response to competition from Japanese companies. Lean production is built around the concept of continuous-flow processing--a departure from traditional production systems, in which large batches are processed at each step. JPF appointed a "lean team" to reengineer its New Business unit's operations, beginning with the creation of a "model cell"--a fully functioning microcosm of JPF's entire process. This approach allowed managers to experiment and smooth out the kinks while working toward an optimal design. The team applied lean-manufacturing practices, including placing linked processes near one another, balancing employees' workloads, posting performance results, and measuring performance and productivity from the customer's perspective. Customer-focused metrics helped erode the employees' "My work is all that matters" mind-set. The results were so impressive that JPF is rolling out similar systems across many of its operations. To convince employees of the value of lean production, the lean team introduced a simulation in which teams compete to build the best paper airplane based on invented customer specifications. This game drives home lean production's basic principles, establishing a foundation for deep and far-reaching changes in the production system.

  3. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  4. Concepts in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Jimmie D.; And Others

    This book is a collection of ideas and information, gathered from various sources, which should aid college students in formulating their own methods of improving communication. The four main sections of the book are "Concepts of Communication,""Concepts of Source and Message,""Concepts of Communication Criticism," and "Concepts of Interpersonal…

  5. Cooling system for rotating machine

    DOEpatents

    Gerstler, William Dwight; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; Quirion, Owen Scott; Palafox, Pepe; Shen, Xiaochun; Salasoo, Lembit

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  6. Thermoacoustic simulator for regenerative machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, E.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2002-05-01

    Linear thermoacoustic theory is a powerful tool to understand the working mechanism of many regenerative machines. Based on the theory, the authors have developed a computer code "Thermoacoustic Simulator" for analyzing and designing different regenerative cryocoolers including String refrigerators, Stirling and G-M types of pulse tube refrigerators and G-M cryocoolers. Also, standing-wave and traveling-wave thermoacoustic machines can be simulated, too. This paper will present the philosophy of the "Thermoacoustic Simulator" and some demonstrations of simulation for different types of cryocoolers and thermoacoustic engines.

  7. Machine learning phases of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Stoudenmire, Miles; Melko, Roger

    We show how the technology that allows automatic teller machines read hand-written digits in cheques can be used to encode and recognize phases of matter and phase transitions in many-body systems. In particular, we analyze the (quasi-)order-disorder transitions in the classical Ising and XY models. Furthermore, we successfully use machine learning to study classical Z2 gauge theories that have important technological application in the coming wave of quantum information technologies and whose phase transitions have no conventional order parameter.

  8. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  9. Magnet management in electric machines

    DOEpatents

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum Kang

    2017-03-21

    A magnet management method of controlling a ferrite-type permanent magnet electrical machine includes receiving and/or estimating the temperature permanent magnets; determining if that temperature is below a predetermined temperature; and if so, then: selectively heating the magnets in order to prevent demagnetization and/or derating the machine. A similar method provides for controlling magnetization level by analyzing flux or magnetization level. Controllers that employ various methods are disclosed. The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment(s), and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.

  10. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  11. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  12. Electric machine differential for vehicle traction control and stability control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruppu, Sandun Shivantha

    Evolving requirements in energy efficiency and tightening regulations for reliable electric drivetrains drive the advancement of the hybrid electric (HEV) and full electric vehicle (EV) technology. Different configurations of EV and HEV architectures are evaluated for their performance. The future technology is trending towards utilizing distinctive properties in electric machines to not only to improve efficiency but also to realize advanced road adhesion controls and vehicle stability controls. Electric machine differential (EMD) is such a concept under current investigation for applications in the near future. Reliability of a power train is critical. Therefore, sophisticated fault detection schemes are essential in guaranteeing reliable operation of a complex system such as an EMD. The research presented here emphasize on implementation of a 4kW electric machine differential, a novel single open phase fault diagnostic scheme, an implementation of a real time slip optimization algorithm and an electric machine differential based yaw stability improvement study. The proposed d-q current signature based SPO fault diagnostic algorithm detects the fault within one electrical cycle. The EMD based extremum seeking slip optimization algorithm reduces stopping distance by 30% compared to hydraulic braking based ABS.

  13. Design Criteria and Machine Integration of the Ignitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, A.; Coppi, B.

    2010-11-01

    High field, high density compact experiments are the only ones capable of producing, on the basis of available technology and knowledge of plasma physics, plasmas that can reach ignition conditions. The Ignitor machine (R01.32 m, a xb0.47x0.83 m^2, BT<=13 T, Ip<=11 MA) is characterized by a complete structural integration of its major components. A sophisticated Poloidal Field system provides the flexibility to produce the expected sequence of plasma equilibrium configurations during the plasma current and pressure rise. The structural concept of the machine is based on an optimized combination of ``bucking'' and ``wedging''. All components, with the exception of the vacuum vessel, are cooled before each plasma pulse by means of He gas, to an optimal temperature of 30 K, at which the ratio of the electrical resistivity to the specific heat of copper is minimum. The 3D and 2D design and integration of all the core machine components, including electro-fluidic and fluidic lines, has been produced using the Dassault CATIA-V software. A complete structural analysis has verified that the machine can withstand the forces produced for all the main operational scenarios.

  14. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  15. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  16. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  18. Universal router concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Portable universal router can cut holes of large diameter and irregular shapes, machine recesses, and drill holes with certain edge-distance limitations. Rectangular and round holes may be cut without a template.

  19. How To Teach Common Characteristics of Machine Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanas, H. C.

    1970-01-01

    Organizes machine tools and machine operations into commonalities in order to help the student visualize and distinguish the common characteristics which exist between machine tools and operations. (GR)

  20. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)