Science.gov

Sample records for remediate carbon tetrachloride

  1. Overcoming Barriers to the Remediation of Carbon Tetrachloride Through Manipulation of Competing Reaction Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, Paul G.; Amonette, James E.; Bylaska, Eric J.

    2004-03-29

    Most approaches that have been proposed for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride produce chloroform as the major product and methylene chloride as a minor product. Both of these products are nearly as persistent and problematic as the parent compound, but competing reaction pathways produce the more desirable products carbon monoxide and/or formate. Branching between these reaction pathways is highly variable, but the controlling factors have not been identified. To improve the applicability of reductive remediation technologies to the large plumes of carbon tetrachloride at several DOE sites, we are pursuing the complete characterization of the mechanisms and kinetics of competing degradation reactions of carbon tetrachloride through laboratory experiments closely coordinated with theoretical modeling studies. The results are beginning to suggest strategies for maximizing the yield of desirable products from carbon tetrachloride degradation, which will be tested in column model systems using real site waters and matrix materials.

  2. Carbon tetrachloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride ; CASRN 56 - 23 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. 30 CFR 57.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 57.20005 Section 57.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20005 Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  4. 30 CFR 57.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 57.20005 Section 57.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20005 Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  5. 30 CFR 56.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 56.20005 Section 56.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  6. 30 CFR 56.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 56.20005 Section 56.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  7. 30 CFR 57.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 57.20005 Section 57.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20005 Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  8. 30 CFR 56.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 56.20005 Section 56.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  9. 30 CFR 57.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 57.20005 Section 57.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20005 Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  10. 30 CFR 56.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 56.20005 Section 56.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  11. 30 CFR 57.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 57.20005 Section 57.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20005 Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  12. 30 CFR 56.20005 - Carbon tetrachloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon tetrachloride. 56.20005 Section 56.20005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride shall not be used....

  13. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cole, Charles R.; Cameron, Richard J.; Johnson, Michael D.; Skeen, Rodney S.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2001-07-13

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters.

  14. Detection of carbon tetrachloride associates in isooctane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byakov, V. M.; Lanshina, L. V.; Stepanova, O. P.; Stepanov, S. V.

    2010-07-01

    The cryoscopic and radiospectroscopic data revealed that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) n agglomerates ( n ≥ 4) could form in cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride itself. Additional arguments in favor of the formation of similar CCl4 agglomerates in isooctane were presented by analyzing the available data on positron annihilation in CCl4 solutions in isooctane.

  15. Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride -- A Conundrum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondeel, D. J.; Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; King, D. B.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Dutton, G. S.; Thompson, T. M.; Elkins, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a significant ozone-depleting gas in the atmosphere that has been decreasing in concentration at just under 1 ppt y-1 (< 1% y-1) over the past decade. This turnover and decrease in reported mixing ratio can be attributed to lowered production as agreed upon by the parties signing the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Stratospheric Ozone. The rate of decline, however, is inconsistent with available information regarding the production and atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Other useful information for CCl4 is in the interhemispheric difference, which has changed little since the initial turnover in mixing ratio. This is unlike that of the CFCs and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), for which the interhemispheric difference in mixing ratio has become smaller, in some cases rapidly, with the decline in emissions in the mid-1990s. This suggests that emissions of CCl4 continue to be significant, particularly in light of the lowered estimates for the atmospheric lifetime of CCl4. This seeming paradox raises a number of questions, not just regarding production and emission, but also about the calculated lifetimes of atmospheric trace gases. The lifetime of CCl4 from losses solely within the atmosphere currently is calculated at 35(21-43 ) y. Recently reported losses to the ocean have reduced the lifetime estimate to 26(17-36) y and an even more recent estimate of losses to soils reduces the lifetime further to 20(13-32) y. These newly reported losses of CCl4 force a re-examination of the magnitudes and distributions of the sources and sinks of this gas. This poster presents some new data and an evaluation of what is known and unknown with regard to the budget of atmospheric CCl4, highlighting uncertainties and the need for additional research to reduce them. Montzka, S. A., et al., Controlled substances and other source gases, Chapter 1, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Res. and Monitor. Proj., Vol. No. 47

  16. Overcoming Barriers to the Remediation of Carbon Tetrachloride through Manipulation of Competing Reaction Mechanisms-Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, Paul G; Amonette, James E; Bylaska, Eric J

    2007-03-07

    The premise of this project was that if we understood the fundamental chemistry that controls the branching among product formation pathways for the degradation of CCl₄, we could design remediation strategies that minimize the formation of CHCl₃ and thereby provide badly needed alternatives for remediation of the large plumes of CCl₄ that contaminate several DOE sites. To this end, we performed a series of coordinated batch, spectroscopic, and modeling experiments, to study the effect of a variety of factors on the yield of CHCl₃ from CCl₄ during reduction with zero-valent iron (Fe⁰). The factors studied include those with direct implications for field performance (e.g., the concentration of CCl₄ relative to the amount of iron surface area) and others chosen for diagnosis of the reaction mechanism (e.g., incorporation of deuterium into CCl₄ reduction products in the presence of D₂O). The key mechanistic findings of this study are (i) that CCl₃• probably is not an intermediate in the formation of CF, but CCl₃⁻ probably is, (ii) the high reductive capacity of the Fe⁰ core favors the concerted 2e⁻ reduction, and (iii) magnetite on Fe⁰ favors the benign product formation pathway. The latter conclusion is based on the observation that one type of nano-sized Fe⁰ that is coated with magnetite shell produces low yields of chloroform (0-40%), whereas others produce the higher yields of chloroform (60-100%) that are typical of most methods for reducing CCl₄ (including biodegradation). Since nano-Fe⁰ can, in principle, be introduced into the deep subsurface by injection, our results would suggest that the right type of nano-Fe⁰ introduced in the right way might be highly effective at dechlorinating CCl₄ with minimal formation of CHCl₃ or other undesirable by-products. This conclusion may offer a breakthrough in the search for remediation technologies that are suitable for the deep CCl₄-contamination at DOE sites such as the 200-W

  17. A Substitute Foe "Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of a dilute solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…

  18. A Substitute Foe "Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of a dilute solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the draft report,Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride(Interagency Science Discussion Draft), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of carbon tetrachloride that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  20. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the cause of hepatic injury in patients with hypoxaemia, the persistence of liver susceptibility to toxic injury after hypoxia was investigated in rats. Centrilobular necrosis and marked elevation of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) activities were induced by carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg body weight) given in the period between 3 h before and 21 h after exposure to 7% oxygen for 3 h. This observation, that a short period of hypoxia results in a prolonged sensitivity to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, has not been described previously. The mechanism of the phenomenon is obscure. These observations suggest that the hepatic injury in patients with hypoxaemia may be caused not only by the hypoxia per se or chemicals administered before or during hypoxia, but also by chemicals given within 24 h of hypoxaemia. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3801302

  1. Improved risk estimates for carbon tetrachloride. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Springer, D.L.; Thrall, K.D.

    1998-06-01

    'The overall purpose of these studies is to improve the scientific basis for assessing the cancer risk associated with human exposure to carbon tetrachloride. Specifically, the toxicokinetics of inhaled carbon tetrachloride is being determined in rats, mice and hamsters. Species differences in the metabolism of carbon tetrachloride by rats, mice and hamsters is being determined in vivo and in vitro using tissues and microsomes from these rodent species and man. Dose-response relationships will be determined in all studies. The information will be used to improve the current physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for carbon tetrachloride. The authors will also determine whether carbon tetrachloride is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing, and regenerative cell proliferation. In combination, the results of these studies will provide the types of information needed to enable a refined risk estimate for carbon tetrachloride under EPA''s new guidelines for cancer risk assessment.'

  2. Project Work Plan Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Attenuation Parameter Studies: Heterogeneous Hydrolytic Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2006-06-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, an estimated 750,000 kg of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to the soil in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site as part of the plutonium production process. Of this amount, some carbon tetrachloride reached the groundwater more than 70 m below the ground surface and formed a plume of 10 km2. Recent information has shown that the carbon tetrachloride plume extends to a depth of at least 60 m below the water table. Some carbon tetrachloride has been degraded either by the original process or subsequent transformations in the subsurface to form a co-existing chloroform plume. Although current characterization efforts are improving the conceptual model of the source area, more information is needed to effectively assess the fate and transport of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform to support upcoming remediation decisions for the plume. As noted in a simulation study by Truex et al. (2001), parameters describing porosity, sorption, and abiotic degradation have the largest influence on predicted plume behavior. The work proposed herein will improve the ability to predict future plume movement by better quantifying abiotic degradation mechanisms and rates. This effort will help define how much active remediation may be needed and estimate where the plume will eventually stabilize – key factors in determining the most appropriate remedy for the plume.

  3. Recent Site-Wide Transport Modeling Related to the Carbon Tetrachloride Plume at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Cole, C R.

    2004-09-29

    Carbon tetrachloride transport in the unconfined aquifer system at the Hanford Site has been the subject of follow-on studies since the Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program was completed in FY 2002. These scoping analyses were undertaken to provide support for strategic planning and guidance for the more robust modeling needed to obtain a final record of decision (ROD) for the carbon tetrachloride plume in the 200 West Area. This report documents the technical approach and the results of these follow-on, site-wide scale-modeling efforts. The existing site-wide groundwater model was used in this effort. The work extended that performed as part of the ITRD modeling study in which a 200 West Area scale submodel was developed to examine arrival concentrations at an arbitrary boundary between the 200 E and 200 W areas. These scoping analyses extended the analysis to predict the arrival of the carbon tetrachloride plume at the Columbia River. The results of these analyses illustrate the importance of developing field-scale estimates of natural attenuation parameters, abiotic degradation rate and soil/water equilibrium sorption coefficient, for carbon tetrachloride. With these parameters set to zero, carbon tetrachloride concentrations will exceed the compliance limit of 5 {micro}g/L outside the 200 Area Plateau Waste Management Area, and the aquifer source loading and area of the aquifer affected will continue to grow until arrival rates of carbon tetrachloride equal source release rates, estimated at 33 kg/yr. Results of this scoping analysis show that the natural attenuation parameters are critical in predicting the future movement of carbon tetrachloride from the 200 West Area. Results also show the significant change in predictions between continual source release from the vadose zone and complete source removal.

  4. Recent Site-Wide Transport Modeling Related to the Carbon Tetrachloride Plume at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Cole, C R.

    2005-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride transport in the unconfined aquifer system at the Hanford Site has been the subject of follow-on studies since the Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program was completed in FY 2002. These scoping analyses were undertaken to provide support for strategic planning and guidance for the more robust modeling needed to obtain a final record of decision (ROD) for the carbon tetrachloride plume in the 200 West Area. This report documents the technical approach and the results of these follow-on, site-wide scale-modeling efforts. The existing site-wide groundwater model was used in this effort. The work extended that performed as part of the ITRD modeling study in which a 200 West Area scale submodel was developed to examine arrival concentrations at an arbitrary boundary between the 200 E and 200 W areas. These scoping analyses extended the analysis to predict the arrival of the carbon tetrachloride plume at the Columbia River. The results of these analyses illustrate the importance of developing field-scale estimates of natural attenuation parameters, abiotic degradation rate and soil/water equilibrium sorption coefficient, for carbon tetrachloride. With these parameters set to zero, carbon tetrachloride concentrations will exceed the compliance limit of 5 ?g/L outside the 200 Area Plateau Waste Management Area, and the aquifer source loading and area of the aquifer affected will continue to grow until arrival rates of carbon tetrachloride equal source release rates, estimated at 33 kg/yr. Results of this scoping analysis show that the natural attenuation parameters are critical in predicting the future movement of carbon tetrachloride from the 200 West Area. Results also show the significant change in predictions between continual source release from the vadose zone and complete source removal.

  5. Emissions of carbon tetrachloride from Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziosi, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo; Furlani, Francesco; Giostra, Umberto; Manning, Alistair J.; McCulloch, Archie; O'Doherty, Simon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Maione, Michela

    2016-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a long-lived radiatively active compound with the ability to destroy stratospheric ozone. Due to its inclusion in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), the last two decades have seen a sharp decrease in its large-scale emissive use with a consequent decline in its atmospheric mole fractions. However, the MP restrictions do not apply to the use of carbon tetrachloride as feedstock for the production of other chemicals, implying the risk of fugitive emissions from the industry sector. The occurrence of such unintended emissions is suggested by a significant discrepancy between global emissions as derived from reported production and feedstock usage (bottom-up emissions), and those based on atmospheric observations (top-down emissions). In order to better constrain the atmospheric budget of carbon tetrachloride, several studies based on a combination of atmospheric observations and inverse modelling have been conducted in recent years in various regions of the world. This study is focused on the European scale and based on long-term high-frequency observations at three European sites, combined with a Bayesian inversion methodology. We estimated that average European emissions for 2006-2014 were 2.2 (± 0.8) Gg yr-1, with an average decreasing trend of 6.9 % per year. Our analysis identified France as the main source of emissions over the whole study period, with an average contribution to total European emissions of approximately 26 %. The inversion was also able to allow the localisation of emission "hot spots" in the domain, with major source areas in southern France, central England (UK) and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), where most industrial-scale production of basic organic chemicals is located. According to our results, European emissions correspond, on average, to 4.0 % of global emissions for 2006-2012. Together with other regional studies, our results allow a better constraint

  6. The mode of action of carbon tetrachloride on Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Khalidi, A.; Zaki, Saniha Amin

    1969-01-01

    1. A biliary fistula was prepared in twelve sheep. 2. Each animal was given 2 ml. of 14C-carbon tetrachloride (specific activity 15 mc/m-mole) and bile collected at 2, 4, 24 and 48 hr. 3. Specific activity was measured by liquid scintillation counting before and after each specimen had been heated to 75° C for 10 min to drive off volatile content (carbon tetrachloride). 4. Only traces of activity were present in the bile and heating did not alter this. 5. There was no difference in the survival times of adult Fasciola hepatica incubated in Hedon Flieg medium with and without 25% bile from non-medicated sheep, or with carbon tetrachloride in a concentration of 0·03%, but 25% of bile from sheep given 2 ml. of carbon tetrachloride 24 hr before greatly increased lethality in vitro. 6. The anthelmintic action of carbon tetrachloride on F. hepatica does not result from a direct action due to excretion in bile of unchanged carbon tetrachloride but of an unidentified toxic element not necessarily derived from the drug but which arises as a result of its administration. PMID:5815150

  7. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the Amazon Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Jardine, A. B.; Martin, S. T.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    As a chemically inert greenhouse gas in the troposphere with lifetimes up to 50 years but active in ozone destruction in the stratosphere, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) plays a major role in the atmospheric chlorine budget and is widely considered strictly of anthropogenic origin deriving from numerous industrial processes and products. However, satellite remote sensing studies have shown higher concentrations at the Equator, and earlier work has suggested possible biogenic sources. Here we present highly vertically-resolved atmospheric gradients of CCl4 within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem from three towers in the Central Amazon. The observed buildup of CCl4 mixing ratios near the top of the main canopies provides new evidence for a potentially large biogenic source from the Basin. By demonstrating the need to represent tropical forests as biogenic sources of CCl4, our study may help narrow the gap between remote sensing observations of CCl4 and emission, chemistry, and transport models and therefore lead to improved predictions of its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  8. Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries.

    PubMed

    Meziane, Adil; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E; Baba, Mohamed; Nedelec, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of carbon tetrachloride confined in silica gels of different porosities was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Both the melting point and the low temperature phase transition were measured and found to be inextricably dependant on the degree of confinement. The amount of solvent was varied through two sets of experiments, sequential addition and original progressive evaporation allowing the measurement of DSC signals for the various transitions as a function of the amount of CCl4. These experiments allowed the determination of the transition enthalpies in the confined state, which in turn allowed the determination of the exact quantities of solvent undergoing these transitions. A clear correlation was found between the amounts of solvent (both free and confined) undergoing the two transitions, demonstrating that the formation of the adsorbed layer t does not interfere with the second transition. The thickness of this layer and the porous volumes of the two silica samples were measured and found to be in very close agreement with the values determined by gas sorption.

  9. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on isolated rat hepatocytes. Inhibition of protein and lipoprotein secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gravela, E; Albano, E; Dianzani, M U; Poli, G; Slater, T F

    1979-01-01

    The effects of carbon tetrachloride on protein and lipoprotein secretion, and on lipid peroxidation, have been investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. It was found that although the free-radical scavenger promethazine completely suppressed the increased peroxidation produced by carbon tetrachloride, it had no effect on the inhibitory action of carbon tetrachloride on lipoprotein secretion. In consequence, the latter effect of carbon tetrachloride does not appear to be mediated through a peroxidative stage. PMID:444227

  10. IMPROVED RISK ESTIMATES FOR CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Janet M.; Springer, David L.

    1999-12-31

    Carbon tetrachloride has been used extensively within the DOE nuclear weapons facilities. Rocky Flats was formerly the largest volume consumer of CCl4 in the United States using 5000 gallons in 1977 alone (Ripple, 1992). At the Hanford site, several hundred thousand gallons of CCl4 were discharged between 1955 and 1973 into underground cribs for storage. Levels of CCl4 in groundwater at highly contaminated sites at the Hanford facility have exceeded 8 the drinking water standard of 5 ppb by several orders of magnitude (Illman, 1993). High levels of CCl4 at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The level of CCl4 cleanup required at these sites and associated costs are driven by current human health risk estimates, which assume that CCl4 is a genotoxic carcinogen. The overall purpose of these studies was to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl4. Specific research objectives of this project were to: (1) compare the rates of CCl4 metabolism by rats, mice and hamsters in vivo and extrapolate those rates to man based on parallel studies on the metabolism of CCl4 by rat, mouse, hamster and human hepatic microsomes in vitro; (2) using hepatic microsome preparations, determine the role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in CCl4-mediated toxicity and the effects of repeated inhalation and ingestion of CCl4 on these isoforms; and (3) evaluate the toxicokinetics of inhaled CCl4 in rats, mice and hamsters. This information has been used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl4 originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). Another major objective of the project was to provide scientific evidence that CCl4, like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing and regenerative proliferation. In

  11. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; Lea, Alan S.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.; Miehr, R.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2002-10-01

    The distribution of reaction sites on iron particles exposed to water containing carbon tetrachloride has been examined by measuring the locations of reaction products. The uniformity or localization of reaction sites has implications for understanding and modeling the reduction of environmental contaminants by iron in ground water systems. Granular iron surfaces similar to those being used for environmental remediation applications were studied using surfaces analysis techniques to develop an understanding of the physical and chemical structure of the surface and oxide films. Scanning Auger microscopy and imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed that granular iron exposed to carbon tetrachloride-saturated water exhibits chloride-enriched regions occurred at pits rather than on the passive oxide film on the metal. Understanding the nature of the local solute reduction sites will play an important role in modeling the kinetics of reaction at passive iron oxide films in environmental systems.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report,Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride(Interagency Science Discussion Draft), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Co...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Carbon Tetrachloride (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of carbon tetrachloride that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Carbon Tetrachloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Carbon Tetrachloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report,Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride(Interagency Science Discussion Draft), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Co...

  17. Health Assessment Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Report, 1984)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC14) is a haloalkane with a wide range of industrial and chemical applications. Its presence in the atmosphere and in water appears to be of anthropogenic origin. It is readily absorbed through the lung, gastrointestinal tract and skin and, therefore, poses...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Carbon Tetrachloride (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of carbon tetrachloride that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and...

  19. Health Assessment Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Report, 1984)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC14) is a haloalkane with a wide range of industrial and chemical applications. Its presence in the atmosphere and in water appears to be of anthropogenic origin. It is readily absorbed through the lung, gastrointestinal tract and skin and, therefore, poses...

  20. Hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Baron, C E; O'Sullivan, J J; Edwards, J C; Stonard, M D; Walker, R J; Fearnley, D M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify any differences in hepatic function between workers exposed to carbon tetrachloride and controls, and to identify the best variable with which to examine any effects. METHODS--In a cross sectional study of hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride, 135 exposed employees were compared with 276 non-exposed controls. The exposed group was taken from three sites in the north west of England and the control group included non-exposed workers from one of these sites and another site located nearby. Demographic and alcohol consumption data were collected from both groups by questionnaire. Each member of the study group was allotted a notional estimated exposure to carbon tetrachloride, calculated from historic personal monitoring data and job category. A fasting sample of blood was taken from all participants and analysed for a variety of biochemical and haematological variables. The techniques of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance were used to investigate the effect on biochemical and haematological indices of a range of factors. RESULTS--Multivariate analysis of variance of four core liver function variables, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, showed a significant difference between exposed and non-exposed workers. The univariate analyses identified increases in only alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase within the exposed group and these did not show a significant dose-response relation. Univariate analysis of variance did show effects of alcohol and age on several variables. Significant differences between exposed and control groups for three haematological variables, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and red blood count, were thought not to be due to the effects of exposure. Clinical review of exposed subjects with abnormal results did not show clinically evident disease that could have been associated with exposure to

  1. PARTICLE TRACKING ANALYSIS & ANIMATIONS DEPICTING MOVEMENT OF THE CARBON TETRACHLORIDE PLUME REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    MCMAHON, W.J.; ROHAY, V.J.

    2006-11-02

    The purpose of the hydraulic particle tracking animation files is to show where carbon tetrachloride that reached groundwater from the known discharge facilities would have been likely to travel fin the groundwater, and from where carbon tetrachloride presently observed in the aquifer likely would have started. These analyses support the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit activity to identify sources of carbon tetrachloride currently observed in groundwater or locations where carbon tetrachloride may have entered the groundwater. The animation files show travel paths (both forward and backward in time) for hypothetical particles of carbon tetrachloride carried in the groundwater. The travel paths represent the movement of the carbon tetrachloride at the average groundwater velocity. The particles only represent an estimation of where the carbon tetrachloride would be expected to be (or have come from) and do not indicate or imply what the concentration in the groundwater would be.

  2. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of zero-valent iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C.; LaFreniere, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to achieve the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride through anaerobic and aerobic bioremediation and chemical transformation have met with limited success because of the conditions required and the formation of hazardous intermediates. Recently, particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used with limited success for in situ remediation of carbon tetrachloride. We studied a modified microparticulate product that combines controlled-release carbon with ZVI for stimulation of in situ chemical reduction of persistent organic compounds in groundwater. With this product, a number of physical, chemical, and microbiological processes were combined to create very strongly reducing conditions that stimulate rapid, complete dechlorination of organic solvents. In principle, the organic component of ZVI microparticles is nutrient rich and hydrophilic and has high surface area capable of supporting the growth of bacteria in the groundwater environment. In our experiments, we found that as the bacteria grew, oxygen was consumed, and the redox potential decreased to values reaching -600 mV. The small modified ZVI particles provide substantial reactive surface area that, in these conditions, directly stimulates chemical dechlorination and cleanup of the contaminated area without accumulation of undesirable breakdown products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ZVI microparticles in reducing carbon tetrachloride under laboratory and field conditions. Changes in concentrations and in chemical and physical parameters were monitored to determine the role of the organic products in the reductive dechlorination reaction. Laboratory and field studies are presented.

  3. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  4. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  5. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride via sulfur and oxygen substitution by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC transforms carbon tetrachloride into carbon dioxide and nonvolatile products, without chloroform as an intermediate. To define the pathway for hydrolysis, nonvolatile products were analyzed. Condensation products containing the carbon atom of carbon tetrachloride as carbonyl and thioxo moieties were identified, indicating the intermediacy of phosgene and thiophosgene in the pathway. PMID:7721711

  6. On the performance of Cu-BTC metal organic framework for carbon tetrachloride gas removal.

    PubMed

    Calero, Sofía; Martín-Calvo, Ana; Hamad, Said; García-Pérez, Elena

    2011-01-07

    The performance of Cu-BTC metal organic framework for carbon tetrachloride removal from air has been studied using molecular simulations. According to our results, this material shows extremely high adsorption selectivity in favour of carbon tetrachloride. We demonstrate that this selectivity can be further enhanced by selective blockage of the framework.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Carbon Tetrachloride (Peer Review Plan)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride is a volatile haloalkane with a wide range of industrial and chemical applications. It is produced commercially from chlorination of a variety of low molecular weight hydrocarbons such as carbon disulfide, methanol, methane, propane, and ethylene dichloride....

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Carbon Tetrachloride (Peer Review Plan)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride is a volatile haloalkane with a wide range of industrial and chemical applications. It is produced commercially from chlorination of a variety of low molecular weight hydrocarbons such as carbon disulfide, methanol, methane, propane, and ethylene dichloride....

  9. Carbon atom-initiated degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of molecular oxygen: A product and mechanistic study

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoll, G.; Francisco, J.S.

    1998-10-15

    This paper reports an investigation of the gas-phase reaction of atomic carbon with carbon tetrachloride in the presence of molecular oxygen. It is demonstrated that carbon tetrachloride can be oxidatively degraded by this method. Results from FT-IR and GC/MS studies suggest that the major products from the reaction are phosgene and carbon dioxide. The initial step involves breaking the carbon-chlorine bond as a result of the reaction of atomic carbon with carbon tetrachloride. Laser-induced fluorescence studies have shown the presence of CCl as an intermediate produced from this reaction. A tentative mechanism is proposed to describe the details of the chemistry.

  10. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY2009

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the progress made through FY 2009 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study seeks also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. In previous years the work was funded as two separate projects by various sponsors, all of whom received their funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In FY2009, the projects were combined and funded by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Corporation (CHPRC). Work in FY2009 was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Staff from the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY–Cortland) contributed in previous years.

  11. The Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Budget: Mystery or Not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, atmospheric observations show a very slow decline in CCl4 concentrations, inconsistent with the nearly zero emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage in recent years. It is now apparent that there are either unidentified industrial leakages, an unknown production source of CCl4, or large legacy emissions from CCl4 contaminated sites. In this paper we use a global chemistry climate model to assess the budget mystery of atmospheric CCl4. We explore various factors that affect the global trend and the gradient between the Northern and Southern hemispheres or interhemispheric gradient (IHG): emissions, emission hemispheric partitioning, and lifetime variations. We find a present-day emission of 30-50 Gg per yr and a total lifetime 25 - 36 years are necessary to reconcile both the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG.

  12. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  13. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  14. Fabrication of bimetallic Ag/Fe immobilized on modified biochar for removal of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Feng, Qiyan

    2017-04-01

    As an effective conventional absorbent, biochar exhibited limited adsorption ability toward small hydrophobic molecules. To enhance the adsorption capacity, a novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron onto modified biochar (MB) and then the elemental silver was attached to the surface of iron (Ag/Fe/MB). It's noted that spherical Ag/Fe nanoparticles with diameter of 51nm were highly dispersed on the surface of MB. As the typical hydrophobic contaminant, carbon tetrachloride was selected for examining the removal efficiency of the adsorbent. The removal efficiencies of carbon tetrachloride by original biochar (OB), Ag/Fe, Ag/Fe/OB and Ag/Fe/MB were fully investigated. It's found that Ag/Fe/MB showed higher carbon tetrachloride removal efficiency, which is about 5.5 times higher than that of the OB sample due to utilizing the merits of high adsorption and reduction. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of carbon tetrachloride by Ag/Fe/MB was a spontaneous and exothermic process, which was affected by solution pH, initial carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature. The novel Ag/Fe/MB composites provided a promising material for carbon tetrachloride removal from effluent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Factors influencing substitutive transformation of carbon tetrachloride by pseudomonas sp. strain KC

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.A.; Crawford, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC can transform carbon tetrachloride (CT) to carbon dioxide by an as yet unknown mechanism. In addition to CO{sub 2}, a large portion of the CT carbon atoms are found as unidentified non-volatile products. In order to assess the potential usefulness of this process as a remediation technology and to assure that other toxic compounds are not produced, experiments to investigate the transformation process were undertaken. Using L-cysteine or N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMED), the corresponding phosgene and thiophosgene condensation products from CT-transforming cultures of KC were observed, indicating that a radical substitution pathway was operating. Using radioisotopic tracer, it was found that the addition of DMED caused a substantial decrease in CO{sub 2} production. Other experiments were undertaken to account for the fraction of CT transformation accounted for by the sulfur and oxygen substitutive pathways. Data support a radical substitution pathway for the transformation of CT to CO{sub 2} and nonvolatile products. Furthermore, data suggest that the products of CT transformation would be fully dechlorinated due to the lability of the carbon-chlorine bonds in phosgene and thiophosgene.

  16. Increased carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity after low-level ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Obermeier, F; Siegers, C P; Vöpel, M

    1978-07-01

    Male rats provided with a 5 or 15% (v/v) ethanol solution as the sole source of fluid consumed ethanol at a rate of 11.4 or 24.9% of total calories (4.2 or 8.3 g/kg daily). After ethanol consumption lasting 1, 2 and 3 weeks the hepatotoxicity of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg i.p.) was elevated by determination of serum activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase ( GPT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and histological investigations. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage was significantly greater in rats provided with ethanol than in the tap-water consuming controls. This potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicicty was fully developed already after a 1-week exposition to ethanol and was greater in the 15% than in the 5% ethanol group. Ethanol alone did not influence serum enzyme activities but increased microsomal aniline hydroxylation. There was, however, no clear-cut parallelism between potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicity and activation of aniline hydroxylation.

  17. Geostatistical Analyses of the Persistence and Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Truex, Michael J.

    2007-04-30

    This report documents two separate geostatistical studies performed by researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the carbon tetrachloride plume in the groundwater on the Hanford Site.

  18. Mesoscale Tank Experiments for Investigating Carbon Tetrachloride Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Brady D. Lee; Robert J. Lenhard

    2005-06-01

    Mesoscale tank experiments were performed to simulate bioremediation of saturated zone carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) originating from a vadose zone carbon tetrachloride source. The mesoscale tank is 2-m wide by 2-m high by 3-m long and was constructed of stainless steel, yielding a total volume of 12 m3. Simulated geology within the tank consisted of two unconsolidated sand layers separated by a clay layer containing variable-sized stainless steel tubes that represented fractures within a consolidated porous medium. The thickness of the upper sand layer was approximately 55 cm, the thickness of the virtual fracture layer was 25 cm, and the thickness of the lower sand layer was approximately 98 cm. The water table was located at an elevation of approximately 54 cm from the bottom of the tank. CCl4 was added to the sealed tank by pouring 500 ml of neat CCl4 into a beaker buried approximately 10 cm below the upper sand surface through a stainless steel tube. The CCl4 was then allowed to partition through the reactor over time, eventually coming to equilibrium. Once CCl4 equilibrium had occurred in the saturated zone (~500 ppb); the reactor was bioaugmented with a CCl4 degrading culture enriched from the Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEEL. The culture was grown to a cell density of ~ 1.0 x 108 cells/ml and injected into the simulated aquifer through a center sampling port. Following injection of the culture, an initial aliquot of lactate (1,000 g/L), nitrogen, and phosphorus were added to the reactor. Lactate was injected every 3 – 5 days for one month. After 1 month of operation, a continuous supply of lactate (1,000 g/L) was pumped into the reactor at an average rate of 50 mL/min. CCl4 concentrations in the unsaturated zone were measured using hollow fiber membrane samplers, while liquid samples were analyzed to monitor levels in the simulated aquifer zone. Samples were also taken for analysis of volatile organic acids and cell density. As would be expected

  19. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  20. Understanding reduction of carbon tetrachloride at nickel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Blowers, Paul; Farrell, James

    2004-03-01

    Nickel has been found to be an effective cathode material and catalyst for reductive destruction of chlorinated solvents in contaminated water. This study investigated reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at a nickel rotating disk electrode using chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Chronoamperometry experiments were performed to determine rates of CT reduction as a function of the electrode potential, pH, CT concentration, and temperature. The reaction products of CT dechlorination were 95 +/- 4% methane and 4.1 +/- 2.5% chloroform. Only trace levels of methylene chloride and chloromethane were produced, indicating that sequential hydrogenolysis was not the predominant pathway for methane production. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the rate-limiting step for methane production was the transfer of the first electron to a physically adsorbed CT molecule. The temperature independence of the electron transfer coefficient and the decreasing activation energy with decreasing electrode potential indicated that the rate-limiting step involved an outer-sphere electron transfer. At neutral pH values, oxides inactivated much of the electrode surface for both CT reduction and hydrogen evolution. At lower pH values, oxide dissolution served to increase the electroactive surface area of the disk electrode. Anson analysis and kinetic modeling showed that CT adsorption to electroactive sites was a nonlinear function of the CT concentration and was in equilibrium with the bulk solution. CT dechlorination rates on nickel electrodes were 16 times slower than those on iron electrodes under similar conditions. However, CT reactions at nickel surfaces produced predominantly methane as the first detectable product, while reduction at iron surfaces produced chloroform. These results suggest that, although nickel is not a catalyst for the rate-limiting step for CT dechlorination, it may serve a catalytic role in subsequent

  1. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate.

  2. Telmisartan ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Atawia, Reem T; Esmat, Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Doaa A; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the potential hepatoprotective effect of telmisartan (TLM), a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) receptor blocker, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxity in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of male Wistar rats with CCl4 1 mL kg(-1) , 1:1 mixture with corn oil for 3 days increased serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as total bilirubin, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. This is in addition to the disrupted histological architecture in the CCl4 group. Rats receiving CCl4 and co-treated with TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) , orally) showed ameliorated serum biochemical and histological changes almost to the control level. Nevertheless, rats treated with TLM (1 mg kg(-1) ) didn't show any significant changes compared to CCl4 intoxicated group. In addition, TLM rectified oxidative status disrupted by CCl4 intoxication. Interestingly, TLM protected against CCl4 -induced expressions of nuclear factor-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, in a dose related manner. Moreover, TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) significantly modified CCl4 -induced elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, TLM showed a marked decline in CD68+ cells stained areas and reduced activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme compared to CCl4 -intoxicated group. In conclusion, both doses of TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) showed significant hepato-protective effects. However, TLM at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) didn't show significant efficacy above 3 mg kg(-1) which is nearly equivalent to the human anti-hypertensive dose of 40 mg. Thus, may be effective in guarding against several hepatic complications due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 359-370, 2017.

  3. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by bioreduction of nontronite.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sungjun; Joo, Ji Bong; Lee, Woojin

    2017-07-15

    Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was investigated during bioreduction of iron-containing clay mineral (i.e., nontronite) by iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 (CN32)). In the absence of CT, the production of Fe(II) significantly increased in nontronite suspension with CN32 in 124 d (11.1% of Fe(III) reduction), resulting in formation of new secondary Fe(II) mineral phase (i.e., vivianite (Fe(II)3(PO4)2·8H2O)). In the presence of CT, an acceleration of CT dechlorination was observed after 13 d and it reached almost 68% of removal efficiency at 32 d in nontronite suspension with CN32, which was 1.8 times higher than that by CN32 alone (37%). Significant amounts of formate (30.1%) and CO (2.4%) were measured during the CT dechlorination in the nontronite suspension with CN32. Results obtained from Fe(II) measurement and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the acceleration of Fe(II) production after 13 d and the formation of vivianite in the range of 13-25 d, suggesting that the biogenic vivianite enhanced the CT dechlorination in this study. Experimental results from batch kinetic tests, Fe(II) measurements, XRD analysis, and by-product study suggested that the formation of vivianite can play a crucial role for the enhanced reductive dechlorination of CT in phosphorous enriched subsurface environments with iron-containing clay minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial Removal of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride in Bulk Aerobic Soils▿

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Y.; Goodwin, K. D.; Happell, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were removed by bulk aerobic soils from tropical, subtropical, and boreal environments. Removal was observed in all tested soil types, indicating that the process was widespread. The flux measured in field chamber experiments was 0.24 ± 0.10 nmol CCl4 (m2 day)−1 (average ± standard deviation [SD]; n = 282). Removal of CCl4 and removal of methane (CH4) were compared to explore whether the two processes were linked. Removal of both gases was halted in laboratory samples that were autoclaved, dry heated, or incubated in the presence of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). In marl soils, treatment with antibiotics such as tetracycline and streptomycin caused partial inhibition of CCl4 (50%) and CH4 (76%) removal, but removal was not affected in soils treated with nystatin or myxothiazol. These data indicated that bacteria contributed to the soil removal of CCl4 and that microeukaryotes may not have played a significant role. Amendments of methanol, acetate, and succinate to soil samples enhanced CCl4 removal by 59%, 293%, and 72%, respectively. Additions of a variety of inhibitors and substrates indicated that nitrification, methanogenesis, or biological reduction of nitrate, nitrous oxide, or sulfate (e.g., occurring in possible anoxic microzones) did not play a significant role in the removal of CCl4. Methyl fluoride inhibited removal of CH4 but not CCl4, indicating that CH4 and CCl4 removals were not directly linked. Furthermore, CCl4 removal was not affected in soils amended with copper sulfate or methane, supporting the results with MeF and suggesting that the observed CCl4 removal was not significantly mediated by methanotrophs. PMID:21724884

  5. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Carbon tetrachloride pollution pathway of groundwater a typical contaminated site in the east of the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P.; Ma, Z. M.; Yu, W. W.; Wen, M.

    2017-08-01

    Determine 40 sampling points basing on a comprehensive monitoring. Determine the spatial distribution characteristics of the carbon tetrachloride by using the software of ArcGIS. Determine the location of the pollution sources by using MT3DMS program and Hook-Jeeves arithmetic to simulate, and connecting with the actual situation of carbon tetrachloride to analyze pollution causes. The results show that the source of carbon tetrachloride is located in the northeast near a chemical plant in the study area, whose pollutant concentration is diminishing from northeast to southwest. The main reasons to the pollution are that factories discharge waste water at random, leakage of open channel and culvert, sewage irrigation and the vulnerability of geological conditions in this area.

  7. Update on the aquifer/wetlands restoration project at Utica, Nebraska, with recommendations for remapping of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-20

    develop this treatment approach, additional groundwater sampling was conducted to update the distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater identified in the preliminary studies in 1992-1993. In March 1998, detailed mapping of the carbon tetrachloride plume was performed by using the Argonne cone penetrometer (CPT) vehicle to collect groundwater samples for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 13 locations (PS01-PS09, PS12, PS16, PS17, PS19; Figure 1.2). The samples were collected in vertical profiles through the aquifer, at 10-ft intervals. The results of this 1998 study (Table 1.2) demonstrated that the three-dimensional distribution of carbon tetrachloride in the aquifer is complex, with multiple 'hot spots' occurring in the plume at various depths and distances along its length (Argonne 2000). In October 2002, the CCC/USDA requested that Argonne perform targeted groundwater sampling at Utica to document the migration of the carbon tetrachloride plume since the 1998 sampling event. In February 2003, vertical-profile groundwater sampling for VOCs analyses was conducted at 8 selected locations (PS01, PS04-PS07, PS12, PS19, PS20; Figure 1.2 and Table 1.3). The lateral and vertical configuration of the carbon tetrachloride plume, as identified in the 2003 study (Argonne 2003), is illustrated in Figures 1.3-1.7. On the basis of the 2003 groundwater sampling results, a remedial system employing four extraction wells (GWEX 1-GWEX 4), with groundwater treatment by spray irrigation and conventional air stripping, was implemented at Utica, with the concurrence of the CCC/USDA and the agencies identified in Table 1.1. The principal components of the Utica system (shown in Figure 1.8) are described briefly in Section 1.2. Operation of well GWEX4 and the associated air stripper began on October 29, 2004, and routine operation of wells GWEX1-GWEX3 and the spray irrigation treatment units began on November 22, 2004.

  8. A biochemical and immunohistochemical study of the protective effects of carnosine for carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuloglu, N; Sönmez, M F

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of carnosine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver tissue damage. Thirty-two adult male rats were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was the untreated control, group 2 was injected with 0.2 ml/kg/day carbon tetrachloride, group 3 was injected with with 0.2 ml/kg/day carbon tetrachloride plus 200 mg/kg/day carnosine, and group 4 was injected with 200 mg/kg/day carnosine. Increased serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase levels, liver malondialdehyde levels, HSP-70 expression and steatosis were observed following treatment with carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride caused severe biochemical and histopathological changes in liver tissue and treatment with carnosine partially prevented the damage. HSP-70 may help control liver damage.

  9. Removal of Technetium, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Metals from DOE Properties - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2000-09-01

    This research is a three year project involving close collaboration between chemists at Pennsylvania State University and materials scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the project is the development and characterization of supported reducing agents, and solid waste forms derived from them, which will be effective in remediation of aqueous wastes. The work follows the recent discovery that zero-valent metals, such as iron, are effective decontaminants for waste streams containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Preliminary data, obtained at Penn State and elsewhere, have shown that the same strategy will be effective in reducing soluble compounds containing toxic metals (technetium, lead, mercury, and chromium) to insoluble forms. The Penn State group has prepared a new class of powerful reducing agents, called Ferragels, which consist of finely divided zero-valent metals on high surface area supports. Because the rate of the surface oxidation-reduction reaction depends on available surface area, Ferragels are more effective in every case tested to date than unsupported metals. The project will further develop and investigate the application of these composite materials to problems relevant to the DOE-EM mission, namely the detoxification of waste streams containing technetium, carbon tetrachloride, and toxic metal ions. The Penn State group will work closely with the PNNL group to prepare materials that are compatible with the highly corrosive liquid fraction of Hanford site tank waste, to conduct tests with waste simulants containing technetium, and to formulate and characterize vitrified waste forms derived from these materials.

  10. Multiple treatment of propolis extract ameliorates carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2008-08-01

    Propolis, a resinous wax-like beehive product has been used as a traditional remedy for various diseases due to a variety of biological activities of this folk medicine. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to validate hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of propolis (50-400mg/kg, p.o.) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4,) 0.5 ml/kg, p.o.) induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug was used as a positive control. Administration of CCl(4) altered various diagnostically important biochemical variables. Multiple treatment of propolis significantly prevented the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, urea and uric acid in serum; improved the activity of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes, i.e., aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine-N-demethylase; significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and markedly enhanced glutathione in liver and kidney as well as brought altered carbohydrate contents (blood sugar and tissue glycogen), protein contents (serum, microsomal and tissue protein) and lipid contents (serum and tissue triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total and esterified cholesterol in tissue) towards control. Propolis treatment also reversed CCl(4) induced severe alterations in histoarchitecture of liver and kidney in a dose dependent manner. Hepatoprotective activity of propolis at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was statistically compared to silymarin and found that propolis exhibited better effectiveness than silymarin in certain parameters, concluded its hepatoprotective potential.

  11. Carbon tetrachloride in vegetation and its application to expedited site characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J. C.; Nashold, B. W.; Walker, J. L.

    1999-06-01

    The use of vegetation analyses to outline areas of near-surface enrichment with metals and organic compounds was pioneered by the mining and petroleum industries. Research and development (R&D) on environmental applications is focusing on the ability of vegetation to remediate soils. Certain contaminants are taken up by plants and either stored in the plant tissue for easy harvesting and removal or changed into products that are not a health concern. In the development of its Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) methodology, our group at Argonne has focused its R&D on the application of vegetation analyses to detect subsurface contamination in vadose zone soils. We have developed the technology to locate past spills or leaks of carbon tetrachloride that penetrated the vadose zone and contaminated underlying drinking water supplies. Vegetation analysis is attractive as a first-step exploratory technique because it is noninvasive, rapid, and inexpensive. The technique requires collection of a uniform, constant sample and an analytical method with a low detection limit and high-quality results.

  12. Carbon tetrachloride transformation on the surface of nanoscale biogenic magnetite particles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Michael L; Adriaens, Peter

    2004-02-15

    Iron-reducing conditions in subsurface environments promote dechlorination reactions via both biotic and abiotic pathways, the latter often mediated via biologically activated minerals formed by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Here we report the major products and pathways associated with the abiotic transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by nanoscale biogenic magnetite/maghemite particles produced by the DIRB Geobacter metallireducens. Product formation and free radical/carbene trapping studies indicate that CT transformation occurs via three parallel pathways. The first pathway (hydrogenolysis) results in the formation of chloroform (45-50%) via a trichloromethyl free radical (*CCl3) and possibly a trichloromethyl carbanion (**CCl3-). The second and third pathways involve a dichlorocarbene intermediate (**CCl2), which either hydrolyzes to form CO (approximately 38%) (carbene hydrolysis), or undergoes further reduction to yield methane (8-10%) (carbene reduction). The mechanism of methane formation from **CCl2 is not known, but is speculated to involve a sequence of surface coordinated carbenoid and free radical complexes. The large fraction of relatively benign products formed by the carbene-mediated pathways suggests that magnetite/maghemite particles may have a beneficial application in the remediation of CT contaminated environments.

  13. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in aqueous solution in the thermally activated persulfate system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minhui; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian; Miao, Zhouwei; Zang, Xueke; Wu, Xiaoliang

    2015-04-09

    Thermal activation of persulfate (PS) has been identified to be effective in the destruction of organic pollutants. The feasibility of carbon tetrachloride (CT) degradation in the thermally activated PS system was evaluated. The experimental results showed that CT could be readily degraded at 50 °C with a PS concentration of 0.5M, and CT degradation and PS consumption followed the pseudo-first order kinetic model. Superoxide radical anion (O2(*-)) was the predominant radical species responsible for CT degradation and the split of CCl was proposed as the possible reaction pathways for CT degradation. The process of CT degradation was accelerated by higher PS dose and lower initial CT concentration. No obvious effect of the initial pH on the degradation of CT was observed in the thermally activated PS system. Cl(*-), HCO3(*-), and humic acid (HA) had negative effects on CT degradation. In addition, the degradation of CT in the thermally activated PS system could be significantly promoted by the solvents addition to the solution. In conclusion, the thermally activated PS process is a promising option in in-situ chemical oxidation/reduction remediation for degrading highly oxidized organic contaminants such as CT that is widely detected in contaminated sites.

  14. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matthew; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Mühle, Jens; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Krummel, Paul B.; Fraser, Paul J.; Steele, L. Paul; Happell, James D.; Rhew, Robert C.; Butler, James; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Hall, Bradley; Nance, David; Moore, Fred; Miller, Ben R.; Elkins, James W.; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Boone, Chris D.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total), but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years). With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year-1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year-1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases between observational

  15. Model Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matt; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74% of total), but a reported 10% uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9%of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17%of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years). With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year(exp -1), the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year(exp -1). Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases between

  16. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  17. Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride: Mysterious Emissions Gap Almost Closed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Newman, P. A.; Reimann, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major ozone-depleting substance and its production and consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol for emissive uses. The most recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg yr-1, based on country-by-country reports to UNEP, vs. a global top-down emissions estimate of 57 Gg yr-1, based on atmospheric measurements. To understand the gap between the top-down and bottom-up emissions estimates, a CCl4 activity was formed under the auspices of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) project. Several new findings were brought forward by the SPARC CCl4 activity. CCl4 is destroyed in the stratosphere, oceans, and soils. The total lifetime estimate has been increased from 26 to 33 years. The new 33-year total lifetime lowers the top-down emissions estimate to 40 (25-55) Gg yr-1. In addition, a persistent hemispheric difference implies substantial ongoing Northern Hemisphere emissions, yielding an independent emissions estimate of 30 Gg yr-1. The combination of these two yields an emissions estimate of 35 Gg yr-1. Regional estimates have been made for Australia, North America, East Asia, and Western Europe. The sum of these estimates results in emissions of 21 Gg yr-1, albeit this does not include all regions of the world. Four bottom-up CCl4 emissions pathways have been identified, i.e., fugitive, unreported non-feedstock, unreported inadvertent, and legacy emissions. The new industrial bottom-up emissions estimate includes emissions from chloromethanes plants (13 Gg yr-1) and feedstock fugitive emissions (2 Gg yr-1). When combined with legacy emissions and unreported inadvertent emissions ( 10 Gg yr-1), the total global emissions are 20±5 Gg yr-1. While the new bottom-up value is still less than the aggregated top-down values, these estimates reconcile the CCl4 budget discrepancy when considered at the edges of their

  18. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    DOE PAGES

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matthew; ...

    2016-12-20

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. But, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total), but amore » reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years). Furthermore, with an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year-1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year-1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases

  19. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matthew; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Mühle, Jens; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Krummel, Paul B.; Fraser, Paul J.; Steele, L. Paul; Happell, James D.; Rhew, Robert C.; Butler, James; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Hall, Bradley; Nance, David; Moore, Fred; Miller, Ben R.; Elkins, James W.; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Boone, Chris D.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2016-12-20

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. But, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total), but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years). Furthermore, with an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year-1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to

  20. Model Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matt; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Muehle, Jens; O’Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Krummel, Paul B.; Fraser, Paul J.; Steele, L. Paul; Happell, James D.; Rhew, Robert C.; Butler, James; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Hall, Bradley; Nance, David; Moore, Fred; Miller, Ben R.; Elkins, James W.; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Boone, Chris D.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74% of total), but a reported 10% uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9%of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17%of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years). With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year(exp -1), the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year(exp -1). Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases between

  1. TRANSFORMATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF SULFIDE, BIOTITE, AND VERMICULITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride is transformed in aqueous solutions containing dissolved hydrogen sulfide more rapidly in the presence of the minerals biotite and vermiculite than in homogeneous systems. Approximately 8045% of the CC4 was transformed to COP via the measured intermediate, CS...

  2. Feasibility of Metabolic Parameter Estimation in Pharmacokinetic Models of Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a toxic chemical that was once used in degreasers and detergents, and some remnants of the chemical may be present in the water supply. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can assist in understanding resulting internal d...

  3. TRANSFORMATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF SULFIDE, BIOTITE, AND VERMICULITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride is transformed in aqueous solutions containing dissolved hydrogen sulfide more rapidly in the presence of the minerals biotite and vermiculite than in homogeneous systems. Approximately 8045% of the CC4 was transformed to COP via the measured intermediate, CS...

  4. Feasibility of Metabolic Parameter Estimation in Pharmacokinetic Models of Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a toxic chemical that was once used in degreasers and detergents, and some remnants of the chemical may be present in the water supply. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can assist in understanding resulting internal d...

  5. Multivariate Curve Resolution Methods Illustrated Using Infrared Spectra of an Alcohol Dissolved in Carbon Tetrachloride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grung, Bjorn; Nodland, Egil; Forland, Geir Martin

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the infrared spectra of an alcohol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride gives a better understanding of the various multivariate curve resolution methods. The resulting concentration profile is found to be very useful for calculating the degree of association and equilibrium constants of different compounds.

  6. Multivariate Curve Resolution Methods Illustrated Using Infrared Spectra of an Alcohol Dissolved in Carbon Tetrachloride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grung, Bjorn; Nodland, Egil; Forland, Geir Martin

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the infrared spectra of an alcohol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride gives a better understanding of the various multivariate curve resolution methods. The resulting concentration profile is found to be very useful for calculating the degree of association and equilibrium constants of different compounds.

  7. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANTHRAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (CzCLj), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 “C in aqueous solutions containing ei- ther (1) 500 pM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 pM Fe2+, or (3) 250 pM HS-. The pH ranged ...

  8. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (Updated 1989)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analys...

  9. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (Updated 1989)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analys...

  10. Ab initio study of carbon-chlorine bond cleavage in carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nianliu; Blowers, Paul; Farrell, James

    2005-01-15

    Chlorinated solvents in groundwater are known to undergo reductive dechlorination reactions with Fe(ll)-containing minerals and with corroding metals in permeable-barrier treatment systems. This research investigated the effect of the reaction energy on the reaction pathway for C-Cl bond cleavage in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and modified complete basis set ab initio methods were used to study adiabatic electron transfer to aqueous-phase CCl4. The potential energies associated with fragmentation of the carbon tetrachloride anion radical (CCl4-) into a trichloromethyl radical (CCl3) and a chloride ion (Cl-) were explored as a function of the carbon-chlorine bond distance during cleavage. The effect of aqueous solvation was investigated using a continuum conductor-like screening model. Solvation significantly lowered the energies of the reaction products, suggesting that dissociative electron transfer was enhanced by solvation. The potential energy curves in an aqueous medium indicate that reductive cleavage undergoes a change from an inner-sphere to an outer-sphere mechanism as the overall energy change for the reaction is increased. The activation energy for the reaction was found to be a linear function of the overall energy change, and the Marcus-Hush model was used to relate experimentally measured activation energies for CCl4 reduction to overall reaction energies. Experimentally measured activation energies for CCl4 reduction by corroding iron correspond to reaction energies that are insufficiently exergonic for promoting the outer-sphere mechanism. This suggests that the different reaction pathways that have been observed for CCl4 reduction by corroding iron arise from different catalytic interactions with the surface, and not from differences in energy of the transferred electrons.

  11. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    SciTech Connect

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  12. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Attenuation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity by cow urine distillate in rats.

    PubMed

    Gururaja, M P; Joshi, A B; Joshi, Himanshu; Sathyanarayana, D; Subrahmanyam, E V S; Chandrashekhar, K S

    2009-08-01

    To study the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoprotective activity in cow urine. Effect of cow urine distillate on liver function was studied in vivo in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hepatotoxicity was induced by a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 in olive oil (5 mL/kg i.p). Protective effect of cow urine distillate (in three dose levels) and standard drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) on liver function were studied in intoxicated rats. Parameters in the study included liver function tests and histological observations. The cow urine distillate decreased the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, and total bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) as sylimarin. The observed protective effects of cow urine distillate on liver function might be due to the presence of antioxidants in cow urine.

  14. Graphene oxide-mediated rapid dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by green rust.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Zhi; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Daasbjerg, Kim

    2017-02-05

    Graphene-based nanomaterials can mediate environmentally relevant abiotic redox reactions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. In this study as low amounts as ∼0.007 % of graphene oxide (GO) was found to catalyze the reduction of carbon tetrachloride by layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide (Green Rust, GR) in aqueous solutions with chloroform being the reduction product. On the basis of sorption studies of carbon tetrachloride onto the GO surface it is suggested that it is the amphiphilicity of GO, which initiates the reaction by providing a suitable reaction platform for the reagents. This study indicates that traces of graphene oxide can affect reaction pathways as well as kinetics for dechlorination processes in anoxic sediments by facilitating a partial dechlorination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. "study of Physical Properties of Carbon-Tetrachloride Mixture at Different Temperatures and Concentra Tions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, A. R.; Sah, C. S.; Bhattarai, P.

    2001-04-01

    The physical properties like ultrasonic velocity, density and refractive index has been measured for the binary mixture of Carbon Tetrachloride and Toluene at different temperatures (20°C-50°C). Parameters like isentropic compressibility (Ks), acoustic impedance (Z) and Rao-number (R) are also computed. It was observed that all parameters vary linearly with temperature within the range of concentration and temperature.

  16. A carbon tetrachloride-free synthesis of N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan G M; Williams, Spencer J

    2017-10-10

    N-Phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride (PTFAI-Cl) is a reagent widely used for the preparation of glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates. However, the most commonly applied method requires carbon tetrachloride, a hepatotoxic reagent that has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. We report a new synthesis of N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride (PTFAI-Cl) using dichlorotriphenylphosphane and triethylamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Temperature and Carbon Tetrachloride on Polymer Based Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect

    George M. Buffleben; Timothy J. Shepod

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes hydrogen pumping by organic getters in the presence of carbon tetrachloride, and how the reduction of pumping in the presence of this catalyst poison can be minimized through the choice of catalyst. Catalyst A is shown to be preferred in a clean environment, and catalyst B for a poisoned environment. Additional, we examine the effects of temperature on pumping rates, and show that this getter is effective over a large temperature range from -23 to 107 degrees Celsius.

  18. Influence of hypoxia on the hepatotoxic effects of carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, allyl alcohol, bromobenzene and thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Breining, H

    1980-07-01

    Exposure of rats to a reduced oxygen tension (6% O2, 94% N2) for 6 h increased the serum enzyme and the histological lesions induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hypoxia did not enhance the hepatotoxic response to paracetamol, allyl alcohol, bromobenzene or thioacetamide. No correlation was found between the changes in hepatotoxicity induced by hypoxia and those after treatment with ethanol. Hepatic hypoxia therefore was not the pathogenetic mechanism responsible for ethanol-induced enhancement of hepatotoxicity.

  19. Effect of hepatoprotectors on lipid metabolism in hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Vengerovskii, A.I.; Chuchalin, V.S.; Paul's; O.V.; Saratikov, A.S.

    1987-09-01

    The authors study the effect of the widely used hepatoprotective agents- the flavonoid silybinin and the phosphatidylcholine-containing substance essentiale - on the combination of disturbances of lipid metabolism present in severe toxic hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. It was found that CCl/sub 4/ caused a profound disturbance of lipid metabolism. The hepatoprotective effect of silybinin and essentiale is due to their antioxidant action and to normalization of function of the liver phospholipids.

  20. Effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing thyme on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rašković, Aleksandar; Pavlović, Nebojša; Kvrgić, Maja; Sudji, Jan; Mitić, Gorana; Čapo, Ivan; Mikov, Momir

    2015-12-18

    Herbal supplements are widely used in the treatment of various liver disases, but some of them may also induce liver injuries. Regarding the infuence of thyme and its constituents on the liver, conflicting results have been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of two commonly used pharmaceutical formulations containing thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), tincture and syrup, on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. Chemical composition of investigated formulations of thyme was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. Liver morphology was characterized by light microscopy using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Thymol was found to be predominant active constituent in both tincture and syrup. Investigated thyme preparations exerted antioxidant effects in liver by preventing carbon tetrachloride-induced increase of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, co-treatment with thyme preparations reversed the activities of oxidative stress-related enzymes xanthine oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, towards normal values in the liver. Hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride was reflected by a marked elevation of AST and ALT activities, and histopathologic alterations. Co-administration of thyme tincture resulted in unexpected exacerbation of AST and ALT values in serum, while thyme syrup managed to reduce activites of aminotransferases, in comparison to carbon tetrachloride-treated animals. Despite demonstrated antioxidant activity, mediated through both direct free radical scavenging and activation of antioxidant defense mechanisms, thyme preparations could not ameliorate liver injury in rats. Molecular mechanisms of diverse effects of thyme preparations on chemical

  1. Maresin 1, a Proresolving Lipid Mediator, Mitigates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruidong; Wang, Yaxin; Zhao, Ende; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Shi, Liang; Wang, Di; Xie, Gengchen; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Meizhou; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2016-01-01

    Maresin 1 (MaR 1) was recently reported to have protective properties in several different animal models of acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory response. However, its function in acute liver injury is still unknown. To address this question, we induced liver injury in BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride with or without treatment of MaR 1. Our data showed that MaR 1 attenuated hepatic injury, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, as evidenced by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reactive oxygen species levels were inhibited by treatment of MaR 1. Furthermore, MaR 1 increased activities of antioxidative mediators in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice liver. MaR 1 decreased indices of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Administration of MaR 1 inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κb) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the liver of CCl4 treated mice. In conclusion, these results suggested the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory properties of MaR 1 in CCl4 induced liver injury. The possible mechanism is partly implicated in its abilities to inhibit ROS generation and activation of NF-κb and MAPK pathway. PMID:26881046

  2. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  3. Induction of rat kidney gluconeogenesis during acute liver intoxication by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed Central

    Faus, M J; Lupiáñez, A; Vargas, A; Sánchez-Medina, F

    1978-01-01

    1. Glucose production from L-lactate was completely inhibited 24h after carbon tetrachloride treatment in liver from 48h-starved rats. The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose diphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase were decreased by this treatment in fed and starved rats, whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity was only decreased in fed animals. 2. The production of glucose by renal cortical slices from fed rats previously treated with carbon tetrachloride was enhanced when L-lactate, pyruvate and glutamine but not fructose were used as glucose precursors. Renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was increased in this condition. 3. This increase was counteracted by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, suggesting that the effect was due to the synthesis de novo of the enzyme. 4. The pattern of hepatic gluconeogenic metabolites in treated animals was characterized by an increase in lactate, pyruvate, malate and citrate as well as a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate, suggesting an impairment of liver gluconeogenesis in vivo. 5. In contrast, the profile of renal metabolites suggested that gluconeogenesis was operative in the treated rats, as indicated by the marked increase in the content of phosphoenolpyruvate, 2-phosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate and glucose 6-phosphate. 6. It is postulated that renal gluconeogenesis could contribute to the maintenance of glycaemia in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. PMID:708398

  4. Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride to Sediments from the UP-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Riley, Robert G.; Parker, Kent E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.

    2006-09-01

    In 2004, Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FHI) drilled several groundwater wells within the 200-UP-1 operable unit to monitor plumes that have been the focus of past remediation activities. Thirteen cores taken from three wells (C4298, C4299, and C4300) were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for characterization and quantification of contaminant retardation. These cores were 4-inches in diameter by 6-inches in length and were taken from depths near the unconfined aquifer surface (water table) to locations approximately 150 to 180 ft below the water table. Prior to this work, no 200-UP-1 site-specific adsorption data (i.e., values of distribution coefficient [Kd ]) were available for the sediments or key contaminants present in the 200-UP-1 operable unit groundwater plume. Site-specific sorption data for carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was obtained with the <2 mm size fractions of uncontaminated 200-UP-1 sediments taken from two of these boreholes (C4299 and C4300) and distribution coefficients determined. Each fraction exhibited bimodal CCl4 adsorption isotherms over the concentration range (15 – 2500 μg L-1) for total CCl4 in solution. Sorption of CCl4 was linear over the concentration ranges of 15 to 400 μg L-1 and 400 to 2500 μg L-1. The Kd values measured for the three 200-UP-1 sediments exhibited bimodal sorption with initial Kd values ranging from 0.0002 to 0.0005, and phase 2 values approximately 0.003 for all sediments. The measure Kd values are lower than the range calculated for CCl4 in a Hanford soil (0.016 to 0.83 L/Kg) containing an average organic carbon content of 0.2% (Truex et al., 2001). The best estimate value of Truex et al. (2001) is 0.06 L/Kg based on a 0.1% sediment organic carbon content. However, this estimate is based on an organic carbon content up to an order of magnitude greater than the organic carbon content of the sediments tested herein. Prolonged contact may increase

  5. Investigation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Rhizome in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damaged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Sutha; Ismail, Sabariah; Ramanathan, Surash

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma xanthorrhiza (CX) has been used for centuries in traditional system of medicine to treat several diseases such as hepatitis, liver complaints, and diabetes. It has been consumed as food supplement and “jamu” as a remedy for hepatitis. Hence, CX was further explored for its potential as a functional food for liver related diseases. As such, initiative was taken to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of CX rhizome. Antioxidant activity of the standardized CX fractions was determined using in vitro assays. Hepatoprotective assay was conducted against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of hexane fraction. Highest antioxidant activity was found in hexane fraction. In the case of hepatoprotective activity, CX hexane fraction showed significant improvement in terms of a biochemical liver function, antioxidative liver enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activity. Good recovery was observed in the treated hepatic tissues histologically. Hence, the results concluded that CX hexane fraction possessed prominent hepatoprotective activities which might be due to its in vitro antioxidant activity. These findings also support the use of CX as a functional food for hepatitis remedy in traditional medicinal system. PMID:25133223

  6. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  7. Desorption behavior of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in contaminated low organic carbon aquifer sediments.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert G; Szecsody, James E; Sklarew, Debbie S; Mitroshkov, Alex V; Gent, Philip M; Brown, Christopher F; Thompson, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Slow release behavior of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and chloroform (CHCl(3)) in low organic carbon (<0.1%) deep aquifer sediments was quantified by 1-D column desorption studies with intact cores. The compounds had been in contact with the sediments for 30years. Comparison of the CCl(4) distribution coefficient (K(d)) from this study with those from short contact time experiments suggested that CCl(4)K(d)'s calculated from site contaminated sediments of long contact time are likely a factor of 10 or more higher than those calculated from short contact-time lab experiments. A significant portion of the CHCl(3) mass (55% to more than 90%) was resistant to aqueous desorption in sediments with clay contents ranging from 2.0% to 36.7% and organic carbon content ranging from 0.017% to 0.088%. In contrast, CCl(4) showed greatest mass retention (31% or more) only in the highest clay and organic carbon content sediment. Relatively easy solvent extraction of the residual masses of CCl(4) and CHCl(3) from the sediments indicated the compounds were not permanently sequestered. Tracer breakthrough in columns was well behaved, indicating interparticle diffusion was not causing the slow release behavior. Diffusion out of intraparticle pores is suggested to be the main process governing the observed behavior although, diffusion out of natural organic matter cannot be ruled out as a potential contributing factor. The half-life for release of the slow fraction of CHCl(3) mass from sediments was estimated to be in the range of weeks (100h) to months (1100h). Neither CCl(4) or CHCl(3) were detected at measurable levels in the column effluent of one of the sediments even though a significant mass fraction of CHCl(3) was found present on the sediment following desorption suggesting that our estimate of hundreds to thousands of hours for complete release of CHCl(3) masses from such sediment is conservative.

  8. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  9. Abiotic transformation of carbon tetrachloride at mineral surfaces. Final report, September 1990-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegman-King, M.; Reinhard, M.

    1994-02-01

    The report addresses the ability of natural mineral surfaces to abiotically transform halogenated organic compounds in subsurface environments. The research focuses on carbon tetrachloride (CC14) as the halogenated organic and biotite, vermiculite, and pyrite as the mineral surfaces. The CCl4 transformation rates and products were quantified under different environmental conditions. The disappearance of CCl4 was significantly faster in the presence of mineral surfaces than in homogeneous solution. In systems containing the sheet silicates and HS-, the rate of reaction was dependent on the temperature, hydrogen sulfide ion concentration, surface concentration, and Fe(II) content in the minerals.

  10. [Hepatorotective activity of honeysuckle fruit extract in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats].

    PubMed

    Fomenko, S E; Kushnerova, N F; Sprygin, V G; Momot, T V

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the extract from the dry pomace of honeysuckle fruits Lonicera edulis Turcz. and commercial reference preparation Legalon on weight and biochemical liver indexes in rats upon carbon tetrachloride intoxication. The extract of honeysuckle fruits favored a decrease in the total lipid content, reduced specific liver weight, and facilitated restoration of the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase and liver lysosomal enzymes. It the blood of rats, the extract increased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased glutathione level, enhanced antiradical activity, and reduced the level of malonic dialdehyde. The effect of administration of honeysuckle fruits pomace extract on restoration of the liver function was more pronounced than the effect of Legalon.

  11. Adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of alkenyl succinic anhydride from a solution in carbon tetrachloride on a fine magnetite surface at a temperature of 298.15 K is studied using fine magnetite, which forms the basis of magnetic fluids, as the adsorbent. An adsorption isotherm is recorded and interpreted in terms of the theory of the volume filling of micropores (TVFM). Adsorption process parameters are calculated on the basis of the isotherm. It is shown that at low equilibrium concentrations, the experimental adsorption isotherm is linear in the TVFM equation coordinates.

  12. Carbon adsorption onsite for remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Githens, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental remediation options range from various offsite disposal methods to onsite concentration, treatment or storage. Onsite treatment using mobile carbon adsorption treatment systems has long been a favored option for remedial actions because of its proven performance in the clean-up of transportation spills, waste sites, runoff from chemical warehouse fires and many types of groundwater pollution. Carbon adsorption is fundamentally a concentration technology. It will, for example, preferentially concentrate organics. Following its use, the carbon is usually transported offsite for thermal regeneration (mobile regeneration is not generally available) or landfilled if certain contaminants such as PCBs are on the carbon. Most remediation projects are temporary in nature and involve removing contamination from finite areas to attain specific pollutant limits. The best way to approach these circumstances is to utilize mobile, rapidly deployed, modular units. With mobile pretreatment equipment, the field engineer can solve problems with control over cost and system performance.

  13. Reduction of hexachloroethane and carbon tetrachloride at surfaces of biotite, vermiculite, pyrite, and marcasite. Book chapter Apr 88-Apr 90

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegman-King, M.R.; Reinhard, M.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater resources by halogenated compounds spurred the formation of a national program to clean up hazardous waste sites across the United States. Compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CTET), chloroform (CF), and hexachloroethane (HCA) are a few of the chemicals which have been proposed to be 'characteristic' hazardous wastes to be included in the toxic contaminant leachate potential (TCLP) test. Consequently, chemical and biological transformation pathways are being studied to aid in understanding the fate of these contaminants in groundwater environments and to apply the processes occurring naturally in groundwater environments to remediation technologies. Environmental factors significantly affect the transformation rates and the pathways of halogenated aliphatic compounds. The authors have studied the transformation of tetrachloromethane (CTET), and hexachloroethane (HCA) in homogenous and heterogenous systems designed to simulate groundwater and sediment conditions. The laboratory studies were aimed at (1) identifying the sediment components which may act as reducing components and (2) quantifying the environmental factors which govern the transformation rates. Both model and natural systems were studied. Their data indicate that the humic acid fraction in combination with sulfide and Fe(2+) may promote transformation rates. Similarly, surfaces of sheet silicates, such as biotite and vermiculite, were found to promote degradation of CTET and perchloroethylene, respectively.

  14. Activation of phospholipase A/sub 2/ by carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Glende, E.A. Jr.; Pushpendran, C.K.

    1986-03-05

    Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid or /sup 14/C-ethanolamine for 1 hour in order to label cellular lipids. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis indicated that of the /sup 3/H-arachidonate incorporated into lipid nearly 50% was found in phosphatidylcholine and 15% in phosphatidylethanolamine. /sup 14/C-Ethanolamine was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylethanolamine. Hepatocytes labeled as such were exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) for periods up to 4 hours. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ of these preparations was determined by measuring either the release of /sup 4/H-arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid or measuring the formation of /sup 14/C-lysophosphatidylethanolamine from cellular lipids prelabeled with /sup 14/C-ethanolamine. Through the use of hexane-partition extraction and thin-layer chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte lipid extracts it was found that CCl, stimulated phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity in a dose- an time-dependent manner. Carbon tetrachloride at concentrations of 0.23 to 1.3 mM produced a 1.4- to 5.3-fold increase in phospholipase activity which was initiated within 30 to 60 minutes of incubation at 37/sup 0/. A role for phospholipase activation as a secondary mechanism of CCl/sub 4/-induced hepatocyte injury is proposed.

  15. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions (Stillwater)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable react...

  16. The effects of polyuridylic acid on phenylalanine incorporation by subcellular fractions from carbon tetrachloride-poisoned rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Smuckler, Edward A.; Parthier, Benno; Hultin, Tore

    1968-01-01

    1. Ribosomes and microsomes isolated from the livers of rats that had received carbon tetrachloride 1hr. previously had decreased endogenous capacity to incorporate amino acid. 2. The capacity of the isolated structures to respond to a synthetic messenger, polyuridylic acid, and to incorporate phenylalanine was investigated. 3. It was found that ribosomes from carbon tetrachloride-treated animals, prepared with detergent and at high ionic strength, could be restored to the same specific activity as control particles with polyuridylic acid but that these particles required more Mg2+ in the incubation mixture. 4. Microsomes could also be stimulated to control activities with polyuridylic acid, but had a narrow optimum range of Mg2+ concentration. 5. Microsomes prepared from poisoned animals could be preprogrammed with polyuridylic acid to a significantly greater degree than could control particles, and this response was greater with increasing Mg2+ concentrations. These data suggested that in carbon tetrachloride poisoning the messenger–ribosome interaction had been altered. 6. Attempts to deprogramme particles from control and treated animals resulted in decreased endogenous activity of both particles and a decreased capacity for the treated particles to be restored with the synthetic messenger. 7. It is suggested that two effects are present in carbon tetrachloride poisoning, namely an alteration of the messenger–ribosome interaction and an increased lability of the ribosome, as either separate or related events. PMID:5641871

  17. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions (Stillwater)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable react...

  18. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable reactiv...

  19. Degradation Kinetics of Carbon Tetrachloride by Sulfate Green Rust as Influenced by pH and Copper Ions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE, C2HCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CT, CCl4) are priority groundwater contaminants at many EPA field sites. Green rust (GR) minerals are important corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Fe0) that has been used in permeable reactiv...

  20. Stochastic estimates of exposure and cancer risk from carbon tetrachloride released to the air from the rocky flats plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; McGavran, P D; Aanenson, J W; Till, J E

    2001-08-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a degreasing agent that was used at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado to clean product components and equipment. The chemical is considered a volatile organic compound and a probable human carcinogen. During the time the plant operated (1953-1989), most of the carbon tetrachloride was released to the atmosphere through building exhaust ducts. A smaller amount was released to the air via evaporation from open-air burn pits and ground-surface discharge points. Airborne releases from the plant were conservatively estimated to be equivalent to the amount of carbon tetrachloride consumed annually by the plant, which was estimated to be between 3.6 and 180 Mg per year. This assumption was supported by calculations that showed that most of the carbon tetrachloride discharged to the ground surface would subsequently be released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transport of carbon tetrachloride from the plant to the surrounding community was estimated using a Gaussian Puff dispersion model (RATCHET). Time-integrated concentrations were estimated for nine hypothetical but realistic exposure scenarios that considered variation in lifestyle, location, age, and gender. Uncertainty distributions were developed for cancer slope factors and atmospheric dispersion factors. These uncertainties were propagated through to the final risk estimate using Monte Carlo techniques. The geometric mean risk estimates varied from 5.2 x 10(-6) for a hypothetical rancher or laborer working near the RFP to 3.4 x 10(-9) for an infant scenario. The distribution of incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk for the hypothetical rancher was between 1.3 x 10(-6) (5% value) and 2.1 x 10(-5) (95% value). These estimates are similar to or exceed estimated cancer risks posed by releases of radionuclides from the site.

  1. Constraining the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) budget using its global trend and inter-hemispheric gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley D.; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-07-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, the near-zero 2007-2012 emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage cannot be reconciled with the observed slow decline of atmospheric concentrations and the inter-hemispheric gradient (IHG) for CCl4. Our 3-D model simulations suggest that the observed IHG (1.5 ± 0.2 ppt for 2000-2012) is primarily caused by ongoing current emissions, while ocean and soil losses and stratosphere-troposphere exchange together contribute a small negative gradient (~0 - -0.3 ppt). Using the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG, we deduce that the mean global emissions for the 2000-2012 period are 393445 Gg/yr (~30% of the peak 1980s emissions) and a corresponding total lifetime of 353732 years.

  2. The spatial distribution of eubacteria and archaea in sand clay columns degrading carbon tetrachloride and methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Gláucia da P.; Sleep, Brent E.

    2007-10-01

    The spatial distribution of microbial communities was investigated in anaerobic sand-clay columns fed methanol and carbon tetrachloride (CT). Microbial communities were characterized through analysis of soil samples with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for archaea and eubacteria. Increasing CT inlet concentrations to 29 μM lead to complete inhibition of methanol consumption in both columns. Although low levels of eubacteria and archaea were initially present in the clay soils in both columns, there was no significant microbial growth over 400 days in the clays beyond the interface with the sand zone. Thus, the potential for increased contaminant attenuation in heterogeneous sand-clay systems through biodegradation in the clay matrix zones may be limited in many systems.

  3. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damages in rat: inhibitory effects of cacao polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Kamei, Masanori; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the protective effect of cacao polyphenol extract (CPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats. Rats were administered CPE for 7 days and then received intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Two hours after injection, we found that CCl4 treatment significantly increased biochemical injury markers, lipid peroxides (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney rather than liver, suggesting that kidney is more vulnerable to oxidative stress under the present experimental conditions. CPE supplementation significantly reduced these changes, indicating that this compound has antioxidant properties against CCl4-induced oxidative stress. An inhibitory effect of CPE on CCl4-induced CYP2E1 mRNA degradation may provide an explanation for CPE antioxidant property. Together, these results provide quantitative evidence of the in vivo antioxidant properties of CPE, especially in terms of PCOOH and MDA levels in the kidneys of CCl4-treated rats.

  4. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (p<0.05) in the elevated levels of serum markers like ALAT, ASAT, ALP, LDH, creatinine, urea and bilirubin indicating the protection against hepatic cell damage. The water extract of Physalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug.

  5. The atmospheric partial lifetime of carbon tetrachloride with respect to the global soil sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Happell, James D.

    2016-03-01

    The magnitude of the terrestrial soil sink for atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) remains poorly constrained, with the estimated uncertainty range of CCl4 partial lifetimes between ~110 and 910 years. Field observations are sparse, and there are uncertainties in extrapolating these results to the global scale. Here we add to the published CCl4 fluxes with additional field measurements, and we employ a land cover classification scheme based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer measurements that align more closely with the measurement sites to reevaluate the global CCl4 soil sink. We calculate an updated partial lifetime of CCl4 with respect to the soil sink to be 375 (288-536) years, which is 50 to 90% longer than the most recently published best estimates of the soil sink partial lifetime (195 and 245 years). This translates into a longer overall atmospheric lifetime estimate, which is more consistent with the observed atmospheric concentration trend and interhemispheric gradient.

  6. The protective effect of aqueous propolis extract on isolated rat hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mahran, L G; el-Khatib, A S; Agha, A M; Khayyal, M T

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of honeybee aqueous propolis extract (APE) against the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride was investigated using isolated liver-cell suspensions as the experimental model. Various concentrations of the extract were preincubated with the hepatocyte suspensions for 30 min before being subjected to the hepatotoxin for a further 30 min. The hepatocyte toxicity was assessed using three parameters, namely, the release of lactate dehydrogenase, the formation of lipid peroxides and the depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione. It was found that a dose-related protection against the induced cell injury was conferred by APE as evidenced by its inhibitory influence on the changes induced by CCl4 on the measured parameters. The hepatocyte protective effect of APE is probably a result of its antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties which in turn help to maintain the intracellular level of reduced glutathione.

  7. Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitex trifolia against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B K; Vidya, S M

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf of Vitex trifolia was investigated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. To assess the hepatoprotective activity of the extracts, various biochemical parameters viz., total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined. Results of the serum biochemical estimations revealed significant reduction in total bilirubin and serum marker enzymes and increase in total protein in the animals treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts. However significant rise in these serum enzymes and decrease in total protein level was noticed in CCl4 treated group indicating the hepatic damage. The hepatoprotective activity is also supported by histological studies of liver tissue. Histology of the liver tissue treated with ethanol and aqueous extracts showed normal hepatic architecture with few fatty lobules. Hence the present study revealed that Vitex trifolia could afford significant protection against CCl(4) induced hepatocellular injury.

  8. Simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and carbon tetrachloride mediated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Claudia M; Alvarez, Luis H; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2012-09-01

    The capacity of an anaerobic sediment to achieve the simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated, using humic acids (HA) as redox mediator. The presence of HA in sediment incubations increased the rate of biodegradation of phenol and the rate of dehalogenation (2.5-fold) of CT compared to controls lacking HA. Further experiments revealed that the electron-accepting capacity of HA derived from different organic-rich environments was not associated with their reducing capacity to achieve CT dechlorination. The collected kinetic data suggest that the reduction of CT by reduced HA was the rate-limiting step during the simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and CT. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first demonstration of the simultaneous biodegradation of two priority pollutants mediated by HA.

  9. Static and dynamic model fluorescence quenching of laser dye by carbon tetrachloride in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kadadevarmath, J S; Malimath, G H; Melavanki, R M; Patil, N R

    2014-01-03

    The fluorescence quenching of laser dye namely 4,4(‴)-Bis (2-butyloctyl-oxy)-p-quaterphenyl [BIBUQ] by carbon tetrachloride has been studied in different solvent mixtures of 1-4 dioxane (DN) and acetonitrile (AN) at room temperature. The quenching is found to be appreciable and a positive deviation from linearity was observed in the Stern-Volmer plot in all the solvent mixtures. Various parameters for the quenching process have been determined by sphere of action static quenching model and finite sink approximation model. The magnitudes of these rate parameters indicate that positive deviation in the Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot is both due to static and dynamic processes.

  10. Biogenic FeS accelerates reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying-Chao; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Chang-Bin; Li, Chen-Xuan; Zeng, Raymond; Lau, Tai-Chu; Huang, Tian-Yin

    2016-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) widely exist in the subsurface environment and are involved in various contaminant degradation and element geochemical cycling processes. Recent studies suggest that DMRB can biosynthesize metal nanoparticles during metal reduction, but it is unclear yet how such biogenic nanomaterials would affect their decontamination behaviors. In this study, we found that the dechlorination rates of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was significantly increased by 8 times with the formation of biogenic ferrous sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles. The pasteurized biogenic FeS enabled 5 times faster dechlorination than abiotic FeS that had larger sizes and irregular structure, confirming a significant contribution of the biogenic FeS to CT bioreduction resulting from its good dispersion and relatively high dechlorination activity. This study highlights a potentially important role of biosynthesized nanoparticles in environmental bioremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Attenuation Parameter Studies: Heterogeneous Hydrolytic Reactions -- Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Qafoku, Odeta; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Russell, Colleen K.; Truex, Michael J.

    2009-09-18

    This report documents a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study sought also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. It was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Office of Environmental Management Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies (CRPST) project and complements work initiated by the Hanford Groundwater Project in FY 2006 that focused primarily on CT in homogenous solution. Work was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY-Cortland).

  12. Curcuma longa attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in T-lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rizq, H A; Mansour, Mohamed H; Afzal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of crude curcuminoid extract and purified curcumin was made to evaluate the immunoprotective effect of Curcuma longa (turmeric) Zingiberaceae. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced selective cytolytic effects among immature (PNA(+)) thymocytes and peripheral helper (CD4(+)) T lymphocytes in the spleen were paralleled by a significant reduction in CD25, CD71, and Con A receptor expression. Treatment with curcumanoid crude extract, at two different doses, showed a significant restoration of lymphocyte viability and CD25, CD71, and Con A receptor expression in both immature (PNA+) thymocytes and splenic helper (CD4(+)) T lymphocytes. Turmeric crude extract, at both low and high dose, was found to be more efficient as compared to purified curcumin, suggesting synergistic effect of curcumin with other components of the crude extract.

  13. Apparent removal of the transient tracer carbon tetrachloride from anoxic seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Krysell, M.; Fogelqvist, E.; Tanhua, T. |

    1994-11-01

    Two chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) widely used as tracers for dating water masses, were measured in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea. At the time of the survey, the bottom water of the basin had remained stagnant for 15 years and anoxic for about the same period of time, and the concentrations of both CFC-11 and CCl4 decrease dramatically with depth below the mixed layer. Furthermore, the ratio of CFC-11 to CCl4 increases with depth under the mixed layer along with a steep decrease in oxygen concentration. This is contrary to what would be expected from the atmospheric histories. The most plausible explanation for this is that there is a mechanism whereby the CCl4 is removed from the water mass under anoxic and suboxide conditions.

  14. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated

  15. Improved Predictions of Carbon Tetrachloride Contaminant Flow and Transport: Implementation of Kinetic Volatilization and Multicomponent NAPL Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2008-09-29

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. The RI/FS process and remedial investigations for the 200-PW-1, 200 PW-3, and 200-PW-6 Operable Units are described in the Plutonium/Organic-Rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Groups Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the STOMP simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006) by incorporating kinetic volatilization of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and multicomponent flow and transport. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy. Previous numerical simulation results with the STOMP simulator have overestimated the effect of soil vapor extraction (SVE) on subsurface CT, showing rapid removal of considerably more CT than has actually been recovered so far. These previous multiphase simulations modeled CT mass transfer between phases based on equilibrium partitioning. Equilibrium volatilization can overestimate volatilization because mass transfer limitations present in the field are not considered. Previous simulations were also conducted by modeling the NAPL as a single component, CT. In reality, however, the NAPL mixture disposed of at the Hanford site contained several non-volatile and nearly insoluble organic components, resulting in time-variant fluid properties as the CT component volatilized or dissolved over time. Simulation of CT removal from a DNAPL mixture using single-component DNAPL properties typically leads to an overestimation of CT removal. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy between

  16. Effects of natural organic matter model compounds on the transformation of carbon tetrachloride by chloride green rust.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoming; Butler, Elizabeth C

    2010-04-01

    Interest has grown in the use of reactive minerals for natural and engineered transformation of ground water contaminants. This study investigated how the structural properties of 10 model compounds representing natural organic matter (NOM) influenced their adsorption to chloride green rust (GR-Cl), and how this adsorption affected rate constants for transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by GR-Cl. The affinity of benzoic acid, phthalic acid, trimesic acid, pyromellitic acid, and mellitic acid for the GR-Cl surface generally increased in the order of increasing number of carboxylic acid functional groups, increasing acidity of these functional groups, and increasing charge density. For NOM model compounds that had phenolic functional groups (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, alpha-resorcylic acid, and caffeic acid), the affinity for the GR-Cl surface was greatest for caffeic acid, which had two adjacent phenolic functional groups. Some NOM model compounds had experimentally determined Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities (q(max-Langmuir)) greater than those calculated based on external surface area measurements and the size of the NOM model compound, suggesting adsorption to internal as well as external sites at the GR-Cl surface for these compounds. Rate constants for CT transformation by GR-Cl generally decreased as the affinity of the NOM model compounds (estimated by Langmuir K values) increased, but there was no statistically significant correlation between Langmuir parameters (i.e., K and q(max-Langmuir)) and rate constants, perhaps due to significant adsorption of some NOM model compounds to sites that were not accessible to CT, such as interlayer sites. Unlike the other NOM model compounds, caffeic acid, which adsorbed to a significant extent to the GR-Cl surface, increased the rate constant for CT transformation. The influence of NOM on rate constants for CT transformation by green rusts should be considered in ground water remediation planning.

  17. ESTABLISHING CHANGES IN METABOLISM OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN THE RAT THROUGH THE USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological interactions of chemicals can affect metabolism, often decreasing overall associated metabolic rates; and changes in metabolism can be evaluated through the use of mathematical models. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are common co...

  18. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav; Kennedy, Eric; Mackie, John; Holdsworth, Clovia; Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael; Dlugogorski, Bogdan

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  19. An alternate metabolic hypothesis for a binary mixture of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are hepatotoxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental contaminants. Previous physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describe the kinetics ofindividual chemical disposition and metabolic clearance fo...

  20. An alternate metabolic hypothesis for a binary mixture of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride: application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are hepatotoxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental contaminants. Previous physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models describe the kinetics ofindividual chemical disposition and metabolic clearance fo...

  1. Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride by Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene Respiring Anaerobic Mixed Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickstrom, K. E.; Azizian, M.; Semprini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) is a toxic and recalcitrant groundwater contaminant with the potential to form a broad range of transformation products. Of the possible biochemical pathways through which CT can be degraded, reductive dehalogenation to less chlorinated compounds and mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) appear to be the most frequently utilized pathways by anaerobic organisms. Results will be presented from batch experiments of CT degradation by the Evanite (EV), Victoria Strain (VS) and Point Mugu (PM) anaerobic dechlorinating cultures. The cultures are grown in chemostats and are capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene by halorespiration via reductive dehalogenase enzymes. For the batch CT transformation tests, the cells along with supernatant were harvested from chemostats fed PCE or TCE, but never CT. The batch reactors were initially fed 0.0085 mM CT and an excess of formate (EV and VS) or lactate (PM) as electron donor. Transformation of CT was 100% with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) and undetected products. Multiple additions of CT showed a slowing of pseudo first-order CT transformation rates across all cultures. Batch reactors were then established and fed 0.085 mM CT with an excess of electron donor in order to better quantify the reductive pathway. CT was transformed to CF and dichloromethane (DCM), with trace amounts of chloromethane (CM) detected. Between 60-90% of the mass added to the system was accounted for, showing that the majority of the carbon tetrachloride present is being reductively dehalogenated. Results from batch reactors that were poisoned using sodium azide, and from reactors not provided electron donor will be presented to distinguish between biotic and abiotic reactions. Furthermore, results from reactors prepared with acetylene (a potent, reversible inhibitor of reductive dehalogenases (1)) will be presented as a means of identifying the enzymes involved in the

  2. Work Plan for a Limited CCC/USDA Investigation of the Current Carbon Tetrachloride Contamination in Groundwater at Navarre, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M.

    2014-05-01

    During private well testing in 1990-1991, carbon tetrachloride was identified in the groundwater at several locations in the town of Navarre, Kansas, at levels exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 level and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L. Several subsequent investigations through 2006 evaluated the concentrations and distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. This work included the identification of the contaminant sources (Argonne 2007). The history of activities to address the contamination in soil and groundwater is summarized in Table 1.1. The most recent studies, conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), include a brownfields investigation initiated in 2013 (Phase I) and continuing in early 2014 (Phase II), as well as private well testing.

  3. Enhanced reductive degradation of carbon tetrachloride by biogenic vivianite and Fe(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrated that reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) can be enhanced by iron-bearing soil minerals (IBSMs) in the presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 (CN32) due to the formation of biogenic vivianite and Fe(II). The bioreduction efficiency of magnetite was the highest (51.1%), followed by lepidocrocite (25.7%), goethite (3.6%), and hematite (1.8%). The dechlorination kinetic of CT by lepidocrocite (0.043 d-1) in the presence of CN32 was three times faster than that by microbial transformation with CN32 (0.014 d-1). Chloroform (16.1-29.4%), carbon monoxide (2.4-23.8%), and formate (0-58.0%) were measured as main products for the degradation of CT by magnetite and lepidocrocite in the presence of CN32. X-ray diffraction and electron microscope analyses revealed that the biogenic vivianite can form during the CT degradation in magnetite and lepidocrocite suspensions with CN32. The dechlorination kinetics of CT by chemogenic vivianite was much faster than that by magnetite and lepidocrocite with CN32. The highest formate production (84.2%) was observed during a full degradation of CT by the chemogenic vivianite. The experimental results showed that biogenic vivianite and sorbed Fe(II) formed during the bioreduction of IBSMs played a pivotal role for the reductive dechlorination of CT.

  4. Ultrasonic studies of mixtures of ethyl formate and n-alcohols in carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2013-04-01

    Density ( ρ), viscosity ( η) and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for the ternary mixtures of ethyl formate with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol in carbon tetrachloride at 303 K. From the experimental data, several acoustic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility ( β), acoustic impedance( Z), viscous relaxation time( τ), free length ( L f ), free volume ( V f ), internal pressure ( π i ) and Gibb's free energy (Δ G) have been determined. The excess values of the above parameters ( β E , Z E , τ E , L f E , V f E , π i E and Δ G E ) were also determined and interpreted in terms of molecular association such as hydrogen bonding formed between the liquid mixtures. The results show that hetero-association and homo-association of molecules decrease with the increase in chain length of carbon atoms in alcohols. It is observed that the molecular interaction of alcohols with ethyl formate is in the order of 1-butanol < 1-pentanol < 1-hexanol.

  5. Physiological factors affecting carbon tetrachloride dehalogenation by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC was grown on a medium with a low content of transition metals in order to examine the conditions for carbon tetrachloride (CT) transformation. Several carbon sources, including acetate, glucose, glycerol, and glutamate, were able to support CT transformation. The chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthroline stimulated CT transformation in a rich medium that otherwise did not support this activity. Low (< 10 microM) additions of dissolved iron(II), iron(III), and cobalt(II), as well as an insoluble iron(III) compound, ferric oxyhydroxide, inhibited CT transformation. The addition of 50 microM iron to actively growing cultures resulted in delayed inhibition of CT transformation. CT transformation was seen in aerobic cultures of KC, but with reduced efficiency compared with denitrifying cultures. Inhibition of CT transformation by iron was also seen in aerobically grown cultures. Optimal conditions were used in searching for effective CT transformation activity among denitrifying enrichments grown from samples of aquifer material. No activity comparable to that of Pseudomonas sp. strain KC was found among 16 samples tested. PMID:8517754

  6. Kinetics of the reductive reextraction of neptunium in the TBP-carbon tetrachloride-water-nitric acid-hydroxylamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Pushlenko, M.F.; Lyakin, V.V.; Tikhonov, N.S.; Titov, S.L.; Yasnovitskaya, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    This paper studies the reextraction of neptunium in the TBP-carbon tetrachloride-water-nitric acid-hydroxylamine system. The experiments were carried out in an extractor with a fixed interfacial surface regardless of mixing and in a MTsE-30-1 small-scale one step centrifugal extractor. Changes are shown in neptunium concentration in the aqueous phase upon reextraction with a nitric acid solution of hydroxylamine in the extractor with the fixed interphase surface.

  7. New and improved infra-red absorption cross sections and ACE-FTS retrievals of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Boone, Christopher D.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is one of the species regulated by the Montreal Protocol on account of its ability to deplete stratospheric ozone. As such, the inconsistency between observations of its abundance and estimated sources and sinks is an important problem requiring urgent attention (Carpenter et al., 2014) [5]. Satellite remote-sensing has a role to play, particularly limb sounders which can provide vertical profiles into the stratosphere and therefore validate stratospheric loss rates in atmospheric models. This work is in two parts. The first describes new and improved high-resolution infra-red absorption cross sections of carbon tetrachloride/dry synthetic air over the spectral range 700-860 cm-1 for a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-760 Torr and 208-296 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases. The second describes a new, preliminary ACE-FTS carbon tetrachloride retrieval that improves upon the v3.0/v3.5 data products, which are biased high by up to 20-30% relative to ground measurements. Making use of the new spectroscopic data, this retrieval also improves the microwindow selection, contains additional interfering species, and utilises a new instrumental lineshape; it will form the basis for the upcoming v4.0 CCl4 data product.

  8. Inhibitory effects of prior low-dose X-ray irradiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in acatalasemic mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nomura, Takaharu; Taguchi, Takehito; Wang, Da-Hong; Mori, Shuji; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kira, Shohei

    2004-03-01

    The catalase activities in blood and organs of the acatalasemic (C3H/AnLCs(b)Cs(b)) mouse of C3H strain are lower than those of the normal (C3H/AnLCs (a)Cs(a)) mouse. We examined the effects of prior low-dose (0.5 Gy) X-ray irradiation, which reduced the oxidative damage under carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in the acatalasemic or normal mice. The acatalasemic mice showed a significantly lower catalase activity and a significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity compared with those in the normal mice. Moreover, low-dose irradiation increased the catalase activity in the acatalasemic mouse liver to a level similar to that of the normal mouse liver. Pathological examinations and analyses of blood glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity and lipid peroxide levels showed that carbon tetrachloride induced hepatopathy was inhibited by low-dose irradiation. These findings may indicate that the free radical reaction induced by the lack of catalase and the administration of carbon tetrachloride is more properly neutralized by high glutathione peroxidase activity and low-dose irradiation in the acatalasemic mouse liver.

  9. Resveratrol Regulates Antioxidant Status, Inhibits Cytokine Expression and Restricts Apoptosis in Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Souvik; Sannigrahi, Santanu; Majumdar, Subhabrota; Ghosh, Balaram; Sarkar, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the chemopreventive role of resveratrol in many animal models like ischemia, rheumatoid arthritis, human cancer, and diabetes. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of resveratrol in rat hepatic injury model by carbon tetrachloride. Male Wistar rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (0.4 g/kg body weight) intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. Resveratrol (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg body weight) was given orally from first day until the last day of experiment. The investigation assesses the effect of resveratrol on morphological, oxidative status, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and apoptotic analysis in carbon tetrachloride-challenged liver tissue. The study indicated that the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were profoundly expressed in experimental rats, whereas resveratrol decreases the immunopositivity of TNF-α and IL-6 and restored the altered architectural structure of challenged hepatic tissue. Resveratrol also protects liver cells by suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22013498

  10. Integrating phytoremediation, wetlands, spray irrigation, and prairie restoration to treat carbon tetrachloride contamination in a rural community.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Negri, M. C.; Sedivy, R. A.; Yan, Y.E.; Steck, D.; Gilmore, S. M.; Kulakow, P.; Hutchinson, S.; Erickson, L.; USDA; Kansas State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    In a cooperative conservation effort, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is cleaning up a contaminated aquifer in a rural community and simultaneously improving the community's recreational and educational opportunities. While one component of the cleanup system irrigates school athletic fields that were parched and bare in previous summers, other components have created a nearby public recreational area. The USDA's other partners in this effort are the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Kansas State University, state regulators, local businesses, governmental units, and residents. The groundwater aquifer beneath Murdock, Nebraska, became contaminated with carbon tetrachloride as the result of fumigation of grain stored decades ago in a USDA facility. Contaminant levels in the groundwater (up to 7,800 {micro}g/L at one time) precluded use of the aquifer for drinking water, and discharge of contaminated groundwater to a nearby creek posed health risks. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride as high as 361 {micro}g/kg in subsurface soil indicated the presence of a soil source. Model simulations of potential leaching indicated that the source would continue to release contaminant for at least 80 years, and migration to the creek would continue after that. The USDA, ANL, and EPA developed an innovative cleanup system that combines multiple technologies. Near the contamination source, pumps extract contaminated groundwater and pass it through a spray irrigation system that dissipates the carbon tetrachloride harmlessly into the air. The treated water irrigates the school's athletic field, nurturing a healthy grassy surface. Supplementing the spray irrigation technology are more than 2,000 trees planted downstream from where the groundwater enters the creek. The trees accomplish phytoremediation by taking up contaminated water and breaking down carbon tetrachloride naturally. Native prairie plants

  11. Liver fibrosis in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride and its reversion by luteolin

    SciTech Connect

    Domitrovic, Robert; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Tomac, Jelena; Sain, Ivana

    2009-12-15

    Hepatic fibrosis is effusive wound healing process in which excessive connective tissue builds up in the liver. Because specific treatments to stop progressive fibrosis of the liver are not available, we have investigated the effects of luteolin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Male Balb/C mice were treated with CCl{sub 4} (0.4 ml/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice a week for 6 weeks. Luteolin was administered i.p. once daily for next 2 weeks, in doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. The CCl{sub 4} control group has been observed for spontaneous reversion of fibrosis. CCl{sub 4}-intoxication increased serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels and disturbed hepatic antioxidative status. Most of these parameters were spontaneously normalized in the CCl{sub 4} control group, although the progression of liver fibrosis was observed histologically. Luteolin treatment has increased hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels and metallothionein (MT) I/II expression, eliminated fibrinous deposits and restored architecture of the liver in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and alpha-smooth muscle actin indicated deactivation of hepatic stellate cells. Our results suggest the therapeutic effects of luteolin on CCl{sub 4}-induced liver fibrosis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation in the fibrotic liver tissue and the strong enhancement of hepatic regenerative capability, with MTs as a critical mediator of liver regeneration.

  12. Protective effects of silica hydride against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Chuang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2010-06-01

    The protective effects of MegaHydrate silica hydride against liver damage were evaluated by its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male ICR mice were orally treated with silica hydride (104, 208 and 520 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) daily, with administration of CCl(4) (1 mL/kg, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) twice a week for eight weeks. The results showed that oral administration of silica hydride significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver that were induced by CCl(4) in mice. Moreover, the silica-hydride treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as increase the GSH content, in the liver. Liver histopathology also showed that silica hydride reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl(4). The results suggest that silica hydride exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice, likely due to both the increase of antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanoparticle Based Delivery of Quercetin for the Treatment of Carbon Tetrachloride Mediated Liver Cirrhosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shashi Kant; Rastogil, Shweta; Arora, Indu; Javed, Kalim; Akhtar, Mohd; Samim, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common response to chronic liver injury and ultimately leads to cirrhosis. There is a pressing need in the pharmaceutical industry to develop efficient well-targeted drug delivery systems, which are lacking to date. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a nanoquercetin NQ; i.e., quercetin encapsulated in PAG (p-aminophenyl-1-thio-β-D-galactopryranoside)-coated NIPAAM (N-isopropyl acrylamide) nanopolymer in liver compared with naked quercetin (Q) using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-mediated liver cirrhosis model. NQ was more effective at restoring liver membrane integrity as indicated by significantly reduced serum markers, including Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), compared with naked Q. The findings of reduced collagen and histopathology also show that the NQ effects were much better than those of naked Q. Biochemical parameters, including antioxidant defense enzymes, also provide supporting evidence. Furthermore, the decrease in NF-κB and NOS-2 expression in the NQ-treated groups was also much stronger than in the naked Q-treated group. Thus, the data clearly suggest that NQ not only provides significant hepatoprotection compared with naked Q, but it also substantially lowered the required concentration (1,000 to 10,000-fold lower) by increasing the bioavailability.

  14. A ground level interpretation of the dielectric behavior of diluted alcohol-in-carbon tetrachloride mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieruccini, M.; Saija, F.; Ponterio, R.; Vasi, C.

    2003-11-01

    The dielectric behavior at room temperature of alcohol/carbon tetrachloride binary mixtures over the whole composition range is analyzed in the low frequency domain (100 kHz). Methanol, ethanol, 1-, 2-propanol, and 1-pentanol are considered. The results are compared with the ideal case as described in the framework of Onsager theory [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486 (1936)]. We find that the observed negative deviation from the ideal dielectric constant at high alcohol dilution is almost independent of the alcohol species. This behavior is interpreted as an effect of the presence of closed chainlike alcohol clusters. Good quantitative agreement is found with a simple lattice model describing the equilibrium distribution of alcohol clusters in the framework of the semigrand canonical ensemble. The observed dielectric behavior is then compared with the results of the calorimetric investigations carried out by Otterstedt and Missen [Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 879 (1962)]. It is concluded that the dielectric and the calorimetric behaviors of these mixtures at high dilutions can be both interpreted consistently as effects of homogeneous association of the alcohol.

  15. A theoretical study of the sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy of the carbon tetrachloride/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Anthony J.; Perry, Angela; Moore, Preston B.; Space, Brian

    2012-03-01

    Theoretical approximations to the sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) of the carbon tetrachloride/water interface are constructed using the quantum-corrected time correlation functions (TCF) to aid in interpretation of experimental data and to predict novel vibrational modes. Instantaneous normal mode (INM) methods are used to characterize the observed modes leading to the TCF signal, thus providing molecular resolution of the vibrational lineshapes. Detailed comparisons of the theoretical signals are made with those obtained experimentally and show excellent agreement for the spectral peaks in the O-H stretching region of water. An intermolecular mode, unique to the interface, at 848 cm-1 is also identifiable, similar to the one seen for the water/vapor interface. INM analysis reveals the resonance is due to a wagging mode (hindered rotation) that was previously identified (Perry et al 2005 J. Chem. Phys. 123 144705) as localized on a single water molecule with both hydrogens displaced normal to the interface—generally it is found that the symmetry breaking at the interface leads to hindered translations and rotations at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces that assume finite vibrational frequencies due to anchoring at the aqueous interface. Additionally, examination of the real and imaginary parts of the theoretical SFVS spectra reveal the spectroscopic species attributed the resonances and possible subspecies in the O-H region; these results are consistent with extant experimental data and associated analysis.

  16. Convenient new chemical actinometer based on aqueous acetone, 2-propanol, and carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Betterton, Eric A; Arnold, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P; Barbaris, Brian; Grachane, Cecilio

    2005-04-01

    A convenient new chemical actinometer was developed to measure the spectral output of laboratory ultraviolet (UV) light sources over the wavelength range of 260-330 nm. It can also be used to measure solar UV irradiance (< or =325 nm). The actinometer is based on the photoreduction of aqueous carbon tetrachloride (CT) to chloroform (CF) in the presence of acetone (the chromophore) and 2-propanol (the reductant). In all cases, CT disappearance (and CF formation) followed zero-order kinetics over 95% of the reaction. The slope of the linear decay curve forms the basis of the new actinometer, which was calibrated using ferrioxalate actinometry. Quantum yields were measured at 10 nm intervals and were found to be uniform throughout the range of 260-300 nm. As expected, quantum yields gradually decreased to zero asthe wavelength was increased from 300 to 340 nm. The high quantum yields (approximately 150), low sensitivityto room light, and the straightforward determination of [CT] and [CF] by gas chromatography offer significant advantages over some other chemical actinometers, which might require the preparation and purification of light-sensitive compounds in a darkened environment and long exposure times.

  17. The protective effect of infliximab against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Aysel; Tumkaya, Levent; Yuce, Suleyman; Turut, Hasan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Kalkan, Yildiray; Pusuroglu, Gokhan; Cure, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causes pulmonary toxicity. Infliximab (Ib) is a potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We aimed to investigate whether Ib has a protective effect on CCl4 induced lung injury. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into control, CCl4, and CCl4+Ib groups. A single dose of 2 ml/kg CCI4 was administered to CCI4 group and a single dose of 7 mg/kg Ib was given to CCl4+Ib group 24 hr before applying CCI4. Results: TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and caspase-3 levels of the CCl4 group were markedly higher than both the control and CCl4+Ib groups. The CCI4+Ib group had lower histopathological injury than the CCl4 group. Conclusion: Ib as a strong TNF-α blocker decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, and oxidative stress leading to a protective effect against CCl4 induced lung tissue injury. PMID:27482351

  18. Carbon tetrachloride-induced lethality in mouse is prevented by multiple pretreatment with zinc sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Usuda, Haruki; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Onosaka, Satomi

    2016-02-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is commonly used as a chemical inducer of experimental liver injury. Several compounds have been demonstrated to attenuate the hepatic damage caused by sublethal doses of CCl4. However, rescue from lethal toxicity of CCl4 has not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of metallothionein (MT), an endogenous scavenger of free radicals, on CCl4-induced lethal toxicity of mice. To induce MT production in male ddY mice, we administered Zn (as ZnSO4) at 50 mg/kg as a once-daily subcutaneous injection for 3 days prior to a single intraperitoneal administration of 4 g/kg CCl4. Animals were observed for mortality every 3 hr for 24 hr after CCl4 injection. Liver damage was assessed by determining (in a subset of these mice) blood levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; a marker of liver injury) and liver histopathology at 6 hr after CCl4 injection. Our results showed that three times pretreatment with Zn yielded > 40-fold induction of hepatic MT protein levels compared to control group. Zn pretreatment completely abolished the CCl4-induced mortality of mice. We also found that pretreatment of mice with Zn significantly decreased the ALT levels and reduced the histological liver damage as assessed at 6 hr post-CCl4. These findings suggest that prophylaxis with Zn protects mice from CCl4-induced acute hepatic toxicity and mortality, presumably by induction of radical-scavenging MT.

  19. Polysaccharides from Angelica and Astragalus exert hepatoprotective effects against carbon-tetrachloride-induced intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Fan, Wenbo; Yu, Shuang; Li, Yan; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Weijie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of polysaccharide from Angelica and Astragalus (AAP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in mice. A total of 120 Kunming mice were randomly distributed among 6 groups comprising (i) the normal control mice, (ii) the CCl4 treatment group, (iii) the bifendate treatment group, (iv) the AAP treatment group, (v) the Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) treatment group, and (vi) the Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AMP) treatment group. AAP, ASP and AMP were administered to mice treated with CCl4. The activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissues were quantified, as well as the liver index. Hepatic histological changes were observed by staining liver sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results show that bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP significantly decreased the activities of MDA, AST, and ALT, and enhanced the activity of SOD in CCl4-treated mice. Bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP consistently ameliorated the liver injuries induced with CCl4. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of AAP was stronger than that of bifendate, ASP, or AMP. In addition, AAP alleviated liver inflammation and decreased the liver indexes of mice induced with CCl4. These effects were at least partly due to the antioxidant properties of AAP in scavenging free radicals to ameliorate oxidative stress and to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  20. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: Protective effect of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. in rats.

    PubMed

    Alqasoumi, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of an ethanolic extract of 'Rocket' Eruca sativa L. (EER), on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was investigated. Wistar albino rats were administered 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight extract orally for 10 consecutive days. Marker enzymes GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin were estimated in serum. Whereas, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in liver tissue as markers for oxidative stress. Histopathological assessment was also done on liver tissue. CCl(4) induced liver poisoning in all treated animals was evident by elevated serum GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT and bilirubin levels. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver tissue by CCl(4) was evidenced by a fall in the levels of NP-SH and TP; and an increased level of MDA concentration. EER administration for 10 days prevented the CCl(4) induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the extract also reduced the pentobarbital-induced prolongation of sleeping time in mice. The ability of rocket extract to protect the liver toxicity in rats was further confirmed by histological findings in the liver tissue. In conclusion, it was observed that Eruca sativa L. extract protects the liver against CCl(4) induced hepatic injury through its potent antioxidant activity in rats.

  1. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2010-12-08

    This report documents the progress made through FY 2010 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater at the Hanford Site for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study also explores the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. The research was initiated to decrease the uncertainties in abiotic degradation rates of CT and chloroform CF associated with temperature and possible heterogeneous effects. After 2 years of data collection, the first evidence for heterogeneous effects was identified for hydrolysis of CT, and preliminary evidence for the effects of different mineral types on CF hydrolysis rates also was reported. The CT data showed no difference among mineral types, whereas significant differences were seen in the CF results, perhaps due to the fact that CF hydrolyzes by both neutral and base-catalyzed mechanisms whereas CT follows only the neutral hydrolysis path. In this report, we review the project objectives, organization, and technical approaches taken, update the status and results of the hydrolysis-rate experiments after 4 years of experimentation (i.e., through FY 2010), and provide a brief discussion of how these results add to scientific understanding of the behavior of the CT/CF plume at the Hanford Site.

  2. Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Lun; Yang, Guliang; Wang, Yu-Chuan; Chiou, Yi-Shiou; Tung, Yen-Chen; Yang, Meei-Ju; Wang, Bi-Ni; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wang, Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2017-09-20

    Theasinensins have been identified as a major group of unique catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. Among several types of theasinensins, theasinensin A (TSA), an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dimer with an R-biphenyl bond, is the most abundant theasinensin prevalent in oolong tea. Previous studies have reported that TSA exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the hepatoprotective effect of TSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. After intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for eight weeks, histological lesions in the liver tissue and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were found in mice. Conversely, oral administration of TSA relieved CCl4-induced liver injury as well as ameliorated liver functions. Our immunohistochemical staining results revealed that collagen deposition was profoundly reduced due to supplementation with TSA. In addition, we also found that hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression was suppressed through the inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Taken together, our current findings suggest that TSA may serve as a potent bioactive constituent from oolong tea that acts against liver fibrosis through the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation.

  3. Red wine polyphenols correct vascular function injured by chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Cačányiová, Soňa; Pecháňová, Oľga; Babál, Pavel; Cerná, Andrea; Janega, Pavol; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of red wine polyphenols extract Provinols™ on the development of cardiovascular injury in the model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. We followed the thoracic aorta vasoactivity and left ventricle nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in male Wistar rats. In the preventive experiment lasting for 12 weeks the control group, the group receiving CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) two times a week subcutaneously, the group receiving Provinols™ (30 mg/kg/day) in drinking water and the group receiving CCl4+Provinols™ was used. In the recovery experiment, the initial 12 weeks of CCl4 treatment were followed by 3 weeks of spontaneous recovery or recovery with Provinols™. CCl4-intoxication resulted in the injury of vasoactivity which was demonstrated by the inhibition of acetylcholine-induced relaxation as well as noradrenaline-induced contraction. In the preventive as well as recovery experiment administration of polyphenols refreshed endothelium-dependent relaxant response and normalized inhibited contraction to adrenergic stimuli. Provinols™ treatment significantly increased NO-synthase activity in all groups. The results revealed beneficial effects of red wine polyphenols on vascular function injured by chronic CCl4 intoxication. The correction of endothelial function seems to be attributed to the activation of NO pathway by polyphenols.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of trimethylgallic acid esters against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mamta; Chadha, Renu; Kumar, Anil; Karan, Maninder; Singh, Tejvir; Dhingra, Sameer

    2015-12-01

    Gallic acid and its derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating various oxidative stress mediated disorders. In the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of newly synthesized conjugated trimethylgallic acid (TMGA) esters against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were pre-treated with TMGA esters at their respective doses for 7 days against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The histopathological changes were evaluated to find out degenerative fatty changes including vacuole formation, inflammation and tissue necrosis. Various biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities), liver enzymes (AST and ALT), triacylglycerol and cholesterol were evaluated. Pre-treatment with TMGA esters (MRG, MGG, MSG, and MUG at the dose of 28.71, 30.03, 31.35, 33.62 mg/kg/day), respectively reversed the CCl4-induced liver injury scores (reduced vacuole formation, inflammation and necrosis), biochemical parameters of plasma (increased AST, ALT, TG, and cholesterol), antioxidant enzymes (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels; decreased glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) in liver tissues and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α) significantly. The study revealed that TMGA esters exerted hepatoprotective effects in CCl4-induced rats, specifically by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammation.

  5. Antioxidant effect of Cytisus scoparius against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Raja, S; Ahamed, K F H Nazeer; Kumar, V; Mukherjee, Kakali; Bandyopadhyay, A; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2007-01-03

    The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius L. (Family: Leguminosae) on CCl(4) (carbon tetrachloride) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. CCl(4) injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) along with reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRD). Pretreatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (250 and 500mg/kg) significantly lowered SGOT, SGPT, LDH and TBARS levels against CCl(4) treated rats. GSH and hepatic enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST were significantly increased by treatment with the plant extract, against CCl(4) treated rats. The activity of extract at the dose of 500mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (25mg/kg). Based on these results, it was observed that Cytisus scoparius extract protects liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) in rats and thus helps in evaluation of the traditional claim on this plant.

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  7. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated the alterations induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  8. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in a semi-continuous packed-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, W.E.; Korus, R.A.; Crawford, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Pseudomonas sp. KC degrades carbon tetrachloride (CT) when grown under iron limited conditions. A packed-bed bioreactor was constructed out of glass and Teflon components and contained glass beads as a packing material. Total void volume of the reactor, including the pump reservoir, was approximately 300 mL. Media was recirculated through the reactor with a Teflon diaphragm pump and contained nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. After inoculation with KC and biofilm growth, the pump reservoir was replaced with fresh media and 3.0 mg/L CT was introduced to the reactor. When the initial CT had been degraded, 10% of the reactor volume was replaced with new media and CT was reintroduced. This process was repeated a second time. The initial degradation rate of the reactor increased from 75 {mu}g CT L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the first feeding to 109 {mu}g L{sup -1} hr{sup -1} for the third. A second reactor was packed with a Celite (diatomaceous earth) biocarrier and inoculated in a similar manner to the glass bead reactor. Degradation of CT in this reactor appeared to be suppressed, possibly due to the availability of iron to the bacteria from the biocarrier. While these experiments indicate it should be possible to design a bioreactor utilizing Pseudomonas sp. KC to degrade CT in contaminated water, the suppression of degradative activity by iron will require special precautions to be taken in reactor design.

  9. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10(th) day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress.

  10. Ex vivo assessment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced chronic injury using polarized light spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Manzoor; Ali, Safdar; Mehmood, Malik Sajjad; Ali, Hamid; Khurshid, Ahmat; Firdous, Shamaraz; Muhammad, Saleh; Ikram, Masroor

    2013-12-01

    The liver performs various functions, such as the production and detoxification of chemicals; therefore, it is susceptible to hepatotoxins such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), which causes chronic injury. Thus, assessment of injury and its status of severity are of prime importance. Current work reports an ex vivo study for probing the severance of hepatic injury induced by CCl4 with polarized light over the spectral range 400-800 nm. Different concentrations of CCl4 were used to induce varying severity of hepatic injury in a rat model. Linear retardance, depolarization rates, and diagonal Mueller matrix elements (m22, m33, and m44), were successfully used as the distinguishing criterion for normal and different liver injuries. Our results show that linear retardance for injured liver samples with lower doses of CCl4 tends to increase when compared with normal liver samples, while samples injured at higher doses of CCl4 offer almost no retardance. Total, linear, and circular depolarizations follow decreasing trends with increased liver injury severity over the entire investigated wavelength range. Linear polarization states were observed to be better maintained as compared to circular polarization states for all samples. Furthermore, numerical values of diagonal elements of the experimentally measured Mueller matrix also increase with increasing doses of CCl4. Liver fibroses, change in transport albedo, and the relative refractive index of the extracellular matrix caused by CCl4 are responsible for the observed differences. These results will provide a pathway to gauge the severity of injury caused by toxic chemicals.

  11. Effects of silymarin nanoemulsion against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Rabea; Baboota, Sanjula; Ali, Javed; Ahuja, Alka; Vasudev, Suruchi S; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-05-01

    Silymarin is a complex mixture of four flavonolignan isomers (silybin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin) obtained from 'milk thistle' (Silybum marianum). This plant compound is used almost exclusively for hepatoprotection. Because of its low and poor oral bioavailability, silymarin was formulated as a nanoemulsion to increase its solubility (and so its oral bioavailability) as well as therapeutic activity. The present study assessed the hepatoprotective activity on Wistar rats by determining biochemical parameters and histopathological properties of the nanoemulsion formulation of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase; antioxidative defence markers (concentration of reduced glutathione); oxidative stress parameter (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and liver histopathology. The nanoemulsion-treated group showed significant decreases in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphotase, total bilirubin and tissue lipid peroxides and increased total protein, albumin, globulin and tissue glutathione as compared to toxicant. The results indicate an excellent potential of the nanoemulsion formulation for the reversal of CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats as compared to standard silymarin.

  12. Does rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) support regeneration of rat liver after intoxication by carbon tetrachloride?

    PubMed

    Ulicná, O; Vancová, O; Waczulíková, I; Bozek, P; Janega, P; Babál, P; Lísková, S; Greksák, M

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of rooibos tea (RT, Aspalathus linearis) on biochemical and histological parameters during rat liver regeneration after intoxication by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). From the 10th week, when the administration of CCl4 was terminated, the liver tissue began to regenerate. Seven days later in the regeneration phase, the animals treated by RT during whole period of the experiment, and those which drunk RT only during the regeneration period, exhibited a trend for decrease in the activity of alanine aminotransferase and significant decrease in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and in total bilirubin content when compared with the water-drinking group. At the same time, the concentration of plasma albumin was elevated and that of tissue malondialdehyde decreased in the both groups drinking RT. After 42 days of regeneration, all biochemical parameters in all three groups reached the level of control healthy animals. In both groups treated with RT, the extent of fibrotic tissue was lower than in the group which received water. We conclude that RT can be recommended not only for the prevention but also as a co-adjuvant for the therapy of liver diseases.

  13. Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract.

    PubMed

    Veigas, Jyothi M; Shrivasthava, Richa; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2008-09-01

    Syzygium cumini, Indian black plum or Java plum, is a rich source for anthocyanins (230 mg/100g DW) showing high antioxidant activity in vitro. In the following study it is further demonstrated that S. cumini peel extract rich in anthocyanins (SCA) offers considerable protection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced damage in rat hepatocytes. SCA itself being non-toxic to primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ppm, was found to suppress CCl(4)-induced LDH leakage by 54% at 50ppm, thereby improving the cell viability by 39%. The SCA significantly reversed the CCl(4) induced changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) level, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Exposure of hepatocytes to SCA after CCl(4) treatment was found to elevate GSH and GPx activities by 2-folds, whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were not significantly affected. The fruit pulp extract (SPE) was less effective in offering protection to rat hepatocytes, particularly in terms of total GSH content and a consequent increase in lipid peroxidation although the higher GPx activity suggests the probable involvement of GSH as a substrate for GPx. These observations suggest that the fruit peel extract of S. cumini, is largely responsible for the reversal of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes. Both peel and pulp extract appear to offer protection to rat hepatocytes through GPx along with other biological pathways independent of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

  14. Connexin32 deficiency exacerbates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular injury and liver fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tereza C.; Aloia, Thiago P.A.; Nogueira, Marina S.; Real-Lima, Mirela A.; Chaible, Lucas M.; Sanches, Daniel S.; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Pereira, Isabel V.A.; de Castro, Inar A.; Vinken, Mathieu; Dagli, Maria L.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Liver fibrosis results from the perpetuation of the normal wound healing response to several types of injury. Despite the wealth of knowledge regarding the involvement of intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways in liver fibrogenesis, information about the role of intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions is scarce. Methods In this study, liver fibrosis was chemically induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice lacking connexin32, the major liver gap junction constituent. The manifestation of liver fibrosis was evaluated based on a series of read-outs, including fibrosis staging and collagen morphometric analysis, oxidative stress, apoptotic, proliferative and inflammatory markers. Results More pronounced liver damage and enhanced collagen deposition were observed in connexin32 knock-out mice compared to wild-type animals in experimentally triggered induced liver fibrosis. No differences between both groups were noticed in apoptotic signaling nor in inflammation markers. However, connexin32 deficient mice displayed decreased catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions These findings could suggest that connexin32-based signaling mediates tissue resistance against liver damage by the modulation of the anti-oxidant capacity. In turn, this could point to a role for connexin32 signaling as a therapeutic target in the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27268753

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of tender coconut water on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Loki, Anthony Loperito; Rajamohan, T

    2003-10-01

    Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of tender coconut water (TCW) were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated female rats. Liver damage was evidenced by the increased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased levels of serum proteins and by histopathological studies in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Increased lipid peroxidation was evidenced by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) viz, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides (HP) and conjugated dienes (CD), and also by significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and also reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver. On the other hand, CCl4-intoxicated rats treated with TCW retained almost normal levels of these constituents. Decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated rats and their reversal of antioxidant enzyme activities in TCW treated rats, shows the effectiveness of TCW in combating CCl4-induced oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective effect of TCW is also evidenced from the histopathological studies of liver, which did not show any fatty infiltration or necrosis, as observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats.

  16. Role of phospholipid metabolism in bromobenzene- and carbon tetrachloride-dependent hepatocyte injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, R.G.; McCue, S.B.; Taylor, D.R.; McGuffin, M.A.

    1984-09-30

    Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured rat hepatocytes exposed to bromobenzene (BB) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) display rapid and significant increases and decreases in hepatic phospholipase C (PLC) and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activities, respectively. Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were used to determine if the BB- and CCl4-dependent alterations in phospholipid metabolism were related to the hepatotoxicity of these agents. Cultured hepatocytes exposed to BB and CCl4 exhibited a rapid (1 to 5 min). PLC-mediated reduction (20 to 80%) in (32P)phosphatidylserine content. Other phospholipids were also reduced; however, phosphatidylserine was preferentially degraded by hepatotoxin-activated PLC. A time course of CCl4-and BB-induced cellular events showed that these agents (1) rapidly activate liver cell PLC activity; (2) accelerate 86Rb release; (3) decrease GPAT acyltransferase activity; and (4) cause a release of intracellular enzymes (GOT and GPT). All of these BB- and CCl4-mediated effects on the functional integrity of liver cells were blocked or reduced by agents (EDTA and chlorpromazine) that reduce the BB- and CCl4-dependent rise in PLC activity. Therefore, BB- and CCl4-dependent alterations in the functional and structural integrity of liver cells may be a result of accelerated phospholipid degradation and a corresponding inability of the cell to repair injured membranes by generating new phospholipids.

  17. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  18. Protective effect of L-theanine on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Gao, Min; Sun, Shuai; Bi, Aijing; Xin, Yinqiang; Han, Xiaodong; Wang, Liangbin; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan

    2012-06-01

    We studied effects of L-theanine, a unique amino acid in tea, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in mice. The mice were pre-treated orally with L-theanine (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) once daily for seven days before CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of 0.2% CCl(4) solution in olive oil) injection. L-theanine dose-dependently suppressed the increase of serum activity of ALT and AST and bilirubin level as well as liver histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) in mice. L-theanine significantly prevented CCl(4)-induced production of lipid peroxidation and decrease of hepatic GSH content and antioxidant enzymes activities. Our further studies demonstrated that L-theanine inhibited metabolic activation of CCl(4) through down-regulating cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). As a consequence, L-theanine inhibited oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response which included the increase of TNF-α and IL-1β in sera, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in livers. CCl(4)-induced activation of apoptotic related proteins including caspase-3 and PARP in mouse livers was also prevented by L-theanine treatment. In summary, L-theanine protects mice against CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury through inhibiting metabolic activation of CCl(4) and preventing CCl(4)-induced reduction of anti-oxidant capacity in mouse livers to relieve inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis.

  19. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Es.Haghi, M.; Dehghan, G.; Banihabib, N.; Zare, S.; Mikaili, P.; Panahi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated the alterations induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4. PMID:25249718

  20. Calotropis procera latex affords protection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Padhy, B M; Srivastava, A; Kumar, V L

    2007-09-25

    In the present study, latex of Calotropis procera possessing potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties was evaluated for its hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl(4,) administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE(2) and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Daily oral administration of aqueous suspension of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera at 5, 50 and 100mg/kg doses produced a dose-dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necro-inflammatory changes in the liver. The DL treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of DL and silymarin were comparable and suggests that DL could be used as a hepatoprotective agent.

  1. Carbon Tetrachloride at Hepatotoxic Levels Blocks Reversibly Gap Junctions between Rat Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, J. C.; Bennett, M. V. L.; Spray, D. C.

    1987-05-01

    Electrical coupling and dye coupling between pairs of rat hepatocytes were reversibly reduced by brief exposure to halogenated methanes (CBrCl3, CCl4, and CHCl3). The potency of different halomethanes in uncoupling hepatocytes was comparable to their hepatotoxicity in vivo, and the rank order was the same as that of their tendency to form free radicals. The effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on hepatocytes was substantially reduced by prior treatment with SKF 525A, an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450, and by exposure to the reducing reagent β -mercaptoethanol. Halomethane uncoupling occurred with or without extracellular calcium and did not change intracellular concentrations of calcium and hydrogen ions or the phosphorylation state of the main gap-junctional protein. Thus the uncoupling appears to depend on cytochrome P-450 oxidative metabolism in which free radicals are generated and may result from oxidation of the gap-junctional protein or of a regulatory molecule that leads to closure of gap-junctional channels. Decreases in junctional conductance may be a rapid cellular response to injury that protects healthy cells by uncoupling them from unhealthy ones.

  2. Aminotriazole attenuated carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinyu; Wu, Kunwei; Wan, Jingyuan; Li, Longjiang; Jiang, Rong; Jia, Mengying; Jing, Yuping; Zhang, Li

    2012-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) has been used extensively to study xenobiotic-induced oxidative liver injury. Catalase (CAT) is a major antioxidant enzyme while aminotriazole (ATZ) is commonly used as a CAT inhibitor. In the present study, the effects of ATZ on CCl(4)-induced liver injury were investigated. Our experimental data showed that pretreatment with ATZ significantly decreased CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and improved hepatic histopathological abnormality. ATZ dose-dependently inhibited the activity of CAT, but it reduced the content of H(2)O(2) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissues. ATZ decreased plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and reduced hepatic levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO). In addition, posttreatment with ATZ also decreased the level of ALT and AST. These data indicated that ATZ effectively alleviated CCl(4)-induced oxidative liver damage. These findings suggested that ATZ might have potential value in preventing oxidative liver injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant and protective effects of Phytocee™ against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Radhakrishnan, Uma; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Phytocee™) in the rodent model. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 6) were pretreated with Vitamin C (20 mg/kg) or Phytocee™ (20, 100, and 200 mg/kg), respectively for 10 days. Oxidative stress in rat liver was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 2 ml/kg as a single dose orally to all groups except the vehicle control group. After 24 h of administration of CCl4, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. Results: Phytocee™ administered groups at all the dose levels significantly reduced the hepatic MDA, serum ALT and AST levels with a marked increase in hepatic SOD and catalase as compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Phytocee™ markedly reversed the effects of CCl4 induced oxidative stress and can be used as an antioxidant feed supplement. PMID:25810658

  4. Propolis prevents hepatorenal injury induced by chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is a well-known hepatotoxicant, and its exposure induces hepatorenal injury via oxidative stress and biochemical alterations. This study had been conducted to confirm the protective role of propolis extract on CCl(4)-induced hepatorenal oxidative stress and resultant injury. Propolis extracts collected from Gwalior district and 24 female Sprague Dawley rats were used for experiment. Animals were exposed to CCl(4) (0.15 mL/kg, i.p.) for 12 weeks (5 days/week) followed by treatment with propolis extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for consecutive 2 weeks. CCl(4) exposure significantly depleted blood sugar and hemoglobin level and raised the level of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, urea, albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol in serum. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced, whereas GSH was decreased significantly in liver and kidney in CCl(4)-intoxicated group. Ethanolic extract of propolis successfully prevented these alterations in experimental animals. Activities of catalase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid, and alkaline phosphatase were also maintained towards normal with propolis therapy. Light microscopical studies showed considerable protection in liver and kidney with propolis treatment, thus, substantiated biochemical observations. This study confirmed hepatoprotective potential of propolis extract against chronic injury induced by CCl(4) by regulating antioxidative defense activities.

  5. Gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester attenuates progression of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1998-02-20

    We examined the effect of gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE), which is readily transported into hepatocytes and increases hepatocellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, on the progression of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice in comparison with that of GSH. Administration of more than 160 micromol/kg of gamma-GCE, but not GSH, to mice at 3 h after intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg) significantly attenuated increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities at 24 h after the CCl4 injection. Increases in hepatic lipid peroxide (LPO) concentrations and decreases in hepatic GSH concentrations after the CCl4 injection were significantly diminished by the gamma-GCE (160 micromol/kg) administration, but not by the same dose of GSH. Gamma-GCE, gamma-glutamylcysteine, and cysteine acted as substrates for glutathione peroxidases much less efficiently than GSH in the post-mitochondrial fraction of normal mouse liver cells. These results indicate that gamma-GCE attenuates the progression of CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice through the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels, leading to inhibition of hepatic LPO formation, which could be due to an efficient utilization of GSH converted from gamma-GCE in the liver cells.

  6. Protective effect of boric acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Keles, Hikmet; Erdogan, Metin; Hazman, Omer; Kucukkurt, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    The protective effect of boric acid against liver damage was evaluated by its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male albino mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with boric acid (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or silymarin daily for 7 days and received 0.2% CCl(4) in olive oil (10 mL/kg, i.p.) on day 7. Results showed that administration of boric acid significantly reduced the elevation in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and the level of malondialdehyde in the liver that were induced by CCl(4) in mice. Boric acid treatment significantly increased glutathione content, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver. Boric acid treatment improved the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 and maintained activation of nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cell gene expression, with no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the livers of mice. Histopathologically, clear decreases in the severity of CCl(4)-induced lesions were observed, particularly at high boric acid concentrations. Results suggest that boric acid exhibits potent hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice, likely the result of both the increase in antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  7. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity. Sesamin significantly reduced the elevated serum liver marker enzymes (P<0.0001). Reduction of TBARS (P<0.01 and P<0.001) followed by enhancement of GSH., SOD and catalase (P<0.0001) in liver homogenate in sesamin treated groups shows the amelioration of oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Histopathological report also supported the hepatoprotection offered by sesamin. Sesamin effects in both the dose were in comparable to reference standard drug silymarin. From these above findings it has been concluded that sesamin ameliorate the oxidative liver injury in terms of reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of liver antioxidant enzymes.

  8. In vitro study of lovastatin interactions with amiodarone and with carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, AZ; Mitcheva, MK; Kondeva-Burdina, MS; Descatoire, VA

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions at a metabolic level between lovastatin, amiodarone and carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes. METHODS: For cell isolation two-step collagenase liver perfusion was performed. Lovastatin was administered alone in increasing concentrations (1 μmol/L, 3 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L) and in combination with CCl4 (86 μmol/L). The cells were also pretreated with 14 μmol/L amiodarone and then the other two compounds were added. RESULTS: Lovastatin promoted concentration-dependent significant toxicity estimated by decrease in cell viability and GSH level by 45% and 84%, respectively. LDH-activity increased by 114% and TBARS content by 90%. CCl4 induced the expected severe damage on the examined parameters. CCl4 induced toxicity was attenuated after lovastatin pretreatment, which was expressed in less increased values of LDH activity and TBARS levels, as well as in less decreased cell viability and GSH concentrations. However, the pretreatment of hepatocytes with amiodarone abolished the protective effect of lovastatin. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the observed cytopro-tective effect was due to interactions between lovastatin, CCl4 and amiodarone at a metabolic level. PMID:17465501

  9. Iron-Sulfide-Associated Products Formed during Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ying; Butler, Elizabeth C

    2016-06-07

    This paper investigated the mackinawite (FeS)-associated products formed during reaction between FeS and carbon tetrachloride (CT) at pH 7 and 8. At pH 8, reaction of FeS with CT led to formation of abundant spherical particles with diameters between 50 and 400 nm on the FeS surface and in solution; far fewer such particles were observed at pH 7. Analysis of the FeS surface by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy after reaction with CT at pH 8 showed decreased sulfur and elevated oxygen compared to unreacted FeS. The spherical particles that formed upon FeS reaction with CT were mostly amorphous with localized areas of poorly crystalline two-line ferrihydrite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the predominant Fe surface species after reaction with CT at pH 8 was Fe(III)-O, consistent with ferrihydrite and other amorphous iron (hydr)oxides as major products. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis suggested formation of greigite upon reaction of FeS with CT at pH 7. Both ferrihydrite and Fe(2+), which is a product of greigite dissolution, can react with dissolved HS(-) to form FeS, suggesting that, after oxidation by chlorinated aliphatics, FeS can be regenerated by addition or microbial generation of sulfide.

  10. Antioxidant and protective effects of Phytocee(™) against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Radhakrishnan, Uma; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Phytocee(™)) in the rodent model. Four groups of rats (n = 6) were pretreated with Vitamin C (20 mg/kg) or Phytocee(™) (20, 100, and 200 mg/kg), respectively for 10 days. Oxidative stress in rat liver was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at 2 ml/kg as a single dose orally to all groups except the vehicle control group. After 24 h of administration of CCl4, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. Phytocee(™) administered groups at all the dose levels significantly reduced the hepatic MDA, serum ALT and AST levels with a marked increase in hepatic SOD and catalase as compared with CCl4 treated group. The findings suggest that Phytocee(™) markedly reversed the effects of CCl4 induced oxidative stress and can be used as an antioxidant feed supplement.

  11. Destruction of carbon tetrachloride in a dielectric barrier/packed-bed corona reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkyn, R. G.; Barlow, S. E.; Orlando, T. M.

    1996-11-01

    The destruction of low concentrations (<1000 ppm) of gas-phase carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) using a low-temperature, dielectric barrier/packed-bed corona reactor was studied. We compare, in particular, the destruction efficiencies using either borosilicate or zirconia oxide (ZrO2) packing materials in dry and moist air, and nitrogen buffer gases. Measurements of contaminant removal in the effluent gas were made at atmospheric pressure as a function of energy dissipated in the reactor. In dry N2, destruction of CCl4 was most efficient using ZrO2 beads, whereas, in dry air, contaminant removal was approximately equal for borosilicate glass and ZrO2. The presence of water in the gas stream reduced the CCl4 destruction efficiency under all conditions. This reduction was likely a synergistic effect that involves changes in the plasma density, scavenging of low energy secondary electrons, and possible surface passivation. Assuming the primary step in CCl4 destruction is dissociative electron attachment, an estimate of the average density of low energy electrons as a function of input energy was made. We relate the enhancement in CCl4 destruction using the ZrO2 beads in N2 to a slight increase in the number density of low energy secondary electrons. A discussion of the importance of energy density measurements and a useful phenomenological kinetic model consistent with the observed results are presented.

  12. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  13. Genetics of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. II. Multigenic regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Biesel, K. W.; Ehrinpreis, M. N.; Bhathal, P. S.; Mackay, I. R.; Rose, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    Mice from many different congenic inbred strains were given an intramuscular injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in olive oil to determine the genetic influences on induction of, and recovery from, liver damage. Liver and blood samples were taken at days 1, 4 and 7. The degree of necrosis and lymphoid infiltration appeared to be controlled, qualitatively and quantitatively, by both H-2-linked and Ah-linked genes. Strain differences were noted in the patterns of hepatocellular necrosis and the proportions of lymphoid, monocytic and other inflammatory cells which characterized the infiltrating population. Kinetic studies of F1 hybrids from matings between the susceptible BALB/cJ male parent and the resistant SJL/J female parent suggested that two dominant genetic influences play a major role in CCl4-induced liver damage. The gene contributed from the BALB/cJ parent affects the extent of liver necrosis and a second gene from SJL/J augments recovery. These results suggest, therefore, that the CCl4-induced liver damage and subsequent recovery are under multigenic control by H-2, Ah and possibly other genes. PMID:6696829

  14. Biochanin A protects against acute carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Breikaa, Randa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2013-01-01

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone found in red clover possessing multiple pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer ones. The present study aimed to assess its hepatoprotective potential at different doses in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. The effects on hepatic injury were explored by measuring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, the serum levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, total proteins, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were determined. The metabolic capacity of the liver was assessed by measuring changes in cytochrome P450 2E1 activity. The underlying mechanisms were substantiated by measuring oxidative stress markers as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, as well as inflammation markers such as nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leukocyte-common antigen. The results were confirmed by histopathological examination, and the median lethal dose was determined to confirm the safety of the drug. BCA successively protected against CCl4-induced damage, normalizing many parameters to that of the control group. The study indicates that BCA possesses multimechanistic hepatoprotective activity that can be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions.

  15. Alleviation of Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Betaine Supplementation in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Meng-Tsz; Chen, Ching-Yi; Pan, Yu-Hui; Wang, Siou-Huei; Mersmann, Harry J.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is a food component with well-reported hepatoprotection effects. However, the effects and mechanisms of betaine on liver fibrosis development are still insufficient. Because metabolic functions of chicken and human liver is similar, we established a chicken model with carbon Tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced fibrosis for studying antifibrotic effect of betaine in vivo and in vitro. Two-week-old male chicks were supplemented with betaine (1%, w/v) in drinking water for 2 weeks prior to the initiation of CCl4 treatment (i.p.) until sacrifice. Primary chicken hepatocytes were treated with CCl4 and betaine to mimic the in vivo supplementation. The supplementation of betaine significantly alleviated liver fibrosis development along with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, hepatic inflammation cytokine, and transforming growth factor-β1 expression levels. These inhibitive effects were also accompanied with the attenuation of hepatic stellate cell activation. Furthermore, our in vitro studies confirmed that betaine provides antioxidant capacity for attenuating the hepatocyte necrosis by CCl4. Altogether, our results highlight the antioxidant ability of betaine, which alleviates CCl4-induced fibrogenesis process along with the suppression of hepatic stellate cells activation. Since betaine is a natural compound without toxicity, we suggest betaine can be used as a potent nutritional or therapeutic factor for reducing liver fibrosis. PMID:26491462

  16. Xanthohumol prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carmen; Duque, Antonio L; Rodríguez-Galdón, Beatriz; Cestero, Juan J; Macías, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenyl flavonoid present in beer, prevents the acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Pre-treatment of rats with XN significantly reduced the increased liver weight observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats, normalised the increased values of plasma lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities and reduced the incidence of histopathological alterations produced by CCl4. The oxidative stress induced by CCl4 administration elicited a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione as well as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and H2O2 concentrations. Pre-treatment of rats with XN resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and a reduction in TBARS and H2O2 concentrations to their normal values. XN pre-treatment also prevented the significant reductions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities observed in CCl4-treated rats compared to control animals. Our results suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of XN is based on its antioxidant properties as well as it being an efficient inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and a protector against the degradation of antioxidant enzymes induced by CCl4 intoxication.

  17. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits apoptosis and fibrosis in carbon-tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo; Guo, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Jing; Ma, Yong-Chun; Feng, Zheng-Quan

    2015-05-07

    To investigate anti-apoptotic effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and its contributing factors. Liver fibrosis was induced by administration of CCl4 for 8 wk. Pathological changes in the liver of rats were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Collagen fibers were detected by Sirius red staining. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay and the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, α-SMA, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis, and α-SMA mRNA, collagen type I and III mRNA were estimated by real-time PCR. Treatment with GA significantly improved the pathological changes in the liver and markedly decreased the positive area of Sirius red compared with rats in the CCl4-treated group. TUNEL assay showed that GA significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared with the CCl4-treated group. The expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, α-SMA, CTGF, MMP2 and MMP9 proteins, and α-SMA mRNA, collagen type I and III mRNA were also significantly reduced by GA compared with the CCl4-treated group (P < 0.05). GA treatment can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic stellate cell activation.

  18. Hepatoprotective effects of zingerone on carbon tetrachloride- and dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kyoung Ook; Shin, Dong-Su; Bak, Jeonghyeon; Lee, Changyong; Kim, Kyung Wook; Je, Nam Kyung; Chung, Hae Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects of zingerone, one of the active components of ginger, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injuries in rats, respectively. Oral administration of zingerone (10 mg/kg) reduced CCl4-induced abnormalities in liver histology, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and liver malondialdehyde levels. Zingerone treatment attenuated CCl4-induced increases in inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels. Western blot analysis showed that zingerone suppressed activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Liver fibrosis induced by DMN (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was ameliorated by administration of zingerone (10 and 20 mg/kg, orally). Zingerone treatment reduced DMN-induced elevation of hydroxyproline content and hepatic stellate cell activation. In conclusion, zingerone showed antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in CCl4-intoxicated rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB activation via blockade of the activation of upstream MAPKs. Moreover, zingerone had hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of liver inflammation and the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  19. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits apoptosis and fibrosis in carbon-tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bo; Guo, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Jing; Ma, Yong-Chun; Feng, Zheng-Quan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate anti-apoptotic effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and its contributing factors. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced by administration of CCl4 for 8 wk. Pathological changes in the liver of rats were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Collagen fibers were detected by Sirius red staining. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay and the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, α-SMA, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis, and α-SMA mRNA, collagen type I and III mRNA were estimated by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with GA significantly improved the pathological changes in the liver and markedly decreased the positive area of Sirius red compared with rats in the CCl4-treated group. TUNEL assay showed that GA significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared with the CCl4-treated group. The expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax, α-SMA, CTGF, MMP2 and MMP9 proteins, and α-SMA mRNA, collagen type I and III mRNA were also significantly reduced by GA compared with the CCl4-treated group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GA treatment can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic stellate cell activation. PMID:25954100

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  1. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity. Sesamin significantly reduced the elevated serum liver marker enzymes (P<0.0001). Reduction of TBARS (P<0.01 and P<0.001) followed by enhancement of GSH., SOD and catalase (P<0.0001) in liver homogenate in sesamin treated groups shows the amelioration of oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Histopathological report also supported the hepatoprotection offered by sesamin. Sesamin effects in both the dose were in comparable to reference standard drug silymarin. From these above findings it has been concluded that sesamin ameliorate the oxidative liver injury in terms of reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of liver antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26191289

  2. Degradation of aqueous carbon tetrachloride by nanoscale zerovalent copper on a cation resin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Liou, Ya Hsuan

    2005-06-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent copper supported on a cation resin was successfully synthesized to enhance the removal of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) from contaminated water. The use of the cation resin as a support prevents the reduction of surface area due to agglomeration of nanoscale zerovalent copper particles. Moreover, the cation resin recycles the copper ions resulting from the reaction between CCl(4) and Cu(0) by simultaneous ion exchange. The decline in the amount of CCl(4) in aqueous solution results from the combined effects of degradation by nanoscale zerovalent copper and sorption by the cation resin; thus the amount of CCl(4) both in aqueous solution and sorbed onto the resin were measured. The pseudo-first-order rate constant normalized by the surface-area and the mass concentration of nanoscale zerovalent copper (k(SA)) was 2.1+/-0.1 x 10(-2)lh(-1)m(-2), approximately twenty times that of commercial powdered zerovalent copper (0.04 mm). Due to the exchange between Cu(2+) and the strongly acidic ions (H(+) or Na(+)), the pH was between 3 and 4 in unbuffered solution and Cu(2+) at the concentration of less than 0.1 mg l(-1) was measured after the dechlorination reaction. In the above-ground application, resin as a support would facilitate the development of a process that could be designed for convenient emplacement and regeneration of porous reductive medium.

  3. Histoprotective effect of vitamin D against carbon tetrachloride nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Elmubarak, Smeo; Özsoy, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of vitamin D against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups ((A) control; (B) 10-week exposure to CCl4; (C) 10-week exposure to CCl4 + vitamin D treatment; and (D) 10-week exposure to CCl4 + 12 weeks of vitamin D treatment). The CCl4 dose (1.5 ml kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously twice a week, while the 0.5 mg kg(-1) dose of vitamin D was administered intraperitoneally every day, as appropriate for each group. Whole animal and kidney weights as well as serum urea, creatinine, and glucose levels were measured. Kidney tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff. Tubular and glomerular degeneration were detected in the kidney tissues of CCl4-treated rats, together with dilatation and vacuolization within the tubules and hemorrhage in the intertubular region. In the kidney glomeruli; congestion, atrophy, and adhesion to parietal layer were observed. Tissue disorganization and aggregation of Bowman's capsules were noted. Mononuclear cell infiltration was observed between the glomeruli and the tubules. In contrast, the kidney sections and functional parameters of vitamin D-treated rats were similar to the controls, suggesting that vitamin D treatment is able to reduce renal damage.

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Amit Kumar; Agarwal, Abhinav; Kashaw, Varsha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of stems of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. and Arn. in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The toxicant CCl4 was used to induce hepatotoxicity at a dose of 1.25 ml/kg as 1 : 1 mixture with olive oil. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of L. reticulata stems were administered in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of these extracts was evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum protein, and histopathological studies of the liver. Results: Treatment of animals with ethanolic and aqueous extracts significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver as indicated by lower levels of serum bilirubin and protein as compared with the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histology of the liver sections confirmed that the extracts prevented hepatic damage induced by CCl4 showing the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis, and fatty infiltration. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl4-indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract. PMID:21713086

  5. Protein deficiency and muscle damage in carbon tetrachloride induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    López-Lirola, A; González-Reimers, E; Martín Olivera, R; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Galindo-Martín, L; Abreu-González, P; González-Hernández, T; Valladares-Parrilla, F

    2003-12-01

    Protein undernutrition, alterations of hormones such as IGF-1, testosterone and cortisol, and increased lipid peroxidation-which may be related with deranged metabolism of some elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se) or copper (Cu)-may contribute to muscle damage in non alcoholic cirrhosis. Here, we analyse the effect of protein deficiency on muscle Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se in carbon-tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver cirrhosis. We also study the association between protein undernutrition and these trace elements with the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation products, and how all these are related with muscle morphological changes in 40 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) to 10 rats fed a 2% protein diet, and to another 10 fed a 18% protein control diet. Two further groups included rats without cirrhosis fed the 2% protein and the 18% protein diets. After sacrifice (6 weeks later), we found type IIa fibre atrophy in the cirrhotic animals, especially in the low-protein fed ones and this was due to protein deficiency. Muscle Fe increased in low protein fed cirrhotic rats. No relationship was found between muscle changes and any of the hormones, enzymes and trace elements analysed, or with liver fibrosis. These results suggest that muscle atrophy observed in CCl(4)-induced cirrhosis is related with protein deficiency, but not with cirrhosis itself.

  6. Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinhui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Yanping; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang; Qian, Zhong Ming

    2006-03-01

    The protective effects of chloroform extracts of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCCE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. We found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by CCl4 were significantly inhibited by oral pretreatment with 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg of TCCE. Morphological observation further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE. In addition, the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (14.8%), intramitochondrial Ca2+ overload (2.1-fold) and suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase activity (42.0%) in the liver of CCl4-insulted mice were effectively prevented by pretreatment with TCCE. It can be concluded that TCCE have protective activities against liver mitochondrial damage induced by CCl4, which suggests a new mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of TCCE.

  7. Induction of lipid peroxidation by hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, TCDD, carbon tetrachloride, and hexachlorobenzene in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, M.R.; Shara, M.A.; Stohs, S.J.

    1988-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) and dieldrin are all halogenated lipophilic environmental contaminants. A common biologic property of these compounds is their ability to induce hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, exposure of laboratory animals to these xenobiotics elicits a number of similar effects including porphyria, hypothyroidism, a wasting syndrome and lethality. Perturbation of membrane lipids and lipid peroxidation may be responsible for at least part of the toxic effects of HCCH. TCDD has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Based on the similar toxic manifestations of HCB, HCCH, TCDD and dieldrin, the authors have examined the effects of these xenobiotics on hepatic lipid peroxidation following an acutely toxic dose. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by determining the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the liver, employing malondialdehyde as the standard. Animals were also treated with carbon tetrachloride, a well know inducer of lipid peroxidation, as a positive control. Furthermore, the ability of these xenobiotics to inhibit selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX) activity was determined.

  8. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y. Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-03-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  9. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-03-28

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  10. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  11. Improved risk estimates for carbon tetrachloride. Project status report and technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Springer, D.L.; Thrall, K.D.

    1997-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively within the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities. High levels of CCl{sub 4} at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The overall purpose of these studies is to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl{sub 4}. Specifically, the authors will determine the toxicokinetics of inhaled and ingested CCl{sub 4} in F344/Crl rats. B6C3F{sub 1} mice, and Syrian hamsters. They will also evaluate species differences in the metabolism of CCl{sub 4} by rats, mice, hamsters, and man. Dose-response relationships will be determined in all these studies. This information will be used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl{sub 4} originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). The authors will also provide scientific evidence that CCl{sub 4}, like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing, and regenerative cell proliferation.

  12. Application of microwave air plasma in the destruction of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Rubio, S J; Quintero, M C; Rodero, A

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the destruction rate of a volatile waste destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Atmospheric air was used to maintain the plasma and was introduced by a compressor, which resulted in lower operating costs compared to other gases such as argon and helium. To isolate the output gases and control the plasma discharge atmosphere, the plasma was coupled to a reactor. The effect of the gas flow rate, microwave power and initial concentration of compound on the destruction efficiency of the system was evaluated. In this study, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were used as representative volatile organic compounds to determine the destruction rate of the system. Based on the experimental results, at an applied microwave power less than 1000 W, the proposed system can reduce input concentrations in the ppmv range to output concentrations at the ppbv level. High air flow rates and initial concentrations produced energy efficiency values greater than 1000 g/kW h. The output gases and species present in the plasma were analysed by gas chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively, and negligible amounts of halogenated compounds resulting from the cleavage of C(2)HCl(3) and CCl(4) were observed. The gaseous byproducts of decomposition consisted mainly of CO(2), NO and N(2)O, as well as trace amounts of Cl(2) and solid CuCl. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon tetrachloride degradation: Effect of microbial growth substrate and vitamin B{sub 12} content

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, S.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.

    2000-05-01

    Microbial degradation kinetics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) under reducing conditions were investigated for different cultures, fed with 1,2-propanediol, dextrose, propionalde-hyde, or acetate and nitrate, in the anaerobic step of an anaerobic/aerobic operation sequence. Methanogenesis was inhibited due to the aerobic step. CT biodegradation rates followed first-order kinetics with respect to CT concentration and biomass and were not affected by the presence of growth substrate. CT degradation rates increased linearly with higher intracellular vitamin B{sub 12} content. The culture fed 1,2-propanediol had the highest vitamin B{sub 12} content, which was 3.8, 4.7, and 16 times that of the propionaldehyde-,dextrose-, and acetate-fed cultures, respectively, and its first-order degradation rate constant was 2.8, 4.5, 6.0 times that for those cultures, respectively. No CT degradation occurred with culture liquid, suggesting that intracellular factors were responsible for CT degradation. The propanediol culture was able to sustain a constant CT degradation rate for a 16-day test period without substrate addition. Compared to a propanediol-fed culture grown only under anaerobic conditions, the propanediol culture grown under the sequential anaerobic/aerobic condition resulted in more biomass growth and a greater CT degradation rate per unit of propanediol fed, although its CT degradation rate per unit of biomass was lower.

  14. Enhanced biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride by Acetobacterium woodii upon addition of hydroxocobalamin and fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hashsham, S.A.; Freedman, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) on transformation of high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Acetobacterium woodii. Complete transformation of 470 {micro}M CT was achieved by A. woodii within 2.5 days, when 10 {micro}M OH-Cbl was added along with 25.2 mM fructose. This was approximately 30 times faster than A. woodii cultures and medium that did not receive OH-Cbl and 5 times faster than those controls that did receive OH-Cbl, but either live A. woodii or fructose was missing. CT transformation in treatments with only OH-Cbl was indicative of the important contribution of nonenzymatic reactions. Besides increasing the rate of CT transformation, addition of fructose and OH-Cbl to live cultures increased the percentage of [{sup 14}C]CT transformed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C-labeled soluble materials, while decreasing the percentage of CT reduced to chloroform and abiotically transformed to carbon disulfide. {sup 14}CS{sub 2} represented more than 35% of the [{sup 14}C]CT in the presence of reduced medium and OH-Cbl. Conversion of CT to CO was a predominant pathway in formation of CO{sub 2} in the presence of live cells and added fructose and OH-Cbl. These results indicate that the rate and distribution of products during cometabolic transformation of CT by A. woodii can be improved by the addition of fructose and OH-Cbl.

  15. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2006-10-31

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.

  16. A Historical Perspective on Primary and Possible Secondary Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric sources of Carbon Tetrachloride (CTC) have been controversial since its detection in the early 1970. Initial proposals were that it is globally uniformly distributed and its lack of current emissions and inferred lifetime indicated that it was likely of natural origin. Historical analysis of CTC use and emissions showed that atmospheric CTC was long-lived and mainly of man-made origin although small natural sources and sinks (e. g. oceans) could not be ruled out. This deduction was hard because a majority of emissions had occurred in early part of the 20th century when CTC was commonly used as a fumigant, a solvent, and a raw material for the manufacture of many chemicals. In the 1940's adverse health effects of exposure to CTC became evident and its emissions were greatly curtailed and substituted with C2Cl4 which was thought to be much safer. There were smog chamber studies that showed that C2Cl4, a widely used solvent during the late 20th century, could produce CTC with up to a 7% yield. Subsequently it was discovered that this chemistry probably required Cl atoms and since Cl atoms were not abundant in the atmosphere actual yields based on OH oxidation were probably closer to 0.1%. CTC was subsequently banned by the Montreal Protocol to prevent stratospheric ozone depletion and its preferred substitute C2Cl4 was also banned by EPA for reasons of potential carcinogenicity and toxicity. CTC since has been measured in many airborne NASA campaigns in which plumes have been sampled from a variety of regions which may still be emitting CTC. I will briefly discuss this historical perspective of CTC and show some recent data that may shed light on its current sources or lack there off.

  17. Fasting ameliorates metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Km; Saleh, Ea

    2014-12-01

    Fasting has been recently discovered to improve overall health, but its beneficial effects in the presence of hepatic insufficiency have not been proven. The influence of fasting on the metabolism, immunological aspects, and oxidative stress of 40 male carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated Wistar rats was investigated in the present study. The rats were divided into four groups, including a placebo group, CCl4-intoxicated rats, which were injected subcutaneously with 1.0 ml/kg of CCl4 solution, a fasting group, which was fasted 12 h/day for 30 days, and a fourth group, which was injected with CCl4 and fasted. The metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress improved in CCl4-intoxicated rats fasted for 12 h/day for 30 days, as evidenced in significant increase (p < 0.05) in total protein, globulin, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels, and total antioxidant capacity. In contrast, significant decrease (p < 0.05) in blood glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde levels were observed. Compared with CCl4-intoxicated rats, significant differences in the albumin, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, cardiovascular risk factor, calcium and magnesium levels were not detected. The results of the present study showed that fasting improved metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Thus, fasting during Ramadan is safe for patients with hepatic disorders, as the prophet Mohammed (S) said "Keep the fast, keep your health". © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. MIPAS IMK/IAA carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) retrieval and first comparison with other instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Ellen; von Clarmann, Thomas; Laeng, Alexandra; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Funke, Bernd; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Kellmann, Sylvia; Kiefer, Michael; Linden, Andrea; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Wetzel, Gerald; Boone, Christopher; Engel, Andreas; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-07-01

    MIPAS thermal limb emission measurements were used to derive vertically resolved profiles of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Level-1b data versions MIPAS/5.02 to MIPAS/5.06 were converted into volume mixing ratio profiles using the level-2 processor developed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA). Consideration of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) as an interfering species, which is jointly retrieved, and CO2 line mixing is crucial for reliable retrievals. Parts of the CO2 Q-branch region that overlap with the CCl4 signature were omitted, since large residuals were still found even though line mixing was considered in the forward model. However, the omitted spectral region could be narrowed noticeably when line mixing was accounted for. A new CCl4 spectroscopic data set leads to slightly smaller CCl4 volume mixing ratios. In general, latitude-altitude cross sections show the expected CCl4 features with highest values of around 90 pptv at altitudes at and below the tropical tropopause and values decreasing with altitude and latitude due to stratospheric decomposition. Other patterns, such as subsidence in the polar vortex during winter and early spring, are also visible in the distributions. The decline in CCl4 abundance during the MIPAS Envisat measurement period (July 2002 to April 2012) is clearly reflected in the altitude-latitude cross section of trends estimated from the entire retrieved data set.

  19. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of sulfide, biotite, and vermiculite

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegman-King, M.R.; Reinhard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is transformed in aqueous solutions containing dissolved hydrogen sulfide more rapidly in the presence of the minerals biotite and vermiculite than in homogeneous systems. Approximately 80-85% of the CCl4 was transformed to CO2 via the measured intermediate, CS2. Chloroform comprised 5-15% of the products. The remaining 5% of the products were an unidentified non-volatile compound and CO. At 25C, the half-life of CCl4 with 1 mM HS was calculated to be 2600, 160, and 50 days for the homogeneous, vermiculite (114 sq m/L), and biotite (55.8 sq m/L) systems, respectively. The CCl4 transformation rate was found to be dependent on the type and quantity of the solid and the temperature, but was independent of pH and HS(-) concentration above a critical HS(-) concentration. The activation energies (+ or - 95% confidence intervals) were determined to be 122 + or - 32, 91.3 + or - 8.4, and 59.9 + or - 13.3 kJ/mol for the homogeneous, vermiculite, and biotite systems, respectively. The CCl4 transformation rate exhibited first-order behavior with respect to biotite surface area concentration SC(sub biotite) below 55.8 sq m/L. The rate of CCl4 transformation was independent of HS(-) concentration when (HS(-)) = 0.5-4 mM and SC(sub biotite) = 55.8 sq m/L. Below (HS(-)) = 0.5-4 mM, the rate law was dependent on HS(-) concentration.

  20. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates carbon tetrachloride-caused liver injury and fibrogenesis and reduces hepatic angiogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shifeng; Zhang, Zili; Qian, Linnan; Lin, Qiuyi; Zhang, Chenxi; Shao, Jiangjuan; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-02-01

    Liver fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with abnormalities of angiogenesis in the liver. Capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) is the pivotal event during liver angiogenesis. In the current study, we sought to investigate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats, and to further examine the molecular mechanisms of TMP-induced anti-angiogenic effect. We found that TMP significantly ameliorated histopathological feature of liver fibrosis characterized by decreased collagen deposition, hepatocyte apoptosis, and expression of biochemical indicators, such as aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, TMP appeared to play an essential role in controlling pathological angiogenesis. In addition, TMP attenuated angiogenesis by downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR), four important factors transmitting pro-angiogenic pathways. Besides, TMP inhibited LSEC capillarization in CCl4-induced liver fibrotic model with the morphological features of increasing sinusoidal fenestrae. Importantly, we found that disruption of angiogenesis is required for TMP to inhibit hepatocyte apoptosis in rats. Treatment with TMP significantly inhibited the expression of Bax, and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression. Interestingly, treatment with angiogenesis-inducer AngII dramatically eliminated the effect of TMP on Bax/Bcl-2 axis. Overall, these results provide novel perspectives to reveal the protective effect of TMP on liver, opening up the possibility of using TMP based anti-angiogenic drugs for the liver diseases.

  1. Rapid removal of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene in water by aluminum-iron alloy particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Pu, Yuan; Yang, Xiao Jin; Wan, Pingyu; Wang, Rong; Song, Peng; Fisher, Adrian

    2017-09-05

    Water contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the major public health concerns. In this study, we explored the use of aluminum-iron alloys particles in millimeter scale for rapid removal of CHCl3, CCl4 and TCE from water. Three types of Al-Fe alloy particles containing 10, 20 and 58 wt% of Fe (termed as Al-Fe10, Al-Fe20 and Al-Fe58) were prepared and characterized by electrochemical polarization, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer. For concentrations of 30-180 μg/L CHCl3, CCl4 and TCE, a removal efficiency of 45-64% was achieved in a hydraulic contact time of less than 3 min through a column packed with 0.8-2 mm diameter of Al-Fe alloy particles. The concentration of Al and Fe ions released into water was less than 0.15 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Alloying Al with Fe enhances reactivity towards chlorinated hydrocarbons' degradation and the enhancement is likely the consequence of galvanic effects between different phases (Al, Fe and intermetallic Al-Fe compounds such as Al13Fe4, Fe3Al and FeAl2) and catalytic role of these intermetallic Al-Fe compounds. The results demonstrate that the use of Al-Fe alloy particles offers a viable and green option for chlorinated hydrocarbons' removal in water treatment.

  2. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat is reversed by treatment with riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2014-08-01

    Liver is a vital organ for the detoxification of toxic substances present in the body and hepatic injury is associated with excessive exposure to toxicants. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effects of riboflavin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injury in rats. Rats were divided into six groups. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl4 in experimental rats. Riboflavin was administered at 30 and 100mg/kg by oral gavage to test its protective effect on hepatic injury biochemically and histopathologically in the blood/liver and liver respectively. The administration of CCl4 resulted in marked alteration in serum hepatic enzymes (like AST, ALT and ALP), oxidant parameters (like GSH and MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α release from blood leukocytes indicative of hepatic injury. Changes in serum hepatic enzymes, oxidant parameters and TNF-α production induced by CCl4 were reversed by riboflavin treatment in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with standard drug, silymarin also reversed CCl4 induced changes in biomarkers of liver function, oxidant parameters and inflammation. The biochemical observations were paralleled by histopathological findings in rat liver both in the case of CCl4 and treatment groups. In conclusion, riboflavin produced a protective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage. Our study suggests that riboflavin may be used as a hepato-protective agent against toxic effects caused by CCl4 and other chemical agents in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Beneficial Effect of Cape Gooseberry Juice on Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Omer, Sawsan A; Shata, Mohamed T M; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family. Physalis has many medicinal properties however, the beneficial effect of physalis in protecting against neurotoxins has not yet been evaluated. This experimental study investigated the protective effect of physalis juice against the oxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the rat brain. The degrees of protection by physalis in brain tissues were evaluated by determining the brain levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), after CCl4) induction in the presence or absence of physalis. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, Group I served as the control group, Group II was intraperitoneally treated with 2 ml CCl4)/kg bwt for 12 weeks, Group III was supplemented with physalis juice via the drinking water for 12 weeks, Group IV was supplemented with physalis juice and was intraperitoneally injected weekly with CCl4). Treatment with CCl4) was significantly associated with a disturbance in the oxidative status in the brain tissues; this was marked by a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels with a concomitant reduction in glutathione content compared to the control, along with a remarkable reduction in antioxidant enzymes. The administration of physalis along with CCl4) juice significantly (p<0.05) alleviated the changes in enzymatic antioxidant activity when compared to the CCl4) treated group. Furthermore, physalis juice supplemention inhibited apoptosis, as indicated by the increase of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in brain tissue. Our results suggest that physalis juice could be effective in preventing neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effect of physalis might be mediated via antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activities.

  4. Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor Peptide Protects Murine Hepatocytes from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fibrogenesis is induced by repeated injury to the liver and reactive regeneration and leads eventually to liver cirrhosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to prevent liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). A 44 amino acid domain of PEDF (44-mer) was found to have a protective effect against various insults to several cell types. In this study, we investigated the capability of synthetic 44-mer to protect against liver injury in mice and in primary cultured hepatocytes. Acute liver injury, induced by CCl4, was evident from histological changes, such as cell necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis, and a concomitant reduction of glutathione (GSH) and GSH redox enzyme activities in the liver. Intraperitoneal injection of the 44-mer into CCl4-treated mice abolished the induction of AST and ALT and markedly reduced histological signs of liver injury. The 44-mer treatment can reduce hepatic oxidative stress as evident from lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide, and higher levels of GSH. CCl4 caused a reduction of Bcl-xL, PEDF and PPARγ, which was markedly restored by the 44-mer treatment. Consequently, the 44-mer suppressed liver fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 injury. Furthermore, our observations in primary culture of rat hepatocytes showed that PEDF and the 44-mer protected primary rat hepatocytes against apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and TGF-β1. PEDF/44-mer induced cell protective STAT3 phosphorylation. Pharmacological STAT3 inhibition prevented the antiapoptotic action of PEDF/44-mer. Among several PEDF receptor candidates that may be responsible for hepatocyte protection, we demonstrated that PNPLA2 was essential for PEDF/44-mer-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and antiapoptotic activity by using siRNA to selectively knockdown PNPLA2. In conclusion, the PEDF 44-mer protects hepatocytes from single and repeated CCl4 injury. This protective effect may stem from strengthening the counter oxidative stress capacity and

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress. PMID:27222831

  6. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Chun; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Shih-Yu; Young, Ton-Ho; Salter, Donald M.; Lee, Herng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is widely used as an animal model of hepatotoxicity and the mechanisms have been arduously studied, however, the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity remains controversial. It is also known that either CCl4 or SNS can affect systemic inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a mouse model of CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammatory response. Mice exposed to CCl4 or vehicle were pretreated with 6-OHDA or saline. The serum levels of aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in the CCl4-poisoning mice with sympathetic denervation were significantly lower than those without sympathetic denervation. With sympathetic denervation, hepatocellular necrosis and fat infiltration induced by CCl4 were greatly decreased. Sympathetic denervation significantly attenuated CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and serum. Acute CCl4 intoxication showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [eotaxin-2/CCL24, Fas ligand, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], as well as decreased expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The overexpressed levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40p70, MCP-1/CCL2, and TNF-α were attenuated by sympathetic denervation. Pretreatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the SNS plays an important role in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and systemic inflammation and the effect may be connected with chemical- or drug-induced hepatotoxicity and circulating immune response. PMID:25799095

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  8. Protective effects of coumarin and coumarin derivatives against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Murat Bilgin, Hakkı; Atmaca, Mukadder; Deniz Obay, Basra; Ozekinci, Selver; Taşdemir, Ezel; Ketani, Aydın

    2011-05-01

    The comparison of the antioxidant activity of some coumarins with their molecular structure is well determined. However, the protective function of coumarins with various chemical structures against liver toxicity has not yet been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cytoprotective properties of coumarin and some coumarin derivatives against CCl(4) (carbon tetrachloride)-induced hepatotoxicity. Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) and coumarin derivatives esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) and 4-methylumbelliferone (7-hyroxy-4-methyl) were examined for their protective effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley rats. A single toxic dose of CCl(4) (1.25 ml kg(-1), orally) produced liver damage in rats, seen histologically as centrilobular necrosis. Administration of CCl(4) increased serum enzyme levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Pre-treatment of rats with esculetin (31.15 mg kg(-1), orally) and scoparone (35 mg kg(-1), orally) significantly prevented CCl(4)-induced increase in serum enzymes, whereas 4-methylumbelliferone (35 mg kg(-1)) and coumarin (30 mg kg(-1)) had no effect against CCl(4)-induced rise in serum enzymes. Morphological findings were consistent with the plasma transaminase observations. Among the coumarin analogs, esculetin, which possesses orthodihydroxy coumarins, showed the strongest protective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver damage, followed by scoparone, 4-methylumbelliferone and coumarin, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the chemical structures of coumarins play an important role in the prevention of liver toxicity.

  9. Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Özlem; Yuluğ, Esin; Öztürk, Ferhat; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolaylı, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07 mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71 mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9 mg β-carotene/100 g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

  10. Ligand-assisted degradation of carbon tetrachloride by microscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianlan; Deng, Baolin; Guo, Jing; Wang, Yang; Lan, Yeqing

    2011-04-01

    Degradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by microscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) was investigated in batch systems with or without organic ligands (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid) at pHs from 3.5 to 7.5. The results demonstrated that at 25°C, the dechlorination of CT by microscale ZVI is slow in the absence of organic ligands, with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.0217 h(-1) at pH 3.5 and being further dropped to 0.0052 h(-1) at pH 7.5. However, addition of organic ligands significantly enhanced the rates and the extents of CT removal, as indicated by the rate constant increases of 39, 31, 32, 28 and 18 times in the presence of EDTA, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid, respectively, at pH 3.5 and 25°C. The effect of EDTA was most significant; the dechlorination of CT at an initial concentration of 20 mg l(-1) increased from 16.3% (no ligands) to 89.1% (with EDTA) at the end of 8h reaction. The enhanced CT degradation in the presence of organic ligands was primarily attributed to the elimination of a surface passivation layer of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides on the microscale ZVI through chelating of organic ligands with Fe(III), which maintained the exposure of active sites on ZVI surface to CT. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Stachys pilifera ethanol extract in carbon tetrachloride-induce hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Panahi Kokhdan, Esmaeel; Ahmadi, Kyomarth; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Dadgary, Fahemeh; Danaei, Nazanin; Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza

    2017-12-01

    Stachys pilifera Benth (Lamiaceae) has long been used to treat infectious diseases, respiratory and rheumatoid disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Antitumor and antioxidant activity of the plant have been reported. The study was designed to assess the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Stachys pilifera in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The rats were randomly divided into six equal groups (n = 7). Group I was treated with normal saline; Group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg. i.p., twice a week) for 60 consecutive days; Groups III, IV and V were given CCl4 plus Stachys pilifera (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/d,p.o.); Group VI received the extract (400 mg/kg/d, p.o.). Histopathological analysis and measurement of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) were performed. CCl4 caused a significant increase in the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and MDA as well as decreased ALB, and TP serum levels (p < 0.001). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) significantly normalized the CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p < 0.001). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) also increased the serum levels of TP compared to CCl4 group (p< 0.01). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/d) also decreased the histological injuries (inflammation and fatty degeneration) by CCl4. The results revealed that the Stachys pilifera extract could provide considerable protection against CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats that may be related to its antioxidant properties.

  12. Mechanisms of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride toxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, R.J.; Klaunig, J.E.; Schultz, N.E.; Askari, A.B.; Lacher, D.A.; Pereira, M.A.; Goldblatt, P.J.

    1986-11-01

    Mechanisms of chloroform (CHCl/sub 3/) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) toxicity to primary cultured male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were investigated. The cytotoxicity of both CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ was dose- and duration-dependent. Maximal hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the culture medium, occurred with the highest concentrations of CHCl/sub 3/ (5 mM) and CCl/sub 4/ (2.5 mM) used and with the longest duration of treatment (20 hr). CCl/sub 4/ was approximately 16 times more toxic than CHCl/sub 3/ to the hepatocytes. The toxicity of these compounds was decreased by adding the mixed function oxidase system (MFOS) inhibitor, SKF-525A (25..mu..M) to the cultures. The addition of diethyl maleate (0.25 mM), which depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH)-potentiated CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ toxicity. The toxicity of CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ could also be decreased by adding the antioxidants N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) (25..mu..M), ..cap alpha..-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) (0.1 mM), or superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/mL) to the cultures. These results suggest that: in mouse hepatocytes, both CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/ are metabolized to toxic components by the MFOS; GSH plays a role in detoxifying those metabolites; free radicals are produced during the metabolism of CHCl/sub 3/ and CCl/sub 4/; and free radicals may be important mediators of the toxicity of these two halomethanes.

  13. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of licochalcone B on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Haifeng; Chen, Meng; Zou, Ansheng; Jiang, Haili; Han, Jichun; Sun, Long; Feng, Chao; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of licochalcone B (LCB) in a mice model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in mice by a single subcutaneous injection (SC) of CCl4. The LCB was administered orally once a day for seven days (PO) as pretreatment at three doses of 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed by ELISA. The protein expression degrees of p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38) and nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NF-κB) were assayed by western blotting. Results: CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by an increase in the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6, CRP, and TNF-ɑ, and a decrease in the SOD level and GSH/GSSG ratio in the serum. The histopathological examination of the liver sections revealed necrosis and inflammatory reactions. Pretreatment with LCB decreased the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, GSSG, IL-6, CRP, TNF-ɑ, and the protein expression of p38 and NF-κB, increased the level of SOD and GSH, and normalized the hepatic histo-architecture. Conclusion: LCB protected the liver from CCl4-induced injury. Protection may be due to inhibition of p38 and NFκB signaling, which subsequently reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:27746874

  15. Propolis protects CYP 2E1 enzymatic activity and oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2007-08-01

    Induction of CYP 2E1 by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is one of the central pathways by which CCl(4) generates oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Experimental liver injury was induced in rats by CCl(4) to determine toxicological actions on CYP 2E1 by microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. In this report, ethanolic extract of propolis at a dose of 200 mg/kg (po) was used after 24 h of toxicant administration to validate its protective potential. Intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) (1.5 ml/kg) induced hepatotoxicity after 24 h of its administration that was associated with elevated malonyldialdehyde (index of lipid peroxidation), lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes of CYP 2E1 showed sharp depletion as assessed by estimating aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine N-demethylase activity after CCl(4) exposure. Toxic effect of CCl(4) was evident on CYP 2E1 activity by increased hexobarbitone induced sleep time and bromosulphalein retention. Propolis extract showed significant improvement in the activity of both enzymes and suppressed toxicant induced increase in sleep time and bromosulphalein retention. Choleretic activity of liver did not show any sign of toxicity after propolis treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg (id). Histopathological evaluation of the liver revealed that propolis reduced the incidence of liver lesions including hepatocyte swelling and lymphocytic infiltrations induced by CCl(4). Electron microscopic observations also showed improvement in ultrastructure of liver and substantiated recovery in biochemical parameters. Protective activity of propolis at 200 mg/kg dose was statistically compared with positive control silymarin (50 mg/kg, po), a known hepatoprotective drug seems to be better in preventing hepatic CYP 2E1 activity deviated by CCl(4). These results lead us to speculate that propolis may play hepatoprotective role via improved CYP 2E1 activity and

  16. A comprehensive estimate for loss of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James H.; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Lobert, Jurgen M.; King, Daniel B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Bullister, John L.; Koropalov, Valentin; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Hu, Lei; Liu, Yina

    2016-09-01

    Extensive undersaturations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in Pacific, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean surface waters indicate that atmospheric CCl4 is consumed in large amounts by the ocean. Observations made on 16 research cruises between 1987 and 2010, ranging in latitude from 60° N to 77° S, show that negative saturations extend over most of the surface ocean. Corrected for physical effects associated with radiative heat flux, mixing, and air injection, these anomalies were commonly on the order of -5 to -10 %, with no clear relationship to temperature, productivity, or other gross surface water characteristics other than being more negative in association with upwelling. The atmospheric flux required to sustain these undersaturations is 12.4 (9.4-15.4) Gg yr-1, a loss rate implying a partial atmospheric lifetime with respect to the oceanic loss of 183 (147-241) yr and that ˜ 18 (14-22) % of atmospheric CCl4 is lost to the ocean. Although CCl4 hydrolyzes in seawater, published hydrolysis rates for this gas are too slow to support such large undersaturations, given our current understanding of air-sea gas exchange rates. The even larger undersaturations in intermediate depth waters associated with reduced oxygen levels, observed in this study and by other investigators, strongly suggest that CCl4 is ubiquitously consumed at mid-depth, presumably by microbiota. Although this subsurface sink creates a gradient that drives a downward flux of CCl4, the gradient alone is not sufficient to explain the observed surface undersaturations. Since known chemical losses are likewise insufficient to sustain the observed undersaturations, this suggests a possible biological sink for CCl4 in surface or near-surface waters of the ocean. The total atmospheric lifetime for CCl4, based on these results and the most recent studies of soil uptake and loss in the stratosphere is now 32 (26-43) yr.

  17. Protective effects of diallyl disulfide on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity through activation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Yun-Bae; Yun, Won-Kee; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxicity and to determine the molecular mechanisms of protection offered by DADS in rats. DADS was administered orally at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day once daily for 5 consecutive days prior to CCl4 administration. The single oral dose of CCl4 (2 mL/kg) caused a significant elevation in serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities, which decreased upon pretreatment with DADS. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injury, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, fatty changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and congestion, which were reversed following pretreatment with DADS. The effects of DADS on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major isozyme involved in CCl4 bioactivation, were also investigated. DADS pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in CYP2E1 protein levels in dose-dependent manner. In addition, CCl4 caused a decrease in protein level of cytoplasmic nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and suppression of nuclear translocation of Nrf2 concurrent with downregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities. In contrast, DADS prevented the depletion of cytoplasmic Nrf2 and enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which, in turn, upregulated antioxidant and/or phase II enzymes. These results indicate that the protective effects of DADS against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity possibly involve mechanisms related to its ability to induce antioxidant or detoxifying enzymes by activating Nrf2 and block metabolic activation of CCl4 by suppressing CYP2E1. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hepatoprotective potential of chestnut bee pollen on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damages in rats.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Ozlem; Yuluğ, Esin; Oztürk, Ferhat; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolaylı, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07 mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71 mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9 mg β -carotene/100 g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries.

  19. Influence of riboflavin on nanoscale zero-valent iron reactivity during the degradation of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2014-02-18

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of riboflavin on the reactivity of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) during three reaction cycles of carbon tetrachloride (CT) degradation. The degradation kinetics of CT by NZVI without riboflavin (0.556 ± 0.044 h(-1)) was 1.5 times higher than that with riboflavin (0.370 ± 0.012 h(-1)) in the first cycle. Riboflavin was rapidly reduced (65.0 ± 7.0 h(-1)) by NZVI during CT degradation, resulting in the slow degradation kinetics of CT in the first cycle due to competition for electrons from NZVI between riboflavin and CT. These results indicate that riboflavin is not effective as an electron shuttle for reduction of CT by NZVI. On the other hand, the degradation kinetics of CT by NZVI without riboflavin decreased to 0.122 ± 0.033 h(-1) in the third cycle, while that with riboflavin was significantly enhanced (0.663 ± 0.005 h(-1)). The results from X-ray analyses and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the decline in reactivity of NZVI without riboflavin in the third cycle resulted from continuous Fe(0) oxidation to iron oxides on the NZVI surface. In contrast, riboflavin enhanced the reactivity of NZVI by reductive dissolution of passive iron oxides on NZVI surface by reduced riboflavin. The experimental results suggest that riboflavin can play a pivotal role in the prolongation of NZVI reactivity in long-term in situ and ex situ applications of NZVI.

  20. Comparative Metabolism of Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats, Mice and Hamsters Using Gas Uptake and PBPK Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D. ); Vucelick, Mark E.; Gies, Richard A. ); Zangar, Richard C. ); Weitz, Karl K. ); Poet, Torka S. ); Springer, David L. ); Grant, Donna M. ); Benson, Janet M.

    2000-08-25

    No study has comprehensively compared the rate of metabolism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) across species. Therefore, the in vivo metabolism of CCl4 was evaluated using groups of male animals (F344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters) exposed to 40-1800 ppm CCl4 in a closed, recirculating gas-uptake system. For each species, an optimal fit of the family of uptake curves was obtained by adjusting Michaelis-Menten metabolic constants Km (affinity) and Vmax (capacity) using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The results show that the mouse has a slightly higher capacity and lower affinity for metabolizing CCl4 compared to the rat, while the hamster has a higher capacity and lower affinity than either rat or mouse. A comparison of the Vmax to Km ratio, normalized for mg of liver protein (L/hr/mg) across species indicates that hamsters metabolize more CCl4 than either rats or mice, and should be more susceptible to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. These species comparisons were evaluated against toxicokinetic studies conducted in animals exposed by nose-only inhalation to 20 ppm 14C-labeled CCl4 for 4 hours. The toxicokinetic study results are consistent with the in vivo rates of metabolism, with rats eliminating less radioactivity associated with metabolism (14CO2 and urine/feces) and more radioactivity associated with the parent compound (radioactivity trapped on charcoal) compared to either hamsters or mice. The in vivo metabolic constants determined here, together with in vitro constants determined using rat, mouse, hamster and human liver microsomes, were used to estimate human in vivo metabolic rates of 1.49 mg/hr/kg body weight and 0.25 mg/L for Vmax and Km, respectively. Normalizing the rate of metabolism (Vmax/Km) by mg liver protein, the rate of metabolism of CCl4 differs across species, with hamster > mouse& > rat > human.

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of Gentianella turkestanerum extracts on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianghua; Zhu, Dandan; Ju, Bowei; Jiang, Xiangying; Hu, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contents of secoiridoid compounds (i.e. sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrin) from Gentianella turkestanerum extracts, and the potential effects of G. turkestanerum extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in mice. Methods: The contents of swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside from different G. turkestanerum extracts were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). CCl4 was used to induce acute liver injury in mice. The serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione transferase (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were measured. HE staining was performed to investigate the pathological changes of liver. Results: Iridoid glycoside showed the highest content in the product extracted by butanol (designated as GBA), but lower in the products extracted by ethyl acetate and water designated as GEA and GW, respectively. All G. turkestanerum extracts showed protective effects against CCl4 induced acute liver injury in mice, among which GBA showed the maximal protective effects. G. turkestanerum extracts induced significant decrease in the serum ALT, AST, ALP and TB compared with those in the mice with acute lung injury (P < 0.01). Obvious increase was noticed in serum TP (P < 0.01). Moreover, such effects presented in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the MDA was significantly elevated in the model group (P < 0.01), while significant decrease was observed in the levels of SOD, GSH and CAT in model group compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Whereas, such phenomenon was completely reversed by G. turkestanerum extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: G. turkestanerum showed protective effects against CCl4 induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:28337284

  2. Emissions estimates of carbon tetrachloride for 1992-2014 in China.

    PubMed

    Bie, Pengju; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Zhifang; Wang, Ziyuan; Hu, Jianxin

    2017-05-01

    Discrepancies in emission estimates of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, CTC), between bottom-up and top-down methods, have been shown since the 1990s at both the global and regional scale. This study estimates the emissions of China from 1992 to 2014 based on emission functions and aggregated activity information given reasonable uncertainties. The results show that emissions increase from 7.3 Gg/yr (5.6-9.1 Gg/yr at 95% confidential interval) to 14.0 (9.1-19.5) Gg/yr with a growth rate of 6.7 (1.9-11.4) %/yr during 1992-2002 and then decrease to a minimum of 4.3 (1.9-8.0) Gg/yr in 2011. More than 54% of the emissions during 1992-2009 are from the process agents sector. The estimates are comparable with those of other studies and those in this study based on observations during 2011-2014 using the interspecies correlation method. China's contribution to global emissions increases from 7.5% to 19.5% during 1992-2009, but the contribution is reduced to 9.9% and 8.0% in 2010 and 2011, respectively, indicating the effectiveness of compliance with the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent Amendments and Adjustments, whereby CTC emissions are phased-out. The results of this study are beneficial for narrowing the gap between bottom-up estimates and top-down emission calculations of CTC in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Hong, Jeong-Min; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-05-01

    Liver fibrosis leads to liver cirrhosis and failure, and no effective treatment is currently available. Growing evidence supports a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and liver fibrogenesis and mitochondrial quality control-based therapy has emerged as a new therapeutic target. We investigated the protective mechanisms of melatonin against mitochondrial dysfunction-involved liver fibrosis, focusing on mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) dissolved in olive oil (0.5 mL/kg, twice a week, i.p.) for 8 wk. Melatonin was administered orally at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg once a day. Chronic CCl4 exposure induced collagen deposition, hepatocellular damage, and oxidative stress, and melatonin attenuated these increases. Increases in mRNA and protein expression levels of transforming growth factor β1 and α-smooth muscle actin in response to CCl4 were attenuated by melatonin. Melatonin attenuated hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as mitochondrial swelling and glutamate dehydrogenase release. Chronic CCl4 exposure impaired mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and melatonin attenuated this impairment, as indicated by increases in mitochondrial DNA and in protein levels of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1); Parkin; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1); and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM). CCl4-mediated decreases in mitochondrial fission- and fusion-related proteins, such as dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitofusin 2, were also attenuated by melatonin. Moreover, melatonin induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. These results suggest that melatonin protects against liver fibrosis via upregulation of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and may be useful as an anti-fibrotic treatment.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  5. Mechanisms of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride toxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, R J; Klaunig, J E; Schultz, N E; Askari, A B; Lacher, D A; Pereira, M A; Goldblatt, P J

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms of chloroform (CHCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity to primary cultured male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were investigated. The cytotoxicity of both CHCl3 and CCl4 was dose- and duration-dependent. Maximal hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the culture medium, occurred with the highest concentrations of CHCl3 (5 mM) and CCl4 (2.5 mM) used and with the longest duration of treatment (20 hr). CCl4 was approximately 16 times more toxic than CHCl3 to the hepatocytes. The toxicity of these compounds was decreased by adding the mixed function oxidase system (MFOS) inhibitor, SKF-525A (25 microM) to the cultures. The addition of diethyl maleate (0.25 mM), which depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH)-potentiated CHCl3 and CCl4 toxicity. The toxicity of CHCl3 and CCl4 could also be decreased by adding the antioxidants N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) (25 microM), alpha-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) (0.1 mM), or superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/mL) to the cultures. These results suggest that: in mouse hepatocytes, both CHCl3 and CCl4 are metabolized to toxic components by the MFOS; GSH plays a role in detoxifying those metabolites; free radicals are produced during the metabolism of CHCl3 and CCl4; and free radicals may be important mediators of the toxicity of these two halomethanes. PMID:3816733

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Rubus coreanus miquel concentrates on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Hyun-Jung; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Ah

    2014-01-01

    As well-being foods pursuing healthy life are becoming popular, interest in Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) fruit, a type of Korean blackberry, is increasing due to its medicinal actions including protecting the liver, brightening the eyes, and alleviating diabetes. This study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of RCM concentrates on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. RCM, produced in June ~ July 2008 at Chunbook, Gochang (South Korea), was finely mashed. The seeds were removed and the juices were condensed. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: normal (eight rats), CCl4, 1% RCM, and 2% RCM. Experimental diets were provided to the experimental animals for 4 weeks. We measure total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. Part of the livers was isolated for histopathological evaluation, and analyzed for lipid peroxide (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and liver proteins. The activities of serum AST, ALT, and ALP were elevated following CCl4 administration. Levels of hepatic TBARS were also significantly increased in the CCl4 groups. However, hepatic TBARS levels and the activities of serum enzymes were markedly reduced by supplementation with the RCM concentrates (P < 0.05). Hepatic SOD activity increased in the RCM concentrates group versus CCl4 groups. Histopathological examination revealed massive necrosis in the centrilobular area and degenerative changes caused by CCl4 were ameliorated by dietary supplementation with RCM concentrates. These results suggest that RCM concentrates have hepatoprotective effects and may improve the symptoms of liver injuries. PMID:24611104

  7. Protective effect of potato peel extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Narasimhamurthy, K; Rajini, P S

    2008-09-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that extracts derived from potato peel (PPE) are rich in polyphenols and possess strong antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. The objective of the present study was to investigate its potential to offer protection against acute liver injury in rats. Rats pretreated with PPE (oral, 100mg/kgb.w./day for 7 days) were administered a single oral dose carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4), 3ml/kg b.w., 1:1 in groundnut oil) and sacrificed 8h of post-treatment. Hepatic damage was assessed by employing biochemical parameters (transaminase enzyme levels in plasma and liver [AST-aspartate transaminase; ALT-alanine transaminase, LDH-lactate dehydrogenase]). Further, markers of hepatic oxidative damage were measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA), enzymic antioxidants (CAT, SOT, GST, GPX) and GSH (reduced glutathione) levels. In addition, the CCl(4)-induced pathological changes in liver were evaluated by histopathological studies. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of rats with PPE significantly prevented the increased activities of AST and ALT in serum, prevented the elevation of hepatic MDA formation as well as protected the liver from GSH depletion. PPE pretreatment also restored CCl(4)-induced altered antioxidant enzyme activities to control levels. The protective effect of PPE was further evident through the decreased histological alterations in liver. Our findings provide evidences to demonstrate that PPE pretreatment significantly offsets CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats, which may be attributable to its strong antioxidant propensity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and bromoform by anthrahydroquinone disulfonate and humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, G.P.; Reinhard, M.

    1994-01-01

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (C2Cl6), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50??C in aqueous solutions containing either (1) 500 ??M of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 ??M Fe2+, or (3) 250 ??M HS-. The pH ranged from 4.5 to 11.5 for AHQDS solutions and was 7.2 in the Fe2+ solutions and 7.8 in the HS- solutions. The observed disappearance of C2Cl6 in the presence of AHQDS was pseudo-first-order and fit k??ccl4 = k0[A(OH)2] + k1[A(OH)O-] + k2[A(O)22-] where A(OH)2, A(OH)O-, and A(O)22- represent the concentrations of the three forms of the AHQDS in solution. The values of k0, k1, and k2 were ???0,0.031, and 0.24 M-1 s-1, respectively. The addition of 25 mg of C/L of humic acid or organic matter extracted from Borden aquifer solids to aqueous solutions containing 250 ??M HS- or Fe2+ increased the reduction rate by factors of up to 10. The logarithms of the rate constants for the disappearance of C2Cl6 and CCl4 in seven different experimental systems were significantly correlated; log k???ccl4 = 0-64 log k??? c2cl6 - 0.83 with r2 = 0.80. The observed trend in reaction rates of C2Cl6 > CCl4 > CHBr3 is consistent with a decreasing trend in one-electron reduction potentials. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  9. Dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Gao, Ting-Yao

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction characteristics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry in this study. In addition, the difference in reduction mechanisms of CT between Master Builders' iron and the catalyzed Fe-Cu process was discussed. The results showed that CT was reduced directly on the surface of copper rather than by atomic hydrogen produced at the cathode in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The reduction was realized largely by atomic hydrogen in Master Builders' iron. The entire CT in 350 ml aqueous solution with 320 mg/L was reduced to trichloromethane and dichloromethane in 2.25 h when 100 g of scrap iron with Fe/Cu ratio of 10:1 (w/w) were used. Moreover, the reduction rate slowed with time. CT could be reduced at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from solution by Fe-Cu bimetallic media, but the mechanisms were different. The degradation rate was not significantly influenced by pH in the catalyzed Fe-Cu process; in Master Builders' iron it clearly increased with decreasing pH. The kinetics of the reductions followed pseudo-first order in both cases. Furthermore, the reductions under acidic conditions proceeded faster than that under the neutral and alkaline conditions. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process was superior to Master Builders' iron in treating CT-containing water and this advantage was particularly noticeable under alkaline conditions. The reduction was investigated in the cathode (Cu) and anode (Fe) compartments respectively, the results showed that the direct reduction pathway played an important role in the reduction by the catalyzed Fe-Cu process. The catalyzed Fe-Cu process is of practical value.

  10. Effect of methanol extract of Dicranopteris linearis against carbon tetrachloride- induced acute liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dicranopteris linearis (family Gleicheniaceae) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities but no attempt has been made to study its hepatoprotective potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extracts of D. linearis (MEDL) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in rats. Methods 6 groups (n = 6) of rats received oral test solutions: 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 200 mg/kg silymarin, or MEDL (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg), once daily for 7 consecutive days, followed by hepatotoxicity induction with CCl4. Blood and liver were collected for biochemical and microscopic analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant studies (e.g. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging assays, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and total phenolic content (TPC) determination), phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis. Results Pretreatment with MEDL and silymarin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP, which were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in DMSO-pretreated group following treatment with CCl4. Histological analysis of liver tissues in groups pretreated with MEDL and silymarin showed mild necrosis and inflammation of the hepatocytes compared to the DMSO-pretreated group (negative control group). The MEDL showed higher DPPH- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging activity as well as high TPC and ORAC values indicating high antioxidant activity. Conclusions MEDL exerts hepatoprotective activity that could be partly contributed by its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content, and hence demands further investigation. PMID:24708543

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of allyl isothiocyanate against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Bang, Hyojin; Moon, Jihwan; Kim, Gi Ok; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-07-25

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered AITC at doses of 5 (AITC 5) and 50 (AITC 50) mg/kg body weight once daily for 3 days, with or without intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Serum chemistry was assessed for changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in liver tissues, while pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA expression were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. And heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ionized calcium binding protein-1 (Iba-1) immunoreactivities were evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In serum chemistry, the oral administration of AITC itself did not affect the serum levels of ALT or AST, furthermore pretreatment with AITC 5 and AITC 50 significantly reduced the ALT and AST activity levels that were elevated in CCl4-intoxicated rats. In addition, AITC significantly suppressed the reduction of SOD and CAT, and the elevation of MDA, TNF-α mRNA expression, on the other hands, induced the expression of HO-1 compared with those of the vehicle-treated CCl4 group. The histopathological evaluation and Iba-1 immunoreactivity also supported the hepatoprotective effects of AITC against CCl4-induced liver injury. These results suggest that AITC ameliorates oxidative liver injury, possibly through reducing lipid peroxidation, enhancing antioxidant enzymes, and suppressing Kupffer cells and macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Andrographis paniculata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-dependent hepatic damage and toxicity: diminution of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) is a plant that possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of A. paniculata and its mechanism of action in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) challenge of rats at a dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight-induced oxidative stress in the liver. This was evidenced by augmentation in lipid peroxidation, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (P < 0.05). Parrallel to these changes, CCl(4) challenge too, enhanced hepatic damage as evidenced by sharp increase in serum transaminases (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) (P < 0.05). Additionally, the impairment of liver function corresponded to histolopathological changes. However, most of these changes were reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by pre-treatment of animals with A. paniculata (P < 0.05). The ability of A. paniculata to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was determined through its EC(50) value. The EC(50) value of A. paniculata was 583.60 ± 4.25 µg/ml. In addition, A. paniculata was found to contain 65.37 ± 1.20 mg/g total phenolics expressed as gallic acid equivalent. From these studies, it is concluded that A. paniculata could be used as a hepatoprotective agent and possesses the potential to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated.

  13. Dietary honey and ginseng protect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El Denshary, Ezzeldeen S; Al-Gahazali, Mohammad A; Mannaa, Fathia A; Salem, Hesham A; Hassan, Nabila S; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-11-01

    Liver diseases are amongst the most serious health problems in the world today and hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the world's deadliest cancers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effect of sider honey and/or Korean ginseng extract (KGE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity in rat. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into different groups and over a 4-week period, they orally received honey and/or KGE or were treated either with CCl(4) alone (100 mg/kg b.w) or with CCl(4) after a pretreatment period with honey, KGE or a combination of both. Clinical, clinico-pathological and histopathological evaluations were done and CCl(4)-treated groups were compared with rats receiving no treatment and with rats given honey, KGE or a combination of these substances. The results indicated that oral administration of CCl(4) induced severe hepatic and kidney injury associated with oxidative stress. The combined treatment with CCl(4) plus honey and/or KGE resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This improvement was prominent in the group receiving CCl(4) after combined pretreatment with honey and KGE. Animals receiving honey and/or KGE (without CCl(4)-treatment) were comparable to the control untreated group. It could be concluded that honey and KGE protect SD rats against the severe CCl(4)-induced hepatic and renal toxic effects. Our results suggest that the protective activity of honey and KGE may have been related to their antioxidant properties.

  14. Effects of tamoxifen and levonorgestrel treatment on carbon tetrachloride induced alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Kulcsár, A; Kulcsár-Gergely, J

    1991-12-01

    Oestrogens cause progression in liver lesion, and thus ovariectomy improves hepatic injury both functionally and histologically. In the present study the efficacy of the antioestrogen tamoxifen (CAS 10540-29-1) was examined in chronical carbon tetrachloride damage. The results were compared with the effect of the progestogen levonorgestrel. Male Wistar rats were treated for 16 days. Blood sampling and autopsy were performed 2 h after last tamoxifen resp. levonorgestrel and 1 h after last CCl4 dosage. Tamoxifen diminished water content of the healthy liver. By fairly the same ratio it decreased high water content of the damaged liver. Levonorgestrel moderated water imbibition in CCl4 impairment. Tamoxifen caused protein synthesis in healthy and in injured liver. Levonorgestrel could not prevent protein loss associated with CCl4 damage. Tamoxifen counteracted, levonorgestrel moderated glycogen loss in liver lesion. Blood glucose was normal in all examined groups. Cytochrome P-450 decrease in CCl4 injury was moderated but not normalised by tamoxifen. Levonorgestrel was less effective. Cytochrome b5 content diminished in CCl4 lesion and both treatments restored it. Aminopyrine-N-demethylase was impaired by liver injury. An improvement was measured correlating with microsomal cytochrome P-450 content. This was significant with tamoxifen but not following levonorgestrel administration. The pathological serum bilirubin level of CCl4 lesion was normalised by tamoxifen as well as levonorgestrel treatment. The progestogen levonorgestrel moderated liver injury in reducing high water content, glycogen loss and normalising serum bilirubin. The antioestrogen tamoxifen seems to be a promising treatment in chronic hepatic impairment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform by trichloroethene respiring anaerobic mixed cultures and supernatant.

    PubMed

    Vickstrom, Kyle E; Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) were transformed in batch reactor experiments conducted with anaerobic dechlorinating cultures and supernatant (ADC + S) harvested from continuous flow reactors. The Evanite (EV) and Victoria/Stanford (VS) cultures, capable of respiring trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene (ETH), were grown in continuous flow reactors receiving an influent feed of saturated TCE (10 mM; 60 mEq) and formate (45 mM; 90 mEq) but no CT or CF. Cells and supernatant were harvested from the chemostats and inoculated into batch reactors at the onset of each experiment. CT transformation was complete following first order kinetics with CF, DCM and CS2 as the measurable transformation products, representing 20-40% of the original mass of CT, with CO2 likely the unknown transformation product. CF was transformed to DCM and likely CO2 at an order of magnitude rate lower than CT, while DCM was not further transformed. An analytical first order model including multiple key reactions effectively simulated CT transformation, product formation and transformation, and provided reasonable estimates of transformation rate coefficients. Biotic and abiotic treatments indicated that CT was mainly transformed via abiotic processes. However, the presence of live cells was associated with the transformation of CF to DCM. In biotic tests both TCE and CT were simultaneously transformed, with TCE transformed to ETH and approximately 15-53% less CF formed via CT transformation. A 14-day exposure to CF (CFmax = 1.4 μM) reduced all rates of chlorinated ethene respiration by a factor of 10 or greater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yellow tea is more potent than other types of tea in suppressing liver toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Goto, Miho; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Oi, Naomi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Kanazawa, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    The present study compared the effects of six Chinese teas categorized by their production process: green, white, yellow, oolong, black and pu-erh teas, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Wistar rats were given ad libitum the Chinese teas prepared according to the home-style methods for 1 week, and then intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (1 mg/kg body weight) or olive oil as a vehicle. The yellow tea significantly ameliorated the increase in the activity of the alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferases in plasma. Thus, the drinking of yellow tea may contribute to protection against liver injury.

  17. Fasting increases the concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and of its metabolite chloroform in the liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Pentz, R; Strubelt, O

    1983-05-01

    Fasting mice for 24 h strongly enhanced hepatic triglyceride concentrations as well as the hepatic levels of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and chloroform (CHCl3) after i.p. injection of 0.1 ml/kg CCl4. The ratio CHCl3:CCl4 was lower in the livers of the fasted than in those of the fed mice. Fasting-induced steatosis leading to an increased affinity of the liver to a lipophilic compound like CCl4 is considered to be the cause for the increase in CCl4 hepatotoxicity induced by fasting in mice.

  18. Simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene and carbon tetrachloride in a continuous flow column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Semprini, Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) were simultaneously transformed in a packed column that was bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV). The data presented here have been obtained over a period of 1930 days. Initially the column was continuously fed synthetic groundwater with PCE (0.1 mM), sulfate (SO42 -) (0.2 mM) and formate (2.1 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), but not CT. In these early stages of the study the effluent H2 concentrations ranged from 7 to 19 nM, and PCE was transformed to ethene (ETH) (81 to 85%) and vinyl chloride (VC) (11 to 17%), and SO42 - was completely reduced when using either lactate or formate as electron donors. SO42 - reduction occurred concurrently with cis-DCE and VC dehalogenation. Formate was a more effective substrate for promoting dehalogenation based on electron donor utilization efficiency. Simultaneous PCE and CT tests found CT (0.015 mM) was completely transformed with 20% observed as chloroform (CF) and trace amounts of chloromethane (CM) and dichloromethane (DCM), but no methane (CH4) or carbon disulfide (CS2). PCE transformation to ETH improved with CT addition in response to increases in H2 concentrations to 160 nM that resulted from acetate formation being inhibited by either CT or CF. Lactate fermentation was negatively impacted after CT transformation tests, with propionate accumulating, and H2 concentrations being reduced to below 1 nM. Under these conditions both SO42 - reduction and dehalogenation were negatively impacted, with sulfate reduction not occurring and PCE being transformed to cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) (52%) and VC (41%). Upon switching to formate, H2 concentrations increased to 40 nM, and complete SO42 - reduction was achieved, while PCE was transformed to ETH (98%) and VC (1%), with no acetate detected. Throughout the study PCE dehalogenation to ethene was positively correlated with the effluent H2 concentrations.

  19. Simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene and carbon tetrachloride in a continuous flow column.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) were simultaneously transformed in a packed column that was bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV). The data presented here have been obtained over a period of 1930days. Initially the column was continuously fed synthetic groundwater with PCE (0.1mM), sulfate (SO4(2-)) (0.2mM) and formate (2.1mM) or lactate (1.1mM), but not CT. In these early stages of the study the effluent H2 concentrations ranged from 7 to 19nM, and PCE was transformed to ethene (ETH) (81 to 85%) and vinyl chloride (VC) (11 to 17%), and SO4(2-) was completely reduced when using either lactate or formate as electron donors. SO4(2-) reduction occurred concurrently with cis-DCE and VC dehalogenation. Formate was a more effective substrate for promoting dehalogenation based on electron donor utilization efficiency. Simultaneous PCE and CT tests found CT (0.015mM) was completely transformed with 20% observed as chloroform (CF) and trace amounts of chloromethane (CM) and dichloromethane (DCM), but no methane (CH4) or carbon disulfide (CS2). PCE transformation to ETH improved with CT addition in response to increases in H2 concentrations to 160nM that resulted from acetate formation being inhibited by either CT or CF. Lactate fermentation was negatively impacted after CT transformation tests, with propionate accumulating, and H2 concentrations being reduced to below 1nM. Under these conditions both SO4(2-) reduction and dehalogenation were negatively impacted, with sulfate reduction not occurring and PCE being transformed to cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) (52%) and VC (41%). Upon switching to formate, H2 concentrations increased to 40nM, and complete SO4(2-) reduction was achieved, while PCE was transformed to ETH (98%) and VC (1%), with no acetate detected. Throughout the study PCE dehalogenation to ethene was positively correlated with the effluent H2 concentrations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Carbon Doping of Compound Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Carbon Tetrachloride.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A dilute mixture of CCl_4 in high purity H_2 has been used as a carbon dopant source for rm Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To understand the mechanism for carbon incorporation from CCl_4 doping and to provide experimental parameters for the growth of carbon doped device structures, the effects of various crystal growth parameters on CCl _4 doping have been studied, including growth temperature, growth rate, V/III ratio, Al composition, and CCl_4 flow rate. Although CCl _4 is an effective p-type dopant for MOCVD rm Al_{x}Ga_ {1-x}As, injection of CCl_4 into the reactor during growth of InP resulted in no change in the carrier concentration or carbon concentration. Abrupt, heavy carbon doping spikes in GaAs have been obtained using CCl_4 without a dopant memory effect. By annealing samples with carbon doping spikes grown within undoped, n-type, and p-type GaAs, the carbon diffusion coefficient in GaAs at 825 ^circC has been estimated and has been found to depend strongly on the GaAs background doping. Heavily carbon doped rm Al_{x}Ga _{1-x}As/GaAs superlattices have been found to be more stable against impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) than Mg or Zn doped superlattices, indicating that the low carbon diffusion coefficient limits the IILD process. Carbon doping has been used in the base region on an Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Transistors with 3 x 10 μm self-aligned emitter fingers have been fabricated which exhibit a current gain cutoff frequency of f_ {rm t} = 26 GHz.

  1. Revised Geostatistical Analysis of the Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Unconfined Aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-12-30

    This report provides an updated estimate of the inventory of carbon tetrachloride (CTET) in the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 operable units. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) currently is preparing a plan identifying locations for groundwater extraction wells, injection wells, transfer stations, and one or more treatment facilities to address contaminants of concern identified in the 200-ZP-1 CERCLA Record of Decision. To accomplish this, a current understanding of the inventory of CTET is needed throughout the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) previously developed an estimate of the CTET inventory in the area using a Monte Carlo approach based on geostatistical simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of CTET and chloroform in the aquifer. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) (the previous site contractor) requested PNNL to update that inventory estimate using as input a set of geostatistical realizations of CTET and chloroform recently created for a related but separate project, referred to as the mapping project. The scope of work for the inventory revision complemented the scope of work for the mapping project, performed for FH by PNNL. This report briefly describes the spatial and univariate distribution of the CTET and chloroform data, along with the results of the geostatistical analysis and simulation performed for the mapping project.

  2. Solving the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) budget mystery using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Newman, P. A.; Daniel, J. S.; Reimann, S.; Hall, B. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Kuijpers, L. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance, with an ozone depletion potential (with respect to CFC-11) of 0.82. CCl4 is also a greenhouse gas and the 100-yr global warming potential is 1,400. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol (MP) included CCl4, and production and consumption were phased out for developed countries in 1996. Developing countries were allowed a delayed reduction, but CCl4 was fully phased out from emissive uses in 2010. However, the near-zero 2007-2012 emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage cannot be reconciled with the observed slow decline of atmospheric concentrations, year-to-year variability, and the inter-hemispheric gradient (IHG). We use available source and sink data in the NASA 3-Dimensional (3-D) Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM, to test existing emissions and lifetime estimates against CCl4 mixing ratio observations. Our model results show that the IHG and global trend provide useful information for quantitatively constraining CCl4 emissions and lifetime estimates. The observed IHG (1.5±0.2 ppt for 2000-2012) is primarily caused by ongoing current emissions, while ocean and soil losses and stratosphere-troposphere exchange together contribute a small negative gradient (~0 - -0.3 ppt). Using the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Global Monitoring Division (NOAA-GMD) and Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) networks, we deduce the mean global emissions for the 2000-2012 period are 39 (34-45, lower-upper limit emission estimates) Gg/yr (~ 30% of the peak 1980s emissions) and a corresponding total lifetime of 35 (37-32, upper-lower limit lifetime estimates) years. These results point to the need for a more accurate bottom-up estimate of CCl4 emissions as well as re-evaluation of the CCl4 best estimate lifetime (currently 25 years).

  3. Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) in the Atmosphere: A Mystery Between Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, S.; Newman, P. A.; Liang, Q.; Rigby, M. L.; Kuijpers, L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone depleting substance and therefore has been banned from usage under the Montreal Protocol. However, it is still allowed for contained use in industrial processes as so-called feedstock substance, where emissions should be negligible. The regulation of CCl4 in the Montreal Protocol suggests that, presently, emission should be zero, and that CCl4 ought to be declining exponentially depending on its atmospheric lifetime. Although atmospheric CCl4 concentrations are declining, the rate is slower than expected, suggesting that there is an unknown source of CCl4 or that the combined partial lifetimes in different environmental compartments (atmosphere, ocean, soil) are slower than our understood processes. In the last years there were increasing discrepancies between emissions reported under the Montreal Protocol ('bottom-up method') and those which are inferred from measurements at global background sites ('top-down method'). In 2012 the potential gap in global emissions between the two methods widened to several ten thousand tons per year. In order to close this gap several possibilities were tested with atmospheric models and results are verified against the global trends and the interhemispheric gradients. 1) Existing data from sources and sinks were fed into the models to test the incompatibility of the existing emission data with the observed atmospheric observation for CCl4. 2) A newly revised 44-year steady-state atmospheric lifetime was assessed. This new lifetime together with an improved uncertainty has been carefully evaluated within a lifetime assessment for ODSs and related substances under SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate). The new atmospheric lifetime is substantially longer than the 35-years which were used in WMO (2011) for the atmosphere alone. However, estimates of soil sinks (195 yr) and ocean sinks (81 yr) lead to a best-estimated global lifetime of only 25 years, comparable

  4. Phycocyanobilin accelerates liver regeneration and reduces mortality rate in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Yu, Li-Ming; Liu, Bin; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of phycocyanobilin (PCB) in reducing hepatic injury and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were orally administered PCB 100 mg/kg for 4 d after CCl4 injection, and then the serum and liver tissue of the mice were collected at days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment. A series of evaluations were performed to identify the curative effects on liver injury and recovery. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to indirectly assess the anti-inflammatory effects of PCB. Meanwhile, we detected the expressions of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the factors which are associated with inflammation and liver regeneration. The protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TNF-α and cytochrome C were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the survival rates were analyzed of mice which were administered a lethal dose of CCl4 (2.6 mg/kg) with or without PCB. RESULTS: In our research, PCB showed a strongly anti-inflammatory effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The ALT was significantly decreased after CCl4 treatment from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the AST was significantly decreased from day 2 (P < 0.001). Both albumin and liver SOD were increased from day 2 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), but serum SOD levels did not show a significant increase (P > 0.05). PCB protected the structure of liver from the injury by CCl4. TUNEL assay showed that PCB dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells after CCl4 treatment compared to the control (101.0 ± 25.4 vs 25.7 ± 6.4, P < 0.01). The result of western blotting showed that PCB could increase PCNA expression, decrease TNF-α and cytochrome C expression. Furthermore, data shows that PCB could improve the

  5. Metabolism of carbon tetrachloride to trichloromethyl radical: An ESR and HPLC-EC study.

    PubMed

    Stoyanovsky, D A; Cederbaum, A I

    1999-08-01

    Extensive ESR spin-trapping studies with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) have shown that carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is metabolized to trichloromethyl radical ((*)CCl(3)). However, the ESR analysis of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN)-spin trapped (*)CCl(3) in biological systems appears to be complicated. It has been reported that after in vivo administration of PBN and CCl(4) to rats, most of the PBN-CCl(3) adduct collected in the bile was ESR silent, suggesting reduction of the nitroxide to its hydroxylamine form. The PBN-CCl(3) nitroxide was also shown to undergo a NADPH-dependent reduction in the presence of liver microsomes. Thus, it appears that the variability (or the absence) of the ESR signal of PBN-CCl(3) nitroxide in biological systems reflects, at least in part, the fluctuations in the equilibrium between the nitroxide and hydroxylamine forms of this adduct. To test this possibility, ESR and HPLC experiments with electrochemical detection (EC) were conducted for analysis of the major redox form of the PBN-CCl(3) adduct in vivo. Standard procedures for the in vitro preparation of both redox forms of PBN-CCl(3) and for their HPLC-EC analysis and electrochemical profiles were established. The intensity of the initially observed ESR spectrum of PBN-CCl(3) nitroxide of the liver extract from a CCl(4)- and PBN-treated rat was relatively constant; after an addition of K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] to the extract, the intensity of the ESR spectrum increased by 1 order of magnitude, most likely due to the co-oxidation of ESR silent PBN-derived hydroxylamines. The addition of PBN-CCl(3) nitroxide to the liver homogenate resulted in the rapid loss of the ESR signal. The HPLC-EC analysis of the liver extract revealed that the in vivo spin trapping of (*)CCl(3) with PBN leads to a preferential formation of the ESR silent PBN-CCl(3) hydroxylamine. The predominant presence of the hydroxylamine derivative was also detected in the blood of a CCl(4)-treated rat. The

  6. Ethanol and food deprivation induced enhancement of hepatotoxicity in rats given carbon tetrachloride at low concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Ikatsu, H; Okino, T; Nakajima, T

    1991-01-01

    Effects of chronic ethanol consumption and one day food deprivation on the hepatotoxicity of low dose carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 0 to 100 ppm inhalation for eight hours) in rats were investigated by using biochemical and histopathological methods. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly increased by exposure to 5 ppm to 50 ppm CCl4 in ethanol treated rats or by exposure to 25 ppm to 50 ppm CCl4 in food deprived rats but not in rats without ethanol or food deprivation. The MDA concentrations reached a maximum at 10 ppm and 50 ppm CCl4 in ethanol treated and food deprived rats, respectively, and decreased to the non-exposed concentration at 100 ppm CCl4. At greater than or equal to 50 ppm CCl4 plasma MDA contents increased significantly only in ethanol treated rats. None of the exposure concentrations influenced plasma glutamic-oxaloacetic transamidase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in rats that were only exposed to CCl4 whereas exposure to 10 ppm or higher concentrations combined with ethanol increased both activities. To a lesser extent food deprivation combined with exposure to greater than or equal to 25 ppm CCl4 had the same effect. No histopathological changes were found in the liver of rats exposed to less than or equal to 10 ppm CCl4, and only a few ballooned hepatocytes were seen in centrilobular areas when exposure was 25 ppm or higher. The presence of ballooned and hepatocytes became a regular feature of mid-zonal areas in ethanol treated rats and in the centrilobular areas of food deprived rats after exposure to /=25 ppm and >/=50 ppm respectively. These results indicate that consumption of ethanol and food deprivation potentiate CCl(4) induced hepatic damage even at low concentrations of CCl(4) by promoting lipid peroxidation. Thus heavy

  7. Melatonin inhibits autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    San-Miguel, Beatriz; Crespo, Irene; Sánchez, Diana I; González-Fernández, Bárbara; Ortiz de Urbina, Juan J; Tuñón, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) associates with the antifibrogenic effect of melatonin in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Mice received CCl4 5 μL/g body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 wk or 6 wk. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day i.p, beginning 2 wk after the start of CCl4 administration. Treatment with CCl4 resulted in fibrosis evidenced by the staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells. CCl4 induced an autophagic response measured as the presence of autophagic vesicles, protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) staining, conversion of LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, changes in expression of beclin-1, UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), ubiquitin-like autophagy-related (Atg5), Atg12, Atg16L1, sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-2, and increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). There was an increase in the expression of the ER stress chaperones CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94), and in the mRNA levels of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), ATF4, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1). Phospho-IRE1, ATF6, and phospho-PERK protein concentration also increased significantly. Immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA indicated an abrogation of hepatic stellate cells activation by melatonin. Furthermore, treatment with the indole resulted in significant inhibition of the autophagic flux and the unfolded protein response. Findings from this study give new insight into molecular pathways accounting for the protective effect of melatonin in fibrogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Tao, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Xu, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hua; Li, Jun; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  9. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  10. Improved risk estimated from carbon tetrachloride. Annual progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.

    1997-10-27

    'Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively within the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities. Rocky Flats was formerly the largest volume user of CCl{sub 4} in the US, with 5,000 gallons used there in 1977 alone. At the Hanford site, several hundred thousand gallons of CCl{sub 4} were discharged between 1955 and 1973 into underground cribs for storage. Levels of CCl{sub 4} in groundwater at highly contaminated sites at the Hanford. facility have exceeded the drinking water standard of 5 ppb by several orders of magnitude. High levels of CCl{sub 4} at these facilities represent a potential health hazard for workers conducting cleanup operations and for surrounding communities. The level of CCl{sub 4} cleanup required at these sites and associated costs are driven by current human health risk estimates which assume that CCl{sub 4} is a genotoxic carcinogen. The overall purpose of these studies is to improve the scientific basis for assessing the health risk associated with human exposure to CCl{sub 4}. Specifically, the authors will determine the toxicokinetics of inhaled and ingested CCl{sub 4} in F344/Crl rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters. They will also evaluate species differences in the metabolism of CCl{sub 4} by rats, mice, hamsters, and man. Dose-response relationships will be determined in all these studies. This information will be used to improve the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CCl4 originally developed by Paustenbach et al. (1988) and more recently revised by Thrall and Kenny (1996). They will also provide scientific evidence that CCl{sub 4} , like chloroform, is a hepatocarcinogen only when exposure results in cell damage, cell killing, and regenerative cell proliferation. In combination, the studies outlined in this proposal will provide the exact types of information needed to enable refined cancer risk estimates for CCl{sub 4} under the new guidelines for risk assessment proposed by the

  11. Protective effect of hesperidin on oxidative and histological liver damage following carbon tetrachloride administration in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Çiftçi, Osman; Otlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the current study, the protective effect of hesperidin (HP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated. Material and methods Twenty-eight rats were divided equally into four groups. The first group was kept as a control and given only vehicle. In the second, rats were orally administered 50 mg/kg/day HP for 10 days. Carbon tetrachloride was given in a single intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 2 ml/kg in the third group. In the fourth group, the rats were treated with equal doses of CCl4 and HP. Results It was found that CCl4 induced oxidative stress via a significant increase in the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and caused a significant decline in the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats. In contrast, HP blocked these toxic effects induced by CCl4, causing an increase in GSH, CAT and SOD levels and decreased formation of TBARS (p < 0.01). In addition, histopathological damage increased with CCl4 treatment. In contrast, HP treatment eliminated the effects of CCl4 and stimulated anti-apoptotic events, as characterized by reduced caspase-3 activation. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity can be prevented with HP treatment. Thus, co-administration of HP with CCl4 may be useful for attenuating the negative effects of CCl4 on the liver. PMID:27279838

  12. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  13. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats. PMID:26106435

  14. Influence of 50-nm polystyrene particles in inducing cytotoxicity in mice co-injected with carbon tetrachloride, cisplatin, or paraquat.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Isoda, K; Tezuka, E; Yufu, T; Nagai, Y; Ishida, I; Tezuka, M

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of nanomaterials has yet to be fully investigated. In particular, the interactions between nanomaterials and therapeutic drugs require further study. We investigated whether nano-sized polystyrene particles affect drug-induced toxicity. The particles, which are widely used industrially, had diameters of 50 (NPP50), 200 (NPP200) or 1000 (NPP1000) nm. The toxic chemicals tested were carbon tetrachloride, cisplatin (a popular anti-tumor agent), and a widely used herbicide, paraquat. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with either carbon tetrachloride (0.01 ml/kg), cisplatin (100 micromol/kg) or paraquat (50 mg/kg), with or without intravenous administration of polystyrene particles. All treatments in the absence of the nanoparticles were non-lethal and did not result in severe toxicity. However, when mice were injected with paraquat or cisplatin together with polystyrene particles, synergistic, enhanced toxicity was observed in mice injected with NPP50. These synergic effects were not observed in mice co-injected with NPP200 or NPP1000. These findings suggest that further evaluation of the interactions between polystyrene nano-particles and drugs is a critical prerequisite to the pharmaceutical application of nanotechnology.

  15. Functional abnormalities of the motor tract in the rat after portocaval anastomosis and after carbon tetrachloride induction of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Oria, Marc; Raguer, Nuria; Chatauret, Nicolas; Bartolí, Ramón; Odena, Gemma; Planas, Ramón; Córdoba, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neurologic syndrome secondary to liver failure that causes cognitive and motor abnormalities. Impairment in the function of the first neuron of the motor tract (corticospinal tract) has been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Investigate the function of the first neuron of the motor tract in experimental models of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Rats with portocaval anastomosis (n = 8) and rats with carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis (n = 11) underwent neurophysiological recording under light anesthesia with propofol. Motor evoked potentials were elicited applying a transcranial electric pulse and were recorded in the tibialis anterior muscle. The effect of the dose of anesthesia was assessed in a group of normal rats (n = 10). Rats with portocaval anastomosis exhibited a decrease in motor evoked potentials amplitude following surgery (67 +/- 11 to 41 +/- 16%, P < 0.001). Cirrhotic rats exhibited an increase in motor evoked potentials latency after the appearance of ascites (4.65 +/- 0.43 to 5.15 +/- 0.67 ms., P = 0.04). Increasing doses of propofol produced a decrease in the amplitude and an increase in the latency of motor evoked potentials. It is possible to reproduce functional abnormalities of the central motor tract in rats with portocaval anastomosis and carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis. The development of motor abnormalities in experimental models of minimal hepatic encephalopathy offers the possibility to investigate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and test therapeutic strategies.

  16. Effect of apitherapy formulations against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in Wistar rats after three weeks of treatment.

    PubMed

    Andritoiu, Calin Vasile; Ochiuz, Lacramioara; Andritoiu, Vasile; Popa, Marcel

    2014-08-29

    The human body is exposed nowadays to increasing attacks by toxic compounds in polluted air, industrially processed foods, alcohol and drug consumption that increase liver toxicity, leading to more and more severe cases of hepatic disorders. The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the apitherapy diet in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, by analyzing the biochemical determinations (enzymatic, lipid and protein profiles, coagulation parameters, minerals, blood count parameters, bilirubin levels) and histopathological changes at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas. The experiment was carried out on six groups of male Wistar rats. Hepatic lesions were induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (dissolved in paraffin oil, 10% solution). Two mL per 100 g were administered, every 2 days, for 2 weeks. Hepatoprotection was achieved with two apitherapy diet formulations containing honey, pollen, propolis, Apilarnil, with/without royal jelly. Biochemical results reveal that the two apitherapy diet formulations have a positive effect on improving the enzymatic, lipid, and protein profiles, coagulation, mineral and blood count parameters and bilirubin levels. The histopathological results demonstrate the benefits of the two apitherapy diet formulations on reducing toxicity at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas in laboratory animals.

  17. Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

    2013-06-01

    ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

  18. The protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of mangrove (Avicennia marina L.) leaves on kidney injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Mirazi, Naser; Movassagh, Seyedeh-Nahid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Materials can cause liver and kidney damage which carbon tetrachloride is one of these substances. Medicinal plants and their essential oils and extracts have been used to a large extent as drugs to better control and management of kidney diseases. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Avicennia marina leaves in the treatment of renal toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride. Methods Forty-two male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 7): control (taking normal saline, 0.5 ml/day, intraperitoneally; i.p.), sham (taking olive oil, 0.5 ml/day, i.p., single dose), injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) 1:1 with olive oil, 0.5 ml single dose, i.p.), treated groups 1, 2 and 3: by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil, 0.5 ml single dose and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg Avicennia marina extract (AME)/ day for 96 hours, i.p.). By direct blood sampling from the heart, the plasma concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Kidney sections were prepared from all groups and the histological examinations were performed. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The results indicated the significant (P < 0.05) increase of serum level of lactate dehydrogenase and liver enzymes of AST, ALT and ALP in the group receiving CCl4 compared with the control group, whereas the treatment with hydro-alcoholic extract of mangrove leaves caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in serum levels of these enzymes in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride compared to the control group. Histological investigation of renal tissue sections showed that the treatment with mangrove leaves extract reduced the necrosis, inflammation and also improved the renal tubules. Conclusions Carbon tetrachloride has

  19. Effect of trazodone and nefazodone on hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, O Me; Sleem, A A; Shafee, N

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors trazodone and nefazodone on liver injury induced by treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by oral administration of CCl(4) (2.8 mL/kg in olive oil). Nefazodone (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg), trazodone (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg), silymarin (25 mg/kg), or saline (control) was orally administered once daily in association with CCl(4) and for one week thereafter. Liver damage was assessed by determining serum enzyme activities and hepatic histopathology. In CCl(4)-treated rats, treatment with trazodone (5, 10, 20 mg/ kg), reduced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 24, 38.6, and 49.3%. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were decreased by 18.1, 37.9, and 42.2%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels decreased by 25.7, 32.6, and 39.7%, respectively. Nefazodone (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner reduced the elevation of ALT levels by 15.6, 36.5, and 45.9%, AST levels by 16.7, 17.3, and 43%, and ALP by 30.5, 37.5, and 42.9%, respectively. Silymarin treatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST, and ALP by 56.1-62.8, 56.0-64.0, and 50.1-58.2%, respectively. The administration of CCl(4) decreased levels of reduced glutathione in blood compared to the vehicle-treated group. In CCl(4)-treated rats, reduced glutathione levels increased after trazodone in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glutathione was increased by nefazodone at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/kg, but not after 20 mg/kg nefazodone. Reduced glutathione levels were increased by the administration of silymarin to near normal values. The administration of CCl(4) resulted in a marked increase in nitric oxide levels in serum (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) as compared to the control group. Treatment with trazodone or nefazodone caused a dose-dependent decrease in serum nitric oxide levels compared with the CCl(4) control group. Histopathological and

  20. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-10-31

    This is a letter report summarizing work performed in FY2008 to determine the rates of carbon tetrachloride hydrolysis at temperatures close to actual groundwater temperatures. The report describes the project, the methodology, and the results obtained since the project's inception in FY2006. Measurements of hydrolysis rates in homogeneous solution have been completed for temperaturs of 70 C through 40 C, with additional data available at 30 C and 20 C. These results show no difference between the rates in deionized H2O and in filter-sterilized Hanford-Site groundwater. Moreover, the rates measured are 2-3 times slower than predicted from the open literature. Measurements of rates involving sterile suspensions of Hanford-Site sediment in Hanford-Site groundwater, however, show faster hydrolysis at temperatures below 40 C. Extrapolation of the current data available suggests a six-fold increase in rate would be expected at groundwater temperature of 16 C due to the presence of the sediment. This result translates into a 78-year half-life, rather than the 470-680 year half-life that would be predicted from rate determinations in homogeneous solution. The hydrolysis rate data at 20 C, in contrast to those at higher temperatures, are preliminary and have low statistical power. While significant (p < 0.05) differences between the heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are seen at 30 C, the results at 20 C are not statistically significant at this level due to limited data and the very slow nature of the reaction. More time is needed to collect data at these low temperatures to improve the statistical power of our observation. Given the critical need for hydrolysis rate data at temperatures relevant to groundwater systems, we have three recommendations for future work. First, we recommend a continuation of the sampling and analysis of the remaining long-term sealed-ampule experiments described in this report. These are primarily 20 C and 30 C experiments. The data at 20

  1. Adsorption energy distribution of carbon tetrachloride on carbon nanofiber arrays prepared by template synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Hsin; Shr, Jin-Fang; Wu, Chu-Fu; Hsieh, Chien-Te

    2008-02-01

    The influence of pore size distribution on adsorption energy distributions (AEDs) of aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) arrays in vapor phase was conducted in the present study. A template-assisted synthesis was employed to fabricate aligned CNF arrays with different pore size distributions (PSDs). Adsorption isotherms of CCl 4 onto the CNF arrays were investigated within an entire pressure of 0.05-0.18 atm at 30 °C. The adsorptive surface coverage was found to decrease with the average pore size, indicating the presence of heterogeneity for gas adsorption. An AED model was postulated to describe the heterogeneous surface consisting of numerous surface pitchwises that obey a localized Langmuir model. It was found that all CNF arrays exhibit a similar Gaussian-type AED, in where the peak adsorption energy shifts to a higher energy with decreasing the pore size of CNFs. This finding can be ascribed to a fact that micropores are major providers of adsorption sites, whereas in mesopores only weaker adsorption is observed, thus resulting in the shift of energy distribution. An excellent prediction to the adsorption isotherms of CCl 4 by the AED model indicates that the PSD of CNFs acts a crucial factor in affecting the adsorptive coverage.

  2. Alterations in microsomal electron transport, oxidative N-demethylation and azo-dye cleavage in carbon tetrachloride and dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Smuckler, E. A.; Arrhenius, E.; Hultin, T.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of administration of carbon tetrachloride and dimethylnitrosamine in vivo on hepatic microsomal function related to drug metabolism was measured. It was found that the capacity of isolated microsomes to demethylate dimethylaniline was diminished during the first hour after carbon tetrachloride poisoning and during the second hour after dimethylnitrosamine poisoning. Thereafter the microsomes from carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers showed a continuous decline in activity so that at 24hr. there was little residual capacity to undertake demethylation. Microsomes from dimethylnitrosamine-poisoned animals were not different from controls at 24hr. During the first 3hr. there was a transient rise in the accumulation of the N-oxide intermediate in carbon tetrachloride-poisoned livers, with a subsequent fall to below control values. In dimethylnitrosamine poisoning there was a parallel decrease in N-oxide accumulation with decreased demethylation. In the latter part of the first 24hr. the ratio of N-oxide accumulation to demethylation was increased in both instances. At 2hr. after poisoning with either compound there was no evidence of altered NADPH2-dependent neotetrazolium reduction or lipid peroxidation. NADPH2-dependent azo-dye cleavage was decreased. There was no difference in microsomal cytochrome b5 content, but there was a decrease in the amount of cytochrome P-450. This latter change was correlated with the decreased capacity for NADPH2-dependent oxidative demethylation. It is suggested that dimethylnitrosamine is associated with a defect in microsomal NADPH2-dependent electron transport at the level of cytochrome P-450. In addition to affecting cytochrome P-450, carbon tetrachloride is associated with a second severe block involving the release of formaldehyde from the N-oxide intermediate. PMID:6040018

  3. Effects of Ag(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) on the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by green rust.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Edward J; Kemner, Kenneth M; Burris, David R

    2003-07-01

    Green rusts (GRs), mixed iron(II)/iron(III) hydroxide minerals found in many suboxic environments, have been shown to reduce a range of organic and inorganic contaminants, including several chlorinated hydrocarbons. Many studies have demonstrated the catalytic activity of transition metal species in the reduction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, suggesting the potential for enhanced reduction by GR in the presence of an appropriate transition metal catalyst. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was examined in aqueous suspensions of GR amended with Ag(I), Au(III), or Cu(II). The CT reduction rates were greatly increased for systems amended with Cu(II), Au(III), and Ag(I) (listed in order of increasing rates) relative to GR alone. Observed intermediates and products included chloroform, dichloromethane, chloromethane, methane, acetylene, ethene, ethane, carbon monoxide, tetrachloroethene, and various nonchlorinated C3 and C4 compounds. Product distributions for the reductive dechlorination of CT were highly dependent on the transition metal used. A reaction pathway scheme is proposed in which CT is reduced primarily to methane and other nonchlorinated end products, largely through a series of one-electron reductions forming radicals and carbenes/carbenoids. Recently, X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of aqueous GR suspensions amended with Ag(I), Au(III), or Cu(II) showed that the metals were reduced to their zerovalent forms. A possible mechanism for CT reduction is the formation of a galvanic couple involving the zerovalent metal and GR, with reduction of CT occurring on the surface of the metal and GR serving as the bulk electron source. The enhanced reduction of CT by GR suspensions amended with Ag(I), Au(III), or Cu(II) may prove useful in the development of improved materials for remediation of chlorinated organic contaminants.

  4. Synergistic Extraction of Copper from Nitrate Solutions Using β-Hydroxy-Naphthaldoxime and Organophosphorus Compounds into Carbon-Tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pulak; Basu, Sukalyan

    2011-12-01

    The extraction behavior of Cu(II) from an aqueous nitrate medium employing β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated in the presence of several organophosphorus donors like tri-octyl phosphine oxide, tri-butyl phosphine oxide, and tri-butyl phosphate at pH 1.5. The concentration of the metal was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Synergism was observed when neutral donor was added because of the formation of the adduct [Cu(L)2.(S)] in CCl4 (S denotes neutral donor). The equilibrium constants of the binary system using β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime and the ternary system involving another addition of an organophosphorus compound were calculated from the extraction date obtained. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants was also investigated to evaluate standard enthalpy (Δ H°), entropy (Δ S°), and free energy (Δ G°) of the reactions proposed.

  5. Investigation of the hepatoprotective effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Nureddin; Kavak, Servet; Güzel, Ali; Ozbek, Hanefi; Bektaş, Hava; Him, Aydın; Erdoğan, Ender; Balahoroğlu, Ragıb

    2013-01-01

    More than 600 chemicals can cause damage in liver, one of which is carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄). Hepatoprotective agents could prevent tissue damage and reduce morbidity and mortality rates; such agents may include alternative or folkloric treatments. We investigated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for its hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced experimental liver damage. To this end, 0.8 mg/kg of sesame fixed oil was provided intraperitoneally to rats whose livers were damaged by CCl₄. Tissue and blood samples were taken at the end of the experiments and evaluated histologically and biochemically. Ballooning degenerations and an increase in lipid droplets in liver parenchyma and increases in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and bilirubin were found in the CCl₄ group. Biochemical and histopathological findings in the sesame fixed oil treated group were not significantly different from the CCl₄ group. Sesame did not show a hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced liver toxicity.

  6. One-electron oxidation in irradiated carbon tetrachloride solutions of ZnTPP, TMPD, and phenols. [Pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grodkowski, J.; Neta, P.

    1984-03-15

    One-electron oxidation of phenol, p-methoxphenol, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, chlorpromazine, and zinc tetraphenolporphyrin (ZnTPP) was studied by pulse radiolysis in carbon tetrachloride solutions. Phenols form phenoxyl radicals and the other compounds form cation radicals with yields strongly dependent on solute concentration. The highest yield in deoxygenated solutions approached G = 4. In the presence of oxygen an additional oxidation step is observed owing to CCl/sub 3/O/sub 2/ radicals and the overall oxidation yield approached G = 8. ZnTPP was found to be oxidized to the cation radical without any side effects, unlike oxidation in 1,2-dichloroethane which was accompanied by demetallation owing to HCl production.

  7. Extracts of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Tae Il; Hwang, Seong-Gu; Lim, Beong Ou; Park, Dong Ki

    2003-12-01

    Extracts of Phellinus linteus (EPB), grown on germinated brown rice, protected rats from liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Peroxidation products in the liver were decreased to 10% by EPB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased to 55% and 39% by CCl4 administration, but EPB blocked this effect, resulting in enzyme activities at control levels. Expression of cytochromeP450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein was significantly decreased to 88% in CCl4-treated rats but remained at control levels when EPB was also administered. EPB did not affect the altered fatty acid composition induced by CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect of EPB may be mediated by EPB's prevention of CCl4-induced CYP2E1 degradation.

  8. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Ito, Hironobu; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-01

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional (2D) Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium-nonequilibrium hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation algorithm. An appropriate representation of the 2D Raman spectrum obtained from MD simulations provides an easy-to-understand depiction of structural and dynamical properties. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal profiles and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently. Moreover, the MD simulation results allow us to visualize the molecular structure and dynamics by comparing the accurately calculated spectrum with experimental result.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Vitis vinifera L. leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Orhan, Nilüfer; Ergun, Ender; Ergun, Fatma

    2007-05-30

    The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract and its four different fractions (CHCl(3), EtOAc, n-BuOH, and remaining water fraction) of Vitis vinifera L. leaves was investigated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The ethanolic extract was found active at 125mg/kg dose (per os). The ethanolic extract was fractionated through successive solvent-solvent extractions and the n-BuOH fraction in 83mg/kg dose possessed remarkable antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Liver damage was assessed by using biochemical parameters (plasma and liver tissue MDA [malondialdehyde], transaminase enzyme levels in plasma [AST-aspartate transaminase, ALT-alanine transferase] and liver GSH [glutathione] levels). Additionally, the pathological changes in liver were evaluated by histopathological studies. Legalon 70 Protect was used as standard natural originated drug.

  10. Biochemical markers in carbon-tetrachloride-and galactosamine-induced acute liver injuries: the effects of dihydroquinoline-type antioxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Fehér, J.; Bar-Pollák, Z.; Sréter, L.; Fehér, E.; Toncsev, H.

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacological action and possible therapeutic uses of some recently developed synthetic, non-toxic dihydroquinoline-type antioxidants were studied. The effect of the lipid-soluble 6,6-methylene-bis (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline) (n = 1, 2 or 3) (MTDQ) on carbon-tetrachloride-induced acute liver injuries was investigated, and that of the water-soluble 6,6-methylene-bis (2,2-dimethyl-4-methansulphonic acid sodium-1,2-dihydroquinoline) (MDS) on galactosamine-induced acute liver injuries in CFLP mice (Lati, Hungary). MTDQ was found suitable for the prevention of acute CCl4-induced liver injuries and MDS for that of acute galactosamine-induced liver injuries. Disappearance or significant diminution of the morphological signs and lesions of lipid degeneration and centro-lobular liver necrosis, decrease of serum GOT activities, and also inflammatory changes induced by galactosamine were observed. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7150502

  11. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Truex, Michael J.; Last, George V.; Rohay, Virginia J.

    2007-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites at the Hanford 200 West Area. Three-dimensional modeling was conducted to enhance the conceptual model of CT distribution in the vertical and lateral direction beneath the 216-Z-9 trench and to investigate the effects of soil vapor extraction. Simulations focused on migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of carbon tetrachloride and co-disposed organics as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. The simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Simulation results support a conceptual model for CT distribution where CT in the DNAPL phase is expected to have migrated primarily in a vertical direction below the disposal trench. Results also show that the Cold Creek low permeability units retain more CT DNAPL within the vadose zone than other hydrologic unit during during soil vapor extraction. Additional characterization of the Cold Creek units would provide valuable information about the quantity of CT DNAPL remaining in the vadose zone. A significant amount of the disposed CT DNAPL may have partitioned to the vapor and subsequently water and sorbed phases. Any continued migration of CT from the vadose zone to the groundwater is likely through interaction of vapor phase CT with the groundwater and not through continued DNAPL migration. Additional effort is needed to enhance the understanding of rate-limited volatilization to improve simulation of the SVE process and to provide a basis for refining the design and operation of SVE systems.

  12. Antihepatofibrotic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Prunella vulgaris on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Xiang; Yu, Chen-Huan; Wu, Fang; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhong, Yu-Sen; Ying, Hua-Zhong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris has been widely used in the folk medicine of Northeastern Asian countries for the treatment of acute liver injury and infectious hepatitis. In the present study, the protective effect of aqueous extract from P. vulgaris was investigated on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Our data showed that the administration of aqueous extract from P. vulgaris at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, type III precollagen, and hyaluronic acid in rats with hepatic fibrosis. In addition, aqueous extract from P. vulgaris also reduced the incidence of liver lesions and the formation of fibrous septa, and remarkably decreased the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, platelet derived growth factor, interleukin-4, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore, aqueous extract from P. vulgaris significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells by regulating the expression of α smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β 1, and smad2 and also decreased the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins via regulating the expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2,-13. Real-time polymerase chain reaction further revealed that post-treatment with aqueous extract from P. vulgaris decreased the elevated levels of miR-34a and miR-199a-5p in hepatic fibrosis rats. These results demonstrated that aqueous extract from P. vulgaris alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, promoting collagenolysis and regulating fibrosis-related microRNAs.

  13. Simultaneous anaerobic transformation of carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide and tetrachloroethene to ethene in a continuous flow column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-08-01

    The simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated in a continuous flow column. The column was packed with quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. Azizian and Semprini (2016) reported that PCE and CT could be simultaneously transformed in the column, with PCE (0.1 mM) transformed mainly to ethene and CT (0.015 mM) to chloroform (CF) (20%) and an unknown transformation product, likely carbon dioxide (CO2). The fermentation of propionate, formed from lactate fermentation, was inhibited after the transformation of CT, likely from the exposure to CF. Reported here is the second phase of that study where a second bioaugmentation of the EV culture was made to reintroduce a lactate and propionate fermenting population to the column. Effective lactate and propionate fermentation were restored with a H2 concentration of 25 nM maintained in the column effluent. PCE (0.1 mM) was effectively transformed to ethene ( 98%) and vinyl chloride (VC) ( 2%). Unlabeled CT (0.015 to 0.03 mM) was completely transformed with a transient build-up of CF and chloromethane (CM), which were subsequently removed below their detection limits. A series of transient tests were initiated through the addition of carbon-13 labeled CT (13CT), with concentrations gradually increased from 0.03 to 0.10 mM. GC-MS analysis of the column effluent showed that 13C labeled CO2 (13CO2) was formed, ranging from 82 to 93% of the 13CT transformed, with the transient increases in 13CO2 associated with the increased concentration of 13CT. A modified COD analysis indicated a lesser amount of 13CT (18%) was transformed to soluble products, while 13CO2 represented 82% the 13CT transformed. In a final transient test, the influent lactate concentration was decreased from 1.1 to 0.67 mM. The transformation of both CT and PCE changed dramatically. Only 59% of the 13CT was transformed, primarily to

  14. Simultaneous anaerobic transformation of carbon tetrachloride to carbon dioxide and tetrachloroethene to ethene in a continuous flow column.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-08-01

    The simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated in a continuous flow column. The column was packed with quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. Azizian and Semprini (2016) reported that PCE and CT could be simultaneously transformed in the column, with PCE (0.1mM) transformed mainly to ethene and CT (0.015mM) to chloroform (CF) (20%) and an unknown transformation product, likely carbon dioxide (CO2). The fermentation of propionate, formed from lactate fermentation, was inhibited after the transformation of CT, likely from the exposure to CF. Reported here is the second phase of that study where a second bioaugmentation of the EV culture was made to reintroduce a lactate and propionate fermenting population to the column. Effective lactate and propionate fermentation were restored with a H2 concentration of ~25nM maintained in the column effluent. PCE (0.1mM) was effectively transformed to ethene (~98%) and vinyl chloride (VC) (~2%). Unlabeled CT (0.015 to 0.03mM) was completely transformed with a transient build-up of CF and chloromethane (CM), which were subsequently removed below their detection limits. A series of transient tests were initiated through the addition of carbon-13 labeled CT ((13)CT), with concentrations gradually increased from 0.03 to 0.10mM. GC-MS analysis of the column effluent showed that (13)C labeled CO2 ((13)CO2) was formed, ranging from 82 to 93% of the (13)CT transformed, with the transient increases in (13)CO2 associated with the increased concentration of (13)CT. A modified COD analysis indicated a lesser amount of (13)CT (18%) was transformed to soluble products, while (13)CO2 represented 82% the (13)CT transformed. In a final transient test, the influent lactate concentration was decreased from 1.1 to 0.67mM. The transformation of both CT and PCE changed dramatically. Only 59% of the (13)CT was transformed

  15. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-07-21

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  16. Tryptophan reaction with free radicals arisen from carbon tetrachloride in a model system. A mass spectrometric study.

    PubMed

    Castro, G D; Castro, J A

    1996-02-01

    The interaction between free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of carbon tetrachloride and N-acetyl-d, l-tryptophan ethyl ester (TRPAE) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was studied. The structure of the reaction products formed was deciphered by the GC/MS analysis of their trimethylsilyl derivatives. Under anaerobic conditions no formation of reaction products was detected. Under aerobic conditions the following products were identified: 1. A chloro hydroxy unsaturated adduct of TRPAE (2 isomers). 2. A dichloro hydroxy unsaturated adduct of TRPAE. 3. 12 products which are different pyrrolo[2,3-b]indol derivatives. Some of the products appeared to have an hydroxyl group as a substituent, all of them contained chlorine and only one contained carbon from CCl4. Interestingly, the formation of those adducts not containing CCl3 would be missed during the regular procedures toxicologists use to determine the so-called 'covalent binding' employing (14)CCl4. Concerning the potential relevance of these findings, we hypothesize that if interactions similar to those here reported occurred at least in part during CCl4 poisoning, the resulting critical proteins containing tryptophan, e.g. membrane or other and enzymes containing the amino acid in their active center, might be impaired.

  17. Protective Effects of Pleurotus tuber-regium on Carbon- Tetrachloride Induced Testicular Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okolo, Kenneth O.; Siminialayi, Iyeopu M.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2016-01-01

    The high rate of male infertility and the meager resources to manage same in sub Saharan Africa have necessitated the search for cost effective and available alternatives. Mushrooms have been used traditionally in folk medicine and as nutraceuticals. This study has investigated the effect of the wild mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) deleterious effects on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty six rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I (negative control) received 10 ml/kg olive oil intraperitoneal weekly in addition to feed and water ad libitum. Group II (positive control) received CCl4 10 ml/kg (30% in Olive oil) weekly. Group III, IV, and V received 100 mg, 20 0mg, and 500 mg P. tuber-regium (33.3% in feed) daily in addition to 10 ml/kg CCl4 weekly. Group VI received 500 mg P. tuber-regium (33.3% in feed) daily. After 4 weeks, sperm motility, epididymal count and vitality were determined. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone, Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and oestradiol were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Histopathologic examinations of the testis were carried out. Carbon tetrachloride significantly reduced the sperm motility (54.33 ± 3.79%), epididymal count (28.73 ± 2.86 × 106/ml, vitality (4.96 ± 0.62), LH (0.88 ± 0.14), FSH (2.04 ± 0.33), and Testosterone (2.02 ± 0.24) when compared with control (89.33 ± 9.01), 91.91 ± 1.92 × 106/ml, 13.12 ± 0.19, 2.74 ± 0.32, 3.64 ± 0.62, and 4.16 ± 0.23, respectively, which were reversed by P. tuber-regium administration. Co-administration of P. tuber-regium plus CCl4 significantly reduced MDA level. P. tuber-regium showed dose dependent ameliorative activity against CCl4 deleterious action on the testis and may be beneficial in the management of male infertility. PMID:28018218

  18. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Jing; Ye, Lin-Bai; Yang, Fan; Ye, Li; Gao, Jin-Rong; Wu, Zheng-Hui

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. METHODS: A liver injury model was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined with an automatic multifunction-biochemical analyzer and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TNF-α were determined following the instructions of SOD kit and TNF radioimmunoassay kit. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological evaluation and examined under light microscope. RESULTS: We found that GLPG can alleviate the L-02 liver cells injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through the measurements of ALT and AST activities and the administration of GLPG to L-02 cells did not display any toxicity. Furthermore, histological analysis of mice liver injury induced by CCl4 with or without GLPG pretreatment indicated that GLPG can significantly suppress the toxicity induced by CCl4 in mice liver. We also found that GLPG reduced TNF-α level induced by CCl4 in the plasma of mice, whereas increased SOD activity in the rat serum. CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-α level and the free radical scavenging activity. PMID:16552805

  19. Work plan : targeted investigation to assess current conditions associated with the carbon tetrachloride plume downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility at Milford, Nebraska.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-07-09

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility at Milford, Nebraska. In May 2008, the CCC/USDA directed the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory, as its technical consultant, to develop a work plan for a targeted investigation at the Milford site. The purpose of the targeted investigation is to assess the current extent and configuration of the carbon tetrachloride plume downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility and proximal to the banks of the Big Blue River, which borders the area of concern to the east, southeast, and northeast. In 1995, carbon tetrachloride contamination was detected by the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services in a private drinking water well and a livestock well 1.25 mi south of Milford (Figure 1.1). The Trojan drinking water well is located directly downgradient (approximately 300 ft east) of the former CCC/USDA facility. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination were also found in the Troyer livestock well, approximately 1,200 ft north of the former CCC/USDA facility.

  20. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Butler, J. H.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  1. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Miller, B. R.; Salameh, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Golombek, A.; Porter, L. W.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Steele, L. P.; Wang, R. H. J.; Cunnold, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996-2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  2. Hepatoprotective potential of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight and Arn) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Harish, R; Shivanandappa, T

    2010-10-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight and Arn) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in albino rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl(4) administration was found to be inhibited by pretreating the rats with crude methanolic extract of the roots of D. hamiltonii (Dh) prior to CCl(4) induction. Hepatotoxic inhibition was measured with the decreased levels of hepatic serum marker enzymes (glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lipid peroxide formation. Imbalance level of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were normalized in rats pretreated with Dh extract followed by CCl(4) administration. Pathological changes of hepatic lesions caused by CCl(4) were also improved by pretreatment with the Dh root extract. The results of this study indicate that roots of D. hamiltonii could afford a significant protective action in the alleviation of CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-01-01

    Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH). The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury. PMID:27941627

  4. Experimental liver protection of n-butanolic extract of Astragalus monspessulanus L. on carbon tetrachloride model of toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Bratkov, Viktor M; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Vitcheva, Vessela; Manov, Vassil; Krasteva, Ilina

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of n-butanolic extract of Astragalus monspessulanus L. (EAM) against in-vitro/in-vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. Silymarin was used as a positive control. The in-vitro experiments were carried out in primary isolated rat hepatocytes first incubated with CCl4 (86 µmol/l). Hepatic injury was discerned by a decrease in cell viability and cell glutathione (GSH) levels, an increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the medium, and an elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) quantity. Cell pre-incubation with EAM (1 µg/ml and 10 µg/ml) significantly ameliorated the CCl4-induced liver damage. In-vivo rats were challenged orally with CCl4 (10% solution in olive oil) alone and after 7 days pre-treatment with EAM (100 mg/kg body weight per day, oral gavage). CCl4 damage was judged by an increased production of MDA, depletion of cell GSH, and a decrease in cell antioxidant defense system. EAM pre-treatment normalizes the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the levels of GSH and MDA. These data are supported by the histopathological examination. These results indicate that EAM has a similar significant protective effect, in vitro and in vivo, against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat as silymarin.This may be due to its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties.

  5. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1α)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occured when the expression balance of SDF-1α between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1α expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  6. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduces bacterial translocation in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elisabet; Nieto, Juan C.; Vidal, Silvia; Santiago, Alba; Martinez, Xavier; Sancho, Francesc J.; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Mirelis, Beatriz; Corominola, Helena; Juárez, Candido; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Guarner, Carlos; Soriano, German

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics can prevent pathological bacterial translocation by modulating intestinal microbiota and improving the gut barrier. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 on bacterial translocation in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhosis. Sprague-Dawley rats treated with CCl4 were randomized into a probiotic group that received fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 in drinking water or a water group that received water only. Laparotomy was performed one week after ascites development. We evaluated bacterial translocation, intestinal microbiota, the intestinal barrier and cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes and serum. Bacterial translocation decreased and gut dysbiosis improved in the probiotic group compared to the water group. The ileal β-defensin-1 concentration was higher and ileal malondialdehyde levels were lower in the probiotic group than in water group. There were no differences between groups in serum cytokines but TNF-α levels in mesenteric lymph nodes were lower in the probiotic group than in the water group. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 decreases bacterial translocation, gut dysbiosis and ileal oxidative damage and increases ileal β-defensin-1 expression in rats treated with CCl4, suggesting an improvement in the intestinal barrier integrity. PMID:28368023

  7. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y-1 during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y-1) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  8. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  9. Camel milk and bee honey regulate profibrotic cytokine gene transcripts in liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Kadry; Beltagy, Doha; Saleh, Ebeed; Abouelkhair, Reham

    2016-05-30

    The lack of studies regarding the mechanism of the protective effects of camel milk and bee honey against hepatotoxic compounds led us to perform this study. Thirty-six male rats were divided into two main groups. The first group (n = 9) comprised control non-cirrhotic rats. The rats of the second group (n = 27) were administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by intraperitoneal injection to induce liver cirrhosis. The cirrhotic rats were then divided into three equal subgroups, each comprising nine animals, as follows: (i) cirrhotic rats, (ii) cirrhotic rats treated with camel milk, and (iii) cirrhotic rats treated with camel milk and bee honey. The present findings revealed that CCl4 elevated the activities of liver enzymes, blood glucose levels, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the serum and glycogen content in the liver. On the other hand, CCl4 significantly decreased phosphorylase activity in the liver tissue and significantly increased carbohydrate intolerance and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Moreover, CCl4 induced a significant increase in oxidative stress, along with increased expression of the profibrotic cytokine genes TNF-α and TGF-β. However, camel milk either alone or in combination with bee honey ameliorated these toxic actions. The antioxidant properties of these protective agents and their effects of downregulating certain procirrhotic cytokine gene transcripts underlie this protection.

  10. Sympathetic Nervous System Control of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver through α-Adrenergic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Chun; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Shih-Yu; Lai, Mei-Ju; Young, Ton-Ho; Salter, Donald M; Lee, Herng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being the primary organ involved in redox cycling, the liver is one of the most highly innervated tissues in mammals. The interaction between hepatocytes and sympathetic, parasympathetic, and peptidergic nerve fibers through a variety of neurotransmitters and signaling pathways is recognized as being important in the regulation of hepatocyte function, liver regeneration, and hepatic fibrosis. However, less is known regarding the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in modulating the hepatic response to oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the role of the SNS in healthy and oxidatively stressed liver parenchyma. Mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide were used to realize chemical sympathectomy. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection was used to induce oxidative liver injury. Sympathectomized animals were protected from CCl4 induced hepatic lipid peroxidation-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as assessed by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels, morphological features of cell damage, and DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, sympathectomy modulated hepatic inflammatory response induced by CCl4-mediated lipid peroxidation. CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation and hepatotoxicity were suppressed by administration of an α-adrenergic antagonist. We conclude that the SNS provides a permissive microenvironment for hepatic oxidative stress indicating the possibility that targeting the hepatic α-adrenergic signaling could be a viable strategy for improving outcomes in patients with acute hepatic injury.

  11. Comparative study on the inhibitory effects of antioxidant vitamins and radon on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Yamato, Keiko; Teraoka, Junichi; Morii, Yuji; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that radon inhalation activates anti-oxidative functions and inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatopathy. It has also been reported that antioxidant vitamins can inhibit CCl4-induced hepatopathy. In the current study, we examined the comparative efficacy of treatment with radon, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on CCl4-induced hepatopathy. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 after inhaling approximately 1000 or 2000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h, or immediately after intraperitoneal injection of ascorbic acid (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight) or α-tocopherol (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight). We estimated the inhibitory effects on CCl4-induced hepatopathy based on hepatic function-associated parameters, oxidative damage-associated parameters and histological changes. The results revealed that the therapeutic effects of radon inhalation were almost equivalent to treatment with ascorbic acid at a dose of 500 mg/kg or α-tocopherol at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver were significantly higher in mice exposed to radon than in mice treated with CCl4 alone. These findings suggest that radon inhalation has an anti-oxidative effect against CCl4-induced hepatopathy similar to the anti-oxidative effects of ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol due to the induction of anti-oxidative functions. PMID:23111757

  12. Protective effect of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) on hepatic steatosis and damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Feral; Gul, Mehmet; Ates, Burhan; Ozturk, I Cetin; Cetin, Asli; Vardi, Nigar; Otlu, Ali; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2009-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the protective effect of 10 % and 20 % apricot-containing feed on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic steatosis and damage. Adult male Wistar rats (n 42) were divided into six groups of seven each, as follows: control group; CCl4 group; CCl4+10 % apricot group; CCl4+20 % apricot group; 10 % apricot group; 20 % apricot group. All apricot groups were fed with 10 % or 20 % apricot-containing feed for 5 months. CCl4 injections were applied to the CCl4 groups at the dose of 1 mg/kg for 3 d at the end of 5 months. In the CCl4 group, vacuolated hepatocytes and hepatic necrosis were seen, especially in the centrilobular area. Hepatocytes showed an oedematous cytoplasmic matrix, large lipid globules and degenerated organelles. The area of liver injury was found significantly decreased with apricot feeding. Malondialdehyde and total glutathione levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly changed in the CCl4 group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Apricot feeding decreased this oxidative stress and ameliorated histological damage. We concluded that apricot feeding had beneficial effects on CCl4-induced liver steatosis and damage probably due to its antioxidant nutrient (beta-carotene and vitamin) contents and high radical-scavenging capacity. Dietary intake of apricot can reduce the risk of liver steatosis and damage caused by free radicals.

  13. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduces bacterial translocation in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elisabet; Nieto, Juan C; Vidal, Silvia; Santiago, Alba; Martinez, Xavier; Sancho, Francesc J; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Mirelis, Beatriz; Corominola, Helena; Juárez, Candido; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Guarner, Carlos; Soriano, German

    2017-04-03

    Probiotics can prevent pathological bacterial translocation by modulating intestinal microbiota and improving the gut barrier. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 on bacterial translocation in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhosis. Sprague-Dawley rats treated with CCl4 were randomized into a probiotic group that received fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 in drinking water or a water group that received water only. Laparotomy was performed one week after ascites development. We evaluated bacterial translocation, intestinal microbiota, the intestinal barrier and cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes and serum. Bacterial translocation decreased and gut dysbiosis improved in the probiotic group compared to the water group. The ileal β-defensin-1 concentration was higher and ileal malondialdehyde levels were lower in the probiotic group than in water group. There were no differences between groups in serum cytokines but TNF-α levels in mesenteric lymph nodes were lower in the probiotic group than in the water group. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CNCM I-1518 decreases bacterial translocation, gut dysbiosis and ileal oxidative damage and increases ileal β-defensin-1 expression in rats treated with CCl4, suggesting an improvement in the intestinal barrier integrity.

  14. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A; Miller, Ben R; Andrews, Arlyn E; Miller, John B; Lehman, Scott J; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L; Blake, Donald R; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L; Mountain, Marikate E; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C; Moore, Fred L; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-15

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y(-1) during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y(-1)) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  15. Doxazosin Treatment Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Hamsters through a Decrease in Transforming Growth Factor β Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Ortega, Martin Humberto; Llamas-Ramírez, Raúl Wiliberto; Romero-Delgadillo, Norma Isabel; Elías-Flores, Tania Guadalupe; de Jesus Tavares-Rodríguez, Edgar; del Rosario Campos-Esparza, María; Cervantes-García, Daniel; Muñoz-Fernández, Luis; Gerardo-Rodríguez, Martin; Ventura-Juárez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cirrhosis has become an important focus for basic and clinical researchers. Adrenergic receptor antagonists have been evaluated as antifibrotic drugs in rodent models of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and doxazosin on fibrosis/cirrhosis in a hamster animal model. Methods Cirrhotic-induced hamsters were treated by daily administration of carvedilol and doxazosin for 6 weeks. Hepatic function and histological evaluation were conducted by measuring biochemical markers, including total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and albumin, and liver tissue slices. Additionally, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) immunohistochemistry was analyzed. Results Biochemical markers revealed that hepatic function was restored after treatment with doxazosin and carvedilol. Histological evaluation showed a decrease in collagen type I deposits and TGF-β-secreting cells. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that the decrease in collagen type I following treatment with doxazosin or carvedilol is achieved by decreasing the profibrotic activities of TGF-β via the blockage of α1- and β-adrenergic receptor. Consequently, a diminution of fibrotic tissue in the CCl4-induced model of cirrhosis is achieved. PMID:26573293

  16. Protective effect of aqueous extracts from Rhizopus oryzae on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehito; Fukuoka, Hideo; Ushikoshi, Setsuo; Sato, Reiichiro; Morita, Hidetoshi; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Hepatoprotective effects of Rhizopus oryzae/ U-1 aqueous extract (RU) were demonstrated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver-injured rats. In order to investigate the RU effects, the rats were administered RU at a dose of 10 or 100 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days before induction of the liver injury by oral administration of CCl4 (125 mg/kg body weight). (i) Pretreatment with RU caused a significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities that were increased by the administration of CCl4 . (ii) RU pretreatment (100 mg/kg) increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation at 48 h after CCl4 treatment in hepatocytes. (iii) Histological hematoxylin and eosin staining of the liver showed that RU pretreatment reduced the damage induced by CCl4 administration. (iv) Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed RU retreatment caused a transient but significant increase in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and a sustained and significant increase in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in hepatocytes injured by CCl4 treatment. From these results, we conclude that oral pre-administration of RU was effective to suppress liver injury induced by the subsequent oral CCl4 administration, and RU-induced increase in IGF-I and HGF gene expression may be, even in part, involved in biological actions of RU in rats.

  17. Phytochemical analysis and hepatoprotective properties of Tinospora cordifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, B T; Shruthi, S D; Rai, S Padmalatha; Ramachandra, Y L

    2011-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts of Tinospora cordifolia against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats. The pet ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of various parts of the plant such as leaf, stem and root were tested at the dose of 200mg/kg body weight orally using Wistar albino rats and Silymarin was given as reference standard. Ethanolic extract of all the parts showed significant hepatoprotective effect by reduction in serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBL) in the selected model which is followed by aqueous and pet ether extracts. The chemical constituents reported from the plant belong to different classes such as alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, phenolics and saponins. The overall experimental results suggests that the biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids present in the ethanolic extract of plant Tinospora cordifolia, may be responsible for the significant hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, results justify the use of Tinospora cordifolia as a hepatoprotective agent.

  18. Endogenous n-3 Fatty Acids Alleviate Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Fat-1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruibing; Wang, Meng; Yan, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for numerous models of liver diseases. The probable protective effects of n-3 PUFA against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury were evaluated in a fat-1 transgenic mouse that synthesizes endogenous n-3 from n-6 PUFA. Fat-1 mice and their WT littermates were fed a modified AIN93 diet containing 10% corn oil and were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 or vehicle. CCl4 challenge caused severe liver injury in WT mice, as indicated by serum parameters and histopathological changes, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice. Endogenous n-3 PUFA decreased the elevation of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 challenge, which might be attributed to the activation of Nrf2/keap1 pathway. Additionally, endogenous n-3 PUFA reduces hepatocyte apoptosis via suppressing MAPK pathway. These findings indicate that n-3 PUFA has potent protective effects against acute liver injury induced by CCl4 in mice, suggesting that n-3 PUFA can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver injury. PMID:27891208

  19. Sympathetic Nervous System Control of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Liver through α-Adrenergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Chun; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Shih-Yu; Young, Ton-Ho; Salter, Donald M.; Lee, Herng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being the primary organ involved in redox cycling, the liver is one of the most highly innervated tissues in mammals. The interaction between hepatocytes and sympathetic, parasympathetic, and peptidergic nerve fibers through a variety of neurotransmitters and signaling pathways is recognized as being important in the regulation of hepatocyte function, liver regeneration, and hepatic fibrosis. However, less is known regarding the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in modulating the hepatic response to oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the role of the SNS in healthy and oxidatively stressed liver parenchyma. Mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide were used to realize chemical sympathectomy. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection was used to induce oxidative liver injury. Sympathectomized animals were protected from CCl4 induced hepatic lipid peroxidation-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as assessed by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels, morphological features of cell damage, and DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, sympathectomy modulated hepatic inflammatory response induced by CCl4-mediated lipid peroxidation. CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation and hepatotoxicity were suppressed by administration of an α-adrenergic antagonist. We conclude that the SNS provides a permissive microenvironment for hepatic oxidative stress indicating the possibility that targeting the hepatic α-adrenergic signaling could be a viable strategy for improving outcomes in patients with acute hepatic injury. PMID:26798417

  20. Antioxidant activity of extract and its major constituents from okra seed on rat hepatocytes injured by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Prasad, Nagendra; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 → 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.

  1. Probing the Interaction of Amorphous Solid Water on a Hydrophobic Surface: Dewetting and Crystallization Kinetics of ASW on Carbon Tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2011-11-28

    Desorption of carbon tetrachloride from beneath an amorphous solid water (ASW) overlayer is explored utilizing a combination of temperature programmed desorption and infrared spectroscopy. Otherwise inaccessible information about the dewetting and crystallization of ASW is revealed by monitoring desorption of the CCl4 underlayer. The desorption maximum of CCl4 on graphene occurs at ~140 K. When ASW wets the CCl4 no desorption below 140 K is observed. However, the mobility of the water molecules increases with ASW deposition temperature, leading to a thermodynamically driven dewetting of water from the hydrophobic CCl4 surface. This dewetting exposes some CCl4 to the ambient environment, allowing unhindered desorption of CCl4 below 140 K. When ASW completely covers the underlayer, desorption of CCl4 is delayed until crystallization induced cracking of the ASW overlayer opens an escape path to the surface. The subsequent rapid episodic release of CCl4 is termed a “molecular volcano”. Reflection adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) measurements indicate that the onset and duration of the molecular volcano is directly controlled by the ASW crystallization kinetics.

  2. Quantum yields lower than unity in photo- induced dissociative electron transfers: the reductive cleavage of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Pause, L; Robert, M; Savéant, J M

    2000-12-15

    It has been shown recently that the electrochemical reduction of carbon tetrachloride in N,N'-dimethylformamide follows a mechanism in which electron transfer and bond cleavage are concerted. We report here results concerning photoinduced electron transfer from the singlet excited state of two aromatic molecules, 2-ethyl-9,10-dimethoxyanthracene and perylene, to CCl4 , which is characterised by a quantum yield of complete quenching fragmentation ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. It is shown that a quantum yield below unity is compatible with a dissociative mechanism and arises from partitioning of the system at the intersection of the product- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. This phenomenon predominates over back electron transfer from the clustered fragments state. The photoinduced reductive cleavage of CCl4 thus provides a clear illustration of the recent theoretical prediction, that photoinduced dissociative electron transfers are not necessarily endowed with a unity quantum yield. This offers an opportunity to estimate the magnitude of the electronic matrix element that couples the fragmented product state and the ground reactant state.

  3. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Assessment of a new carbon tetrachloride destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Rubio, S J; Quintero, M C; Rodero, A; Rodriguez, J M Fernandez

    2007-09-05

    A new system for destroying volatile organic waste based on a microwave plasma torch that operates at atmospheric pressure and is coupled to a reactor affording isolation of output gases and adjustment of the plasma discharge atmosphere is proposed. The system was assessed by using carbon tetrachloride as the target volatile organic compound (VOC) and argon as the main gas in a helium atmosphere. Under optimal conditions, a microwave power of less than 1000 W was found to reduce the CCl(4) concentration at the reactor outlet to the parts-per-billion level and hence to virtually completely destroy the VOC. With high argon flow-rates and CCl(4) concentrations, the energy efficiency can reach levels in excess of 3000 g/kWh. Output gases and species in the plasma, which were identified by gas chromatography and light emission spectroscopy, respectively, were found to include no halogen-containing derivatives resulting from the potential cleavage of CCl(4). In fact, the main gaseous byproducts obtained were CO(2), NO and N(2)O, in addition to small traces of Cl(2), and the solid byproducts Cl(2)Cu and various derivatives depending on the particular reactor zone.

  5. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and its amelioration by Agaricus blazei Murrill extract in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Biou; Wu, Ming-Fang; Yang, Yi-Yuan; Leu, Sy-Jye; Chen, Yung-Liang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Yu, Chieh-Chih; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract (ABM) against experimentally induced carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) toxicity in male BALB/c mice. The experiments included a normal group (no induction by CCl(4)), CCl(4-)induction group (with hepatotoxicity by CCl(4) and without treatment) and experimental groups with low dose (200 mg) or high dose (2,000 mg) of ABM extract (per kilogram mouse weight). All groups other than the normal group were treated with intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice a week. Mice were tube-fed with experimental ABM extracts or double-distilled water, accordingly, on the remaining four days each week. The whole experimental protocol lasted 8 weeks; blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and tissue histochemical analysis. Only administration of a high dose of ABM to treatment groups resulted in a significant abrogation of CCL(4)-induced increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Post-treatment with ABM also did not significantly reverse the alterations of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase. Both high- and low-dose ABM treatment reduced hepatic necrosis and fibrosis caused by CCl(4) in comparison with the CCl(4) control group in the histochemical analyses. Our results suggest that the ABM extract affects the levels of ALT and AST in mice.

  6. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of {sup 239}Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.; Nikula, K.J.

    1994-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl{sub 4} is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl{sub 4} occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl{sub 4} by CDF{sup register}(F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu nitrate {sup 239}Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}.

  7. Comparison of vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin in ameliorating carbon tetrachloride and diabetes induced hepatic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shaker, M E; Houssen, M E; Abo-Hashem, E M; Ibrahim, T M

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether treatments with vitamin E, L-carnitine and melatonin can protect against CCl(4) and diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic oxidative stress was performed in rats through 50% v/v carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (1 ml/kg/3 days, i.p.), and through diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.). Vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p), L-carnitine (300 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and melatonin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) were injected for a period of 6 weeks. Thereafter, changes in serum glucose level, liver function tests, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level were evaluated. In CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis, the efficacy order was melatonin > L-carnitine > vitamin E, while in STZ-induced diabetes, the efficacy order was vitamin E > or = melatonin > L-carnitine. In conclusion, these data indicate that low dose of melatonin is more effective than high doses of vitamin E and L-carnitine in reducing hepatic oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) and diabetes. Moreover, the potent effect of vitamin E in ameliorating diabetes can be linked not only to the antioxidant actions, but also to the superior effect in reducing diabetes-induced hyperglycaemia. Meanwhile, potency of L-carnitine was nearly the same in CCl(4) and diabetes-induced liver damage.

  8. Toxicological and biochemical studies on Schinus terebinthifolius concerning its curative and hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Rania H.; Saleh, Sherif Y.; Khalil, Waleed F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, many efforts have been made to discover new products of natural origin which can limit the xenobiotic-induced hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a highly toxic chemical that is widely used to study hepatotoxicity in animal models. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the curative and protective effects of Schinus terbenthifolius ethanolic extract against CCl4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: S. terbenthifolius extract was orally administered in a dose of 350 mg dried extract/kg b.wt. before and after intoxication with CCl4 for curative and protective experiments, respectively. A group of hepatotoxicity indicative enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant capacity, DNA oxidation, and apoptosis markers were measured. Results: CCl4 increased liver enzyme leakage, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, DNA oxidation, and inflammatory markers. Administration of S. terebinthifolius, either before or after CCl4 intoxication, significantly decreased elevated serum liver enzymes and reinstated the antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, S. terebinthifolius extract inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis as revealed by approximately 20 times down-regulation in caspase-3 expression when compared to CCl4 untreated group. On the other hand, there was neither protective nor curative effect of S. terebinthifolius against DNA damage caused by CCl4. Conclusion: The present study suggests that S. terebinthifolius extract could be a substantially promising hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 toxic effects and may be against other hepatotoxic chemical or drugs. PMID:26109780

  9. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

  10. Protective effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves extract against carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Túlio P; do A Corrêa, José Otávio; Aarestrup, Beatriz J V; Aarestrup, Fernando M; de Sousa, Orlando V; da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2014-07-02

    In this work we investigated the in vivo protective effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves extract (BdE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- and acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity, and HPLC analysis were performed. Our results showed that pretreatment with BdE significantly reduced the damage caused by CCl4 and APAP on the serum markers of hepatic injury, AST, ALT, and ALP. Results were confirmed by histopathological analysis. Phytochemical analysis, performed by HPLC, showed that BdE was rich in p-coumaric acid derivatives, caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. BdE also showed DPPH antioxidant activity (EC50 of 15.75±0.43 μg/mL), and high total phenolic (142.90±0.77 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (51.47±0.60 mg RE/g) contents. This study indicated that B. dracunculifolia leaves extract has relevant in vivo hepatoprotective properties.

  11. Dissociation of liver inflammation and hepatocellular damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in myeloid cell-specific STAT3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Norio; Fouad, Lafdil; Miller, Andrew M.; Park, Ogyi; Wang, Hua; Mohanraj, Rajesh; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Fu, Xin Yuan; Pacher, Pal; Gao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Liver injury is associated with inflammation, which is generally believed to accelerate the progression of liver diseases; however, clinical data show that inflammation does not always correlate with hepatocelluar damage in some patients. Investigating the cellular mechanisms underlying these events using an experimental animal model, we show that inflammation may attenuate liver necrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in myeloid-specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) knockout mice. As an important anti-inflammatory signal, conditional deletion of STAT3 in myeloid cells results in markedly enhanced liver inflammation after CCl4 injection. However, these effects are also accompanied by reduced liver necrosis, correlating with elevated serum IL-6 and hepatic STAT3 activation. An additional deletion of STAT3 in hepatocytes in myeloid-specific STAT3 knockout mice restored hepatic necrosis, but decreased liver inflammation. Conclusions: Inflammation-mediated STAT3 activation attenuates hepatocellular injury induced by CCl4 in myeloid-specific STAT3 knockout mice, suggesting that inflammation associated with a predominance of hepatoprotective cytokines that activate hepatic STAT3 may reduce rather than accelerate hepatocellular damage in patients with chronic liver diseases. PMID:20196117

  12. Protective effects of hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic derivatives against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Yang, Lingyun; Han, Yaodan; Wu, Zhenwei; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Huibin; Zhou, Jinpei

    2017-03-20

    Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of these derivatives was assessed by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes, including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the ratio of GSH to GSSG. Gratifyingly, compounds 5a-c (100mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost a normal liver lobular architecture and cell structure of the livers, as compared to CCl4-treated group. These findings were confirmed with the histopathological observations, where hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic acid derivatives 5a-c were capable of reversing the toxic effects of CCl4 on hepatocytes.

  13. Effect of a lignan-enriched fructus schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, K M; Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Wu, S S; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C

    1995-04-01

    The effect of a lignan-enriched extract of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (FS) on hepatic glutathione (GSH) status was examined in both control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. FS treatment caused a dose-dependent enhancement in hepatic GSH status, as evidenced by significant increases in hepatic GSH level and activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate and glutathione reductase (GRD), as well as a decreased susceptibility of hepatic tissue homogenates to in vitro peroxide-induced GSH depletion. The beneficial effect of FS treatment on hepatic GSH status became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Pretreating rats with FS extract at increasing daily doses ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 g/kg for 3 days caused a dose-dependent protection against the CCl4-induced impairment in hepatic GSH status. The enhancement in hepatic GSH status was associated with corresponding decreases in tissue malondialdehyde levels and plasma alanine aminotransferases activities, indicating a significant reduction in the extent of oxidative hepatocellular damage. Our results indicate that the molecular mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by FS pretreatment may involve the facilitation of GSH regeneration via the GRD-catalyzed and NADPH-mediated reaction.

  14. Schisandrin B protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity by enhancing the mitochondrial glutathione redox status in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C; Ko, K M

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the effect of Schisandrin B (Sch B),an active ingredient of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, on enhancing the hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice, as evidenced by the hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity. In the present study, the mechanism involved in the hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment was investigated. Treating female Balb/c mice with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, an inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GRD), at a dose of 2 mmol/kg (i.p.) did not abrogate the hepatoprotective action of Sch B in CCl4-treated mice. The result indicates that the increased activity of hepatic GRD is not ascribable to the hepatoprotective action of Sch B. In control mice, the same Sch B treatment regimen caused an enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status, as indicated by the significant increase and decrease in reduced and oxidized glutathione levels, respectively. While the CCl4 intoxication greatly impaired mitochondrial glutathione redox status, the beneficial effect of Sch B treatment became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Our results strongly suggest that the mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment may involve the enhancement of mitochondrial glutathione redox status.

  15. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-12-08

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1α)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occurred when the expression balance of SDF-1α between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1α expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4.

  16. C57BL/6 Substrains Exhibit Different Responses to Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure: Implications for Work Involving Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Jennifer M; Chalise, Prabhakar; Briley, Shawn M; Dennis, Katie L; Jiang, Lu; Duncan, Francesca E; Pritchard, Michele T

    2017-07-07

    Biological differences exist between strains of laboratory mice, and it is becoming increasingly evident that there are differences between substrains. In the C57BL/6 mouse, the primary substrains are called 6J and 6N. Previous studies have demonstrated that 6J and 6N mice differ in response to many experimental models of human disease. The aim of our study was to determine if differences exist between 6J and 6N mice in terms of their response to acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) exposure. Mice were given CCl4 once and were euthanized 12 to 96 h later. Relative to 6J mice, we found that 6N mice had increased liver injury but more rapid repair. This was because of the increased speed with which necrotic hepatocytes were removed in 6N mice and was directly related to increased recruitment of macrophages to the liver. In parallel, enhanced liver regeneration was observed in 6N relative to 6J mice. Hepatic stellate cell activation occurred earlier in 6N mice, but there was no difference in matrix metabolism between substrains. Taken together, these data demonstrate specific and significant differences in how the C57BL/6 substrains respond to acute CCl4, which has important implications for all mouse studies utilizing this model.

  17. Protective mechanism of grape seed oil on carbon tetrachloride-induced brain damage in γ-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Moawed, Fatma S M; Mohamed, Marwa Abdelhameed

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the possible beneficial effects of grape seed oil (GSO) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute neurotoxicity in γ-irradiated rats. A statistical significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were exhibited. Further, a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) levels was observed. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were elevated in the γ-irradiated animals treated with an acute dose of CCl4. The pretreatment of GSO exerts significant amelioration of the studied parameters. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that GSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in γ-irradiated rats, which is likely attributed to its ability to scavenge the free radicals, suppress the inflammatory responses, improve the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and inhibit the XO and iNOS gene expression levels.

  18. Enhanced dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of naturally occurring quinones and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Doong, Ruey-an; Lee, Chun-chi; Lien, Chia-min

    2014-02-01

    The effect of naturally occurring quinones including lawsone (LQ), ubiquinone (UQ), juglone (JQ), and 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) on the biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) in the presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens and ferrihydrite was investigated. AQDS was used as the model compound for comparison. The reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite by G. sulfurreducens was enhanced by AQDS, NQ, and LQ. However, addition of UQ and JQ had little enhancement effect on Fe(II) production. The bioreduction efficiency and rate of ferrihydrite was highly dependent on the natural property and concentration of quinone compounds and the addition of low concentrations of LQ and NQ significantly accelerated the biotransformation rate of CT. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for CT dechlorination (kobsCT) in AQDS-, LQ- and NQ-amended batches were 5.4-5.8, 4.6-7.4 and 2.4-5.8 times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of quinone. A good relationship between kobsCT for CT dechlorination and bioreduction ratio of ferrihydrite was observed, indicating the important role of biogenic Fe(II) in dechlorination of CT under iron-reducing conditions. Spectroscopic analysis showed that AQDS and NQ could be reduced to semiquinones and hydroquinones, while only hydroquinones were generated in LQ-amended batches.

  19. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits oxidative damage and preventive effects on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Mao-Chuan; Wang, Qian; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Liang-Qi; Chen, Xi-Ling; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yun-Jian; Li, Wen; Zhang, Long-Juan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on hepatic fibrogenesis and on cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic fibrosis was used to assess the effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of EGCG on the indexes of fibrosis. Histological and hepatic hydroxyproline examination revealed that EGCG significantly arrested progression of hepatic fibrosis. EGCG caused significant amelioration of liver injury (reduced activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). The development of CCl(4)-induced hepatic fibrosis altered the redox state with a decreased hepatic glutathione and increased the formation of lipid peroxidative products, which were partially normalized by treatment with EGCG, respectively. Moreover, EGCG markedly attenuated HSC activation as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity. In cultured stellate cell, the expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein were substantially reduced by EGCG treatment. Concanavalin A-induced activation of secreted MMP-2 was inhibited by EGCG through the influence of membrane type 1-MMP activity. These results demonstrate that administration of EGCG may be useful in the treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis.

  20. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh, G.; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch. V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Materials and Methods: Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl4-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:21713093

  1. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P; Amresh, G; Sahu, P K; Rao, Ch V

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl(4)-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl(4) treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl(4)-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  2. Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Musab Awad; Eldin, Imad Mohamed Taj; Mohammed, Abd-Elwahab Hassan; Hassan, Hozeifa Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural products with therapeutic properties such as plants, minerals, and animal products, for many years, were the main sources of drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases; hence selection of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) to study its hepatoprotective activity was considered. Objectives: This was an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of L. inermis leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The L. inermis leaves’ methanolic extract, which obtained by maceration, was orally administered in doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg to the tested animals to assess its effects on serum levels of hepatotoxicity parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and total proteins along with histopathological liver sections examination, while silymarin (25 mg/kg), a potent hepatoprotective drug, was used as standard control. Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect, as evident by the significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin along with the improvement in histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-only treated animals. Conclusion: As experimentally evident, it could be concluded that this plant material could provide a hepatoprotective effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:27069719

  3. Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves' methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Musab Awad; Eldin, Imad Mohamed Taj; Mohammed, Abd-Elwahab Hassan; Hassan, Hozeifa Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products with therapeutic properties such as plants, minerals, and animal products, for many years, were the main sources of drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases; hence selection of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) to study its hepatoprotective activity was considered. This was an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of L. inermis leaves' methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The L. inermis leaves' methanolic extract, which obtained by maceration, was orally administered in doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg to the tested animals to assess its effects on serum levels of hepatotoxicity parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and total proteins along with histopathological liver sections examination, while silymarin (25 mg/kg), a potent hepatoprotective drug, was used as standard control. The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect, as evident by the significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin along with the improvement in histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-only treated animals. As experimentally evident, it could be concluded that this plant material could provide a hepatoprotective effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  4. Green tea extract therapy diminishes hepatic fibrosis mediated by dual exposure to carbon tetrachloride and ethanol: A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed; Afzal, Mohamad; Hanafy, Nomny; Mousa, Shaker

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE) against the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol, and dual exposure to CCl4 plus ethanol in rats. In particular, an investigation of the three-dimensional architecture was conducted using scanning electron microscopy. Various techniques revealed that hepatic fibrosis with intermingled fibers was located between cells in the CCl4, ethanol and combined CCl4 plus ethanol groups. The hepatic fibrosis differed among the ethanol, CCl4 and CCl4 plus ethanol groups in terms of the type, thickness and distribution of fibers. The fibrotic lesions virtually disappeared in all the groups after 25 days of treatment with GTE, returning the architecture of the liver tissue to its normal status. The rats were also found to regain normal body weight and fur color, which had earlier been discolored due to weight loss. The autopsy results also showed that the animal livers returned to the normal shape and color. GTE demonstrated the same clear action in attenuating the hepatofibrosis for all three inducing treatments, by impairing collagen fibers, eliminating lipid peroxidation and returning the liver architecture to normal. GTE presents a safe therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus extract: alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Cymbopogon citratus against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-mediated hepatic oxidative damage in rats. Rats were administrated with C. citratus extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days before the challenge of CCl(4) (1.2 ml/kg b.w. p.o) on 13th and 14th days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by employing serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase-ALT, aspartate aminotransferase-AST and lactate dehydrogenase-LDH), malondialdehye (MDA) level, reduced GSH and antioxidant enzymes (catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPX, quinone reductase: QR, glutathione S-transferase: GST, glutathione reductase: GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehyrogenase: G6PD). In addition, CCl(4)-mediated hepatic damage was further evaluated by histopathological examination. However, most of these changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment of animals with C. citratus dose dependently (p < 0.05). The protection was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in liver. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of C. citratus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether lyophilized aqueous extract of alfalfa, or Medicago sativa L. could exert antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of alfalfa extract was determined by assessing the levels of serum transaminases, ALP, bilirubin and lipid profile. Further, the effect of the test substance on malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation; antioxidant liver enzyme non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH); and total protein (TP) were also studied. Serum transaminase, ALP, bilirubin level, lipid profile and liver MDA were significantly elevated and the antioxidant status in liver NP-SH and TP contents were declined in animals treated with CCl (4) alone. Pretreatment with alfalfa and silymarin for three weeks prior to the administration of CCl (4) significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic marker, LDL, VLDL levels enzymes and reduced oxidative stress indicated by elevated NP-SH and TP concentration. The histopathological examination of the livers also showed that the alfalfa extract reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl (4). The in vitro antioxidant assessment of alfalfa extract on DPPH and carotene-linoleic assays demonstrated a moderate antioxidant potential. Results suggest that the alfalfa extract possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidative stress properties possibly through its antioxidant phytochemical constituents and substantiates its use in various liver disorders as a hepatoprotector.

  7. CARBON REGENERATION, FENTON OXIDATION AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground water treatment process is described in which contaminants are adsorbed onto granulated activated carbon (GAC) containing fixed iron oxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is amended to the GAC suspension and reacts with the iron, forming hydroxyl radicals (.OH). The radicals...

  8. Iron-carbon composites for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkara, Bhanu Kiran

    This research is focused on engineering submicron spherical carbon particles as effective carriers/supports for nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles to address the in situ remediation of soil and groundwater chlorinated contaminants. Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) form a class of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) toxic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The in situ injection of NZVI particles to reduce DNAPLs is a potentially simple, cost-effective, and environmentally benign technology that has become a preferred method in the remediation of these compounds. However, unsupported NZVI particles exhibit ferromagnetism leading to particle aggregation and loss in mobility through the subsurface. This work demonstrates two approaches to prepare carbon supported NZVI (iron-carbon composites) particles. The objective is to establish these iron-carbon composites as extremely useful materials for the environmental remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and suitable materials for the in situ injection technology. This research also demonstrates that it is possible to vary the placement of iron nanoparticles either on the external surface or within the interior of carbon microspheres using a one-step aerosol-based process. The simple process of modifying iron placement has significant potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis as both the iron and carbon are widely used catalysts and catalyst supports. Furthermore, the aerosol-based process is applied to prepare new class of supported catalytic materials such as carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles for ex situ remediation of contaminated water. The iron-carbon composites developed in this research have multiple functionalities (a) they are reactive and function effectively in reductive dehalogenation (b) they are highly adsorptive thereby bringing the chlorinated compound to the proximity of the reactive sites and also serving as adsorption

  9. Transport of Carbon Tetrachloride in a Fractured Vadose Zone due to Atmospheric Pressure Fluctuations, Diffusion, and Vapor Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, J. E.; Downs, W.; Falta, R. W.; Housley, T.

    2005-12-01

    DNAPL sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vapors are of interest at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The site is underlain by thick fractured basalt that includes sedimentary interbeds, each are a few meters thick. Daily atmospheric pressure fluctuations serve as driving forces for CT vapor transport in the subsurface. Other important transport processes for vapor movement include gas-phase diffusion and density-driven transport. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence and relative importance of these processes on gaseous transport of CT. Gas pressure and vapor concentration measurements were conducted at various depths in two wells. A numerical multiphase flow model (TOUGH2), calibrated to field pressure data, is used to conduct sensitivity analyses to elucidate the importance of the different transport mechanisms. Results show that the basalt is highly permeable to vertical air flow. The pressure dampening occurs mainly in the sedimentary interbeds. Model-calibrated permeability values for the interbeds are similar to those obtained in a study by the U.S. Geological Survey for shallow sediments, and an order of magnitude higher than column-scale values obtained by previous studies conducted by INEEL scientists. The transport simulations indicate that considering the effect of barometric pressure changes is critical to simulating transport of pollutants in the vadose zone above the DNAPL source. Predicted concentrations can be orders of magnitude smaller than actual concentrations if the effect is not considered. Below the DNAPL vapor source, accounting for density and diffusion alone would yield acceptable results provided that a 20% error in concentrations are acceptable, and that simulating concentrations trends (and not actual concentrations) is the primary goal.

  10. Gene positional changes relative to the nuclear substructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Gariglio, Patricio; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2004-12-15

    In the interphase nucleus the DNA of higher eukaryotes is organized in loops anchored to a substructure known as the nuclear matrix (NM). The topological relationship between gene sequences located in the DNA loops and the NM appears to be very important for nuclear physiology because processes such as replication, transcription, and processing of primary transcripts occur at macromolecular complexes located at discrete sites upon the NM. Mammalian hepatocytes rarely divide but preserve a proliferating capacity that is displayed in vivo after specific stimulus. We have previously shown that transient changes in the relative position of specific genes to the NM occur during the process of liver regeneration after partial ablation of the liver, but also that such changes correlate with the replicating status of the cells. Moreover, since chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) leads to bouts of hepatocyte damage and regeneration, and eventually to non-reversible liver fibrosis in the rat, we used this animal model in order to explore if genes that show differential activity in the liver change or modify their relative position to the NM during the process of liver fibrosis induction. We found that changes in the relative position of specific genes to the NM occur during the chronic administration of CCl4, but also that such changes correlate with the proliferating status of the hepatocytes that goes from quiescence to regeneration to replicative senescence along the course of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, indicating that specific configurations in the higher-order DNA structure underlie the stages of progression towards liver fibrosis. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Modulation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis by olmesartan and omega-3.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ahmed A; Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; El-kashef, Hassan A; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2014-01-25

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of omega-3, olmesartan and their combination on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) rat model. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of CCl4 twice weekly for 12weeks, as well as daily oral treatments of olmesartan (1 and 3mg/kg), omega-3 (75 and 150mg/kg) and their combination during the last 4weeks of intoxication. Our results indicated that omega-3 and, to a lesser extent, olmesartan dose-dependently blunted CCl4-induced necroinflammation scoring and elevation of liver injury parameters in serum. Besides, omega-3 and, to a lesser extent, olmesartan treatments in a dose dependent manner attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, as demonstrated by hepatic histopathology scoring and 4-hydroxyproline content. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of both omega-3 and olmesartan were also elucidated. These include (1) counteracting hepatic oxidative stress and augmenting hepatic antioxidants; (2) preventing the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as denoted by reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver; (3) inhibiting the proliferation and chemotaxis of HSCs, as evidenced by downregulating platelet-derived growth factor receptors-β (PDGFR-β) expression in the liver; and (4) inhibiting the fibrogenesis response of HSCs, as indicated by inhibiting the secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Unexpectedly, when olmesartan was co-administered with omega-3, it interfered with the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic activities of omega-3. In conclusion, this study introduces the first evidence regarding the pronounced anti-fibrotic activity of omega-3 and suggests that it may be beneficial in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect in the rat of the interaction of dichloromaleic acid and carbon tetrachloride on renal and hepatic function

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, W.R.; Davis, M.E.; Berndt, W.O. )

    1989-10-01

    Water purification generates a variety of chlorinated contaminants, one of which is dichloromaleic acid (DCMA). Exposure to this compound is likely to occur in combination with other drinking water pollutants, some of which are hepatotoxic. This study was designed to examine the interactive effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a known hepatotoxin, with DCMA on liver and kidney function in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Administration of a single dose of DCMA (200-400 mg/kg, ip) caused modest dose-dependent increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and plasma urea nitrogen, as well as a marked depletion of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) in the liver, but not the kidney, by 24 hr. Pretreatment with inducers (phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene) or an inhibitor (SKF 525A) of cytochrome P-450 activity failed to alter the response observed with DCMA alone. Alterations in 24-hr urine volume, osmolality, and water consumption also were observed. DCMA-mediated changes in plasma urea nitrogen and NPSH were reduced in magnitude with coadministration of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, ip), while anticipated CCl4-induced increases in ALT and AST were reduced with coexposure to DCMA. Renal slice experiments indicated that DCMA-treated rats were less able to accumulate the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH), whereas DCMA had no effect on accumulation of the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA). The combination of CCl4 and DCMA produced only additive effects on organic ion accumulation. These results suggest hepatic interaction possibly related to the metabolism of CCl4 and DCMA, resulting in renal and hepatic toxicity diminished from that observed with exposure to either agent alone.

  13. Protective effects of total flavonoids of Bidens bipinnata L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li-Ping; Chen, Fei-Hu; Ling, Lu; Bo, Hu; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Li, Fan; Zhong, Ming-Mei; Xia, Li-Juan

    2008-10-01

    Bidens bipinnata L. is well known in China as a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat hepatitis in clinics for many years. In a previous study we found that total flavonoids of Bidens bipinnata L. (TFB) had a protective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Now this study was designed to investigate its therapeutic effect against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats and to determine, in part, its mechanism of action. The liver fibrosis model was established by subcutaneous injection of 50% CCl4 twice a week for 18 weeks. TFB (40, 80 and 160 mg kg(-1)) was administered by gastrogavage daily from the 9th week. The results showed that TFB (80 and 160 mg kg(-1)) treatment for 10 weeks significantly reduced the elevated liver index (liver weight/body weight) and spleen index (spleen weight/body weight), elevated levels of serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), hyaluronic acid, type III procollagen and hepatic hydroxyproline. In addition, TFB markedly inhibited CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, TFB (80 and 160 mg kg(-1)) treatment improved the morphologic changes of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 and suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) protein expression and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 gene expression in the liver of liver fibrosis of rats. In conclusion, TFB was able to ameliorate liver injury and protect rats from CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by suppressing oxidative stress. This process may be related to inhibiting the induction of NF-kappaB on hepatic stellate cell activation and the expression of TGF-beta1.

  14. Pien Tze Huang Gan Bao ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Hu, Haixia; Wan, Yun; Zhang, Yuchen; Zheng, Liangpu; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Liver damage results from a variety of insults, including hepatitis and chemical toxicity from alcohol, drugs and other toxins. The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects and potential mechanisms of action of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Pien Tze Huang Gan Bao (GB) in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six different groups: i) Control, ii) CCl4 injury model and groups treated with iii) silymarin as a positive drug control, iv) 150 mg/kg GB, v) 300 mg/kg GB and vi) 600 mg/kg GB. Control rats received no treatment, while the remaining ones were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (2 ml/kg) to induce acute liver disease. Silymarin or GB was orally administered prior to CCl4 treatment in various treatment groups for 7 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 h post-CCl4 injection. It was revealed that GB significantly reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and total bilirubin levels in the serum induced by CCl4. BG also prevented CCl4-induced changes in liver tissues, as revealed by histopathological analysis. CCl4-induced reductions in endogenous liver antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase as well as increases in malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were inhibited by GB treatment. Activated NF-κB in liver tissues was also significantly increased by CCl4, which was attenuated by GB as indicated by immunohistochemical and PCR analysis. Furthermore, CCl4-mediated increases in the inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β secretion into the serum and their expression in liver tissues were reversed following GB treatment, as revealed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. These findings suggested that GB protects against CCl4-induced hepatic injury, inflammation and oxidative damage in rats and may

  15. Effect of methanol extract of Dicranopteris linearis against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamisan, Farah Hidayah; Yahya, Farhana; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Kamarolzaman, Mohamad Fauzi Fahmi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Kek, Teh Lay; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Hussain, Mohd Khairi; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2014-04-04

    Dicranopteris linearis (family Gleicheniaceae) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities but no attempt has been made to study its hepatoprotective potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extracts of D. linearis (MEDL) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in rats. 6 groups (n = 6) of rats received oral test solutions: 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 200 mg/kg silymarin, or MEDL (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg), once daily for 7 consecutive days, followed by hepatotoxicity induction with CCl4. Blood and liver were collected for biochemical and microscopic analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant studies (e.g. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging assays, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and total phenolic content (TPC) determination), phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis. Pretreatment with MEDL and silymarin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP, which were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in DMSO-pretreated group following treatment with CCl4. Histological analysis of liver tissues in groups pretreated with MEDL and silymarin showed mild necrosis and inflammation of the hepatocytes compared to the DMSO-pretreated group (negative control group). The MEDL showed higher DPPH- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging activity as well as high TPC and ORAC values indicating high antioxidant activity. MEDL exerts hepatoprotective activity that could be partly contributed by its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content, and hence demands further investigation.

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Otostegia persica against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbartabar Toori, Mehdi; Joodi, Behzad; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Jafari, Mehrzad; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Mehraban, Foad; Mostafazadeh, Mostafa; Ghavamizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of Otostegia persica (O. persica) ethanol extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group I served as normal control and was given only olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.). Group II, III, IV, and V were administered CCl4 mixed with olive oil 1:1 (1 ml/kg) i.p., twice a week for 8 weeks. Group II was maintained as CCl4-intoxicated control (hepatotoxic group). Group III, IV, and V received O. persica extract at a dose of 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg for 8 weeks every 48 h orally, respectively. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and lipid peroxidation marker (Malonaldialdehyde, (MDA) were determined in serum. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed, livers dissected out, and evaluated for histomorphological changes. Results: The administration of CCl4 increased AST, ALT, ALP, TB, and MDA in serum but it decreased TP , and ALB compared with normal control. Treatment with O. persica extract at three doses resulted in decreased enzyme markers, bilirubin levels, and lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) and increased TP and ALB compared with CCl4 group. The results of pathological study also support the hepatoprotective effects which were observed at doses of 80 and 120 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that ethanol extract of O. persica may have hepatoprotective effect which is probably due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26101757

  17. Methanolic extract of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz flowers ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nitha, A; Prabha, S P; Ansil, P N; Latha, M S

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation, is the common cause of chronic liver failure and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rat model. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male Wistar rats by CCl4 administration (150 μl/100 g rat weight, oral) twice a week for 10 weeks. In preventive model, administration of daily doses of methanolic extract of W. fruticosa (MEWF) at two different doses (100 mg/kg, body weight (b.w.) and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was started 1 week before the onset of CCl4 administration and continued for 10 weeks. In curative model, MEWF at 100 and 200 mg/kg were given for last 2 weeks after the establishment of fibrosis. MEWF at a dose of 200 mg/kg was able to exert a more pronounced effect as evidenced histologically by significant reduction in fibrotic septa formation in liver tissue, immunohistochemically by abridged expression of collagen III, and also biochemically by serum and tissue antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, and hydroxyproline level. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of confertin, quercetin methyl ether, ellagic acid, and stigmasterol in MEWF, which could be responsible for its antifibrotic activity. These results indicate the effective protection exerted by MEWF against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, Nadia; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  19. Skeletal muscle myopenia in mice model of bile duct ligation and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Michela; Barberi, Laura; Di Sario, Francesca; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Nicoletti, Carmine; Ascenzi, Francesca; Renzi, Anastasia; Caporaso, Nicola; D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Eugenio; Musarò, Antonio; Merli, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscle myopathy is universal in cirrhotic patients, however, little is known about the main mechanisms involved. The study aims to investigate skeletal muscle morphological, histological, and functional modifications in experimental models of cirrhosis and the principal molecular pathways responsible for skeletal muscle myopathy. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in mice. Control animals (CTR) underwent bile duct exposure or vehicle administration only. At sacrifice, peripheral muscles were dissected and weighed. Contractile properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were studied in vitro. Muscle samples were used for histological and molecular analysis. Quadriceps muscle histology revealed a significant reduction in cross-sectional area of muscle and muscle fibers in cirrhotic mice with respect to CTR. Kinetic properties of EDL in both BDL and CCl4 were reduced with respect to CTR; BDL mice also showed a reduction in muscle force and a decrease in the resistance to fatigue. Increase in myostatin expression associated with a decrease in AKT-mTOR expressions was observed in BDL mice, together with an increase in LC3 protein levels. Upregulation of the proinflammatory citochines TNF-a and IL6 and an increased expression of NF-kB and MuRF-1 were observed in CCl4 mice. In conclusion, skeletal muscle myopenia was present in experimental models of BDL and CCl4-induced cirrhosis. Moreover, reduction in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation were the main mechanisms responsible for myopenia in BDL mice, while activation of ubiquitin-pathway through inflammatory cytokines seems to be the main potential mechanism involved in CCl4 mice.

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of cold-pressed Syzygium aromaticum oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Hadary, Abdalla E; Ramadan Hassanien, Mohamed F

    2016-08-01

    Contexts: Exposure to environmental pollutants such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causes liver injuries. There are claims that extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merrill & L.M.Perry, (Myrtaceae) protects from such injuries. This study investigates the protective effects of cold-pressed S. aromaticum oil (CO) against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. CO was orally administered to rats in two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg in olive oil) for 8 weeks. Indices of liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, and peroxidation were evaluated in rats' serum and tissues. Fatty acids and bioactive lipids of CO were analyzed. High levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (39.7%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (42.1%) were detected in CO. The oil contained high amounts of tocols and phenolics. The LD50 value at 24 h was approximately 5950 mg/kg. Treatment with 200 mg/kg CO resulted in a decrease of creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels to 0.86, 32.6, and 2.99 mg/dL, respectively. Levels of TL, TC, TAG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C were decreased to 167, 195.3, 584.5, 74.6, and 39.0 mg/L, respectively, after 8 weeks of treatment. Hepatic malondialdehyde levels were reduced and glutathione levels were elevated in CO-treated rats. CO reduced the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney function markers, protein, and lipid profiles, respectively. Histopathological examination of liver indicated that CO treatment reduced fatty degenerations, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis. CO possessed a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, mediated possibly by the antioxidant properties of the oil.

  1. Protective effect of C-phycocyanin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Zheng, Shan; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Qizhou; Yang, Xuegan

    2010-04-29

    This study focused on the hepatoprotective activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro study, human hepatocyte cell line L02 was used. C-PC showed its capability to reverse CCl(4)-induced L02 cells viability loss, alanine transaminase (ALT) leakage and morphological changes. C-PC also showed the following positive effects: prevent the CCl(4)-induced overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA); prevent changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and reduce glutathione (GSH) level. In vivo, C-PC showed its capability to decrease serum ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice. The histological observations supported the results obtained from serum enzymes assays. C-PC also showed the following effects in mice liver: prevent the CCl(4)-induced MDA formation and GSH depletion; prevent SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; and prevent the elevation of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNAs. Both the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that C-PC was useful in protecting against CCl(4)-induced hepatocyte damage. One of the mechanisms is believed to be through C-PCs scavenging ability to protect the hepatocytes from free radicals damage induced by CCl(4). In addition, C-PC may be able to block inflammatory infiltration through its anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting TGF-beta1 and HGF expression.

  2. Ameliorative effects of tannic acid on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xi; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Yan-min; Zhang, Yuan-yuan; Bao, Yi-fan; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Jian-ping; Guo, Hui; Yang, Fan; Luan, Yan-chao; Dong, Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effects and potential mechanisms of tannic acid (TA) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated mice and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Liver fibrosis was observed in CCl4 (800 ml/kg)-induced mice, and high viability was observed in CCl4 (10 mM)-intoxicated HSCs. Pre-treatment of mice with TA (25 or 50 g/kg/day) significantly ameliorated hepatic morphology and coefficient values and reduced the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). In addition, TA increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the serum level of NO. Moreover, TA reduced the expression of angiotensin II receptor-1 (ATR-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), caspase-3, c-fos, c-jun, the ratio of Bax/bcl-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TA increased matrix metal proteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Furthermore, TA (0.01 μM, 0.1 μM or 1 μM) decreased the TIMP-1/MMP-1 ratio and reduced the viability of HSCs. These results indicated that TA exerts significant liver-protective effects in mice with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. The potential mechanism may rely on the inhibition of collagen accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  3. Interleukin-6 production by peritoneal mesothelial cells and its regulation by inflammatory factors in rats administered carbon tetrachloride intraperitoneally

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Ohnishi, Ken-ichi; Zuinen, Ryoji; Ochiai, Yosuke; Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Hojo, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that a high level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is protective against CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity, is produced in the peritoneal cavity in the early period after ip carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) administration. The objective of this study was to identify the tissues and cells involved in IL-6 production and clarify the mechanisms underlying its regulation. IL-6 mRNA levels increased significantly in the serous membranes of the mesentery and peritoneum, but not in the parenchymal organs including liver, kidney and spleen, 3 h after ip CCl{sub 4} administration. Peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs), a major cell population in serous membranes, were isolated from rat peritoneal walls by trypsin digestion and cultured with peritoneal exudate fluid (PEF) from CCl{sub 4}-administered rats. PMCs produced a high level of IL-6 in the presence of PEF recovered 0.5 h after ip CCl{sub 4} administration. Analyses of PEF revealed that the levels of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), histamine, IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased immediately after ip CCl{sub 4} administration. These inflammatory factors, except for histamine, stimulated IL-6 production to varying degrees, in the following order: IL-1{alpha} > IL-1{beta} > TNF-{alpha} >> PGE{sub 2}. In summary, the present study indicates that the high level of IL-6 observed in the rat peritoneal cavity after ip CCl{sub 4} administration is at least partially produced by PMCs stimulated cooperatively with IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha} and PGE{sub 2}. These inflammatory factors may be released from tissues or cells either stimulated or injured directly by CCl{sub 4}.

  4. IN VIVO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF GARCINIA HOMBRONIANA (SEASHORE MANGOSTEEN)

    PubMed Central

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Imran; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Zakaria, Zainal Amiruddin; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Garcinia hombroniana, known as “manggis hutan” (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G. hombroniana bark extract. Materials and Methods: In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl4. Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. 1H, 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract. Results: In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) potency. In cytotoxicity study, MEA extract was more toxic towards MCF-7 and DBTRG cell lines causing 78.7% and 64.3% cell death, respectively. MEA extract in 1H, 13C-NMR, and IR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents. Conclusions: From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra. PMID:28573253

  5. IN VIVO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF GARCINIA HOMBRONIANA (SEASHORE MANGOSTEEN).

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Imran; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Zakaria, Zainal Amiruddin; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia hombroniana, known as "manggis hutan" (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G. hombroniana bark extract. In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl4. Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. (1)H, (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract. In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) potency. In cytotoxicity study, MEA extract was more toxic towards MCF-7 and DBTRG cell lines causing 78.7% and 64.3% cell death, respectively. MEA extract in (1)H, (13)C-NMR, and IR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents. From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Sonchus asper against carbon tetrachloride-induced injuries in male rats: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sonchus asper (SAME) is used as a folk medicine in hepatic disorders. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of SAME was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in rats. Methods To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of SAME, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into 6 groups. Rats of Group I (control) were given free access to approved feed and water. Rats of Group II were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (3 ml/kg) as a 30% solution in olive oil (v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks. Animals of Groups III (100 mg/kg) and IV (200 mg/kg) received SAME, whereas those of Group V were given silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received SAME (200 mg/kg) twice a week for 4 weeks without CCl4 treatment. Various parameters, such as the serum enzyme levels, serum biochemical marker levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and liver histopathology were used to estimate the hepatoprotective efficacy of SAME. Results The administration of SAME and silymarin significantly lowered the CCl4-induced serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides while elevating high-density lipoprotein levels. The hepatic contents of glutathione and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were reduced. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances that were increased by CCl4 were brought back to control levels by the administration of SAME and silymarin. Liver histopathology showed that SAME reduced the incidence of hepatic lesions induced by CCl4 in rats. Conclusion SAME may protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. PMID:22776436

  7. Methanol extract of Nymphaea lotus ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver injury in rats via inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T; Akanni, Olubukola O; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2017-01-01

    Nymphaea lotus (NL) is an aquatic perennial plant used traditionally in the management of various liver diseases. In this study, the protective effect of methanol extract of NL against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five rats each. Group I received corn oil (0.5 mL p.o.) and served as control, group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg i.p., 1:3 in corn oil), group III received NL (200 mg/kg), and groups IV, V, and VI received CCl4+NL (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively) for 6 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, rats were bled and killed. The activities of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and levels of total bilirubin (TB) in the serum, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) in the liver, and histopathology of the liver were determined using standard procedures. NL significantly (p<0.05) lowered the levels of ALT, AST, and TB and exhibited antioxidant potentials in rats exposed to CCl4 relative to the control values. Specifically, NL at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) increased CCl4-induced decrease in hepatic GSH and GPx and also decreased the level of hepatic TBARS in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Histopathological findings revealed cellular infiltration and fibrosis in rats that received CCl4 only, which were ameliorated in rats that received NL+CCl4. The data suggest that NL exhibited hepatoprotective effects in CCl4-intoxicated rats via antioxidative mechanism.

  8. Protective effect of red beetroot against carbon tetrachloride- and N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Murias, Marek; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Mikołajczyk, Katarzyna; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2009-03-25

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effect of beetroot juice in a model of oxidative stress induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). Male Wistar rats were treated with beetroot juice per os, 8 mL/kg/day for 28 days, and a single i.p. dose of the xenobiotics: 150 mg/kg NDEA or 2 mL/kg CCl(4). Simultaneously, two groups of rats not pretreated with juice were given only each of the xenobiotics. The level of microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver, expressed as TBARS concentration, was increased several fold in rats administered only NDEA or CCl(4). TBARS were decreased by 38% only in rats pretreated with beetroot juice before the administration of CCl(4). In animals pretreated with juice and receiving NDEA, a further increase in TBARS occurred. All of the investigated antioxidant enzymes were inhibited by the administration of either toxicant alone by 26%-77% as compared to controls. Pretreatment with juice caused a partial recovery in the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, by 35% and 66%, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased about 3-fold in animals pretreated with juice. Both xenobiotics caused a rise in plasma protein carbonyls, which were reduced by 30% in rats pretreated with juice and then injected with NDEA. Similarly, DNA damage in blood leukocytes caused by either toxicant was slightly diminished, by 20%, in the rats treated with juice before NDEA administration. It could be concluded that pretreatment with beetroot juice can counteract, to some extent, xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress in rats.

  9. Protective effect of Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts against oxidative kidney injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Ali; Değer, Yeter; Yıldırım, Serkan

    2017-11-01

    The protective effect of the extracts of the plants Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was researched. Sixty-six female Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, CCl4, Silybum marianum+ CCl4, Taraxacum officinale+CCl4. The Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were administered as 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. The CCl4 was administered as 1.5 mL/kg (i.p.). At the end of the trial period, in the serums obtained from the animals, in the CCl4 group it was found that the MDA level increased in the kidney tissue samples as well as in the ALP and GGT enzyme activities. It was also found that the GSH level and the GST enzyme activities decreased (p<.05). The microscopic evaluations showed that the CCl4 caused a serious hydropic degeneration, coagulation necrosis, and mono-nuclear cell infiltration in the kidney cell. In the animals where CCl4 and Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were applied together, it was found that the serum ALP and GGT enzyme activities decreased and that the MDA level decreased in the kidney tissue, and that the GSH level and GST enzyme activities increased. It was observed that the histopathological changes caused by the CCl4 toxicity were corrected by applying the extracts. Eventually, it was determined that the Silybum marianum was more effective. Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts which were used against histopathological changes in the kidney caused by toxication showed a corrective effect, which were supported by biochemical parameters.

  10. High-fat diet plus carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis is alleviated by betaine treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Bingül, İlknur; Aydın, A Fatih; Başaran-Küçükgergin, Canan; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Çoban, Jale; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-10-01

    Steatosis, the first lesion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Steatosis predisposes the liver to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokines. Betaine (BET) has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. However, the effects of BET on liver fibrosis development are unknown. Rats were treated with high-fat diet (60% of total calories from fat) for 14weeks. Carbon tetrachloride (0.2mL/kg; two times per week; i.p.) was administered to rats in the last 6weeks with/without commercial food containing BET (2%; w/w). Serum liver function tests and tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin resistance, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels and oxidative stress parameters were determined along with histopathologic observations. Alpha-smooth muscle-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and type I collagen (COL1A1) protein expressions and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were evaluated. BET decreased TG and HYP levels, prooxidant status and fibrotic changes in the liver. α-SMA, COL1A1 and TGF-β1 protein expressions, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions diminished due to BET treatment. BET has an antifibrotic effect and this effect may be related to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions together with suppression on HSC activation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0–6.5) Gg CCl4 y−1 during 2008–2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y−1) but only 8% (3–22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008–2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach). PMID:26929368

  12. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the US during 2008 - 2012 Derived from Atmospheric Data Using Bayesian and Geostatistical Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, B.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, S. M.; Thoning, K. W.; Siso, C.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J.; Dutton, G. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B. D.; Chen, H.; Fischer, M. L.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; Biraud, S.; Tans, P. P.

    2015-12-01

    Global atmospheric observations suggest substantial ongoing emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) despite a 100% phase-out of production for dispersive uses since 1996 in developed countries and 2010 in other countries. Little progress has been made in understanding the causes of these ongoing emissions or identifying their contributing sources. In this study, we employed multiple inverse modeling techniques (i.e. Bayesian and geostatistical inversions) to assimilate CCl4 mole fractions observed from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) flask-air sampling network over the US, and quantify its national and regional emissions during 2008 - 2012. Average national total emissions of CCl4 between 2008 and 2012 determined from these observations and an ensemble of inversions range between 2.1 and 6.1 Gg yr-1. This emission is substantially larger than the mean of 0.06 Gg/yr reported to the US EPA Toxics Release Inventory over these years, suggesting that under-reported emissions or non-reporting sources make up the bulk of CCl4 emissions from the US. But while the inventory does not account for the magnitude of observationally-derived CCl4 emissions, the regional distribution of derived and inventory emissions is similar. Furthermore, when considered relative to the distribution of uncapped landfills or population, the variability in measured mole fractions was most consistent with the distribution of industrial sources (i.e., those from the Toxics Release Inventory). Our results suggest that emissions from the US only account for a small fraction of the global on-going emissions of CCl4 (30 - 80 Gg yr-1 over this period). Finally, to ascertain the importance of the US emissions relative to the unaccounted global emission rate we considered multiple approaches to extrapolate our results to other countries and the globe.

  13. The role of heat shock protein 70 induced by geranylgeranylacetone in carbon tetrachloride-exposed adult rat testes.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Manal M; Omran, Ola M

    2013-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induces testicular damage, through formation of free-radical metabolites. Molecular chaperone heat shock protein of 70kDa (HSP 70) protects cells from various stresses. This study was designed to investigate the potential role of induction of HSP70 using geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) on testicular damage caused by CCl4. Rats were divided into group I (control group), Group II (CCl4 group) received CCl4 s.c. for 4 weeks, group III received CCl4 s.c. for 4 weeks simultaneously with daily single oral dose of GGA (GGA - treated CCl4 group). Serum testosterone, testicular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitrite and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured. Evaluation of histopathological changes and immunohistochemical HSP70 expression for testicular biopsies were performed. Group II showed lower values of gonado-somatic index, serum testosterone, testicular LDH, ALP, T-AOC and greater values of testicular MDA and total nitrite than in control. Testicular morphology showed widening of seminiferous lumen, less spermatogenesis, vacuolization of germinative epithelium. Group III had higher values of gonado-somatic index, serum testosterone, testicular LDH, ALP, T-AOC with less testicular MDA and total nitrite than in group II. They have less damage and restored the altered testicular morphology. Immunohistochemical HSP70 expression was increased in the testicular spermatogenic and sertoli cells in group II that was significantly accentuated in group III. These findings suggest that GGA-induced activation of HSP 70 significantly alleviate CCl4 inflicting testicular damage by HSP 70 mediated cytoprotection and antioxidant effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of protein deficiency on liver trace elements and antioxidant activity in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; López-Lirola, A; Olivera, R Martín; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Galindo-Martín, L; Abreu-González, P; Sánchez-Sanchez, J J; Martínez-Riera, A

    2003-01-01

    In liver cirrhosis, liver tissue becomes progressively substituted by fibrosis, ultimately leading to architectural distortion, liver circulatory changes, and liver failure. Some data support the hypothesis that protein undernutrition may play a role in the development and progression of nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis and that this progression is at least partially mediated by changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and other antioxidative systems, leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation. We analyzed the effects of protein deficiency on liver Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Se in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis, the relation of protein undernutrition and these trace elements with the activity of some hepatic antioxidative enzymatic mechanisms, and the relation of all of them with morphological and biochemical changes in 40 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats divided in four groups. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 to 10 rats fed a 2% protein diet and another 10 fed a 18% protein control diet; two further groups included rats without cirrhosis fed the 2% protein and the 18% protein diets. The study period lasted 6 wk. GPX, SOD, and lipid peroxidation products as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, and Fe were determined in liver samples. We found that liver GPX and Se were reduced in the cirrhotic animals, especially in the low-protein-fed ones, protein deficiency, but not cirrhosis, exerting the main effects. A close correlation was found between liver GPX and serum albumin and weight loss and an inverse one among GPX and hepatocyte ballooning, liver fibrosis, and fat, histomorphometrically determined. These results suggest a pathogenetic role of decreased GPX in the progression of liver disease, which may become enhanced by concomitant protein undernutrition. In addition to iron, the levels of which were increased in the malnourished rats, no differences were found regarding the other trace elements, SOD

  15. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl4-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl4-treated group relative to the control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl4-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. PMID:25827057

  16. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s). Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies of the dechlorination mechanism of carbon tetrachloride on a vivianite ferrous phosphate surface.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Keonghee; Lee, Nara; Bae, Sungjun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2015-06-04

    Chlorinated organics are the principal and most frequently found contaminants in soil and groundwater, generating significant environmental problems. Over the past several decades, Fe-containing minerals naturally occurring in aquatic and terrestrial environments have been used as natural electron donors, which can effectively dechlorinate a variety of chlorinated organics. However, a full understanding of the reaction mechanism of the dechlorination pathway cannot be obtained by experimental investigations alone, due to the immeasurability of chemical species formed over a short reaction time. In this report, we describe experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out to investigate the complex reduction pathway of carbon tetrachloride (CT) on a vivianite (Fe(II)3(PO4)2·8H2O) surface. Our results indicate that chloroform (HCCl3) and formate are the primary transformation products. The experimental results reveal that the reduction kinetics of CCl4 can be dramatically accelerated as the pH is increased from 3 to 11. On the basis of the DFT calculations, we found that HCCl3 can be formed by (•)CCl3 and :CCl3(-)* on a deprotonated vivianite surface (an adsorbate on vivianite is denoted using an asterisk). In addition, :CCl3(-)* can be nonreductively dechlorinated to form :CCl2* followed by sequential nucleophilic attack by OH(-)*, resulting in the formation of :CCl(OH)* and :C(OH)2*, which are responsible for production of CO and formate, respectively. The results obtained from this study can facilitate the modeling of systems of other halogenated species and minerals, which will provide fundamental insight into their corresponding reaction mechanisms.

  18. Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the Electron-Transfer Reactions Involving Carbon Tetrachloride in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Valiev, Marat; Bylaska, Eric J.; Dupuis, Michel; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2008-03-27

    The reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride, CC₄, was investigated using combined high level quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. The first electron transfer process was assumed to proceed by a concerted electron transfer-bond breaking mechanism, and reaction barriers for the first electron reduction were estimated by using the crossing point of the free energy profiles of CCl₃-Cl and CCl₃-Cl•- as a function of the CCl₃-Cl distance. The results of these calculations showed that the activation barriers for this reaction are reachable under a wide range of reduction potentials. In the gas-phase, the barrier to reduction varied from 0.8 kcal/mol for reducing agent with a -5 kcal/mol work function to 24.7 kcal/mol for a reducing agent with a 40 kcal/mol work function at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level. In the aqueous phase, QM/MM calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level predicted that the barrier to reduction varied from 0.7 kcal/mol to 35.2 kcal/mol for -2.32 V and 0.93 V reduction potentials respectively. COSMO continuum solvation calculations were also performed for comparison. For strong reducing agents (EH < -1.5V) very little difference was seen between the QM/MM and COSMO activation barriers. For weak reducing agents (EH > 0V) the activation barriers differed by as much as 6 kcal/mol between the QM/MM and COSMO calculations. These results demonstrate that ab initio electronic structure methods coupled with explicit molecular mechanics representation of the aqueous environment offer an efficient and accurate way to calculate the free energy reaction barriers for dissociative electron transfer reactions of organochlorine compounds to identify the potentially important environmental degradation processes.

  19. Antifibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi in a carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic fibrosis animal model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Choi, Min-Kyung; Shin, Jang-Woo; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-03-06

    Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi, both members of the Compositae family, have been indiscriminately used for various liver disorders as traditional hepatotherapeutic medicines in Korea for many years. In this study, the anti-hepatofibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi were comparatively analyzed using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis rat model. Hepatic fibrosis was induced via a 10-week course of intraperitoneal CCl(4) injections (50% dissolved in olive oil, 2mL/kg, twice per week). Water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC) or Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) was orally administered six times per week from the 5th to the 10th week. AI (50mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCl(4)-induced excessive release of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum (p<0.05), and hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver tissue (p<0.05). Further, AI markedly ameliorated the depletion of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue (p<0.01). Unexpectedly, AC did not exert any effects on the above parameters. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that AI drastically reduced inflammation, necrosis, fatty infiltration, collagen accumulation, and activation of hepatic satellite cells in liver tissue. These changes were not observed with AC treatment. Several critical genes of fibrosis-related cytokines including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGF-β), and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were more prominently downregulated by AI compared to AC treatment. Our results show that AI exerts greater hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects as compared with AC via enhancing antioxidant capacity and downregulating fibrogentic cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remediating plastic waste into carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Pol, Vilas Ganpat; Thiyagarajan, Pappanan

    2010-02-01

    Polyethylene-based used plastics needs hundreds of years to degrade in atmospheric conditions. Thus, in addition to conventional recycling facilities for polymer waste (PW), innovative solutions are required. This paper describes a solvent-free process that converts PW such as low-density (LD) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) into multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via thermal dissociation in the presence of chemical catalysts in a closed system under autogenic pressure. Specifically, the optimization of process parameters, e.g. selection and amounts of catalysts, density effects of PE, autogenic pressure measurements, and a reaction mechanism for the growth of MWCNTs is explained. The composition, morphology, and atomic structure of the as-obtained MWCNTs are characterized employing advanced structural, spectroscopic, and imaging techniques. We have measured the unique magnetic and electrical conductivity behaviours of as-prepared MWCNTs to assess their potential applications as advanced materials. This reproducible process presents an opportunity to use PW as a feedstock for the production of MWCNTs, industrially significant value-added products. Among the known methods for the fabrication of MWCNTs, the present controlled dissociation of PW is one of the inexpensive and straightforward methods.

  1. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  2. Protective effect of Dunaliella salina-A marine micro alga, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chidambara Murthy, K N; Rajesha, J; Vanitha, A; Swamy, M Mahadeva; Ravishankar, G A

    2005-12-01

    This is the first report on the hepatoprotective potentials of marine micro algae Dunaliella species. Dunaliella salina, halotolarent green alga was cultivated in modified autotrophic medium. The alga was subjected to light and nutrient stress in order to accumulate (beta-carotene along with other carotenoids. Such beta-carotene enriched yellow cells were fed to rats by mixing with regular feed at the dose of 2.5 and of 5.0gkg(-1) b.w. for 2 weeks. The degree of hepatoprotection was measured up on challenging animals with toxin (2.0gkg(-1) of carbon tetrachloride) by estimation of biochemical parameters like, serum transaminases (serum aspartate transaminase (S)AST and serum alanine transaminase (S)ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase and total protein. The results were compared to animals on normal diet and with group fed with 100mugkg(-1) b.w. of standard all trans beta-carotene. Among the three test groups the group fed with algae of 5.0gkg(-1) body weight, showed maximum protection. The levels of (S)AST and (S)ALT was found to be 61.3+/-6.4 and 80.7+/-5.6%, against 90.8+/-10.5 and 144.7+/-13.9% in case of standard beta-carotene. The protein contents were increased in case of control to 6.1+/-0.7 and the same was found to be significantly less in case of 5.0gkg(-1)Dunaliella fed group, which shown 5.6+/-0.8% total protein. However, the activity of 2.5gkg(-1) was also significant comparatively (P<0.05). The results indicate that Dunaliella, which contains isomeric forms of beta-carotene can act as good antihepatotoxic when compared to synthetic all trans beta-carotene. Dunaliella has shown the presence of both cis and trans isomeric forms of beta-carotene, where as synthetic compounds contain only trans isomer. Hepatoprotectivity may be due to presence of various isomeric forms of carotene and other oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls) in algae.

  3. Deficient liver regeneration after carbon tetrachloride injury in mice lacking type 1 but not type 2 tumor necrosis factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Y.; Fausto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Signaling by tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor (TNFR-1) is required for the initiation of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Using knockout mice that lack either TNFR-1 or TNFR-2, we determined whether signaling through TNF receptors is important for liver injury and hepatocyte proliferation induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Lack of TNFR-1 inhibited hepatocyte DNA synthesis after CCl4 injection. At 44 hours after the injection, replication of hepatocytes in TNFR-1 was 50% to 90% lower than in wild-type (WT) animals, depending on the dose injected. In WT animals, hepatocyte replication was essentially completed by 4 days after CCl4 injection, but replication at a low level persisted in TNFR-1 mice for at least 2 weeks. TNFR-1 knockout mice had little detectable NF-kappa B and STAT3 binding during the first 5 hours after CCl4, high plasma TNF, and reduced levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and liver IL-6 mRNA. Injection of IL-6 30 minutes before CCl4 administration corrected the deficiency of hepatocyte replication at 44 hours and restored STAT3 binding to normal levels. In contrast, mice lacking TNFR-2 did not differ significantly from WT mice in NF-kappa B and STAT3 binding, IL-6 and TNF levels, or hepatocyte replication. Although AP-1 binding was induced in WT TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 knockout mice, binding in TNFR-2 knockouts was lower than in WT mice. C/EBP binding was much lower in TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 knockout mice than in WT mice. As assessed by morphological analysis and alanine aminotransferase levels, the acute injury caused by CCl4 appeared to be similar in the three groups of animals, but subsequent regeneration was impaired in mice lacking TNFR-1. We conclude that a TNFR-1 signaling pathway involving NF-kappa B, IL-6, and STAT3 is an important component of the hepatocyte mitogenic response induced by CCl4 injury in mouse liver. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 12 PMID:9626061

  4. Modulation of gamma-irradiation and carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in the brain of female rats by flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Salem, Asmaa A M; Eassawy, Mamdouh M T

    2016-08-01

    The activity of flaxseed oil (FSO) on gamma-irradiation (7Gy) and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute neurotoxicity in rats' brain was investigated. The results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and manganese (Mn) contents. Further, a significant elevation (p<0.05) in malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) levels were observed. Furthermore, the relative ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression levels were elevated in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated and CCl4 intoxicated animals. Those effects were augmented due to the effect of CCl4-induced toxicity in γ-irradiated rats. The treatment of FSO displayed significant amendment of the studied parameters in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated and CCl4 intoxicated animals. FSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in gamma-irradiated rats. This effect is interrelated to the ability of FSO to scavenges the free radicals, enhances the antioxidant enzymes activity, increases GSH contents, down-regulates the inflammatory responses, ameliorates the iron, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese levels and inhibiting the gene expression level of XO and iNOS in the brain tissues of intoxicated animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of FSO have the ability to improve the antioxidant status, suppress the inflammatory responses, and regulate the trace elements in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect in intoxicated animals. Consequently, FSO exhibited neuroprotective activity on γ-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect induced brain injury in

  5. Acute-phase response in rat to carbon tetrachloride-azathioprine induced cirrhosis and partial hepatectomy of cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Fouad, F M; Mamer, O A; Shahidi, F

    1996-04-19

    Irreversible liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by supplementing their diet with 0.02% azathioprine and intubating them twice a week with carbon tetrachloride in corn oil. Over period of 3 mo, intoxicated rats showed an atypical acute-phase reaction (APR). The relative concentrations of haptoglobin, beta-lipoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, an unknown peak "X, " and transferrin increased exponentially following a mild initial drop, while albumin, C3c + C3, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-lipoprotein, and macroglobulin declined continually during the experiment. The accumulated peritoneal fluid was found to contain a similar spectrum of APR proteins. On the other hand, histological examination revealed gradual liver damage manifested as a gradual increase in the areas of collagen separating liver cells, and at the end of the experiment, severe liver damage was evident with isolated hepatocytes in a matrix of collagen. The available data point to the disparity that exists between the physical status of hepatocytes and their biochemical function, which suggests that the remaining metabolically fatigued hepatocytes of the cirrhotic liver continue to biosynthesize and release elevated concentrations of some secretable APR proteins and less of others. Changes in the spectrum of APR plasma components during the progression of inflammatory or physical lesion remain a valid biochemical measure of the pathological function of the acutely intoxicated liver. Partial hepatectomy (PH) of cirrhotic liver displayed a mute APR and no regenerative activity of the remnant hepatic tissue, most likely due to the substantial depletion of hepatic DNA and possible chemical damage to DNA of the remaining viable hepatocytes. A possible cause for the depressed APR to the surgical insult of PH is that the initial azathioprine-CCl4 intoxication had maximally affected APR gene expression and a second injury would then elicit minimal further changes in mRNA levels. Thus, in a compounded

  6. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaker, Mohamed E.; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Shiha, Gamal E.; Ibrahim, Tarek M.

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl{sub 4}-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl{sub 4}-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were compared

  7. Plasma lipid profiling of different types of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and lomustine in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Saito, Kosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-04-12

    Plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool for understanding the pathophysiology of hepatic injury and disease. Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic, progressive damage to the liver and can lead, in turn, to more serious conditions such as hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the plasma lipid profiles of two types of hepatic fibrosis in order to aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis. A liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry platform was used to reveal and compare the plasma lipid profiles of two types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis. Rat models of centrilobular fibrosis and bile duct fibrosis were established via chronic exposure to the known fibrogenic hepatotoxins, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or lomustine (LS), respectively, over a 28-day period. To delineate the specific alterations in the lipid profiles as a result of the hepatic fibrosis, we also employed non-fibrogenic hepatotoxicants (2-acetamidofluorene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and ethambutol) as well as 3-day treatment of CCl4 and LS, which did not induce fibrosis. Our assay platform identified 228 lipids in the rat plasma, and the global lipid profile clearly distinguished these models from the control via principal component analysis. In addition, the alteration of the plasma lipid profile caused by CCl4 and LS were clearly different. Furthermore, a number of lipids were identified as specific alterations caused by fibrosis induced only by CCl4 and LS, respectively. Three lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC[18:3], LPC[20:4], and LPC[22:6]), and three phosphatidylcholines (PC[18:2/20:4], PC[40:8], and PC[20:4/22:6]) are specific circulating lipids, the levels of which were altered by both CCl4 and LS treatment; however, their levels were decreased by chronic exposure to CCl4 and increased by chronic exposure to LS. These results suggest that different types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis demonstrate clear

  8. Amomum cardamomum L. ethyl acetate fraction protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via an antioxidant mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Hyuck; Park, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jai-Eun; Moon, Jin-Young; Park, Sun-Dong; Park, Won-Hwan

    2016-05-31

    Medicinal herb-derived drug development has become important in the relief of liver pathology. Amomun cardamomum is traditionally used therapeutically in Korea to treat various human ailments including dyspepsia, hiccupping, and vomiting. We investigated to assess the protective effect of A. cardamomum on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage through antioxidant activity in hepatic tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats. Antioxidant properties of different fractions from A. cardamomum from ethanol extracts were evaluated by an in vitro free radical scavenging systems. The protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction from A. cardamomum (EAAC) against CCl4-induced cytotoxicity was determined by a cell viability assay using HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. In vivo study, the influence of EAAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg following CCl4-induced hepatic injury was assessed. Serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, as was lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA). Effect of EAAC on liver detoxification enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione (GSH), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was measured in rat liver homogenates. Liver cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) expression level was determined by quantification of mRNA. Phytochemical analysis of A. cardamomum indicated that EAAC was enriched in total polyphenol and total flavonoid. Most of the tannins were confined to the hexane fraction. Hepatoprotective properties of EAAC were evident, with significantly reduced serum levels of GOT, GPT, and ALP compared with the control group. Improved hepatic antioxidant status was evident by increased SOD, GSH, and GST enzymes in rat liver tissue. Liver lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4 was apparent by increased intracellular MDA level. EAAC suppressed lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the significant decrease in MDA production. Expression of CYP2E1

  9. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  10. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  11. Inulin-type fructan and infusion of Artemisia vulgaris protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Ferreira, Marília Locatelli; Verdan, Maria Helena; Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Telles, José Ederaldo Queiroz; Alves Stefanello, Maria Élida; Acco, Alexandra; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2017-01-15

    Infusions of aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) are used in herbal medicine to treat several disorders, including hepatosis. Evaluation of in vivo hepatoprotective effects of A. vulgaris infusion (VI) and inulin (VPI; i.e., the major polysaccharide of VI). The hepatoprotective effect of A. vulgaris extracts on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanism involved in this protection were investigated in mice. A. vulgaris infusion (VI) was prepared according to folk medicine using the aerial parts of the plant. Carbohydrate, protein, and total phenolic content was determined in VI, and its phenolic profile was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Male Swiss mice were orally pretreated for 7 days with VI or VPI (once per day). On days 6 and 7 of treatment, the mice were intraperitoneally challenged with CCl4. Liver and blood were collected and markers of hepatic damage in plasma and oxidative stress in the liver were analyzed. Hepatic histology and inflammatory parameters were also studied in the liver. The scavenging activity of VI and VPI were evaluated in vitro using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. VI contained 40% carbohydrates, 2.9% proteins and 9.8% phenolic compounds. The HPLC fingerprint analysis of VI revealed chlorogenic, caffeic and dicaffeoylquinic acids as major low-molar-mass constituents. Oral pretreatment with VI and VPI significantly attenuated CCl4-induced liver damage, reduced the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma, and prevented reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation in the liver. Comparisons with the CCl4-treated group showed that VI and VPI completely prevented necrosis, increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), and reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level in the liver. VI and VPI also exhibited high radical scavenging activity in vitro. VI and

  12. Regeneration of coenzyme Q9 redox state and inhibition of oxidative stress by Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) administration in carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

    PubMed

    Kucharská, J; Ulicná, O; Gvozdjáková, A; Sumbalová, Z; Vancová, O; Bozek, P; Nakano, M; Greksák, M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on liver antioxidant status and oxidative stress was investigated in rat model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Synthetic antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was used for comparison. Administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 10 weeks decreased liver concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9H2 and CoQ9), reduced -tocopherol content and simultaneously increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) as indicator of lipid peroxidation. Rooibos tea and NAC administered to CCl4-damaged rats restored liver concentrations of CoQ9H2 and alpha-tocopherol and inhibited the formation of MDA, all to the values comparable with healthy animals. Rooibos tea did not counteract the decrease in CoQ9, whereas NAC was able to do it. Improved regeneration of coenzyme Q9 redox state and inhibition of oxidative stress in CCl4-damaged livers may explain the beneficial effect of antioxidant therapy. Therefore, the consumption of rooibos tea as a rich source of natural antioxidants could be recommended as a market available, safe and effective hepatoprotector in patients with liver diseases.

  13. The antioxidant effect of β-caryophyllene protects rat liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Miguel Angel; Vieites, Jose María; Montero-Meléndez, Trinidad; Montero-Meterdez, Trinidad; Torres, María Isabel; Faus, María José; Gil, Angel; Suárez, Antonio

    2013-02-14

    Plant-based whole foods provide thousands of bioactive metabolites to the human diet that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases. β-Caryophyllene (CAR) is a common constituent of the essential oil of numerous plants, vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs, and has been used as a flavouring agent since the 1930 s. Here, we report the antioxidant activity of CAR, its protective effect on liver fibrosis and its inhibitory capacity on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. CAR was tested for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and as a free radical scavenger. CAR had higher inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation than probucol, α-humulene and α-tocopherol. Also, CAR showed high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion. The activity of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme that actively participates in fibrogenesis, was significantly inhibited by CAR. Carbon tetrachloride-treated rats received CAR at 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg. CAR significantly improved liver structure, and reduced fibrosis and the expression of Col1a1, Tgfb1 and Timp1 genes. Oxidative stress was used to establish a model of HSC activation with overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins. CAR (1 and 10 μm) increased cell viability and significantly reduced the expression of fibrotic marker genes. CAR, a sesquiterpene present in numerous plants and foods, is as a natural antioxidant that reduces carbon tetrachloride-mediated liver fibrosis and inhibits hepatic cell activation.

  14. Reductive metabolism of carbon tetrachloride by human cytochromes P-450 reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles: mass spectral identification of trichloromethyl radical bound to dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Trudell, J R; Bösterling, B; Trevor, A J

    1982-01-01

    It has been proposed that covalent binding of reactive metabolites to liver membrane constituents may be responsible for the hepatoxicity of carbon tetrachloride. This study demonstrates that trichloromethyl free radical is the major reductive metabolite of carbon tetrachloride by cytochrome P-450 and that this free radical is capable of binding to double bonds of fatty acyl chains of the phospholipids in the membrane surrounding cytochrome P-450. The structural identification of the reactive free radical metabolite and the product of its addition to phospholipids was accomplished by use of a reconstituted system of human cytochromes P-450, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, and cytochrome b5 in phospholipid vesicles. The reconstituted vesicles contained a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and egg phosphatidylethanolamine that served as both structural components and targets for trichloromethyl free radical binding. After incubation of these vesicles under a N2 atmosphere in the presence of NADPH with 14CCl4, the phospholipids were extracted and then separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine fraction was transesterified and the resulting single 14C-labeled fatty acid methyl ester was purified by reverse-phase chromatography. Desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas as well as desorption electron-impact mass spectrometry permitted identification of the molecular structure as a mixture of 9- and 10-(trichloromethyl)stearate methyl esters. PMID:6953422

  15. A Continuous Flow Column Study of the Anaerobic Transformation of a CAH Mixture of Tetrachloroethene and Carbon Tetrachloride Using Formate as an Electron Donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M. F.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Many groundwater sites are contaminated with mixtures of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that represent a challenge when biological remediation processes are being considered. This is especially challenging when high concentrations of CAHs are present.Trichloromethane (CF), for example, has been observed to inhibit and potentially exert toxicity on reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where the simultaneous transformation of PCE and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was achieved. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. The column was fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE to achieve an influent concentration near its solubility limit (0.10 mM) and formate (1.5 mM) that reacts to produce hydrogen as the ultimate electron donor. The column was operated for over 1600 days prior to the addition of CT. During this period PCE was transformed mainly to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) and minor amounts of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and TCE. The transformation extent achieved based on the column effluent concentrations ranged from about 50% ETH, 30% VC, and 20 cis-DCE up to 80% ETH and 20% VC. When the column was fed sulfate, it was completely transformed via sulfate reduction. Ferrous iron production from ferric iron reduction was observed early in the study. Acetate was also formed as a result of homoacetogenesis from hydrogen utilization. CT addition (0.015 mM) was started at 1600 days while PCE addition was continued. During the first 25 days of CT addition, CT concentrations gradually increased to 50% of the injection concentration and chloromethane (CM) and CF were observed as transformation products. CT concentrations then decreased with over 98% transformation achieved.CM was removed to below the detection limit and CF concentration decreases to

  16. Hepatoprotective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2 in Rats With Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenli; Zhang, Zemin; Du, Ning; Wang, Kai; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Infectious hepatitis is a serious problem affecting millions of people worldwide, particularly in China and other developing countries, and it is the major risk factor for hepatic cirrhosis. To date, the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis is complex and unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used in its treatment; however, little is known to date about the effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) on liver fibrosis. Using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, the study intended to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of GSPB2 and to determine the possible pathway by which GSPB2 exerts its activities. Design • Thirty-six male, Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Rats in a model (CCl4 only) group and the GSPB2 group were given CCl4 to induce hepatic fibrosis. Simultaneously, animals in the GSPB2 group were treated with GSPB2 by intragastric administration for 12 wk. In addition, the rat's Kupffer cells were cultured with CCl4 and GSPB2. The study took place at the central laboratory of Qilu Hospital at Shandong University in Jinan, China. The following parameters were investigated: (1) hepatic function; (2) the liver fibrosis index-serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type 3 procollagen (PC-3), collagen 4, and hepatic hydroxyproline; (3) the expression in the liver of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1); (4) inflammatory cytokines in the liver and cell culture medium-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1-β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-17; (5) oxidative stress markers in the liver and cell culture medium-malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC); and (6) levels of angiotensin 2 (Ang 2) in the liver. The CCl4 induced (1) significant hepatic-function damage; (2) elevated levels of the measures of the liver fibrosis index, TGF-β1, inflammatory cytokines, MDA, and 8-OHdG; (3) a reduction in

  17. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents. PMID:25825639

  18. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-02-01

    Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents.

  19. Nonequilibrium Mixed Quantum-Classical simulations of Hydrogen-bond Structure and Dynamics in Methanol-d Carbon tetrachloride liquid mixtures and its spectroscopic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Geva, Eitan

    2011-03-01

    Liquid mixtures of methanol-d and carbon tetrachloride provide attractive model systems for investigating hydrogen-bond structure and dynamics. The hydrogen-bonded methanol oligomers in these mixtures give rise to a very broad hydroxyl stretch IR band (~ 150 cm-1). We have employed mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the nature of hydrogen- bond structure and dynamics in this system and its spectroscopic signature. In our simulations, the hydroxyl stretch mode is treated quantum mechanically. We have found that the absorption spectrum is highly sensitive to the type of force fields used. Obtaining absorption spectra consistent with experiment required the use of corrected polarizabile force fields and a dipole damping scheme. We have established mapping relationships between the electric field along the hydroxyl bond and the hydrogen-stretch frequency and bond length thereby reducing the computational cost dramatically to simulate the complex nonequilibrium dynamics underlying pump-probe spectra.

  20. Protective effect of compounds from the flowers of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qun; Yang, Li; Zhao, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Xi-Lin

    2013-12-01

    5-Hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF), limonexic acid (LA) are two compounds isolated from the flowers of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl with various biological activities. This study was designed to investigate their protective effects against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte injury, using human hepatic cell line HL-7702 to determine the cell cytotoxicity, cell viability, levels of hepatic marker enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA). Results showed that pretreatment with HTF, LA could significantly reverse CCl4-induced HL-7702 cell viability decrease, LA displayed a higher activity. HTF, LA also showed their capability of decreasing the CCl4-induced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inhibiting the lipid peroxidation, HTF showed more significant activity. Given that HTF, LA were not toxic, it is concluded that HTF, LA could effectively protect hepatocyte against CCl4-induced injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  2. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  3. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated lake sediment using activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yao, Fu-Bing; Guo, Min; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment were a potential damage for humans and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of carbon materials remedy hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in sediment. Two different carbon materials including activated carbon (AC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in the present research. Sediment treated with 2 wt% AC and MWCNTs after 150 d contact showed 97%, and 75% reduction for HCH, and 93% and 59% decrease for DDTs in aqueous equilibrium concentration, respectively. Similarly, the reduction efficiencies of DDT and HCH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) treated with AC (MWCNTs) were 97% (75%) and 92% (63%), respectively under the identical conditions. Furthermore, for 2 wt% AC (MWCNTs) system, a reduction of XAD beads uptake up to 87% (52%) and 73% (67%) was obtained in HCH and DDT flux to overlying water in quiescent system. Adding MWCNTs to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium concentration and DDTs and HCH availability in SPMDs compared to AC treatment. A series of results indicated that AC had significantly higher remediation efficiency towards HCH and DDTs in sediment than MWCNTs. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of two organic pollutants improved with increasing material doses and contact times. The greater effectiveness of AC was attributed to its greater specific surface area, which was favorable for binding contaminants. These results highlighted the potential for using AC as in-situ sorbent amendments for sediment remediation.

  4. Macroporous Carbon Supported Zerovalent Iron for Remediation of Trichloroethylene

    DOE PAGES

    Lawrinenko, Michael; Wang, Zhuangji; Horton, Robert; ...

    2016-12-26

    Groundwater contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons has become a widespread problem that threatens water quality and human health. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), which employ zerovalent iron, are effective for remediation; however, a need exists to reduce the economic and environmental costs associated with constructing PRBs. Here, we present a method to produce zerovalent iron supported on macroporous carbon using only lignin and magnetite. Biochar- ZVI (BC-ZVI) produced by this method exhibits a broad pore size distribution with micrometer sized ZVI phases dispersed throughout a carbon matrix. X-ray diffraction revealed that pyrolysis at 900 °C of a 50/50 lignin$-$magnetite mixture resulted inmore » almost complete reduction of magnetite to ZVI and that compression molding promotes iron reduction in pyrolysis due to mixing of starting materials. High temperature pyrolysis of lignin yields some graphite in BC-ZVI due to reduction of carbonaceous gases on iron oxides. TCE was removed from water as it passed through a column packed with BC-ZVI at flow rates representative of average and high groundwater flow. Lastly, one-dimensional convection$-$dispersion modeling revealed that adsorption by biochar influences TCE transport and that BC-ZVI facilitated removal of TCE from contaminated water by both adsorption and degradation.« less

  5. Macroporous Carbon Supported Zerovalent Iron for Remediation of Trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrinenko, Michael; Wang, Zhuangji; Horton, Robert; Mendivelso-Perez, Deyny; Smith, Emily A.; Webster, Terry E.; Laird, David A.; van Leeuwen, J. Hans

    2016-12-26

    Groundwater contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons has become a widespread problem that threatens water quality and human health. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), which employ zerovalent iron, are effective for remediation; however, a need exists to reduce the economic and environmental costs associated with constructing PRBs. Here, we present a method to produce zerovalent iron supported on macroporous carbon using only lignin and magnetite. Biochar- ZVI (BC-ZVI) produced by this method exhibits a broad pore size distribution with micrometer sized ZVI phases dispersed throughout a carbon matrix. X-ray diffraction revealed that pyrolysis at 900 °C of a 50/50 lignin$-$magnetite mixture resulted in almost complete reduction of magnetite to ZVI and that compression molding promotes iron reduction in pyrolysis due to mixing of starting materials. High temperature pyrolysis of lignin yields some graphite in BC-ZVI due to reduction of carbonaceous gases on iron oxides. TCE was removed from water as it passed through a column packed with BC-ZVI at flow rates representative of average and high groundwater flow. Lastly, one-dimensional convection$-$dispersion modeling revealed that adsorption by biochar influences TCE transport and that BC-ZVI facilitated removal of TCE from contaminated water by both adsorption and degradation.

  6. Bacterial remediation from effluent containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemes, A. P.; Cordi, L.; Santos, A.; Durán, N.

    2011-07-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were functionalized with functional groups containing oxygen, mainly carboxylic groups (-COOH), through reaction with a mixture of H2SO4/HNO3 (3:1 v/v). The oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTOOH) were used to prepare an effluent, 2 mg L-1 in a saline solution of NaCl (0.9%), to study of remediation of MWCNTOOH in aqueous suspension by utilization of Escherichia coli. The suspensions of E. coli (4.5 × 105 CFU mL-1 and 4.5 × 108 CFU mL-1) in test tubes with MWCNTOOH effluent caused the precipitation of a large amount of MWCNTOOH and supernatant clearing. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the precipitate and supernatant showed the adhesion and interlace of MWCNTOOH in bacteria surface. Although the precipitate consist of a large quantity of MWCNTOOH and bacteria, it was verified their presence in the supernatant. The spread plate technique showed that MWCNTOOH caused no cellular death of E. coli in the supernatant.

  7. Activated carbon amendment for in-situ remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmquist, M.; Brändli, R.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Cornelissen, G.

    2009-04-01

    For the first time in Europe, a novel and innovative remediation technique is used in a field pilot study. This technique is amendment of the soil with two types of activated carbon (AC). Here, one pulverized AC (PAC, 50% < 15µm and 3% >150 µm) and one granular AC (GAC, 1.7-0.43 mm) is tested. The idea of this technique is that the added AC binds organic contaminants so strongly that they cannot be taken up in living organisms or transported to other environmental compartments. Laboratory studies with 2% (wt %) AC amendment to an urban soil reduced the freely dissolved pore water concentrations of PAH by 17% to 99% (Brändli et al. 2008). Several parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), K, NO2, NO3, NH4, PO4 and PAH, are being measured in this field study. Plant growth and earthworm bioaccumulation tests were also carried out during the summer months. DOC showed a 70% reduction between untreated soil and soil with PAC about one year after the amendment. In the soil mixed with GAC, a 55% reduction could be measured. For K, a 40% lowering value was observed for the soil with GAC compared to no affect for the soil with PAC. NH4 was reduced by 50% for both GAC and PAC amended soils compared to the untreated soil, whereas NO2 and NO3 increased with 2-4 times for the soil with GAC and no effect were seen for the soil with PAC. The freely dissolved PAH concentrations were reduced by 49-78% for the soil with GAC and 82-96% for the soil with PAC. The plant experiment showed best growth rate in the soil with GAC, followed by the untreated soil and least growth was measured on the PAC treated soil. The low growth rate seen in the soil with PAC may come from the fact that DOC and some other nutrients are also being sorbed to the PAC surface together with the organic pollutants and are thereby taken away from the biological cycle. Amendment of soil with AC remediates the soil from organic contaminants when these pollutants are sorbed to the AC surface. This is an

  8. Biological responses to activated carbon amendments in sediment remediation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Elisabeth M-L; Beckingham, Barbara A

    2013-07-16

    Sorbent amendment with activated carbon (AC) is a novel in situ management strategy for addressing human and ecological health risks posed by hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in sediments and soils. A large body of literature shows that AC amendments can reduce bioavailability of sediment-associated HOCs by more than 60-90%. Empirically derived biodynamic models can predict bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates within a factor of 2, allowing for future scenarios under AC amendment to be estimated. Higher AC dose and smaller AC particle size further reduce bioaccumulation of HOCs but may induce stress in some organisms. Adverse ecotoxicity response to AC exposure was observed in one-fifth of 82 tests, including changes in growth, lipid content, behavior, and survival. Negative effects on individual species and benthic communities appear to depend on the characteristics of the sedimentary environment and the AC amendment strategy (e.g., dose and particle size). More research is needed to evaluate reproductive end points, bacterial communities, and plants, and to link species- and community-level responses to amendment. In general, the ability of AC to effectively limit the mobility of HOCs in aquatic environments may outshine potential negative secondary effects, and these outcomes must be held in comparison to traditional remediation approaches.

  9. Characterization of Carbon Nano-Onions for Heavy Metal Ion Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonaceous nanomaterials, such as fullerene C60, carbon nanotubes, and their functionalized derivatives have been demonstrated to possess high sorption capacity for organic and heavy metal contaminants, indicating a potential for remediation application. The actual application ...

  10. Characterization of Carbon Nano-Onions for Heavy Metal Ion Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonaceous nanomaterials, such as fullerene C60, carbon nanotubes, and their functionalized derivatives have been demonstrated to possess high sorption capacity for organic and heavy metal contaminants, indicating a potential for remediation application. The actual application ...

  11. Use of 13C Labeled Carbon Tetrachloride to Demonstrate the Transformation to Carbon Dioxide under Anaerobic Conditions in a Continuous Flow Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.

    2012-12-01

    The demonstration of transformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CAHs) in the subsurface is a challenge, especially when the products are carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ion. The groundwater contaminant carbon tetrachloride (CT) is of particular interest since a broad range of transformation products can be potentially formed under anaerobic conditions. The ability to demonstrate the transformation of CT to CO2 as a non toxic endproduct, is also of great interest. Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where 13C labeled CT was used to demonstrate its transformation to CO2. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. The column was continously fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE (0.10 mM) and either formate (1.5 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), which ferments to produce hydrogen (H2) as the ultimate electron donor. Earlier CT transformation studies with the column, in the absence of sulfate reduction, and with formate added as a donor found CT (0.015 mM) was over 98% transformed with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) (0.003 mM) and with a transient detection of chloromethane (CM). Methane and carbon disulfide, as potential products, were not detected. Neither CT nor CF inhibited the reductive dehalogenation of PCE to ethene. A series of transient studies conducted after these initial CT transformation tests, but in the absence of CT, showed formate remained an effective substrate for maintaining sulfate reduction and PCE transformation. Lactate, which was effectively fermented prior to CT addition, was not effectively fermented, with propionate accumulating as a fermentation product. When lactate was added, PCE was mainly transformed to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and VC, and sulfate reduction did not occur. In order to restore effective lactate fermentation the column was then bioaugmented with an EV culture that

  12. Remediation of Contaminated Soils By Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, A.; Zanetti, M. C.; Banchero, M.; Fiore, S.; Manna, L.

    The contaminants that can be found in soils are many, inorganic, like heavy metals, as well as organic. Among the organic contaminants, oil and coal refineries are responsi- ble for several cases of soil contamination with PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar- bons). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic, carcinogenic and mu- tagenic effects. Limits have been set on the concentration of most contaminants, and growing concern is focusing on soil contamination issues. USA regulations set the maximum acceptable level of contamination by PAHs equal to 40 ppm at residential sites and 270 ppm at industrial sites. Stricter values are usually adopted in European Countries. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a possible alternative technology to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated soils. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) offers many advantages over conventional solvent extraction. Super- critical fluids combine gaseous properties as a high diffusion coefficient, and liquid properties as a high solvent power. The solvent power is strongly pressure-dependent near supercritical conditions: selective extractions are possible without changing the solvent. Solute can be separate from the solvent depressurising the system; therefore, it is possible to recycle the solvent and recover the contaminant. Carbon dioxide is frequently used as supercritical fluid, because it has moderate critical conditions, it is inert and available in pure form. In this work, supercritical fluid extraction technology has been used to remove a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon from contaminated soils. The contaminant choice for the experiment has been naphthalene since several data are available in literature. G. A. Montero et al. [1] studied soil remediation with supercrit- ical carbon dioxide extraction technology; these Authors have found that there was a mass-transfer limitation. In the extraction vessel, the mass transfer coefficient in- creases with the

  13. Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Parker, Kyle R.

    2012-09-28

    A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.

  14. Protective Effects of Silymarin, Alone or in Combination with Chlorogenic Acid and/or Melatonin, Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Faddah, Laila; Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Bassiouni, Yieldez A.; Hasan, Iman H.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Mohamad, Raeesa A.; Yacoub, Hazar I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of silymarin (SIL), alone and combined with chlorogenic acid (CA) and/or melatonin (ME), using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, IP). One day after, rats were received SIL (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with CA (60 mg/kg) and/or ME (20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Results: SIL significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Histological alterations, fibrogenesis, oxidative DNA damage, inflammatory mediators, and caspase-3 activity were significantly attenuated in SIL treated CCl4-intoxicated rats. On the other hand, cytochrome P450 2E1 activity showed a significant decrease in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats, an effect that was reversed following treatment with SIL. All beneficial effects of SIL were markedly potentiated when combined with CA and/or ME. Conclusions: These data indicate that SIL, alone and combined with CA and/or ME, protected the liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity via attenuating inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and fibrotic changes. The significantly intensified hepatoprotective effects of SIL when combined with both CA and ME suggest a possible synergism. These synergistic effects need to be further confirmed using detailed studies. SUMMARY Silymarin, chlorogenic acid and melatonin possess in vivo hepatoprotective activitySilymarin, chlorogenic acid and melatonin attenuate fibrogenesis, oxidative DNA damage, inflammation and apoptosisChlorogenic acid and melatonin enhance the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin. Abbreviations used: SIL: silymarin, CA: chlorogenic acid, ME: melatonin, CCl4: carbon tetrachloride, CYP2E1, cytochrome P450 2E1, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, IL-6: interleukin 6, IFN-γ: interferon gamma, VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor, TNF

  15. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  16. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  17. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) almond oil attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury in rats: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucillia R de O; Santana, Fernanda C de; Torres-Leal, Francisco L; Melo, Illana L P de; Yoshime, Luciana T; Matos-Neto, Emidio M; Seelaender, Marília C L; Araújo, Cintia M M; Cogliati, Bruno; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxin, capable of generating free radicals that lead to oxidative stress and the inflammation process. Pequi almond oil (PAO) has been reported to possess unsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant compounds related to beneficial effects on oxidation and inflammatory conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of handmade and coldpressed PAO on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The possible mechanisms underlying the effect on liver injury enzymes, histopathological parameters, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant and detoxification defense systems, as well as inflammatory parameters, were determined. Rats treated with PAO (3 or 6 mL/kg) for 21 days before CCl4 induction (3 mL/kg, 70%) showed significantly decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, milder hepatic lesions and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein compared to CCl4 group. Moreover, PAO enhanced antioxidant capacity by increasing hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzyme activities, as well as reducing circulating concentrations of leptin and inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6, leukotrienes -4 and -5 and the tumor necrosis factor receptor. In summary, PAO, especially cold-pressed oil, attenuated the CCl4-induced alterations in serum and hepatic tissue in rats due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Protective activity of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga cecropioides in carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale

    2009-03-07

    The hepatoprotective activities and the mechanisms of actions of Musanga cecropioides stem bark aqueous extract (MCW) were investigated on acute hepatocellular injuries induced by intraperitoneal (IP) carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (20% CCl(4)/olive oil, 1.5 mL/kg) and 800 mg/kg/IP of acetaminophen (APAP) in normal saline, in male Wistar rats. Among the Yorubas (South-West Nigeria), cold decoction of MCW is used as a natural antidote for oral gastric poisonings, infective hepatitis and other liver diseases. Its hepatoprotective activities were monitored by assaying for the serum aminotransferases, ornithine carbamoyl transferase and the toxicant-induced histopathological lesions in rat livers 24 hours post-induction. These enzymes are markers of acute hepatic injuries and their elevations are indications of acute liver injuries. Pretreatment of rats with graded doses (125 - 500 mg/kg) of MCW significantly attenuated the acute elevation of the liver enzymes and the hepatotoxin-induced histopathological lesions in the rat livers. The presence of two active natural antioxidants (flavonoids and alkaloids) in high concentrations in MCW may account for the hepatoprotective activities observed in this study. These results, thus, support the folkloric use of MCW for treatment of hepatic injuries resulting from acute gastric poisonings, infective hepatitis or other liver diseases.

  19. Cellular distribution of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and procollagen types I, III, and IV transcripts in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsukasa, H; Nagy, P; Evarts, R P; Hsia, C C; Marsden, E; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1990-01-01

    The cellular distribution and temporal expression of transcripts from transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and procollagen alpha 1(I), alpha 1(III), and alpha 1(IV) genes were studied in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced rat liver fibrosis by using in situ hybridization technique. During the fibrotic process, TGF-beta 1 and procollagen genes were similarly and predominantly expressed in Desmin-positive perisinusoidal cells (e.g., fat-storing cells and myofibroblasts) and fibroblasts and their expression continued to be higher than those observed in control rats. These transcripts were also observed in inflammatory cells mainly granulocytes and macrophage-like cells at the early stages of liver fibrosis. The production of extracellular matrix along small blood vessels and fibrous septa coincided with the expression of these genes. Expression of TGF-beta 1 and procollagen genes were not detected in hepatocytes throughout the experiment. No significant differences in cellular distribution or time course of gene expression among procollagen alpha 1(I), alpha 1(III), and alpha 1(IV) were observed. Desmin-positive perisinusoidal cells and fibroblasts appeared to play the principal role in synthesis of collagens in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The simultaneous expression of TGF-beta 1 and procollagen genes in mesenchymal cells, including Desmin-positive perisinusoidal cells, during hepatic fibrosis suggests the possibility that TGF-beta 1 may have an important role in the production of fibrosis. Images PMID:1693377

  20. Curative effect of the Egyptian marine Erugosquilla massavensis extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rat liver and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, S R; Hamdi, S A H

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of marine crustacean extract (MCE) from marine mantis shrimp Erugosquilla massavensis and silymarin on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat liver and erythrocytes. Male rats were randomly divided into 3 main groups, (1) control group which administered olive oil orally for 2 days, followed by distilled water for 7 consecutive days, (2) MCE group in which rats administered orally MCE, 250 mg/kg body weight for 9 consecutive days and (3) CCl4-treated group in which rats given CCl4 orally (2.5 ml/kg body weight) for 2 days. This group then subdivided into 5 subgroups. All subgroups treated orally for 7 consecutive days with distilled water (subgroup I), silymarin, 150 mg/kg body weight (subgroup II) and MCE at three tested doses 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight (subgroups III, IV and V). The MCE and silymarin produced significant hepatoprotective effect by decreasing the activity of serum aminotransferases (ASAT and ALAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increasing the serum total protein, glutathione reduced (GSH) levels and the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). The MCE and silymarin also showed the same antioxidant effect on erythrocytes. The results of the present study, suggested that, the MCE could protect the liver and erythrocytes injuries perhaps, by its antioxidative effect, hence eliminating the deleterious effect of toxic metabolites from CCl4.

  1. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  2. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa S; Al-Yhya, Nouf A; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Alajmi, Reem A; Hassan, Zeinab K; Hassan, Salwa B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds.

  3. Effect of dill tablet (Anethum graveolens L) on antioxidant status and biochemical factors on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage on rat

    PubMed Central

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been presented as an experimental model for research in hepatoprotective effects of natural product. A commercial medicine prepared from Anethum graveolens L (dill) is being used as dill tablet (DT) as a hypolipidemic agent. This experiment aimed to investigate the protective effect of DT against hepatic damage. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6) as following for a 10 days experiments. (1) Normal animals; (2) normal animals +CCl4 1 ml/kg (1:1 of CCl4 in olive oil, by gastric tube); (3) CCl4 treated animals +100 mg DT/kg; (4) CCl4 treated animals +300 mg DT/kg. After 10 days of treatment, biochemical factors were measured; also antioxidant tests such as thiol group, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and catalase (CAT) activity in the liver samples were carried out. Results: In dill treated animals, a significant decrease in liver enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, as well as triglyceride, total cholesterol (P < 0.05) were observed. Total protein and albumin concentrations were significantly increased in dill treated groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment with dill declined liver cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA, and increased TAC and CAT activity compared with untreated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dill displayed a potential hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage based on both biochemical markers and antioxidant status. PMID:27127740

  4. Effect of dill tablet (Anethum graveolens L) on antioxidant status and biochemical factors on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage on rat.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been presented as an experimental model for research in hepatoprotective effects of natural product. A commercial medicine prepared from Anethum graveolens L (dill) is being used as dill tablet (DT) as a hypolipidemic agent. This experiment aimed to investigate the protective effect of DT against hepatic damage. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6) as following for a 10 days experiments. (1) Normal animals; (2) normal animals +CCl4 1 ml/kg (1:1 of CCl4 in olive oil, by gastric tube); (3) CCl4 treated animals +100 mg DT/kg; (4) CCl4 treated animals +300 mg DT/kg. After 10 days of treatment, biochemical factors were measured; also antioxidant tests such as thiol group, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and catalase (CAT) activity in the liver samples were carried out. In dill treated animals, a significant decrease in liver enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, as well as triglyceride, total cholesterol (P < 0.05) were observed. Total protein and albumin concentrations were significantly increased in dill treated groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment with dill declined liver cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA, and increased TAC and CAT activity compared with untreated group (P < 0.05). Dill displayed a potential hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage based on both biochemical markers and antioxidant status.

  5. Ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. reduced the carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice involving enhancement of NF-κB activity

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongguang; Liu, Xuefeng; Tang, Gusheng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yinghui; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xuezhi; Wang, Wanyin

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatic injury causes high morbidity and mortality world-wide. Management of severe acute hepatic failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. In present study, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce acute liver damage in mice and the protective effects of ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. (PO) were examined. The aminotransferase activities were biochemical estimated and the liver damage was tested by morphological histological analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The role of PO on the activity of NF-κB was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay and immunohistochemistry. The level of p-p65 was tested by western blot. Our results showed that PO administration on mice would decrease the serum aminotransferase level and reduced the liver histological damage. We also found that nuclear translocation of p65 was enhanced in liver tissues of mice treated with PO compared with control animals. In addition, in cultured hepatic cells, PO increased the NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity and upregulated the level of phosphorylation of p65, but had no effects on mice liver SOD activity and MDA level. Collectively, PO attenuated CCl4 induced mice liver damage by enhancement of NF-κB activity. PMID:25628785

  6. Loss of discoidin domain receptor 2 promotes hepatic fibrosis after chronic carbon tetrachloride through altered paracrine interactions between hepatic stellate cells and liver-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Olaso, Elvira; Arteta, Beatriz; Benedicto, Aitor; Crende, Olatz; Friedman, Scott L

    2011-12-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) interact with fibrillar collagen through the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in acute hepatic injury, generating increased fibrosis. However, the contribution of DDR2 signaling to chronic liver fibrosis in vivo is unclear, despite its relevance to chronic human liver disease. We administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) to DDR2(+/+) and DDR2(-/-) mice twice weekly, and liver tissues and isolated HSCs were analyzed. In contrast to changes seen in acute injury, after chronic CCl(4) administration, DDR2(-/-) livers had increased collagen deposition, gelatinolytic activity, and HSC density. Increased basal gene expression of osteopontin, transforming growth factor-β1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 and reduced basal gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13, and collagen type I in quiescent DDR2(-/-) HSCs were amplified further after chronic CCl(4). In concordance, DDR2(-/-) HSCs isolated from chronically injured livers had enhanced in vitro migration and proliferation, but less extracellular matrix degradative activity. Macrophages from chronic CCl(4)-treated DDR2(-/-) livers showed stronger chemoattractive activity toward DDR2(-/-) HSCs than DDR2(+/+) macrophages, increased extracellular matrix degradation, and higher cytokine mRNA expression. In conclusion, loss of DDR2 promotes chronic liver fibrosis after CCl(4) injury. The fibrogenic sinusoidal milieu generated in chronic DDR2(-/-) livers recruits more HSCs to injured regions, which enhances fibrosis. Together, these findings suggest that DDR2 normally orchestrates gene programs and paracrine interactions between HSCs and macrophages that together attenuate chronic hepatic fibrosis.

  7. A virus-like particle-based connective tissue growth factor vaccine suppresses carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Lv, Yi-Fei; Su, Hou-Qiang; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Wang, Li-Rong; Hao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been recognized as a central mediator and promising therapeutic target in hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we generated a novel virus-like particle (VLP) CTGF vaccine by inserting the 138–159 amino acid (aa) fragment of CTGF into the central c/e1 epitope of C-terminus truncated hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBc, aa 1–149) using a prokaryotic expression system. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the VLP vaccine efficiently elicited the production of anti-CTGF neutralizing antibodies. Vaccination with this CTGF vaccine significantly protected BALB/c mice from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, as indicated by decreased hepatic hydroxyproline content and lower fibrotic score. CCl4 intoxication-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was inhibited by the vaccination, as indicated by decreased α-smooth muscle actin expression and Smad2 phosphorylation. Vaccination against CTGF also attenuated the over-expression of some profibrogenic factors, such as CTGF, transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth factor-B and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the fibrotic mouse livers, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in the fibrotic mouse livers. Our results clearly indicate that vaccination against CTGF inhibits fibrogenesis, alleviates hepatocyte apoptosis and facilitate hepatic regeneration. We suggest that the vaccine should be developed into an effective therapeutic measure for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27562139

  8. Umbelliferone and daphnetin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed R; Emam, Manal A; Hassan, Nahla S; Mogadem, Abeer I

    2014-09-01

    Among various phytochemicals, coumarins comprise a very large class of plant phenolic compounds that have good nutritive value, in addition to their antioxidant effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of two coumarin derivatives, umbelliferone and daphnetin, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Treatment of rats with either umbelliferone or daphnetin significantly improved the CCl4-induced biochemical alterations. In addition, both compounds alleviated the induced-lipid peroxidation and boosted the antioxidant defense system. Moreover, the investigated compounds attenuated CCl4-induced histopathological alterations of the liver. Finally, umbelliferone and daphnetin induced the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thereby inducing the expression and activity of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These results suggest that umbelliferone and daphnetin ameliorate oxidative stress-related hepatotoxicity via their ability to augment cellular antioxidant defenses by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.

  9. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside Purified from Black Rice Protects Mice against Hepatic Fibrosis Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride via Inhibiting Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinwei; Guo, Honghui; Shen, Tianran; Tang, Xilan; Yang, Yan; Ling, Wenhua

    2015-07-15

    This study investigated whether cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G), a predominant anthocyanin, could exert a protective role on liver injury and its further mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis actions in mice. The results demonstrated that the treatment of Cy-3-G (800 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks significantly attenuated hepatotoxicity and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administered mice. Cy-3-G strongly down-regulated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), which showed its suppression effect on the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, Cy-3-G favorably regulated oxidative stress and apoptosis in liver. Furthermore, Cy-3-G ameliorated the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and leukocytes and meanwhile suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. In conclusion, daily intake of Cy-3-G could prevent liver fibrosis progression in mice induced by CCl4 through inhibiting HSC activation, which provides a basis for clinical practice of liver fibrosis prevention.

  10. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Sherifa S.; AL-Yhya, Nouf A.; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M.; Alajmi, Reem A.; Hassan, Zeinab K.; Hassan, Salwa B.; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds. PMID:27547187

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of activated nuclear factor kappaB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Orfila, Claudine; Lepert, Jean-Claude; Alric, Laurent; Carrera, Georges; Béraud, Maryse; Pipy, Bernard

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the immunohistochemical distribution of active NF-kappaB p65 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes alpha and gamma in the different phases of liver steatonecrosis and cirrhosis induced in rats after 3 and 9 weeks of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. CCl4 treatment can induce changes in the expression of NF-kappaB and PPARs. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver tissue sections from rats with steatonecrosis or cirrhosis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of NF-kappaB-positive and TNF-alpha-positive hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. In healthy controls, no expression of active NF-kappaB was detected. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that Kupffer cells isolated from rats with CCl4-induced steatonecrosis produced more reactive oxygen intermediates than cells isolated from normal rats. These oxidants could activate NF-kappaB and lead to an overexpression of TNF-alpha, observed in liver tissue sections. After CCl4 ingestion, the rat livers demonstrated a significantly decreased number of hepatocytes expressing PPARalpha and PPARgamma and a significantly increased number of ED2-positive Kupffer cells expressing these transcription factors, compared to normal. The activation of the p65 isoform of NF-kappaB correlates negatively with transcription of the alpha and gamma isoforms of PPAR in hepatocytes, and positively in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that the regulation and the role of these two transcription factors differ in the two cell types studied.

  12. UV Absorption Cross Sections of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Between 210 and 350 K and the Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlon, Nabilah Rontu; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Newman, Paul A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm) at 27 temperatures in the range 210-350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200-235 nm as a function of temperature (225-350 K). The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5-7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in 37 atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  13. Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Fatma; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin; Büyükben, Ahmet; Aymelek, Fatih; Ayaz, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The liver is a vital organ, and its function is generally impaired by chemicals. Some natural compounds have a protective role against liver diseases such as royal jelly (RJ). To our knowledge, there are no data available on the effect of RJ therapy on the levels of bio-element metabolisms and antioxidant enzyme activities in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the role of RJ therapy in the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the CCl(4)-treated group more than they did in the sham and RJ-administered groups. Many bio-element levels were also reduced in only the CCl(4)-treated group. This showed that the depletion of trace elements was related to erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. RJ administration clearly increased the trace and major element levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in RJ groups. RJ may be used as functional foods because of their naturally high antioxidant potential and rich element content.

  14. The involvement of sirtuin 1 and heme oxygenase 1 in the hepatoprotective effects of quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced sub-chronic liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kemelo, Mighty Kgalalelo; Pierzynová, Aneta; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina; Kučera, Tomáš; Farghali, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of quercetin in a sub-chronic model of hepatotoxicity. The roles of putative antioxidant enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), in hepatoprotection were also addressed. Sub-chronic liver injury was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CTC), once every 3 days, for 2 weeks. Some CTC rats were concurrently treated with 100 mg/kg quercetin, intragastrically, once every day, for 2 weeks. The effects of these drugs in the liver were evaluated by biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological studies. CTC triggered oxidative damage to the liver as unanimously shown by altered biochemical parameters and liver morphology. Furthermore, CTC highly upregulated HO-1 and SIRT1 expression levels. Concomitant treatment of rats with quercetin downregulated SIRT1 expression and ameliorated the hepatotoxic effects of CTC. However, quercetin did not have any significant effect on HO-1 expression and bilirubin levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of quercetin in CTC treated rats were SIRT1 mediated and less dependent on HO-1. Thus, pharmacologic modulation of SIRT1 could provide a logic therapeutic approach in sub-chronic hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via reducing intestinal permeability and modulating gut microbial composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in cirrhotic rats compared with control and decreased by S. boulardii administration. Treatment of S. boulardii also attenuated the increased endotoxin levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CCl4-treated rats. And, these were associated with the changes of intestinal permeability and fecal microbial composition. Our study suggested that oral administration of S. boulardii can promote the liver function of CCl4-treated rats, and the preventive treatment of this probiotic yeast may decelerate the progress of liver fibrosis.

  16. The involvement of Nrf2 in the protective effects of diallyl disulfide on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Yun-Bae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative hepatic damage and inflammatory response in rat liver. DADS at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day was administered orally once daily for 5 days, prior to CCl4 administration. Pretreatment with DADS attenuated CCl4-induced elevated serum transaminase activities and histopathological alterations in liver. It prevented the hepatocellular apoptotic changes with induction of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), cytochrome c, and caspase-3 caused by CCl4. An increase in the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of I kappaB alpha (IκBα) was observed in the livers of CCl4-treated rats that coincided with induction of inflammatory mediators or cytokines. In contrast, DADS inhibited NF-κB translocation and IκBα phosphorylation, and that subsequently decreased inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, DADS prevented CCl4-induced depletion of cytosolic nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and suppression of nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which, in turn, up-regulated phase II/antioxidant enzyme activities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DADS increases the expression of phase II/antioxidant enzymes and simultaneously decreases the expression of inflammatory mediators in CCl4-induced liver injury. These findings indicate that DADS induces antioxidant defense mechanism by activating Nrf2 pathway and reduces inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wheat-Based Solid-State Fermented Antrodia cinnamomea in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Huan-Wen; Hua, Kuo-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea) is an indigenous medical fungus in Taiwan and has multiple biological functions, including hepatoprotective and immune-modulatory effects. Currently, the commercially available A. cinnamomea are mainly liquid- and solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea. However, the hepatoprotective effect of solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea has never been reported. Here we evaluate the ability of air-dried, ground and non-extracted wheat-based solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea (WFAC) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in vivo. The results showed that oral administration of WFAC dose dependently (180, 540 and 1080 mg/kg) ameliorated the increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels caused by chronic repeated CCl4 intoxication in rats. WFAC significantly reduced the CCl4-induced increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation levels and hydroxyproline contents, as well as reducing the spleen weight and water content of the liver. WFAC also restored the hepatic soluble protein synthesis and plasma albumin concentration in CCl4-intoxicated rats, but it did not affect the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione peroxidase. In addition, a hepatic morphological analysis showed that the hepatic fibrosis and necrosis induced by CCl4 were significantly ameliorated by WFAC. Furthermore, the body weights of control rats and WFAC-administered rats were not significantly different, and no adverse effects were observed in WFAC-administered rats. These results indicate that WFAC is a nontoxic hepatoprotective agent against chronic CCl4-induced hepatic injury. PMID:27046059

  18. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM) Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Leola N.; Schreiner, Petra; Ng, Betina Y. Y.; Lo, Bernard; Hughes, Michael R.; Scott, R. Wilder; Gusti, Vionarica; Lecour, Samantha; Simonson, Eric; Manisali, Irina; Barta, Ingrid; McNagny, Kelly M.; Crawford, Jason; Webb, Murray; Underhill, T. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis. PMID:26998906

  19. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM) Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chow, Leola N; Schreiner, Petra; Ng, Betina Y Y; Lo, Bernard; Hughes, Michael R; Scott, R Wilder; Gusti, Vionarica; Lecour, Samantha; Simonson, Eric; Manisali, Irina; Barta, Ingrid; McNagny, Kelly M; Crawford, Jason; Webb, Murray; Underhill, T Michael

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  20. Protective effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Lawsonia inermis fruits extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hsouna, Anis Ben; Mongi, Saoudi; Culioli, Gérald; Blache, Yves; Ghlissi, Zohra; Chaabane, Rim; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Jaoua, Samir; Trigui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of different fractions obtained from the fruits of Lawsonia inermis, a widely used medicinal plant, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. The results show that several fractions obtained from L. inermis fruits possessed important antioxidant activity. Among them, the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity. Then, EA fraction was selected for the purification of potential antioxidant compounds. The hepatoprotective effects of EA fraction and its most active constituent, gallic acid (GA), were evaluated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. CCl4 induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes. However, pretreatment of rats with EA fraction of fruits of L. inermis at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1)body weight and GA significantly lowered some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and an increase in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase by treatment with plant extract and GA, against CCl4-treated rats, were observed. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular necrosis, vacuolization, and inflammatory cell infiltration. This potential antioxidant activity is comparable to those of the major purified antioxidant compound, GA. Based on these results, it was observed that fruits of L. inermis protect liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl4 and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Protective effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction from rhizomes of Smilax glabra Roxb. on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Daozong; Fan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Peihua; Fu, Yan; Ju, Mengting; Zhang, Xiaosa

    2013-06-01

    Hepatoprotective agents could prevent tissue damage and reduce morbidity and mortality rates; such agents may include folkloric or alternative treatments. The present study evaluated the protective effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction from rhizomes of Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGF) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were orally treated with SGF daily and received CCl₄ intraperitoneally twice a week for 4 weeks. Our results showed that SGF at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and the level of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances compared to the CCl₄-treated group. Moreover, SGF treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione compared with CCl₄-induced intoxicated liver. Histopathologic examination revealed that CCl₄-induced hepatic damage was markedly reversed by SGF. The results suggest that SGF has hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties in CCl₄-induced liver injury in rats.

  2. Protective role of Sargassum species in liver and kidney dysfunctions and associated disorders in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Hira, Khan; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Haque, Syed Ehteshamul

    2017-05-01

    Hepatoprotective and reno-potective effect of Sargassum species was investigated in rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (AAP) intoxication. The rats were given ethanol extracts of Sargassum ilicifolium, S. lanceolatum and S.swartzii orally at dose of 200mg/kg b.w. (body weight) daily for 14 days. These seaweed treated rats were then intoxicated with single intra-peritoneal dose of CCl4 or AAP on14th day. The administration of CCl4 and AAP caused significant (p<0.05) elevation in liver enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and other biochemical parameters, bilirubin, glucose, triglyceride and kidney function markers: urea and creatinine. The pre-treatment with ethanol extracts of S. ilicifolium and S. swartzii protected the liver and kidney significantly (p<0.05) by lowering the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, liver and kidney function markers towards normal range. Sargassum species have also showed positive effect on serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride.

  3. Schisandra Lignan Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Regulating the NF-κB and JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Zhan, Qi; Li, Ying; Sun, Sen; Zhao, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of liver disease, whose main active components are lignans. However, the action mechanisms of the lignans in S. chinensis remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and related molecular mechanism of Schisandra lignan extract (SLE) against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in mice. Different doses of SLE at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered daily by gavage for 5 days before CCl4 treatment. The results showed that SLE significantly decreased the activities of serum ALT/AST and reduced liver pathologic changes induced by CCl4. Pretreatment with SLE not only decreased the content of MDA but increased SOD, GSH, and GSH-Px activities in the liver, suggesting that SLE attenuated CCl4-induced oxidative stress. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were decreased after oral administration of SLE, probably because lignans inhibited the NF-κB activity. Additionally, SLE also inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis by suppressing JNK activation and regulating Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways. In conclusion, these results suggested that SLE prevented CCl4-induced liver injury through a combination of antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and antihepatocyte apoptosis and alleviated inflammation and apoptosis by regulating the NF-κB, JNK, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways. PMID:28246539

  4. Wu-Chia-Pi solution attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury through the antioxidative abilities of its components acteoside and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Huan, Steven Kuan-Hua; Wang, Kun-Teng; Lee, Chia-Jung; Sung, Chun-Hsien; Chien, Ting-Yi; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2012-12-11

    Wu-Chia-Pi medicated wine, composed nine Chinese medicines soaked in 35% alcohol, is widely used in Asia for its health-promoting functions. However, long-term consumption of alcohol could result in liver dysfunction. In this study, Wu-Chia-Pi solution (WCPS) and extract (WCPE) were prepared by modification of the principals given by the Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of WCPS against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and to clarify its active component(s). Antioxidative effects of the test samples were evaluated via MDA inhibition, catalase activity and DPPH-scavenging assays. HPLC was used to analysis the active components. Results showed that WCPS (1 and 5 mL/kg) significantly prevented CCl4-induced liver injury without chronic liver toxicity. Referring to the antioxidative activities, WCPE displayed significant MDA inhibitory and DPPH-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 0.91 ± 0.03 and 0.60 ± 0.04 mg/mL, respectively. Catalase activity was also enhanced by treatment of WCPE, acteoside and quercetin. Therefore, we suggest that acteoside and quercetin are the major contributors to the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of WCPS, and a possible mechanism could be mediated through reduction of oxidative stress.

  5. Effectiveness of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced damages on the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşı, S; Güvenç, M; Çiftçi, M; Sönmez, M; Özer Kaya, Ş; Çay, M; Aksakal, M

    2014-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the likelihood of detrimental effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) on male reproductive system through oxidative stress mechanism and also protective effects of cinnamon bark oil (CBO). For this purpose, 28 healthy male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, seven rats in each. Group 1 received only olive oil daily; group 2 was treated with 100 mg kg(-1) CBO daily; group 3 was treated with only 0.25 ml kg(-1) CCl4 weekly; and group 4 received weekly CCl4 + daily CBO. All administrations were made by intragastric catheter and maintained for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular oxidative stress markers and testicular apoptosis were examined. CCl4 administration caused significant decreases in body and reproductive organ weights, testicular catalase (CAT) activity, sperm motility and concentration, and significant increases in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic index along with some histopathological damages compared with the control group. However, significant improvements were observed in absolute weights of testis and epididymis, all sperm quality parameters, LPO level, apoptotic index and testicular histopathological structure following the administration of CCl4 together with CBO when compared to group given CCl4 only. The findings of this study clearly suggest that CBO has protective effect against damages in male reproductive organs and cells induced by CCl4 . © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Protective action of the immunomodulator ginsan against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via control of oxidative stress and the inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Ji-Young; Kim, Mi-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Doo; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunomodulator ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced liver injury. BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with ginsan 24 h prior to CCl{sub 4} administration. Serum liver enzyme levels, histology, expression of antioxidant enzymes, and several cytokines/chemokines were subsequently evaluated. Ginsan treatment markedly suppressed the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and hepatic histological necrosis increased by CCl{sub 4} treatment. Ginsan inhibited CCl{sub 4} induced lipid peroxidation through the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) downregulation. The hepatoprotective effect of ginsan was attributed to induction of anti-oxidant protein contents, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as restoration of the hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration. The marked increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma) and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-2beta, KC) in CCl{sub 4} treated mice was additionally attenuated by ginsan, thereby preventing leukocyte infiltration and local inflammation. Our results suggest that ginsan effectively prevent liver injury, mainly through downregulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  7. METHOD FOR PRODUCING DIBORON TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.; Holzmann, R.T.

    1961-08-01

    A method of producing diboron tetrachloride from boron trichloride is described. Gaseous boron trichloride is passed through a cavity resonating at a microwave frequency whereby a portion of the boron trichloride is converted into diboron tetrachloride. The diboron tetrachloride may then be separated from the boron trichloride by conventional means. (AEC)

  8. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-08

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  9. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  10. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 4-Independent Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Fibrosis and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice: Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Jiang; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2017-06-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in acute and chronic liver injury; its effects are mediated predominantly via the membrane receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, TLR4-independent effects of LPS may play important role in hepatic pathophysiology. We investigated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis and LPS-induced acute liver injury in wild-type (WT) and B6.B10ScN-Tlr4(lps-del)/JthJ [TLR4-knockout (KO)] mice. Effects of LPS on fibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from WT and TLR4-KO mice were assessed in vitro. CCl4 produced similar fibrosis and necroinflammation and increased the mRNA and protein expression of cytokines and chemokines in WT and TLR4-KO mice. However, circulating LPS concentration did not increase in CCl4-treated mice. Interestingly, LPS down-modulated α-smooth muscle actin (activated HSC marker) and collagen 1 in both WT and TLR4-KO HSCs. LPS induced similar activation of NF-κB, and stimulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines in WT and TLR4-KO HSCs. Finally, LPS caused similar inflammation and injury in previously untreated WT and TLR4-KO mice. The results provide evidence of the TLR4/LPS-independent mechanisms of liver fibrosis and also indicate that TLR4 is not entirely critical to LPS-induced acute liver injury. The results further indicate that LPS signaling in activated HSCs might be a mechanism of limiting liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of the key innate genes related to individual variation in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity using a pre-biopsy procedure.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Chae-Wook; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Young-Ho; Chung, Jin-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2009-08-15

    High inter-individual variation in chemical-induced liver injury is a frequent observation with many hepatotoxic chemicals, yet the mechanism underlying it remains poorly understood. Even with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), a well-known model hepatotoxicant, substantial individual variations are observed in the severity of liver injury. Using microarray, many attempts have been made to identify the key genes in CCl(4)-induced liver injury but mostly, they examined the gene expression of liver after CCl(4) exposure, unable to dissect out the complicating factors from pathological changes secondary to liver injury. To more accurately identify the genes for the individual variation in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity, we compared the innate gene expression of the individual liver samples pre-biopsied prior to CCl(4)-treatment with the severity of liver injury after CCl(4)-treatment. Effect of biopsy procedure and 3 week recovery period on liver function and gene expression were confirmed to be insignificant. Using this design, we found that the expression of genes associated with immunity and defense, lipid metabolism, transport and complement-mediated immunity, which are previously known to be suppressed by CCl(4)-treatment, were innately lower in the susceptible animals than resistant animals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the genes such as Gsta2, Sult2a1, Fgl1 and C6 were newly found to be innately lower in the susceptible animals to CCl(4)-hepatotoxicity. These naturally lower gene expression patterns were further confirmed by RT-PCR. We believe that this pre-biopsy design may provide a useful tool for understanding the cause of variability of hepatotoxicity and for the prediction and pre-screening of the susceptible individual to drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Protective effects of the apigenin-O/C-diglucoside saponarin from Gypsophila trichotoma on carbone tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro/in vivo in rats.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Vitcheva, Vessela; Krasteva, Ilina; Manov, Vassil; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective activity of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., using in vitro/in vivo hepatotoxicity model based on carbone tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. The effect of saponarin was compared with those of silymarin. In vitro experiments were carried out in primary isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell incubation with CCl₄ (86 μmol l⁻¹) led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH and elevation in MDA quantity. Cell pre-incubation with saponarin (60-0.006 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated CCl₄-induced hepatic damage in a concentration-dependent manner. These results were supported by the following in vivo study. Along with decreased MDA quantity and increased level of cell protector GSH, seven day pre-treatment of rats with saponarin (80 mg/kg bw; p.o.) also prevented CCl₄ (10%, p.o.)-caused oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD, GST, GPx, GR). Biotransformation phase I enzymes were also assessed. Administered alone, saponarin decreased EMND and AH activities but not at the same extent as CCl₄ did. However, pre-treatment with saponarin significantly increased enzyme activities in comparison to CCl₄ only group. The observed biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations where the hepatoprotective effect of saponarin was comparative to the effects of the known hepatoprotecor silymarin. Our results suggest that saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., showed in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against CCl₄-induced liver damage.

  14. Urinary metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effects of total alkaloids from Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats using (1)H NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Zheng-Teng; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Jin-Xia; Liu, Xu-Wen; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fang-Ming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Liang, Yong-Hong; Song, Hui; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2017-03-19

    Chronic liver injury has been shown to cause liver fibrosis due to the sustained pathophysiological wound healing response of the liver, and eventually progresses to cirrhosis. The total alkaloids of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (TACS), a collection of important bioactive ingredients derived from the traditional Chinese folk medicine Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), have been reported to have protective effects on the liver. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, the urinary metabonomics and the biochemical changes in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury due to treatment TACS or administration of the positive control drug-bifendate were studied via proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analysis. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) suggested that metabolic perturbation caused by CCl4 damage was recovered with TACS and bifendate treatment. A total of seven metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylamine, taurine, phenylacetylglycine, creatinine and hippurate were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. According to pathway analysis using identified metabolites and correlation network construction, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were recognized as the most affected metabolic pathways associated with CCl4 chronic hepatotoxicity. Notably, the changes in 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, taurine and hippurate during the process of CCl4-induced chronic liver injury were significantly restored by TACS treatment, which suggested that TACS synergistically mediated the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including the TCA cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. This study could bring valuable insight to evaluating the efficacy of TACS intervention therapy, help deepen the understanding of the

  15. Development of quercetin-phospholipid complex to improve the bioavailability and protection effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Meiyu; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gu, Liqiang; Hu, Gaosheng; Chen, Xiaohui; Jia, Jingming

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin (QT) is a natural flavonoid with various biological activities and pharmacological actions. However, the bioavailability of QT is relatively low due to its low solubility which severely limits its use. In this study, we intended to improve the bioavailability of QT by preparing quercetin-phospholipid complex (QT-PC) and investigate the protective effect of QT-PC against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The physicochemical properties of QT-PC were characterized in terms of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and water/n-octanol solubility. FTIR, DSC and XRPD data confirmed the formation of QT-PC. The water solubility of QT was improved significantly in the prepared complex, indicating its increased hydrophilicity. Oral bioavailability of QT and QT-PC was evaluated in SD rats, and the plasma QT was estimated by HPLC-MS. QT-PC exhibited higher Cmax (1.58±0.11 vs. 0.67±0.08μg/mL), increased AUC0-∞ (8.60±1.25 vs. 2.41±0.51mg/Lh) and t1/2z (7.76±1.09 vs. 4.81±0.87h) when compared to free QT. The greater absorption of QT-PC group suggested the improved bioavailability. Moreover, biochemical changes and histopathological observations revealed that QT-PC provided better protection to rat liver than free QT at the same dose. Thus, phospholipid complexation might be one of the suitable approaches to improve the oral bioavailability of QT and obtain better protective effects against CCl4 induced acute liver damage in SD rats than free QT at the same dose level.

  16. Determination of the key innate genes related to individual variation in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity using a pre-biopsy procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Chae-Wook; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Young-Ho; Chung, Jin-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2009-08-15

    High inter-individual variation in chemical-induced liver injury is a frequent observation with many hepatotoxic chemicals, yet the mechanism underlying it remains poorly understood. Even with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), a well-known model hepatotoxicant, substantial individual variations are observed in the severity of liver injury. Using microarray, many attempts have been made to identify the key genes in CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury but mostly, they examined the gene expression of liver after CCl{sub 4} exposure, unable to dissect out the complicating factors from pathological changes secondary to liver injury. To more accurately identify the genes for the individual variation in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity, we compared the innate gene expression of the individual liver samples pre-biopsied prior to CCl{sub 4}-treatment with the severity of liver injury after CCl{sub 4}-treatment. Effect of biopsy procedure and 3 week recovery period on liver function and gene expression were confirmed to be insignificant. Using this design, we found that the expression of genes associated with immunity and defense, lipid metabolism, transport and complement-mediated immunity, which are previously known to be suppressed by CCl{sub 4}-treatment, were innately lower in the susceptible animals than resistant animals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the genes such as Gsta2, Sult2a1, Fgl1 and C6 were newly found to be innately lower in the susceptible animals to CCl{sub 4}-hepatotoxicity. These naturally lower gene expression patterns were further confirmed by RT-PCR. We believe that this pre-biopsy design may provide a useful tool for understanding the cause of variability of hepatotoxicity and for the prediction and pre-screening of the susceptible individual to drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. Puerarin attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver oxidative stress and hyperlipidaemia in mouse by JNK/c-Jun/CYP7A1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie-Qiong; Ding, Jie; Zhao, Hai; Liu, Chan-Min

    2014-11-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of puerarin on hepatic oxidative stress and hyperlipidaemia in mice exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male ICR mice were injected with CCl4 with or without puerarin co-administration (200 and 400 mg/kg intragastrically once-daily) for 8 weeks. Our data showed that puerarin significantly prevented CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of the liver damage (serum aminotransferase levels) and histopathological analysis. Puera