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Sample records for remote australian aboriginal

  1. Paediatric urolithiasis in a remote Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Williams, W M; Nicholas, J J; Nungurrayi, P B; Napurrula, C R

    1996-08-01

    A retrospective study of Community Health Service patient records revealed 10 cases of urolithiasis in Aboriginal children under 5 years of age in a remote central Australian Aboriginal community over a 4 year period, out of a total under-5 population estimate of 62. The highest attack rate was in the 0-2 age group, where nearly one in 10 children presented per year. All children had significant associated morbidity. Two children underwent pyelolithotomy. Aboriginal children in the remote arid zone study community suffer exceptionally high rates of urolithiasis. Inadequate diet, dehydration and recurrent infectious disease are factors in pathogenesis. Further study may elucidate aetiology, but the implications of these data for improving environmental conditions and health service delivery in Aboriginal communities are urgent.

  2. Australian Aboriginal Education at the Fulcrum of Forces of Change: Remote Queensland Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victoria J.

    Schools in Australian Aboriginal communities are pulled between an educational model that stresses cultural pride and preservation and one that emphasizes uniformity of education to prepare Aboriginal students for a place in the dominant society. The tension between these objectives is seen in these case studies of schools in two remote Queensland…

  3. Australian Curriculum Implementation in a Remote Aboriginal School: A Curriculum Leader's Search for a Transformational Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the trial implementation of the Australian Curriculum in a remote Aboriginal school. It was a school that at the time was beginning to achieve successes with the development of dual-knowledge, transformational outcomes based curriculum that had its justification in the Northern Territory Curriculum Framework. Drawing on the…

  4. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed.

  5. Food, food choice and nutrition promotion in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Colles, Susan L; Maypilama, Elaine; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary diets of Aboriginal people living in remote Australia are characterised by processed foods high in fat and sugar. Within the 'new' food system, evidence suggests many Aboriginal people understand food in their own terms but lack access to consumer information about store-purchased foods, and parents feel inadequate as role models. In a remote Australian Aboriginal community, purposive sampling identified adults who participated in semistructured interviews guided by food-based themes relating to the contemporary food system, parental guidance of children's food choice and channels through which people learn. Interpretive content analysis was used to identify salient themes. In discussions, people identified more closely with dietary qualities or patterns than nutrients, and valued a balanced, fresh diet that made them feel 'light'. People possessed basic knowledge of 'good' store foods, and wanted to increase familiarity and experience with foods in packets and cans through practical and social skills, especially cooking. Education about contemporary foods was obtained from key family role models and outside the home through community-based organisations, including school, rather than pamphlets and flip charts. Freedom of choice was a deeply held value; carers who challenged children's autonomy used strategic distraction, or sought healthier alternatives that did not wholly deny the child. Culturally safe approaches to information sharing and capacity building that contribute to the health and wellbeing of communities requires collaboration and shared responsibility between policy makers, primary healthcare agencies, wider community-based organisations and families.

  6. Specialist clinics in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: where rock art meets rocket science.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Russell; Bailie, Ross

    2004-10-01

    People in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory have greater morbidity and mortality than other Australians, but face considerable barriers when accessing hospital-based specialist services. The Specialist Outreach Service, which began in 1997, was a novel policy initiative to improve access by providing a regular multidisciplinary visiting specialist services to remote communities. It led to two interesting juxtapositions: that of 'state of the art' specialist services alongside under-resourced primary care in remote and relatively traditional Aboriginal communities; and that of attempts to develop an evidence base for the effectiveness of outreach, while meeting the short-term evaluative requirements of policy-makers. In this essay, first we describe the development of the service in the Northern Territory and its initial process evaluation. Through a Cochrane systematic review we then summarise the published research on the effectiveness of specialist outreach in improving access to tertiary and hospital-based care. Finally we describe the findings of an observational population-based study of the use of specialist services and the impact of outreach to three remote communities over 11 years. Specialist outreach improves access to specialist care and may lessen the demand for both outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Specialist outreach is, however, dependent on well-functioning primary care. According to the way in which outreach is conducted and the service is organised, it can either support primary care or it can hinder primary care and, as a result, reduce its own effectiveness.

  7. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  8. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    PubMed

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence.

  9. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  10. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  11. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

  12. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context. PMID:21721304

  13. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  14. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  15. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  16. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  17. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  18. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  19. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  20. Boyfriends, Babies and Basketball: Present Lives and Future Aspirations of Young Women in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the aspirations of a group of young women in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. It examines how their hopes and expectations are influenced by the reality of their everyday lives and the extent to which they are able to influence the course of their lives and become agents for change in their…

  1. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lililwan Project is the first population-based study to determine Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) prevalence in Australia and was conducted in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia. The diagnostic process for FASD requires accurate assessment of gross and fine motor functioning using standardised cut-offs for impairment. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is a norm-referenced assessment of motor function used worldwide and in FASD clinics in North America. It is available in a Complete Form with 53 items or a Short Form with 14 items. Its reliability in measuring motor performance in children exposed to alcohol in utero or living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities is unknown. Methods A prospective inter-rater and test-retest reliability study was conducted using the BOT-2 Short Form. A convenience sample of children (n = 30) aged 7 to 9 years participating in the Lililwan Project cohort (n = 108) study, completed the reliability study. Over 50% of mothers of Lililwan Project children drank alcohol during pregnancy. Two raters simultaneously scoring each child determined inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by assessing each child on a second occasion using predominantly the same rater. Reliability was analysed by calculating Intra-Class correlation Coefficients, ICC(2,1), Percentage Exact Agreement (PEA) and Percentage Close Agreement (PCA) and measures of Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) were calculated. Results Thirty Aboriginal children (18 male, 12 female: mean age 8.8 years) were assessed at eight remote Fitzroy Valley communities. The inter-rater reliability for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.88 (95%CI, 0.77 – 0.94) to 0.92 (95%CI, 0.84 – 0.96) indicating excellent reliability. The test-retest reliability (median interval between tests being 45.5 days) for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from

  2. A case study of physical and social barriers to hygiene and child growth in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite Australia's wealth, poor growth is common among Aboriginal children living in remote communities. An important underlying factor for poor growth is the unhygienic state of the living environment in these communities. This study explores the physical and social barriers to achieving safe levels of hygiene for these children. Methods A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach included a community level cross-sectional housing infrastructure survey, focus groups, case studies and key informant interviews in one community. Results We found that a combination of crowding, non-functioning essential housing infrastructure and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children in this remote community. Conclusion There is a need to address policy and the management of infrastructure, as well as key parenting and childcare practices that allow the high burden of infection among children to persist. The common characteristics of many remote Aboriginal communities in Australia suggest that these findings may be more widely applicable. PMID:19761623

  3. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  4. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  5. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  6. Rheumatic disease and the Australian Aborigine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Thomson, R.; Roberts-Thomson, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine.
METHODS—A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people.
RESULTS—No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians.
CONCLUSION—The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders.

 PMID:10225809

  7. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  8. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  9. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  10. “We Made the Rule, We Have to Stick to It”: Towards Effective Management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Remote Australian Aboriginal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ≥ 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514

  11. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. PMID:27118100

  12. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  13. Participatory systems approach to health improvement in Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth L; Bailie, Ross S; Morris, Peter S

    2014-02-01

    The factors underlying poor child health in remote Australian Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) communities are complex. There is a lack of consistent and reliable information that allows: (i) the identification of priorities or areas of particular need at household and community levels; (ii) monitoring progress over time; and (iii) the assessment of the impact of interventions. This paper describes the process and methods used to identify the factors that underlie high rates of poor child health in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT). This work has led to the development of indicators and tools suitable for use within a continuous quality improvement programme. Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals from a range of disciplines and backgrounds participated in study activities. This allowed for a range of perspectives, including scientific, lay and Aboriginal perspectives, to be accommodated and reflected in study outcomes and outputs. Study participants identified a wide range of physical and social factors that they believe underlies poor child health in remote Aboriginal community contexts in the NT. The approach taken in this study provides some confidence that the indicators developed will be seen as meaningful and appropriate by the residents of remote communities and key stakeholders. Two tools have been developed and are now in use in the practice setting. One assesses social determinants of health at the community level, for example water supply, food supply. The second applies to individual households and assesses the social and environmental indicators that are recognized as placing children at greater risk of poor health and development outcomes.

  14. Telling stories: nurses, politics and Aboriginal Australians, circa 1900-1980s.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Sue

    2007-02-01

    The focus of this paper is stories by, and about, (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse's attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards self-determination for Aboriginal people politicised many - but not all - nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before - neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting the historical roots of institutional racism, and by speaking out against such practices, can discrimination and racism be abolished from nursing practice and health care. This is essential for nursing's current and future professional development and for better health for Aboriginal Australians.

  15. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  16. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  17. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A.; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R.; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Romero, Irene Gallego; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M.; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta M.; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa. PMID:21940856

  18. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  19. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  20. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  1. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  2. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group. PMID:27419016

  3. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  4. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  5. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  6. Health care policy for aboriginal Australians: the relevance of the American Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, S J; Brady, M

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses and compares the systems for the delivery of health care services to indigenous peoples in the United States and Australia; both are poor minorities in wealthy countries and many live in remote locations. Three necessary conditions that have shaped the relative success of the Indian Health Service in the United States are relevant to the Australian situation: federal government administration; the separation of the Indian Health Service from other Indian affairs; and the provision of an integrated health service. Ironically, recent policy changes in the United States by the Clinton administration are reducing the federal bureaucracy, and along with it, Indian Health Service funding. In Australia, the states have had responsibility for service delivery to Aboriginal people, there have been no treaties formalising the relationship between indigenous people and the federal government, and Aboriginal health has been switched between different departments while remaining primarily within the Aboriginal affairs (rather than the health) portfolio. Since 1993, there has been pressure to return Aboriginal health to the health portfolio, and in July 1995, funding and administration of Aboriginal health services were moved from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission to the Department of Human Services and Health.

  7. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  8. Mapping Early Speech: Prescriptive Developmental Profiles for Very Remote Aboriginal Students in the First Two Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the issues surrounding the mapping of the oral language development of Standard Australian English (SAE) in the early school years of remote and very remote Aboriginal education in the Northern Territory (NT). Currently, teachers in this context have 2 mandated documents as guides that chart the development of SAE oracy.…

  9. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested. PMID:20626312

  10. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  11. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  12. Dispersing Mathematics Curriculum Leadership in Remote Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Niesche, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In remote Aboriginal communities, there are many challenges that confront educators, not the least of which is leadership that challenges the status quo and moves Aboriginal communities forward in their access to, and engagement with, the mathematics school curriculum. This paper draws on data from the "Maths in the Kimberley" (MiTK) project where…

  13. Interpretation of low body mass indices: Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    1994-06-01

    Low body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) has been proposed as a practical measure of energy undernutrition although it has some well-known limitations. Some reports have suggested that those Australian Aborigines living a largely traditional way of life have low BMI without compromised health status and may have paradoxically high levels of subcutaneous adipose tissue. The evidence for low BMI in Australian Aborigines is reviewed from the mean data of 1,174 individuals in 26 groups of adults and from the individual data of 349 of these individuals, collected before 1970. Three of the nine groups of women had mean BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 and 4% of the individual men and 14% of the individual women had values less than 16 kg/m2, a value regarded as indicating severe chronic energy deficiency. Skinfold thicknesses were greater than expected from the BMI, suggesting paradoxically high subcutaneous fatness. The contribution of long-leggedness to low BMI was estimated from the regression of BMI on the sitting height to stature ratio (SH/S). For the 26 groups, this was estimated to be 2 kg/m2, r2 = 31%. The relationship was weaker with the individual data, r2 = 15%. Body shape as evinced by low SH/S does contribute to low BMI in these Australian Aborigines. Single cut-offs of BMI are not applicable to all population groups and allowance may have to be made for body form when using BMI to assess nutritional status. PMID:8085614

  14. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  15. Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

  16. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  17. Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations.

    PubMed Central

    Redd, A J; Stoneking, M

    1999-01-01

    We examined genetic affinities of Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations by using nucleotide variation in the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region (CR). A total of 318 individuals from highland Papua New Guinea (PNG), coastal PNG, and Aboriginal Australian populations were typed with a panel of 29 sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. The SSO-probe panel included five new probes that were used to type an additional 1,037 individuals from several Asian populations. The SSO-type data guided the selection of 78 individuals from Australia and east Indonesia for CR sequencing. A gene tree of these CR sequences, combined with published sequences from worldwide populations, contains two previously identified highland PNG clusters that do not include any Aboriginal Australians; the highland PNG clusters have coalescent time estimates of approximately 80,000 and 122,000 years ago, suggesting ancient isolation and genetic drift. SSO-type data indicate that 84% of the sample of PNG highlander mtDNA belong to these two clusters. In contrast, the Aboriginal Australian sequences are intermingled throughout the tree and cluster with sequences from multiple populations. Phylogenetic and multidimensional-scaling analyses of CR sequences and SSO types split PNG highland and Aboriginal Australian populations and link Aboriginal Australian populations with populations from the subcontinent of India. These mtDNA results do not support a close relationship between Aboriginal Australian and PNG populations but instead suggest multiple migrations in the peopling of Sahul. PMID:10441589

  18. Genetic research and aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Pearson, Glenn; Rouhani, Lobna; Peacock, Chris S; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2012-12-01

    While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of "victim-blaming" approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the ethical issues relevant to genetic research in Indigenous populations and considers how some of these have been negotiated in a genomic research project currently under way in a remote Aboriginal community. We consider how the different levels of Indigenous research governance operating in Australia impacted on the research project and discuss whether specific guidelines for the conduct of genetic research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are warranted.

  19. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. PMID:22530862

  20. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model.

  1. Are We Making Education Count in Remote Australian Communities or Just Counting Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    For quite some time the achievements of students in remote Australian schools have been lamented. There is not necessarily anything new about the relative difference between the results of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in remote communities and their counterparts in urban, regional and rural schools across Australia. However, in…

  2. The Early Childhood Education of Aboriginal Australians: A Review of Six Action-Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, G. R.; Whitelaw, A. J.

    The book describes the setting, objectives, program, evaluation and achievement of six innovative action-research early childhood education projects for Aboriginal Australian children, traces various previous attempts to provide education, and provides an historical background of the estimated 140,000 Aboriginal people who make up 1% of…

  3. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  4. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  5. Disturbances and Dislocations: Understanding Teaching and Learning Experiences in Australian Aboriginal Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    A White Australian professor of a class on Indigenous women's dance has her Aboriginal sister-in-law conduct workshops on Indigenous dance. The classroom dynamics resulting from the complex power relationships (teacher as White woman, Aboriginal family member, and students) disturbs Western paradigms. The responsibility of "safely delivering"…

  6. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed Central

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M; Sved, J; Boettcher, B

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some identical HVS1 types are seen in the two contrasting regions. mt HVS1 types may reflect more-ancient distributions than do linguistic diversity and other culturally distinguishing attributes. Comparison with sequences from five published global studies reveals that these Australians demonstrate greatest divergence from some Africans, least from Papua New Guinea highlanders, and only slightly more from some Pacific groups (Indonesian, Asian, Samoan, and coastal Papua New Guinea), although the HVS1 types vary at different nucleotide sites. Construction of a median network, displaying three main groups, suggests that several hypervariable nucleotide sites within the HVS1 are likely to have undergone mutation independently, making phylogenetic comparison with global samples by conventional methods difficult. Specific nucleotide-site variants are major separators in median networks constructed from Australian HVS1 types alone and for one global selection. The distribution of these, requiring extended study, suggests that they may be signatures of different groups of prehistoric colonizers into Australia, for which the time of colonization remains elusive. PMID:9463317

  7. Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    van Holst Pellekaan, S; Frommer, M; Sved, J; Boettcher, B

    1998-02-01

    The mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable segment 1 (mt HVS1) between nucleotides 15997 and 16377 has been examined in aboriginal Australian people from the Darling River region of New South Wales (riverine) and from Yuendumu in central Australia (desert). Forty-seven unique HVS1 types were identified, varying at 49 nucleotide positions. Pairwise analysis by calculation of BEPPI (between population proportion index) reveals statistically significant structure in the populations, although some identical HVS1 types are seen in the two contrasting regions. mt HVS1 types may reflect more-ancient distributions than do linguistic diversity and other culturally distinguishing attributes. Comparison with sequences from five published global studies reveals that these Australians demonstrate greatest divergence from some Africans, least from Papua New Guinea highlanders, and only slightly more from some Pacific groups (Indonesian, Asian, Samoan, and coastal Papua New Guinea), although the HVS1 types vary at different nucleotide sites. Construction of a median network, displaying three main groups, suggests that several hypervariable nucleotide sites within the HVS1 are likely to have undergone mutation independently, making phylogenetic comparison with global samples by conventional methods difficult. Specific nucleotide-site variants are major separators in median networks constructed from Australian HVS1 types alone and for one global selection. The distribution of these, requiring extended study, suggests that they may be signatures of different groups of prehistoric colonizers into Australia, for which the time of colonization remains elusive. PMID:9463317

  8. Historical Factors, Discrimination and Oral Health among Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Margie; Jamieson, Lisa; Kapellas, Kostas

    2016-02-01

    Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations. This relationship, however, is far from causal in any straight-forward way. In support of the work by Paradies, research from the U.S. also shows that racism, both explicit and subtle, contributes to chronic disease and suffering among ethnic minorities. While the exploration of the perceived or self-reported racial discrimination is recent, this concept has increasing evidence to support its relationship to poor health outcomes.

  9. Researching Remote Aboriginal Children's Services: It's All about Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Lyn; James, Ranu

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies problems, issues and insights through critical reflection on the rules, written and unwritten, which encroach on the research process in the "Both Ways" project. The project investigates the development and sustainability of remote Aboriginal children's services in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Children's…

  10. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue: Australian Aboriginal Students' Schematic Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.; Sharifian, Farzad

    2005-01-01

    Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its…

  11. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. PMID:26654863

  12. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  13. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  14. 'Give us the full story': overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choice about fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Kildea, Sue; Boyle, Jacqueline; Barclay, Lesley; Rumbold, Alice

    2013-12-01

    This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening

  15. Maternal health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    1989-08-01

    Undernutrition is widespread in Australian Aboriginal infants and children and is associated with high rates of infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Maternal ill-health and undernutrition seem to be neglected factors which contribute to the high incidence of low birthweight in Aboriginal babies and to their poor growth in the first five years of life. More effective preventive programmes are needed to help overcome these problems.

  16. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  17. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  18. A germline MTOR mutation in Aboriginal Australian siblings with intellectual disability, dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and small thoraces.

    PubMed

    Baynam, Gareth; Overkov, Angela; Davis, Mark; Mina, Kym; Schofield, Lyn; Allcock, Richard; Laing, Nigel; Cook, Matthew; Dawkins, Hugh; Goldblatt, Jack

    2015-07-01

    We report on three Aboriginal Australian siblings with a unique phenotype which overlaps with known megalencephaly syndromes and RASopathies, including Costello syndrome. A gain-of-function mutation in MTOR was identified and represents the first reported human condition due to a germline, familial MTOR mutation. We describe the findings in this family to highlight that (i) the path to determination of pathogenicity was confounded by the lack of genomic reference data for Australian Aboriginals and that (ii) the disease biology, functional analyses in this family, and studies on the tuberous sclerosis complex support consideration of an mTOR inhibitor as a therapeutic agent. PMID:25851998

  19. Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

  20. Sleep Disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Residents of Regional and Remote Australia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Cindy E.; McPherson, Karen; Tikoft, Erik; Usher, Kim; Hosseini, Fariborz; Ferns, Janine; Jersmann, Hubertus; Antic, Ral; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the use of sleep diagnostic tests, the risks, and cofactors, and outcomes of the care of Indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adults in regional and remote Australia in whom sleep related breathing disorders have been diagnosed. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 200 adults; 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 100 non-indigenous adults with a confirmed sleep related breathing disorder diagnosed prior to September 2011 at Alice Springs Hospital and Cairns Hospital, Australia. Results: Results showed overall Indigenous Australians were 1.8 times more likely to have a positive diagnostic sleep study performed compared with non-indigenous patients, 1.6 times less likely in central Australia and 3.4 times more likely in far north Queensland. All regional and remote residents accessed diagnostic sleep studies at a rate less than Australia overall (31/100,000/y (95% confidence interval, 21–44) compared with 575/100,000/y). Conclusion: The barriers to diagnosis and ongoing care are likely to relate to remote residence, lower health self-efficacy, the complex nature of the treatment tool, and environmental factors such as electricity and sleeping area. Indigeneity, remote residence, environmental factors, and low awareness of sleep health are likely to affect service accessibility and rate of use and capacity to enhance patient and family education and support following a diagnosis. A greater understanding of enablers and barriers to care and evaluation of interventions to address these are required. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1255. Citation: Woods CE, McPherson K, Tikoft E, Usher K, Hosseini F, Ferns J, Jersmann H, Antic R, Maguire GP. Sleep disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and residents of regional and remote Australia. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1263–1271. PMID:26094934

  1. Incomplete protection against hepatitis B among remote Aboriginal adolescents despite full vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Dent, Elizabeth; Selvey, Christine E; Bell, Andrew; Davis, Joshua; McDonald, Malcolm I

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine long-term immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a cohort of adolescents who received plasma-derived HBV vaccine in 1989 and 1990 in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. This was done using a serological survey; primary outcome measures were cut-off titres of HBsAb, and the presence of HBcAb and/or HBsAg. Of 37 adolescents in the cohort, 4 (11%) had evidence of active infection, one with abnormal liver enzymes, 7 (19%) had evidence of past infection, 15 (41%) were HBsAb positive in low titre and 11 (30%) were classed as immune. It was concluded that there was relatively poor long-term serological immunity to HBV vaccination in this group; a finding which is in keeping with similar studies in Indigenous and remote populations elsewhere. This finding raises the concern that a significant proportion of Aboriginal adolescents in other remote communities (vaccinated in 1989 and 1990) were not adequately protected by the vaccine. If so, there will be an unexpected burden of chronic HBV infection in these settings and a substantial group who are non-immune, despite having received complete HBV vaccination courses as infants. The authors recommend followup serosurveys in remote Aboriginal communities to identify people with low HBsAb titres, especially those without an adequate anamnestic response to another dose of HBV vaccine. In addition, community-based active surveillance programs will be required to detect people with chronic HBV infection and provide access to monitoring and appropriate treatment.

  2. Empowerment and Australian community health nurses' work with aboriginal clients: the sociopolitical context.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, L

    2001-03-01

    A portion of a study designed to explore community health nurses' (CHNs) perceptions of the concept of empowerment in their work with Australian Aboriginal clients is discussed in this article. The 12 study participants were identified through purposive convenience sampling. During this exploration, contentions regarding the concept of empowerment emerged, revealing the sociopolitical context of CHN's work with Aboriginal people that shaped their practice in crucial ways. These issues emerged from the participants' discussions regarding the meaning of empowerment in their work with Aboriginal clients and the strategies for and challenges to working in empowering ways within the context of Aboriginal health. Selected components of Habermas's works provided a useful framework to facilitate an understanding of the forces that underpin community health nursing practice. PMID:11221115

  3. The "fire stick farming" hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics.

    PubMed

    Bliege Bird, R; Bird, D W; Codding, B F; Parker, C H; Jones, J H

    2008-09-30

    Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a "resource management" strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, "broad-spectrum" foraging economies.

  4. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  5. Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla M.

    2009-07-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.

  6. Goal Theory and Indigenous Minority School Motivation: Relevance and Application. Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…

  7. A Place to Learn: Cultivating Engaging Learning Environments for Young Rural Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Danielle; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tregeagle, Susan; Burnstein, Jodi; Stanley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Rural Aboriginal Australians experience disadvantage across a number of significant social and economic outcomes, including educational engagement and achievement. Current debate postulates that educational environments and systems perpetuate this disadvantage. This qualitative study aimed to contribute to the debate by taking a broader ecological…

  8. Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

    These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

  9. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  10. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  11. Mental health of Australian Aboriginal women during pregnancy: identifying the gaps.

    PubMed

    Prandl, Kelly J; Rooney, Rosanna; Bishop, Brian J

    2012-06-01

    Despite Australia's high standard of health care provision, Australian Aboriginal women continue to experience poor pregnancy outcomes in terms of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to improve these outcomes, health care providers have developed targeted antenatal programmes that aim to address identified health behaviours that are known to contribute to poor health during pregnancy. While some areas of improvement have been noted in rates of engagement with health services, the rates of premature births and low birth weight babies continue to be significantly higher than in the non-Aboriginal population. It appears that Australian researchers have been focused on the behaviour of the individual and have failed to fully consider the impact that social and emotional well-being has on both health behaviours and pregnancy outcomes. This review has highlighted the need for an approach to both research and clinical practice that acknowledges the Aboriginal view of health which encompasses mental, physical, cultural and spiritual health. Until clinicians and Aboriginal women have a shared understanding of how social and emotional well-being is experienced by Aboriginal women, in other words their explanatory model, it is unlikely that any meaningful improvements will be seen.

  12. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    PubMed

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, p<0.0001 vs. mean zero; Indigenous women +0.82, p<0.0001 vs. mean zero). FN BMD(H) was higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates.

  13. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  14. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27070114

  15. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27070114

  16. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.

  17. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  18. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of serum 25–hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. Methods 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007–2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45–77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. For participants with 25(OH)D < 50 vs ≥50 nmol/L, cardio-metabolic risk profile differed for: diabetes (54%, 36% p < 0.001), past history of cardiovascular disease (16%, 9%, p = 0.014), waist-hip ratio (0.98, 0.92, p < 0.001), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (2.7, 1.5 mg/mmol, p < 0.001). The OR (95% CI) for diabetes was 2.02 (1.03 – 3.95) for people in the lowest vs highest tertiles of 25(OH)D (<53 vs >72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. Conclusion The percentage of 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L was high among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with

  19. Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education. Proceedings of the Conference (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, November 17-18, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.

    Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu School Read Glenyse Ward's…

  20. Treponemal infection in the Australian Northern Territory aborigines

    PubMed Central

    Garner, M. F.; Backhouse, J. L.; Moodie, P. M.; Tibbs, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    For many years, a moderate to high prevalence of positive reactions to standard tests for syphilis (STS) has been found in sera from the aboriginal inhabitants of the Northern Territory of Australia. In the survey reported here, people living in 18 areas of the Northern Territory were sampled to determine if the positive STS results were due to treponemal infection and, if so, to what extent this was endemic syphilis, yaws, or venereal syphilis. The results of the Treponema pallidum immobilization test were taken to indicate the presence or absence of treponemal disease in the subject. Clinically, no cases of active treponemal infection were seen, though findings on old infections were difficult to interpret in the older age groups. The prevalence of treponemal infection varied from 3.4% to 58.0% in the areas tested. No serological evidence of treponemal infection in children under 15 years of age was found in 6 areas, while in 12 areas it varied from 2.2% to 32.6%. Sera from 60 people who had no clinical signs of treponemal infection gave high-titre CWR and VDRL test results. It was concluded that yaws, endemic syphilis, and probably venereal syphilis are to be found in the aboriginal population. PMID:4557905

  1. Optimisation Modelling to Assess Cost of Dietary Improvement in Remote Aboriginal Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C.; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Objective We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. Design A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Results Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (−90%) and refined cereals (−90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. Conclusion This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure. PMID:24391790

  2. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians

    PubMed Central

    Curnoe, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins. PMID:21350636

  3. The “fire stick farming” hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics

    PubMed Central

    Bliege Bird, R.; Bird, D. W.; Codding, B. F.; Parker, C. H.; Jones, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a “resource management” strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, “broad-spectrum” foraging economies. PMID:18809925

  4. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  5. Food and nutrition policy issues in remote aboriginal communities: lessons from Arnhem Land.

    PubMed

    McMillan, S J

    1991-12-01

    There is a high incidence of nutrition-related diseases amongst Aborigines living in remote areas. An outline of the corporate food and nutrition policy of the Arnhemland Progress Association is given to demonstrate the potential for positive strategies in remote area stores. The Association is a retailer owned by Aboriginal groups and operates 11 remote community stores. Factors such as price, Aboriginal buying habits, seasonality, consumer demand and most importantly remote area stock management affect the supply of and demand for food items. Further, government policy on sales tax and private sector capital city pricing policies influence retailing in remote areas. The experience of the Arnhemland Progress Association illustrates the extent to which factors affecting supply of and demand for food lie outside the health sector and points to the need for an intersectoral policy on food and nutrition. PMID:1818653

  6. All in the Blood: A Review of Aboriginal Australians' Cultural Beliefs About Blood and Implications for Biospecimen Research.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Greenwood, Ashley; McWhirter, Rebekah E

    2015-10-01

    Public participation in medical research and biobanking is considered key to advances in scientific discovery and translation to improved health care. Cultural concerns relating to blood have been found to affect the participation of indigenous peoples and minorities in research, but such concerns are rarely specified in the literature. This article presents a review of the role of blood in Australian Aboriginal cultures. We discuss the range of meanings and uses of blood in traditional culture, including their use in ceremonies, healing, and sorcery. We draw on more recent literature on Aboriginal Australians and biomedicine to consider how traditional beliefs may be changing over time. These findings provide an empirical basis for researchers and bioethicists to develop culturally grounded strategies to boost the participation of Aboriginal Australians in biomedical research. They also serve as a model for integrating anthropological literature with bioethical concerns that could be applied to other indigenous and minority groups. PMID:26376752

  7. All in the Blood: A Review of Aboriginal Australians' Cultural Beliefs About Blood and Implications for Biospecimen Research.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Greenwood, Ashley; McWhirter, Rebekah E

    2015-10-01

    Public participation in medical research and biobanking is considered key to advances in scientific discovery and translation to improved health care. Cultural concerns relating to blood have been found to affect the participation of indigenous peoples and minorities in research, but such concerns are rarely specified in the literature. This article presents a review of the role of blood in Australian Aboriginal cultures. We discuss the range of meanings and uses of blood in traditional culture, including their use in ceremonies, healing, and sorcery. We draw on more recent literature on Aboriginal Australians and biomedicine to consider how traditional beliefs may be changing over time. These findings provide an empirical basis for researchers and bioethicists to develop culturally grounded strategies to boost the participation of Aboriginal Australians in biomedical research. They also serve as a model for integrating anthropological literature with bioethical concerns that could be applied to other indigenous and minority groups.

  8. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. Methods A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. Results The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Simon; Harrod, Mary-Ellen; Iversen, Jenny; Simone Hocking, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male), age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs), number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%). Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7). The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3) in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3) in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5) among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1) among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however there was

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Simon; Harrod, Mary-Ellen; Iversen, Jenny; Simone Hocking, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male), age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs), number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%). Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7). The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3) in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3) in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5) among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1) among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however there was

  11. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated.

  12. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. PMID:24958498

  13. Infant feeding, growth and mortality: a 20-year study of an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, A E

    1980-10-01

    The data are presented on infant mortality, growth and feeding for an Australian Aboriginal Settlement over 20 years from 1953 to 1972. During this period the infant mortality rate fell from about 280/1000 to about 40/1000 although the growth, infant feeding and health facilities remained almost the same. It is proposed, as a hypothesis worthy of further exploration, that major factors leading to improvement in infant mortality have been a changed attitude to small infants and an ability to use health services appropriately. These factors may be important in all developing communities. PMID:7453611

  14. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  15. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  16. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12–17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001) and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04) than Less Resilient youth. Conclusion The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies. PMID:26716829

  17. The problem of dementia in Australian aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, P A

    1997-02-01

    The concept of dementia in old age in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is intrinsically paradoxical. Firstly, few indigenous people reach old age. Secondly, from some indigenous points of view, dementia is either not recognized as a condition or as a problem, or, in the case of the more disruptive manifestations of cognitive impairment, is perceived as 'madness'. Moreover, in the wider context of profound political, social and economic inequality experienced by most indigenous people, the western medical category of dementia may appear to be of relatively minor importance. However, government initiatives in aged care generally and dementia care in particular which are designed to address the ageing of the Australian population as a whole also include the nation's older indigenous people. This article-based on a review of published work, supplemented by discussions with indigenous and non-indigenous individuals involved in indigenous aged care and mental health-examines some of the issues surrounding cognitive decline in old age for Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. More specifically, it looks at the problems involved in assessing and diagnosing cognitive decline and dementia, especially among people who follow more traditional ways of life, and in providing services to sufferers and their carers. In doing so, it considers some of the relative meanings of "old age', "abnormal old age', "mental disorder', "sickness' and "dementia'. PMID:9097208

  18. Aboriginal Women Working in Vocational Training and Education: A Story from Central Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines research undertaken by an Aboriginal women's non-government organization (NGO) into vocational training and education (VTE) needs and issues for remote Aboriginal communities in Central Australia. It describes the Central Australian context, and in particular the impact of remoteness, inequity and disadvantage upon Aboriginal…

  19. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Emma; Hohnen, Harry; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Scalley, Benjamin D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including individual attributes

  20. The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

    In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

  1. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in β-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 μmol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.

  2. An environmental and demographic analysis of otitis media in rural Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Hudson, H M; Rockett, I R

    1984-03-01

    Otitis media (OM) and tympanic scarring prevalence among rural Australian Aboriginal children is examined in relation to age, sex, community size and 34 environmental variables pertaining to living conditions and climate. The environmental variables are reduced to a smaller set of underlying factors via Principal Components Analysis. With age and sex standardized, a multivariate analysis is performed. OM prevalence is profoundly age-dependent, and is related negatively to community socioeconomic status and the presence of swimming facilities. Scarring prevalence is shown to be subject to substantial inter-observer variation, and with the appropriate adjustment manifests an inverse relationship with winter warmth. The data were collected under the National Trachoma and Eye Health Program.

  3. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  4. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  5. An Aboriginal College for a Return to Country: Designing a School That Prepares Children to Live in Two Worlds and the Space between

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the lived experience of the author as an education consultant from the mainstream of Australian education, attempting to assist a remote Aboriginal corporation establish its own secondary school, in its own cultural context on its own land. It is about the experience of an Anglo Australian servant of an Aboriginal corporation.…

  6. Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E

    2014-12-01

    This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of "chronic disease prevention" has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services.

  7. Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of “chronic disease prevention” has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services. PMID:25503952

  8. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions. PMID:20854319

  9. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions.

  10. Developing a Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bow, Catherine; Christie, Michael; Devlin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuating fortunes of Northern Territory bilingual education programs in Australian languages and English have put at risk thousands of books developed for these programs in remote schools. In an effort to preserve such a rich cultural and linguistic heritage, the Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages project is establishing an open access,…

  11. Gender hierarchy and adolescent sexuality: the control of female reproduction in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Burbank, V K

    1995-03-01

    Women can bear children; men cannot. The author explores why women fail to realize more power from their ability to procreate. An instance is considered in which the practice and resistance of female Australian Aboriginal adolescents created circumstances in which their sexuality and reproduction were largely uncontrolled. The products of women's reproductive ability, children, are socially appropriated, but not women's reproductive abilities. The author views gender as a system of power relations both generated and changed in the quotidian interactions between human males and females. Adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Mangrove, and culture, power, and reproduction are discussed. The author finds women's sexual and reproductive freedom, as it is currently experienced by adolescent girls in Mangrove, to be supported by the confluence of the following factors: the diminished force of ideologies which may circumscribe women's behavior, the control of male violence, and the appreciation of motherhood and of any child simply by virtue of its being a child. It is unclear how long this arrangement will persist. Changes which may presage diminished freedom for women can already be discerned. Women's sexual and reproductive freedom are clearly human possibilities, but they are possibilities which can easily be denied.

  12. Practical challenges of conducting research into rheumatic fever in remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Malcolm I; Benger, Norma; Brown, Alex; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2006-05-15

    Before embarking on an epidemiological study of acute rheumatic fever in remote Aboriginal communities, researchers engaged in the processes of community consultation, consent and household enrollment. Community expectations and time constraints are not necessarily those of the funding bodies, and a considerable investment of time and local engagement was required before the project proceeded with local support. The remoteness of the communities, harsh climate and limited infrastructure made working conditions difficult. Nevertheless, the study was completed and the results are being returned to the local councils and households. The research team continues to maintain its relationship with each study community.

  13. Novel application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) for the non-destructive micro-elemental analysis of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects.

    PubMed

    Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript presents the first non-destructive synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence study of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects. Our results demonstrate the advantage of XFM (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) of Aboriginal Australian objects for optimum sensitivity, elemental analysis, micron-resolution mapping of pigment areas and the method also has the advantage of being non-destructive to the cultural heritage objects. Estimates of pigment thickness can be calculated. In addition, based on the elemental maps of the pigments, further conclusions can be drawn on the composition and mixtures and uses of natural mineral pigments and whether the objects were made using traditional or modern methods and materials. This manuscript highlights the results of this first application of XFM to investigate complex mineral pigments used on Aboriginal Australian objects.

  14. Toward Effective Training in Remote Areas. Report on the Review of Trade-Based Training in Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Cliff; And Others

    Because none of the traditional programs that have been introduced to provide trade and skills training in remote Aboriginal communities has produced qualified tradespersons, a project was undertaken to develop and pilot test an apprenticeship training system called the Modular Integrated Training System (MITS). Visits to remote Aboriginal…

  15. TESOL and TESD in Remote Aboriginal Australia: The "True" Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadman, Kate; Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a second dialect (TESD) in remote Indigenous Australia have a history of repeated failure of both policy and practice. National language testing has been been forcefully attacked by TESOL specialists, producing strong debate amongst…

  16. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  17. Use of terbinafine for tinea in Australian Aboriginal communities in the Top End.

    PubMed

    Koh, Karen J; Parker, Colin J; Ellis, David H; Pruim, Bert; Leysley, Loyla; Currie, Bart J

    2003-11-01

    Tinea of the skin and nails is a common problem in remote Aboriginal communities of the Top End of Australia. A retrospective study was performed on data collected from 104 patients from several indigenous communities. Worksheets were filled in by district medical officers and rural general practitioners, detailing the extent of the tinea. Patients were prescribed between 4 and 12 weeks of 250 mg daily oral terbinafine. Fifty-two patients were followed up, with 45 having a good response to treatment (87%) and with 22 of these patients having full clearance of tinea (42%). A prospective study with 44 subjects was performed. The extent of the tinea was documented and fungal scrapings/clippings were taken. Forty subjects were recruited and given oral terbinafine (2-12 weeks depending on skin/nail involvement) or topical terbinafine if oral treatment was contraindicated. Twenty-five of the 40 (63%) subjects were reviewed. Twenty-three (92%) subjects that were followed up improved clinically, with 8/25 (32%) clearing completely. Twenty (80%) of followed-up patients complied fully with treatment. Terbinafine was found to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment of tinea of the skin and nails. PMID:14616489

  18. Birth weight and cognitive function in early adulthood: the Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Mann, K D; Singh, G; Sayers, S M

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen.

  19. Growth outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children aged 11 years who were born with intrauterine growth retardation at term gestation.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Mackerras, Dorothy; Halpin, Stephen; Singh, Gurmeet

    2007-09-01

    Long-term poor growth outcomes are well documented for intrauterine growth-retarded babies (IUGR) in developed populations but there is a paucity of IUGR studies from disadvantaged populations where the greatest burden of IUGR occurs. Using a Northern Territory, Aboriginal cohort recruited at birth and followed up at a mean age of 11.4 years, comparisons of body size were made between children born at term who had been IUGR (n = 121) and those non-IUGR (n = 341), and between those IUGR babies who had an appropriate ponderal index at birth (n = 72) and those with a low ponderal index (n = 49). Compared with non-IUGR children, at follow-up the IUGR children were almost 2 cm shorter (P = 0.10), 4 kg lighter (P < 0.01) and their head circumferences were almost a 1 cm smaller (P < 0.01). For the 121 term IUGR children, there were no significant differences in growth outcomes according to ponderal index measures at birth. These findings from an Australian Aboriginal sample are consistent with other comparisons of IUGR and non-IUGR children in developed populations and suggest there may be no additional effects of IUGR on growth in childhood for disadvantaged populations similar to the Aboriginal population in the Northern Territory.

  20. A Service-Learning Immersion in a Remote Aboriginal Community: Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavery, Shane; Cain, Glenda; Hampton, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a service-learning immersion undertaken by pre-service primary teachers in a remote indigenous community and school in Western Australia. The article initially presents the purpose and significance for the immersion in the light of the Australian National Professional Standards for Teachers. The article subsequently outlines…

  1. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia. PMID:22881383

  2. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  3. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  4. Warrki Jarrinjaku "Working Together Everyone and Listening": Growing Together as Leaders for Aboriginal Children in Remote Central Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Kathryn; King, Sharijn; Nangala, Irene; Brown, Wendy Nungurrayi; Nangala, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an early childhood leadership model that senior Anangu and Yapa (Aboriginal) women, living semi-traditional lifestyles in the remote desert regions of central Australia, have identified as a positive and important way forward for their children, families, governments and related professionals. The initiative--Warrki…

  5. Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution? Communication Assessments of Aboriginal Children Residing in Remote Communities Using Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Quittenbaum, Jacqueline; Anderson, Deborah; Nelson, Tina

    2008-01-01

    The current article describes the results, inter-scorer reliability, and potential sources of bias in conducting speech-language assessments with Aboriginal children in remote Ontario communities using videoconferencing. A main focus of this pilot study was to examine scoring bias, an issue that might arise with videoconferencing for any…

  6. Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  7. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

  8. Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

  9. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  10. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  11. Definitions of suicide and self-harm behavior in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-04-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way such behavior is defined in an Aboriginal context. A continuation of certain "traditional" cultural forms of self-harm behavior was evident in participant definitions, notably the practice of female hair cutting, also described as a mourning ritual, which appears to serve as a marker both to the individual and others. PMID:19527158

  12. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  13. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  14. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  15. Writing Aboriginal English & Creoles: Five Case Studies in Australian Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disbray, Samantha; Loakes, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts in Aboriginal English (AE) and creole varieties have been created by Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers for a range of purposes. In this paper, we focus on materials created in and for five educational contexts, and investigate the orthographic or spelling systems developed in each setting. Choices about orthography are guided by…

  16. Queering Place: The Intersection of Feminist Body Theory and Australian Aboriginal Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author used an auto-ethnographic philosophical approach to construct a fragile history of the present. Margaret Somerville reports doing this through tracing key moments and movements of queering feminist poststructural theory and evolving a queering method of body/place writing through her embeddedness in Aboriginal stories.…

  17. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  18. Definitions of Suicide and Self-Harm Behavior in an Australian Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Terri; Francis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this small qualitative grounded theory study (21 interviews and focus groups with a total of 26 participants) investigating the understandings of and attitudes toward suicide and self-harm of Aboriginal peoples in a coastal region of New South Wales, Australia, we found that cultural factors particular to these communities influence the way…

  19. Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Tennant, Mary T; Silva, Desiree T; McAullay, Daniel; Lannigan, Francis; Coates, Harvey; Stanley, Fiona J

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the health impact of swimming pools built with the aim of improving quality of life and reducing high rates of pyoderma and otitis media. Design Intervention study assessing prevalence of ear disease and skin infections before and at six monthly intervals after opening of swimming pools. Setting Two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Participants 84 boys and 78 girls aged < 17 years. Main outcome measures Changes in prevalence and severity of pyoderma and perforation of tympanic membranes with or without otorrhoea over 18 months after opening of pools. Results In community A, 61 children were seen before the pool was opened, and 41, 46, and 33 children were seen at the second, third, and fourth surveys. Equivalent figures for community B were 60, 35, 39, and 45. Prevalence of pyoderma declined significantly from 62% to 18% in community A and from 70% to 20% in community B during the 18 months after the pools opened. Over the same period, prevalence of severe pyoderma fell from 30% to 15% in community A and from 48% to 0% in community B. Prevalence of perforations of the tympanic membrane fell from 32% in both communities to 13% in community A and 18% in community B. School attendance improved in community A. Conclusion Swimming pools in remote communities were associated with reduction in prevalence of pyoderma and tympanic membrane perforations, which could result in long term benefits through reduction in chronic disease burden and improved educational and social outcomes. PMID:12933727

  20. The role of remote community stores in reducing the harm resulting from tobacco to Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Rowena G; Castro, Anthony; Parfitt, David; Bailie, Ross S; Richmond, Robyn L; D'Abbs, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential for reducing the harm resulting from tobacco use through health promotion programmes run in community stores in remote Aboriginal communities. The Tobacco Project utilised data from 111 stakeholder interviews (72 at baseline and 71 at follow-up after 12 months) assessing presence of sales to minors, tobacco advertising, labelling and pricing. It also involved the assessment of observational data from community stores and comments obtained from 29 tobacco vendors derived from community surveys. Sales of tobacco to minors were not reported in community stores and all stores complied with requirements to display the legislated signage. However, tobacco was accessible to minors through a vending machine and through independent vendors. Only one store displayed tobacco advertising; all stores had displayed anti-tobacco health promotion posters or pamphlets. Pricing policies in two stores may have meant that food items effectively subsidised the cost of tobacco. All stores had unofficial no-smoking policies in accessible parts of the store. Remote community stores complied with existing legislation, aside from allowing access of minors to vending machines. There may still be potential for proactive tobacco education campaigns run through community stores and for a trial assessing the effect of changes in tobacco prices on tobacco consumption.

  1. Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

    2001-01-01

    A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

  2. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  3. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally targeted interventions. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 120 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members aged 18–45 years will be recruited at community events and through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Participants will be interviewed using a tablet computer or paper survey. The survey instrument uses modified risk behaviour scales, that is, the Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) scale and the Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) (adapted from the Risk Acceptance Ladder) to determine whether attitudes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to health risk messages are predictors of intentions to quit smoking. The questionnaire will be assessed for face and content validity with a panel of Indigenous community members. The internal consistency of the RBD subscales and their patterns of correlation will be explored. Multivariate analyses will examine predictors of intentions to quit. This will include demographics such as age, gender, nicotine dependence, household smoking rules and perceived threat from smoking and efficacy for quitting. The two risk-assessment scales will be examined to see whether participant responses are correlated. Ethics and dissemination The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council Ethics Committee and university ethics committees approved the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and a community report will be

  4. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  5. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008–09: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Methods Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008–09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Results More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35–44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. Conclusions These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public

  6. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  7. Intestinal spirochaetes colonizing aborigines from communities in the remote north of Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. I.; Hampson, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal spirochaetal bacteria were isolated from 59 of 181 (32.6%) faecal samples obtained from Aboriginal children and a few adults living in communities in the Kimberley region in the north of Western Australia. Colonization was more common in young Aborigines between 2 and 18 years of age than it was in adults, or in babies and children less than 2 years of age. Three of 22 Aboriginal children who were sampled on two consecutive years were colonized on both occasions. None of four other children were found to be consistently colonized with the bacteria when sampled on three sequential years, but three were positive on two consecutive visits and the other child was positive on the first and third sampling. Most Aboriginal children had abnormal or watery stools, and both abnormal and watery stool samples were significantly more likely to contain spirochaetes than were normal samples. However, it was not possible to prove that the spirochaetes were the cause of the diarrhoea. In contrast, spirochaetes were only recovered from 8 of 695 (1.2%) faecal samples that were obtained from other mainly non-Aboriginal children and adults in Western Australia or the Northern Territory of Australia, even though most of these individuals were suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances. PMID:1499667

  8. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    PubMed

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns).

  9. Responses to racism: a taxonomy of coping styles used by Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David

    2004-01-01

    The author takes up the challenge from social psychologists to explore the coping responses of those who experience racism. Previous attempts to provide taxonomies of responses to racism-discrimination-oppression are reviewed. An analysis of data derived from semistructured interviews conducted with 34 Indigenous Australians that explored experiences of racism and emotional and behavioral responses is reported, and a taxonomy of coping made up of 3 broad categories is presented. The defining feature of these categories is the purpose of the responses contained therein: to defend the self, to control or contain the reaction, or to confront the racism. It is argued that this may be a more useful way to understand responses to racism than taxonomies previously proposed.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis from Australian Aboriginal people with trachoma are polyphyletic composed of multiple distinctive lineages

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patiyan; Harris, Simon R.; Smith, Helena M. B. Seth; Hadfield, James; O'Neill, Colette; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Douglas, Fiona P.; Asche, L. Valerie; Mathews, John D.; Hutton, Susan I.; Sarovich, Derek S.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Clarke, Ian N.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Giffard, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted infections and the blinding disease trachoma. Current data on C. trachomatis phylogeny show that there is only a single trachoma-causing clade, which is distinct from the lineages causing urogenital tract (UGT) and lymphogranuloma venerum diseases. Here we report the whole-genome sequences of ocular C. trachomatis isolates obtained from young children with clinical signs of trachoma in a trachoma endemic region of northern Australia. The isolates form two lineages that fall outside the classical trachoma lineage, instead being placed within UGT clades of the C. trachomatis phylogenetic tree. The Australian trachoma isolates appear to be recombinants with UGT C. trachomatis genome backbones, in which loci that encode immunodominant surface proteins (ompA and pmpEFGH) have been replaced by those characteristic of classical ocular isolates. This suggests that ocular tropism and association with trachoma are functionally associated with some sequence variants of ompA and pmpEFGH. PMID:26912299

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis from Australian Aboriginal people with trachoma are polyphyletic composed of multiple distinctive lineages.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Patiyan; Harris, Simon R; Seth Smith, Helena M B; Hadfield, James; O'Neill, Colette; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Douglas, Fiona P; Asche, L Valerie; Mathews, John D; Hutton, Susan I; Sarovich, Derek S; Tong, Steven Y C; Clarke, Ian N; Thomson, Nicholas R; Giffard, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted infections and the blinding disease trachoma. Current data on C. trachomatis phylogeny show that there is only a single trachoma-causing clade, which is distinct from the lineages causing urogenital tract (UGT) and lymphogranuloma venerum diseases. Here we report the whole-genome sequences of ocular C. trachomatis isolates obtained from young children with clinical signs of trachoma in a trachoma endemic region of northern Australia. The isolates form two lineages that fall outside the classical trachoma lineage, instead being placed within UGT clades of the C. trachomatis phylogenetic tree. The Australian trachoma isolates appear to be recombinants with UGT C. trachomatis genome backbones, in which loci that encode immunodominant surface proteins (ompA and pmpEFGH) have been replaced by those characteristic of classical ocular isolates. This suggests that ocular tropism and association with trachoma are functionally associated with some sequence variants of ompA and pmpEFGH.

  12. Influences of indigenous language on spatial frames of reference in Aboriginal English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-06-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as `in front' and `behind.' Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian language Iwaidja use the intrinsic frame of reference in contexts where speakers of Standard Australian English use the relative frame of reference. Children speaking Aboriginal English show patterns of use that parallel the Iwaidja contexts. This paper presents detailed examples of spatial descriptions in Iwaidja and Aboriginal English that demonstrate the parallel patterns of use. The data comes from a study that investigated how an understanding of spatial frame of reference in Iwaidja could assist teaching mathematics to Indigenous language-speaking students. Implications for teaching mathematics are explored for teachers without previous experience in a remote Indigenous community.

  13. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  14. First Genome-Wide Association Study in an Australian Aboriginal Population Provides Insights into Genetic Risk Factors for Body Mass Index and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Scaman, Elizabeth S. H.; Davis, Elizabeth; Miles, Simon J.; McLeay, Toby; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2015-01-01

    A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P<5x10-8. Nevertheless, genes/pathways in common with other ethnicities were identified despite the arrival of Aboriginal people in Australia >45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5’ of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5’ of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin’s transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease

  15. High length-of-stay outliers under casemix funding of a remote rural community with a high proportion of aboriginal patients.

    PubMed

    Russell-Weisz, D; Hindle, D

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis related groups (DRG) classification was designed primarily to categorize patients of acute short-stay hospitals in urban areas. As one might expect, many studies have shown it is a less effective predictor of the needs--and consequently the costs of care--of remote and socio-economically disadvantaged communities. One way of improving the equity of funding involves separating the cases in each DRG into inlier and outlier episodes, and making different resource allocations for each category. This paper summarises the outlier payment model used by the Health Department of Western Australia, with emphasis on high length of stay outliers. The model provides additional funds for high length of stay outliers, but funding levels are deliberately set below the actual estimated costs of care, on the assumption that some of the additional costs are a consequence of poor care management. All high length of stay outlier episodes in the East Pilbara Health Service in 1997-98 were examined. It was found that the outliers were predominantly Aboriginal patients from remote communities with higher than average needs for care as indicated by their greater tendency to have multiple conditions requiring treatment. The age distribution of high length of stay outliers was quite different from that found in most Australian hospitals, in that there was a higher proportion of young children. It is concluded that, although the ideas on which the funding model is based are sound, revisions of detail need to be considered to reduce the risk that the burden of cost containment will fall to a disproportionate degree on the most disadvantaged groups of patients.

  16. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    PubMed

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  17. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.

  18. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness. PMID:23784960

  19. Strongyloidiasis: an issue in Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Adams, M; Page, W; Speare, R

    2003-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis, a disease caused by the parasitic gut nematode (roundworm), Strongyloides stercoralis, has the highest prevalence in the world in rural and remote Aboriginal communities of northern Australia. With prevalences greater than 25%, these communities have rates of strongyloidiasis higher those in the worst affected developing countries where surveys have been recently conducted. Available data indisputably support that strongyloidiasis is more prevalent in rural and remote Aboriginal communities than in the mainstream Australian community. However control of strongyloidiasis has not been given a high priority by government health departments, with the result that Aboriginal people in remote and rural communities in Northern Australia are still suffering from a preventable and treatable disease. This article suggests that the only way to address the strongyloidiasis problem in Indigenous communities is to have strongyloidiasis recognised and addressed at the national level. One component of this must be making health departments responsible for establishing appropriate systems of effective treatment for and monitoring of patients with strongyloidiasis. PMID:15877491

  20. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

  1. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    PubMed Central

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service

  2. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla

    2012-12-01

    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed.

  3. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla

    2012-12-01

    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed. PMID:24803441

  4. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  5. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the “costly” crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  6. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  7. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system.

  8. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  9. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  10. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  11. Aboriginal reconciliation: a role for psychiatrists?

    PubMed

    McKendrick, J H

    1997-10-01

    Australian Aboriginal people are marginalised, severely disadvantaged and subject to discrimination. The Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families has focused international attention on their plight. However, the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation and the High Court Mabo decision provide avenues for change. This paper asks: is there a role for psychiatrists in the reconciliation process?

  12. Language, Culture and Access to Mathematics: A Case of One Remote Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    For many students, coming to learn mathematics is as much about the pedagogical relay through which concepts are conveyed as it is about the mathematics per se. This relay comprises social, cultural and linguistic norms as well as the mathematical discourse. In this study, I outline the practices of one remote school and how the teaching practices…

  13. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism.

  14. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  15. Children's Language Input: A Study of a Remote Multilingual Indigenous Australian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loakes, Deborah; Moses, Karin; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Simpson, Jane; Billington, Rosey

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous children growing up in the remote regions of Australia live in multilingual communities which are often undergoing rapid language shift. In these communities, children are exposed to a range of language input, including the traditional language of the area, a local creole and Standard Australian English. The extent to which the…

  16. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  17. How Aboriginal Peer Interactions in Upper Primary School Sport Support Aboriginal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

    PubMed

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-01

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible.

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity of Nicotiana gossei leaves, used in the Australian Aboriginal smokeless tobacco known as pituri or mingkulpa.

    PubMed

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Cabot, Peter J; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-07-01

    The Aboriginal population of Central Australia use endemic Nicotiana species to make a smokeless tobacco product known usually as pituri or mingkulpa. Nicotiana leaves are masticated with wood ash into a 'quid' that is chewed/sucked for absorption of nicotine. In addition to nicotine, smokeless tobacco products contain a spectrum of biologically active compounds that may contribute to effects on health. The objective of this study was to quantify nicotine, and related alkaloids and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), in Nicotiana leaves used in pituri, and compare in vitro toxicity of pure nicotine with Nicotiana leaf extract at the same concentration of nicotine. An aqueous extract of dry leaves of Nicotiana gossei and a reference smokeless tobacco (CORESTA CRP2) were quantified for major pyridine alkaloids and TSNAs using HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS. A range of extract concentrations and corresponding concentrations of nicotine standard were tested using an MTS assay to measure human lung epithelium cell (A549) survival. Cells treated for 24h with the maximum concentration of 1.5mg/ml of nicotine resulted in 77% viability. In contrast, extracts from N. gossei leaves and CRP2 containing a similar concentration of nicotine (1.3mg/ml) resulted in remarkably lower viability of 1.5 and 6%, respectively. Comparison of cytotoxicity of pure nicotine with that of the extracts revealed that nicotine was not the source of their cytotoxicity. Other biologically active compounds such as the known carcinogens NNK and NNN, derived from nicotine and nornicotine and found to be present in the smokeless tobacco extracts, may be responsible. PMID:27178269

  20. Aboriginal Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

  1. Chemical and biological characterization of novel essential oils from Eremophila bignoniiflora (F. Muell) (Myoporaceae): a traditional Aboriginal Australian bush medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Hitchcock, Maria; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from the traditional Australian medicinal plant Eremophila bignoniiflora, characterized chemically and then screened for bioactivity. Characterization and quantification were completed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection, respectively. Antimicrobial capacity was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-titre plate broth dilution and further characterized using thin layer chromatography followed by bioautography to assign activity to separated individual active components. Antifungal capacity was investigated using micro-titre plate broth dilution against pathogenic Trichophyton species. Free radical scavenging ability was assessed using the diphenylpicrylhydradyl reaction in methanol. The predominant components of the essential oil were fenchyl-acetate and bornyl-acetate. However, bioautography indicated antimicrobial ability to be largely linked to the less abundant, more polar constituents. Oils displayed only modest antifungal ability against pathogenic Trichophyton species associated with dermatophytosis, but moderate to high antimicrobial activity, particularly against the yeast Candida albicans and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Essential oils exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Speculation over the role of essential oils in the traditional medicinal applications of E. bignoniiflora follows, exploring correlations between traditional use and investigated bioactivities.

  2. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum

  3. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Bailie, Ross S

    2007-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB). Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability.We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES), in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  4. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Emma; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Bailie, Ross S

    2007-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB). Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES), in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities. PMID:18001479

  5. Effect of health promotion and fluoride varnish on dental caries among Australian Aboriginal children: results from a community-randomized controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Gary D; Bailie, Ross S; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Leach, Amanda J; Raye, Iris; Endean, Colin; Simmons, Bruce; Morris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We tested a dental health program in remote Aboriginal communities of Australia's Northern Territory, hypothesizing that it would reduce dental caries in preschool children. Methods In this 2-year, prospective, cluster-randomized, concurrent controlled, open trial of the dental health program compared to no such program, 30 communities were allocated at random to intervention and control groups. All residents aged 18–47 months were invited to participate. Twice per year for 2 years in the 15 intervention communities, fluoride varnish was applied to children's teeth, water consumption and daily tooth cleaning with toothpaste were advocated, dental health was promoted in community settings, and primary health care workers were trained in preventive dental care. Data from dental examinations at baseline and after 2 years were used to compute net dental caries increment per child (d3mfs). A multi-level statistical model compared d3mfs between intervention and control groups with adjustment for the clustered randomization design; four other models used additional variables for adjustment. Results At baseline, 666 children were examined; 543 of them (82%) were re-examined 2 years later. The adjusted d3mfs increment was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group by an average of 3.0 surfaces per child (95% CI = 1.2, 4.9), a prevented fraction of 31%. Adjustment for additional variables yielded caries reductions ranging from 2.3 to 3.5 surfaces per child and prevented fractions of 24–36%. Conclusions These results corroborate findings from other studies where fluoride varnish was efficacious in preventing dental caries in young children. PMID:20707872

  6. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  7. Reviews and syntheses: Australian vegetation phenology: new insights from satellite remote sensing and digital repeat photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Caitlin E.; Brown, Tim; Keenan, Trevor F.; Duursma, Remko A.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Beringer, Jason; Culvenor, Darius; Evans, Bradley; Huete, Alfredo; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Maier, Stefan; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Sonnentag, Oliver; Specht, Alison; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; van Gorsel, Eva; Liddell, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological occurrences and can provide important insights into the influence of climatic variability and change on ecosystems. Understanding Australia's vegetation phenology is a challenge due to its diverse range of ecosystems, from savannas and tropical rainforests to temperate eucalypt woodlands, semi-arid scrublands, and alpine grasslands. These ecosystems exhibit marked differences in seasonal patterns of canopy development and plant life-cycle events, much of which deviates from the predictable seasonal phenological pulse of temperate deciduous and boreal biomes. Many Australian ecosystems are subject to irregular events (i.e. drought, flooding, cyclones, and fire) that can alter ecosystem composition, structure, and functioning just as much as seasonal change. We show how satellite remote sensing and ground-based digital repeat photography (i.e. phenocams) can be used to improve understanding of phenology in Australian ecosystems. First, we examine temporal variation in phenology on the continental scale using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), calculated from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Spatial gradients are revealed, ranging from regions with pronounced seasonality in canopy development (i.e. tropical savannas) to regions where seasonal variation is minimal (i.e. tropical rainforests) or high but irregular (i.e. arid ecosystems). Next, we use time series colour information extracted from phenocam imagery to illustrate a range of phenological signals in four contrasting Australian ecosystems. These include greening and senescing events in tropical savannas and temperate eucalypt understorey, as well as strong seasonal dynamics of individual trees in a seemingly static evergreen rainforest. We also demonstrate how phenology links with ecosystem gross primary productivity (from eddy covariance) and discuss why these processes are linked in some ecosystems but not others. We conclude that

  8. Learning from Anangu Histories: Population Centralisation and Decentralisation Influences and the Provision of Schooling in Tri-State Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Remote Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schools and communities are diverse and complex sites shaped by contrasting geographies, languages, histories and cultures, including historical and ongoing relationships with colonialism, and connected yet contextually unique epistemologies, ontologies and cosmologies. This paper explores…

  9. Colonial judiciaries, Aboriginal protection and South Australia's policy of punishing "with exemplary severity".

    PubMed

    Nettelbeck, Amanda; Foster, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which Europeans experienced the legal system for crimes against Aboriginal people needs more systematic research. Although for the first fifty years of Australian settlement Aboriginal legal status was protractedly ambiguous, the foundational principle of later-established South Australia was that Aboriginal people were British subjects and settler crimes against them would be punished 'with exemplary severity'. This paper puts this foundational principle to the test by examining the working of the legal system where Europeans were investigated for the deaths of Aboriginal people. Ultimately, we argue, the principle of protecting Aboriginal people as British subjects not only failed, but became inverted into a principle of Aboriginal punishment.

  10. The health of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    LoGiudice, Dina

    2016-06-01

    The health of Aboriginal Australians is poorer than that of all other Indigenous cultures in developed nations, and recent studies suggest high rates of dementia and other conditions that are common in old age. This has implications for health promotion, provision of services and planning for older age in these communities. This article provides an overview on the health of Older Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27155822

  11. A polymorphic variant of human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I with a widespread distribution in Australian aborigines, CAI Australia-9 (8 Asp leads to Gly): purification, properties, amino acid substitution, and possible physiological significance of the variant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jones, G L; Shaw, D C

    1982-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase I (EC 4.2.1.1) purified from the pooled packed red blood cells of 100 individuals typed as heterozygous for the common Australian Aboriginal carbonic anhydrase I variant CAI Australia-9 had a slightly higher specific CO2 hydratase or esterase (toward p-nitrophenyl acetate) activity than the normal component and a higher Km and Vmax using the esterase substrate. The variant enzyme was slightly more resistant to heat inactivation. The extent of inhibition of both enzymes by the specific inhibitor acetazolamide was identical, as was their immunological behavior and the lability of the active-site zinc ion. The variant enzyme was more resistant to chloride inhibition. The physiological importance of this observation is discussed in the context of a proposed adaptive advantage of the variant gene in the arid western and central regions of Australia. The amino acid substitution in the Aboriginal variant of a glycine for an aspartic acid residue has been located at residue 8 from the N terminus (i.e., 8 Asp leads to Gly), by proteolytic and partial acid hydrolyses. The possible effects of this substitution on the structure and function of the molecule are discussed. PMID:6817746

  12. Cross-sectional comparison of point-of-care with laboratory HbA1c in detecting diabetes in real-world remote Aboriginal settings

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Julia V; Oh, May S; Hadgraft, Nyssa; Singleton, Sally; Isaacs, Kim; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if point-of-care (POC) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is sufficiently accurate in real-world remote settings to predict or exclude the diagnosis of diabetes based on laboratory HbA1c measurements. Design Cross-sectional study comparing POC capillary HbA1c results with corresponding venous HbA1c levels measured in a reference laboratory. Participants Aboriginal patients ≥15 years old who were due for diabetes screening at the participating clinics were invited to participate. Two hundred and fifty-five Aboriginal participants were enrolled and 241 were included in the analysis. Setting 6 primary healthcare sites in the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia from September 2011 to November 2013. Main outcome measures Concordance and mean differences between POC capillary blood HbA1c measurement and laboratory measurement of venous blood HbA1c level; POC capillary blood HbA1c equivalence value for screening for diabetes or a high risk of developing diabetes; sensitivity, specificity and positive-predictive value for diagnosing and screening for diabetes; barriers to conducting POC testing. Results Concordance between POC and laboratory results was good (ρ=0.88, p<0.001). The mean difference was −0.15% (95% limits of agreement, −0.67% to 0.36%). POC HbA1c measurements ≥6.5%, 48 mmol/mol had a specificity of 98.2% and sensitivity of 73.7% for laboratory measurements ≥6.5%. The POC equivalence value for screening for diabetes or a high risk of developing diabetes was ≥5.7%, 39 mmol/mol (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 76.7% for laboratory measurements ≥6.0%, 42 mmol/mol). Staff trained by other clinic staff ‘on the job’ performed as well as people with formal accredited training. Staff reported difficulty in maintaining formal accreditation. Conclusions POC HbA1c testing is sufficiently accurate to be a useful component in screening for, and diagnosing, diabetes in remote communities. Limited local training is

  13. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes

  14. Improving the Participation and Engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Thi Kim Anh; Vitartas, Peter; Ambrose, Kurt; Millar, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities have among their goals to increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students at their institutions. In the Australian higher education context, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are seriously under-represented, particularly in business education compared to other disciplines. An…

  15. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  16. Aboriginal health.

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, H L; MacMillan, A B; Offord, D R; Dingle, J L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inform health care workers about the health status of Canada's native people. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published from Jan. 1, 1989, to Nov. 31, 1995, with the use of subject headings "Eskimos" and "Indians, North American," excluding specific subject headings related to genetics and history. Case reports were excluded. Material was also identified from a review of standard references and bibliographies and from consultation with experts. STUDY SELECTION: Review and research articles containing original data concerning epidemiologic aspects of native health. Studies of Canadian populations were preferred, but population-based studies of US native peoples were included if limited Canadian information was available. DATA EXTRACTION: Information about target population, methods and conclusions was extracted from each study. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates are higher in the native population than in the general Canadian population. The infant mortality rates averaged for the years 1986 to 1990 were 13.8 per 1000 live births among Indian infants, 16.3 per 1000 among Inuit infants, and only 7.3 per 1000 among all Canadian infants. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates among residents of reserves averaged for the years 1979 to 1983 were 561.0 per 100,000 population among men and 334.6 per 100,000 among women, compared with 340.2 per 100,000 among all Canadian men and 173.4 per 100,000 among all Canadian women. Compared with the general Canadian population, specific native populations have an increased risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia. Of the aboriginal population of Canada 15 years of age and older, 31% have been informed that they have a chronic health problem. Diabetes mellitus affects 6% of aboriginal adults, compared with 2% of all Canadian adults. Social problems identified by aboriginal people as a concern in their community include substance abuse, suicide, unemployment and family violence

  17. An Innovative Australian Outreach Model of Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in Remote Communities

    PubMed Central

    Glasson, Nicola M.; Crossland, Lisa J.; Larkins, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Up to 98% of visual loss secondary to diabetic retinopathy (DR) can be prevented with early detection and treatment. Despite this, less than 50% of Australian and American diabetics receive appropriate screening. Diabetic patients living in rural and remote communities are further disadvantaged by limited access to ophthalmology services. Research Design and Methods. DR screening using a nonmydriatic fundal camera was performed as part of a multidisciplinary diabetes service already visiting remote communities. Images were onforwarded to a distant general practitioner who identified and graded retinopathy, with screen-positive patients referred to ophthalmology. This retrospective, descriptive study aims to compare the proportion of remote diabetic patients receiving appropriate DR screening prior to and following implementation of the service. Results. Of the 141 patients in 11 communities who underwent DR screening, 16.3% had received appropriate DR screening prior to the implementation of the service. In addition, 36.2% of patients had never been screened. Following the introduction of the service, 66.3% of patients underwent appropriate DR screening (p = 0.00025). Conclusion. This innovative model has greatly improved accessibility to DR screening in remote communities, thereby reducing preventable blindness. It provides a holistic, locally appropriate diabetes service and utilises existing infrastructure and health workforce more efficiently. PMID:26798648

  18. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. Objective This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. Results The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). Conclusions There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies

  19. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  20. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  1. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    PubMed Central

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  2. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice. PMID:25040582

  3. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice.

  4. Development of the good food planning tool: A food system approach to food security in indigenous Australian remote communities.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; van den Boogaard, Christel; Wood, Beverley; Liberato, Selma C; Brown, Jacqui; Barnes, Adam; Rogers, Alison; Coveney, John; Ritchie, Jan; Bailie, Ross

    2015-07-01

    Few frameworks exist to assist food system planning, especially for Indigenous Australian remote communities. We developed a Good Food Planning Tool to support stakeholders to collectively plan and take action for local food system improvement. Development occurred over a four-year period through an evolving four phase participatory process that included literature review, several meetings with representatives of various organisations and communities and application of the Tool with multi-sector groups in each of four Indigenous Australian remote communities. A diverse range of 148 stakeholders, 78 of whom were Indigenous, had input to its development. Five food system domains: (i) Leadership and partnerships; (ii) Traditional food and local food production; (iii) Food businesses; (iv) Buildings, public places and transport; (v) Community and services and 28 activity areas form the framework of the Tool. The Good Food Planning Tool provides a useful framework to facilitate collective appraisal of the food system and to identify opportunities for food system improvement in Indigenous Australian remote communities, with potential for adaptation for wider application. PMID:25912518

  5. Smoking behaviours in a remote Australian Indigenous community: the influence of family and other factors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Vanessa; Thomas, David P

    2008-12-01

    In Australia, tobacco smoking is more than twice as common among Indigenous people as non-Indigenous people. Some of the highest smoking rates in the country are in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Owing to this high prevalence, tobacco use today is the single biggest contributing risk factor for excess morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians. Despite this, there is a lack of published research which qualitatively explores the social context of Indigenous smoking behaviour or of meanings and perceptions of smoking among Indigenous people. The aim of this study was to understand why Indigenous people start to smoke, the reasons why they persist in smoking and the obstacles and drivers of quitting. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 25 Indigenous community members in two remote communities in the Northern Territory and 13 health staff. The results indicate that there is a complex interplay of historical, social, cultural, psychological and physiological factors which influence the smoking behaviours of Indigenous adults in these communities. In particular, the results signal the importance of the family and kin relations in determining smoking behaviours. While most community participants were influenced by family to initiate and continue to smoke, the health and well being of the family was also cited as a key driver of quit attempts. The results highlight the importance of attending to social and cultural context when designing tobacco control programs for this population. Specifically, this research supports the development of family-centred tobacco control interventions alongside wider policy initiatives to counter the normalisation of smoking and assist individuals to quit.

  6. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  7. Mental health services by and for Austrailian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kahn, M W; Henry, J; Cawte, J

    1976-09-01

    Based on a program developed for the Papago Indians of Arizona, five Australian Aborigines were trained as Behavioral Health workers, to deliver mental health services to their group. The problems of the Aborigines are very similar to those of the Indians. The training consisted of developing basic skills in interviewing, case indentification and several methods of intervention, including crisis intervention, family and alcoholism counselling. A mental health clinic was developed for the Aboriginal community for health services and training. Community projects and field trips were part of the training, as was report writing, record keeping and presentations to professional groups.

  8. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  9. The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

    This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott stressed the need…

  10. Can We Educate and Train Aboriginal Leaders within Our Tertiary Education Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…

  11. On the feasibility of establishing the provenance of Australian Aboriginal artefacts using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and proton-induced X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creagh, D. C.; Kubik, M. E.; Sterns, M.

    2007-09-01

    Museums and galleries in Australia have extensive collections of Aboriginal artefacts in their custody. In particular, the National Museum of Australia and the National Gallery of Australia are custodians of works of very considerable significance, in both cultural and financial terms. Art fraud can occur, documentation relating to artefacts can be mislaid, or the artefacts can be incorrectly filed. Because of this, it has become essential to establish protocols for the objective determination of the provenance of artefacts through scientific tests. For the work reported here we are concerned with the comparison of very small quantities of materials, paint scrapings from artefacts. Scrapings from artefacts of unknown provenance are compared with those from artefacts of known provenance, and the database established using an extended set of analytical techniques by Kubik. We describe here our use of synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) to determine the mineral phase compositions of very small amounts of pigment material (<50 μg), and the use of PIXE to give their atomic compositions to a threshold level of 1 ppm for similar masses of material.

  12. Why optometry must work from urban and regional Aboriginal Health Services.

    PubMed

    Anjou, Mitchell D; Boudville, Andrea I; Taylor, Hugh R

    2012-11-01

    The gap in vision and ocular health between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and other Australians continues to be significant, yet three-quarters of the identified Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population live in urban and regional areas of Australia where existing eye-care services are available. In urban Australia, an improvement in the access and use of eye-health services is required to provide equitable eye-care outcomes for Australia's Indigenous peoples. Optometric services need to be available within Aboriginal Health Services in urban areas to effectively close the gap for vision.

  13. Cancer of the uterine cervix and screening of Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Guest, C; Mitchell, H; Plant, A

    1990-08-01

    Carcinoma of the cervix has not been widely reported as an important health problem for Aboriginal women. From four sources, we have studied cervical cancer death rates, abnormalities detected by cervical cytology screening, and the proportion of women who had been screened. First, from the Northern Territory for the years 1979-1983, we present a relative risk of 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 3.0-11.6) for cervical cancer deaths in Aboriginal women compared with all Australian women. Second, the screening and disease rates in Aboriginal women were profiled within a large laboratory in Victoria. Since 1984, a fourfold increase in the number of smears taken at Aboriginal health services is apparent. In women attending these services, a high rate of significantly abnormal smears is evident. Third, to study the extent of screening, we interviewed Aboriginal women in a Victorian country setting and fourth, we examined a random sample of medical records from an Aboriginal Health Service. The proportion screened at least once rose from 5/47 (11%) among women whose most recent consultation with the Health Service was during the years 1974-1980 to 51/170 (31%) women who attended from 1981-1987 (p less than 0.01). Aboriginal communities may interpret these trends favourably as they encourage their women to be screened regularly to reduce cervical cancer mortality. PMID:2256865

  14. Changes in exposure to ‘life stressors’ in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Negative Life Events Scale (NLES) has been included in nationally representative surveys of the Indigenous and Australian population since 2002 as a measure of exposure to a range of ‘life stressors’. There has been limited reporting or analysis of estimates of the NLES from these surveys. This paper reports changes in exposure to stressors from 2002 to 2008 for the Indigenous population, and examines inter-relationships between eleven NLES items. Data for the 2006 Australian population is also included for comparative purposes. Methods Data from the 2002 and 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Surveys (NATSISS) and the 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) were accessed from the Australia Bureau of Statistics in order to determine significant changes in exposure to stressors for the 2002 and 2008 Indigenous population by remoteness and to compare this with the 2006 Australian population. Factor analysis was used to assess the inter-relationships between stressors for the Indigenous and Australian population by remoteness. Results In remote locations, between 2002 and 2008, exposure to life stressors decreased significantly for the Indigenous population across seven of the eleven stressors. In non-remote locations, exposure to four of the stressors increased significantly. Exposure to stressors in the 2002 and 2008 non-remote Indigenous population were significantly higher than those for the 2006 Australian population for all items, except ‘alcohol and/or drug problems’ and ‘trouble with the police’, which showed no evidence of a difference. The factor analysis of the NLES for the 2002 and 2008 remote and non-remote Indigenous populations and the 2006 Australian population showed a consistent clustering of items into three groups: social transgressions; grief and trauma; and labour market stressors. Conclusions The reduction in exposure to life stressors for the remote Indigenous population may be related to policy and

  15. Aboriginal Education Program, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

  16. Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Clair

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

  17. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  18. Consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Colonial Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early years education, consultation and partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are central to embedding Indigenous perspectives. Building sustained and reciprocal partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people supports access to local knowledges and perspectives to inform curriculum planning,…

  19. Indigenizing Teacher Professional Development: Anticipating the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the…

  20. Legally invisible: stewardship for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health

    PubMed Central

    Howse, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The need to improve access to good health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has been the subject of policy debate for decades, but progress is hampered by complex policy and administrative arrangements and lack of clarity about the responsibilities of governments. This study aimed to identify the current legal basis of those responsibilities and define options available to Australian governments to enact enduring responsibility for Aboriginal health care. Methods: This study used a framework for public health law research and conducted a mapping study to examine the current legal underpinnings for stewardship and governance for Aboriginal health and health care. More than 200 pieces of health legislation were analysed in the context of the common and statutory law and health policy goals. Results: Very little specific recognition of the needs of Aboriginal people was found, and nothing that creates responsibility for stewardship and governance. The continuing absence of a legislative framework to address and protect Aboriginal health can be traced back to the founding doctrine of terra nullius (unoccupied land). Conclusions: We considered the results applying both a human rights perspective and the perspective of therapeutic jurisprudence. We suggest that national law for health stewardship would provide a strong foundation for progress, and should itself be based on recognition of Australia's First Peoples in the Australian Constitution, as is currently proposed. PMID:25903648

  1. Welcome to the Outback: The Paradoxes of Living and Teaching in Remote Western Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Graeme; Budgen, Fiona; Lunay, Ralph; Oakley, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Teaching in remote schools can prove to be a challenging experience. Twenty three teachers from remote schools, located in Western Australia, were interviewed about their teaching and living experiences in isolated communities. The interview questions were designed to elicit information regarding three areas: demographic information; reasons for…

  2. Rural and Remote Social Welfare Practice: Differences and Similarities in the Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rosemary; Gregory, Raeleene

    2004-01-01

    Welfare practice in rural and remote areas has some particular challenges for professionals. There is a developing body of knowledge about the differences between urban and rural welfare practice, and some evidence that remote practice is experienced differently from rural practice. This article provides an introductory discussion of the…

  3. AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Philip A. E.

    1920-01-01

    No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

  4. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  5. Essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the largest cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and remain the primary contributor to life expectancy differentials between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. As such, CVD remains the most critical target for reducing the life expectancy gap. The Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (ESSENCE) outline elements of care that are necessary to reduce disparity in access and outcomes for five critical cardiovascular conditions. The ESSENCE approach builds a foundation on which the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians can be reduced. The standards purposefully focus on the prevention and management of CVD extending across the continuum of risk and disease. Each of the agreed essential service standards are presented alongside the most critical targets for policy development and health system reform aimed at mitigating population disparity in CVD and related conditions.

  6. Time to bring down the twin towers in poor Aboriginal hospital care: addressing institutional racism and misunderstandings in communication.

    PubMed

    Durey, A; Thompson, S C; Wood, M

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in Aboriginal health have been slow. Research demonstrates ongoing discrimination towards Aboriginal Australians based on race, including in health services, leads to poor health outcomes. Using an eclectic methodology based on observations and discussions with health practitioners experienced in working with Aboriginal patients, this paper identifies how cross-cultural misunderstandings undermine the quality of care to Aboriginal patients in hospital and offers suggestions for improving practice. It also explores the concept of institutional racism and challenges doctors to reflect on their role in perpetuating power imbalances. We argue that physicians and healthcare providers need to do more than just deliver evidence-based interventions, by critically reflecting on their own attitudes to and practices with Aboriginal Australians and work collectively to effect systemic change which creates a more inclusive and safe environment for all people accessing healthcare.

  7. Postacute care for older aboriginal people: an exploratory-descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D; Teale, G; Bye, R; McCallum, J; Stein, I

    1999-02-01

    Many Aboriginal people reside in rural and remote Australia. Aboriginal health workers were the informants in this exploratory-descriptive study, which explored issues pertaining to postacute care for older Aboriginal people. Qualitative analysis of interview data revealed several issues were viewed as being of crucial importance in the provision of effective postacute services to older Aboriginal people. These were: (i) identification of Aboriginality; (ii) perceived racism and stereotypical attitudes among hospital staff and healthcare workers; and (iii) effective discharge planning. Other issues which were believed to impact upon service use were identified as: (i) availability of services; (ii) knowledge of services and level of use; and (iii) the notion of mainstream versus Aboriginal-specific services. Findings are discussed in relation to available literature. Implications for further research are drawn from the findings of this exploratory study.

  8. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    PubMed

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  9. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  10. Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

    Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

  11. Integrating telehealth into Aboriginal healthcare: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Muttitt, Sarah; Vigneault, Robert; Loewen, Liz

    2004-12-01

    Telehealth, the use of information communication technologies to deliver health care over distance, has been identified as a key mechanism for improving access to health services internationally. Canada is well suited to realize the benefits of telehealth particularly for individuals in remote, rural and isolated locations, many of whom are of Aboriginal descent. The health status of Canada's Aboriginal population is generally lower than that of the non-Aboriginal population emphasizing the need for new health care solutions. The challenges associated with implementing telehealth are not unique to Aboriginal settings but, in many instances, are more pronounced as a result of cultural, political and jurisdictional issues. These challenges are not insurmountable however, and there have been a number of successes in Canada to serve as a blueprint for a national strategy for sustainable Aboriginal telehealth. This review will highlight challenges and successes related to telehealth implementation in Canadian Aboriginal communities including: geography, technical infrastructure, human resources, cross-jurisdictional services, and community readiness. The need for champions within government, community and health care settings and the use of a needs-driven and integrated approach to implementation are highlighted. Several Canadian examples are provided including lessons learned within the MBTelehealth Network.

  12. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  13. Teaching about Aboriginal Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David; Pohl, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Canadian schools have not respected or honored the history of Canada Natives. Much of what is taught are stereotypes or myths. Native organizations have developed materials that present a more honest and respectful perspective on Aboriginal culture. But for effective change to happen, teachers must develop the will to learn for themselves and make…

  14. Innovation and Aboriginal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, K. R.

    After defining educational and cultural terms and establishing a model representing cultural reproduction, case studies illustrate how three Aboriginal communities are educating and socializing their children. Strelley, a community in Western Australia, has a history of determined independence that has resulted in a unique level of economic and…

  15. Racial Attitudes of Australian Tertiary Students. University of Maryland Cultural Study Center Research Report No. 4-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaples, Ernest A.; And Others

    Three forms of the Situational Attitude Scale (SAS), measuring attitudes toward Aborigines, New Australians and a neutral form, were administered to 314 white Australian university and college students (New Australians are immigrants from non-English speeking European countries). Analysis of the data indicated that white Australian students have a…

  16. The Aboriginal Practical Experience and Its Impact on Pre-Service Teacher's Decisions about Living and Working in Remote in Indigenous Communities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Jenny; Moss, Lynette; Cherednichenko, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008, 10 pre-service teachers and 2 teacher educators from Edith Cowan University (ECU) participated in an existing community education program in rural and remote Indigenous communities in central Australia. From an intrepid start with a mountain of overloaded baggage and camping cutlery setting off the scanning machine at the airport,…

  17. Stages of change, smoking behaviour and readiness to quit in a large sample of indigenous Australians living in eight remote north Queensland communities.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sandra; Bohanna, India; Swinbourne, Anne; Cadet-James, Yvonne; McKeown, Dallas; McDermott, Robyn

    2013-04-16

    Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation) whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action). When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  18. Physical Functional Limitations among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Older Adults: Associations with Socio-Demographic Factors and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gubhaju, Lina; Banks, Emily; MacNiven, Rona; McNamara, Bridgette J.; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Eades, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australian Aboriginal people are disproportionately affected by physical disability; the reasons for this are unclear. This study aimed to quantify associations between severe physical functional limitations and socio-demographic and health-related factors among older Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults. Methods Questionnaire data from 1,563 Aboriginal and 226,802 non-Aboriginal participants aged ≥45 years from the Sax Institute’s 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia) were used to calculate age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for severe limitation [MOS-PF score <60] according to socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results Overall, 26% (410/1563) of Aboriginal participants and 13% (29,569/226,802) of non-Aboriginal participants had severe limitations (aPR 2.8, 95%CI 2.5–3.0). In both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants, severe limitation was significantly associated with: being ≥70 vs <70 years old (aPRs 1.8, 1.3–2.4 and 5.3, 5.0–5.5, within Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants, respectively), none vs tertiary educational qualifications (aPRs 2.4, 1.7–3.3 and 3.1, 3.0–3.2), lower vs higher income (aPRs 6.6, 4.2–10.5 and 5.5, 5.2–5.8), current vs never-smoking (aPRs 2.0, 1.6–2.5 and 2.2, 2.1–2.3), obese vs normal weight (aPRs 1.7, 1.3–2.2 and 2.7, 2.7–2.8) and sitting for ≥7 vs <7 hours/day (aPRs 1.6, 1.2–2.0 and 1.6, 1.6–1.7). Severe limitations increased with increasing ill-health, with aPRs rising to 5–6 for ≥5 versus no chronic conditions. It was significantly higher in those with few vs many social contacts (aPRs 1.7, 1.4–2.0 and 1.4, 1.4–1.4) and with very high vs low psychological distress (aPRs 4.4, 3.6–5.4 and 5.7, 5.5–5.9). Conclusions Although the prevalence of severe physical limitation among Aboriginal people in this study is around three-fold that of non-Aboriginal people, the factors related to it are similar, indicating that Aboriginal people have higher

  19. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non‐Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Methods Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Conclusion Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as

  20. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  1. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  2. HLA-DR2 haplotypic diversity in populations of South-East Asia, northern China, Melanesia and Australian aborigines using PCR-RFLP for DRB1, DRB5, DQA1 and DQB1. A novel DRB1 allele: DRB1*16022.

    PubMed

    Trejaut, J; Bhatia, K; Greville, W D; Hu, K R; Duraisamy, G; Nuchprayoon, C; Donald, J; Aziz, A; Dunckley, H

    1996-12-01

    The polymorphism of the human leucocyte antigen HLA-DR2 and the heterogeneity of HLA-DR2 class II-related haplotypes (HLA-DRB1-DRB5-DQA1-DQB1) were investigated in four populations of east and south-east Asia (SEA) and five Melanesian populations using TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification-based techniques PCR-RFLP and sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) typing. The haplotype DRB1*1502-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0601 was common in Malaysians, Javanese, Thursday Islanders, Madang, Goroka and the Australian Aborigines, while DRB1*16021-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0502 was common in the Thai and Thursday Islanders. DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 was present at a high frequency in Northern Chinese, Goroka, Watut and Australian Aborigines. The study describes four rare or unusual haplotypes: HLA-DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0601, DRB1*1502-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0502, DRB1*1502-DRB5*0102-DQA1* 0102-DQB1*0502 and DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0101/2-DQB1*0503; the latter two were confirmed by segregation in two Javanese families. A new DR2 allele, initially detected by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as DRB1*16022 (previously designated DRB1*16Madang), was seen in a Madang individual. A new HLA-DR2 TaqI RFLP subtype, locally designated as DR15U, is also described. This RFLP subtype segregated in a Javanese family and correlated with a typically SEA haplotype, DRB1*1502-DRB5*0102-DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501. The allele HLA-DR16Thai, determined by TaqI DRB RFLP, was found by PCR-RFLP and SSO typing to correlate with a unique SEA haplotype, HLA-DRB1*16021-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0502, and was observed in the Thai, Malaysian, Thursday Islander, Javanese and Northern Chinese populations.

  3. A qualitative study of a social and emotional well-being service for a remote Indigenous Australian community: implications for access, effectiveness, and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People living in rural and remote Australia experience increased mental health problems compared with metropolitan Australians. Moreover, Indigenous Australians are twice as likely as non Indigenous Australians to report high or very high levels of mental health problems. It is imperative, therefore, that effective and sustainable social and emotional wellbeing services (Indigenous Australians prefer the term “social and emotional wellbeing” to “mental health”) are developed for Indigenous Australians living in remote communities. In response to significant and serious events such as suicides and relationship violence in a remote Indigenous community, a social and emotional wellbeing service (SEWBS) was developed. After the service had been running for over three years, an independent evaluation was initiated by the local health board. The aim of the evaluation was to explore the impact of SEWBS, including issues of effectiveness and sustainability, from the experiences of people involved in the development and delivery of the service. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit 21 people with different involvement in the service such as service providers, service participants, and referrers. These people were interviewed and their interviews were transcribed. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the interview transcripts to identify superordinate themes and subthemes in the data. Results Two superordinate themes and nine subthemes were developed from the interview transcripts. The first superordinate theme was called “The Big Picture” and it had the sub themes: getting started; organizational factors; funding; the future, and; operational problems. The second superordinate theme was called “On the Ground” and it had the subthemes: personal struggles; program activities; measuring outcomes, and; results. Conclusions While the evaluation indicated that the service had been experienced as an effective local

  4. Predictors of Short-Term Reunification in South Australian Substitute Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfabbro, Paul; Barber, James; Cooper, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    This study examined factors contributing to short-term reunification for 235 children placed in South Australian substitute care from 1998 to 1999. Findings indicated that non-Aboriginal children and those placed because of parental incapacity were significantly more likely to go home, than neglected and Aboriginal children. Detailed profile…

  5. Clinical consultations in an aboriginal community-controlled health service: a comparison with general practice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D P; Heller, R F; Hunt, J M

    1998-02-01

    Clinical consultation at Danila Dilba, an Aboriginal community-controlled health service in Darwin, were compared with consultations in Australian general practice. We described 583 consultations, using a questionnaire based on the International Classification of Primary Care. The methods were similar to those of the Australian Morbidity and Treatment Survey (AMTS) of consultations in Australian general practice undertaken by the University of Sydney Family Medicine Research Unit. Compared with Australian general practice consultations, consultations with Danila Dilba were more complex: more young patients, more new patients, more home visits, more problems managed, more new problems and more consultations leading to emergency hospital admission. Skin infections, diabetes mellitus, chronic alcohol abuse, rheumatic heart disease (or rheumatic fever) and chronic suppurative otitis media were much more commonly managed at study consultations at Danila Dilba than at consultations with general practitioners in the AMTS. Nearly all patients saw an Aboriginal health worker first, and nearly half the consultations were with Aboriginal health workers alone. The results suggest possible limitations of fee-for-item Medicare funding of Aboriginal community-controlled health services compared with existing block grant funding. PMID:9599858

  6. Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

  7. Guide to Success for Organisations in Achieving Employment Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddy, Kristine; Lopez, Jessica; Redman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…

  8. Meeting Country and Self to Initiate an Embodiment of Knowledge: Embedding a Process for Aboriginal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Social justice is often the primary framework that directs academics to embed Aboriginal perspectives into teacher education programmes. The effectiveness and limitations of social justice as a catalyst and change agent was examined when six school of education academics from an Australian regional university were introduced to Yuin Country as…

  9. Educational Failure or Success: Aboriginal Children's Non-Standard English Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Within the Australian education system, Aboriginal students' use of non-standard English features is often viewed simplistically as evidence of non-attainment of literacy and oral-English milestones. One reason for this is the widespread use of assessment tools which fail to differentiate between native-English speakers and students who are…

  10. Why closing the Aboriginal health gap is so elusive.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2014-11-01

    A wide gap persists between the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians despite a recent Federal government commitment to close the gap by 2030. The complex underlying factors include socioeconomic and environmental disadvantage, inadequate education, underemployment, racial prejudice, high-risk health-related behaviours and limited access to clinical services and health promotion programmes. Over recent decades some aspects of Aboriginal health have deteriorated badly, largely from a surge in chronic 'lifestyle' diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disorders plus the effects of tobacco smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and high rates of violence and trauma. To correct these inequities will require improving many social and environmental factors. These include education, living conditions, vocational training, employment, closer cooperation between government and non-government agencies, access to affordable and nutritious fresh food, with better access to high-quality medical treatment, health promotion and disease prevention programmes. Indigenous people must be encouraged to become more involved in activities to improve their health and have more responsibility for the decision-making processes this will entail. Governments must support these changes to help close the Aboriginal health gap.

  11. Some costs and challenges of conducting follow-up studies of substance use in remote Aboriginal communities: an example from the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe some costs and challenges for conducting follow-up interviews about substance use in Indigenous groups in northern Australia. In a remote region in the Northern Territory in 2001, 131 Indigenous people (aged 13 - 36 years) were approached for interview regarding their substance use. Of these, 108 (54 males, 54 females) were interviewed successfully. Follow-up interviews were attempted in 2004. Study records traced progress and costs. In 2001, the response rate was 82% (108/131). In 2004, 22 participants could not be found after four attempts although they were known by health workers to still reside in the region. Fifteen were not residing in the region during 2004 and were lost to follow-up, four were in prison and three were deceased. Fourteen contacted either refused directly (n = 1) or repeatedly postponed interview (n = 13). Fifty follow-up interviews were completed, a response rate of 78% among 64 participants contacted. The overall response rate in those approached was 64% (0.82 * 0.78). Costs for 108 interviews were 45 person-days and Dollars A19,000 (32% = travel/associated costs). Costs for 50 follow-up interviews were 60 person-days and Dollars A25,500 (39% = travel/associated costs). Such follow-up studies in these settings could be complemented by retrospective case - control approaches and by using proxy respondents to increase study efficiency.

  12. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  13. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  14. ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease

  15. Disentangling the impacts of geography and Aboriginality on serious road transport injuries in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Falster, Michael O; Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Ivers, Rebecca; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R

    2013-05-01

    Aboriginal people in Australia have higher rates of transport injury than non-Aboriginal people, but a greater proportion of Aboriginal people live in rural or remote areas where risk of these injuries is higher. This paper investigated the contributing effect of geography on the relationship between Aboriginality and road transport injury rates in the state of New South Wales. Linked hospital admission and mortality records for individuals for the years 2001-2007 were grouped into distinct injury events. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to examine disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people clustered within geographic areas of residence. Overall, Aboriginal people had higher rates of road transport injuries (IRR: 1.18, 95% CIs: 1.09-1.28). However, there was no significant difference when geographic clustering was taken into account (IRR: 1.00, 95% CIs: 0.96-1.04). This effect was further influenced by mode of transport for the injury, with Aboriginal people having higher rates of pedestrian (IRR: 1.96, 95% CIs: 1.75-2.19) and lower rates of motorcycle (IRR: 0.64, 95% CIs: 0.59-0.70) injuries in all almost all local areas, while there was no systematic pattern across geographic areas for small vehicle injuries (IRR: 1.01, 95% CIs: 0.94-1.08). Geography plays an important role in the population disparity of road transport injuries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and has a differential impact for different types of road transport injury. Exploring how individual and geographic factors influence patterns of disparity allows for clearer targeting of future intervention strategies.

  16. Huntington disease in indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F

    2008-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828

  17. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  18. The Association between HbA1c and Cardiovascular Disease Markers in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community with and without Diagnosed Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Luke W.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Sharma, Suresh K.; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigates the burden of cardiovascular risk markers in people with and without diabetes in a remote Indigenous Australian community, based on their HbA1c concentration. Methods. This study included health screening exams of 1187 remote Indigenous residents over 15 years old who represented 70% of the age-eligible community. The participants were stratified by HbA1c into 5 groups using cut-off points recommended by international organisations. The associations of traditional cardiovascular risk markers with HbA1c groups were assessed using logistic and linear regressions and ANOVA models. Results. Of the 1187 participants, 158 (13%) had a previous diabetes diagnosis, up to 568 (48%) were at high risk (5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol) HbA1c), and 67 (6%) potential new cases of diabetes (≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol)) were identified. Individuals with higher HbA1c levels were more likely to have albuminuria (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.26–7.82) and dyslipidaemia (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.29–4.34) and visited the clinic more often (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.26–4.99). Almost all traditional CVD risk factors showed a positive association with HbA1c. Conclusions. Screening in this remote Indigenous Australian community highlights the high proportion of individuals who are at high risk of diabetes as indicated by HbA1c and who also had an accentuated cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:26989697

  19. Aboriginal self-determination, education and health: towards a radical change in attitudes to education.

    PubMed

    Tsey, K

    1997-02-01

    The establishment of community-controlled organisations as part of the Aboriginal self-determination movement in Australia has failed to deliver the expected social and health gains for the majority of indigenous people. Compared with that of indigenous people in New Zealand, The United States and Canada, Aboriginal health has shown little improvement over the past two decades. There is strong evidence to suggest that universal education is itself a tool for liberation and also that educational attainment translates directly into better health. Nevertheless, attempts to account for the continuing poor health of indigenous Australians has continued to overlook the role of education in explaining health status differentials. This is not an attempt to undervalue the significant achievements of the Aboriginal self-determination movement. Rather, it is an attempt to draw attention to lack of educational attainment as a contradiction in the indigenous struggle for self-determination and better health. Based on existing data, as well as personal observations and discussions, this preliminary investigation seeks to draw attention to the lack of formal education as a barrier to Aboriginal social and health improvement. Public health practitioners and policy makers are called on to consider working collaboratively with Aboriginal communities to ensure that formal education is not only popularised but also that governments are made accountable for their constitutional responsibilities towards Aboriginal education.

  20. Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relations and sustainable forest management in Canada: the influence of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Deborah

    2011-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the emerging role of Aboriginal people in Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in Canada over the past decade. The 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) provided guidance and recommendations for improving Aboriginal peoples' position in Canadian society, beginning with strengthening understanding and building relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal parties. This paper explores the extent to which advances in Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships and Aboriginal forestry have been made as a result of RCAP's call for renewed relationships based on co-existence among nations. Such changes have begun to alter the context in which Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships exist with respect to SFM. While governments themselves have generally not demonstrated the leadership called for by RCAP in taking up these challenges, industry and other partners are demonstrating some improvements. A degree of progress has been achieved in terms of lands and resources, particularly with co-management-type arrangements, but a fundamental re-structuring needed to reflect nation-to-nation relationships has not yet occurred. Other factors related to increasing Aboriginal participation in SFM, such as the recognition of Aboriginal and treaty rights, are also highlighted, along with suggestions for moving Aboriginal peoples' SFM agenda forward in the coming years.

  1. Development and trialling of a tool to support a systems approach to improve social determinants of health in rural and remote Australian communities: the healthy community assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The residents of many Australian rural and remote communities do not have the essential infrastructure and services required to support healthy living conditions and community members choosing healthy lifestyle options. Improving these social determinants of health is seen to offer real opportunities to improve health among such disadvantaged populations. In this paper, we describe the development and trialling of a tool to measure, monitor and evaluate key social determinants of health at community level. Methods The tool was developed and piloted through a multi-phase and iterative process that involved a series of consultations with community members and key stakeholders and trialling the tool in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. Results The indicators were found to be robust, and by testing the tool on a number of different levels, face validity was confirmed. The scoring system was well understood and easily followed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous study participants. A facilitated small group process was found to reduce bias in scoring of indicators. Conclusion The Healthy Community Assessment Tool offers a useful vehicle and process to help those involved in planning, service provision and more generally promoting improvements in community social determinants of health. The tool offers many potential uses and benefits for those seeking to address inequities in the social determinants of health in remote communities. Maximum benefits in using the tool are likely to be gained with cross-sector involvement and when assessments are part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:23442804

  2. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  3. Confronting the Growing Crisis of Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Health Among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reading, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Although the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been decreasing worldwide, Aboriginal populations of Canada (including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples) continue to experience a rapidly growing burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. This article provides a succinct summary of the current crisis of CVD among Canadian Aboriginal peoples, including how and why it originated, elucidates the underlying population health risks driving higher rates of aboriginal CVD, and articulates the urgent need for community-engagement solutions and innovations in the areas of prevention, treatment and care, rehabilitation services, aboriginal-specific CVD surveillance, and advanced knowledge. In the past, particularly in rural and remote communities, Aboriginal Peoples' survival depended (and often still does) on hunting, fishing, and other forms of traditional food-gathering. However, the traditional life is being changed for many Aboriginal communities, resulting in significantly impaired dietary options and the undermining of a long-established way of life that was healthy and physically active. Reclaiming CVD health and well-being requires replacement of the calorie-dense and nutritionally inadequate diets of highly processed store-bought foods with fresh and nutritionally balanced diets and addressing the physically inactive lifestyles that together have contributed to an increase in CVD prevalence. Furthermore, disparities exist for hospital-based treatment experiences for patients from areas with high proportions of Aboriginal Peoples vs those with low proportions of Aboriginal Peoples. It is crucial to investigate and develop concrete plans to reduce the burden of CVDs among Aboriginal Peoples by improved prevention and treatment in a community-centred way.

  4. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Aparna; Cornish, Lisa Michelle; Fearnley, Emily; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001–2012) and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations. PMID:26393508

  5. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Cornish, Lisa Michelle; Fearnley, Emily; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012) and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  6. Culturally Framing Aboriginal Literacy and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    More than just the development of reading and writing skills, Aboriginal literacy is a wholistic concept, with spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects, involving relationships between self, community, nation, and creation. Models are presented for incorporating traditional Aboriginal knowledge and methodologies into Aboriginal learning…

  7. Centring Aboriginal Worldviews in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Cyndy

    2005-01-01

    As Aboriginal peoples gain more access to schools of social work, the academy needs to respond to their educational needs. This involves incorporating Aboriginal worldviews and research methodologies into social work education. This paper focuses on one definition of worldviews according to Aboriginal epistemology and implements an anti-colonial…

  8. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948

  9. Smoking and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Māori children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David P; Glover, Marewa

    2010-09-01

    Smoking and the deaths and suffering it causes are more common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and Māori than other Australians and New Zealanders. While, many tobacco control activities that are not specifically targeted at children will have a positive impact on child health, this review concentrates on recent tobacco control research on pregnant women and children. The important tasks are to reduce smoking by pregnant Māori and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to reduce infant and child exposure to second-hand smoke and to reduce smoking initiation of children and adolescents. Health professionals who want to reduce the suffering caused by smoking among Māori and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children can be guided by much new relevant research evidence and clear frameworks about how to approach tobacco control in these communities.

  10. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights.

  11. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  12. Theoretical and practical issues in the definition of health: insights from Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Boddington, Paula; Räisänen, Ulla

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses attempts to define health within a public policy arena and practical and conceptual difficulties that arise. An Australian Aboriginal definition of health is examined. Although there are certain difficulties of translation, this definition is prominent in current Australian health policy and discourse about health. The definition can be seen as broadly holistic in comparison to other holistic definitions such as that of the World Health Organization. The nature of this holism and its grounding within the context of Aboriginal Australia is discussed. In particular, its implications for the phenomenon of medicalization, which may be associated with a holistic notion of health, is critically explored, as is the link of notions of health to culture and the question of the possibility of a universal definition of health. The question of to what extent a definition of health is inspirational or operational is also raised.

  13. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  14. Transport of Australian Continental Dust to Australia's Great Barrier Reef Region: First Results From Sampling, Remote Sensing, Synoptic and Trajectory Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, N.; O'Loingsigh, T.; de Deckker, P.; Cohen, D.

    2009-04-01

    As part of a large multi-disciplinary project funded by the Australian Research Council and in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, we established in mid-2008 three PM 2.5 samplers in eastern Australia to determine possible transport of continental dust from the major dust source region of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB). These samplers were located at Fowlers Gap, New South Wales [NSW] (31.09S, 141.70E), Mount Stromlo, NSW (35.30S, 149.00E) and Heron Island, Queensland (23.44S, 151.83E). The latter location is of particular significance because of its proximity to the World Heritage Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and to the tropical rainforest of coastal North Queensland. In previous studies, dust and associated organic material of African origin has been associated with rainforest fertilisation in Amazonia and coral bleaching in the Carribean. In this presentation three case studies of continental dust transport to Heron Island that occurred in the first four months of sampling are examined. In each case transport of soil material from the LEB region and/or western NSW is confirmed by the nature of material sampled, by remote sensing of the dust, by forward and backward air parcel trajectory analysis and by synoptic analysis. In each case the dust arrived over Heron Island 3-7 days after passing over the southern samplers, generally having followed an anti-clockwise curved path to approach Heron Island from the southeast. The potential significance of this finding for the GBR is briefly discussed.

  15. Learning Preferences and Impacts of Education Programs in Dog Health Programs in Five Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…

  16. Hydro-acoustic remote sensing of benthic biological communities on the shallow South East Australian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, Alex; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Burq, Shoaib; Reston, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Information regarding the composition and extent of benthic habitats on the South East Australian continental shelf is limited. In this habitat mapping study, multibeam echosounder (MBES) data are integrated with precisely geo-referenced video ground-truth data to quantify benthic biotic communities at Cape Nelson, Victoria, Australia. Using an automated decision tree classification approach, 5 representative biotic groups defined from video analysis were related to hydro-acoustically derived variables in the Cape Nelson survey area. Using a combination of multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and derivative products produced highest overall accuracy (87%) and kappa statistic (0.83). This study demonstrates that decision tree classifiers are capable of integrating variable data types for mapping distributions of benthic biological assemblages, which are important in maintaining biodiversity and other system services in the marine environment.

  17. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated “years of life lost to incarceration” for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Methods Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Results Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8 – 1443.4). Conclusions The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians. PMID:24916338

  18. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    PubMed

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm. PMID:24716757

  19. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  20. Influences of Indigenous Language on Spatial Frames of Reference in Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal English spoken by Indigenous children in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia is influenced by the home languages spoken by themselves and their families. This affects uses of spatial terms used in mathematics such as "in front" and "behind." Speakers of the endangered Indigenous Australian…

  1. Oral Language, Representations and Mathematical Understanding: Indigenous Australian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; Young, Janelle

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the role of oral language and representations in negotiating mathematical understanding. The data were gathered from two Indigenous Australian classrooms in Northern Queensland. The first classroom, a Year 6/7 consisted of 15 students whose ages range from 10 years to 12 years with eight being Aboriginal, six from Torres Strait…

  2. Evaluating Visitors' Reactions to Interpretation in Australian National Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluations of visitors' reactions to interpretation in Australian national parks found that guided activities provided more immediate responses to visitors' questions on Aboriginal culture than on-site signs; a well-designed interpretive mural mitigated people's disappointment at visiting wetlands when no birds were present; and ranger-guided…

  3. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  4. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change. PMID:26999196

  5. Detection of 12.5% and 25% Salt Reduction in Bread in a Remote Indigenous Australian Community.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma; Clarke, Rozlynne; Jaenke, Rachael; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Food reformulation is an important strategy to reduce the excess salt intake observed in remote Indigenous Australia. We aimed to examine whether 12.5% and 25% salt reduction in bread is detectable, and, if so, whether acceptability is changed, in a sample of adults living in a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Convenience samples were recruited for testing of reduced-salt (300 and 350 mg Na/100 g) versus Standard (~400 mg Na/100 g) white and wholemeal breads (n = 62 for white; n = 72 for wholemeal). Triangle testing was used to examine whether participants could detect a difference between the breads. Liking of each bread was also measured; standard consumer acceptability questionnaires were modified to maximise cultural appropriateness and understanding. Participants were unable to detect a difference between Standard and reduced-salt breads (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using binomial probability). Further, as expected, liking of the breads was not changed with salt reduction (all p values > 0.05 when analysed using ANOVA). Reducing salt in products commonly purchased in remote Indigenous communities has potential as an equitable, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to reduce population salt intake and reduce risk of chronic disease, without the barriers associated with strategies that require individual behaviour change.

  6. Why are men less tested for sexually transmitted infections in remote Australian Indigenous communities? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiunn-Yih; Belton, Suzanne; Ryder, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    Gender disparities in testing rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as one potential factor sustaining high rates of STIs and repeat infections in the Northern Territory of Australia, especially in remote Indigenous communities. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for these disparities utilising a mixed-method study design. We conducted an audit on client information at a remote community health clinic, focus-group discussions with young men in the same community and interviews with experienced remote area clinicians. The clinic audit found a significantly higher proportion of female residents of the community than males visited the clinic (72.8 versus 55.3%, p < 0.005). Women were also more likely to be tested for STIs than men when visiting the clinic (49.7 versus 40.3%, p = 0.015). Major barriers to men's seeking STI testing included a sense of shame from being seen visiting the clinic by women, men's lack of understanding of STIs and the need for testing, and inadequate access to male clinicians. Increasing men's access to healthcare and STI testing requires offering testing at a gender-sensitive and separate locations, and community-based sexual health promotion to increase knowledge of STIs.

  7. Why are men less tested for sexually transmitted infections in remote Australian Indigenous communities? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiunn-Yih; Belton, Suzanne; Ryder, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    Gender disparities in testing rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as one potential factor sustaining high rates of STIs and repeat infections in the Northern Territory of Australia, especially in remote Indigenous communities. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for these disparities utilising a mixed-method study design. We conducted an audit on client information at a remote community health clinic, focus-group discussions with young men in the same community and interviews with experienced remote area clinicians. The clinic audit found a significantly higher proportion of female residents of the community than males visited the clinic (72.8 versus 55.3%, p < 0.005). Women were also more likely to be tested for STIs than men when visiting the clinic (49.7 versus 40.3%, p = 0.015). Major barriers to men's seeking STI testing included a sense of shame from being seen visiting the clinic by women, men's lack of understanding of STIs and the need for testing, and inadequate access to male clinicians. Increasing men's access to healthcare and STI testing requires offering testing at a gender-sensitive and separate locations, and community-based sexual health promotion to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:27142316

  8. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  9. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: rising rates with obesity and aboriginality in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A R; Ling, J; Gomes, B; Antoniou, G; Sutherland, L M; Cundy, P J

    2011-10-01

    We analysed the incidence of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in South Australia, investigating possible associations between an increased incidence of SCFE, the local indigenous population and the Australian obesity epidemic during the last 20 years. Data including race, age and gender were collected to obtain a profile of the South Australian SCFE patient, and were then compared with epidemiological data for South Australian adolescents. We concluded that the incidence of both obesity and SCFE is increasing. We also noted that the median weight of SCFE patients has increased and the mean age at diagnosis has decreased. Despite weight profiles comparable with those of the general population, we noted that an indigenous child was three times more likely to develop SCFE than a non-indigenous child. As far as we know there is no published literature on the predisposition of Aboriginal Australians to SCFE.

  10. "If I Wanted to Have More Opportunities and Go to a Better School, I Just Had to Get Used to It": Aboriginal Students' Perceptions of Going to Boarding School in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mander, David J.; Cohen, Lynne; Pooley, Julie Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 32 male Aboriginal students from regional and remote towns and communities while they attended a metropolitan boarding school away from home and family in Perth, Western Australia. Using narrative interviews it specifically investigated how these Aboriginal students construct meaning around the transition…

  11. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The results…

  12. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  13. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  14. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  15. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…

  16. Preparing Aboriginal Students for Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Krause, R.G.; Stephens, M.C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Special Premedical Studies Program at the University of Manitoba and results of interviews with its graduates. This program prepares aboriginal students for admission to medical school. Six physicians and several other health professionals have graduated from the program. Respondents noted similarities in the needs of rural students and those of aboriginal students. PMID:21221337

  17. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  18. As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

    For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…

  19. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  20. Aboriginal Literacy: Raising Standards, Blazing Trails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaikezehongai, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Prophecies say that Aboriginal peoples of the Americas will educate and illuminate the world by sharing their Sacred Fire, the spiritual strength that has enabled their survival. Such a vision sustains Aboriginal literacy practitioners, who are developing a unique holistic foundation for the healing and nurturing of minds, bodies, and spirits.…

  1. Epistemological Considerations for Approaching Teaching in an On-Line Environment Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teacher Education Program: Reconsidering TPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Knight, Cecily; Lenoy, Max

    2015-01-01

    This research inquiry explores teacher educator knowledge, understandings and beliefs informing their teaching in a web-based Australian teacher education program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Through the use of a phenomenologically aligned interview process, the study investigates instructors' consideration of practice for…

  2. Fetal growth restriction and 18-year growth and nutritional status: Aboriginal birth cohort 1987-2007.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Mott, Susan; Singh, Gurmeet

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to compare the growth and nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal term infants born with (n = 81) and without fetal growth restriction (n = 260). A prospective birth cohort study of 341 Aboriginal babies from the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia was recruited at birth (1987-1990) and re-examined at a mean age of 18.3 years (2006-2008) for outcome measures of growth and nutrition status. Those with growth restriction at birth were 3 cm shorter (P = 0.0026) and 9 kg lighter (P = 0.0001) with head circumferences 0.95 cm smaller (P = 0.0008) than those without growth restriction. The proportions of growth restricted participants with body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) were significantly greater (P = 0.028), and those with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and with fat percentage >85th percentile were significantly smaller (P = 0.012 and 0.004, respectively). In this cohort, those Aboriginal babies born smaller and lighter have remained smaller and lighter at 18 years of age. However, the highest risk of later chronic noncommunicable disease has been reported in subjects who were born small and become relatively larger in later life. The continued study of this Aboriginal birth cohort will give us an opportunity to determine if and when in later life the effects of birth weight are modified by environmental nutritional factors.

  3. The Holistic/Rainbow Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Priscilla

    This paper describes approaches to literacy in Canadian aboriginal communities. It provides statistical data on education, employment, income, culture, language, and social issues among Canadian aboriginal people, comparing aboriginal people on and off the reserve. The statistics demonstrate issues that aboriginal literacy learners bring with them…

  4. Contemporary racism in australia: the experiences of Aborigines.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David

    2003-04-01

    In recent decades, social psychologists have suggested that contemporary racism is more subtle in nature than it had been in previous times. However, such theorizing has been from the perspective of the perpetrators. The present study follows a small number of other studies that have focused on the perspective of the victims of racism. It investigated the experiences of racism reported by 34 Aboriginal Australians during semi-structured, open-ended interviews. The data suggest that racism is experienced commonly and frequently by the participants and that much of it is overt or old-fashioned rather than subtle and modern. It is argued that if the data are reflective of what happens in intergroup encounters, social scientists may have embraced the theories of modern racism too readily. This may have contributed to the maintenance of social institutions that impact negatively on the minority populations in the community.

  5. Decolonisation: a critical step for improving Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Juanita; Edwards, Tahnia

    2006-09-01

    Aboriginal health continues to be in crisis in Australia although expenditure has increased in service provision, strategic planning, research and policy development over the last thirty years. This paper recommends that a shift must occur to make Aboriginal health improvement a reality. This shift requires the decolonising of Aboriginal health so that the experts in Aboriginal health, namely Aboriginal people, can voice and action initiatives that address their health issues. This shift is from the current western dominant approach that continues to manage Aboriginal health in its linear spectrum of illness and disease. Aboriginal people view health differently; their contexts for health issues are also diverse requiring a more holistic and informed response.

  6. Nutrition and health (1948) of Aborigines in settlements in Arnhem Land, northern Australia.

    PubMed

    McArthur, M; Billington, B P; Hodges, K T; Specht, R L

    2000-09-01

    During the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in 1948, a nutritionist (Margaret McArthur), a medical officer (Brian Billington), a biochemist (Kelvin Hodges) and also the 'flying dentist' (John Moody) observed the nutrition and health of Aborigines in the settlements on Groote Eylandt, at Yirrkala and at Oenpelli, Northern Territory. The results of their research were published in the Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land Volume 2 Anthropology and Nutrition. (Melbourne University Press, 1960). Although seasonal and regional variations in food supply were a constant problem for nomadic Aborigines living on 'bush tucker' gathered from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, the variety of food provided a well-balanced diet according to the international recommendations of 1948. In contrast, improvements in the 1948 diet of Aborigines in the settlements were strongly recommended. 1 An increase in the quantity of food given to older children and adolescents. 2 Regular distribution of fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year from settlement gardens. 3 Regular supplies of fish, meat and other animal products, particularly for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating mothers. 4 Increased production of milk and greater care in its handling. 5 Greater use of whole grain cereals in preference to refined products. PMID:24394450

  7. Regional scale groundwater resource assessment in the Australian outback - Geophysics is the only way.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Davis, A. C.; Gilfedder, M.; Annetts, D.

    2015-12-01

    Resource development, whether in agriculture, mining and/or energy, is set to have significant consequences for the groundwater resources of Australia in the short to medium term. These industry sectors are of significant economic value to the country and consequently their support remains a priority for State and Federal Governments alike. The scale of potential developments facilitated in large part by the Government Programs, like the West Australian (WA) Government's "Water for Food" program, and the South Australian's Government's PACE program, will result in an increase in infrastructure requirements, including access to water resources and Aboriginal lands to support these developments. However, the increased demand for water, particularly groundwater, is likely to be compromised by the limited information we have about these resources. This is particularly so for remote parts of the country which are targeted as primary development areas. There is a recognised need to expand this knowledge so that water availability is not a limiting factor to development. Governments of all persuasions have therefore adopted geophysical technologies, particularly airborne electromagnetics (AEM), as a basis for extending the hydrogeological knowledge of data poor areas. In WA, the State Government has employed regional-scale AEM surveys as a basis for defining groundwater resources to support mining, regional agricultural developments whilst aiming to safeguard regional population centres, and environmental assets. A similar approach is being employed in South Australia. These surveys are being used to underpin conceptual hydrogeological frameworks, define basin-scale hydrogeological models, delimit the extent of saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, and to determine the groundwater resource potential of remote alluvial systems aimed at supporting new, irrigation-based, agricultural developments in arid parts of the Australian outback. In the absence of conventional

  8. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Spatially-distributed soil moisture observations have applications spanning a wide range of spatial resolutions from the very local needs of individual farmers to the progressively larger areas of interest to weather forecasters, water resource managers, and global climate modelers. To date, the most promising approach for space-based remote sensing of soil moisture makes use of passive microwave emission radiometers at L-band frequencies (1-2 GHz). Several soil moisture-sensing satellites have been proposed in recent years, with the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission scheduled to be launched first in a couple years. While such a microwave-based approach has the advantage of essentially allweather operation, satellite size limits spatial resolution to 10's of km. Whether used at this native resolution or in conjunction with some type of downscaling technique to generate soil moisture estimates on a finer-scale grid, the effects of subpixel spatial variability play a critical role. The soil moisture variability is typically affected by factors such as vegetation, topography, surface roughness, and soil texture. Understanding and these factors is the key to achieving accurate soil moisture retrievals at any scale. Indeed, the ability to compensate for these factors ultimately limits the achievable spatial resolution and/or accuracy of the retrieval. Over the last 20 years, a series of airborne campaigns in the USA have supported the development of algorithms for spaceborne soil moisture retrieval. The most important observations involved imagery from passive microwave radiometers. The early campaigns proved that the retrieval worked for larger and larger footprints, up to satellite-scale footprints. These provided the solid basis for proposing the satellite missions. More recent campaigns have explored other aspects such as retrieval performance through greater amounts of vegetation. All of these campaigns featured extensive ground

  9. Facilitating complementary inputs and scoping economies in the joint supply of health and environmental services in Aboriginal central Australia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David; Davies, Jocelyn; Wakerman, John

    2008-01-01

    Two concerns of national relevance in central Australia are the continuing decline in Aboriginal health status relative to the rest of the Australian population, and the loss of environmental services. We draw on literature from a number of disciplines to show that not only are these two concerns interrelated but that dealing with them is inextricably connected through consideration of the psychosocial determinants of health. Involvement by Aboriginal people in land management can promote the joint supply of environmental and health services. We show that Aboriginal control of land management can result in economies through the joint supply of environmental and health services. However, because Aboriginal people derive little benefit from the provision of public goods generated through land management, they have little incentive to provide a socially optimal supply of these goods. The policy issue for government is the selection of the appropriate policy tools to facilitate the involvement of Aboriginal people in land management and the optimal supply of health and environmental services. The cost-effectiveness plane is used to provide a simple framework to guide the selection of an appropriate policy tool.

  10. Unsettling Australian Settler Supremacy: Combating Resistance in University Aboriginal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Higher education courses designed to equip students to work effectively with Indigenous peoples by teaching about racism and inequality often encounter resistance to these concepts. In particular, students argue that individual and structural racisms, and their own white privilege, are 'not their fault'. This article examines different forms of…

  11. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  12. Transposing reform pedagogy into new contexts: complex instruction in remote Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter; Jorgensen, Robyn; Boaler, Jo; Lerman, Steve

    2013-03-01

    This article draws on the outcomes of a 4-year project where complex instruction was used as the basis for a reform in mathematics teaching in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. The article describes the overall project in terms of the goals and aspirations for learning mathematics among remote Indigenous Australians. Knowing that the approach had been successful in a diverse setting in California, the project team sought to implement and evaluate the possibilities of such reform in a context in which the need for a culturally responsive pedagogy was critical. Elements of complex instruction offered considerable possibilities in aligning with the cultures of the remote communities, but with recognition of the possibility that some elements may not be workable in these contexts. Complex instruction also valued deep knowledge of mathematics rather than a tokenistic, impoverished mathematics. The strategies within complex instruction allowed for mathematical and cultural scaffolding to promote deep learning in mathematics. Such an approach was in line with current reforms in Indigenous education in Australia where there are high expectations of learners in order to break away from the deficit thinking that has permeated much education in remote Australia. The overall intent is to demonstrate what pedagogies are possible within the constraints of the remote context.

  13. Red Dirt Thinking on Remote Educational Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The discourse of remote education is often characterised by a rhetoric of disadvantage. This is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. A range of data support this view, including National Assessment Program-Literacy and…

  14. The dangers of surgery: an Aboriginal view.

    PubMed

    Reid, J

    1978-01-28

    The prospect of surgery occasions great anxiety among the people of Aboriginal communities in northern Australia. Several of the fears are similar to those of patients of other cultures. Others are intimately linked to traditional beliefs about healing, and attitudes towards the body, the shedding of blood and the activities of malevolent human beings or sorcerers. Successful rapprochement between medical staff members, the patient in need of surgery, and the members of his family depends on sensitivity to these fears, detailed consultation with all concerned, and the involvement of Aboriginal community members, particularly local Aboriginal health workers.

  15. Mental disabilities in an Aboriginal context.

    PubMed

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal (meaning original peoples) North American mental health is acknowledged to be in a more precarious state than that of the dominant cultures. Disability arises from the conditions of poverty, homelessness, and lack of resources that are compounded for North American aboriginal people by the historical trauma of conquest, being placed on reservations, residential schools, and continued discrimination. We present culturally sensitive and syntonic intervention programs that can reduce the impact of Aboriginal mental disabilities and discuss the commonality among these programs of celebrating culture, language, and tradition. PMID:26146771

  16. Enabling Voice: Aboriginal Parents, Experiences and Perceptions of Sending a Child to Boarding School in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experience of having a child educated away from home at boarding school for Aboriginal parents living in regional and remote communities in Western Australia (WA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants and thematic analysis found the following major themes emerged from the data: (1) Access, Standards and…

  17. Tackling inequalities in health: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, M; Judge, K; Hunter, D J; Maxwell, R; Scheuer, M A

    1993-03-20

    Federal and state governments in Australia have embarked on a series of national initiatives which show a firm commitment to tackling social inequalities in health. The development of national goals and targets for health, for example, covers social and environmental conditions and sets differential targets for specific social groups with very poor health status. In a complementary initiative, a wide ranging analysis of the health care system--the National Health Strategy--has as one of its main objectives to improve the equitable impact of the health system. Where problems of access to and quality of services have been exposed, policies have been devised to deal with them. The exceptionally poor health of the Aboriginal community has elicited cross party support for action. Resources have been allocated to implement the National Aboriginal Health Strategy: to improve living and working conditions, education, and employment opportunities. Britain can glean much from the Australian experience. PMID:8490345

  18. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  19. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Robert S; Strathdee, Steffanie; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Remis, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP). Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955) men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744) and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232) contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community. PMID:16375771

  20. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  1. Teachers' Attitudes to Including Indigenous Knowledges in the Australian Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baynes, Renee

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of the Australian National Curriculum containing the "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures" Cross-Curriculum Priority (CCP) and "Intercultural Understanding" General Capability, there has been a renewed push to embed Indigenous content into secondary school subjects. This paper…

  2. Australian Readers' Responses to the Cross-Cultural, Folklore-Based Fantasy Novels of Patricia Wrightson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Barbara

    In the 1970s and 1980s the white Australian author Patricia Wrightson's cross-cultural fantasies concerning the conflict of White characters with Aboriginal folk spirits struck a chord with many adolescent and adult readers who judged these novels to be outstandingly successful. A classroom-based study examined the responses of a class of seventh…

  3. General Practitioner Supervisor assessment and teaching of Registrars consulting with Aboriginal patients – is cultural competence adequately considered?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background General Practitioner (GP) Supervisors have a key yet poorly defined role in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars who provide healthcare to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during their training placements. Given the markedly poorer health of Indigenous Australians, it is important that GP training and supervision of Registrars includes assessment and teaching which address the well documented barriers to accessing health care. Methods A simulated consultation between a GP Registrar and an Aboriginal patient, which illustrated inadequacies in communication and cultural awareness, was viewed by GP Supervisors and Medical Educators during two workshops in 2012. Participants documented teaching points arising from the consultation which they would prioritise in supervision provided to the Registrar. Content analysis was performed to determine the type and detail of the planned feedback. Field notes from workshop discussions and participant evaluations were used to gain insight into participant confidence in cross cultural supervision. Results Sixty four of 75 GPs who attended the workshops participated in the research. Although all documented plans for detailed teaching on the Registrar’s generic communication and consultation skills, only 72% referred to culture or to the patient’s Aboriginality. Few GPs (8%) documented a plan to advise on national health initiatives supporting access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A lack of Supervisor confidence in providing guidance on cross cultural consulting with Aboriginal patients was identified. Conclusions The role of GP Supervisors in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients could be strengthened. A sole focus on generic communication and consultation skills may lead to inadequate consideration of the health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples and of the need to ensure Registrars utilise

  4. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  5. The Education of Indigenous Australian Students: Same Story, Different Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Australia's indigenous population is made up of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who each have distinctly different cultures. The former can be found in cities and towns and across the vast reaches of rural and remote Australia. The latter generally inhabit the coastal islands off the northeast coast and adjacent mainland areas.…

  6. Queen's University Aboriginal Teacher Education Program: An Exercise in Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janice C.

    The Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (ATEP) at Queen's University (Ontario) delivers two models of teacher education. One is community-based, part-time, and for Aboriginal students only, who may enter with a secondary school graduation diploma or equivalent. The second is campus-based, full-time, and open to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  7. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

  8. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  9. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  10. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  11. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  12. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  13. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) No person shall engage in aboriginal subsistence whaling, except a whaling captain licensed pursuant...

  14. A Handbook for Aboriginal Parents of Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowchief-McHugh, Daphne; Yellowhorne-Breaker, Kathy; Weasel Fat-White, Freda

    To develop this handbook, three Aboriginal teachers gathered extensive data through workshops; questionnaires; and research with Elders, Aboriginal parents, teachers, advocates, and others who work first-hand with children with special needs. The handbook opens by presenting the traditional Aboriginal perspective on disabled children--that they…

  15. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  16. Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

  17. Decolonization, Reinhabitation and Reconciliation: Aboriginal and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal/Indigenous education is being increasingly emphasized in Faculties of Education across Canada. Through self-study as an instructor of a mandatory course in Aboriginal education in a Faculty of Education, the author is exploring the use of local, place-based education in the fostering of cross-cultural understanding of Aboriginal and…

  18. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  19. A cross-sectional survey assessing the acceptability and feasibility of self-report electronic data collection about health risks from patients attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience significantly worse health and a higher burden of chronic disease than non-Aboriginal Australians. Electronic self-report data collection is a systematic means of collecting data about health risk factors which could help to overcome screening barriers and assist in the provision of preventive health care. Yet this approach has not been tested in an Aboriginal health care setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a health risk questionnaire administered on a touch screen laptop computer for patients attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Methods In 2012, consecutive adult patients attending an ACCHS in rural New South Wales, Australia, were asked to complete a health risk survey on a touch screen computer. Health risk factors assessed in the questionnaire included smoking status, body mass index, and level of physical activity. The questionnaire included visual cues to improve accuracy and minimise literacy barriers and was completed while participants were waiting for their appointment. Results A total of 188 participants completed the questionnaire, with a consent rate of 71%. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was less than 12 minutes. Over 90% of participants agreed that: the questionnaire instructions were easy to follow; the touch screen computer was easy to use; they had enough privacy; the questions were easy to understand; they felt comfortable answering all the questions. Conclusions Results indicate that the use of a touch screen questionnaire to collect information from patients about health risk factors affecting Aboriginal Australians is feasible and acceptable in the ACCHS setting. This approach has potential to improve identification and management of at-risk individuals, therein providing significant opportunities to reduce the burden of disease among Aboriginal Australians. PMID:24739205

  20. The construction of an aboriginal science bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, W. P.

    1991-12-01

    This research note concerns the construction of a bibliography of written materials about Aboriginal science and technology drawn from books, theses, dissertations, scientific and non-scientific journals, conference papers and newspapers etc. in fact, articles about the science and technology that relate in some way to Aborigines, from whatever source, have been included. The articles collected have been listed and classified using Hypercard and major issues and themes have been drawn out of these classifications. It is hoped that the bibliography will be of value in itself and that the categorisation of written materials with help curriculum developers.

  1. Exploring the impact of an Aboriginal Health Worker on hospitalised Aboriginal experiences: lessons from cardiology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Sandra C; Smith, Julie S; Dimer, Lyn; Ali, Mohammed; Wood, Marianne M

    2009-11-01

    To enhance Aboriginal inpatient care and improve outpatient cardiac rehabilitation utilisation, a tertiary hospital in Western Australia recruited an Aboriginal Health Worker (AHW). Interviews were undertaken with the cardiology AHW, other hospital staff including another AHW, and recent Aboriginal cardiac patients to assess the impact of this position. The impact of the AHW included facilitating culturally appropriate care, bridging communication divides, reducing discharges against medical advice, providing cultural education, increasing inpatient contact time, improving follow-up practices and enhancing patient referral linkages. Challenges included poor job role definition, clinical restrictions and limitations in AHW training for hospital settings. This study demonstrates that AHWs can have significant impacts on Aboriginal cardiac inpatient experiences and outpatient care. Although this study was undertaken in cardiology, the lessons are transferable across the hospital setting. PMID:20166903

  2. Towards identification of traditional European and indigenous Australian paint binders using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Tiffany; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E

    2013-11-25

    We report a pyrolysis GC-MS method capable of analysing Indigenous Australian and European binders typically used in the manufacture of culturally important painted works. Eleven different traditional European binders and ten different Indigenous Australian binders were examined. The method allows discrimination between highly complex and impure lipid, resin, polysaccharide, wax, and protein-based binders. Each was found to have characteristic pyrolysis products that were unique to the binder material, demonstrating the potential for differentiation of these binders on Australian Aboriginal artworks towards identification and conservation of cultural heritage.

  3. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  4. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia's Aboriginal People.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the "healthy country, health people" concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country. PMID:27482574

  5. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia's Aboriginal People.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the "healthy country, health people" concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country. PMID:27534723

  6. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia's Aboriginal People.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the "healthy country, health people" concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country.

  7. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia’s Aboriginal People

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the “healthy country, health people” concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country. PMID:27482574

  8. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia's Aboriginal People.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the "healthy country, health people" concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country.

  9. Sustaining an Aboriginal mental health service partnership.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth

    2005-11-21

    The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise.

  10. Aboriginal Knowledge Traditions in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael

    2005-01-01

    According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…

  11. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  12. Training Australian General Practitioners in Rural Public Health: Impact, Desirability and Adaptability of Hybrid Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladman, Justin; Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Context and Objective: Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) require public health knowledge. This study explored the suitability of teaching complex public health issues related to Aboriginal health by way of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) model within an intensive training retreat for GP registrars, when numerous trainees have no…

  13. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education.…

  14. Comparison of the 1996 and 2001 census data for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal workers in health care occupations.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emily; Baril, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    To meet the unique health needs of Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis), it is important to increase and encourage Aboriginal representation in health care. One Federal initiative, the Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) at Health Canada, focuses on: (1) increasing the number of Aboriginal people working in health careers; (2) adapting health care educational curricula to support the development of cultural competencies; and (3) improving the retention of health care workers in Aboriginal communities. A health care system that focuses on understanding the unique challenges, concerns, and needs of Aboriginal people can better respond to this specific population, which suffers disproportionately from ill health in comparison to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This report examines the supply of Aboriginal health care providers in Canada, based on geographic region, area of residence, Aboriginal identity, and occupation. Findings are drawn from the 1996 and 2001 censuses from Statistics Canada. Quantitative results provide a greater understanding of labour force characteristics of First Nation, Inuit, Métis, and non-Aboriginal health providers. PMID:18447068

  15. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M

    2016-06-21

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537-542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the "Out of Africa" model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  16. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D.; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537–542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the “Out of Africa” model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  17. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  18. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  19. Learning from the First Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The wiser of the early European settlers and explorers used Aboriginal knowledge of the local flora and fauna to build up Western scientific knowledge of an unknown continent. And this process continues. This article briefly presents some of the many aboriginal technological inventions and refers to the uncanny ability of Aboriginal people to find…

  20. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D; Garland, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death. Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD, but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD. Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive. In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population. PMID:18698674

  1. Serum and plasma zinc, copper and iron concentrations in Aboriginal communities of North Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Holt, A B; Spargo, R M; Iveson, J B; Faulkner, G S; Cheek, D B

    1980-01-01

    Two aboriginal communities situated in the tropical north-west of the Australian continent have been investigated in regard to trace metal status (zinc, copper, and iron) and other laboratory and epidemiological information. A total of 364 persons, ranging in age from 5 to 77 years were studied. The incidence of hypozincemia (serum or plasma zinc concentration less than 0.71 micrograms/ml) of the two communities when combined was 24.4%, while hypercupremia (defined as serum or plasma copper levels greater than 1.38 micrograms/ml) was 47.9%. Depressed serum iron levels were demonstrated in more than 50% of the Aborigines studied. Hypozincemia was most prevalent (incidence 31 to 67%) in children at the time of the important pre- and postadolescent growth period (10 to 15 years) and in women beyond 60 years of age (incidence 33 to 64%). Serum total protein and vitamin B12 levels tended to be increased. Mild anemia was seen in approximately one in five persons aged less than 20 years. Intestinal parasites and pathogenic enterobacteria were frequently isolated in fecal specimens. In one community, half of the persons examined had positive isolates of enteric pathogens. Intestinal parasites predominated and were more frequently isolated from persons aged less than 20 years. Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for 32% of the pathogens isolated. Evidence is presented that suggests that both communities are exposed to numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The diet consumed in these communities is predominately white flour and refined sugar. Geophagia is practiced in this area of Australia. It is emphasied that all the etiological prerequisites and many of the laboratory findings ascribed to the zinc deficiency syndrome appear to be operating in the two Aboriginal communities studied.

  2. Internet Services and Academic Work: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…

  3. Survival tucker: improved diet and health indicators in an aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Lee, A J; Bailey, A P; Yarmirr, D; O'Dea, K; Mathews, J D

    1994-09-01

    The poor nutritional status of Aboriginal Australians is a serious and complex public health concern. We describe an unusually successful health and nutrition project initiated by the people of Minjilang, which was developed, implemented and evaluated with the community. Apparent community dietary intake, assessed by the 'store-turnover' method, and biochemical, anthropometric and haematological indicators of health and nutritional status were measured before intervention and at three-monthly intervals during the intervention year. Following intervention, there was a significant decrease in dietary intake of sugar and saturated fat, an increase in micronutrient density, corresponding improvements in biochemical indices (for example, a 12 per cent decrease in mean serum cholesterol, increases in serum and red cell folate, serum vitamin B6 and plasma ascorbic acid), decrease in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, a normalisation of body mass index, and a normalisation of haematologic indices. The success of this project demonstrates that Aboriginal communities can bring about improvements in their generally poor nutritional status, and that the store-turnover method provides a valid, inexpensive and noninvasive method for evaluating the resultant changes in community diet. Although the project was undoubtedly effective in the short term, further work is in progress to assess individual strategies with respect to sustainability, cost-effectiveness and generalisability.

  4. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  5. John Flynn Scholarship Students: Case Studies of Useful Contributions to Remote Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Donna; Plant, Aileen J.

    2001-01-01

    To recruit doctors to rural areas, an Australian scholarship program enables undergraduate medical students to spend 2 weeks each year for 4 years at the same rural location. Case studies illustrate how four such students' participation in trichiasis and diabetic retinopathy screening benefitted the Aboriginal communities in which they worked and…

  6. Storied Understandings: Bringing Aboriginal Voices to Canada's Multicultural Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…

  7. Identity and Culture Shock: Aboriginal Children and Schooling in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Gisela; Eckermann, Anne-Katrin

    1996-01-01

    Observes the activities and characteristics of Aboriginal children in an Aboriginal school and compares these to the culture shock and alienation experienced when they transfer to a mainstream school. Identifies five major stressors of culture shock as mechanical differences, communication, attitudes and beliefs, customs, and isolation. (MJP)

  8. Marginalization, Decolonization and Voice: Prospects for Aboriginal Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Terry; Schissel, Bernard

    In Canada, Aboriginal people remain highly disadvantaged relative to the general population. Structural factors operate in conjunction with cultural factors and other social practices like racism, such that they cannot be explained away through conventional analysis and isolated interventions. Schooling for Aboriginal people must incorporate and…

  9. Aspirations of Adult Learners in Aboriginal Family Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl; Debassige, Brent

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap in the literature on the experiences of Aboriginal adults who have made the transition into education and employment after moving to an urban community. Staff of three Aboriginal inner-city family services agencies participated in an interview that included the question: What changes do you see in your employment and education?…

  10. Critical cultural perspectives and health care involving Aboriginal peoples.

    PubMed

    Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen

    2006-09-01

    Despite a growing body of critical scholarship in nursing, the concept of culture continues to be applied in ways that diminish the significance of power relations and structural constraints on health and health care. In this paper, we take a critical look at how assumptions and ideas underpinning conceptualizations of culture and cultural sensitivity can influence nurses' perceptions of Aboriginal peoples and Aboriginal health. Drawing on examples from our research, we examine how popularized assumptions about culture can shape nurses' views of Aboriginal patients. These assumptions and perceptions require closer scrutiny because of their potential to influence nurses' practice with Aboriginal patients. Our specific aims are to: (a) consider some of the limitations of cultural sensitivity in relation to health care involving Aboriginal peoples; (b) explore how ideas about culture have the potential to become problematic in nursing practice with Aboriginal peoples; and (c) explore the relevance of a 'critical cultural approach' in extending our understanding of culture in relation to Aboriginal peoples' health. We discuss a critical cultural perspective as one way of broadening nurses' understandings about the complexities of culture and the many facets of culture that require critical consideration. In relation to Aboriginal health, this will require nurses to develop greater critical awareness of culture as a relational process, and as necessarily influenced by issues of racism, colonialism, historical circumstances, and the current political climate in which we live.

  11. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  12. An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

  13. Imaginative Education Engages Aboriginal Learners in Prince Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, only 10% of the aboriginal students attending the public school of Prince Rupert took down their diploma of secondary studies. Across British Columbia, only 47 percent of the Aboriginal students who entered Grade 8 in 2003 have since completed high school, compared to 79 percent for all students in the province, an inequity that…

  14. Creating Community: A Roundtable on Canadian Aboriginal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigenbrod, Renate, Ed.; Episkenew, Jo-Ann, Ed.

    This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…

  15. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC460 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  16. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA309 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  17. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XN25 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the...

  18. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA967 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to...

  19. Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

  20. Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

  1. Aboriginal Child Welfare: Framework for a National Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Nigel

    1993-01-01

    The executive officer, Secretariat of the National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care (Australia), examines the problems confronting aboriginal children in the welfare system and their overrepresentation in foster care and concludes that the system must be examined to identify sources of racism and action needs, as a precursor to child welfare…

  2. Reconsidering Approaches to Aboriginal Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterenberg, Gladys; Hogue, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…

  3. Aboriginal University Student Success in British Columbia: Time for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloo, James Alan

    2007-01-01

    Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…

  4. Obstetric outcomes in an aboriginal community: a comparison with the surrounding rural area.

    PubMed

    Powell, J; Dugdale, A E

    1999-02-01

    Antenatal, intranatal and postnatal features of all Aboriginal women who lived at Cherbourg Aboriginal Community and delivered during 1990, 1991 and 1992 were compared with all non-Aboriginal women in the same rural area who delivered at Kingaroy Base Hospital during 1991. Almost all the Aboriginal women also delivered at Kingaroy. The data for 146 Aboriginal and 139 non-Aboriginal women were taken from the hospital records. The Aboriginal women were generally younger at delivery (Aboriginal 35% younger than 20 years vs non-Aboriginal 12%), made their first antenatal visit later (Aboriginal 49% after 20 weeks vs non-Aboriginal 10%) and made fewer antenatal visits (Aboriginal 43% < 4 visits vs non-Aboriginal 2% < 4 visits). They were more likely to be anaemic (Aboriginal 65% < 110 g/L vs non-Aboriginal 13% < 110 g/L), have a sexually transmitted disease (STD; Aboriginal 13% vs non-Aboriginal 2%) and drink alcohol (Aboriginal 54% vs non-Aboriginal 32%). After making an allowance for repeat Caesarean sections, there was no significant difference in the proportion of abnormal deliveries, but birthweights of Aboriginal infants were lower. Postnatally, the only significant difference between the two groups was a lower incidence of jaundice in Aboriginal infants. Multifactorial analysis showed that birthweights were significantly decreased by primagravidy, alcohol intake and STD. It is likely that the effects of STD and alcohol on birthweight were due to associated lifestyle factors. When these factors were allowed for, ethnic background had no significant effect on birthweight. PMID:10373810

  5. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  6. Becoming "Real" Aboriginal Teachers: Attending to Intergenerational Narrative Reverberations and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary; Chester, Jerri-Lynn; Flett, Brenda Mary; Joe, Lucy; Marshall, Laura; Moore, Dorothy; Paul, Khea; Paynter, Florence; Williams, Jennifer; Huber, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world-wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is…

  7. Stolen from Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Suzanne; Crey, Ernie

    A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…

  8. Language Education Programs for Aboriginal Peoples of the Siberian North: The Soviet Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Dennis; Bartels, Alice

    1989-01-01

    Describes recent trends in bilingual education for aboriginal peoples in northern Siberia, USSR. Discusses teacher education in Siberian aboriginal languages, production of native language textbooks, and efforts to retain and revive northern aboriginal languages. Contains 14 references and specific information on 27 aboriginal languages. (SV)

  9. Fostering Aboriginal Leadership: Increasing Enrollment and Completion Rates in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    Aboriginal people have philosophies with a holistic approach to learning that are imperative to Aboriginal leadership development. The Aboriginal worldview is needed in any long-term education strategies of Aboriginal students to increase the awareness of higher education and to address cultural, financial, and academic barriers. This article…

  10. Silencing Aboriginal Curricular Content and Perspectives through Multiculturalism: "There Are Other Children Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how multicultural discourses impact the reception of Aboriginal teachers, and the Aboriginal knowledge, history, and experience they bring into Canadian public schools. The author argues that what happens to Aboriginal teachers in Canadian public schools as they attempt to include Aboriginal content and perspectives is a…

  11. The Role of Cultural and Spiritual Expressions in Affirming a Sense of Self, Place, and Purpose among Young Urban, Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marian; Rymarz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article sets out to discuss the impact that urban living has had on the lives of young Indigenous people. It will seek to discover some of the problems that occur when there is a meeting of two cultures, in this case the Indigenous culture of Australian Aboriginal people and the mainstream culture that has been derived largely from west…

  12. The "Stolen Generations" and Cultural Genocide: The Forced Removal of Australian Indigenous Children from Their Families and Its Implications for the Sociology of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Krieken, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Examined the development and outcomes of Australian government policy of forced child removal from Aboriginal families. Discusses policy antecedents, its surrounding philosophy and politics, and the emergence of a more critical understanding of this policy in recent years. Examines the general implications of this history for the sociology of…

  13. Aboriginal Digital Opportunities: Addressing Aboriginal Learning Needs through the Use of Learning Technologies. 328-01 Detailed Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall, David; Loizides, Stelios

    Aboriginal educators and economic development practitioners in Canada are developing and implementing initiatives to promote the achievement of "digital opportunities" so that Aboriginal communities can both develop and be in a position to take advantage of economic opportunities without falling deeper into the "digital divide." Asynchronous and…

  14. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  15. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  16. Remote Indigenous Students: Raising Their Aspirations and Awareness of Tertiary Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kym; Ellis, Bronwyn; Kirkham, Renae; Parry, Louka

    2014-01-01

    The lower rates of participation in higher education of people from remote areas, together with the under-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education, make it less likely that students from remote Indigenous communities will aspire to attend university. Educators and community must develop working…

  17. Improving the scientific literacy of Aboriginal students through astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2011-06-01

    Seventy per cent of Aboriginal students drop out of school before the end of their secondary school years and very few go on to do science at the Higher School Certificate level. As a result of this statistics reveal that only 0.003% of the 9000 university science graduates in 2005 in Australia were of Aboriginal origin. This paper discusses an astronomy project which seeks to improve the scientific literacy of Aboriginal students so as to motivate them to take up careers in science and engineering.

  18. Development of a Culturally Appropriate Bilingual Electronic App About Hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: Towards Shared Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Caldwell, Luci; Johnston, Vanessa; Davis, Joshua Saul

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is endemic in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia; however, there is a lack of culturally appropriate educational tools. Health care workers and educators in this setting have voiced a desire for visual, interactive tools in local languages. Mobile phones are increasingly used and available in remote Indigenous communities. In this context, we identified the need for a tablet-based health education app about hepatitis B, developed in partnership with an Australian remote Indigenous community. Objective To develop a culturally appropriate bilingual app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land using a participatory action research (PAR) framework. Methods This project was a partnership between the Menzies School of Health Research, Miwatj Aboriginal Health Corporation, Royal Darwin Hospital Liver Clinic, and Dreamedia Darwin. We have previously published a qualitative study that identified major knowledge gaps about hepatitis B in this community, and suggested that a tablet-based app would be an appropriate and popular tool to improve this knowledge. The process of developing the app was based on PAR principles, particularly ongoing consultation, evaluation, and discussion with the community throughout each iterative cycle. Stages included development of the storyboard, the translation process (forward translation and backtranslation), prelaunch community review, launch and initial community evaluation, and finally, wider launch and evaluation at a viral hepatitis conference. Results We produced an app called “Hep B Story” for use with iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, and mobile phones or personal computers. The app is culturally appropriate, audiovisual, interactive, and users can choose either English or Yolŋu Matha (the most common language in East Arnhem Land) as their preferred language. The initial evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in Hep B-related knowledge for 2 of 3 questions

  19. Understanding Change in Education: Rural and Remote Regions of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Earle, Ed.; Knight, Doug, Ed.

    This book consists of 13 essays focusing on successful developments in education in rural and remote regions across Canada. Essays examine the integration of local or Aboriginal culture into education, need for educational partnerships between parents and schools, importance of distance education in meeting the educational needs of rural students,…

  20. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  1. Learning about Aboriginal contexts: the reading circle approach.

    PubMed

    Begoray, Deborah L; Banister, Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    As more opportunities arise for nursing students to obtain experience in community sites, they will be called on to practice in culturally appropriate ways more often. Although nurses remain challenged by the range of populations needing differentiated approaches, Aboriginal cultural contexts deserve special attention. Nurse educators must help students increase their understanding of Aboriginal life and ways of knowing. One way to facilitate this understanding is through a learning approach called reading circles. Reading circles offer a structure in the classroom for students to interact about ideas or readings. The reading circle process is congruent with Aboriginal ways of learning, which emphasize working in circle, with each member having a role and an equal chance to be heard. Aboriginal students in the class may be particularly comfortable with this learning method. This article describes specific steps for incorporating the reading circle approach into the nurse education classroom.

  2. Indian hospitals and Aboriginal nurses: Canada and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Drees, Laurie Meijer

    2010-01-01

    Between 1945 and the early 1970s, both Indian Health Services in Canada (IHS), and the Alaska Native Health Service (ANS) initiated programs and activities aimed at recruiting and training nurses/nurses aides from Canadian and Alaskan Native communities. In Alaska, the Mt. Edgecumbe Hospital in Sitka acted as a training facility for Alaska Native nurses' aides, while in Canada, the Charles Camsell Hospital served a similar function. These initiatives occurred prior to the devolution of health care to Aboriginal communities. The histories of these two hospitals provide a comparative opportunity to reveal themes related to the history of Aboriginal nurse training and Aboriginal health policies in the north. The paper outlines the structure and function of two main hospitals within the Indian Health and Alaska Native Health Services, discusses the historic training, and role of Aboriginal nurses and caregivers within those systems using both archival and oral history sources.

  3. Uptake of Medicare chronic disease items in Australia by general practice nurses and Aboriginal health workers.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Davidson, Patricia M; Brown, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    The Australian health care system is currently in a state of reform and there is increasing pressure to provide care in community settings. Rising costs, demands and population ageing underscore the importance of adopting models of health care delivery to address changing epidemiological patterns. Population ageing and the increase of chronic conditions challenge models based on acute care. Changes to the Medicare benefits schedule have facilitated the development of a range of expanded nursing services in the general practice setting. In particular, item number 10997 was introduced to reimburse practice nurses and Aboriginal health workers (AHWs) for providing monitoring and support to people with a chronic disease for and on behalf of a general practitioner (GP). The uptake of Medicare Item 100997 from 2007 to 2009, to monitor chronic disease interventions provided by general practice nurses has increased dramatically. The rate of uptake of Item 100997 has not been consistent across States and Territories, even allowing for population distributions. Exploring reasons for these regional variations and linking uptake of Medicare Item numbers to patient outcomes is important in developing the nursing role in Australian general practice.

  4. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P < .0001). The odds ratio for children of caretakers with betel quid chewing habits having poor oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  5. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    PubMed

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  6. Incident sexually transmitted infections and their risk factors in an Aboriginal community in Australia: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P; Law, M; Torzillo, P; Kaldor, J

    2001-01-01

    website extra Extended tables can be found on the STI website www.sextransinf.com Objective: To identify risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: An Aboriginal community in central Australia. Participants: 1034 Aboriginal people aged 12–40 years, resident in the study region, seen during the period 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1998 for STI diagnosis. Main outcome measures: Incident rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis per 100 person years. Results: There were 313 episodes of incident gonorrhoea, 240 of incident chlamydial infection, and 17 of incident syphilis. For gonorrhoea, risk factors were age, substance abuse, and previous prevalent chlamydial infection with a rate ratio (RR) of 3.2 in people aged 15–19 years, 1.6 in people who abused alcohol, and 3.2 in women who had sniffed petrol on a regular basis. For chlamydia, risk factors were sex, age, and a previous history of STI with a RR of 2.7 in people aged 15–19 years. Similar factors were associated with an increased risk of syphilis but the associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified objective predictors of incident STI which can be used to target interventions and maximise their impact. The results of this study may well have relevance to indigenous communities in other countries that are faced with high levels of STI and substance abuse. Key Words: Aborigines; sexually transmitted infections; risk factors; Australia PMID:11158687

  7. Martu Storytellers: Aboriginal Narratives within the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Craig; Somerville, Kirra; Wyld, Frances

    2010-01-01

    The Martu people originate from the Pilbara region in Western Australia. Despite policies of removal, incarceration in prison and the need to leave community for health services, Martu maintain identity and connection to country. Their narratives have been used to inform a wider Australian audience about the history and culture of Aboriginal…

  8. Building a strategic approach to improve Aboriginal health research and evaluation in NSW.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jessica; Parter, Carmen; Maher, Louise

    2012-06-01

    A 5-year strategic plan for Aboriginal health research and evaluation has been developed to support the NSW Ministry of Health in its efforts to create the evidence for what works in addressing the health disparity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. The plan has the following objectives: that all Aboriginal health policies and programs are evidence informed; that programs and strategies are rigorously evaluated and contribute to building the evidence for improving Aboriginal health outcomes; that new research evidence is generated for improving Aboriginal health outcomes; and that robust monitoring and accountability mechanisms in Aboriginal health are in place, with improved data quality. This paper describes the development of the NSW Ministry of Health's Aboriginal Health Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan 2011-15, including a review of the evidence and policy documents, facilitated planning sessions, and consultation with staff within the Population and Public Health Division of the Ministry.

  9. Towards a Good Education in Very Remote Australia: Is it Just a Case of Moving the Desks Around?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie

    2013-01-01

    The education system, as it relates to very remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia, faces challenges. While considerable resources have been applied to very remote schools, results in terms of enrollments, attendance and learning outcomes have changed little, despite the effort applied. The Cooperative Research…

  10. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  11. Aboriginal Student Stories, the Missing Voice to Guide Us towards Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of policy and practice oriented at improving educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in Australia, achievements on most measures indicate that there is a long way to go in this endeavour. One avenue for improving Aboriginal education that has received little attention is accessing the views of Aboriginal students themselves…

  12. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  13. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  14. A Social History of the Manitoba Metis. The Development and Loss of Aboriginal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Emile

    The concept of aboriginal rights has been interpreted in various ways. Too often the general public does not understand fully what is meant by aboriginal rights. This topic has been debated in Parliament since Confederation and the general attitude of the news media has been to overlook it as unimportant. By definition, an aboriginal right is what…

  15. Marginality and Aboriginal Educational Policy Analysis in the United States and Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Sheng Yao; Jacob, W. James

    The education of Taiwan Aborigines and U.S. American Indians is compared using eight criteria of educational policy analysis. The criteria of equity is addressed in Taiwan through policies that promote the educational quality of Aboriginal elementary and junior high schools, expand higher educational opportunities for Taiwan Aborigines,…

  16. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…

  17. "We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloy, Natalie J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

  18. Role, Impacts and Implications of Dedicated Aboriginal Student Space at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Natasha L.; Varghese, Jeji

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of the University of Guelph's Aboriginal Resource Centre (ARC) to identify the role that dedicated spaces have in the lives of Aboriginal students. Three roles that were identified include how these spaces build a sense of community, foster and enhance Aboriginal identity, and provide a safe space for Aboriginal…

  19. The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruo Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

  20. Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

    Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

  1. Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

  2. "But My Students All Speak English": Ethical Research Issues of Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltse, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…

  3. Building Cultural Bridges with Aboriginal Learners and Their "Classmates" for Transformative Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Annamarie

    2012-01-01

    The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or Western)…

  4. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  5. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  6. Education for Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: An Overview of Four Realms of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    In line with an Aboriginal worldview of interconnectivity, I outline successful educational programs, policies, and services for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. These programs and initiatives are presented within four thematic areas related to (a) early childhood education, (b) Aboriginal pedagogy, language, and culture (throughout kindergarten to…

  7. A Study of Aboriginal Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Experience in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study, initiated by the Canadian Teachers' Federation and its Advisory Committee on Aboriginal Education, explored the professional knowledge and experiences of Aboriginal (First Nations, Mets and Inuit) teachers. The rationale for the study was to address the urgent need to improve and promote Aboriginal education in public…

  8. Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Wilson, Kathi

    2013-08-01

    Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research.

  9. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  10. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  11. Efficacy of a 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching in the Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.

    2012-01-01

    There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…

  12. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  13. Uncanny scripts: understanding pharmaceutical emplotment in the aboriginal context.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    This article outlines a new social reality of global psycho-pharmaceutical prescribing: the pharmaceutical family, or ;phamily.' Ethnographic case studies from Manitoba, Canada (2002 to 2004) show how pharmaceutical emplotment, involving a synergy between cultural and drug scripts, can have uncanny consequences for vulnerable groups, such as Aboriginal children. Observations and interview transcripts of high prescribing doctors are analyzed to understand the prescribing logic of using psychoactive medication, such as methylphenidate, in young Aboriginal children diagnosed with FASD and/or ADHD. Pharmaceutical narratives are presented in order to show how non-compliance to psychotropic prescribing can further marginalize Aboriginal children and is related to the history of colonial practices in Canada.

  14. Factors influencing attendance in a structured physical activity program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in an urban setting: a mixed methods process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of obesity, chronic disease, and are less active than non-Indigenous Australian women. Lifestyle programs designed to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating are needed to ameliorate this disparity. The aim of this study was to identify participants’ perceived barriers and enablers to attend group exercise classes as part of a 12-week fitness program. Methods To understand the factors that influence attendance, a mixed method process evaluation was undertaken in which a quantitative measure of attendance in the group exercise classes was used to identify cases for further qualitative investigation. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women aged 18 to 64 years were recruited to a research trial of a fitness program. The 12-week program included two 60-minute group exercise classes per week, and four nutrition education workshops. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at program completion. Participants were stratified by attendance, and interviews from the highest and lowest 25 percentiles analysed. Rigour was strengthened through use of multiple data analysts, member checking and prolonged engagement in the field. Results Analyses of the post-program interviews revealed that participants enrolled in the program primarily for the perceived health benefits and all (with one exception) found the program met their needs and expectations. The atmosphere of classes was positive and comfortable and they reported developing good relationships with their fellow participants and program staff. Low attendees described more barriers to attendance, such as illness and competing work and family obligations, and were more likely to report logistical issues, such as inconvenient venue or class times. Conclusions Attendance to the ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Fitness Program’ was primarily influenced by the participant’s personal health, logistics and

  15. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  16. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  17. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 μg/ml versus 3.51 μg/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649.

  19. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1) ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2) kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as ‘non-ideal users

  20. Exploring Cultural Horizons: Connecting Australian Students with Asian Students via Video-Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading, Chris; Auh, Myung-Sook; Pegg, John; Cybula, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The need for Australian school students to develop a strong understanding of Asian culture has been recognised in the cross-curriculum priority, "Asia and Australia's Engagement with Asia," of the Australian Curriculum. School students in rural and remote Australia have limited opportunities to engage with Asians and learn about their…

  1. Fact or fiction? A critique of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2002.

    PubMed

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Brady, Maggie

    2006-05-01

    The ability of policy makers, practitioners and the broader public to respond appropriately in reducing the harms caused by alcohol misuse depends in large part on our understanding of the nature of the problem. In the case of consumption patterns and associated harms among indigenous minority peoples--in Australia and elsewhere--such an understanding is often difficult to achieve. There are a host of reasons for this including cultural differences between indigenous peoples and the broader populations within which they are located, cultural heterogeneity among indigenous peoples themselves, political and economic disadvantages which exacerbate misuse and its effects, methodological difficulties in the appropriate design of data collection instruments, sampling issues and the issues in the interpretation of data. All these difficulties mean that we need to subject any studies of substance misuse among indigenous peoples to a high level of scrutiny. This is particularly the case when such studies are conducted by organisations that are generally regarded as 'authoritative' sources of information. Chikritzhs & Brady have done this in the case of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2002, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. In their review of this and other surveys, they demonstrate that to produce valid information about indigenous alcohol misuse, as well as having the skills to conduct broad population surveys, it is necessary to have an understanding of both methods of collecting data on alcohol consumption and Indigenous cultures themselves.

  2. Evidence of ENSO mega-drought triggered collapse of prehistory Aboriginal society in northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish; Marx, Samuel; Moss, Patrick; Hammond, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The Kimberley region of northwest Australia contains one of the World's largest collections of rock art characterised by two distinct art forms; the fine featured anthropomorphic figures of the Gwion Gwion or Bradshaw paintings, and broad stroke Wandjina figures. Luminescence dating of mud wasp nests overlying Gwion Gwion paintings has confirmed an age of at least 17,000 yrs B.P. with the most recent dates for these paintings from around the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 yrs B.P.). Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Wandjina rock art then emerged around 3800 to 4000 yrs B.P. following a hiatus of at least 1200 yrs. Here we show that a mid-Holocene ENSO forced collapse of the Australian summer monsoon and ensuing mega-drought spanning approximately 1500 yrs was the likely catalyst of this change in rock art. The severity of the drought we believe was enhanced through positive feedbacks triggered by change in land surface condition and increased aerosol loading of the atmosphere leading to a weakening or failure of monsoon rains. This confirms that pre-historic aboriginal cultures experienced catastrophic upheaval due to rapid natural climate variability and that current abundant seasonal water supplies may fail again if significant change in ENSO occurs.

  3. Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

  4. Understanding Race and Racism in Nursing: Insights from Aboriginal Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Vukic, Adele; Jesty, Charlotte; Mathews, Sr. Veronica; Etowa, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels. PMID:22778991

  5. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  6. Quebec's Aboriginal Languages: History, Planning and Development. Multilingual Matters 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of the history, present circumstances, and future prospects of the native languages of Quebec: Abenaki, Algonquin, Atikamekw, Cree, Inuktitut, Micmac, Mohawk, Montagnais, and Naskapi. Chapter 1, "The Situation of Aboriginal Languages in the Americas" (Jacques Maurais), discusses the linguistic demography of American…

  7. Bridging into Small Business: A Program for Aboriginal People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Jill

    This self-instructional kit is part of an entry-level training program that has been designed to support Aboriginal people in Australia in developing a business proposal and the skills required to achieve success. The manual, "Starting Your Own Small Business," includes information and activities that provide a thorough examination of the planning…

  8. Social Indicators in Surveys of Urban Aboriginal Residents in Saskatoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alan B.; Spence, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The Bridges and Foundations Project on Urban Aboriginal Housing, a Community-University Research Alliance (CURA) project financed primarily by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), has been operational in Saskatoon since early 2001. During these past 5 years…

  9. Understanding race and racism in nursing: insights from aboriginal nurses.

    PubMed

    Vukic, Adele; Jesty, Charlotte; Mathews, Sr Veronica; Etowa, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Indigenous Peoples are underrepresented in the health professions. This paper examines indigenous identity and the quality and nature of nursing work-life. The knowledge generated should enhance strategies to increase representation of indigenous peoples in nursing to reduce health inequities. Design. Community-based participatory research employing Grounded Theory as the method was the design for this study. Theoretical sampling and constant comparison guided the data collection and analysis, and a number of validation strategies including member checks were employed to ensure rigor of the research process. Sample. Twenty-two Aboriginal nurses in Atlantic Canada. Findings. Six major themes emerged from the study: Cultural Context of Work-life, Becoming a Nurse, Navigating Nursing, Race Racism and Nursing, Socio-Political Context of Aboriginal Nursing, and Way Forward. Race and racism in nursing and related subthemes are the focus of this paper. Implications. The experiences of Aboriginal nurses as described in this paper illuminate the need to understand the interplay of race and racism in the health care system. Our paper concludes with Aboriginal nurses' suggestions for systemic change at various levels.

  10. Motivators of Educational Success: Perceptions of Grade 12 Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Claypool, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify motivators that support educational success, as perceived by Aboriginal high school students enrolled in two urban Saskatchewan schools. Twelve semi-structured individual interviews revealed that students were motivated by a hospitable school culture, relevant learning opportunities, and positive personal…

  11. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  12. Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Lyons

    This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…

  13. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  14. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  15. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  16. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  17. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  18. The Sharing Circle of Wisdom: A Group for Elderly Aboriginals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson-Hoggan, Donovan; And Others

    Personal interviews with clients of the Calgary Indian Friendship Center and two other similar centers established a need for a program to enhance the social functioning of elderly aboriginals in Calgary. The needs focused on lack of transportation, inaccessible or inadequate medical care, isolation, elder abuse, and inadequate housing. The…

  19. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  20. Aboriginal Students Engaging and Struggling with Critical Multiliteracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhai-Illich, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a school-based action research project with aboriginal adolescent students attending an alternative school in Canada. As a Freirean response to these marginalized students' school failures, the researcher engaged students in a critical multiliteracies approach to language and literacy learning. Based on…

  1. American Indians of Idaho. Volume 1. Aboriginal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Deward E., Jr.

    A general survey of the aboriginal American Indian cultures of Idaho is given in this book. Most of the anthropological and historical writing on the native peoples of this region are summarized. It does not deal with contemporary Indian cultures, which will be described in a second volume along with their history of contact with Euro-Americans.…

  2. Customary Assets and Contemporary Artistry: Multimodal Learning and Remote Economic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The role of artistry in transformative maintenance of law and custom is a theme widely researched and discussed in Aboriginal arts related literature. However, it is the aim of this paper to contribute to a wider discourse about learning and economic participation in remote Australia, and in particular the role of multimodality as a significant…

  3. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  4. Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities. Corrections. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Comprendre le role de la guerison dans les collectivites autochtones. Affaires correctionnelles. Collection sur les autochtones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawll, Marcia B.

    Written in English and French, this report presents views of Canadian Aboriginal community members about developing healthy communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with elders, youth, parents, political leaders, victims, offenders, and government employees in five Aboriginal communities, and telephone and mail surveys were conducted in…

  5. Aboriginal Postsecondary Education: Formal Instruction for the Adult Aboriginal Population. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This report traces the development of initiatives in British Columbia, Canada to provide formal instruction for adults of Aboriginal heritage (also known as native or indigenous peoples), regardless of whether the learner completed secondary school. Activities in public as well as Aboriginal-governed institutions are described. Shorter sections…

  6. From Oral History to Leadership in the Aboriginal Community: A Five Year Journey with the Wagga Wagga Aboriginal Elders Group Incorporated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliken, Noelene; Shea, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the links that show how the establishment of an Aboriginal Elders Group in the Wagga Wagga community has contributed to the social capital of the Wagga Wagga Aboriginal Community. The paper will highlight the key educational episodes: oral history program; incorporation of the Elders group; self governance of the group,…

  7. The burden and outcome of respiratory tract infection in Australian and aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Leach, Amanda J; Morris, Peter S

    2007-10-01

    The burden of otitis media in developing and disadvantaged populations is substantial. This article looks at that burden in developed affluent and indigenous populations (in Australia). A model is presented to explain the high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media in indigenous populations, and an assessment of efforts to improve these outcomes if not prevent these infections is provided. Lastly, various international guidelines for managing acute otitis media are compared.

  8. The Australian health system: continuity and change.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Harris, R D

    1998-01-01

    The health of Australians, with the exception of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders, compares favourably with other industrialised nations. Since 1984, universal access for citizens to medical and public hospital services has been achieved under a national Health Insurance Scheme called Medicare, partially funded by a 1.4 percent levy on all taxpayers. Medicare found early widespread support from the electorate but continues to be buffeted by a minority coalition of some medical associations, private health insurers, and conservative "libertarian" politicians. Over the decade since its inception, Medicare has provided stability in maintaining total health costs around 8 percent of GDP. This has been largely due to capping hospital costs via Commonwealth-State agreements. Medicare has failed in the past five years to contain medical costs which have increased proportionally with increases in the medical workforce. This article examines the structure and performance of Medicare and its role within Australia's overall health system. Benefits of a universal access insurance program are outlined together with challenges associated with inequities in health status, geography, aging of the population, burgeoning technology, ideological diversity, and an economic climate requiring cost containment and favouring privatisation and the role of the market. It can be concluded that, despite these challenges, universal access to health care is here to stay. Australia's Medicare program has become popular with the electorate. PMID:10338721

  9. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  10. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.

  11. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems. PMID:23740348

  12. Group therapy of aboriginal offenders in a Canadian forensic psychiatric facility.

    PubMed

    Waldram, J B; Wong, S

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, the use of group therapy approaches with Aboriginal or Native Canadians/American Indians has become widely accepted. However, many advocates of this approach rarely consider the implications of group therapy for culturally heterogeneous groups, such as when non-Aboriginal peoples are involved or when there are Aboriginal peoples from different cultures and/or with different degrees of orientation to Euro-Canadian culture. This article documents the use of one form of group therapy for Aboriginal offenders in a forensic psychiatric facility, where this degree of cultural heterogeneity exists. The article concludes that, at least within a forensic psychiatric setting, group therapies that mirror the social, cultural, racial, and class structures of Euro-Canadian society are problematic in the treatment of traditional Aboriginal offenders but much less so for acculturated Aboriginal offenders.

  13. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  14. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  15. Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model "Seeking Safety" could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual, emotional, physical, and social realms of life. Their findings indicate that treatment interventions must honour the historical context and history of Indigenous peoples. Furthermore, there appears to be strong evidence that strengthening cultural identity, community integration, and political empowerment can enhance and improve mental health and substance use disorders in Aboriginal populations. In addition, Seeking Safety was highlighted as a well-studied model with most populations, resulting in healing. The provided recommendations seek to improve the treatment and healing of Aboriginal peoples presenting with intergenerational trauma and addiction. Other recommendations include the input of qualitative and quantitative

  16. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community.

  17. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community. PMID:25103025

  18. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  19. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

  20. Distribution of Hepatitis C Risk Factors and HCV Treatment Outcomes among Central Canadian Aboriginal.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Parmvir; Corsi, Daniel J; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aboriginal Canadians face many lifestyle risk factors for hepatitis C exposure. Methods. An analysis of Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Canada) patients between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed. HCV infection risk factors and HCV treatment outcomes were assessed. Socioeconomic status markers were based on area-level indicators linked to postal codes using administrative databases. Results. 55 (2.8%) Aboriginal and 1923 (97.2%) non-Aboriginal patients were evaluated. Aboriginals were younger (45.6 versus 49.6 years, p < 0.01). The distribution of gender (63.6% versus 68.3% male), HIV coinfection (9.1% versus 8.1%), advanced fibrosis stage (29.2% versus 28.0%), and SVR (56.3% versus 58.9%) was similar between groups. Aboriginals had a higher number of HCV risk factors, (mean 4.2 versus 3.1, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-4.4) for having 4+ risk factors. This was not explained after adjustment for income, social deprivation, and poor housing. Aboriginal status was not related to SVR. Aboriginals interrupted therapy more often due to loss to follow-up, poor adherence, and substance abuse (25.0% versus 4.6%). Conclusion. Aboriginal Canadians have higher levels of HCV risk factors, even when adjusting for socioeconomic markers. Despite facing greater barriers to care, SVR rates were comparable with non-Aboriginals. PMID:27446875