Science.gov

Sample records for remote seasonally inaccessible

  1. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  2. Laser Remote Optical Granulometry (LROG), a tool for the textural study of inaccessible outcrops: could this method help to study Martian sedimentary successions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarocchi, Damiano; Bartali, Roberto; Norini, Gianluca; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    We present a new tool for the textural study of inaccessible outcrops of pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits. The new method, called Laser Remote Optical Granulometry (LROG), is based on high resolution tele-photography and stereologic techniques. LROG consists on taking several pictures of the outcrop with a high resolution CCD camera coupled to a small aperture telescope that can be placed several tenths of meters away. The scale of the image is obtained projecting an equilateral triangle with known size on the outcrop by means of three laser beams. The LROG allows the measurement of clasts less than 1 mm in size from a distance of 80 to 100 meters, and can reach much better resolution when operated closer to the outcrop. Perspective distortion can be corrected with the equilateral triangle projected by the lasers. To get high resolution images and remove the effects of air turbulence, hundreds of frames of the same field are captured in rapid sequence and then stacked and averaged with image processing algorithms developed for astronomical imaging. The LROG was validated on the pyroclastic deposits of the Joya Honda maar (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The LROG provided precise granulometric analysis and vertical granulometric profiles of this pyroclastic sequence, useful to recognize the eruptive history of the volcano. This method can be used for the analysis of any kind of sedimentary deposits in the granulometric range of clasts greater than fine sand. We are improving the LROG to obtain other useful textural information like clast shape and apparent fabric. This method, implemented on a robotic probe could be a promising tool to carry out detailed stratigraphic and sedimentological study of Martian sedimentary successions.

  3. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  4. Daily and seasonal dynamics of remotely sensed photosynthetic efficiency in tree canopies.

    PubMed

    Pieruschka, Roland; Albrecht, Hendrik; Muller, Onno; Berry, Joseph A; Klimov, Denis; Kolber, Zbigniew S; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Rascher, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The photosynthesis of various species or even a single plant varies dramatically in time and space, creating great spatial heterogeneity within a plant canopy. Continuous and spatially explicit monitoring is, therefore, required to assess the dynamic response of plant photosynthesis to the changing environment. This is a very challenging task when using the existing portable field instrumentation. This paper reports on the application of a technique, laser-induced fluorescence transient (LIFT), developed for ground remote measurement of photosynthetic efficiency at a distance of up to 50 m. The LIFT technique was used to monitor the seasonal dynamics of selected leaf groups within inaccessible canopies of deciduous and evergreen tree species. Electron transport rates computed from LIFT measurements varied over the growth period between the different species studied. The LIFT canopy data and light-use efficiency measured under field conditions correlated reasonably well with the single-leaf pulse amplitude-modulated measurements of broadleaf species, but differed significantly in the case of conifer tree species. The LIFT method has proven to be applicable for a remote sensing assessment of photosynthetic parameters on a diurnal and seasonal scale; further investigation is, however, needed to evaluate the influence of complex heterogeneous canopy structures on LIFT-measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters.

  5. Are referred inaccessible human primary molar teeth really inaccessible?

    PubMed

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza; Samiei, Mohammad; Jamali, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Despite a body of compelling evidence pertaining to the root canal accessibility of primary teeth, the number of referrals for inaccessibility of primary molars is considerable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of true and false primary molar inaccessibility among subjects who had been referred by general and pediatric dentists. We examined 199 primary molars in 156 patients (87 males, 69 females) aged 3-7 years who were referred by 215 general and 35 pediatric dentists. Problems related to inaccessibility were recorded for each tooth and any individual canal. One hundred seventy-five inaccessible teeth (87.9%) were successfully rehabilitated to accessible status (P < 0.001). The most frequent cause of inaccessibility was an inappropriate access cavity (42.3%), followed by difficult canals (32.6%) and orifice calcification (25.2%). The tooth most frequently reported as inaccessible was the maxillary first molar (40.2%), and that least frequently reported was the mandibular second molar (11.6%). The distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar and the mesiolingual canal of the mandibular first molar were the most commonly inaccessible canals (P < 0.001). Only 1 out of 8 teeth referred as inaccessible was truly inaccessible. It seems that root canal inaccessibility is mostly attributable to lack of expertise among individual practitioners.

  6. Remote Sensing the Phytoplankton Seasonal Succession of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  7. Remote sensing the phytoplankton seasonal succession of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Raitsos, Dionysios E; Pradhan, Yaswant; Brewin, Robert J W; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  8. Revealing Nonclassicality of Inaccessible Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisnanda, Tanjung; Zuppardo, Margherita; Paternostro, Mauro; Paterek, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Some physical objects are hardly accessible to direct experimentation. It is then desirable to infer their properties based solely on the interactions they have with systems over which we have control. In this spirit, here we introduce schemes for assessing the nonclassicality of the inaccessible objects as characterized by quantum discord. We consider two probes individually interacting with the inaccessible object but not with each other. The schemes are based on monitoring entanglement dynamics between the probes. Our method is robust and experimentally friendly, as it allows the probes and the object to be open systems and makes no assumptions about the initial state, dimensionality of involved Hilbert spaces, and details of the probe-object Hamiltonian. We apply our scheme to a membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical system, to detect system-environment correlations in open system dynamics as well as nonclassicality of the environment, and we foresee potential benefits for the inference of the nonclassical nature of gravity.

  9. 49 CFR 214.327 - Inaccessible track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inaccessible track. 214.327 Section 214.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.327 Inaccessible track...

  10. 49 CFR 214.327 - Inaccessible track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inaccessible track. 214.327 Section 214.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.327 Inaccessible track...

  11. 49 CFR 214.327 - Inaccessible track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inaccessible track. 214.327 Section 214.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.327 Inaccessible track...

  12. 49 CFR 214.327 - Inaccessible track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inaccessible track. 214.327 Section 214.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.327 Inaccessible track...

  13. 49 CFR 214.327 - Inaccessible track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inaccessible track. 214.327 Section 214.327 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.327 Inaccessible track...

  14. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  15. Remote sensing of the seasonal variation of coniferous forest structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, Michael; Waring, Richard

    1991-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project is the remotely sensed determination of the seasonal variation of leaf area index (LAI) and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR). These measurements are required for input into a forest ecosystem model which predicts net primary production evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis of coniferous forests. Details of the study are given.

  16. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study. [NASA Earth Resources Laboratory seasonal experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the Mississippi Sound was initiated in early 1971 by personnel of NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. Four separate seasonal experiments consisting of quasi-synoptic remote and surface measurements over the entire area were planned. Approximately 80 stations distributed throughout Mississippi Sound were occupied. Surface water temperature and secchi extinction depth were measured at each station and water samples were collected for water quality analyses. The surface distribution of three water parameters of interest from a remote sensing standpoint - temperature, salinity and chlorophyll content - are displayed in map form. Areal variations in these parameters are related to tides and winds. A brief discussion of the general problem of radiative measurements of water temperature is followed by a comparison of remotely measured temperatures (PRT-5) to surface vessel measurements.

  17. Seasonal variation of land surface fluxes in regional scale by using a remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Nakamichi, T.; Miura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Land surface fluxes influence the coupling between the surface and the lower atmosphere, and are also important factors for forming a regional climate.In recent years, it became possible to observe the land surface states in the regional area by the development of the remote sensing technology, and some studies for estimating the land surface energy fluxes at regional scale using the remote sensing data have been carried out. In this study, the surface energy fluxes in the Kanto Plain in Japan where various land uses were mixed were estimated using a remote sensing data (Landsat 7 ETM+), and tried the analysis of the seasonal changes in the land surface energy fluxes. The energy balance and the bulk equations were used in order to estimate the land surface energy fluxes. The parameters in those models were identified using the micro-meteorological data observed above the land surface.

  18. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study. [NASA Earth Resources Laboratory seasonal experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the Mississippi Sound was initiated in early 1971 by personnel of NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. Four separate seasonal experiments consisting of quasi-synoptic remote and surface measurements over the entire area were planned. Approximately 80 stations distributed throughout Mississippi Sound were occupied. Surface water temperature and secchi extinction depth were measured at each station and water samples were collected for water quality analyses. The surface distribution of three water parameters of interest from a remote sensing standpoint - temperature, salinity and chlorophyll content - are displayed in map form. Areal variations in these parameters are related to tides and winds. A brief discussion of the general problem of radiative measurements of water temperature is followed by a comparison of remotely measured temperatures (PRT-5) to surface vessel measurements.

  19. Evaluation of seasonal variations of remotely sensed leaf area index over five evergreen coniferous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Zhili; Arain, Altaf

    2017-08-01

    Seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) have crucial controls on the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Over the past decades, a number of remote sensing (RS) LAI products have been developed at both global and regional scales for various applications. These products are so far only validated using ground LAI data acquired mostly in the middle of the growing season. The accuracy of the seasonal LAI variation in these products remains unknown and there are few ground data available for this purpose. We performed regular LAI measurements over a whole year at five coniferous sites using two methods: (1) an optical method with LAI-2000 and TRAC; (2) a direct method through needle elongation monitoring and litterfall collection. We compared seasonal trajectory of LAI from remote sensing (RS LAI) with that from a direct method (direct LAI). RS LAI agrees very well with direct LAI from the onset of needle growth to the seasonal peak (R2 = 0.94, RMSE = 0.44), whereas RS LAI declines earlier and faster than direct LAI from the seasonal peak to the completion of needle fall. To investigate the possible reasons for the discrepancy, the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) was compared with RS LAI. Meanwhile, phenological metrics, i.e. the start of growing season (SOS) and the end of growing season (EOS), were extracted from direct LAI, RS LAI and MTCI time series. SOS from RS LAI is later than that from direct LAI by 9.3 ± 4.0 days but earlier than that from MTCI by 2.6 ± 1.9 days. On the contrary, for EOS, RS LAI is later than MTCI by 3.3 ± 8.4 days and much earlier than direct LAI by 30.8 ± 7.2 days. Our results suggest that the seasonal trajectory of RS LAI well captures canopy structural information from the onset of needle growth to the seasonal peak, but is greatly influenced by the decrease in leaf chlorophyll content, as indicated by MTCI, from the seasonal peak to the completion of needle fall. These findings have significant

  20. Inaccessibility in Multi-Agent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reliable. Software agents may need to migrate e.g. in the situations where the information needs to be transformed between two mutually inaccessible...integrate the software prototype from the MRinMAS project in a timely fashion. An important development period of this project has been devoted to...footprint and message sending speed). For selected agent platforms - JADE, FIPA-OS, ZEUS, JACK, GRASSHOPPER and A–globe - the results of benchmarking are

  1. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  2. Remote estimation of grassland gross primary production during extreme meteorological seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Micol; Migliavacca, Mirco; Galvagno, Marta; Meroni, Michele; Cogliati, Sergio; Cremonese, Edoardo; Fava, Francesco; Gitelson, Anatoly; Julitta, Tommaso; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Siniscalco, Consolata; Colombo, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Different models driven by remotely sensed vegetation indexes (VIs) and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were developed to estimate gross primary production (GPP) in a subalpine grassland equipped with an eddy covariance flux tower. Hyperspectral reflectance was collected using an automatic system designed for high temporal frequency acquisitions for three consecutive years, including one (2011) characterized by a strong reduction of the carbon sequestration rate during the vegetative season. Models based on remotely sensed and meteorological data were used to estimate GPP, and a cross-validation approach was used to compare the predictive capabilities of different model formulations. Vegetation indexes designed to be more sensitive to chlorophyll content explained most of the variability in GPP in the ecosystem investigated, characterized by a strong seasonal dynamic. Model performances improved when including also PARpotential defined as the maximal value of incident PAR under clear sky conditions in model formulations. Best performing models are based entirely on remotely sensed data. This finding could contribute to the development of methods for quantifying the temporal variation of GPP also on a broader scale using current and future satellite sensors.

  3. Acoustic and satellite remote sensing of blue whale seasonality and habitat in the Northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtenshaw, Jessica C.; Oleson, Erin M.; Hildebrand, John A.; McDonald, Mark A.; Andrew, Rex K.; Howe, Bruce M.; Mercer, James A.

    2004-05-01

    Northeast Pacific blue whales seasonally migrate, ranging from the waters off Central America to the Gulf of Alaska. Using acoustic and satellite remote sensing, we have continuously monitored the acoustic activity and habitat of blue whales during 1994-2000. Calling blue whales primarily aggregate off the coast of southern and central California in the late summer, coinciding with the timing of the peak euphausiid biomass, their preferred prey. The northward bloom of primary production along the coast and subsequent northbound movements of the blue whales are apparent in the satellite and acoustic records, respectively, with the calling blue whales moving north along the Oregon and Washington coasts to a secondary foraging area with high primary productivity off Vancouver Island in the late fall. El Ni n˜o conditions, indicated by elevated sea-surface temperature and depressed regional chlorophyll- a concentrations, are apparent in the satellite records, particularly in the Southern California Bight during 1997/1998. These conditions disrupt biological production and alter the presence of calling blue whales in primary feeding locations. Remote sensing using acoustics is well suited to characterizing the seasonal movements and relative abundance of the northeast Pacific blue whales, and remote sensing using satellites allows for monitoring their habitat. These technologies are invaluable because of their ability to provide continuous large-scale spatial and temporal coverage of the blue whale migration.

  4. Remotely sensed seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the Ligurian Sea in 1997-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Lacroix, Genevieve; Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Djenidi, Salim

    2004-07-01

    Remotely sensed data and a one-dimensional hydrophysical model were used to study the seasonal dynamics of surface plant pigments concentration in the Ligurian-Provençal basin. The variations of phytoplankton biomass were estimated from the observations of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (1978-1986) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (September 1997 to October 1999) radiometers. The factors of physical environment analyzed included remotely sensed sea surface temperature (from advanced very high resolution radiometers), wind, air temperature, and atmospheric precipitation. The Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) model was used to explain the observed correlations between the physical forcing and the response of phytoplankton biomass. The general pattern of phytoplankton seasonal dynamics was typical to subtropical areas: maximum biomass during cold season from October to April and low biomass during summer months. The intensity of winter/spring bloom significantly varied during different years. The correlation was revealed between the summer/autumn air temperature contrast (expressed as the difference between the air temperatures in August and in November) and the maximum monthly averaged surface chlorophyll concentration during the subsequent winter/spring bloom. The features of seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton are regulated by the physical impacts influencing water stratification. The difference between two seasonal cycles (from September 1997 to October 1999) illustrates the response of phytoplankton growth to local meteorological conditions. In March-April 1999 the vernal bloom was much more pronounced; it resulted from deeper winter cooling and more intensive winter convection. Heating of surface water layer, wind mixing, and freshwater load with rains and river discharge either stimulate or depress the development of phytoplankton, depending on what limiting environmental factor (light or nutrient limitation) prevailed.

  5. Remote Sensing of Seasonal Leaf Area Index Across the Oregon Transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, Michael; Johnson, Lee; Miller, John; McCreight, Richard; Freemantle, Jim; Runyon, John; Gong, Peng

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed data acquired from four remote-sensing instruments on three different aircraft platforms over a transect of coniferous forest stands in Oregon were analyzed with respect to seasonal leaf area index (LAI). Data from the four instruments were corrected for the varying seasonal and geographic atmospheric conditions present along the transect. Strong logarithmic relationships were observed between seasonal maximum and minimum LAI and the simple ratio (SR) (near infrared/red reflectance) calculated from the broad-spectral-band Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), as well as from the narrow-spectral-band Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), and a Spectron SE590 spectro-radiometer (R(exp 2) = 0.82-0.97). The TMS SR reached an asymptote at an LAI of approx. 7-8. However, the SE590 and the CASI SR continued to increase up to the maximum LAI of 10.6. The variability of the relationship between the AVIRIS SR and LAI increased at stands with LAIs greater than 7, making a trend in the AVIRIS SR-LAI relationship at LAIs greater than 7 difficult to discern. The SRs of the coniferous forest stands measured by the narrow-spectral-band instruments were higher than they were from the broad-spectral-band TMS. This is attributed partially to the integration of the TMS over a broad wavelength region in the red and more strongly to calibration differences between the sensors. Seasonal TMS SR trends for four time periods for some of the stands deviated from the expected seasonal LAI trends, possibly because of smoke and very low sun angles during some of the acquisition periods. However, the expected SR differences for the seasonal minimum and maximum LAI were observed for all of the sensors for nearly all of the forest stands. This study, demonstrates that remotely, sensed data from both broad- and narrow spectral band instruments can provide estimates of LAI for use in forest ecosystems simulation models

  6. Seasonal Patterns and Remote Spectral Estimation of Canopy Chemistry Across the Oregon Transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Pamela; Johnson, Lee; Billow, Christine; Miller, John; Pu, Ruiliang

    1994-01-01

    We examined seasonal changes in canopy chemical concentrations and content in conifer forests growing along a climate gradient in western Oregon, as part of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) study. The chemical variables were related to seasonal patterns of growth and production. Statistical comparisons of chemical variables with data collected from two different airborne remote-sensing platforms were also carried out. Total nitrogen (N) concentrations in foliage varied significantly both seasonally and among sites; when expressed as content in the forest canopy, nitrogen varied to a much greater extent and was significantly related to aboveground net primary production (r = 0.99). Chlorophyll and free amino acid concentrations varied more strongly than did total N and may have reflected changes in physiological demands for N. Large variations in starch concentrations were measured from pre- to post-budbreak in all conifer sites. Examination of remote-sensing data from two different airborne instruments suggests the potential for remote measurement of some canopy chemicals. Multivariate analysis of high-resolution spectral data in the near infrared region indicated significant correlations between spectral signals and N concentration and canopy N content; the correlation with canopy N content was stronger and was probably associated in part with water absorption features of the forest canopy. The spectral bands that were significantly correlated with lignin concentration and content were similar to bands selected in the other laboratory and airborne studies; starch concentrations were not significantly related to spectral reflectance data. Strong relationships between the spectral position of specific reflectance features in the visible region and chlorophyll were also found.

  7. Seasonal Patterns and Remote Spectral Estimation of Canopy Chemistry Across the Oregon Transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Pamela; Johnson, Lee; Billow, Christine; Miller, John; Pu, Ruiliang

    1994-01-01

    We examined seasonal changes in canopy chemical concentrations and content in conifer forests growing along a climate gradient in western Oregon, as part of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) study. The chemical variables were related to seasonal patterns of growth and production. Statistical comparisons of chemical variables with data collected from two different airborne remote-sensing platforms were also carried out. Total nitrogen (N) concentrations in foliage varied significantly both seasonally and among sites; when expressed as content in the forest canopy, nitrogen varied to a much greater extent and was significantly related to aboveground net primary production (r = 0.99). Chlorophyll and free amino acid concentrations varied more strongly than did total N and may have reflected changes in physiological demands for N. Large variations in starch concentrations were measured from pre- to post-budbreak in all conifer sites. Examination of remote-sensing data from two different airborne instruments suggests the potential for remote measurement of some canopy chemicals. Multivariate analysis of high-resolution spectral data in the near infrared region indicated significant correlations between spectral signals and N concentration and canopy N content; the correlation with canopy N content was stronger and was probably associated in part with water absorption features of the forest canopy. The spectral bands that were significantly correlated with lignin concentration and content were similar to bands selected in the other laboratory and airborne studies; starch concentrations were not significantly related to spectral reflectance data. Strong relationships between the spectral position of specific reflectance features in the visible region and chlorophyll were also found.

  8. Estimation and seasonal monitoring of urban vegetation abundance based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Yun H.; Li, Jing; Weng, Qi H.; Tang, Yan

    2007-06-01

    Vegetation is a fundamental component of urban environment and its abundance is determinant of urban climate and urban ground energy fluxes. Based on the radiometric normalization of multitemporal ASTER imageries, the objectives of this study are: firstly, to estimate the vegetation abundance based on linear spectral mixture model (LSMM), and to compare it with NDVI and SDVI; secondly, to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of urban vegetation abundance in different seasons combined with some landscape metrics. The result indicates that both the vegetation abundance estimation based on LSMM and SDVI can reach high accuracy; however, NDVI is not a robust parameter for vegetation abundance estimation because there is significant non-linear effect between NDVI and vegetation abundance. This study reveals that the landscape characteristics of vegetation abundance is most complicated in summer, with spring and autumn less complicated and simplest in winter. This provides valuable information for urban vegetation abundance estimation and its seasonal change monitoring using remote sensing data.

  9. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  10. Detecting Land Cover Change by Trend and Seasonality of Remote Sensing Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. C.; Epiphanio, J. N.; Mello, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    seasonal component indicate phenological changes, while changes occurring in the trend component indicate gradual and abrupt change. BFAST can be used to analyze different types of remotely sensed time series and can be applied to other time series such as econometrics, climatology, and hydrology. The algorithm used in this study is available in BFAT package for R from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/package=bfast).; Figure 1 - Number of the phonological change with base in seasonal component.

  11. Do BRDF effects dominate seasonal changes in tower-based remote sensing imagery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagol, J. R.; Morton, D. C.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Rishmawi, K.

    2014-12-01

    In situ remote sensing complements data from airborne and space-based sensors, in particular for intensive study sites where optical imagery can be paired with detailed ground and tower measurements. The characteristics of tower-mounted imaging systems are quite different from the nadir viewing geometry of other remote sensing platforms. In particular, tower-mounted systems are quite sensitive to artifacts of seasonal and diurnal sun angle variations. Most systems are oriented in a fixed north or south direction (depending on latitude), placing them in the principal plane at solar noon. The strength of the BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) effect is strongest for images acquired at that time. Phenological metrics derived from tower based oblique angle imaging systems are particularly prone to BRDF effects, as shadowing within and between tree crowns varies seasonally. For sites in the northern hemisphere, the fraction of sunlit and shaded vegetation declines following the June solstice to leaf senescence in September. Correcting tower-based remote sensing imagery for artifacts of BRDF is critical to isolate real changes in canopy phenology and reflectance. Here, we used airborne lidar data from NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral, and Thermal Airborne Imager (G-LiHT) to develop a 3D forest scene for Harvard Forest in the Discrete Anisotrophic Radiative Transfer (DART) model. Our objective was to model the contribution of changes in shadowing and illumination to observations of changes in greenness from the Phenocam image time series at the Harvard Forest site. Diurnal variability in canopy greenness from the Phenocam time series provides an independent evaluation of BRDF effects from changes in illumination and sun-sensor geometries. The overall goal of this work is to develop a look-up table solution to correct major components of BRDF for tower-mounted imaging systems such as Phenocam, based on characteristics of the forest structure (forest

  12. Seasonal streamflow forecasts in a semi-arid Andean watershed using remotely sensed snow cover data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, M.; McPhee, J.; Vargas, X.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasts of monthly streamflow during the snowmelt season are highly relevant for real-time decision making such as hydropower production scheduling, irrigation planning, and water transfers in market-driven water resource systems. The Chilean water bureau issues such forecasts, for a number of snowmelt-driven watersheds in northern and central Chile, based on measurements from a sparse network of snow course stations. This research aims at improving the accuracy of the government-issued seasonal forecasts by combining streamflow data and remotely sensed snow cover information through a recurrent neural network (RNN). The snow cover area (SCA) obtained from MODIS-Surface Reflectance product (MOD09) and the Normalized Differentiation Snow Index (NDSI), from 2000-2008 period, allow us to understand the variation of the snowmelt and accumulation processes in six different basins located in central Chile (32,5° - 34,5° south latitude; 69,5° -70,5° west longitude). For the three basins located at higher altitudes (> 1800 m.s.l.), after applying a cross-correlation procedure we determined a strong relation (r > 0.7) between SCA and the seasonal hydrograph, lagged around 4 months. The basin SCA, the NDSI at specific points inside the basin and past basin streamflow data are input to the RNN for recognizing the pattern variation of seasonal hydrograph through supervised learning. The determination coefficients for the validation period (r2 > 0.6) indicate a good support for the application of this methodology in normal-humid hydrological years. Particularly for the dryer years we obtain a considerable overestimation (around 30%) of the monthly snowmelt runoff. These results are limited by the availability of data for different types (dry, normal or humid) of hydrological years.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Remote Vegetation Indices and Net Photosynthesis of Japanese Larch Needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Nakaji, T.; Oguma, H.; Fujinuma, Y.

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the seasonal pattern of four kinds of remote vegetation indices (NDVI, PRI, [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] and [(1/rGreen)-(1/rNIR)]) and their correlation to photosynthetic activity in the needle leaves of Japanese larch. In the 42-year-old larch forest (Tomakomai, Japan), the diurnal courses of spectral reflectance and gas exchange rates of larch needles were periodically investigated during early June to late October in 2003. In the Tomakomai larch forest, expansion of short-shoot needles was started from mid-May, and yellow color change of the needle leaves was observed in late October. The seasonal pattern of index value differed among the vegetation indices. For example, daytime mean NDVI showed constant value from late June to early October. The [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] and PRI were increased during summer, and their peak were observed in July and August, respectively. Although the values of NDVI, PRI and [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] were depressed in late October with autumn senescence of the needles, the [(1/rGreen)-(1/rNIR)] in larch needles was not changed even in yellow colored needles. Consequently, correlation of these vegetation indices and seasonal changed photosynthetic parameters such as net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) also differed among the indices. Although the PRI, NDVI and [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] positively correlated with daily maximum Pn and daily means of Pn and LUE, no correlation was found between [(1/rGreen)-(1/rNIR)] and the measured photosynthetic parameters. Based on the results of Pearson_fs correlation test, PRI and [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] were considered to be most useful index for the estimations of seasonal changes in Pn and LUE, respectively.

  14. Seasonality of microphytobenthos revealed by remote-sensing in a South European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Ana C.; Benyoucef, Ismaїl; Jesus, Bruno; Brotas, Vanda; Gernez, Pierre; Mendes, Carlos Rafael; Launeau, Patrick; Dias, Maria Peixe; Barillé, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The spatio-temporal variation of microphytobenthos (MPB) at the scale of a large estuary (Tagus estuary, Portugal) was studied using a combination of field and satellite remote sensing data during 2003. This is the first attempt to use remote sensing to study MPB in an ecosystem with a Mediterranean-like climate. Satellite pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) images were used to map benthic microalgae through the application of a Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI). A significant relationship between in-situ benthic chlorophyll a measurements and SPOT NDVI values was used to derive a map for biomass spatial distribution. At the scale of the whole intertidal area, NDVI time-series from 2003 revealed that MPB showed clear temporal variations, with lower values observed in summer compared to winter. This seasonal trend was found both in the SPOT and MERIS images and may be the result of extreme high temperatures that inhibit MPB growth. The main MPB biofilms were spatially stable through time at a large scale. Maximum NDVI values during the winter were found in the high shore with decreasing NDVI values towards the low shore. MPB light limitation at the lowest bathymetries is likely to occur in winter due to the high turbidity of Tagus estuary. The biomass spatial distribution map, obtained for January 2003, indicated low values ranging from 0 to 20 mg Chl a m-2 for the lower shores, while in the upper shore biomass varied between 60 and 80 mg Chl a m-2. This study suggests striking differences in MPB seasonal patterns between the northern and southern European estuaries and stresses the need for ecophysiological approaches to investigate the role of thermo- and photo-inhibition as structuring factors for MPB biomass distribution.

  15. Do physiological changes at leaf level explain seasonal changes in remotely sensed canopy greenness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, B.; Keenan, T. F.; Felts, E. S.; Hufkens, K.; Friedl, M. A.; Moore, D. J.; Sonnentag, O.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) network uses digital cameras to observe phenological events and track seasonal changes in forest canopy greenness. As a near surface remote sensing platform it acts as an intermediary between leaf level measurements, typically made by a human observer, and satellite based remote sensing products. The cameras typically document a rapid increase in canopy greenness after leaf out, which peaks in early summer and then gradually declines before a rapid decline corresponding to autumn senescence and abscission. Open questions remain, however, as to whether the observed changes in canopy greenness are directly related to changes in leaf physiology and pigmentation, changes in canopy structure (leaf size, shape, and orientation), or some combination thereof. The goal of this study was to investigate how leaf-level structure and function relate to canopy greenness as measured by the cameras in an oak-dominated temperate forest. Sampling was conducted at the Harvard Forest, in central Massachusetts USA. We sampled upper-canopy leaves of three dominant deciduous tree species red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) on a weekly basis for a full growing season, from leaf out to leaf drop. Leaf mass per area, nitrogen content, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured for each leaf, along with spectral reflectance and transmission at wavelengths from 350 to 2500 nm. Leaf gas exchange measurements were also made weekly and used to derive leaf photosynthetic parameters. Results show that changes in leaf mass per area and photosynthetic capability at leaf-level lag initial increases in greenness measured by the cameras. Spectral indices related to chlorophyll content such as the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll normalized difference index (Chl NDI), along with chlorophyll fluorescence indicate that chlorophyll content continues to increase after greenness measured by

  16. Seasonal estimates of riparian evapotranspiration using remote and in situ measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodrich, D.C.; Scott, R.; Qi, J.; Goff, B.; Unkrich, C.L.; Moran, M.S.; Williams, D.; Schaeffer, S.; Snyder, K.; MacNish, R.; Maddock, T.; Pool, D.; Chehbouni, A.; Cooper, D.I.; Eichinger, W.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Kerr, Y.; Marsett, R.; Ni, W.

    2000-01-01

    In many semi-arid basins during extended periods when surface snowmelt or storm runoff is absent, groundwater constitutes the primary water source for human habitation, agriculture and riparian ecosystems. Utilizing regional groundwater models in the management of these water resources requires accurate estimates of basin boundary conditions. A critical groundwater boundary condition that is closely coupled to atmospheric processes and is typically known with little certainty is seasonal riparian evapotranspiration ET). This quantity can often be a significant factor in the basin water balance in semi-arid regions yet is very difficult to estimate over a large area. Better understanding and quantification of seasonal, large-area riparian ET is a primary objective of the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program. To address this objective, a series of interdisciplinary experimental Campaigns were conducted in 1997 in the San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona. The riparian system in this basin is primarily made up of three vegetation communities: mesquite (Prosopis velutina), sacaton grasses (Sporobolus wrightii), and a cottonwood (Populus fremontii)/willow (Salix goodingii) forest gallery. Micrometeorological measurement techniques were used to estimate ET from the mesquite and grasses. These techniques could not be utilized to estimate fluxes from the cottonwood/willow (C/W) forest gallery due to the height (20-30 m) and non-uniform linear nature of the forest gallery. Short-term (2-4 days) sap flux measurements were made to estimate canopy transpiration over several periods of the riparian growing season. Simultaneous remote sensing measurements were used to spatially extrapolate tree and stand measurements. Scaled C/W stand level sap flux estimates were utilized to calibrate a Penman-Monteith model to enable temporal extrapolation between Synoptic measurement periods. With this model and set of measurements, seasonal riparian vegetation water use

  17. Alteration mineral mapping in inaccessible regions using target detection algorithms to ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.; Park, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the applications of target detection algorithms such as Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM), Orthogonal Subspace Projection (OSP) and Adaptive Coherence Estimator (ACE) to shortwave infrared bands of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data was investigated to extract geological information for alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies in inaccessible domains. The Oscar II coast area north-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected in this study to conduct a satellite-based remote sensing mapping technique. It is an inaccessible region due to the remoteness of many rock exposures and the necessity to travel over sever mountainous and glacier-cover terrains for geological field mapping and sample collection. Fractional abundance of alteration minerals such as muscovite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, epidote, chlorite and biotite were identified in alteration zones using CEM, OSP and ACE algorithms in poorly mapped and unmapped zones at district scale for the Oscar II coast area. The results of this investigation demonstrated the applicability of ASTER shortwave infrared spectral data for lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies and inaccessible regions, particularly using the image processing algorithms that are capable to detect sub-pixel targets in the remotely sensed images, where no prior information is available.

  18. Seasonal variation of black carbon aerosol at Happo,a remote mountain site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Kondo, Y.; Matsui, H.; Oshima, N.; Sahu, L.; Takegawa, N.; Nakagomi, K.; Kajino, M.

    2010-12-01

    The spatial distributions of black carbon(BC) are mainly determined by the transport, wet deposition, and emission rates. Asia was estimated to be one of the largest source regions of BC in 2000. Large BC emissions from Asia are impacting surface temperature and precipitation patterns. Therefore, it is important to study the distribution of BC in the outflow of Asia. For this purpose, we made continuous measurements of mass concentrations of BC (MBC) with a filter-based absorption photometer (COSMOS) at a remote mountain site, Happo, Japan for 2 years. The MBC did not show significant diurnal variations, suggesting little influence from nearby sources. The average and median values of MBC were 0.27±0.18 μg m-3 and 0.23±0.03 μg m-3, respectively. The seasonal mean MBC have maximum 0.379±0.29 μg m-3 in spring and minimum 0.212±0.13 μg m-3 in summer, showed well-defined seasonal variations with spring maximum and summer minimum. Those are confirmed by back trajectory analysis indicating a spatial shift in the origin of air samples following the season. The MBC predicted by CMAQ model were compared with the observed MBC, which showed good agreement. To study the transport pattern of BC, precipitation was estimated using Global Precipitation Climatology Projects (GPCP) data. Fig. 1 Annual BC emissions for 2006, including industry, power, residential, and transportation emissions. Red square represents the remote observation site, Happo. The boxes define the source regions used in the tagged BC simulation: North China (33° - 50°N, 100°E -130°E), South China (20° - 33°N, 100° - 123°E), Korea (33° - 40°N, 123° -129.5°E), and Japan (30° - 46°N, 129° - 147°E). Fig. 2 Annual concentrations of BC during the period of August 2007 -August 2009.

  19. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  20. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  1. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  2. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  3. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  4. Changes in precipitating snow chemistry with seasonality in the remote Laohugou glacier basin, western Qilian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Qin, Xiang; Cui, Jianyong; Kang, Shichang

    2017-04-01

    Trace elements in the atmosphere could provide information about regional atmospheric pollution. This study presented a whole year of precipitation observation data regarding the concentrations of trace metals (e.g., Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cd, Mo, Pb, Sb, Ti, and Zn), and a TEM-EDX (transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer) analysis from June 2014 to September 2015 at a remote alpine glacier basin in Northwest China, the Laohugou (LHG) basin (4200 m a.s.l.), to determine the regional scale of atmospheric conditions and chemical processing in the free troposphere in the region. The results of the concentrations of trace metals showed that, although the concentrations generally were lower compared with that of surrounding rural areas (and cities), they showed an obviously higher concentration and higher EFs in winter (DJF) and a relatively lower concentration and lower EFs in summer (JJA) and autumn (SON), implying clearly enhanced winter pollution of the regional atmosphere in Northwest China. The TEM observed residue in precipitation that was mainly composed of types of dust, salt-dust, BC-fly ash-soot, and organic particles in precipitation, which also showed remarked seasonal change, showing an especially high ratio of BC-soot-fly ash particles in winter precipitation compared with that of other seasons (while organic particles were higher in the summer), indicating significant increased anthropogenic particles in the winter atmosphere. The source of increased winter anthropogenic pollutants mainly originated from emissions from coal combustion, e.g., the regional winter heating supply for residents and cement factories in urban and rural regions of Northwest China. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric optical depth (AOD) also showed a significant influence of regional atmospheric pollutant emissions over the region in winter. In total, this work indicated that the atmospheric environment in western Qilian

  5. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  6. Simulations of Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations in Leaf Inclination Angle Distribution: Implications for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.

    2013-01-01

    The leaf inclination angle distribution (LAD) is an important characteristic of vegetation canopy structure affecting light interception within the canopy. However, LADs are difficult and time consuming to measure. To examine possible global patterns of LAD and their implications in remote sensing, a model was developed to predict leaf angles within canopies. Canopies were simulated using the SAIL radiative transfer model combined with a simple photosynthesis model. This model calculated leaf inclination angles for horizontal layers of leaves within the canopy by choosing the leaf inclination angle that maximized production over a day in each layer. LADs were calculated for five latitude bands for spring and summer solar declinations. Three distinct LAD types emerged: tropical, boreal, and an intermediate temperate distribution. In tropical LAD, the upper layers have a leaf angle around 35 with the lower layers having horizontal inclination angles. While the boreal LAD has vertical leaf inclination angles throughout the canopy. The latitude bands where each LAD type occurred changed with the seasons. The different LADs affected the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with similar relationships between fAPAR and leaf area index (LAI), but different relationships between NDVI and LAI for the different LAD types. These differences resulted in significantly different relationships between NDVI and fAPAR for each LAD type. Since leaf inclination angles affect light interception, variations in LAD also affect the estimation of leaf area based on transmittance of light or lidar returns.

  7. Remote influence of Atlantic multidecadal variability on Siberian warm season precipitation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Zhao, Sen

    2015-11-23

    The time series of 20th century Siberian warm season (May to October) precipitation (SWP) shows variations over decadal timescales, including a wetting trend since the 1970s. Here, it is shown that the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) can be implicated as a remote driver of the decadal-scale variations in SWP. Observational analysis identifies a significant in-phase relationship between the AMV and SWP, and the SWP decadal variability can be largely explained by the AMV. The physical mechanism for this relationship is investigated using both observations and numerical simulations. The results suggest that North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) warming associated with the positive AMV phase can excite an eastward propagating wave train response across the entire Eurasian continent, which includes an east-west dipole structure over Siberia. The dipole then leads to anomalous southerly winds bringing moisture northward to Siberia; the precipitation increases correspondingly. The mechanism is further supported by linear barotropic modeling and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis.

  8. Remote influence of Atlantic multidecadal variability on Siberian warm season precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Zhao, Sen

    2015-01-01

    The time series of 20th century Siberian warm season (May to October) precipitation (SWP) shows variations over decadal timescales, including a wetting trend since the 1970s. Here, it is shown that the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) can be implicated as a remote driver of the decadal-scale variations in SWP. Observational analysis identifies a significant in-phase relationship between the AMV and SWP, and the SWP decadal variability can be largely explained by the AMV. The physical mechanism for this relationship is investigated using both observations and numerical simulations. The results suggest that North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) warming associated with the positive AMV phase can excite an eastward propagating wave train response across the entire Eurasian continent, which includes an east–west dipole structure over Siberia. The dipole then leads to anomalous southerly winds bringing moisture northward to Siberia; the precipitation increases correspondingly. The mechanism is further supported by linear barotropic modeling and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis. PMID:26593402

  9. Towards Optimization of Reservoir Operations for Hydropower Production in East Africa: Application of Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, S. S.; Gebremichael, M.; Hopson, T. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric generation and interconnections are the major priority areas of infrastructure development in Africa. A number of hydropower projects are currently being developed in East Africa in order to meet the energy demands of the fast growing economy in sustainable and climate-resilient manner. However, the performance efficiency of existing hydropower systems in Africa is much lower (about 30% in some cases) than their design capacity. This study proposes a decision support system (DSS) that integrates climate forecasts and remote sensing products into modeling and optimization of the hydropower systems in order to achieve reliable reservoir operations and enhance hydropower production efficiency. The DSS has three main components; climate system, hydrologic and water resources system, and optimization system. The climate system comprises of tools and interfaces for accessing, customizing and integrating climate forecasts and remote sensing data. The North America Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal retrospective forecasts for the East Africa Power Pool (EAPP) region are compared with the TRMM rainfall estimates and the CPC unified gauged rainfall data. The errors of the NMME seasonal forecasts have portrayed significant spatial and temporal variability in the EAPP region. The root mean square errors of the seasonal forecasts are relatively higher for wetter locations and months. However, the skills of the NMME seasonal forecasts are not significantly depreciating with lead time for the study region. The seasonal forecast errors vary from one model to another. Here, we present the skills of NMME seasonal forecasts, the physical factors and mechanisms that affect the skills. In addition, we discuss our methodology that derives the best seasonal forecasts for the study region from the NMME seasonal forecasts, and show how the climate forecast errors propagate through hydrologic models into hydrological forecasting.

  10. [Monitoring of soil salinization in Northern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang of China in dry and wet seasons based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hong-Nan

    2013-11-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important eco-environment problems in arid area, which can not only induce land degradation, inhibit vegetation growth, but also impede regional agricultural production. To accurately and quickly obtain the information of regional saline soils by using remote sensing data is critical to monitor soil salinization and prevent its further development. Taking the Weigan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis in the northern Tarim River Basin of Xinjiang as test object, and based on the remote sensing data from Landsat-TM images of April 15, 2011 and September 22, 2011, in combining with the measured data from field survey, this paper extracted the characteristic variables modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the third principal component from K-L transformation (K-L-3). The decision tree method was adopted to establish the extraction models of soil salinization in the two key seasons (dry and wet seasons) of the study area, and the classification maps of soil salinization in the two seasons were drawn. The results showed that the decision tree method had a higher discrimination precision, being 87.2% in dry season and 85.3% in wet season, which was able to be used for effectively monitoring the dynamics of soil salinization and its spatial distribution, and to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive management of saline soils in arid area and the rational utilization of oasis land resources.

  11. Comparison of the remotely sensed start of the season and ground phenology observations of the cereal crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohovic, Roman; Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Bálek, Jan; Trnka, Mirek

    2015-04-01

    Phenology monitoring such as start of the season of agricultural crops are important characteristics observed on the ground basis by the farmers and authorities already for the long time. Due to costs, coverage, site disparities and time demands of ground observations is remote sensing phenology an interesting option. Satellite observations enable monitoring of the ground vegetation already at sufficient resolution and in country and regional scale at the same time. However, ground and remote sensing phenology differ in nature of its object. First is focused on single species and limited individuals at the observation spot. Remote sensing is from its construction definition able to monitor area-wide vegetation communities. To understand these differences and to set the procedures to overcome it is the aim of this study. Case study area covers Czech Republic in Central Europe with typical four season temperate climate that strongly influence the vegetation. Daily MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data in 250 by 250 meters resolution were used to compute NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). Iterative developed method for the filtering of NDVI time series since 2000 up till now is crucial for overcoming missing periods mainly due to atmospheric conditions. From improved curve of NDVI start of the season is derived as absolute threshold value of 50% NDVI. Comparison of remotely sensed start of the season with observations of emergence of spring barley and beginning of leaf sheath elongation for winter wheat was done. Data were correlated at 90 ground stations across Czech Republic between the years 2000 and 2012. Correlations at original 250x250 meters resolution and aggregations of 5x5 km were investigated. Different land cover classes were considered for aggregated areas. Correlation of start of the season shows lower results for spring barley caused by strong influence of winter signal and crop sowing date by farmers

  12. Remote sensing of seasonal variability of fractional vegetation cover and its object-based spatial pattern analysis over mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guijun; Pu, Ruiliang; Zhang, Jixian; Zhao, Chunjiang; Feng, Haikuan; Wang, Jihua

    2013-03-01

    Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important indicator of mountain ecosystem status. A study on the seasonal changes of FVC can be beneficial for regional eco-environmental security, which contributes to the assessment of mountain ecosystem recovery and supports mountain forest planning and landscape reconstruction around megacities, for example, Beijing, China. Remote sensing has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful and feasible tools for the investigation of mountain vegetation. However, topographic and atmospheric effects can produce enormous errors in the quantitative retrieval of FVC data from satellite images of mountainous areas. Moreover, the most commonly used analysis approach for assessing FVC seasonal fluctuations is based on per-pixel analysis regardless of the spatial context, which results in pixel-based FVC values that are feasible for landscape and ecosystem applications. To solve these problems, we proposed a new method that incorporates the use of a revised physically based (RPB) model to correct both atmospheric and terrain-caused illumination effects on Landsat images, an improved vegetation index (VI)-based technique for estimating the FVC, and an adaptive mean shift approach for object-based FVC segmentation. An array of metrics for segmented FVC analyses, including a variety of area metrics, patch metrics, shape metrics and diversity metrics, was generated. On the basis of the individual segmented FVC values and landscape metrics from multiple images of different dates, remote sensing of the seasonal variability of FVC was conducted over the mountainous area of Beijing, China. The experimental results indicate that (a) the mean value of the RPB-NDVI in all seasons was increased by approximately 10% compared with that of the atmospheric correction-NDVI; (b) a strong consistency was demonstrated between ground-based FVC observations and FVC estimated through remote sensing technology (R2 = 0.8527, RMSE = 0.0851); and (c

  13. Remote acoustic monitoring of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) reveals seasonal and diel variations in acoustic behavior.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Leanna P; McCordic, Jessica A; Parks, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the "gunshot" sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities.

  14. Remote Acoustic Monitoring of North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Reveals Seasonal and Diel Variations in Acoustic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Leanna P.; McCordic, Jessica A.; Parks, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the “gunshot” sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities. PMID:24646524

  15. Studies of seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties with use of remote techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Makuch, Przemyslaw

    2014-05-01

    According to the IPCC report, atmospheric aerosols due to their properties -extinction of Sun and Earth radiation and participation in processes of creation of clouds, are among basic "unknowns" in climate studies. Aerosols have large effect on the radiation balance of the Earth which has a significant impact on climate changes. They are also a key issue in the case of remote sensing measurements. The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols depend not only on their type but also on physical parameters such as pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction. The wide range of properties in which atmospheric aerosols affect Earth's climate is the reason of high unrelenting interest of scientists from different disciplines such as physics, chemistry and biology. Numerous studies have dealt with aerosol optical properties, e.g. Dubovik et al. (2002), but only in a few have regarded the influence of meteorological parameters on the optical properties of aerosols in the Baltic Sea area. Studies of aerosol properties over the Baltic were conducted already in the last forty years, e.g. Zielinski T. et. al. (1999) or Zielinski T. & A. Zielinski (2002). The experiments carried out at that time involved only one measuring instrument -e.g. LIDAR (range of 1 km) measurements and they were conducted only in selected areas of the Polish coastal zone. Moreover in those publications authors did not use measurements performed on board of research vessel (R/V Oceania), which belongs to Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Science (IO PAN) or data received from satellite measurements. In 2011 Zdun and Rozwadowska performed an analysis of all data derived from the AERONET station on the Gotland Island. The data were divided into seasons and supplemented by meteorological factors. However, so far no comprehensive study has been carried out for the entire Baltic Sea area. This was the reason to conduct further research of SEasonal Variations of Aerosol optical depth over the Baltic

  16. Remote Sensing Applications to Improve Seasonal Forecasting of Streamflow and Reservoir Storage in the Upper Snake River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M.; Wood, A. W.; Andreadis, K.; van Rheenen, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain snowmelt contributes over eighty percent of the water supply in the Western U.S. Accurate estimates and forecasts of snow cover and snowmelt are important to many local, state, and Federal agencies that have interests in agriculture, hydropower, and recreation. Water resource managers depend on accurate water supply predictions to allocate a finite supply of water to often competing demands. Although quantitative forecasts of seasonal snowmelt runoff have been made at many locations in the West for over 50 years, these forecasts are limited by accurate knowledge of winter season precipitation and snow accumulation in remote areas, which presently are estimated via in situ networks like the NRCS' SNOTEL. We evaluate the potential to improve on methods based solely on in situ observations through a strategy that combines nowcasts of soil moisture, snow water content, and other hydrologic variables using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model, updated with a combination of SNOTEL-based estimates of snow water equivalent and remote sensing (MODIS) estimates of snow areal extent. The method is evaluated for the Upper Snake River basin, for which a long-term retrospective VIC run for the period 1950-2002 provides a model climatology, and the basis for a retrospective evaluation of seasonal streamflow forecast skill absent updating. For winters 2001-2 and 2002-3, we evaluate the impact of both replacing and augmenting our updating scheme based on SNOTEL data with corrections from two remote sensing products: course spatial resolution MODIS snow-cover data and, on a more experimental basis, an AMSR snow water equivalent product. In addition to seasonal streamflow forecasts based on an adaptation of the Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) method, we implement and evaluate experimental reservoir forecasts produced with the SNAKESIM Snake River reservoir management model for forecasts made in the winters of 2001-2 and 2003-4 for the

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing of the Dependence of Homogeneous Ice Nucleation on Latitude and Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds can be thought of as belonging to one of two categories: those formed through (1) homo- and (2) heterogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth hom and het) due to the very different microphysical and radiative properties associated with these two mechanisms. Hom cirrus will form only when atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) are sufficiently low in concentration, and studies suggest that mineral dust may account for most IN globally. Hence the occurrence of hom and het cirrus is likely to depend on latitude and season as mineral dust does, making satellite remote sensing the preferred method for characterizing this occurrence. A new understanding of thermal absorption in two split-window channels renders a reinterpretation of a standard CALIPSO satellite retrieval; the effective absorption optical depth ratio or βeff. Using earlier studies and aircraft measurements in cirrus clouds, βeff is found to be tightly related to the ice particle number concentration/ice water content ratio, or N/IWC, and thresholds for hom cirrus are estimated in terms of N/IWC and βeff. When applied to cold semi-transparent cirrus clouds, we find that (1) polar cirrus (T < -38 C) occur much more often during winter than summer and (2) hom cirrus prevail at high latitudes during winter, and during spring and fall over Antarctica. The figure shows estimates of the fraction of cirrus produced by hom (where βeff > 1.15) during January and August, where green is ~ 50% and red ~ 90-100%. These high N/IWC values associated with hom cirrus occur in regions where mineral dust concentrations are predicted to be minimal. This high N/IWC condition during winter is likely to have a strong greenhouse effect that may increase high latitude temperatures by 2-5°K relative to conditions where het cirrus dominates (Storelvmo et al. 2014, Philos. Trans. A, Royal Soc.). Thus, the lack of mineral dust in the high latitudes during winter may result in a strong warming influence over these regions. Moreover

  18. Study on the seasonal migration of surface suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Jian; Ye, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of suspended sediment directly affects the optical properties such as transparency and water color, and aquatic environment as well. This paper selects the Taiwan Strait as study area, establishes inversion mode of suspended sediment by coupling field data with remote sensing reflectance from MODIS data. Monthly-averaged concentrations and seasonal changes of suspended sediment from 2003 to 2012 were calculated and analyzed by the mode. The main results are as follows:(1) remote sensing reflectance at 555nm from MODIS data has high relativity with the field observed turbidity by regression equation of Y =0.8931e123.93x in which Y is TSM concentration, X is Rrs555 and R2 is 0.6836. (2)Suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait has obviously spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, that higher concentration of suspended sediment is in coastal water and decreases from shore to sea, and highest concentration happens in winter.

  19. RETRIEVAL FROM LIMBO, THE INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT OF INACCESSIBLE CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GANTER, GRACE; AND OTHERS

    A CLINIC PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT WITH THE ADVANTAGES OF RESIDENTIAL CARE WHILE THEY REMAINED AT HOME. OF THE 47 SUBJECTS SELECTED (27 AGED 6 TO 9, 20 AGED 9 TO 13), 25 HAD BEEN RECOMMENDED, AND NINE CONSIDERED, FOR RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT. ALL WERE JUDGED INACCESSIBLE BY THE CLINIC…

  20. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and the inference of boundary-layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Lo, R. C.; Nath, N. R.; Dalu, G.

    1979-01-01

    From the depth of the water vapor spectral lines in the 8-9 micron window region, measured by the Nimbus 4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) with a resolution of about 3/cm, the precipitable water vapor over the oceans is remotely sensed. In addition the IRIS spectral data in the 11-13 micron window region have been used to derive the sea surface temperature (SST). Seasonal maps of w on the oceans deduced from the spectral data reveal the dynamical influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from these remotely sensed w and SST. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the ITCZ. The derived information is in reasonable agreement with some observed climatological patterns over the oceans.

  1. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and the inference of boundary-layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Lo, R. C.; Nath, N. R.; Dalu, G.

    1979-01-01

    From the depth of the water vapor spectral lines in the 8-9 micron window region, measured by the Nimbus 4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) with a resolution of about 3/cm, the precipitable water vapor over the oceans is remotely sensed. In addition the IRIS spectral data in the 11-13 micron window region have been used to derive the sea surface temperature (SST). Seasonal maps of w on the oceans deduced from the spectral data reveal the dynamical influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from these remotely sensed w and SST. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the ITCZ. The derived information is in reasonable agreement with some observed climatological patterns over the oceans.

  2. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Seasonally-Acquired Imported Fire Ant Mound Features (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, residential, and commercial settings. Ground-based hyperspectral studies focused on the seasonal monitoring of reflectance characteristics of imported f...

  3. Remote sources for year-to-year changes in the seasonality of the Florida Current transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Ricardo; Baringer, Molly; Goni, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The seasonal variability of the Florida Current (FC) transport is often characterized by the presence of an average annual cycle (8% of the variance) of ˜3 Sv range peaking in boreal summer. However, the seasonality displayed by the FC transport in any individual year may have very distinct characteristics. In this study, the analysis focuses on seasonal changes (73-525 day frequency band) in the FC transport that are associated with a variable annual phase, which is defined as the transient seasonal component (FCt, 27% of the variance). It is shown that the FCt is largely modulated by westward propagating sea height anomaly (SHA) signals that are formed in the eastern North Atlantic 4-7 years earlier than observed at 27°N in the Florida Straits. These westward propagating SHA signals behave approximately like first baroclinic Rossby waves that can modulate changes in the FC seasonal variability upon arrival at the western boundary. The main finding from this study is that changes in coastal sea-level between 25°N and 42°N linked with westward propagating signals account for at least 50% of the FCt. The integrated changes in the coastal sea-level between 25°N and 42°N, in turn, drive adjustments in the geostrophic transport of the FC at 27°N. Results reported here provide an explanation for previously reported year-to-year changes in the FC seasonality, and suggest that large sea-level variations along the coast of Florida may be partially predictable, given that these Rossby-wave-like signals propagate approximately at fixed rates in the open ocean along 27°N.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variability in fine mineral dust and coarse aerosol mass at remote sites across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Gill, T. E.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variability in fine mineral dust (FD, mineral aerosols with diameters less than 2.5 µm) and coarse aerosol mass (CM, mass of aerosols with diameters between 2.5 and 10 µm) is important for accurately characterizing and perhaps mitigating their environmental and climate impacts. The spatial and seasonal variability of ambient FD and CM was characterized at rural and remote sites across the United States for 2011-2014 using concentration and elemental chemistry data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) aerosol monitoring network. FD concentrations were highest (and had ≥50% contributions to PM2.5 mass) in the southwestern United States in spring and across the central and southeastern United States in summer (20-30% of PM2.5 mass). CM was highest across the Southwest and southern Great Plains in spring and central United States in spring, summer, and fall (≥70% contributions to PM10 mass). Similar FD and CM seasonal variability was observed near source regions in the Southwest, but a seasonal decoupling was observed in most other regions, suggesting the contribution of nonlocal sources of FD or perhaps non-dust-related CM. The seasonal and spatial variability in FD elemental ratios (calcium, iron, and aluminum) was fairly uniform across the West; however, in the eastern United States a shift in summer elemental composition indicated contributions from nonlocal source regions (e.g., North Africa). Finally, long-term trend analyses (2000-2014) indicated increased FD concentrations during spring at sites across the Southwest and during summer and fall in the southeastern and central United States.

  5. Verification of Satellite Radar Remote Sensing Based Estimates of Boreal and Subalpine Growing Seasons Using an Ecosystem Process Model and Surface Biophysical Measurement Network Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Running, S. W.; Zimmermann, R.

    2002-12-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001. We compare these results with estimates of growing season length derived from a network of surface stations, utilizing BIOME-BGC stand-level ecosystem process model simulations, site sap flow and tower eddy flux net CO2 exchange measurements for a network of mature evergreen coniferous forest stands. Remote sensing based estimates of spatial patterns in the timing of seasonal freeze-thaw vary by more than 8 weeks, while associated estimates of growing season length span more than 14 weeks across the region. Inter-annual variability between 2000 and 2001 is found to be on the order of 1-4 weeks. Remote sensing estimates of growing season initiation and length are found to be well correlated with both site measurements and model simulations. Remote sensing measurements of the end of the seasonal non-frozen period are also found to be consistent with site based temperature measurements, but not with site based estimates of growing season termination. These findings are attributed to a relatively strong dependence of the onset of the growing season to snowmelt and associated soil thaw in spring and the relative importance of additional factors such as light availability and day length in controlling growing season termination. This work was performed at the University of Montana, and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Forecasting corn and soybean yields in the United States utilizing pre- and within-season remotely sensed variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Four timely and broadly available remotely sensed datasets were assessed for inclusion into county-level corn and soybean yield forecasting efforts focused on the Corn Belt region of the central United States (US). Those datasets were the (1) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as derived from the Terra satellite's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), (2) daytime and (3) nighttime land surface temperature (LST) as derived from Aqua satellite's MODIS, and (4) precipitation from the National Weather Service (NWS) Nexrad-based gridded data product. The originating MODIS data utilized were the globally produced 8-day, clear sky composited science products (MOD09Q1 and MYD11A2), while the US-wide NWS data were manipulated to mesh with the MODIS imagery both spatially and temporally by regridding and summing the otherwise daily measurements. The crop growing seasons of 2006 - 2011 were analyzed with each year bounded by 32 8-day periods from mid-February through late October. Land cover classifications known as the Cropland Data Layer as produced annually by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) were used to isolate the input dataset pixels as to corn and soybeans for each of the corresponding years. The relevant pixels were then averaged by crop and time period to produce a county-level estimate of NDVI, the LSTs, and precipitation. They in turn were related to official annual NASS county level yield statistics. For the Corn Belt region as a whole, both corn and soybean yields were found to be positively correlated with NDVI in the middle of the summer and negatively correlated to daytime LST at that same time. Nighttime LST and precipitation showed no correlations to yield, regardless of the time prior or during the growing season. There was also slight suggestion of low NDVI and high daytime LST in the spring being positively related to final yields, again for both crops. Taking only NDVI and daytime LST as inputs, regression

  7. Seasonal variation of the O3-CO correlation derived from remote sensing measurements over western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Shuji; Uchino, Osamu; Sakai, Tetsu; Morino, Isamu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Shiomi, Kei; Sakashita, Masanori; Akaho, Taiga; Okumura, Hiroshi; Arai, Kohei

    2016-12-01

    We used a lower tropospheric ozone column (LTOC) and column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon monoxide (XCO) data observed in the area around Saga, which is located in western Japan and is close to the Asian continent, with an aim to investigate whether these data can characterize the seasonal variation of the photochemical ozone (O3) formation in the northeast Asian Pacific rim region. The LTOC data after April 2009 were retrieved from thermal infrared spectra measured by the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The XCO data after July 2011 were obtained from ground-based high-resolution FTS measurements at Saga. The retrieved LTOCs were validated with those derived from a differential absorption lidar for O3 at Saga. The LTOCs showed a distinct seasonal variation that reached a maximum in late spring (May or June) and a local minimum in winter. In addition to the general seasonal pattern, we observed pronounced minimums in July or August. The XCO concentrations showed a maximum in spring and a minimum in summer. These seasonal patterns are consistent with those observed from mountainous sites in Japan. The origins of the air masses reaching Saga were characterized for each season according to backward trajectories, and the factors causing the temporal variations of the LTOCs and the XCO were identified based on the transport paths of the air masses. The enhancement of the LTOC relative to the XCO (ΔO3/ΔCO ratio) reveals significant positive correlations in the spring and summer seasons with slopes of 0.21 and 0.45 ppb/ppb, respectively. The effects of stratospheric air intrusion on the observed ΔO3/ΔCO ratio in spring were investigated using meteorological data (backward trajectory and potential vorticity) and column-averaged hydrogen fluoride data derived from the ground-based FTS measurements. It was found that there was little

  8. Seasonal Synechococcus and Thaumarchaeal population dynamics examined with high resolution with remote in situ instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Robidart, Julie C; Preston, Christina M; Paerl, Ryan W; Turk, Kendra A; Mosier, Annika C; Francis, Christopher A; Scholin, Christopher A; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Monterey Bay, CA is an Eastern boundary upwelling system that is nitrogen limited much of the year. In order to resolve population dynamics of microorganisms important for nutrient cycling in this region, we deployed the Environmental Sample Processor with quantitative PCR assays targeting both ribosomal RNA genes and functional genes for subclades of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) populations. Results showed a strong correlation between Thaumarchaea abundances and nitrate during the spring upwelling but not the fall sampling period. In relatively stratified fall waters, the Thaumarchaeota community reached higher numbers than in the spring, and an unexpected positive correlation with chlorophyll concentration was observed. Further, we detected drops in Synechococcus abundance that occurred on short (that is, daily) time scales. Upwelling intensity and blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton strongly influenced Synechococcus distributions in the spring and fall, revealing what appear to be the environmental limitations of Synechococcus populations in this region. Each of these findings has implications for Monterey Bay biogeochemistry. High-resolution sampling provides a better-resolved framework within which to observe changes in the plankton community. We conclude that controls on these ecosystems change on smaller scales than are routinely assessed, and that more predictable trends will be uncovered if they are evaluated within seasonal (monthly), rather than on annual or interannual scales. PMID:21975596

  9. Assessment of chlorophyll-a variations in high- and low-flow seasons in Apalachicola Bay by MODIS 250-m remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Shuisen; Yang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Elijah

    2014-12-01

    Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) is considered as a primary indicator for water quality and foods for oyster growth in Apalachicola estuarine ecosystem. Assessment of chl-a concentration variation in response to river inflow is important for estuarine environmental research and management. In this study, remote sensing analysis has been conducted to evaluate the effects of river inflow on chlorophyll concentrations in Apalachicola Bay of Florida in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. A remote sensing model for chl-a was improved and applied to map spatial distributions of chl-a by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m resolution imageries in high-flow and low-flow seasons in 2001 and 2008. Chl-a values approximately ranged from the minimum 6 μg/l to the maximum 29 μg/l in the study period. Maximum chl-a concentration in high-flow season was almost twice above that in low-flow season. The averaged mean and minimum chl-a level in the high-flow season were approximately 42 and 28 % higher than those in low-flow season, respectively. The remote sensing mapping of chl-a was able to show spatial variations of chl-a in the entire bay under different flow conditions, which indicated its advantage over the traditional field data sampling for monitoring water quality over a large area of estuary. The MODIS 250-m remote sensing regression model presented from this study can be used to support monitoring and assessment of the spatial chl-a distribution in the bay for environmental research and management in Apalachicola Bay.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Sea Surface Chlorophll Patterns of the Northern Gulf of Mexico as Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Yuan, J.; Powell, R. T.; Dagg, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The sea surface concentration of chlorophyll in the northern Gulf of Mexico was derived from satellite remote sensing for the period of July 2001 to June of 2002. High resolution (L1A data, with 1 km spatial resolution) Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensors (SeaWiFS) data were used to calculate chlorophyll with the OC4 algorithm for all the clear and partly cloudy days. The chlorophyll pattern shows strong seasonal variation. In offshore areas, a single annual phytoplankton bloom was observed with chlorophyll concentration increasing in fall and winter to reach a maximum of 0.35 mg m-3 in February, and decreasing in spring and summer to a minimum of 0.1 mg m-3 in July. In coastal regions from the Texas shelf through Mississippi Sound, phytoplankton blooms were observed in February and July. During the bloom in summer, patches of high chlorophyll surface waters were injected into offshore waters. The chlorophyll concentration decreased from ~10 mg m-3 near the mouth of the Mississippi River and on the Louisiana shelf to ~5 mg m-3 on the Texas shelf and the Mississippi Sound. The temporal and spatial distribution of the phytoplankton bloom in summer coincides with reported annual hypoxia events.

  11. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research

    PubMed Central

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H. Bart

    2015-01-01

    The study protocol, publications, full study report detailing all analyses, and participant-level dataset constitute the main documentation of methods and results for health research. However, journal publications are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. The protocol, full study report, and participant-level dataset are rarely available. The quality of information provided in study protocols and reports is variable and often incomplete. Inaccessibility of full information for the vast majority of studies wastes billions of dollars, introduces bias, and has a detrimental impact on patient care and research. To help improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. Firstly, it is important that academic institutions and funders reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Secondly, standards for the content of protocols, full study reports, and data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should implement and enforce policies supporting study registration and availability of journal publications, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. PMID:24411650

  12. [Remote sensing of seasonal variation in column concentration of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 in Hefei].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Si-Yang; Gao, Min-Guang; Xu, Liang; Jin, Ling; Li, Sheng; Tong, Jing-Jing; Wei, Xiu-Li; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2014-03-01

    In order to observe two kinds of greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, making the biggest contribution to global warming, a ground-based Fourier transform near-infrared spectral remote sensing system was developed to record the perpendicular incidence sun spectra from February 2012 to April 2013 in Hefei continuously. The measured total transmittances in the atmosphere were obtained from perpendicular incidence sun spectra. Methods of line-by-line and low-order polynomial approximation were used to model the total atmospheric transmittances in forward model. The measured transmittance spectra were fitted iteratively using the modeled transmittance spectra in the regions of CO2 6,150-6,270 and CH4 5,970-6,170 cm(-1) in order to obtain their column concentrations. The column-average dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 were obtained with the internal standard function of O2 column concentrations. CO2 and CH4 daily average values of column-average dry-air mole fractions changed with a larger fluctuation and obvious seasonal periodicity. Their monthly average values were consistent as a whole, although there were different characteristics. Compared with the results reported by Japanese greenhouse-gas satellite in the area of Waliguan, there was a time lag corresponding to peak and trough of CO2 content and the change from peak to trough costed a longtime. CHR content showed variation tendency of unique peak and trough, higher in summer and lower in winter, compared with average values of nationwide CH4 column concentrations based on SCIAMACHY data. The variation characteristics were related to complex factors such as the balance of source and sink, meteorological and climate conditions, and required long-term observation and further study.

  13. Closing the Seasonal Ocean Surface Temperature Balance in the Eastern Tropical Oceans from Remote Sensing and Model Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The Eastern tropical ocean basins are regions of significant atmosphere-ocean interaction and are important to variability across subseasonal to decadal time scales. The numerous physical processes at play in these areas strain the abilities of coupled general circulation models to accurately reproduce observed upper ocean variability. Furthermore, limitations in the observing system of important terms in the surface temperature balance (e.g., turbulent and radiative heat fluxes, advection) introduce uncertainty into the analyses of processes controlling sea surface temperature variability. This study presents recent efforts to close the surface temperature balance through estimation of the terms in the mixed layer temperature budget using state-of-the-art remotely sensed and model-reanalysis derived products. A set of twelve net heat flux estimates constructed using combinations of radiative and turbulent heat flux products - including GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-SRF, OAFlux, SeaFlux, among several others - are used with estimates of oceanic advection, entrainment, and mixed layer depth variability to investigate the seasonal variability of ocean surface temperatures. Particular emphasis is placed on how well the upper ocean temperature balance is, or is not, closed on these scales using the current generation of observational and model reanalysis products. That is, the magnitudes and spatial variability of residual imbalances are addressed. These residuals are placed into context within the current uncertainties of the surface net heat fluxes and the role of the mixed layer depth variability in scaling the impact of those uncertainties, particularly in the shallow mixed layers of the Eastern tropical ocean basins.

  14. Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System to Identify Rice Planting Season During El Nino Years: Case Study in the Pringsewu District, Province of Lampung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratri, S. D.; Kusratmoko, E.; Hardiyanti, F. S.

    2016-11-01

    Spatial Information about rice planting season (RPS) in a wide areas, particularly during periods of El Nino, is important to support an information about the availability of rice continously. Application of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) technology can support it's information continuously and accurate. In this study, we attempted to identify the rice planting season during El Nino years of 1997, 2006 and 2015 in the Pringsewu district, Lampung and we compared with meteorological drought index. Spatial information of the RPS obtained through Interpretation of multitemporal Landsat data aquired in 1997, 2006 and 2015 using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the humidity index. While standardized precipitation index (SPI) is used as a indicator of meteorological drought. This study has shown that the application of remote sensing and GIS could accurately monitor the rice planting season during the periods of El Nino in 1997, 2006 and 2015. The fallow land dominated during the El Nino years and there were no significant difference between years. While drought information based on SPI values showed different results between years of El Nino events. In this paper we also discussed the relationship between distribution of fallow land and meteorological drought in a spatial perspective.

  15. Ground and remote sensing-based measurements of leaf area index in a transitional forest and seasonal flooded forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; Machado, Nadja Gomes; Danelichen, Victor Hugo de Morais; Souza, Maísa Caldas; Vourlitis, George Louis; Nogueira, José de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity and evapotranspiration; however, it is a difficult and labor-intensive variable to measure, making its measurement impractical for large-scale and long-term studies of tropical forest structure and function. In contrast, satellite estimates of LAI have shown promise for large-scale and long-term studies, but their performance has been equivocal and the biases are not well known. We measured total, overstory, and understory LAI of an Amazon-savanna transitional forest (ASTF) over 3 years and a seasonal flooded forest (SFF) during 4 years using a light extinction method and two remote sensing methods (LAI MODIS product and the Landsat-METRIC method), with the objectives of (1) evaluating the performance of the remote sensing methods, and (2) understanding how total, overstory and understory LAI interact with micrometeorological variables. Total, overstory and understory LAI differed between both sites, with ASTF having higher LAI values than SFF, but neither site exhibited year-to-year variation in LAI despite large differences in meteorological variables. LAI values at the two sites have different patterns of correlation with micrometeorological variables. ASTF exhibited smaller seasonal variations in LAI than SFF. In contrast, SFF exhibited small changes in total LAI; however, dry season declines in overstory LAI were counteracted by understory increases in LAI. MODIS LAI correlated weakly to total LAI for SFF but not for ASTF, while METRIC LAI had no correlation to total LAI. However, MODIS LAI correlated strongly with overstory LAI for both sites, but had no correlation with understory LAI. Furthermore, LAI estimates based on canopy light extinction were correlated positively with seasonal variations in rainfall and soil water content and negatively with vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation; however, in some cases satellite-derived estimates of LAI exhibited no correlation with climate variables

  16. Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing of Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Processes in the Terrestrial High Latitudes: Relationships with Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  17. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing of seasonal freeze-thaw processes in theterrestrial high l atitudes : relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  18. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing of seasonal freeze-thaw processes in theterrestrial high l atitudes : relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  19. Land use/ cover mapping of the dry and wet season of Kikuletwa catchment using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msigwa, Anna; vangriensven, Ann; Komakech, Hans; Verbeiren, Boud

    2017-04-01

    Management of water resources has become complicated due to lack of reliable information on the water uses of different sectors. The quantification of water consumption has been concentrated to modified and cultivated areas, but often lacks a correct representation of agricultural water management practices (crop rotations, drip irrigation) while leaving out the water consumption from natural ecosystems (forest, barren land, grazed grassland and shrubland or thickets). A detailed land use map can help water resources scientists and managers to better quantify the water uses by these ecosystems. However, most of the time the hydrological seasons are not considered in developing the land use maps. The objective of this study was to develop a land use maps for the two main seasons (dry and wet season) of the semi-arid Kikuletwa catchment, Tanzania. Three Landsat 8 images of March, August and November 2016 were obtained and cloud masked. Ground truthing points and questionnaire surveys regarding cropping system were collected during the month of August 2016. Unsupervised and supervised techniques in ArcMap and ground truthing point with the aid of cropping calendar was used to classify the three images. About 20 land use/land cover classes were obtained. The dry season images seem to have higher accuracy than the wet season images having Maximum NDVI of 0.6. The results showed a clear difference of how the land is being used in the dry and wet seasons. The image obtained on March representing the wet season showed 74% of the total cultivated land is rainfed with supplemental irrigation while 60% of the cultivated land is irrigated in the dry seasons. Additionally, the results show differences in land size of the natural ecosystems like grazed grassland. The total grazed grassland for the dry month of August was 5.3% of the total catchment area while that of November was 5.1%. The change seen during the dry seasons between the month of August and November is due to

  20. Seasonal Variability of Warm Boundary Layer Cloud and Precipitation Properties in the Southern Ocean as Diagnosed from A-Train and Ship-based Remote Sensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    The extensive cloudiness and resulting high albedo of the Southern Oceans (SO) are predominantly due to the occurrence of widespread marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. Recent work finds correlations between biogenically enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and cloud droplet number concentrations derived from passive satellite data. The active remote sensors in the A-Train have created a unique and long-term record of these clouds that include vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and microwave brightness temperature from CloudSat that can be combined with solar reflectances from MODIS. We examine this data record to infer warm-topped cloud and precipitation properties. We find seasonal variations in cloud properties where summer season clouds demonstrate higher cloud droplet number concentrations on average and require higher liquid water contents to produce similar precipitation rates. We compare the properties and processes implied by the A-Train data with a unique cloud and precipitation remote sensing data set collected on board the Australian RV Investigator during March and April, 2016 during a 5-week voyage into the Southern Ocean.

  1. Measurement of seasonal and yearly aquatic macrophyte changes in a reservoir using multidate aerial photography and SPOT digital remote sensor data

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Narumalani, S.; Weatherbee, O. . Dept. of Geography); Mackey, H.E. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    Wetlands assimilate pollutants, provide flood control, and serve as breeding, nursery, and feeding grounds for fish and wildlife. Information on wetland distribution and condition are essential for their effective protection and management. Unfortunately, wetlands present challenges to effective evaluation and quantification. For example, inland wetlands are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, shrub/scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrine environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically between season, especially when non-persistent species are present. There are four alternatives for collecting aquatic macrophyte wetland information, including: (1) in situ field investigation, ideally using global positioning systems, (2) interpreting aerial photography, (3) analyzing high resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data and (4) digital analysis of satellite remote sensor data. An earlier study reviewed these alternatives in detail and provided a case study on the use of (a) multidate color and color-infrared aerial photography, and (b) a single year of SPOT remote sensor data. This study builds on the initial work by demonstrating the use of multiple season and multiple year SPOT panchromatic satellite digital data for aquatic macrophyte inventory and analysis in Par Pond on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

  2. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  3. Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.

    2010-07-01

    The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

  4. Out of Reach, Out of Mind? Infants' Comprehension of References to Hidden Inaccessible Objects.

    PubMed

    Osina, Maria A; Saylor, Megan M; Ganea, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the nature of infants' difficulty understanding references to hidden inaccessible objects. Twelve-month-old infants (N = 32) responded to the mention of objects by looking at, pointing at, or approaching them when the referents were visible or accessible, but not when they were hidden and inaccessible (Experiment I). Twelve-month-olds (N = 16) responded robustly when a container with the hidden referent was moved from a previously inaccessible position to an accessible position before the request, but failed to respond when the reverse occurred (Experiment II). This suggests that infants might be able to track the hidden object's dislocations and update its accessibility as it changes. Knowing the hidden object is currently inaccessible inhibits their responding. Older, 16-month-old (N = 17) infants' performance was not affected by object accessibility. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Closing the Seasonal Ocean Surface Temperature Balance in the Eastern Tropical Oceans from Remote Sensing and Model Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Residual forcing necessary to close the MLTB on seasonal time scales are largest in regions of strongest surface heat flux forcing. Identifying the dominant source of error - surface heat flux error, mixed layer depth estimation, ocean dynamical forcing - remains a challenge in the eastern tropical oceans where ocean processes are very active. Improved sub-surface observations are necessary to better constrain errors. 1. Mixed layer depth evolution is critical to the seasonal evolution of mixed layer temperatures. It determines the inertia of the mixed layer, and scales the sensitivity of the MLTB to errors in surface heat flux and ocean dynamical forcing. This role produces timing impacts for errors in SST prediction. 2. Errors in the MLTB are larger than the historical 10Wm-2 target accuracy. In some regions, a larger accuracy can be tolerated if the goal is to resolve the seasonal SST cycle.

  6. The role of remote versus local climatic influences in shaping seasonal to interannual rainfall isotopic variations in northern Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerman, J. W.; Cobb, K. M.; Konecky, B. L.; Noone, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    While interannual and intraseasonal variability are the dominant influences on modern rainfall water isotopes (δ18O and δD) in northern Borneo (Moerman et al., 2013), the strong resemblance between stalagmite δ18O and equatorial boreal fall insolation over the Holocene and late Pleistocene suggests that seasonal δ18O variability is an important control on Borneo stalagmite δ18O over glacial/interglacial timescales (Carolin et al., 2013). A weak, bimodal seasonal cycle of 2-3‰ exists in northern Borneo rainfall δ18O, with relative minima during winter/summer and relative maxima during spring/fall. The seasonal cycle in rainfall δ18O, however, is poorly correlated to seasonal variations in precipitation amount. As a result, the processes driving rainfall δ18O seasonality at Borneo remain unclear. To better constrain the controlling mechanisms, we compare a 7-yr-long timeseries of daily Borneo rainfall δ18O to overlapping satellite-based measurements of GOSAT and TES tropospheric water vapor δD. To investigate the role of moist processes such as evaporation, condensation, and convection, we explore the relationship between seasonal composites of water vapor δD and specific humidity in the Borneo region. We also use HYSPLIT air mass back-trajectories to differentiate local (e.g. moisture recycling, local convection/evaporation) versus regional (e.g. moisture source region, trajectory, and convective activity) controls on the seasonal isotopic composition of Borneo rainfall. Given the sensitivity of Borneo rainfall δ18O to interannual shifts in the zonal location of deep convection in the western Pacific - which drive rainfall δ18O variations of up to 6-8‰ - we perform similar investigations during the weak-to-moderate and moderate-to-strong ENSO cycles of 2006-2008 and 2009-2011 respectively. With this study, we identify the relative influence of local moist processes as well as meridional and zonal shifts in regional hydrology on past western Pacific

  7. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  8. Changes in growing season duration and productivity of northern vegetation inferred from long-term remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taejin; Ganguly, Sangram; Tømmervik, Hans; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Høgda, Kjell-Arild; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Brovkin, Victor; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and understanding climate-induced changes in the boreal and arctic vegetation is critical to aid in prognosticating their future. We used a 33 year (1982-2014) long record of satellite observations to robustly assess changes in metrics of growing season (onset: SOS, end: EOS and length: LOS) and seasonal total gross primary productivity. Particular attention was paid to evaluating the accuracy of these metrics by comparing them to multiple independent direct and indirect growing season and productivity measures. These comparisons reveal that the derived metrics capture the spatio-temporal variations and trends with acceptable significance level (generally p < 0.05). We find that LOS has lengthened by 2.60 d dec-1 (p < 0.05) due to an earlier onset of SOS (-1.61 d dec-1, p < 0.05) and a delayed EOS (0.67 d dec-1, p < 0.1) at the circumpolar scale over the past three decades. Relatively greater rates of changes in growing season were observed in Eurasia (EA) and in boreal regions than in North America (NA) and the arctic regions. However, this tendency of earlier SOS and delayed EOS was prominent only during the earlier part of the data record (1982-1999). During the later part (2000-2014), this tendency was reversed, i.e. delayed SOS and earlier EOS. As for seasonal total productivity, we find that 42.0% of northern vegetation shows a statistically significant (p < 0.1) greening trend over the last three decades. This greening translates to a 20.9% gain in productivity since 1982. In contrast, only 2.5% of northern vegetation shows browning, or a 1.2% loss of productivity. These trends in productivity were continuous through the period of record, unlike changes in growing season metrics. Similarly, we find relatively greater increasing rates of productivity in EA and in arctic regions than in NA and the boreal regions. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern

  9. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and inference of boundary layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.

    1979-01-01

    Over the ocean satellite infrared spectral measurements in the 18 micrometer water vapor band and the 11 micrometer window region were used to derive precipitable water vapor, w, in the atmosphere and the sea surface temperature, SST. Seasonal maps of w on the oceans derived from these data reveal the dynamical influence of the large scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from w when the information of SST is combined. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of the trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the intertropical convergence zones.

  10. Seasonal trends in atrial fibrillation episodes and physical activity collected daily with a remote monitoring system for cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Mattei, Eugenio; Calò, Leonardo; Curnis, Antonio; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Vaccari, Diego; Zanotto, Gabriele; Morichelli, Loredana; Rovai, Nicola; Gargaro, Alessio; Ricci, Renato Pietro

    2017-05-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) of cardiac implantable electronic devices is an ideal experimental model to evaluate long-term trends of physiological and clinical data automatically collected from large patient cohorts. We studied data of atrial fibrillation (AF) and physical activity (PA) transmitted daily during 3.5years from a subgroup of patients enrolled in the HomeGuide trial, a previously conducted study on patients routinely followed with a RM system transmitting clinical and diagnostic data daily. We selected 988 patients (80% male, mean age 68±11) implanted with a pacemaker (16%) or an implantable defibrillator and provided with atrial sensing and movement sensors. Remotely transmitted data were processed in order to obtain AF incidence and time of PA in the form of collective time series daily sampled. We found that both PA and AF incidence clearly showed seasonal trends with an annual period and inverse correlation. In a first-order autoregressive model the regression coefficient of daily activity to AF incidence was -0.64 (standard error, 0.18, p<0.0001), while the cross-correlation coefficient reached its maximum values at ±180day lags. AF incidence was 14.4% higher and PA was 14.7% lower in winters than in summers (p<0.0001 for both comparisons). Power spectral analysis revealed weekly periodicity in the PA series (corresponding to festivity rest) but not in the AF incidence. RM data collected daily from a relatively large patient cohort revealed marked seasonal trends in AF incidence and PA with opposite behavior in winters and summers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying and Modelling the Seasonality of Pantropical Forest Net Primary Production Using Field Observations and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. H.; Hérault, B.; Anderson, L. O.; Rossi, V.; Aragão, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate models predict a range of changes in the Amazonian region, including increased frequency of extreme climatic events, increased average temperatures, increased atmospheric CO2 and reduced rainfall intensity. Understanding tree growth response to climate is important because wood production is the main way carbon enters the forest ecosystem. The response of tropical tree growth to changing climate could drive a change in the direction of the flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Recently, in French Guiana, we have observed that the peak increase in biomass (early wet season), estimated by diameter growth, was not correlated with the peak in chlorophyll activity (early dry season) in French Guiana. This could reflect different timing in the use of photosynthesis products by the plant for primary growth, i.e. shoot growth and leaves production, and secondary growth, i.e. wood production. To go further, we conducted an analysis combining information on monthly tree growth measurements from 13694 trees (73 pan-tropical forest sites) and monthly litterfall measurements (81 South American sites), with their correspondent monthly climate data and satellite derived vegetation indices (MODIS EVI and NDVI), to calibrate, parameterize and validate a pan-tropical model of biomass production. Specifically, we aim to (i) analyze if there is a coherence between the biological mechanisms observed from field and from satellite measurements and (ii) determine the relative contribution of climate and environmental site characteristics on the seasonal biomass production. The results of this work will provide a novel pantropical description of the carbon cycle in tropical forest ecosystems at a seasonal time scale as a function of site and climate characteristics and will be used to quantify changes in tropical forest functioning, in terms of the responses of carbon fluxes to climate change using the CMIP5 climate scenarios.

  12. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  13. Seasonal and long-term rainfall and cloud dynamics in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region as observed from local and remote sensing time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Insa; Detsch, Florian; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Nauss, Thomas; Appelhans, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The melting glaciers of Mt. Kilimanjaro have become a synonym for global change. In contrast, the non-glaciated areas receive much less public attention. Aside from a brief examination of air-temperature, in-situ rainfall and remotely sensed cloud dynamics are analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term climate trends in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region in this study. The in-situ air-temperature is based on NOAA'S GSOD datasets, the in-situ rainfall data is obtained from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. Both datasets span from 1973 to 2013. Rainfall data was obtained from two in-situ stations at Moshi and Kilimanjaro Airport, both situated in the Kilimanjaro area, which were considered to be representative at least for the greater region after correlation analysis with in-situ station data from the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. While a temperature increase of about 0.29 K per decade can be identified, no long-term rainfall trends are observable. However, humid and dry decades are evident with so called "short" (with a peak around December) and "long" (March to May) rains. Seasonality has changed especially during the long rains between March and May. As rainfall and cloud cover were analyzed with respect of the status of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) some seasonal dynamics could be linked to these large-scale drivers. Characteristic seasonal patterns related to ENSO and IOD teleconnections show enhanced rainfall in the onset year and in the post-ENSO year for most El Niño events. During La Niña years, rainfall increases in the following year, while for the onset year scenarios must be regarded differentiated. Positive IOD events lead to enhanced rainfall amounts, highlighting the importance of IOD events in modifying ENSO related rainfall dynamics in the Kilimanjaro area Additionally, cloud dynamics have been analyzed using daily Aqua-MODIS cloud products between 2002 and 2013. In contrast to the rainfall dynamics, cloud

  14. Evaluation of seasonal water body extents in Central Asia over the past 27 years derived from medium-resolution remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Igor; Dietz, Andreas J.; Gessner, Ursula; Galayeva, Anastassiya; Myrzakhmetov, Akhan; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    In this study medium resolution remote sensing data of the AVHRR and MODIS sensors were used for derivation of inland water bodies extents over a period from 1986 till 2012 for the region of Central Asia. Daily near-infrared (NIR) spectra from the AVHRR sensor with 1.1 km spatial resolution and 8-day NIR composites from the MODIS sensor with 250 m spatial resolution for the months April, July and September were used as input data. The methodological approach uses temporal dynamic thresholds for individual data sets, which allows detection of water pixel independent from differing conditions or sensor differences. The individual results are summed up and combined to monthly composites of areal extent of water bodies. The presented water masks for the months April, July, and September were chosen to detect seasonal patterns as well as inter-annual dynamics and show diverse behaviour of static, decreasing, or dynamic water bodies in the study region. The size of the Southern Aral Sea, as the most popular example for an ecologic catastrophe, is decreasing significantly throughout all seasons (R2 0.96 for April; 0.97 for July; 0.96 for September). Same is true for shallow natural lakes in the northern Kazakhstan, exemplary the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lake system, which have been shrinking in the last two decades due to drier conditions (R2 0.91 for July; 0.90 for September). On the contrary, water reservoirs show high seasonality and are very dynamic within one year in their areal extent with maximum before growing season and minimum after growing season. Furthermore, there are water bodies such as Alakol-Sasykol lake system and natural mountainous lakes which have been stable in their areal extent throughout the entire time period. Validation was performed based on several Landsat images with 30 m resolution and reveals an overall accuracy of 83% for AVHRR and 91% for MODIS monthly water masks. The results should assist for climatological and ecological studies, land and

  15. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  16. Seasonal fluctuations of surface water levels in the Mekong River basin from satellite altimetry and other remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominh, K.; Letoan, T.; Cazenave, A.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; Lhermitte, J.

    2004-05-01

    Ten years of satellite altimetry data from the Topex/Poseidon satellite have been analysed to construct water level time series and five years of satellite SPOT Vegetation imagery have been used to monitor the flood extent over the Mekong River basin. Areas overflown by T/P include the Tonle Sap Lake, seasonaly inundated areas and several branches of the hydrographic network of the Mekong delta. Very strong seasonal signal is reported over the Tonle Sap, amplitude reaching annually 5-8 meters peak to peak. Clear interannual signal is also visible. For example year 1999 corresponds to weak floods, contrasting with year 2000 during which strong flood is noticed. Southward, we also observe large seasonal fluctuations (2-3 m) over inundated floodplains, as identified using imagery data from the SPOT Vegetation instrument. Several water level time series have also been constructed at intersections of T/P tracks and waterways of the Mekong Delta. Depending on the location, quite different annual amplitudes are observed, the closer to the Mekong mouth, the smaller the signal. We interpret this observation as the effect of dams built over the Delta in the recent years/decades. We also analysed the interannual water level signal together with precipitations over the whole Mekong basin.

  17. Seasonal thickness changes of Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard and implications for satellite remote sensing, ecosystem, and environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerland, S.; Rösel, A.; King, J.; Spreen, G.; Divine, D.; Eltoft, T.; Gallet, J. C.; Hudson, S. R.; Itkin, P.; Krumpen, T.; Liston, G. E.; Merkouriadi, I.; Negrel, J.; Nicolaus, M.; Polashenski, C.; Assmy, P.; Barber, D. G.; Duarte, P.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Haas, C.; Hughes, N.; Johansson, M.; Meier, W.; Perovich, D. K.; Provost, C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Skourup, H.; Wagner, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Granskog, M. A.; Steen, H.

    2016-12-01

    Sea-ice thickness is a crucial parameter to consider when assessing the status of Arctic sea ice, whether for environmental management, monitoring projects, or regional or pan-arctic assessments. Modern satellite remote sensing techniques allow us to monitor ice extent and to estimate sea-ice thickness changes; but accurate quantifications of sea-ice thickness distribution rely on in situ and airborne surveys. From January to June 2015, an international expedition (N-ICE2015) took place in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard, with the Norwegian research vessel RV Lance frozen into drifting sea ice. In total, four drifts, with four different floes were made during that time. Sea-ice and snow thickness measurements were conducted on all main ice types present in the region, first year ice, multiyear ice, and young ice. Measurement methods included ground and helicopter based electromagnetic surveys, drillings, hot-wire installations, snow-sonde transects, snow stakes, and ice mass balance and snow buoys. Ice thickness distributions revealed modal thicknesses in spring between 1.6 and 1.7 m, which is lower than reported for the region from comparable studies in 2009 (2.4 m) and 2011 (1.8 m). Knowledge about the ice thickness distribution in a region is crucial to the understanding of climate processes, and also relevant to other disciplines. Sea-ice thickness data collected during N-ICE2015 can also give us insights into how ice and snow thicknesses affect ecosystem processes. In this presentation, we will explore the influence of snow cover and ocean properties on ice thickness, and the role of sea-ice thickness in air-ice-ocean interactions. We will also demonstrate how information about ice thickness aids classification of different sea ice types from SAR satellite remote sensing, which has real-world applications for shipping and ice forecasting, and how sea ice thickness data contributes to climate assessments.

  18. Spatial distribution and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Azov Sea turbid waters by means of remote sensing and continuous fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprygin, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to apply continuous fluorometric and remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration (Cchl) techniques to complex turbid waters of Azov Sea and explore Cchl temporal variation and spatial pattern. Azov Sea is the shallowest sea in the world with maximum depth below 15 m. Its maximum salinity is about 14%; total suspended solids and chlorophyll-a concentrations reach 120 [tex]g m^{-3}[/tex] and 100 [tex]mg m^{-3}[/tex] respectively in Taganrog Bay, daily production varies up to 3.5 [tex]gC_{org} m^{-3}[/tex]. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were measured in 2008-2010 year-round spectrophotometrically, 446 water samples were taken to calibrate fluorometerical and remote sensing data. The highest recorded concentration was 149.3, the lowest - 0.3 [tex]mg m^{-3}[/tex]. Continuous-flow fluorometer was applied in the course of 3 expeditions to Taganrog Bay to measure chlorophyll-a fluorescence (Fchl) each 30 meters along the ship path. Two-cuvette fluorometer was used to discount the influence of dissolved organic matter. Fchl measurements were calibrated and Cchl profiles derieved to estimate Cchl spatial heterogeneity in close scale. Fchl measurements were also made during moorings each 6 seconds to estimate temporal Cchl variability. Recently published algorithm based on reflectance in the red and the near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions was applied to MERIS data for the remote estimation of Cchl. Taking in account fluorometric Cchl spatial heterogeneity estimation, the algorithm for culling the outliers in Cchl fields derived from satellite data was developed. 74 images were processed to Cchl maps and then averaged monthly. Consequently, Cchl spatial distribution and seasonal variability were studied. Spectrophotometric, flourumetric measurements and values obtained by NIR-red algorithm showed strong correlation in turbid Case II waters of Azov Sea. Fluorometric and remote measurements showed high Cchl variations in short and long terms

  19. The relationship between canopy structure, light dynamics and deciduousness in a seasonal tropical forest in Panama: A multiple scale study using remote sensing and allometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlman, Stephanie Ann

    This dissertation uses two tools, remote sensing and allometry, to quantify canopy structure, phenology and light interception on stand to landscape levels in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama. The remote sensing studies used a multiple scale approach. First relationships between spectral and physiological data were developed on a fine spatial scale. Then the interpretations were verified at a series of plots across the landscape. Finally, interpretation was applied to satellite images of the whole Panama Canal Zone. Using this approach, the applicability of the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) was tested for the first time in a tropical forest. NDVI was more strongly related to changes in the FPAR of the upper canopy than FPAR of the whole canopy profile. Both NDVI and FPAR were driven by the contrast of deciduous and non-deciduous tree crowns in the dry season. On a landscape scale, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) of remotely-sensed images quantified the percent of deciduous tree crowns in the overstory very accurately. Using the map of deciduousness developed from a Landsat image, I found high fine scale variability in deciduousness, highly deciduous patches throughout the canal zone of 4--250 ha in size, and landscape trends related to rainfall and geologic formation. Allometric relationships between stem diameter, tree height and crown size were developed for 65 species on Barro Colorado Island. Tree height was asymptotic with stem diameter, but crown radius was not, continuing to grow at large diameters. Allometric relationships through ontongeny varied among different functional groups. Gap species are taller than shade species when both functional groups were below 10 cm dbh, but have smaller crowns than shade species above 10 cm dbh. Subcanopy species are shorter with larger canopies than tall species. A simple canopy model based on these

  20. Seasonal distributions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids in the remote marine aerosols and their stable carbon isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Gettelman, A.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic Ocean satellite observations (A-train, CERES-EBAF) are combined to create a cloud and radiation climatology for the early 21st century. The climatology exposes large geographic, seasonal, and interannual variability in cloud forcing but on average, Arctic Ocean clouds warm the surface by 10 W/m2 and reduce incoming top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation by 12 W/m2. During the early 21st century, summer Arctic TOA albedo decreases can be explained by sea ice loss but are unrelated to summer cloud trends that are statistically insignificant. In contrast, both sea ice variability and cloud variability contribute to interannual variability in summer shortwave radiative fluxes. In summary, the observations show that while cloud variability influences absorbed shortwave radiation variability, there is no summer cloud trend affecting summer absorbed shortwave radiation (Kay and L'Ecuyer 2013 JGR). Implications of these findings for Arctic shortwave climate feedbacks and model evaluation are discussed.

  1. ECOMS-UDG. A User-friendly Data access Gateway to seasonal forecast datasets allowing R-based remote data access, visualization-validation, bias correction and downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Cofiño, Antonio; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Fernández, Jesús; Bedia, Joaquín; Vega, Manuel; Herrera, Sixto; Frías, María Dolores; Iturbide, Maialen; Magariño, Maria Eugenia; Manzanas, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal forecasting data from state-or-the-art forecasting systems (e.g. NCEP/CFSv2 or ECMWF/System4) can be obtained directly from the data providers, but the resulting formats, aggregations and vocabularies may not be homogeneous across datasets, requiring some post processing. Moreover, different data policies hold for the various datasets - which are freely available only in some cases - and therefore data access may not be straightforward. Thus, obtaining seasonal climate forecast data is typically a time consuming task. The ECOMS-UDG (User Data Gateway for the ECOMS initiative) has been developed building in the ​User Data Gateway (UDG, http://meteo.unican.es/udg-wiki) in order to facilitate seasonal (re)forecast data access to end users. The required variables have been downloaded from data providers and stored locally in a THREDDS data server implementing fine-grained user authorization. Thus, users can efficiently retrieve the subsets that best suits their particular research aims (typically surface variables for certain regions, periods and/or ensemble members) from a large volume of information. Moreover, an interface layer developed in R allows remote data exploration, access (including homogenization, collocation and sub-setting) and the integration of ECOMS-UDG with a number of R packages developed in the framework of ECOMS for forecast visualization, validation, bias correction and downscaling. This unique framework oriented to climate services allows users from different sectors to easily access seasonal forecasting data (typically surface variables), calibrating and/or downscaling (using upper air information from large scale predictors) this data at local level and validating the different results (using observations). The documentation delivered with the packages includes worked examples showing that the whole visualization, bias correction and/or downscaling tasks requires only a few lines of code and are fully reproducible and adaptable to

  2. Variability in frozen and thawed seasons in the terrestrial high latitudes and relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange: Characterization with spaceborne microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw and autumn freeze timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E), and the SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT scatterometer. We examine relationships between freeze/thaw timing as related to sensor, satellite overpass time, and landcover, and in relation to regional biospheric activity indicated by atmospheric CO2 measurements. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes. Timing of the primary spring thaw event determined from early evening acquisitions generally precedes that determined from early morning data acquisitions for arctic tundra and boreal forest landscapes. Grasslands in the southern margins of the pan-Arctic watershed show opposite patterns for active and passive sensors. This difference in day/night thaw

  3. Remotely sensed seasonality in the spatial distribution of sea-surface suspended particulate matter in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleveld, Marieke A.; Pasterkamp, Reinold; van der Woerd, Hendrik J.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2008-10-01

    An algorithm is presented for estimating near-surface SPM concentrations in the turbid Case 2 waters of the southern North Sea. The single band algorithm, named POWERS, was derived by parameterising Gordon's approximation of the radiative transfer model with measurements of Belgian and Dutch inherent optical properties. The algorithm was used to calculate near-surface SPM concentration from 491 SeaWiFS datasets for 2001. It was shown to be a robust algorithm for estimating SPM in the southern North Sea. Regression of annual geometric mean SPM concentration derived from remote sensing (SPM rs), against in situ (SPM is) data from 19 Dutch monitoring stations was highly significant with an r2 of 0.87. Further comparison and statistical testing against independent datasets for 2000 confirmed the consistency of this relationship. Moreover, time series of SPM rs concentrations derived from the POWERS algorithm, were shown to follow the same temporal trends as individual SPM is data recorded during 2001. Composites of annual, winter and summer SPM rs for 2001 highlight the three dominant water masses in the southern North Sea, as well as their winter-fall and spring-summer variability. The results indicate that wind induced wave action and mixing cause high surface SPM signals in winter in regions where the water column becomes well mixed, whereas in summer stratification leads to a lower SPM surface signal. The presented algorithm gives accurate near-surface SPM concentrations and could easily be adapted for other water masses and seas.

  4. The prevalence and inaccessibility of Internet references in the biomedical literature at the time of publication.

    PubMed

    Aronsky, Dominik; Madani, Sina; Carnevale, Randy J; Duda, Stephany; Feyder, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and inaccessibility of Internet references in the bibliography of biomedical publications when first released in PubMed. During a one-month observational study period (Feb 21 to Mar 21, 2006) the Internet citations from a 20% random sample of all forthcoming publications released in PubMed during the previous day were identified. Attempts to access the referenced Internet citations were completed within one day and inaccessible Internet citations were recorded. The study included 4,699 publications from 844 different journals. Among the 141,845 references there were 840 (0.6%) Internet citations. One or more Internet references were cited in 403 (8.6%) articles. From the 840 Internet references, 11.9% were already inaccessible within two days after an article's release to the public. The prevalence of Internet citations in journals included in PubMed is small (<1%); however, the inaccessibility rate at the time of publication is considered substantial. Authors, editors, and publishers need to take responsibility for providing accurate and accessible Internet references.

  5. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  6. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  7. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  8. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  9. Presence and seasonal variation of deep diving foraging odontocetes around Kauai, Hawaii using remote autonomous acoustic recorders.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc O; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were moored off the bottom in relatively deep depths (609-710 m) at five locations around the island of Kauai. Initially, the EARs had an analog-to-digital sample rate of 64 kHz with 30-s recordings every 5 min. After the second deployment the sampling rate was increased to 80 kHz in order to better record beaked whale biosonar signals. The results of the 80 kHz recording are discussed in this manuscript and are the results of three deployments over a year's period (January 2010 to January 2011). Five categories of the biosonar signal detection of deep diving odontocetes were created, short-finned pilot whales, sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and unknown dolphins. During any given day, at least one species of these deep diving odontocetes were detected. On many days, several species were detected. The biosonar signals of short-finned pilot whales were detected the most often with approximately 30% of all the signals, followed by beaked and sperm whales approximately 22% and 21% of all clicks, respectively. The seasonal patterns were not very strong except in the SW location with distinct peak in detection during the months of April-June 2010 period.

  10. Inter-seasonal surface deformations of an active rock glacier imaged with radar and lidar remote sensing; Turtmann valley, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, Andrew; Buchli, Thomas; Strozzi, Tazio; Springman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Inter-seasonal changes in surface deformation were imaged using a portable radar interferometer and terrestrial laser scanner during a series of three campaigns that took place in autumn 2011, summer 2012 and autumn 2012 on a rock glacier located in the Turtmann valley, Switzerland. Satellite radar interferometry (ERS 1 & 2, CosmoSkymed) indicate that accelerated downslope movement of the rock glacier commenced during the 1990s. Due to signal decorrelation associated with the satellite repeat pass time interval, continuous ground-based radar interferometry measurements were undertaken. Results show that the rock glacier accelerated significantly in Summer (Vmax = 6.0cm/25hrs), probably in response to the condition of the subsurface hydrology (e.g. post-peak spring snow melt and/or infiltration of rainfall). In autumn, the displacement velocity was reduced (Vmax = 2.0cm/25hrs). A one year surface difference of the glacier topography, derived from terrestrial laser scanning, provided insight into the rock glacier kinematics. Ongoing research is aimed at integrating surface displacement results with an extensive borehole monitoring system consisting of inclinometers and temperature sensors.

  11. Angular and Seasonal Variation of Spectral Surface Reflectance Ratios: Implications for the Remote Sensing of Aerosol over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Wald, A. E.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1999-01-01

    We obtain valuable information on the angular and seasonal variability of surface reflectance using a hand-held spectrometer from a light aircraft. The data is used to test a procedure that allows us to estimate visible surface reflectance from the longer wavelength 2.1 micrometer channel (mid-IR). Estimating or avoiding surface reflectance in the visible is a vital first step in most algorithms that retrieve aerosol optical thickness over land targets. The data indicate that specular reflection found when viewing targets from the forward direction can severely corrupt the relationships between the visible and 2.1 micrometer reflectance that were derived from nadir data. There is a month by month variation in the ratios between the visible and the mid-IR, weakly correlated to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). If specular reflection is not avoided, the errors resulting from estimating surface reflectance from the mid-IR exceed the acceptable limit of DELTA-rho approximately 0.01 in roughly 40% of the cases, using the current algorithm. This is reduced to 25% of the cases if specular reflection is avoided. An alternative method that uses path radiance rather than explicitly estimating visible surface reflectance results in similar errors. The two methods have different strengths and weaknesses that require further study.

  12. Land transitions from multivariate remotely sensed time series: Using seasonal trends to characterize and categorize land cover changes in Alaska over the 2001-2009 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Benoit

    The Earth is undergoing climate, environmental and land cover changes at an increasing pace. Monitoring land cover change is crucial as land transitions affects the Earth system's functioning by disrupting biogeochemical cycles such as water and carbon and influencing surface energy exchanges. Within this context, documenting changes in Alaska is paramount because the region has a large global reservoir of carbon stored in its soils and its standing biomass. Under warming scenarios of climate change, Alaska is poised to undergo changes that will turn the region from a carbon sink to a carbon source, an event potentially affecting the entire Earth's system. Remote Sensing provides remarkable datasets to study and track land transitions over large areas such as Alaska. In particular, the literature suggests that, using land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and albedo (ALB) variables that are closely related to biophysical and surface processes, provide valuable information to detect, characterize and categorize land transitions. However, there are many methodological challenges in using such data time series. First, noise affects the signal making it difficult to extract useful temporal patterns to study land transitions. Second, time series are typically short posing problems when applying existing methods from classical statistics. Third, mapping requires grouping areas into land cover change categories which is an arduous task that necessitates combining temporal information from several time series into meaningful classes while simultaneously dealing with noise and large spatial variability. This dissertation addresses these methodological challenges by conducting three independent pieces of research organized around three core chapters. All three chapters use the Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) method to extract temporal information in the form of nine seasonal trends from the NDVI, LST and ALB time series derived from the

  13. Seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a and oceanographic conditions in Sabah waters in relation to Asian monsoon--a remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hadi, Alaa; Mansor, Shattri; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Tan, C K

    2013-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of Asian monsoon on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content in Sabah waters and to identify the related oceanographic conditions that caused phytoplankton blooms at the eastern and western coasts of Sabah, Malaysia. A series of remote sensing measurements including surface Chl-a, sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomaly, wind speed, wind stress curl, and Ekman pumping were analyzed to study the oceanographic conditions that lead to large-scale nutrients enrichment in the surface layer. The results showed that the Chl-a content increased at the northwest coast from December to April due to strong northeasterly wind and coastal upwelling in Kota Kinabalu water. The southwest coast (Labuan water) maintained high concentrations throughout the year due to the effect of Padas River discharge during the rainy season and the changing direction of Baram River plume during the northeast monsoon (NEM). However, with the continuous supply of nutrients from the upwelling area, the high Chl-a batches were maintained at the offshore water off Labuan for a longer time during NEM. On the other side, the northeast coast illustrated a high Chl-a in Sandakan water during NEM, whereas the northern tip off Kudat did not show a pronounced change throughout the year. The southeast coast (Tawau water) was highly influenced by the direction of the surface water transport between the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and the prevailing surface currents. The study demonstrates the presence of seasonal phytoplankton blooms in Sabah waters which will aid in forecasting the possible biological response and could further assist in marine resource managements.

  14. Seasonal change detection of riparian zones with remote sensing images and genetic programming in a semi-arid watershed.

    PubMed

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Jiahong

    2009-02-01

    Riparian zones are deemed significant due to their interception capability of non-point source impacts and the maintenance of ecosystem integrity region wide. To improve classification and change detection of riparian buffers, this paper developed an evolutionary computational, supervised classification method--the RIparian Classification Algorithm (RICAL)--to conduct the seasonal change detection of riparian zones in a vast semi-arid watershed, South Texas. RICAL uniquely demonstrates an integrative effort to incorporate both vegetation indices and soil moisture images derived from LANDSAT 5 TM and RADARSAT-1 satellite images, respectively. First, an estimation of soil moisture based on RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images was conducted via the first-stage genetic programming (GP) practice. Second, for the statistical analyses and image classification, eight vegetation indices were prepared based on reflectance factors that were calculated as the response of the instrument on LANDSAT. These spectral vegetation indices were then independently used for discriminate analysis along with soil moisture images to classify the riparian zones via the second-stage GP practice. The practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the Choke Canyon Reservoir Watershed (CCRW), South Texas, which is mostly agricultural and range land in a semi-arid coastal environment. To enhance the application potential, a combination of Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and maximum likelihood supervised classification was also performed for spectral discrimination and classification of riparian varieties comparatively. Research findings show that the RICAL algorithm may yield around 90% accuracy based on the unseen ground data. But using different vegetation indices would not significantly improve the final quality of the spectral discrimination and classification. Such practices may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies

  15. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques for identifying influence of seasonal flashfloods on El-Qaa plain, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nahry, A. H.; Saleh, A. M.

    2005-10-01

    El-Qaa plain lies in the southern part of Sinai Peninsula extending along the Gulf of Suez. It occupies an area of about 3300 km2. El-Qaa plain is suffering from seasonal flashflood that can roll boulders, tear out trees, destroy local people buildings, and scour out new channels. Flashfloods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship and economic loss. Terrain units of ElQaa plain were interpreted by draping satellite ETM+ image over Digital Terrain Model (DTM).These units could be categorized into sand sheet, outwash plain, inter-ridged sand flat, wadi bottom, wadi outlet, dry valley, delta,dry &wet sabkhas, ridge, rocky hill, cuesta, peniplain, rockoutcrop, footslope, bajada & alluvial fans, inclined lime stone, marine spits & heads and water bodies. On the other hand soils of ElQaa plain were classified into the following sub groups: Calcic Haplosalids, Gypsic Haplosalids, Lithic Haplocalcids, Lithic Torripsamments, Typic Aquisalids, Typic Haplodurids, Typic Torripsamments, and Typic Haplocalcids. Arc Hydro Model was used with the aid of DTM for deriving slope, flow direction, basins, flow length and flow accumulation. These derivations influence directly the flashflood behavior. Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to estimate soil loss in ElQaa plain using GIS spatial analyses. The minimum mean soil loss belonging to water erosion was determined by 1.23 ton\\hectare\\year, meanwhile the maximum one was estimated by 5.08 ton\\hectare\\year. Alternative management and potential cropping system was suggested to adequate conservation measures in farm planning system of ElQaa plain. These measures could be grouped under 1-Selection of appropriate landuse. 2-Maintaining organic matter. 3-Reducing tillage. 4-Using zero tillage or direct seeding. 5-Growing forages and using crop rotations.

  16. Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis

  17. Molecular distribution, seasonal variation, chemical transformation and sources of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols at remote marine Gosan site, Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    : A homologous series of C2-C12 α, ω-dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected in atmospheric aerosols collected between April 2003 and April 2004 from remote marine Gosan site (33°29‧ N, 126°16‧ E) located in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were determined using a GC-FID and GC/MS. Total diacid concentration ranged from 130 to 1911 ng m-3 (av. 642 ng m-3), whereas total oxoacid concentration ranged from 7 to 155 ng m-3 (av. 43 ng m-3), and pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls ranged from 0.5 to 15 ng m-3 (av. 5 ng m-3) and 2-108 ng m-3 (av. 17.3 ng m-3), respectively. Oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant in all seasons followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid, and phthalic (Ph) acid. The concentration of diacids decreased with an increase in carbon number except for azelaic (C9) acid, which was more abundant than suberic (C8) acid. Glyoxylic acid was predominant ω-oxoacid contributing to 92% of total ω-oxoacid. Total diacids, oxoacids and dicarbonyls showed maximum concentrations in spring and occasionally in winter, while minimum concentrations were observed in summer. Air mass trajectory analysis suggests that either spring or winter maxima can be explained by strong continental outflow associated with cold front passages, while summer minima are associated with warm southerly flows, which transport clean marine air from low latitudes to Jeju Island. The comparison between total diacid concentration level of this study and other study results of urban and remote sites of East Asia reveals that Gosan site is more heavily influenced by the continental outflow from China. The seasonal variation of malonic/succinic (C3/C4), malic/succinic (hC4/C4), fumaric/maleic (F/M), oxalic/pyruvic (C2/Py) and oxalic/Glyoxal (C2/Gly) ratios showed maxima in summer due to an enhanced photo-production and degradation of diacids and related compounds. Throughout all seasons C3/C4 ratio at Gosan site, located

  18. Electrophile-integrating Smiles rearrangement provides previously inaccessible C4'-O-alkyl heptamethine cyanine fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Nani, Roger R; Shaum, James B; Gorka, Alexander P; Schnermann, Martin J

    2015-01-16

    New synthetic methods to rapidly access useful fluorophores are needed to advance modern molecular imaging techniques. A new variant of the classical Smiles rearrangement is reported that enables the efficient synthesis of previously inaccessible C4'-O-alkyl heptamethine cyanines. The key reaction involves N- to O-transposition with selective electrophile incorporation on nitrogen. A representative fluorophore exhibits excellent resistance to thiol nucleophiles, undergoes productive bioconjugation, and can be used in near-IR fluorescence imaging applications.

  19. Seasonal behavior of PM2.5 deliquescence, crystallization, and hygroscopic growth in the Po Valley (Milan): Implications for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Casati, Marco; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Ferrero, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols deliquescence and crystallization relative humidity (DRH and CRH) are rarely measured compared to the worldwide number of hygroscopicity measurements; this feature comes from the lack of an efficient method able to capture the whole complexity of chemical composition of aerosols. Despite this, the knowledge of both DRH and CRH are crucial for a correct parameterization of the aerosol hygroscopic growth used in different applications, among which the remote sensing is very important. In this paper, a newly developed technique (direct current conductance method) was applied in an aerosol chamber to Milan PM2.5 samples, to identify aerosol DRH and CRH both during winter and summer. These results were compared with those independently obtained by gravimetric measurements conducted in the chamber using a microbalance. Microbalance data allowed also the determination of the mass hygroscopic growth factor on the collected PM2.5 samples. Results evidenced first a good agreement between the two methods (RMSE = 2.7% and 2.3% for DRH and CRH, respectively). Collected data evidenced the hysteresis behavior of ambient particles and variability in both DRH and CRH between the two seasons. Summer samples showed higher DRH and CRH (on average 71.4 ± 1.0% RH and 62.6 ± 1.2% RH, respectively) than the winter ones (on average 55.2 ± 0.7% RH and 46.9 ± 0.6% RH). This behavior was related to the higher content of sulfates during the summer season. Conversely, the mass hygroscopic growth factor at 90% RH was higher for winter samples (2.76 ± 0.06) with respect to the summer ones (1.91 ± 0.11). Since hysteresis behavior affects optical properties of aerosols, when RH conditions are within the loop, the hygroscopic growth factor could be assigned in a wrong way. Thus, the growth factor was calculated within the hysteresis loop for both upper and lower branches: results showed that difference in hygroscopic growth factor could reach up the 24%.

  20. Rats use hippocampus to recognize positions of objects located in an inaccessible space.

    PubMed

    Levcik, D; Nekovarova, T; Stuchlik, A; Klement, D

    2013-02-01

    Rat hippocampus plays a crucial role in many spatial tasks, including recognition of position of objects, which can be approached and explored. Whether hippocampus is also necessary for recognizing positions of objects located in an inaccessible part of the environment remains unclear. To address this question, we conditioned rats to press a lever when an object displayed on a distant computer screen was in a particular position ("reward position") and not to press the lever when the object was in other positions ("nonreward positions"). After the rats had reached an asymptotic performance, the role of the dorsal hippocampus was assessed by blocking its activity with muscimol. The rats without functional dorsal hippocampus did not discriminate the reward position from the nonreward positions. Then the same rats were trained to discriminate light and dark conditions. The hippocampal inactivation did not disrupt the ability to discriminate these two conditions. It indicated that the inactivation itself had no major effect on the operant behavior and its control by visual stimuli. We conclude that rats use dorsal hippocampus for recognizing positions of objects located in an inaccessible part of the environment.

  1. Discrimination of wetland vegetation using close-range remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarey, Deborah Marie

    The protection and conservation of sensitive environmental habitats has, in recent years, focused public attention on wetland ecosystems. Traditional methods of wetland assessment have been augmented through the use of remote sensing technologies. Remote sensing offers acquisition of copious amounts of data in short periods of time over land areas that might otherwise be inaccessible. The problem, however, from a remote sensing standpoint is that verification of wetland composition relies on accurate ground truth inventories. The establishment of a library containing unique spectral responses for obligates and facultative wetland plant species would provide baseline reference data for accurate assessment of wetland condition. This research focused on the spectral discrimination of five species of wetland plants that commonly coexist in temperate North American non-tidal wetlands. A specially designed wetland was constructed to closely approximate natural conditions, and was planted with monospecific stands of Typha angustifolia L., Nymphaea tuberosa Paine, Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm., Scirpus acutus Muhl., and Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Spectral data from multiple quadrats were collected through the use of a hyperspectral spectroradiometer operating at close range. The degree of similarity and difference within each monospecific stand was evaluated as was the difference and similarity among the species on each of nine dates throughout a single growing season. If identification of a unique spectral response ("signature") was possible, the degree of variation within the stand must not exceed variation among the stands. A temporal investigation compared plant life cycles and physiology to spectral responses. Patterns of spectral variation clearly reflect seasonal lifecycle changes from juvenility through senescence, but do not exhibit spectral integrity that would consistently permit discrimination. Chlorophyll assays were compared to hyperspectral response to

  2. Verification of satellite radar remote sensing based estimates of boreal and subalpine growing seasons using an ecosystem process model and surface biophysical measurement network information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmerman, R.

    2002-01-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001.

  3. Verification of satellite radar remote sensing based estimates of boreal and subalpine growing seasons using an ecosystem process model and surface biophysical measurement network information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmerman, R.

    2002-01-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001.

  4. The VSG C-terminal domain is inaccessible to antibodies on live trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Angela; Jones, Nicola; Engstler, Markus; Carrington, Mark

    2011-02-01

    In the mammalian host, the Trypanosoma brucei cell surface is covered with a densely packed protein coat of a single protein, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG is believed to shield invariant surface proteins from host antibodies but there is limited information on how far antibodies can penetrate into the VSG monolayer. Here, the VSG surface coat was probed to determine whether it acts as a barrier to binding of antibodies to the membrane proximal VSG C-terminal domain. The binding of C-terminal domain antibodies to VSG221 or VSG118 was compared with antibodies recognising the cognate whole VSGs. The C-terminal VSG domain was inaccessible to antibodies on live cells but not on fixed cells. This provides further evidence that the VSG coat acts as a barrier and protects the cell from antibodies that would otherwise bind to some of the other externally disposed proteins.

  5. Impact of inaccessible spaces on community participation of people with mobility limitations in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh

    2014-01-01

    Background The study investigated the perspective of people with mobility limitations (PWML) in Zambia, firstly of their accessibility to public buildings and spaces, and secondly of how their capacity to participate in a preferred lifestyle has been affected. Objectives Firstly to provide insight into the participation experiences of PWML in the social, cultural, economic, political and civic life areas and the relationship of these with disability in Zambia. Secondly to establish how the Zambian disability context shape the experiences of participation by PWML. Method A qualitative design was used to gather data from 75 PWML in five of the nine provinces of Zambia. Focus group discussions and personal interviews were used to examine the accessibility of the built environment and how this impacted on the whole family’s participation experiences. The nominal group technique was utilised to rank inaccessible buildings and facilities which posed barriers to opportunities in life areas and how this interfered with the whole family’s lifestyle. Results Inaccessibility of education institutions, workplaces and spaces have contributed to reduced participation with negative implications for personal, family, social and economic aspects of the lives of participants. Government buildings, service buildings, and transportation were universally identified as most important but least accessible. Conclusion Zambians with mobility limitations have been disadvantaged in accessing services and facilities provided to the public, depriving them and their dependants of full and equitable life participation because of reduced economic capacity. This study will assist in informing government of the need to improve environmental access to enable equal rights for all citizens. PMID:28729994

  6. Towards a Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Land Susceptibility to Degradation: Examining Seasonal Variation in Land Use-Land Cover for Modelling Land Degradation in a Semi-Arid Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashame, Gofamodimo; Akinyemi, Felicia

    2016-06-01

    Land degradation (LD) is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC) and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Organization of Standardization (ISO) code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22%) of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ACCESSIBLE SURROGATE TISSUES TO MONITOR MOLECULAR CHANGES IN INACCESSIBLE TARGET TISSUES FOLLOWING TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling Of Accessible Surrogate Tissues To Monitor Molecular Changes In Inaccessible Target Tissues Following Toxicant Exposure
    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology ...

  8. 16 CFR 1199.1 - Children's toys and child care articles: Phthalate-containing inaccessible component parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Children's toys and child care articles... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CHILDREN'S TOYS AND CHILD CARE ARTICLES CONTAINING PHTHALATES: GUIDANCE ON INACCESSIBLE COMPONENT PARTS § 1199.1 Children's toys and child care...

  9. SURROGATE TISSUE ANALYSIS: MONITORING TOXICANT EXPOSURE AND HEALTH STATUS OF INACCESSIBLE TISSUES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIBLE TISSUES AND CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surrogate Tissue Analysis: Monitoring Toxicant Exposure And Health Status Of Inaccessible Tissues Through The Analysis Of Accessible Tissues And Cells*
    John C. Rockett1, Michael E. Burczynski 2, Albert J. Fornace, Jr.3, Paul.C. Herrmann4, Stephen A. Krawetz5, and David J. Dix1...

  10. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ACCESSIBLE SURROGATE TISSUES TO MONITOR MOLECULAR CHANGES IN INACCESSIBLE TARGET TISSUES FOLLOWING TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling Of Accessible Surrogate Tissues To Monitor Molecular Changes In Inaccessible Target Tissues Following Toxicant Exposure
    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology ...

  11. SURROGATE TISSUE ANALYSIS: MONITORING TOXICANT EXPOSURE AND HEALTH STATUS OF INACCESSIBLE TISSUES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIBLE TISSUES AND CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surrogate Tissue Analysis: Monitoring Toxicant Exposure And Health Status Of Inaccessible Tissues Through The Analysis Of Accessible Tissues And Cells*
    John C. Rockett1, Michael E. Burczynski 2, Albert J. Fornace, Jr.3, Paul.C. Herrmann4, Stephen A. Krawetz5, and David J. Dix1...

  12. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to…

  13. High-frequency remote monitoring of large lakes with MODIS 500 m imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based remote monitoring programs of regional lake water quality largely have relied on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) owing to its long image archive, moderate spatial resolution (30 m), and wide sensitivity in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, despite some notable limitations such as temporal resolution (i.e., 16 days), data pre-processing requirements to improve data quality, and aging satellites. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Aqua/Terra platforms compensate for these shortcomings, although at the expense of spatial resolution. We developed and evaluated a remote monitoring protocol for water clarity of large lakes using MODIS 500 m data and compared MODIS utility to Landsat-based methods. MODIS images captured during May–September 2001, 2004 and 2010 were analyzed with linear regression to identify the relationship between lake water clarity and satellite-measured surface reflectance. Correlations were strong (R² = 0.72–0.94) throughout the study period; however, they were the most consistent in August, reflecting seasonally unstable lake conditions and inter-annual differences in algal productivity during the other months. The utility of MODIS data in remote water quality estimation lies in intra-annual monitoring of lake water clarity in inaccessible, large lakes, whereas Landsat is more appropriate for inter-annual, regional trend analyses of lakes ≥ 8 ha. Model accuracy is improved when ancillary variables are included to reflect seasonal lake dynamics and weather patterns that influence lake clarity. The identification of landscape-scale drivers of regional water quality is a useful way to supplement satellite-based remote monitoring programs relying on spectral data alone.

  14. Potential of ensemble tree methods for early-season prediction of winter wheat yield from short time series of remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index and in situ meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, Stien; Dong, Qinghan; Zhang, Beier; Bydekerke, Lieven; Van Orshoven, Jos

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at analyzing the potential of two ensemble tree machine learning methods-boosted regression trees and random forests-for (early) prediction of winter wheat yield from short time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices at low spatial resolution and of in situ meteorological data in combination with annual fertilization levels. The study area was the Huaibei Plain in eastern China, and all models were calibrated and validated for five separate prefectures. To this end, a cross-validation process was developed that integrates model meta-parameterization and simple forward feature selection. We found that the resulting models deliver early estimates that are accurate enough to support decision making in the agricultural sector and to allow their operational use for yield forecasting. To attain maximum prediction accuracy, incorporating predictors from the end of the growing season is, however, recommended.

  15. Changes in the Seasonal Sea-Ice Cycle and Implications for Coastal Communities in Alaska: Community-Based Observations, Remote Sensing Data and Participatory Scenarios Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Johnson, M. A.; Lee, O. A.; Kaufman, M. R.; Mueller-stoffels, M.; Lovecraft, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    While major reductions in the extent of Arctic summer sea ice have been well studied, changes in the seasonal cycle of sea ice have received less attention. Here, we discuss decadal scale changes and interannual variability in the timing of the transition seasons, spring break-up and fall freeze-up, with a focus on coastal communities in Arctic Alaska. Break-up and freeze-up determine the timing and extent of a number of human activities, ranging from ice use by Indigenous hunters to coastal shipping or resource exploration activities. The seasonal sea-ice cycle is also closely tied to the life cycle of Arctic marine organisms. Observations of ice conditions by Indigenous sea-ice experts since 2006 indicate significant interannual variability in both the character and timing of freeze-up and break-up in coastal Alaska. Based on these observations, we developed a simple algorithm to extract the timing of these events from passive microwave satellite data. Data from 1979 to 2013 show significant trends for the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, with break-up start arriving earlier by 5-9 days per decade and freeze-up start arriving earlier by 7-14 days per decade. The observed trends and the nature of changes in winter ice, including reduced stability of coastal landfast ice, allow for projections of the ice cycle's evolution in coming years. To evaluate the implications of these observed and projected changes, we draw on a participatory scenarios project focusing on sustainable healthy communities, with a broad range of experts and citizens from northern Alaska participating in a series of three workshops. Participants identified climate and sea-ice change as one of the key drivers of community health and sustainability. Analysis of workshop products and associated data indicates that linkages between sea-ice or climate change and community health and sustainability are complicated, with shifts in the seasonal ice cycle emerging as an issue of major concern.

  16. Rule-based land use/land cover classification in coastal areas using seasonal remote sensing imagery: a case study from Lianyungang City, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longgao; Li, Yingkui; Xi, Wenjia; Chen, Longqian

    2015-07-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) inventory provides an important dataset in regional planning and environmental assessment. To efficiently obtain the LULC inventory, we compared the LULC classifications based on single satellite imagery with a rule-based classification based on multi-seasonal imagery in Lianyungang City, a coastal city in China, using CBERS-02 (the 2nd China-Brazil Environmental Resource Satellites) images. The overall accuracies of the classification based on single imagery are 78.9, 82.8, and 82.0% in winter, early summer, and autumn, respectively. The rule-based classification improves the accuracy to 87.9% (kappa 0.85), suggesting that combining multi-seasonal images can considerably improve the classification accuracy over any single image-based classification. This method could also be used to analyze seasonal changes of LULC types, especially for those associated with tidal changes in coastal areas. The distribution and inventory of LULC types with an overall accuracy of 87.9% and a spatial resolution of 19.5 m can assist regional planning and environmental assessment efficiently in Lianyungang City. This rule-based classification provides a guidance to improve accuracy for coastal areas with distinct LULC temporal spectral features.

  17. Seasonal changes in the tropospheric carbon monoxide profile over the remote Southern Hemisphere evaluated using multi-model simulations and aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. A.; Wilson, S. R.; Zeng, G.; Williams, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.

    2014-11-01

    We use aircraft observations from the 1991-2000 Cape Grim Overflight Program and the 2009-2011 HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO), together with output from four chemical transport and chemistry-climate models, to better understand the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) in the remote Southern Hemisphere. Observed CO vertical gradients at Cape Grim vary from 1.6 ppbv km-1 in austral autumn to 2.2 ppbv km-1 in austral spring. CO vertical profiles from Cape Grim are remarkably consistent with those observed over the southern mid-latitudes Pacific during HIPPO, despite major differences in time periods, flight locations, and sampling strategies between the two datasets. Using multi-model simulations from the Southern Hemisphere Model Intercomparison Project (SHMIP), we find that observed CO vertical gradients in austral winter-spring are well-represented in models and can be attributed to primary CO emissions from biomass burning. In austral summer-autumn, inter-model variability in simulated gradients is much larger, and two of the four SHMIP models significantly underestimate the Cape Grim observations. Sensitivity simulations show that CO vertical gradients at this time of year are driven by long-range transport of secondary CO of biogenic origin, implying a large sensitivity of the remote Southern Hemisphere troposphere to biogenic emissions and chemistry. Inter-model variability in summer-autumn gradients can be explained by differences in both the chemical mechanisms that drive secondary production of CO from biogenic sources and the vertical transport that redistributes this CO throughout the Southern Hemisphere. This suggests that the CO vertical gradient in the remote Southern Hemisphere provides a sensitive test of the chemistry and transport processes that define the chemical state of the background atmosphere.

  18. The Dependence of Homo- and Heterogeneously Formed Cirrus Clouds on Latitude, Season and Surface-type based on a New CALIPSO Remote Sensing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    A new CALIPSO infrared retrieval method sensitive to small ice crystals has been developed to measure the temperature dependence of the layer-average number concentration N, effective diameter De and ice water content in single-layer cirrus clouds (one cloud layer in the atmospheric column) that have optical depths between 0.3 and 3.0 and cloud base temperature T < 235 K. While retrievals of low N are not accurate, mid-to-high N can be retrieved with much lower uncertainty. This enables the retrieval to estimate the dominant ice nucleation mechanism (homo- or heterogeneous, henceforth hom and het) though which the cirrus formed. Based on N, hom or het cirrus can be estimated as a function of temperature, season, latitude and surface type. The retrieved properties noted above compare favorably with spatial-temporal coincident cirrus cloud in situ measurements from SPARTICUS case studies as well as the extensive in situ cirrus data set of Krämer et al. (2009, ACP). For our cirrus cloud selection, these retrievals show a pronounced seasonal cycle in the N. Hemisphere over land north of 30°N latitude in terms of both cloud amount and microphysics, with greater cloud cover, higher N and smaller De during the winter season. We postulate that this is partially due to the seasonal cycle of deep convection that replenishes the supply of ice nuclei (IN) at cirrus levels, with hom more likely when deep convection is absent. Over oceans, heterogeneous ice nucleation appears to prevail based on the lower N and higher De observed. Due to the relatively smooth ocean surface, lower amplitude atmospheric waves at cirrus cloud levels are expected. Over land outside the tropics during winter, hom cirrus tend to occur over mountainous terrain, possibly due to lower IN concentrations and stronger, more sustained updrafts in mountain-induced waves. Over pristine Antarctica, IN concentrations are minimal and the terrain near the coast is often high and rugged, allowing hom to dominate

  19. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  20. Seasonal field experiments in support of the Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) remote sensing mission: state of the art field measurements, what we have learned and what next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, R. E.; Derksen, C.; Duguay, C. R.; Essery, R.; King, J. M.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Macelloni, G.; Nagler, T.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Rott, H.; Shi, J.; Wiesmann, A.

    2011-12-01

    Intensive season-long field campaigns to characterize snowpack evolution have been conducted in Finland and Canada throughout the winter seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The field experiments were designed to support ground based remote sensing observations from Ku and X band radar systems and to test snow water equivalent retrieval schemes for the CoReH2O mission which is presently under feasibility studies at ESA. The approach was to execute the campaigns throughout the winter, rather than performing short-lived one to two week field campaigns that sample only a portion of the seasonal snowpack evolution. In Churchill, Manitoba, experiments focused on tundra, fen and lake ice snow measurements and observations. It was found that characterization of bulk snowpack properties (e.g. snow depth, density, wetness) were easily measurable with high accuracy and a strong representativeness of local variability. Detailed variations of stratigraphic variables (e.g. grain size) that exert a high sensitivity to model retrieval estimates were more difficult to adequately characterize. In Finland, measurements focused on snow accumulation in a forest clearing and similar challenges were found with the characterization of microphysical properties in a consistent manner very difficult to achieve. Previous studies in the Alps, where snow accumulations are greater, also demonstrate that an effective method to quantify snow structure in an objective way is not easy to perform. Robust technologies are needed, therefore, that can be easily deployed to effectively characterize the microphysical properties of snow in a consistent manner for advancing radar retrieval techniques of SWE. The large experiments conducted in Europe and Canada, have highlighted these issues and have provided test-bed environments for several emerging technologies that will enable the retrieval science to develop in a robust manner.

  1. Seasonal changes in the tropospheric carbon monoxide profile over the remote Southern Hemisphere evaluated using multi-model simulations and aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. A.; Wilson, S. R.; Zeng, G.; Williams, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    The combination of low anthropogenic emissions and large biogenic sources that characterizes the Southern Hemisphere (SH) leads to significant differences in atmospheric composition relative to the better studied Northern Hemisphere. This unique balance of sources poses significant challenges for global models. Carbon monoxide (CO) in particular is difficult to simulate in the SH due to the increased importance of secondary chemical production associated with the much more limited primary emissions. Here, we use aircraft observations from the 1991-2000 Cape Grim Overflight Program (CGOP) and the 2009-2011 HIAPER (High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO), together with model output from the SH Model Intercomparison Project, to elucidate the drivers of CO vertical structure in the remote SH. Observed CO vertical profiles from Cape Grim are remarkably consistent with those observed over the southern mid-latitudes Pacific 10-20 years later, despite major differences in time periods, flight locations, and sampling strategies between the two data sets. These similarities suggest the processes driving observed vertical gradients are coherent across much of the remote SH and have not changed significantly over the past 2 decades. Model ability to simulate CO profiles reflects the interplay between biogenic emission sources, the chemical mechanisms that drive CO production from these sources, and the transport that redistributes this CO throughout the SH. The four chemistry-climate and chemical transport models included in the intercomparison show large variability in their abilities to reproduce the observed CO profiles. In particular, two of the four models significantly underestimate vertical gradients in austral summer and autumn, which we find are driven by long-range transport of CO produced from oxidation of biogenic compounds. Comparisons between the models show that more complex chemical

  2. Vertical, meridional, seasonal, and local time dependence of non-LTE effects in stratospheric NO and implications for infrared remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations have been carried out on possible nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) effects previously suggested for stratospheric nitric oxide (NO) associated with the direct photochemical production of vibrationally excited NO by the processes NO2 + hv yields NO(v) + O and O + NO2 yields NO(v) + O2. The calculations, which make use of improved calculations of the NO vibrational state distribution from NO2 photolysis, are carried out as a function of altitude and latitude for a variety of seasons and local times. Non-LTE effects on the order of 30 percent for v = 1 are obtained, maximizing in the middle stratosphere over the equator. The results of the calculations suggest that incorporation of the non-LTE effect into the retrieval algorithm for NO from infrared thermal emission measuring instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will need to be done carefully if correct distributions and variations of NO with altitude, latitude, season, and local time are to be obtained.

  3. Electrophile-Integrating Smiles Rearrangement Provides Previously Inaccessible C4′-O-Alkyl Heptamethine Cyanine Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    New synthetic methods to rapidly access useful fluorophores are needed to advance modern molecular imaging techniques. A new variant of the classical Smiles rearrangement is reported that enables the efficient synthesis of previously inaccessible C4′-O-alkyl heptamethine cyanines. The key reaction involves N- to O- transposition with selective electrophile incorporation on nitrogen. A representative fluorophore exhibits excellent resistance to thiol nucleophiles, undergoes productive bioconjugation, and can be used in near-IR fluorescence imaging applications. PMID:25562683

  4. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses following abdominal surgery under real-time CT-fluoroscopic guidance.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Takeda, Kan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses retrospectively under real-time computed tomographic (CT) guidance. For abdominal abscesses, 12 consecutive patients received percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Abscesses were considered inaccessible using the usual access route because they were surrounded by the liver and other organs. The maximum diameters of abscesses were 4.6-9.5 cm (mean, 6.7 +/- 1.4 cm). An 8-Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the liver parenchyma using real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance. Safety, feasibility, procedure time, and clinical utility were evaluated. Drainage catheters were placed with no complications in abscess cavities through the liver parenchyma in all patients. The mean procedure time was 18.8 +/- 9.2 min (range, 12-41 min). All abscesses were drained. They shrank immediately after catheter placement. In conclusions, this transhepatic approach under real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance is a safe, feasible, and useful technique for use of drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses.

  5. Tracking the seasonal cycle of coastal sea ice: Community-based observations and satellite remote sensing in service of societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, Hajo; Lee, Olivia A.; Johnson, Mark A.; Pulsifer, Peter; Danielsen, Finn

    2017-04-01

    Break-up and freeze-up of coastal sea ice determine the timing and extent of a number of human activities, ranging from ice use by Indigenous hunters to coastal shipping. Yet, while major reductions in the extent of Arctic summer sea ice have been well studied, changes in its seasonal cycle have received less attention. Here, we discuss decadal scale changes and interannual variability in the timing of spring break-up and fall freeze-up, with a focus on coastal communities in Arctic Alaska. Observations of ice conditions by Indigenous sea-ice experts since 2006 indicate significant interannual variability in both the character and timing of freeze-up and break-up in the region. To aid in the archival and sharing of such observations, we have developed a database for community ice observations (eloka-arctic.org/sizonet). Development of this database addressed key questions ranging from community guidance on different levels of data sharing and access to the development of protocols that may lend themselves for implementation in the context of operational programs such as Global Cryosphere Watch. The lessons learned and tools developed through this effort may help foster the emergence of common observation protocols and sharing practices across the Arctic, as explored jointly with the Greenlandic PISUNA initiative and the European INTAROS project. For the Arctic Alaska region, we developed an algorithm to extract the timing of break-up and freeze-up from passive microwave satellite data, drawing on community-based observations. Data from 1979 to 2013 show break-up start arriving earlier by 5-9 days per decade and freeze-up start arriving later by 7-14 days per decade in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. The trends towards a shorter ice season observed over the past several decades point towards a substantial change in the winter ice regime by mid-century with incipient overlap of the end of the freeze-up and start of the break-up season as defined by coastal ice users.

  6. Is the Wilkins Ice Shelf a Firn Aquifer? Spaceborne Observation of Subsurface Winter Season Liquid Meltwater Storage on the Antarctic Peninsula using Multi-Frequency Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Scambos, T.; Forster, R. R.; Long, D. G.; Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface liquid meltwater on ice shelves has been inferred to influence ice shelf stability if it induces hydrofracture and is linked to disintegration events on the Larsen B and the Wilkins ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula during the summer months. While the initial Wilkins disintegration event occurred in March of 2009, two smaller disintegration events followed in May and in July of that year. It has long been assumed meltwater refreezes soon after surface melt processes cease. Given this assumption, an earlier hypothesis for the two winter season disintegration events was hydrofracture via a brine infiltration layer. Two lines of evidence supported this hypothesis 1) early airborne radar surveys did not record a reflection from the bottom of the ice shelf, and 2) a shallow core drilled in 1972 on the Wilkins encountered liquid water at a depth of ~7 m. The salinity of the water and the temperature at the base of the core, however, were not described. The recent discovery of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Greenland ice sheet has changed perceptions on meltwater longevity at depth in firn. Evidence of Greenland's firn aquifer includes liquid meltwater encountered in shallow firn cores at 5 m depth and a lack of reflections from the base of the ice sheet in airborne surveys. Thus, previous lines of evidence suggesting brine infiltration may alternatively suggest the presence of a perennial firn aquifer. We recently demonstrated the capability for observation of Greenland's firn aquifer from space using multi-frequency active and passive microwave remote sensing. This research exploits the retrieval technique developed for Greenland to provide the first spaceborne mappings of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Wilkins. We combine L-band brightness temperature and backscatter data from the MIRAS instrument (1.4 GHz) aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission and the radar (1.3 GHZ) and radiometer(1.4 GHz) aboard NASA

  7. Analysis Seasonal and Interannual Level and Ice Fraction Variability of the Barents and the White Seas Based on Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey; Kostianoy, Andrey; Medvedev, Dmitry; Svetlana, Khlebnikova; Sirota, Alexander; Oleg, Zilberstein; Sergey, Popov; Olga, Tikhonova

    At present time, the importantly of sea level and ice fraction variability information is obvious because of perspective development Arctic seas continental shelf of resources has begun. Investigation of sea level seasonal and interannual variability are based on satellite altimetry data in the Barents and the White Seas. As opposed to traditionally using global tide model on satellite altimetry data processing in our work we employed result of tide regional hydrodynamic simulation because tides have main contribution on sea level fluctuation. So the range of seasonal variability for Prirazlomnoe and Shtokmanovskoe shelf deposits according to our calculation makes 18 and 12 cm. Sea level interannual trend for Shtokmanovskoe deposits which is located nearly centre of the Barents Sea have value -0.11±0.04 cm/yr since 1993 till 2007. It will well be coordinated with simulation results -0.12±0.05 cm/yr. In tote for Barents Sea rate of decrease is -0.021±0.007 cm/yr and for the White Sea is -0.17±0.03 cm/yr In this research the satellite altimetry data of mission ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, GEOSAT, GFO-1, TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 of the ISADB, RADS and ALTICORE Project and results of calculations on regional tidal model were used. This model was developed in the Laboratory of Sea Applied Research of the Hydrometeorological Research Center. Temperature data (GHRSST) was used to sea ice fraction and sea ice edge position variability for time interval 1985-2007. For this time total ice area of the Barents Sea have rate of decrease -10.3±2.4 103 km2 /yr. According to satellite altimetry data sea ice edge position are moving to rate 19.2±7.4 km/yr along track satellite ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT. This study was supported by the INTAS Project "ALTImetry for Coastal REgions" (ALTICORE) and by the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (06-05-64871)

  8. Mapping Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems in the Peruvian Amazon: a Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmerman, R.; Horna, V.

    2012-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are prevalent in the Amazon basin, especially in northern Peru. Of specific interest are palm swamp wetlands because they are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. This combination of constantly saturated soils and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, it is critical to develop methods to quantify their spatial extent and inundation state in order to assess their carbon dynamics. Spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We developed a remote sensing methodology using multi-sensor remote sensing data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM, and Landsat to derive maps at 100 meter resolution of palm swamp extent and inundation based on ground data collections; and combined active and passive microwave data from AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to derive inundation extent at 25 kilometer resolution on a weekly basis. We then compared information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products relative to the high-resolution datasets. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets allowed for characterization of palm swamps and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken partly within the framework of the JAXA ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data have been provided by JAXA. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  9. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  10. Low power reactor for remote applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, K.L.; Palmer, R.G.; Kirchner, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    A compact, low power reactor is being designed to provide electric power for remote, unattended applications. Because of the high fuel and maintenance costs for conventional power sources such as diesel generators, a reactor power supply appears especially attractive for remote and inaccessible locations. Operating at a thermal power level of 135 kWt, the power supply achieves a gross electrical output of 25 kWe from an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine. By intentional selection of design features stressing inherent safety, operation in an unattended mode is possible with minimal risk to the environment. Reliability is achieved through the use of components representing existing, proven technology. Low enrichment uranium particle fuel, in graphite core blocks, cooled by heat pipes coupled to an ORC converter insures long-term, virtually maintenance free, operation of this reactor for remote applications. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Considering Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the traditional way that the four seasons are taught is culturally biased and does not reflect the actual seasons in many parts of the United States and other nations. Suggests that early childhood programs should take into account the diversity of seasonal transitions. (MDM)

  12. The remotely piloted vehicle as an earth science research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean S.; Bufton, Jack L.

    1991-01-01

    A brief study was conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center to identify existing remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) capabilities and to determine if the use of an RPV was advantageous and practical for Earth science investigations. A total of 17 instrument systems were identified. It was found that RPV's were considered especially valuable for dangerous missions, e.g., flights through volcano plumes and hurricanes, long duration profiles over inaccessible regions such as the Antarctic, and very low altitude ocean profiling missions.

  13. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  14. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  15. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks Stabilize Solution-Inaccessible Cobalt Catalysts for Highly Efficient Broad-Scope Organic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Manna, Kuntal; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-03-09

    New and active earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed to replace precious metal-based catalysts for sustainable production of commodity and fine chemicals. We report here the design of highly robust, active, and reusable cobalt-bipyridine- and cobalt-phenanthroline-based metal-organic framework (MOF) catalysts for alkene hydrogenation and hydroboration, aldehyde/ketone hydroboration, and arene C-H borylation. In alkene hydrogenation, the MOF catalysts tolerated a variety of functional groups and displayed unprecedentedly high turnover numbers of ∼2.5 × 10(6) and turnover frequencies of ∼1.1 × 10(5) h(-1). Structural, computational, and spectroscopic studies show that site isolation of the highly reactive (bpy)Co(THF)2 species in the MOFs prevents intermolecular deactivation and stabilizes solution-inaccessible catalysts for broad-scope organic transformations. Computational, spectroscopic, and kinetic evidence further support a hitherto unknown (bpy(•-))Co(I)(THF)2 ground state that coordinates to alkene and dihydrogen and then undergoing σ-complex-assisted metathesis to form (bpy)Co(alkyl)(H). Reductive elimination of alkane followed by alkene binding completes the catalytic cycle. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for discovering new base-metal molecular catalysts and exhibit enormous potential in sustainable chemical catalysis.

  17. Metal–Organic Frameworks Stabilize Solution-Inaccessible Cobalt Catalysts for Highly Efficient Broad-Scope Organic Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Teng; Manna, Kuntal; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-05-06

    New and active earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed to replace precious metal-based catalysts for sustainable production of commodity and fine chemicals. We report here the design of highly robust, active, and reusable cobalt-bipyridine- and cobalt-phenanthroline-based metal–organic framework (MOF) catalysts for alkene hydrogenation and hydroboration, aldehyde/ketone hydroboration, and arene C–H borylation. In alkene hydrogenation, the MOF catalysts tolerated a variety of functional groups and displayed unprecedentedly high turnover numbers of ~2.5 × 106 and turnover frequencies of ~1.1 × 105 h–1. Structural, computational, and spectroscopic studies show that site isolation of the highly reactive (bpy)Co(THF)2 species in the MOFs prevents intermolecular deactivation and stabilizes solution-inaccessible catalysts for broad-scope organic transformations. Computational, spectroscopic, and kinetic evidence further support a hitherto unknown (bpy•–)CoI(THF)2 ground state that coordinates to alkene and dihydrogen and then undergoing σ-complex-assisted metathesis to form (bpy)Co(alkyl)(H). Reductive elimination of alkane followed by alkene binding completes the catalytic cycle. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for discovering new base-metal molecular catalysts and exhibit enormous potential in sustainable chemical catalysis.

  18. The tip-of-the-tongue heuristic: How tip-of-the-tongue states confer perceptibility on inaccessible words.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Claxton, Alexander B

    2015-09-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to have previously appeared darker and clearer (Experiment 1a), and larger (Experiment 1b). They also judged an unretrieved word as more likely to be a high frequency word (Experiment 2). This was not because greater fluency or word perceptibility at encoding led to later TOT states: Increased fluency or perceptibility of a word at encoding did not increase the likelihood of a TOT state for it when its retrieval later failed; moreover, the TOT state was not diagnostic of an unretrieved word's fluency or perceptibility when it was last seen. Results instead suggest that TOT states themselves are used as a heuristic for inferring the likely characteristics of unretrieved words. During the uncertainty of retrieval failure, TOT states are a source of information on which people rely in reasoning about the likely characteristics of the unretrieved information, choosing characteristics that are consistent with greater fluency of processing.

  19. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  20. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  1. Study of the Reed Dolomite Aided by Remotely Sensed Imagery, Central White-Inyo Range, Easternmost California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W. G.; Paylor, Earnest D., II

    1996-01-01

    Remote-sensing methods are of great value in assessing the stratigraphy and geologic structure of inaccessible terrains, especially where lithologic contrasts are marked. In this report, we show that such techniques can be successfully applied to a massive carbonate unit, the Reed Dolomite, exposed in the Wacuoba Mountain, Blanco Mountain, and Mount Barcroft quadrangles of east-central California.

  2. Operant behavior can be triggered by the position of the rat relative to objects rotating on an inaccessible platform.

    PubMed

    Pastalkova, E; Kelemen, E; Bures, J

    2003-02-18

    The present study describes a task testing the ability of rats to trigger operant behavior by their relative spatial position to inaccessible rotating objects. Rats were placed in a Skinner box with a transparent front wall through which they could observe one or two adjacent objects fixed on a slowly rotating arena (d = 1 m) surrounded by an immobile black cylinder. The direction of arena rotation was alternated at a sequence of different time intervals. Rats were reinforced for the first bar-press that was emitted when a radius separating the two adjacent objects or dividing a single object into two halves (pointing radius) entered a 60 degrees sector of its circular trajectory defined with respect to the stationary Skinner box (reward sector). Well trained rats emitted 62.1 +/- 3.6% of responses in a 60 degrees sector preceding the reward sector and in the first 30 degrees of the reward sector. Response rate increased only when the pointing radius was approaching the reward sector, regardless of the time elapsed from the last reward. In the extinction session, when no reward was delivered, rats responded during the whole passage of the pointing radius through the former reward sector and spontaneously decreased responding after the pointing radius left this area. This finding suggests that rats perceived the reward sector as a continuous single region. The same results were obtained when the Skinner box with the rat was orbiting around the immobile scene. It is concluded that rats can recognize and anticipate their position relative to movable objects.

  3. Temporary duodenal stenting as a bridge to ERCP for inaccessible papilla due to duodenal obstruction: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Dhumane, Parag; Tuszynski, Thierry; Derhy, Serge; Meduri, Alexandre; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Duodenal obstruction may prevent performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or Endoscopic ultrasonograhy-guided biliary access (EUS-BD) are alternative treatments but are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the study is to report overall technical success rate and clinical outcome with deployment of temporary fully or partially covered self-expanding duodenal stent (pc/fcSEMS) as a bridge to ERCP in case of inaccessible papilla due to duodenal strictures. Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 66 consecutive patients presenting with a duodenal stricture impeding the ability to perform an ERCP. Provisional duodenal stenting was performed as a bridge to ERCP. A second endoscopic session was performed to remove the provisional stent and to perform an ERCP. Afterward, a permanent duodenal stent was delivered if necessary. Results: Sixty-six duodenal stents (17 pcSEMS and 49 fcSEMS) were delivered with a median indwelling time of 3.15 (1 – 7) days. Two migrations occurred in the pcSEMS group, 1 of which required lower endoscopy for retrieval. No other procedure-related complications were observed. At second endoscopy a successful ERCP was performed in 56 patients (85 %); 10 patients (15 %) with endoscopic failure underwent PTBD or EUS-BD. Forty patients needed permanent duodenal stenting. Conclusions: Provisional removable covered duodenal stenting as a bridge to ERCP for duodenal obstruction is safe procedure and in most cases allows successful performance of therapeutic ERCP. This technique could be a sound option as a step up approach before referring such cases for more complex techniques such as EUS-BD or PTBD. PMID:27652301

  4. An Assessment of Remote Visual Testing System Capabilities for the Detection of Service Induced Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-09-01

    Remote visual testing is typically employed to ascertain the condition of materials in components that are inaccessible for direct examination. In the power and petrochemical industries, remote visual testing is used to assess whether service-related degradation is being manifested that, if left unchecked, may eventually impair the structural reliability of a component. Several codes and standards require that visual examinations be periodically conducted. Many of these inspections must be performed remotely due to harsh environments or design geometries of the subject components. This paper describes the attributes and limitations of remote visual testing, performance demonstration standards for camera systems, typical dimensions for service-induced cracking phenomena, and an assessment of the reliability of remote video camera systems at finding cracks. Because many forms of service-induced cracks have very small crack opening dimensions, the reliability of remote visual testing may not be adequate to ensure component integrity, given the capabilities of current camera systems and application practices.

  5. A hydrological model for the Sudd wetland using remotely sensed and ground data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondi, Federica; Georgakakos, Aris P.; Castelletti, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Modeling of wetland hydrology and quantification of water inputs and outputs are requisites to understand flooding dynamics, to determine wetland vulnerability to change, and to better inform water-related decision-making. Located in the Upper Nile river basin in South Sudan, the Sudd wetland is one of the largest floodplain swamps in the world. Its complex system is characterized by a seasonal inundation that is essential to the hydroecological functioning of the Sudd but is also the main cause for intensive water losses (nearly half of the inflow) by evaporation in the Nile river basin. The hydrologically characterization of the area is therefore key to assess and predict the water balance in the region The main difficulties in modeling the system are due to the inaccessibility of the area, to the vast extension, to the complexity of the dynamic behavior throughout the year (permanent and seasonal flooded areas), and to the political and institutional setting. This study integrated hydrologic data and remote sensing techniques to analyze the dynamics and spatial response of the wetlands. A new methodology using MODIS data and MNDWI-Modified Normalized Difference Water Index was designed to profile the area of the wetland throughout the years. In particular, the threshold for the MNDWI values was obtained using average annual land cover data and their temporal trends were analyzed to classify the different types of wetland (permanent, seasonal and non-wetland). A characterization of wetland dynamics was then achieved over the 10-years period Jan 2000-Dec 2009. In the second step of the research, other driving forces of the system were studied: new hydrological models were created for the Torrents and Sobat basins, existing river routing models were computed for the reach of Mongalla and Malakal, and estimates on precipitation and evapotranspiration rates were acquired from different projects based on remotely sensed data. All these information were then used to

  6. Remote BCDGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erastova, L. K.

    2017-07-01

    The remote BCDGs with z>0.05 from the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) are extracted. They are analogs of similar BCDGs in low-z Universe. The properties of these objects are discussed. Definitions of other physical types of active galaxies are considered and also clarified.

  7. Towards Developing Systematics for Using Periodic Studies of the Hydrothermal Manifestations as Effective Tool for Monitoring Largely 'inaccessible' Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.

    2010-12-01

    solfataric activities, the geochemical signatures of the peripheral hydrothermal systems and nearby surface water bodies change significantly. These geochemical changes can be correlated and verified with the observed volcanic activities. Ground deformation of the volcanoes will be studied through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (InSAR), while thermal infrared remote sensing will be used for monitoring thermal anomalies. The reason for choosing these remote methods over the conventional ground based on-site monitoring, is the difficulty in accessing the aforementioned volcanic centers and risk involved in carrying such instruments for frequent observations, as required for the proposed work. In fact, the idea of developing such a Systematics is because of the risk involved in ground based monitoring of these volcanoes. However, microgravity study, which is relatively easier and safer, will be done to validate the results of the remote sensing studies. The expected outcome of the proposed work will not only help in the mitigation of potential hazard of the aforementioned volcanoes, which are currently unmonitored for the reasons mentioned earlier; but will also serve as a model for monitoring remote and largely ‘inaccessible’ volcanoes elsewhere.

  8. Summary: Remote sensing soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmer, F. A.; Werner, H. D.; Waltz, F. A.

    1970-01-01

    During the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons research was conducted to investigate the relationship between remote sensing imagery and soil moisture. The research was accomplished under two completely different conditions: (1) cultivated cropland in east central South Dakota, and (2) rangeland in western South Dakota. Aerial and ground truth data are being studied and correlated in order to evaluate the moisture supply and water use. Results show that remote sensing is a feasible method for monitoring soil moisture.

  9. Evaluation of the satellite derived snow cover area - Runoff forecasting models for the inaccessible basins of western Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the existing seasonal snow cover area runoff forecasting models of the Indus, Kabul, Sutlej and Chenab basins were evaluated with the concurrent flow correlation model for the period 1975-79. In all the basins under study, correlation of concurrent flow model explained the variability in flow better than by the snow cover area runoff models. Actually, the concurrent flow correlation model explained more than 90 percent of the variability in the flow of these rivers. Compared to this model, the snow cover area runoff models explained less of the variability in flow. In the Himalayan river basins under study and at least for the period under observation, the concurrent flow correlation model provided a set of results with which to compare the estimates from the snow cover area runoff models.

  10. Evaluation of the satellite derived snow cover area - Runoff forecasting models for the inaccessible basins of western Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the existing seasonal snow cover area runoff forecasting models of the Indus, Kabul, Sutlej and Chenab basins were evaluated with the concurrent flow correlation model for the period 1975-79. In all the basins under study, correlation of concurrent flow model explained the variability in flow better than by the snow cover area runoff models. Actually, the concurrent flow correlation model explained more than 90 percent of the variability in the flow of these rivers. Compared to this model, the snow cover area runoff models explained less of the variability in flow. In the Himalayan river basins under study and at least for the period under observation, the concurrent flow correlation model provided a set of results with which to compare the estimates from the snow cover area runoff models.

  11. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  12. Measuring dynamic and kinetic information in the previously inaccessible supra-τ(c) window of nanoseconds to microseconds by solution NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ban, David; Sabo, T Michael; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan

    2013-09-26

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool that has enabled experimentalists to characterize molecular dynamics and kinetics spanning a wide range of time-scales from picoseconds to days. This review focuses on addressing the previously inaccessible supra-tc window (defined as τ(c) < supra-τ(c) < 40 μs; in which tc is the overall tumbling time of a molecule) from the perspective of local inter-nuclear vector dynamics extracted from residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and from the perspective of conformational exchange captured by relaxation dispersion measurements (RD). The goal of the first section is to present a detailed analysis of how to extract protein dynamics encoded in RDCs and how to relate this information to protein functionality within the previously inaccessible supra-τ(c) window. In the second section, the current state of the art for RD is analyzed, as well as the considerable progress toward pushing the sensitivity of RD further into the supra-τ(c) scale by up to a factor of two (motion up to 25 μs). From the data obtained with these techniques and methodology, the importance of the supra-τ(c) scale for protein function and molecular recognition is becoming increasingly clearer as the connection between motion on the supra-τ(c) scale and protein functionality from the experimental side is further strengthened with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  13. Remote Sensing of Open Water in Northern High Latitudes for use in Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J.; Maumenee, N.; Bohn, T.; Lettenmaier, D.; Bowling, L.

    2007-12-01

    In the northern high latitudes open water bodies are common landscape features, having a large influence on hydrologic processes as well as surface-atmosphere carbon exchange and associated impacts on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal character in order to improve hydrologic and ecosystem process modeling. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an effective tool for this purpose since it is particularly sensitive to surface water and it can monitor large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We employ multi-temporal L-band SAR data from the Japanese Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (JERS-1) and ALOS PALSAR to map open water bodies across Alaska and Eurasia. A supervised decision tree-based classification approach was used to generate open water maps. For Alaska, we assembled regional-scale monthly JERS-1 SAR mosaics from data acquired during 1998. Digital elevation model (DEM) terrain and slope information were also employed in the decision tree classifier. These supplementary data aided significantly in improving classification performance in topographically complex regions where radar shadowing was prevalent. For study regions in Eurasia, PALSAR data was used in conjunction with JERS-1 imagery to map spatial patterns and seasonal variability in open water characteristics over selected study basins. These results were examined in relation to regional topographic and land cover characteristics. Classification results were also evaluated relative to other open water and land cover classification maps derived from Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS and SRTM. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology; at the University of Montana; at the University of Washington; and at Purdue University under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Harvest season, high polluted season in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Jianfeng; Zhu, Tong

    2012-12-01

    East China, a major agricultural zone with a dense population, suffers from severe air pollution during June, the agricultural harvest season, every year. Crop burning emits tremendous amounts of combustion products into the atmosphere, not only rapidly degrading the local air quality but also affecting the tropospheric chemistry, threatening public health and affecting climate change. Recently, in mid-June 2012, crop fires left a thick pall of haze over East China. We evaluated the PM10, PM2.5 (particulates less than 10 and 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and BC (black carbon) emissions by analyzing detailed census data and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing images and then simulated the consequent pollution using meteorological and dispersion models. The results show that the crop fires sweeping from the south to the north are responsible for the intensive air pollution during harvest season. It is necessary for scientists and governments to pay more attention to this issue.

  15. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  16. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  17. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  18. Spatial Concentration Fields of Trace Elements and Major Ions Over a Large and Highly Inaccessible Area of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Sneed, S. B.; Handley, M. J.; Maasch, K. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Hamilton, G. S.; Carleton, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    Over-snow traverses, such as those conducted by the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE), provide the data needed at a high enough spatial and temporal resolution to form a more accurate assessment of the regional chemical and climate differences between deep core sites. This study focuses on a collection of snow pits and surface snow samples collected along the 2002/03 (ITASE-02), 2003/04 (ITASE- 03), 2006/07 (ITASE-06), and 2007/08 (ITASE-07) US ITASE traverses - total distance >5000 km. The ITASE-02 traverse started from Byrd Station, West Antarctica, and progressed southward, ultimately ending at the South Pole. The ITASE-03 traverse began at the South Pole and proceeded over the interior of East Antarctica to the Automated Geophysical Observatory number 4 (AGO4). From AGO4 the traverse traveled northward along the Transantarctic Mountain seismic sensor line, passing through the area known as Megadunes, and finishing up at Taylor Dome. The ITASE-06 traverse began at Taylor Dome and traveled in a southwesterly direction ending up approximately 300 km inland from Byrd Glacier mouth. The ITASE-07 traverse began where the ITASE-06 traverse left off, and continued in a southwesterly direction for 200 km before heading directly south and ending up at South Pole. Several snow pits were collected along the traverses and >250 surface snow samples were collected every ~20-50 km. All samples were analyzed using an ion chromatograph for their soluble major ion content (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO4). Additionally, the surface snow samples were all analyzed for their trace element content (Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Snow pit data indicate summer concentration values for most of the surface snow samples. However, the seasonality of the surface snow samples is most uncertain between AGO4 and the Megadunes. The ice sheet surface around the Megadunes area

  19. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  20. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  1. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  2. Agricultural Production Monitoring in the Sahel Using Remote Sensing: Present Possibilities and Research Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    during the agricultural season. Satellite remote sensing can contribute significantly to such a system by collecting information on crops and on...well as techniques to derive biophysical variables from remotely-sensed data. Finally, the integration of these remote - sensing techniques with crop

  3. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  5. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  6. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  7. Utilizing the Cyberforest live sound system with social media to remotely conduct woodland bird censuses in Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ueta, Mutsuyuki; Kurosawa, Reiko; Fujiwara, Akio; Kobayashi, Hill Hiroki; Nakayama, Masaya; Toko, Ayako; Nagahama, Kazuyo

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a system that streams and archives live sound from remote areas across Japan via an unmanned automatic camera. The system was used to carry out pilot bird censuses in woodland; this allowed us to examine the use of live sound transmission and the role of social media as a mediator in remote scientific monitoring. The system has been streaming sounds 8 h per day for more than five years. We demonstrated that: (1) the transmission of live sound from a remote woodland could be used effectively to monitor birds in a remote location; (2) the simultaneous involvement of several participants via Internet Relay Chat to listen to live sound transmissions could enhance the accuracy of census data collection; and (3) interactions through Twitter allowed members of the public to engage or help with the remote monitoring of birds and experience inaccessible nature through the use of novel technologies.

  8. Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.

    2016-12-01

    Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.

  9. Propagation Limitations in Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Multi-sensors and systems in remote sensing ; Radar sensing systems over land; Remote sensing techniques in oceanography; Influence of...propagation media and background; Infrared techniques in remote sensing ; Photography in remote sensing ; Analytical studies in remote sensing .

  10. Revolutionizing Remote Exploration with ANTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S.; Truszkowski, W.

    2002-05-01

    We are developing the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) architecture based on an insect colony analogue for the cost-effective, efficient, systematic survey of remote or inaccessible areas with multiple object targets, including planetary surface, marine, airborne, and space environments. The mission context is the exploration in the 2020s of the most compelling remaining targets in the solar system: main belt asteroids. Main belt asteroids harbor important clues to Solar System origins and evolution which are central to NASA's goals in Space Science. Asteroids are smaller than planets, but their number is far greater, and their combined surface area likely dwarfs the Earth's. An asteroid survey will dramatically increase our understanding of the local resources available for the Human Exploration and Development of Space. During the mission composition, shape, gravity, and orbit parameters could be returned to Earth for perhaps several thousand asteroids. A survey of this area will rival the great explorations that encircled this globe, opened up the New World, and laid the groundwork for the progress and challenges of the last centuries. The ANTS architecture for a main belt survey consists of a swarm of as many as a thousand or more highly specialized pico-spacecraft that form teams to survey as many as one hundred asteroids a month. Multi-level autonomy is critical for ANTS and the objective of the proposed study is to work through the implications and constraints this entails. ANTS couples biologically inspired autonomic control for basic functions to higher level artificial intelligence that together enable individual spacecraft to operate as specialized, cooperative, social agents. This revolutionary approach postulates highly advanced, but familiar, components integrated and operated in a way that uniquely transcends any evolutionary extrapolation of existing trends and enables thousand-spacecraft missions.

  11. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  12. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  13. Estimating seasonal evapotranspiration from temporal satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Verma, Shashi B.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) has many applications in water resources planning and management, including hydrological and ecological modeling. Availability of satellite remote sensing images is limited due to repeat cycle of satellite or cloud cover. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of different methods namely cubic spline, fixed, and linear for estimating seasonal ET from temporal remotely sensed images. Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model in conjunction with the wet METRIC (wMETRIC), a modified version of the METRIC model, was used to estimate ET on the days of satellite overpass using eight Landsat images during the 2001 crop growing season in Midwest USA. The model-estimated daily ET was in good agreement (R2 = 0.91) with the eddy covariance tower-measured daily ET. The standard error of daily ET was 0.6 mm (20%) at three validation sites in Nebraska, USA. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) among the cubic spline, fixed, and linear methods for computing seasonal (July–December) ET from temporal ET estimates. Overall, the cubic spline resulted in the lowest standard error of 6 mm (1.67%) for seasonal ET. However, further testing of this method for multiple years is necessary to determine its suitability.

  14. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  15. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  16. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  17. Glacier Facies Mapping and movement Estimation using Remote Sening Techniques: A Case Study at Samudra Tapu Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, S.; Thakur, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are directly affected by the recent trends of global warming. Himalayan glaciers are located near Tropic of Cancer this belt receives more heat thus Himalayan glaciers are more sensitive to climate change. Due to highly rugged terrain and inaccessibility of certain areas satellite obtained information can be used to monitor glaciers. Samudra Tapu glacier, used in this study, located in the Great Himalayan range of north-west Himalaya. Distinct glacier facies are visible using multi-temporal SAR datasets representing different seasons. Fully polarimetric SAR data were used to identify different glacier facies. The identified glacier facies are percolation facies, ice walls, ice facies, refreeze snow and supraglacial debris. Object oriented classification was used to map various glacier facies. Using the classified maps altitude on snow line and firn line was detected. More than 50% of the total glacier area is found as accumulation region. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique was used for glacier surface velocity estimation using European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2) tandem data. High value of coherence was obtained from the SAR return signal for one day temporal difference. A mean velocity of 24cm/day was estimated for the month of May, highest flow rate were seen in the high accumulation area of the northern branch. Spatial analysis of velocity patterns with respect to slope and aspect show that high rates of flow was found in southern slopes and movement rates generally increase with increase in slope. Feature tracking approach was used to estimate the glacier flow for long term and seasonal basis using SAR and optical datasets. The obtained results clearly suggest that glacier flow varies with season and there has been change in the rate of ice flow over the years. Mapping the extent of accumulation and ablation areas and also the rate at which the ice flows in these regions as these are important factors directly related to

  18. Original memoirs: the control of bleeding in operations for brain tumors: with the description of silver "clips" for the occlusion of vessels inaccessible to the ligature. 1911.

    PubMed

    Cushing, H

    2001-01-01

    One of the chief objects of concern in intracranial surgery should be the avoidance of any unnecessary loss of blood, for at best, in many cases of brain tumor associated with venous stasis, bleeding is likely to be so excessive as to necessitate postponement of the final steps of the procedure until a second or even a third session. The common methods of blood stilling by sponge, clamp, and ligature are largely inapplicable to intracranial surgery, particularly in the presence of bleeding from the nervous tissues themselves, and any device which serves as an aid to hemostasis in these difficult operations will bring a number of them to a safe termination at a single sitting, with less loss of blood and less damage to the brain itself. In addition to the more familiar tourniquet for the scalp, and wax for diploetic and emissary bleeding, suggestions are offered as to the use of gauze pledgets, dry sterile cotton, fragments of raw muscle and other tissues, as well as sections of organizing blood-clots for superficial meningeal bleeding, and silver "clips" for inaccessible individual points ether in dura or brain. The successful consummation of any critical operation often depends upon seeming trifles. It is, however, the scrupulous observance of surgical minutiae that makes possible the safe conduct of major intracranial performances--performances which a few years ago were attended in most cases by a veritable dance Macaber.

  19. Formulation of multifunctional oil-in-water nanosized emulsions for active and passive targeting of drugs to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of the human body.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal

    2009-10-20

    Oil-in-water (o/w) type nanosized emulsions (NE) have been widely investigated as vehicles/carrier for the formulation and delivery of drugs with a broad range of applications. A comprehensive summary is presented on how to formulate the multifunctional o/w NE for active and passive targeting of drugs to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of the human body. The NE is classified into three generations based on its development over the last couple of decades to make ultimately a better colloidal carrier for a target site within the internal and external organs/parts of the body, thus allowing site-specific drug delivery and/or enhanced drug absorption. The third generation NE has tremendous application for drug absorption enhancement and for 'ferrying' compounds across cell membranes in comparison to its first and second generation counterparts. Furthermore, the third generation NE provides an interesting opportunity for use as drug delivery vehicles for numerous therapeutics that can range in size from small molecules to macromolecules.

  20. Original memoirs: the control of bleeding in operations for brain tumors: with the description of silver "clips" for the occlusion of vessels inaccessible to the ligature. 1911.

    PubMed Central

    Cushing, H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the chief objects of concern in intracranial surgery should be the avoidance of any unnecessary loss of blood, for at best, in many cases of brain tumor associated with venous stasis, bleeding is likely to be so excessive as to necessitate postponement of the final steps of the procedure until a second or even a third session. The common methods of blood stilling by sponge, clamp, and ligature are largely inapplicable to intracranial surgery, particularly in the presence of bleeding from the nervous tissues themselves, and any device which serves as an aid to hemostasis in these difficult operations will bring a number of them to a safe termination at a single sitting, with less loss of blood and less damage to the brain itself. In addition to the more familiar tourniquet for the scalp, and wax for diploetic and emissary bleeding, suggestions are offered as to the use of gauze pledgets, dry sterile cotton, fragments of raw muscle and other tissues, as well as sections of organizing blood-clots for superficial meningeal bleeding, and silver "clips" for inaccessible individual points ether in dura or brain. The successful consummation of any critical operation often depends upon seeming trifles. It is, however, the scrupulous observance of surgical minutiae that makes possible the safe conduct of major intracranial performances--performances which a few years ago were attended in most cases by a veritable dance Macaber. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:11922187

  1. Potential Use of Remote Telesonography as a Transformational Technology in Underresourced and/or Remote Settings.

    PubMed

    Pian, Linping; Gillman, Lawrence M; McBeth, Paul B; Xiao, Zhengwen; Ball, Chad G; Blaivas, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas R; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity from traumatic injury are twofold higher in rural compared to urban areas. Furthermore, the greater the distance a patient resides from an organized trauma system, the greater the likelihood of an adverse outcome. Delay in timely diagnosis and treatment contributes to this penalty, regardless of whether the inherent barriers are geographic, cultural, or socioeconomic. Since ultrasound is noninvasive, cost-effective, and portable, it is becoming increasingly useful for remote/underresourced (R/UR) settings to avoid lengthy patient travel to relatively inaccessible medical centers. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent, technical skill, and many, if not most, front-line care providers will not have this advanced training. This is particularly true if care is being provided by out-of-hospital, "nontraditional" providers. The human exploration of space has forced the utilization of information technology (IT) to allow remote experts to guide distant untrained care providers in point-of-care ultrasound to diagnose and manage both acute and chronic illness or injuries. This paradigm potentially brings advanced diagnostic imaging to any medical interaction in a setting with internet connectivity. This paper summarizes the current literature surrounding the development of teleultrasound as a transformational technology and its application to underresourced settings.

  2. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  3. Forecasting Seasonal Water Needs Under Current and Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisni, A.; Pratizzoli, W.; Tomei, F.; Mariani, M. C.; Villani, G.; Pavan, V.; Tomozeiu, R.; Marletto, V.

    2010-12-01

    This work outlines the complex strategy being developed at ARPA-SIMC for the integrated exploitation of remote sensing, soil water modelling, seasonal forecasting and climate projections, in view of better monitoring and management of water in agriculture at the scale of the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. Remote sensing and field surveys are being used to map crops early in the season, a geographical soil water model uses the crop map together with a soil map and weather data to simulate soil water status up to the beginning of the irrigation season. Downscaled seasonal forecasts are then used to assess the summer irrigation needs. This operational framework is also used to evaluate the impacts of climate change for years 2021-2050 relative to current climate conditions. First tests on kiwifruit in the Romagna subregion show a modest increase in irrigation water demand.

  4. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  5. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  6. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  7. [Use of Remote Sensing for Crop and Soil Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.

  8. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It ... and summer. Some people do have episodes of depression that start in the spring or summer, but ...

  9. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  10. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001532.htm Seasonal affective disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs ...

  11. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  12. Development of a Method for Selecting Optimum Sites for the Automatic Mountain Meteorology Observation Station (AMOS) to Improve Predictability of Forest Fires in Inaccessible Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Won, M.; Jang, K.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    As there has been a recent increase in the case of forest fires in North Korea descending southward through the De-Militarized Zone (DMZ), ensuring proper response to such events has been a challenge. Therefore, in order to respond and manage these forest fires appropriately, an improvement in the forest fire predictability through integration of mountain weather information observed at the most optimal site is necessary. This study is a proactive case in which a spatial analysis and an on-site assessment method were developed for selecting an optimum site for a mountain weather observation in national forest. For spatial analysis, the class 1 and 2 forest fire danger areas for the past 10 years, accessibility maximum 100m, Automatic Weather Station (AWS) redundancy within 2.5km, and mountain terrains higher than 200m were analyzed. A final overlay analysis was performed to select the candidates for the field assessment. The sites selected through spatial analysis were quantitatively evaluated based on the optimal meteorological environment, forest and hiking trail accessibility, AWS redundancy, and supply of wireless communication and solar powered electricity. The sites with total score of 70 and higher were accepted as adequate. At the final selected sites, an AMOS was established, and integration of mountain and Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) weather data improved the forest fire predictability in South Korea by 10%. Given these study results, we expect that establishing an automatic mountain meteorology observation station at the optimal sites in inaccessible area and integrating mountain weather data will improve the predictability of forest fires.

  13. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  14. UAV remote sensing capability for precision agriculture, forestry and small natural reservation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, Jaroslav; Pavelka, Karel; Raeva, Paulina

    2017-04-01

    For ecologically valuable areas monitoring, precise agriculture and forestry, thematic maps or small GIS are needed. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) data can be obtained on demand in a short time with cm resolution. Data collection is environmentally friendly and low-cost from an economical point of view. This contribution is focused on using eBee drone for mapping or monitoring national natural reserve which is not opened to public and partly pure inaccessible because its moorland nature. Based on a new equipment (thermal imager, multispectral imager, NIR, NIR red-edge and VIS camera) we started new projects in precise agriculture and forestry.

  15. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  16. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  17. Modeling gypsy moth seasonality

    Treesearch

    J. A. Logan; D. R. Gray

    1991-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate seasonality is perhaps the most basic ecological requisite for insects living in temperate environments. The basic ecological importance of seasonality is enough to justify expending considerable effort to accurately model the processes involved. For insects of significant economic consequence, seasonality assumes additional importance...

  18. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  19. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  20. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  1. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-14

    detennine if the same or different patients ru·e being identified within laboratory and phrumacy records. It also ensures that there is value by...Figure 22. Percentage of Bacterial Coinfections among Laboratory -Identified Influenza Cases, DON Beneficiaries, 2012-201S influenza Seasons e...observed during the season begin and end weeks, likely due to the decreased frequency of laboratory positive cases. Figure 24. Percentage of Laboratory

  4. Digital mapping in extreme and remote environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Joel; Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Zainy, Maher; Brethes, Anais

    2017-04-01

    During the last few years, Luleå University of Technology has performed a series of research projects in remote areas with extreme climatic conditions using digital mapping technologies. The majority of past and ongoing research projects focus on the arctic regions of the Fennoscandian Shield and Greenland but also on the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in northern Iraq. Currently, we use the Midland Valley application FieldMove on iPad mini devices with ruggedized casings. As all projects have a strong focus on geological field work, harsh climatic conditions are a challenge not only for the geologists but also for the digital mapping hardware. In the arctic regions especially cold temperatures affect battery lifetime and performance of the screens. But also high temperatures are restricting digital mapping. From experience, a typical temperature range where digital mapping, using iPad tablets, is possible lies between -20 and +40 degrees. Furthermore, the remote character of field areas complicates access but also availability of electricity. By a combination of robust solar chargers and ruggedized batteries we are able to work entirely autarkical. Additionally, we are currently installing a drone system that allows us to map outcrops normally inaccessible because of safety reasons or time deficiency. The produced data will subsequently be taken into our Virtual Reality studio for interpretation and processing. There we will be able to work also with high resolution DEM data from Lidar scanning allowing us to interpret structural features such as post-glacial faults in areas that are otherwise only accessible by helicopter. By combining digital field mapping with drone technique and a Virtual Reality studio we are able to work in hardly accessible areas, improve safety during field work and increase efficiency substantially.

  5. The application of remote sensing techniques to the study of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing methods are a powerful tool for detailed geologic analysis, especially in inaccessible regions of the earth's surface. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands are shown to provide spectral information bearing on the lithologic, structural, and geochemical character of rock bodies such as ophiolites, allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of the lithologies present, their stratigraphic relationships, and geochemical character. Most remote sensing data are widely available for little or no cost, along with user-friendly software for non-specialists. In this paper we review common remote sensing systems and methods that allow for the discrimination of solid rock (lithologic) components of ophiolite complexes and their structural relationships. Ophiolites are enigmatic rock bodies which associated with most, if not all, plate collision sutures. Ophiolites are ideal for remote sensing given their widely recognized diversity of lithologic types and structural relationships. Accordingly, as a basis for demonstrating the utility of remote sensing techniques, we briefly review typical ophiolites in the Tethyan tectonic belt. As a case study, we apply integrated remote sensing studies of a well-studied example, the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, located in Balochistan, western Pakistan. On this basis, we attempt to demonstrate how remote sensing data can validate and reconcile existing information obtained from field studies. The lithologic and geochemical diversity of Muslim Bagh are representative of Tethyan ophiolites. Despite it's remote location it has been extensively mapped and characterized by structural and geochemical studies, and is virtually free of vegetative cover. Moreover, integrating the remote sensing data with 'ground truth' information thus offers the potential of an improved template for interpreting remote sensing data sets of other ophiolites for which little or no field information is available.

  6. Cross-Product Comparison of Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing Data Sets Supporting Global Mapping of Inundated Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Pinto, N.; Willacy, K.; Whitcomb, J.; Moghaddam, M.; Hess, L. L.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-12-01

    Inundated vegetation and open water bodies are common features across the landscape and exert major impacts on hydrologic processes and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Their carbon dioxide and methane emissions can have a large impact on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal variations in order to improve upon carbon balance estimates. Despite their importance in the global cycling of carbon and water and climate forecasting, they remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote sensing data for characterizing wetlands distribution and dynamics. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is particularly sensitive to surface water and to vegetation structure, and it allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are assembling a multi-year Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of global inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is comprised of (1) fine-resolution (100m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation extent, derived from L-band SAR data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR) and the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) SAR, for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions, and (2) global multi-temporal mappings of inundation extent at 25 km resolution derived from data sets from combined passive and active microwave remote sensing instruments (AMSR-E, QuikSCAT). We present a comparative analysis of the high-resolution SAR-based data sets and the coarse resolution inundation data sets for wetland ecosystems in the Amazonian tropics and the northern high latitudes of Alaska, Canada, and Eurasia. We compare information content

  7. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  8. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1985-09-12

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-along monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients. 4 figs.

  9. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russell E.

    1987-01-01

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-alone monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients.

  10. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  11. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  12. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  13. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  14. Spatial Patterns of Carbon Exchange Seasonality in Amazonian Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Saatchi, S. S.; Yang, Y.; Myneni, R.; Frankenberg, C.; Chowdhury, D.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is considered the largest CO2 flux (123±8 petagrams) and responsible for driving several ecosystem functions globally. However, estimates of magnitude and regional variations of this flux remain uncertain in humid tropical forests, particularly in Amazonia where limited ground data have caused gross assumptions about seasonality and heterogeneity of these forests. Empirical upscaling of the in situ observations or refined process-based modeling using remote sensing inputs have improved estimates of carbon exchange, but the seasonal variation of this exchange in Amazonia remains a challenge and has been the subject of recent scientific debates. Here, we used satellite observations of canopy structure, skin temperature, water content, and optical properties over 10 years (2000-2009) to quantify spatial patterns of seasonality of Amazonian forests. We found 9 pheno-regions with distinct seasonal cycles in Amazonia, among them 3 regions showing strong seasonal variations with maximized GPP in the wet season; another 3 exhibiting rising GPP in the dry season; and the remaining 3 with low seasonality. These patterns were verified by direct measurements of photosynthetic activity using florescence from GOSAT satellite. Our results suggest that water and radiation represented by canopy water content and skin temperature regulate photosynthetic activities over Amazonia that can be captured by spatial variations of Near Infrared Reflectance. Our detection of patterns of seasonality in Amazonia will improve modeling global exchange of carbon and predicting future impacts of climate change on tropical forests.

  15. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers

    Treesearch

    John A. Gamon; K. Fred Huemmrich; Christopher Y. S. Wong; Ingo Ensminger; Steven Garrity; David Y. Hollinger; Asko Noormets; Josep Peñuelas

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying “photosynthetic phenology” from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as...

  16. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  17. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  18. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  19. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  20. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  1. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  2. Aviation and the delivery of medical care in remote regions: the Lesotho HIV experience.

    PubMed

    Furin, Jennifer; Shutts, Mike; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2008-02-01

    In many regions of the world plagued by high burdens of disease, there is difficulty in accessing basic medical care. This is often due to logistical constraints and a lack of infrastructure such as roads. Medical aviation can play a major role in addressing some of these crucial issues as it allows for the rapid transport of patients, personnel, and medications to remote-and sometimes otherwise inaccessible-areas. Lesotho is a mountainous nation of 2 million people that provides a good example of medical aviation as a cornerstone in the delivery of health care. The population has a reported HIV seroprevalence of 25%, and many patients live in rural areas that are inaccessible by road. Mission Aviation Fellowship has joined forces with a medical team from the nongovernmental organization Partners In Health in an effort to launch a comprehensive program to address HIV and related problems in rural Lesotho. This medical aviation partnership has allowed for the provision of HIV prevention and treatment services to thousands of people living in the mountains. This commentary describes how medical aviation has been crucial in developing models to address complex, serious health problems in remote settings.

  3. Regional ecosystem structure and function: ecological insights from remote sensing of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Asner, Gregory P; Morton, Douglas C; Anderson, Liana O; Saatchi, Sassan S; Espírito-Santo, Fernando D B; Palace, Michael; Souza, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Ecological studies in tropical forests have long been plagued by difficulties associated with sampling the crowns of large canopy trees and large inaccessible regions, such as the Amazon basin. Recent advances in remote sensing have overcome some of these obstacles, enabling progress towards tackling difficult ecological problems. Breakthroughs have helped transform the dialog between ecology and remote sensing, generating new regional perspectives on key environmental gradients and species assemblages with ecologically relevant measures such as canopy nutrient and moisture content, crown area, leaf-level drought responses, woody tissue and surface litter abundance, phenological patterns, and land-cover transitions. Issues that we address here include forest response to altered precipitation regimes, regional disturbance and land-use patterns, invasive species and landscape carbon balance.

  4. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  5. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  6. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  7. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  8. Antarctic accumulation seasonality.

    PubMed

    Sime, Louise C; Wolff, Eric W

    2011-11-09

    The resemblance of the orbitally filtered isotope signal from the past 340 kyr in Antarctic ice cores to Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity has been used to suggest that the northern hemisphere may drive orbital-scale global climate changes. A recent Letter by Laepple et al. suggests that, contrary to this interpretation, this semblance may instead be explained by weighting the orbitally controlled Antarctic seasonal insolation cycle with a static (present-day) estimate of the seasonal cycle of accumulation. We suggest, however, that both time variability in accumulation seasonality and alternative stable seasonality can markedly alter the weighted insolation signal. This indicates that, if the last 340 kyr of Antarctic accumulation has not always looked like the estimate of precipitation and accumulation seasonality made by Laepple et al., this particular accumulation weighting explanation of the Antarctic orbital-scale isotopic signal might not be robust.

  9. Global breast cancer seasonality.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Nawaz, Hamayun; Yang, Chul-Ho; Wood, Patricia A; Hrushesky, William J M

    2010-08-01

    Human breast cancer incidence has seasonal patterns that seem to vary among global populations. The aggregate monthly frequency of breast cancer diagnosis was collected and examined for 2,921,714 breast cancer cases diagnosed across 64 global regions over spans from 2 to 53 years. Breast cancer is consistently diagnosed more often in spring and fall, both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, regardless of presumable menopausal status (50). This seasonality is increasingly more prominent as population distance from the equator increases and this latitude dependence is most pronounced among women living in rural areas. Moreover, the overall annual incidence (2005-2006), per 100,000 population, of breast cancer increased as the latitude of population residence increased. These data make it clear that human breast cancer discovery occurs non-randomly throughout each year with peaks near both equinoxes and valleys near both solstices. This stable global breast cancer seasonality has implications for better prevention, more accurate screening, earlier diagnosis, and more effective treatment. This complex latitude-dependent breast cancer seasonality is clearly related to predictable local day/night length changes which occur seasonally. Its mechanism may depend upon seasonal sunlight mediation of vitamin D and seasonal mediation of nocturnal melatonin peak level and duration.

  10. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  11. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  12. Future of remote handling

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The field of remote handling started in the late 1940's and early 1950's with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators. That field now consists of three major divisions: (1) conventional remote handling in fixed facilities with shielding windows and mechanical manipulators; (2) large area remote handling using portable equipment, electric master-slave manipulators, and television for viewing; and (3) the field of robotics which is beginning to be applied to repetitive operations on toxic and dangerous materials. All three divisions will continue to develop and evolve over the next decade.

  13. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, to ... by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. The DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing depression with a seasonal ...

  14. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J

    2006-11-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice.

  15. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  16. PMC from 2009 Season

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (AIM-CIPS) instrument for the 2009 season in the northern polar region. The North Pole (90N...

  17. 2012 Swimming Season Factsheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  18. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  19. Remote hydrogen sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.

  20. Remote Active Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernius, J. V.; Elser, D. A.; Fox, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Remote Active Spectrometer is a compact, lightweight sensor designed to demonstrate remote detection of chemical vapors. A prototype model was developed by Hughes Aircraft Company for the U.S. Army's Center For Night Vision and Electro-Optics, and the Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center. The Remote Active Spectrometer is comprised of four, frequency agile, CO2 laser transmitters (each operating at a rate of 10 hertz), optics for transmission, pointing, reception, and calibration, and detectors and electronics for information processing and recording. To provide a visual record of the scene observed a TV Sensor is integrated with the system. In this paper the Remote Active Spectrometer is described, and its performance in the field discussed.

  1. Japanese remote manipulator system

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, technicians work on the Japanese remote manipulator system. It is scheduled to fly on a 2008 mission along with the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM).

  2. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  3. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  4. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  5. Remote sensing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, H. J.; Howard, J. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The accomplishments and publications developed during the study are summarized. They illustrated a series of practical applications of remote sensing data to the urban-regional planning processes in the metropolitan Washington area.

  6. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  7. Remote Control Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Helen

    1995-01-01

    Explains how students who have difficulty remembering what they have read may be taught how to reread sections of text by suggesting to them that reading is analogous to watching a video with the remote control in hand. (TB)

  8. Remote Access Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)

  9. Remote manipulator dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, E. C.; Donges, P. K.; Garand, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simulator to generate the real time visual scenes required to perform man in the loop investigations of remote manipulator application and design concepts for the space shuttle is described. The simulated remote manipulator consists of a computed display system that uses a digital computer, the electronic scene generator, an operator's station, and associated interface hardware. A description of the capabilities of the implemented simulation is presented. The mathematical models and programs developed for the simulation are included.

  10. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  11. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  12. Remote Sensing Spinoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Delta Data Systems Inc., founded by ex-NASA engineers, used ELAS, a COSMIC-provided computer program for processing remotely sensed data as a starting point for its development of ATLAS. ATLAS is used to process satellite and aircraft data, to digitize soil topographic maps, and to generate land use maps. Among its applications are medical digital processing, food processing, and specialized services for the remote sensing community.

  13. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  14. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  15. Harvesting in seasonal environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cailin; Boyce, Mark S; Daley, Daryl J

    2005-06-01

    Most harvest theory is based on an assumption of a constant or stochastic environment, yet most populations experience some form of environmental seasonality. Assuming that a population follows logistic growth we investigate harvesting in seasonal environments, focusing on maximum annual yield (M.A.Y.) and population persistence under five commonly used harvest strategies. We show that the optimal strategy depends dramatically on the intrinsic growth rate of population and the magnitude of seasonality. The ordered effectiveness of these alternative harvest strategies is given for different combinations of intrinsic growth rate and seasonality. Also, for piecewise continuous-time harvest strategies (i.e., open/closed harvest, and pulse harvest) harvest timing is of crucial importance to annual yield. Optimal timing for harvests coincides with maximal rate of decline in the seasonally fluctuating carrying capacity. For large intrinsic growth rate and small environmental variability several strategies (i.e., constant exploitation rate, linear exploitation rate, and time-dependent harvest) are so effective that M.A.Y. is very close to maximum sustainable yield (M.S.Y.). M.A.Y. of pulse harvest can be even larger than M.S.Y. because in seasonal environments population size varies substantially during the course of the year and how it varies relative to the carrying capacity is what determines the value relative to optimal harvest rate. However, for populations with small intrinsic growth rate but subject to large seasonality none of these strategies is particularly effective with M.A.Y. much lower than M.S.Y. Finding an optimal harvest strategy for this case and to explore harvesting in populations that follow other growth models (e.g., involving predation or age structure) will be an interesting but challenging problem.

  16. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  17. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  18. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  19. Seasonality of staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Leekha, S; Diekema, D J; Perencevich, E N

    2012-10-01

    Characterization of seasonal variation of Staphylococcus aureus is important in understanding the epidemiology of, and designing preventive strategies against this highly virulent and ever-evolving pathogen. In this review, we summarize the findings of epidemiological studies that have evaluated seasonality in S. aureus colonization and infection. Although most studies published to date are methodologically weak, some seasonal variation in the occurrence of S. aureus infection appears to exist, particularly an association of warm-weather months with S. aureus skin and soft-tissue infections. We highlight the limitations of the published literature, and provide suggestions for future studies on this topic. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Modeling seasonal canopy dynamics for tropical evergreen forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Maignan, F.; Poulter, B.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Moreau, I.; Hanert, E.; Defourny, P.; Steppe, K.

    2011-12-01

    The role of seasonal phenology in tropical humid forests on canopy photosynthesis remains poorly understood and its representation in global vegetation models highly simplified, typically with no seasonal and interannual variability of canopy leaf area properties taken into account. However, recent flux tower and remote sensing studies suggest that seasonal phenology in tropical rainforests exerts a large influence over carbon and water fluxes, with feedbacks that can significantly influence climate dynamics. A more realistic description of the underlying mechanisms that drive seasonal tropical forest photosynthesis and phenology could possibly improve the correspondence of global vegetation model outputs with the wet-dry season biogeochemical patterns measured at flux tower sites. Here, we introduce a leaf phenology and radiation based canopy dynamics scheme for evergreen tropical forests in the global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE and validated this new scheme against in-situ carbon flux measurements. Two different model formulations were introduced and tested separately: the first mechanism was a radiation based seasonal change in photosynthetic capacity of the canopy, and the second mechanism consisted of a seasonal leaf litterfall module, that induces a seasonal change in photosynthetic capacity via leaf age. Modeled gross primary productivity (GPP) patterns are analyzed in detail for a flux tower site in French Guiana, in a forest where the dry season is short and where the vegetation is considered to have developed adaptive mechanisms against drought stress. By including tropical forest leaf litterfall and a subsequent light-driven leaf flush in ORCHIDEE, modeled carbon and water fluxes more accurately represented observations. The fit to GPP flux data was substantially improved and the results confirm that by modifying canopy dynamics to benefit from increased light conditions, a better representation of the seasonal carbon flux patterns is made.

  1. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

  2. Remote connector development study

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90{degree} bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90{degree} bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators.

  3. Remote sensing of biomass burning in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tucker, Compton J.; Fung, Inez Y.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for assessing the effects of biomass burning on the climate is described. This method is based on the analysis of remote sensing data for the emitted particulates. The relationship between particulates and trace gases is studied. The assessment technique is applied to the 1987 burning season in Brazil. It is noted that during the dry season there may be up to 5000 fires per day which emit 200 ton/hr CO2, 20 ton/hr CO, and 0.5 ton/hr of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  4. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  5. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  6. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  7. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Adam; Dazeley, Steve; Dobie, Doug; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, Jim; Gerling, Mark; Sumner, Matthew; Sweany, Melinda

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  8. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  9. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  10. Anthropomorphic Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1991-01-01

    Two-armed telerobot undergoing development manipulates objects with dexterity approaching that of human. Designed to be remotely operated by human. Operator wears harness with exoskeletonlike sleeves and gloves; remote manipulator follows operator's arm, hand, and finger movements and feeds back position and force information so operator has sense of manipulating object held by telerobot. Developed for use in outer space. Suited for such terrestrial uses as handling materials and maintaining equipment in hazardous environments where mechanical dexterity and nearly instantaneous feedback of sensory information needed.

  11. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  12. Assessing hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.

  13. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  14. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  15. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  16. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  17. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  18. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  19. A Season for Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  20. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  1. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  2. Remote systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.

  3. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Treesearch

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  4. Remote Inspection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

  5. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  6. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  7. Remote Inspection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

  8. Engaging Remote Computing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Derek; Douglas, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The use of a range of technologies is a feature of pedagogies used across higher education provision in the UK. The University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI) provides higher education in the most rural and remote region of the UK, so the use of technologies is at the forefront of approaches to learning and teaching. This reflective article…

  9. Active remote sensing.

    Treesearch

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey

    2006-01-01

    The development of remote sensing technologies increases the potential to support more precise, efficient, and ecologically-sensitive approaches to forest resource management. One of the primary requirements of precision forest management is accurate and detailed 3D spatial data relating to the type and condition of forest stands and characteristics of the underlying...

  10. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  11. Remote Access Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this…

  12. Geologic remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics. New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  13. Remote Services, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    The Remote Services, Inc. (RSI) case is designed as an extensible, database design and implementation project. The case is designed in two primary components: design and implementation. The design component of the case allows students to evaluate a scenario that is similar to a real-world business situation and create an appropriate design…

  14. Remote Access Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this…

  15. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  16. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  17. Evaluation of the Use of Remote Laboratories for Secondary School Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David; Newcombe, Peter; Stumpers, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experimentation is generally considered central to science-based education. Allowing students to "experience" science through various forms of carefully designed practical work, including experimentation, is often claimed to support their learning and motivate their engagement while fulfilling specific curriculum requirements. However, logistical constraints (most especially related to funding) place significant limitations on the ability of schools to provide and maintain high-quality science laboratory experiences and equipment. One potential solution that has recently been the subject of growing interest is the use of remotely accessible laboratories to either supplant, or more commonly to supplement, conventional hands-on laboratories. Remote laboratories allow students and teachers to use high-speed networks, coupled with cameras, sensors, and controllers, to carry out experiments on real physical laboratory apparatus that is located remotely from the student. Research has shown that when used appropriately this can bring a range of potential benefits, including the ability to share resources across multiple institutions, support access to facilities that would otherwise be inaccessible for cost or technical reasons, and provide augmentation of the experimental experience. Whilst there has been considerable work on evaluating the use of remote laboratories within tertiary education, consideration of their role within secondary school science education is much more limited. This paper describes trials of the use of remote laboratories within secondary schools, reporting on the student and teacher reactions to their interactions with the laboratories. The paper concludes that remote laboratories can be highly beneficial, but considerable care must be taken to ensure that their design and delivery address a number of critical issues identified in this paper.

  18. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  19. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  20. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  1. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  2. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  3. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  4. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  5. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  6. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  7. Accessing, Utilizing and Visualizing NASA Remote Sensing Data for Malaria Modeling and Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the use of NASA remote sensing data that can be used to extract environmental information for modeling malaria transmission. The authors discuss the remote sensing data from Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Earth Observing One (EO-1), Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner (SIESIP) dataset.

  8. Future of Land Remote Sensing: What is Needed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the future of land remote sensing and the new technologies needed for clear views of the Earth is shown. The contents include: 1) Viewing the Earth; 2) Multi-Imagery; 3) May Missions and Sensors; 4) What is Needed; 5) Things to Think About; 6) Global Land Remote Sensing in Landsat 7 Era; 7) Seasonality; 8) Cloud Contamination; 9) NRC Decadal Study; 10) Atmospheric Attenuation; 11) Geo-Registration; 12) Orthorectification Required; 13) Band Registration with OLI; and 14) Things to Do. A viewgraph presentation describing the future of land remote sensing and the new technologies needed for clear views of the Earth is shown. The contents include: 1) Viewing the Earth; 2) Multi-Imagery; 3) May Missions and Sensors; 4) What is Needed; 5) Things to Think About; 6) Global Land Remote Sensing in Landsat 7 Era; 7) Seasonality; 8) Cloud Contamination; 9) NRC Decadal Study; 10) Atmospheric Attenuation; 11) Geo-Registration; 12) Orthorectification Required; 13) Band Registration with OLI; and 14) Things to Do.

  9. Seasoning of aspen

    Treesearch

    Harvey H. Smith

    1947-01-01

    Aspen is now the major forest type in the Lake States, and extensive stands are reaching maturity. Increasing quantities are being cut, and much is now being put to new and more exacting uses that require better air-seasoning and kiln-drying practices. The recent favorable market for green aspen lumber appears to be falling off, and the time may soon come when...

  10. Gondwanaland's seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Short, David A.; Mengel, John G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional energy balance climate model has been used to simulate the seasonal temperature cycle on a supercontinent-sized land mass. Experiments with idealized and realistic geography indicate that the land-sea configuration in high latitudes exerts a strong influence on the magnitude of summer warming. These simulations provide significant insight into the evolution of climate during the Palaeozoic, and raise questions about the presumed pre-eminent role of carbon dioxide in explaining long-term climate change.

  11. Flu Season Starting to Peak

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162917.html Flu Season Starting to Peak More severe strain of ... 6, 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Flu season is in full swing and it's starting ...

  12. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Españ ...

  13. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis ... Asthma exacerbation Sinus infection Asthma exacerbation Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research ...

  14. Consistency of Vegetation Index Seasonality Across the Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jerome; Mottus, Matti; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  15. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  16. Remote sensing-based neural network mapping of tsunami damage in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Matthew J; Lumsdon, Parivash; Miller, David R

    2007-09-01

    In addition to the loss of human life, the tsunami event of 26 December 2004 caused extensive damage to coastal areas. The scale of the disaster was such that remote sensing may be the only way to determine its effects on the landscape. This paper presents the results of a neural network-based mapping of part of the region of Aceh, Sumatra. Before-and-after satellite imagery, combined with a novel neural network methodology, enabled a characterisation of landscape change. The neural network technique used a threshold of acceptance for identification, in combination with a bootstrapped identification method for identifying problem pixels. Map analysis allowed identification of urban areas that were inaccessible by road, and which aid agencies could therefore only reach by air or sea. The methods used provide a rapid and effective mapping ability and would be a useful tool for aid agencies, insurance underwriters and environmental monitoring.

  17. Delineating flood damage areas at Naseon City in North Korea using Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood is a devastating natural hazard in the world. It damages agriculture, industry, residence, economics, and human health. North Korea (NK) has suffered flood damage almost every year since 1995. Especially, there was serious flood at Naseon City in NK in 22nd August 2015 resulting in many people died and homeless. In order to restore the flood damage areas, delineating flood damage areas (FDAs) is necessary. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate FDAs in inaccessible regions NK. Moreover, radar RS data have been widely used for detecting FDAs. Radar RS data can offer the maximum damaged date data regardless of weather conditions. Therefore, if we use radar RS data, we can delineate FDAs more accurately. Therefore, the objective of this study is to delineate FDAs at Naseon City in NK using Sentinel 1 data. The ultimate goal is to provide basic information for restoring flood damaged areas in NK after reunification.

  18. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  19. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  20. Remote optical fiber dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, A. L.; Justus, B. L.; Falkenstein, P. L.; Miller, R. W.; Ning, H.; Altemus, R.

    2001-09-01

    Optical fibers offer a unique capability for remote monitoring of radiation in difficult-to-access and/or hazardous locations. Optical fiber sensors can be located in radiation hazardous areas and optically interrogated from a safe distance. A variety of remote optical fiber radiation dosimetry methods have been developed. All of the methods take advantage of some form of radiation-induced change in the optical properties of materials such as: radiation-induced darkening due to defect formation in glasses, luminescence from native defects or radiation-induced defects, or population of metastable charge trapping centers. Optical attenuation techniques are used to measure radiation-induced darkening in fibers. Luminescence techniques include the direct measurement of scintillation or optical excitation of radiation-induced luminescent defects. Optical fiber radiation dosimeters have also been constructed using charge trapping materials that exhibit thermoluminescence or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL).

  1. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  2. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  3. Remote surface inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

  4. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, even across species, with plasma-derived dialysate and involves nitric oxide, stromal derived factor-1α, microRNA-144, but also other, not yet identified factors. Intracardiac signal transduction involves: adenosine, bradykinin, cytokines, and chemokines, which activate specific receptors; intracellular kinases; and mitochondrial function. RIC by repeated brief inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff protects against endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury in percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting and reperfused acute myocardial infarction. RIC is safe and effective, noninvasive, easily feasible and inexpensive. PMID:25593060

  5. Internet Based Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James

    1999-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.

  6. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  7. Telemetry remote modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fully operational engineering telemetry remote module is reported that forms the basis for a decentralized telemetry system which employs small low powered modules capable of distributing the multiplexer input gates around a spacecraft. The module operates mainly as a harness reducer, allowing data to be transmitted back to a central control core for inclusion in the telemetry bit stream. Each unit is capable of accepting 32 data points in various combinations.

  8. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  9. Remotely Operated Robotic Firefighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    when explosion of ordnance becomes a threat because of fire exposure on an aircraft. Many concepts were investigated to satisfy design criteria... satisfactory . An interim review was conducted on 28 May 1987 to review FDM design, fabrication, and testing. The major components of the remote-controlled...vicinity of the runways and taxiways. (3) Primary Mission Operational Scenarios The Operational Scenarios which satisfy the Primary Mission criteria are

  10. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  11. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    the Naval Earth Map Observer (NEMO) spacecraft (Wilson and Davis, 1998, in press) in 2001 we have designed and built the Ocean PHILLS instrument. The...this shallow water environment. We imaged the entire study area on five days while other investigators collected in-water optical properties and...remote sensing images. WORK COMPLETED Five flight lines were flown on each of five days during the CoBOP study. The lines run at an angle of 83o

  12. Remote Attitude Measurement Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Engineering , New Jersey Institute of Technology. Published by University Microfilms International- Plibi R92,3 19. KCEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side...of the sensor is expressed in terms of a probabilistic matrix. The engineering considerations for liplementing a Remote Attitude Measure- ment...doctoral research. While in residence at Ft. Monmouth, the author served as the project engineer on an exploratory development model of a state of the art

  13. REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

    2007-11-13

    Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

  14. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  15. Remote repair appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    A remote appliance is described for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  16. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  17. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  18. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-12-16

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

  19. Remote repair appliance

    DOEpatents

    Heumann, Frederick K.; Wilkinson, Jay C.; Wooding, David R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a worksite on a substantially circular bore of a workpiece and for providing video signals of the worksite to a remote monitor comprising: a baseplate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the baseplate and positioned to roll against the bore of the workpiece when the baseplate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the baseplate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the baseplate; a camera for providing video signals of the worksite to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the baseplate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the baseplate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris.

  20. Prototype Combined Heater/Thermoelectric Power Generator for Remote Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champier, D.; Favarel, C.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Rozis, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a prototype thermoelectric generator (TEG) developed for remote applications in villages that are not connected to the electrical power grid. For ecological and economic reasons, there is growing interest in harvesting waste heat from biomass stoves to produce some electricity. Because regular maintenance is not required, TEGs are an attractive choice for small-scale power generation in inaccessible areas. The prototype developed in our laboratory is especially designed to be implemented in stoves that are also used for domestic hot water heating. The aim of this system is to provide a few watts to householders, so they have the ability to charge cellular phones and radios, and to get some light at night. A complete prototype TEG using commercial (bismuth telluride) thermoelectric modules has been built, including system integration with an electric DC/DC converter. The DC/DC converter has a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) driven by an MC9SO8 microcontroller, which optimizes the electrical energy stored in a valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Physical models were used to study the behavior of the thermoelectric system and to optimize the performance of the MPPT. Experiments using a hot gas generator to simulate the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a stove are used to evaluate the system. Additionally, potential uses of such generators are presented.

  1. Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

  2. Parametric investigations of plasma characteristics in a remote inductively coupled plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Prasoon; Roy, Abhra; Jain, Kunal; Bhoj, Ananth

    2016-09-01

    Designing a remote plasma system involves source chamber sizing, selection of coils and/or electrodes to power the plasma, designing the downstream tubes, selection of materials used in the source and downstream regions, locations of inlets and outlets and finally optimizing the process parameter space of pressure, gas flow rates and power delivery. Simulations can aid in spatial and temporal plasma characterization in what are often inaccessible locations for experimental probes in the source chamber. In this paper, we report on simulations of a remote inductively coupled Argon plasma system using the modeling platform CFD-ACE +. The coupled multiphysics model description successfully address flow, chemistry, electromagnetics, heat transfer and plasma transport in the remote plasma system. The SimManager tool enables easy setup of parametric simulations to investigate the effect of varying the pressure, power, frequency, flow rates and downstream tube lengths. It can also enable the automatic solution of the varied parameters to optimize a user-defined objective function, which may be the integral ion and radical fluxes at the wafer. The fast run time coupled with the parametric and optimization capabilities can add significant insight and value in design and optimization.

  3. Final Report: Laser-Based Optical Trap for Remote Sampling of Interplanetary and Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stysley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Applicability to Early Stage Innovation NIAC Cutting edge and innovative technologies are needed to achieve the demanding requirements for NASA origin missions that require sample collection as laid out in the NRC Decadal Survey. This proposal focused on fully understanding the state of remote laser optical trapping techniques for capturing particles and returning them to a target site. In future missions, a laser-based optical trapping system could be deployed on a lander that would then target particles in the lower atmosphere and deliver them to the main instrument for analysis, providing remote access to otherwise inaccessible samples. Alternatively, for a planetary mission the laser could combine ablation and trapping capabilities on targets typically too far away or too hard for traditional drilling sampling systems. For an interstellar mission, a remote laser system could gather particles continuously at a safe distance; this would avoid the necessity of having a spacecraft fly through a target cloud such as a comet tail. If properly designed and implemented, a laser-based optical trapping system could fundamentally change the way scientists designand implement NASA missions that require mass spectroscopy and particle collection.

  4. Modeling the seasonal circulation in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.; Jenter, Harry L.; Blumberg, Alan F.; ,

    1994-01-01

    An 18 month simulation of circulation was conducted in Massachusetts Bay, a roughly 35 m deep, 100??50 km embayment on the northeastern shelf of the United States. Using a variant of the Blumberg-Mellor (1987) model, it was found that a continuous 18 month run was only possible if the velocity field was Shapiro filtered to remove two grid length energy that developed along the open boundary due to mismatch in locally generated and climatologically forced water properties. The seasonal development of temperature and salinity stratification was well-represented by the model once ??-coordinate errors were reduced by subtracting domain averaged vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density before horizontal differencing was performed. Comparison of modeled and observed subtidal currents at fixed locations revealed that the model performance varies strongly with season and distance from the open boundaries. The model performs best during unstratified conditions, and in the interior of the bay. The model performs poorest during stratified conditions and in the regions where the bay is driven predominantly by remote fluctuations from the Gulf of Maine.

  5. Season and Disease.

    PubMed

    Stallybrass, C O

    1928-05-01

    THE SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN DISEASE, AS IS THE CASE IN THE SPREAD OF INFECTIVE DISEASES GENERALLY, DEPEND UPON THREE PRIMARY FACTORS: (1) the presence of the micro-organisms of adequate virulence and infectivity; (2) the means of transmission to (3) the susceptible tissues of the susceptible individual. All other factors, in this relation largely climatic, can act directly only through these three primary factors and are therefore termed secondary. The paper is largely an attempt to express the effect of the variations in the secondary factors in terms of the alterations they produce in the primary factors. The total effect of the three primary factors in the spread of infection is termed "dispersability" and a ratio or measure of dispersability is described. This ratio emphasizes occurrences in the pre-epidemic period.The relationship of temperature and humidity to the alimentary, respiratory and percutaneous diseases and to the ectodermoses, is investigated. In the autumnal group of infections, attention is drawn to the action of carriers in causing a rise in dispersability in the spring and the frequent occurrence of a double wave of dispersability.The effect of climatic changes is often cumulative, and this is most evident in the autumnal group of infections, the seasonal occurrence of which cannot be directly explained by temperature changes, or even by the action of light on phagocytes. The possibility of vitamin deficiency or excess producing cumulative effects is considered.Secular changes in seasonal periodicities are investigated and these are associated with other changes, such as the intrinsic periodicities, mode of spread, etc., the combined changes being described by the terms aggradation and degradation of disease.Slides covering the majority of the infective diseases of temperate climates and exhibiting the secular changes in Liverpool, and various geographical differences, in some 175 curves displayed.

  6. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Kelly J.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), characterized by fall/winter major depression with spring/summer remission, is a prevalent mental health problem. SAD etiology is not certain, but available models focus on neurotransmitters, hormones, circadian rhythm dysregulation, genetic polymorphisms, and psychological factors. Light therapy is established as the best available treatment for SAD. Alternative and/or supplementary approaches involving medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and exercise are currently being developed and evaluated. Given the complexity of the disorder, interdisciplinary research stands to make a significant contribution to advancing our understanding of SAD conceptualization and treatment. PMID:21179639

  7. Unraveling the spatio-temporal structure of the atmospheric and oceanic intra-seasonal oscillations during the contrasting monsoon seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Charu; Dasgupta, Panini

    2017-08-01

    Using remotely sensed data sets of rainfall and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over Indian land and adjacent oceanic regions and sea surface temperature (SST) over adjacent oceanic regions; we examine the major characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the flood and drought years. Intra-seasonal oscillations of rain, OLR and SST corresponding to 30-60 days transpires to contribute more to the intra-seasonal variability over the Arabian Sea, whereas 10-20 days' mode is found to be more dominating over the Bay of Bengal during the drought years. Therefore, suggesting that both of the Seas surrounding the Indian land region respond in a different way to the below normal rainfall conditions of Indian land region. Another important finding of the present work is that during the drought years, 30-60 days intra-seasonal oscillations of SST over both of the seas follow the intra-seasonal oscillations of rain at 30-60 days' time scale over central India approximately after 26 days. Conversely in the flood years, intra-seasonal oscillations of SST at 30-60 days over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal lead the intra-seasonal oscillations of rain over central India by 6 days. Present analysis also reveals that the intra-seasonal variability of ISM at two different time-scales (10-20 and 30-60 days) possess different spatio-temporal characteristics during the contrasting monsoon conditions over the oceanic regions; therefore it is advisable to study the two modes individually for understanding the underlying physical mechanism. Results presented in this paper may be useful for improved ISM prediction.

  8. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  9. Using Remote Sensing to Understand Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.; Gentine, P.

    2014-12-01

    While a major source of uncertainty in global climate model predictions is due to the coarseness of their resolution, a significant amount of error is also generated due to the lack of information regarding the interactions between atmospheric and land parameters over time. When the behavior of a certain parameter is not clearly understood it is frequently estimated as one specific value while in reality it may vary with time and space. Remote sensing is allowing researchers to better estimate each of these parameters so one can see how they change with time. This study is an effort to improve our knowledge of the inter-annual and seasonal variability in radiation, water and the carbon cycle using remote sensing products on a global scale. By examining monthly data over a multi-year period (data parameter and source are listed in Table 1) for fluorescence, groundwater, net radiation, vegetation indices, precipitation, soil moisture and evapotranspiration, we should be able to determine the behavior and interactions between these parameters and better understand how they vary together seasonally, annually and year to year. With this information it is our hope that global climate models can be improved to better understand what is occurring climatologically in the present as well as more accurately make predictions about future conditions. Table 1. Parameters and Sources Parameter Source Fluorescence Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)1 Groundwater Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Net Radiation Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Vegetation Indices Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Precipitation Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Soil Moisture Water Cycle Mutimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) Evapotranspiration Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM) 1In future work, we hope to use fluorescence data from

  10. Applications of Remote Sensing to Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Laguette, S.; Seelan, S.; Lawrence, R.; Henry, M.; Maynard, C.; Dalsted, K.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has changed agricultural practices in the following ways: (1) farmers and ranchers have become partners with, not clients of, researchers; (2) experiments are carried out in the field rather than on small experimental plots; (3) the field is considered an agro-ecosystem, with all the complexities of multiple interactions, rather than attempting to isolate certain parameters and vary only a few; (4) both economic benefit to the producer and sound environmental stewardship for society are achievable. This approach has revealed that information is as significant an input to farm or ranch management as seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage. Accurate, timely information equips producers with the ability to make decisions during a growing season that optimize the yield at harvest time. An invaluable source of in-season information is imagery acquired from sensors on satellites or aircraft. In addition to sensing reflected sunlight in wavebands outside the visible, remote sensing's overview also reveals anomalous patterns in the vegetation cover that are difficult to spot on the ground. Anomalies can be caused by weeds, disease, water stress, inadequate nutrients, or other causes. Often, anomalies must be detected early or they spread too quickly to be addressed. The paper will demonstrate how remote sensing has been applied to (1) define management zones in farm fields, (2) prescribe variable rate applications of fertilizer, (3) detect pest infestations, and (4) manage cattle grazing according to forage available. The applications were possible because data were processed within 4-5 days of acquisition by the satellite, and then delivered by high-bandwidth satellite links to farmers, ranchers, and tribal government officials in minimal transit time. The applications research described was part of NASA's Synergy Program.

  11. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in

  12. Remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants in the multi-media global environment.

    PubMed

    Göktaş, Recep Kaya; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying the remoteness from sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can inform the design of monitoring studies and the interpretation of measurement data. Previous work on quantifying remoteness has not explicitly considered partitioning between the gas phase and aerosols, and between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. The objective of this study is to present a metric of remoteness for POPs transported through the atmosphere calculated with a global multimedia fate model, BETR-Research. We calculated the remoteness of regions covering the entire globe from emission sources distributed according to light emissions, and taking into account the multimedia partitioning properties of chemicals and using averaged global climate data. Remoteness for hypothetical chemicals with distinct partitioning properties (volatile, semi-volatile, hydrophilic, low-volatility) and having two different half-lives in air (60-day and 2-day) are presented. Differences in remoteness distribution among the hypothetical chemicals are most pronounced in scenarios assuming 60-day half-life in air. In scenarios with a 2-day half-life in air, degradation dominates over wet and dry deposition processes as a pathway for atmospheric removal of all chemicals except the low-volatility chemical. The remoteness distribution of the low-volatility chemical is strongly dependent on assumptions about degradability on atmospheric aerosols. Calculations that considered seasonal variability in temperature, hydroxyl radical concentrations in the atmosphere and global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns indicate that variability in hydroxyl radical concentrations largely determines the seasonal variability of remoteness. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in tree bark from around the world are more highly correlated with remoteness calculated using our methods than with proximity to human population, and we see considerable potential to apply remoteness

  13. Spectroscopic analysis of seasonal changes in live fuel moisture content and leaf dry mass

    Treesearch

    Yi Qi; Philip E. Dennison; W. Matt Jolly; Rachael C. Kropp; Simon C. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Live fuel moisture content (LFMC), the ratio of water mass to dry mass contained in live plant material, is an important fuel property for determining fire danger and for modeling fire behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFMC often relies on an assumption of changing water and stable dry mass over time. Fundamental understanding of seasonal variation in plant water...

  14. Seasonal and topographic effects on estimating fire severity from Landsat TM/ETM+data.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Verbyla; E.S. Kasischke; E.E. Hoy

    2008-01-01

    The maximum solar elevation is typically less than 50 degrees in the Alaskan boreal region and solar elevation varies substantially during the growing season. Because of the relatively low solar elevation at boreal latitudes, the effect of topography on spectral reflectance can influence fire severity indices derived from remotely sensed data. We used Landsat Thematic...

  15. Wetlands Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Myers, D. A.; Anderson, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    The application of remote sensing methods to estimate evapotranspiration has the advantage of good spatial resolution and excellent spatial coverage, but may have the disadvantage of infrequent sampling and considerable expense. The GOES satellites provide enhanced temporal resolution with hourly estimates of solar radiation and have a spatial resolution that is significantly better than that available from most ground-based pyranometer networks. As solar radiation is the primary forcing variable in wetland evapotranspiration, the opportunity to apply GOES satellite data to wetland hydrologic analyses is great. An accuracy assessment of the remote sensing product is important and the subsequent validation of the evapotranspiration estimates are a critical step for the use of this product. A wetland field experiment was conducted in the Paynes Prairie Preserve, North Central Florida during a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. Evapotranspiration and other surface energy balance components of a wet prairie community dominated by Panicum hemitomon (maiden cane), Ptilimnium capillaceum (mock bishop's weed), and Eupatorium capillifolium (dog fennel) were investigated. Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite observations, in combination with local meteorological measurements, were used to model evapotranspiration from a wetland. The satellite solar radiation, derived net radiation and estimated evapotranspiration estimates were compared to measured data at 30-min intervals and daily times scales.

  16. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  17. Remote robotic countermine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter

    2010-04-01

    QinetiQ North America (QNA) has approximately 27 years experience in the mine/countermine mission area. Our expertise covers mine development, detection, and neutralization and has always been intertwined with deployment of remote robotic systems. Our countermine payload systems have been used to detect limpet mines on ship hulls, antiassault mines in shallow water and littoral zones and currently for clearance and render safe of land-based routes. In our talk, we will address the challenges encountered in addressing the ongoing countermine mission over a diverse range of operational scenarios, environmental conditions and strategic priorities.

  18. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  19. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  20. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  1. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  2. Physical fundamentals of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanda, E.

    The physical principles describing the propagation of EM waves in the atmosphere and their interactions with matter are discussed as they apply to remote sensing, in an introductory text intended for graduate science students, environmental-science researchers, and remote-sensing practitioners. The emphasis is on basic effects rather than an specific remote-sensing techniques or observational results. Chapters are devoted to basic relations, the spectral lines of atmospheric gases, the spectral properties of condensed matter, and radiative transfer.

  3. Laser Remote Sensing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing active remote sensors to monitor the health of Planet Earth and for exploration of other planets. Development and deployment of these remote sensors can have a huge economic impact. Lasers for these active remote sensors span the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared spectral regions. Development activities range from quantum mechanical modeling and prediction of new laser materials to the design, development, and demonstration be deployed in the field.

  4. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  5. Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D; Vermote, Eric F; Harding, David J; North, Peter R J

    2014-02-13

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  6. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  7. Torque wrench allows readings from inaccessible locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Barnardo, M.

    1966-01-01

    Torque wrench with an adjustable drive shaft permits indicator to remain in view when used on sections of equipment with limited access. The shaft is capable of protruding from either side of the wrench head by means of spring loaded balls.

  8. Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

  9. Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

  10. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  11. The hidden season: growing season is 50% longer below than above ground along an arctic elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Blume-Werry, Gesche; Wilson, Scott D; Kreyling, Juergen; Milbau, Ann

    2016-02-01

    There is compelling evidence from experiments and observations that climate warming prolongs the growing season in arctic regions. Until now, the start, peak, and end of the growing season, which are used to model influences of vegetation on biogeochemical cycles, were commonly quantified using above-ground phenological data. Yet, over 80% of the plant biomass in arctic regions can be below ground, and the timing of root growth affects biogeochemical processes by influencing plant water and nutrient uptake, soil carbon input and microbial activity. We measured timing of above- and below-ground production in three plant communities along an arctic elevation gradient over two growing seasons. Below-ground production peaked later in the season and was more temporally uniform than above-ground production. Most importantly, the growing season continued c. 50% longer below than above ground. Our results strongly suggest that traditional above-ground estimates of phenology in arctic regions, including remotely sensed information, are not as complete a representation of whole-plant production intensity or duration, as studies that include root phenology. We therefore argue for explicit consideration of root phenology in studies of carbon and nutrient cycling, in terrestrial biosphere models, and scenarios of how arctic ecosystems will respond to climate warming.

  12. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  13. Issues in Remote Pilotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Mike

    This paper was presented at the World Congress of the International Association of Institutes of Navigation (IAIN) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 17-21 November 1997.Remote, or shore-based, pilotage means different things to different people, despite a definition being produced by the European and International Maritime Pilots Associations. The debate about it is set in the context of increasing public awareness of the environment and a downward pressure on costs; these in themselves make for uncomfortable bedfellows. However, this sets the scene for the current aspirations within the European Union for vessel traffic management and the ongoing research into Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and Vessel Traffic Management and Information Services (VTMIS). The technology to implement navigational assistance of a fairly high order is already in place, but there are still problems to be overcome before the concept can be taken further. Commonly recurring concerns over remote pilotage are the inadequacies of radar, difficulties with language, lack of 'feel' for the ship, which includes the on-board pilot's assessment of the quality of the vessel's crew, and the lack of ship motion data. Differential GPS is now capable of aiding automatic docking of some specialized vessels, but it has emerged, most recently at the IALA VTS Committee meeting, that ECDIS has shortcomings when being considered as the geographic information system of a VTS. Transponders are the subject of yet another debate, but will the data that they can convey be able to replace an on-board pilot?

  14. Managing Meetings...Remotely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Remote meetings are best for updates and information sharing, but it is possible to effectively facilitate decisions with a little planning. Generally, the meeting leader needs to clearly state the proposed decision and then separately poll each participant for concurrence. Normally, there will be a range of responses, requiring the facilitator to restate the proposal and repeat the process. Several iterations may be required before a consensus is achieved. I usually confirm decisions by restating the conclusion as it will appear in the meeting notes and asking the participants to express any objections. Gaining commitment to follow-up actions is never easy, of course, but tends to be particularly tricky in remote meetings. The ideal solution is to use collaboration software with a whiteboard as a means of recording the follow-up actions and responsibilities. (A Word or Excel document viewed through NetMeeting works equally well.) But if the meeting is being conducted without collaboration software, the leader must review each follow-up action explicitly, even painstakingly. I generally note follow-up actions throughout the meeting and use the last few minutes to confirm and finalize. I read each action and name the person I think owns the responsibility. When the person accepts, I validate by asking for a completion date. All the normal rules for assigning follow-up actions apply, of course. One, and only one, person must be responsible for each action, and assigning an action to somebody not present is akin to assigning it to nobody.

  15. Sierra Remote Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, Fred; Morgan, G. E.; Barnes, F. S., III; Goldman, D. S.; Helm, M. R.; Mortfield, P.; Quattrocchi, K. B.; Van Vleet, L.

    2009-05-01

    We report the founding of a new facility for astrophotography and small-telescope science. Sierra Remote Observatories are eight small observatories at 4610' altitude in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The sky brightness during New Moon typically rates 3 on the Bortle scale. Typical seeing is 1.2", with a one-sigma range between 1.0" and 1.6", measured during 2007 June-September. All eight observatories are operated by remote control over the Internet, from as far away as Toronto and South Carolina. The telescopes range in aperture from 106 mm to 16 inches. Color images have so far been published in several magazines (Astronomy, Practical Astronomer, and Sky & Telescope) and on NASA's Astronomy Picture of the Day website. Science programs include time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables including the discovery of a 3.22-hour periodicity in the light curve of the nova-like V378 Pegasi, the serendipitous discovery of a previously undesignated spherical bubble in Cygnus, the discovery of three asteroids, and monitoring of Comet Lulin.

  16. Remotely operated pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Josefiak, Leonard J.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a Graylock type coctor between a pipe and a closure for the pipe includes a base and a receptacle on the base for the closure. The pipe is moved into position vertically above the closure by a suitable positioning device such that the flange on the pipe is immediately adjacent and concentric with the flange on the closure. A moving device then moves two semicircular collars from a position free of the closure to a position such that the interior cam groove of each collar contacts the two flanges. Finally, a tensioning device automatically allows remote tightening and loosening of a nut and bolt assembly on each side of the collar to cause a seal ring located between the flanges to be compressed and to seal the closure. Release of the pipe and the connector is accomplished in the reverse order. Preferably, the nut and bolt assembly includes an elongate shaft portion on which a removable sleeve is located.

  17. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  18. Seasonal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the mainstay of efforts to reduce the substantial health burden from seasonal influenza. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been available since the 1940s and are administered via intramuscular injection. Inactivated vaccines can be given to anyone six months of age or older. Live attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccines (LAIV) were developed in the 1960s but were not licensed in the United States until 2003, and are administered via nasal spray. Both vaccines are trivalent preparations grown in eggs and do not contain adjuvants. LAIV is licensed for use in the United States for healthy nonpregnant persons 2-49 years of age.Influenza vaccination induces antibodies primarily against the major surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA); antibodies directed against the HA are most important for protection against illness. The immune response peaks at 2-4 weeks after one dose in primed individuals. In previously unvaccinated children <9 years of age, two doses of influenza vaccine are recommended, as some children in this age group have limited or no prior infections from circulating types and subtypes of seasonal influenza. These children require both an initial priming dose and a subsequent booster dose of vaccine to mount a protective antibody response.The most common adverse events associated with inactivated vaccines are sore arm and redness at the injection site; systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise are less commonly reported. Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was identified among approximately 1 per 100,000 recipients of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. The risk of influenza vaccine-associated GBS from seasonal influenza vaccine is thought to be at most approximately 1-2 cases per 1 million vaccinees, based on a few studies that have found an association; other studies have found no association.The most common adverse events associated with LAIV are nasal congestion, headache, myalgias or fever. Studies of the

  19. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-04-21

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1-100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air-sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1-10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below.

  20. Observations of seasonal and diurnal glacier velocities at Mount Rainier, Washington using terrestrial radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, K. E.; Shean, D. E.; Campbell, A.; Fahnestock, M.; Malone, S. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present spatially continuous velocity maps using repeat terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) measurements to examine seasonal and diurnal dynamics of alpine glaciers at Mount Rainier, Washington. We show that the Nisqually and Emmons glaciers have small slope-parallel velocities near the summit (< 0.2 m day-1), high velocities over their upper and central regions (1.0-1.5 m day-1), and stagnant debris-covered regions near the terminus (< 0.05 m day-1). Velocity uncertainties are as low as ±0.02-0.08 m day-1. We document a large seasonal velocity decrease of 0.2-0.7 m day-1 (-25 to -50 %) from July to November for most of the Nisqually glacier, excluding the icefall, suggesting significant seasonal subglacial water storage under most of the glacier. We did not detect diurnal variability above the noise level. Preliminary 2-D ice flow modeling using TRI velocities suggests that sliding accounts for roughly 91 and 99 % of the July velocity field for the Emmons and Nisqually glaciers, respectively. We validate our observations against recent in situ velocity measurements and examine the long-term evolution of Nisqually glacier dynamics through comparisons with historical velocity data. This study shows that repeat TRI measurements with > 10 km range can be used to investigate spatial and temporal variability of alpine glacier dynamics over large areas, including hazardous and inaccessible areas.

  1. Seasonal trends in summer diet of the lapland longspur near Barrow Alaska USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pitelka, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of lapland longspur [Calcarius lapponicus] stomachs and esophagi were sampled near Barrow, Alaska [USA], from May-Aug. in 1969, 1971, 1972 and 1973. Data from stomach contents were corrected for differential digestion of prey items. Longspurs shifted seasonally from larval to adult arthropods and back to larvae, responding to changes in the abundance of these prey items. Seeds were a vital supplementary food in late May and Aug., when arthropods were scarce or inaccessible. One species of crane fly was the major dietary component for longspurs during June and July. Its high abundance and substantial dry weight per individual may contribute to the success of longspurs at Barrow. The diets of longspurs and 4 common shorebirds (Calidris spp.) at Barrow were similar in the range of prey items taken except for seeds and tenthredinid larvae. Their diets overlapped closely when feeding sites were restricted because of snow and surface water (chiefly at the beginning of the season) and when prey was abundant in early to mid-July. Competition is possible early in the season but unlikely in July when surface insects are very abundant. Habitat separation and the advantages of fringillid form apparently contribute to the success of longspors in a tundra community of insectivores dominated by shorebirds.

  2. Remote sensing of essential ecosystem functional variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz-Segura, D.; Bagnato, C. E.; Paruelo, J. M.; Berbery, E. H.; Cabello, J.; Castro, A.; Cazorla, B. P.; Epstein, H. E.; Fernández, N.; Jobbagy, E. G.; Oyonarte, C.; Pacheco, M.; Peñas, J.; Vallejos, M.

    2016-12-01

    Essential Biodiversity Variables should inform on the status of the three dimensions recognised for biodiversity: composition, structure and function. Whereas composition and structure (from genes to ecosystems) have been traditionally used to assess biodiversity status, functional components of biodiversity, particularly at the ecosystem level, have been scarcely included. Satellite remote sensing can provide multiple descriptors of ecosystem function, though their relevance as essential biodiversity variables still needs to be assessed. Time-series of spectral data derived from satellite images can inform on key attributes of the dynamics of carbon, water, energy balance, disturbance regime or nutrient cycling. These ecosystem functional attributes can be integrated to identify Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs), defined as groups of ecosystems with similar dynamics of matter and energy exchanges between the biota and the physical environment. Most popular EFTs used the three most informative metrics of the seasonal curves of spectral vegetation indices as surrogates of the most integrative descriptor of ecosystem functioning, the primary production dynamics: annual mean (estimator of primary production), seasonal coefficient of variation (descriptor of seasonality), and date of maximum (indicator of phenology). To search for simple metrics that could be used as a set of highly informative ecosystem functional attributes, we extended the analysis to the global scale across all terrestrial biomes and to other key dimensions of ecosystem functioning, i.e., albedo and surface temperature (related to the energy balance) and evapotranspiration (related to the water cycle and the energy balance). The three first axes of a Principal Component Analysis run on the average seasonal dynamics of each variable and biome explained from 85% to 97% of variance. From more than 20 summary metrics analysed, the annual mean was highly correlated to the first axis (r2>0.9). The second

  3. Improving streamflow prediction using remotely-sensed soil moisture and snow depth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The monitoring of both cold and warm season hydrologic processes in headwater watersheds is critical for accurate water resource monitoring in many alpine regions. This work presents a new method that explores the simultaneous use of remotely sensed surface soil moisture (SM) and snow depth (SD) ret...

  4. The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, T. R.; Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a remote sensing model and its efficiency in determining parameters of hydrologic models are reviewed. Procedures for extracting hydrologic data from LANDSAT imagery, and the visual analysis of composite imagery are presented. A hydrologic planning model is developed and applied to determine seasonal variations in watershed conditions. The transfer of this technology to a user community and contract arrangements are discussed.

  5. Decomposing the seasonal fitness decline.

    PubMed

    Öberg, Meit; Pärt, Tomas; Arlt, Debora; Laugen, Ane T; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fitness declines are common, but the relative contribution of different reproductive components to the seasonal change in the production of reproductive young, and the component-specific drivers of this change is generally poorly known. We used long-term data (17 years) on breeding time (i.e. date of first egg laid) in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate seasonal reproductive patterns and estimate the relative contributions of reproductive components to the overall decline in reproduction, while accounting for factors potentially linked to seasonal declines, i.e. individual and habitat quality. All reproductive components-nest success (reflecting nest predation rate), clutch size, fledging success and recruitment success-showed a clear decline with breeding time whereas subsequent adult survival did not. A non-linear increase in nest predation rate caused nest success to decline rapidly early in the season and level off at ~80% success late in the breeding season. The combined seasonal decline in all reproductive components caused the mean production of recruits per nest to drop from around 0.7-0.2; with the relative contribution greatest for recruitment success which accounted for ~50% of the decline. Our data suggest that changing environmental conditions together with effects of nest predation have strong effects on the seasonal decline in fitness. Our demonstration of the combined effects of all reproductive components and their relative contribution shows that omitting data from later stages of breeding (recruitment) can greatly underestimate seasonal fitness declines.

  6. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  7. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  8. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  9. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  10. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  11. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  12. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  13. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  14. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Shin, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts from 46 refereed journal and conference papers are presented for research on remote sensing of earth terrain. The topics covered related to remote sensing include the following: mathematical models, vegetation cover, sea ice, finite difference theory, electromagnetic waves, polarimetry, neural networks, random media, synthetic aperture radar, electromagnetic bias, and others.

  15. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  16. Leaf ontogeny and demography explain photosynthetic seasonality in Amazon evergreen forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Albert, L.; Lopes, A. P.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Hayek, M.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Guan, K.; Stark, S. C.; Prohaska, N.; Tavares, J. V.; Marostica, S. F.; Kobayashi, H.; Ferreira, M. L.; Campos, K.; Silva, R. D.; Brando, P. M.; Dye, D. G.; Huxman, T. E.; Huete, A. R.; Nelson, B. W.; Saleska, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic seasonality couples the evolutionary ecology of plant leaves to large-scale rhythms of carbon and water exchanges that are important feedbacks to climate. However, the extent, magnitude, and controls on photosynthetic seasonality of carbon-rich tropical forests are poorly resolved, controversial in the remote sensing literature, and inadequately represented in most earth system models. Here we show that ecosystem-scale phenology (measured by photosynthetic capacity), rather than environmental seasonality, is the primary driver of photosynthetic seasonality at four Amazon evergreen forests spanning gradients in rainfall seasonality, forest composition, and flux seasonality. We further demonstrate that leaf ontogeny and demography explain most of this ecosystem phenology at two central Amazon evergreen forests, using a simple leaf-cohort canopy model that integrates eddy covariance-derived CO2 fluxes, novel near-surface camera-detected leaf phenology, and ground observations of litterfall and leaf physiology. The coordination of new leaf growth and old leaf divestment (litterfall) during the dry season shifts canopy composition towards younger leaves with higher photosynthetic efficiency, driving large seasonal increases (~27%) in ecosystem photosynthetic capacity. Leaf ontogeny and demography thus reconciles disparate observations of forest seasonality from leaves to eddy flux towers to satellites. Strategic incorporation of such whole-plant coordination processes as phenology and ontogeny will improve ecological, evolutionary and earth system theories describing tropical forests structure and function, allowing more accurate representation of forest dynamics and feedbacks to climate in earth system models.

  17. Seasonal leaf dynamics for tropical evergreen forests in a process based global ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Maignan, F.; Peylin, P.; Poulter, B.; Bonal, D.; Ciais, P.; Steppe, K.

    2012-02-01

    The influence of seasonal phenology in tropical humid forests on canopy photosynthesis remains poorly understood and its representation in global vegetation models highly simplified, typically with no seasonal variability of canopy leaf area properties taken into account. However, recent flux tower and remote sensing studies suggest that seasonal phenology in tropical rainforests exerts a large influence over carbon and water fluxes, with feedbacks that can significantly influence climate dynamics. A more realistic description of the underlying mechanisms that drive seasonal tropical forest photosynthesis and phenology could improve the correspondence of global vegetation model outputs with the wet-dry season biogeochemical patterns measured at flux tower sites. Here, we introduce a leaf Net Primary Production (NPP) based canopy dynamics scheme for evergreen tropical forests in the global terrestrial ecosystem model ORCHIDEE and validated the new scheme against in-situ carbon flux measurements. Modelled Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) patterns are analyzed in details for a flux tower site in French Guiana, in a forest where the dry season is short and where the vegetation is considered to have developed adaptive mechanisms against drought stress. By including leaf litterfall seasonality and a coincident light driven leaf flush and seasonal change in photosynthetic capacity in ORCHIDEE, modelled carbon and water fluxes more accurately represent the observations. The fit to GPP flux data was substantially improved and the results confirmed that by modifying canopy dynamics to benefit from increased light conditions, a better representation of the seasonal carbon flux patterns was made.

  18. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  19. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  20. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  1. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  2. Remote welding equipment for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Silke, G.W.; Junge, R.

    1995-12-31

    Remote welding equipment and techniques are necessary for maintenance of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). The processes identified for this application includes inside diameter (i.d.) and outside diameter (o.d.) Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of titanium and stainless steel alloys. Welding equipment developed for this application includes some unique features due to the specialized environment of the TPX vessel. Remote features of this equipment must include the ability to acquire and align the parts being welded, perform all welding operations and visually inspect the weld area. Designs for weld heads require the integration of industry proven hardware with the special features include compact size, remote manipulation, remote clamping and alignment, remote vision, full inert gas coverage, arc voltage control, wire feed, programmable weld schedules and failure recovery.

  3. New Methods for Estimating Seasonal Potential Climate Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia

    for temperature, is more predictable over the tropical regions, and less predictable in extropics. Bootstrap and ANOCOVA are in good agreement with each other, both methods generating larger predictability than Katz. The seasonal predictability of evaporation over land bears considerably similarity with that of temperature using ANOCOVA, bootstrap, LSG and Madden. The remote SST forcing and soil moisture reveal substantial seasonality in their relations with the potentially predictable seasonal signals. For selected regions, either SST or soil moisture or both shows significant relationships with predictable signals, hence providing indirect insight on slowly varying boundary processes involved to enable useful seasonal climate predication. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANOCOVA) model is established to identify distinctive predictable patterns, which are uncorrelated with each other. Generally speaking, the seasonal predictability from multivariate model is consistent with that from ANOCOVA. Besides unveiling the spatial variability of predictability, MANOCOVA model also reveals the temporal variability of each predictable pattern, which could be linked to the periodic oscillations.

  4. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  5. Remote sensing data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.

  6. REMOTE CONTROL MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1962-11-27

    The patent covers a remote-control manipulator in which a tool is carried on a tube at an end thereof angularly related to the main portion of the tube and joined thereto by a curved section. The main portion of the tube is mounted for rotation and axial shifting in a wall separating safe and dangerous areas. The tool is actuated to grasp and release an object in the dangerous area by means of a compound shaft extending through the tube, the shaft having a flexible section extending through the curved section of the tube. The tool is moved about in the dangerous area by rotation and axial movement of the main portion of the tube. Additional movement of the tool is obtained through axial shifting of the shaft with respect to the tube through which it extends. (AEC)

  7. Remote diagnosis server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  8. Wireless remotely readable microaccelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    1997-06-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel sensor that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements or very low power requirements. Such a device is readily compatible with existing antenna technologies as the SAW device operates at 1 GHz. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining technology. Depending on the application certain design parameters can be modified to achieve the desired sensitivity. Similar modifications in the microelectronics can also be envisioned. A fabrication method to produce such a device is also presented. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering.

  9. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  10. Remote lightning monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennon, C. L.; Britt, T. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring, analyzing and accurately determining the value of peak current, the peak rate of change in current with respect to time and the rise time of the electrical currents generated in an electrical conductive mast that is located in the vicinity where lightning is to be monitored is described. The apparatus includes an electrical coil for sensing the change in current flowing through the mast and generating a voltage responsive. An on-site recorder and a recorder control system records the voltages produced responsive to lightning strikes and converts the voltage to digital signals for being transmitted back to the remote command station responsive to command signals. The recorder and the recorder control system are carried within an RFI proof environmental housing into which the command signals are fed by means of a fiber optic cable so as to minimize electrical interference.

  11. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controllable mixing system (210) in which a plurality of mixing assemblies (10a-10e) are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly (10) employs a central chamber (16) and two outer, upper and lower, chambers (12, 14). Valves (18, 20) are positioned between chambers, and these valves (18, 20) for a given mixing assembly (10) are operated by upper and lower control rotors (29), which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors (270, 270b). Additionally, a hoop (278) is compressed around upper control rotors (29) and a hoop (278b) is compressed around lower control rotors (29) to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors (29) and drive rotors (270, 270b). The drive rollers (270, 270b) are driven by a motor (213).

  12. Remotely sensing the German Wadden Sea-a new approach to address national and international environmental legislation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gabriele; Stelzer, Kerstin; Smollich, Susan; Gade, Martin; Adolph, Winny; Melchionna, Sabrina; Kemme, Linnea; Geißler, Jasmin; Millat, Gerald; Reimers, Hans-Christian; Kohlus, Jörn; Eskildsen, Kai

    2016-10-01

    The Wadden Sea along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands is the largest unbroken system of intertidal sand and mud flats in the world. Its habitats are highly productive and harbour high standing stocks and densities of benthic species, well adapted to the demanding environmental conditions. Therefore, the Wadden Sea is one of the most important areas for migratory birds in the world and thus protected by national and international legislation, which amongst others requires extensive monitoring. Due to the inaccessibility of major areas of the Wadden Sea, a classification approach based on optical and radar remote sensing has been developed to support environmental monitoring programmes. In this study, the general classification framework as well as two specific monitoring cases, mussel beds and seagrass meadows, are presented. The classification of mussel beds profits highly from inclusion of radar data due to their rough surface and achieves agreements of up to 79 % with areal data from the regular monitoring programme. Classification of seagrass meadows reaches even higher agreements with monitoring data (up to 100 %) and furthermore captures seagrass densities as low as 10 %. The main classification results are information on area and location of individual habitats. These are needed to fulfil environmental legislation requirements. One of the major advantages of this approach is the large areal coverage with individual satellite images, allowing simultaneous assessment of both accessible and inaccessible areas and thus providing a more complete overall picture.

  13. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum and soybean. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance characteristics of agronomic crops are of major importance in the energy exchanges of a surface. In addition, unique reflectance patterns may be an aid in crop identification by means of remote sensing. This study suggests that the ratio of the reflectances of the 545-nm to to the 655-nm wavebands provides information about the viewed surface, regardless of the crop. The reflectance ratio is less than unity early and late in the growing season. For all crops studied, the ratio closely followed crop growth and development and appeared to be more desirable than the near-infrared reflectance as an index of growth.

  14. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum and soybean. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance characteristics of agronomic crops are of major importance in the energy exchanges of a surface. In addition, unique reflectance patterns may be an aid in crop identification by means of remote sensing. This study suggests that the ratio of the reflectances of the 545-nm to to the 655-nm wavebands provides information about the viewed surface, regardless of the crop. The reflectance ratio is less than unity early and late in the growing season. For all crops studied, the ratio closely followed crop growth and development and appeared to be more desirable than the near-infrared reflectance as an index of growth.

  15. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  16. Seasoning small quantities of lumber

    Treesearch

    E.F. Rasmussen

    1965-01-01

    The owner of a small quantity of green lumber or logs is often confronted with seasoning it to a state of dryness suitable for use in furniture, wood carving, or other handiwork. He cannot follow the practice of commercial mills, which employ dry kilns for the purpose. because kilns are too costly. On the other hand, air seasoning outdoors usually does not dry lumber...

  17. Seasonal changes in northeastern pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding how pasture plant species abundance changes with seasons and sites can provide the background information needed to manage pasture composition to best match the site type and to extend the grazing season. We sampled pastures on five grazing farms (four dairy, one beef): two in New York...

  18. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  19. Estimating evapotranspiration of reference crops using the remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payero, Jose Oscar

    For this study, seasonal meteorological and multispectral measurements were made over grass and alfalfa fields at Kimberly, Idaho, with the purpose of assessing the validity of the remote sensing method for the determination of evapotranspiration (ET) of reference crops and to establish relationships to derive ET calculation parameters from remotely sensed data. Meteorological data were obtained with the Bowen ratio method, and a new procedure was first developed to validate these data. Empirical equations were derived to estimate diurnal variation of soil heat flux. Relationships were also developed to estimate plant height from remotely sensed information. Also, a methodology to obtain surface albedo, using a variable (P/T) ratio, was described and applied. The (P/T) ratio is the fraction of the total reflected short wave radiation sensed by discrete radiometer bands. The effects of using remotely sensed aerodynamic temperature and wind-speed-corrected roughness length were evaluated. Also, different methods to correct for atmospheric stability, and to extrapolate daily ET values from instantaneous measurements were compared. It was found that the performance of the remote sensing method for estimating evapotranspiration was a function of the evaporative ratio (ER), which is the ratio of the latent heat flux to available energy. For ER ≤ 1.2, the instantaneous noon sensible and latent heat fluxes obtained with the remote sensing method compared very well with those obtained using the Bowen ratio method. On the other hand, for ER > 1.2 the method was not useful. Aerodynamic temperature corrections and the use of wind- corrected roughness lengths did not improve the results. Stability correction was only necessary when the aerodynamic resistance values were above 100 seconds per meter. None of several methods to extrapolate daily ET values from instantaneous measurements performed acceptably under the advective conditions of Kimberly.

  20. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers.

    PubMed

    Gamon, John A; Huemmrich, K Fred; Wong, Christopher Y S; Ensminger, Ingo; Garrity, Steven; Hollinger, David Y; Noormets, Asko; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-11-15

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying "photosynthetic phenology" from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a "chlorophyll/carotenoid index" (CCI) that tracks evergreen photosynthesis at multiple spatial scales. When calculated from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite sensor, the CCI closely follows the seasonal patterns of daily gross primary productivity of evergreen conifer stands measured by eddy covariance. This discovery provides a way of monitoring evergreen photosynthetic activity from optical remote sensing, and indicates an important regulatory role for carotenoid pigments in evergreen photosynthesis. Improved methods of monitoring photosynthesis from space can improve our understanding of the global carbon budget in a warming world of changing vegetation phenology.

  1. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers

    PubMed Central

    Huemmrich, K. Fred; Ensminger, Ingo; Garrity, Steven; Noormets, Asko; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying “photosynthetic phenology” from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios, and evergreen photosynthetic activity, leading to a “chlorophyll/carotenoid index” (CCI) that tracks evergreen photosynthesis at multiple spatial scales. When calculated from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite sensor, the CCI closely follows the seasonal patterns of daily gross primary productivity of evergreen conifer stands measured by eddy covariance. This discovery provides a way of monitoring evergreen photosynthetic activity from optical remote sensing, and indicates an important regulatory role for carotenoid pigments in evergreen photosynthesis. Improved methods of monitoring photosynthesis from space can improve our understanding of the global carbon budget in a warming world of changing vegetation phenology. PMID:27803333

  2. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M.; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1–100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air–sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1–10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below. PMID:25897832

  3. Tis the Season

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-23

    Winter is approaching in the southern hemisphere of Saturn and with this cold season has come the familiar blue hue that was present in the northern winter hemisphere at the start of NASA's Cassini mission. The changing blue hue that we have learned marks winter at Saturn is likely due to reduction of ultraviolet sunlight and the haze it produces, making the atmosphere clearer and increasing the opportunity for Rayleigh scattering (scattering by molecules and smaller particles) and methane absorption: both processes make the atmosphere blue. The small black dot seen to the right and up from image center, within the ring shadows of the A and F rings, is the shadow of the moon, Prometheus. For an image showing winter in the northern hemisphere see PIA08166. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 44 degrees below the ring plane. Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create this natural color view. The images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 29, 2013. This view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.003 million miles (1.615 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 58 miles (93 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA17176

  4. Impacts of "wet seasons get wetter, dry seasons get drier"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Lan, C.; Lee, C.; Chung, C.; Laio, Y.; Chiang, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Global temperatures have increased for the past few decades. Changes to the global hydrological cycle have also been observed, but with a greater uncertainty and a strong spatial variation. The most robust change is that wet regions get wetter and dry regions get drier. Here we demonstrate that the tendency of wet-get-wetter and dry-get-drier occurs over the course of the seasonal cycle: wet seasons get wetter and dry seasons get drier, enhancing the annual precipitation range. Over 1979-2010, the globally-averaged changes in precipitation are 13.64±2.86%°C-1, -39.73±7.38%°C-1 and 33.03±6.42%°C-1 respectively for wet seasons, dry seasons, and the annual range. The trend magnitudes vary over a shorter evaluation period (1988-2010), but the sign of the tendencies remain the same. The magnitudes of these globally-averaged trends imply an inconclusive change in the strength of the corresponding tropical circulation. Regionally, the "wet seasons get wetter (dry seasons get drier)" tendency occurs over areas with greater (less) annual mean precipitation. The enhanced annual precipitation range may strongly impact local agriculture and water resources even in situations where the annual mean precipitation does not change significantly.

  5. Seasonal mortality in zoo ruminants.

    PubMed

    Carisch, Lea; Müller, Dennis W H; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Rensch, E Eberhard; Clauss, Marcus; Zerbe, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    While seasonality has often been investigated with respect to reproduction, seasonality of mortality has received less attention. We investigated whether a seasonal signal of mortality exists in wild ruminants kept in zoos, using data from 60,591 individuals of 88 species. We quantified the mortality in the 3 consecutive months with the highest above-baseline mortality (3 MM). 3 MM was not related to relative life expectancy of species, indicating that seasonal mortality does not necessarily impact husbandry success. Although 3 MM was mainly observed in autumn/winter months, there was no evidence for an expected negative relationship with the latitude of the species' natural habitat and no positive relationship between 3 MM and the mean temperature in that habitat, indicating no evidence for species from lower latitudes/warmer climates being more susceptible to seasonal mortality under zoo conditions. 3 MM was related to reproductive biology, with seasonally reproducing species also displaying more seasonal mortality. This pattern differed between groups: In cervids, the onset of seasonal mortality appeared linked to the onset of rut in both sexes. This was less evident in bovids, where in a number of species (especially caprids), the onset of female seasonal mortality was linked to the lambing period. While showing that the origin of a species from warmer climate zones does not constrain husbandry success in ruminants in terms of an increased seasonal mortality, the results suggest that husbandry measures aimed at protecting females from rutting males are important, especially in cervids. Zoo Biol. 36:74-86, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Seasonal decoupling between vegetation greenness and function over northern high latitude forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. J.; Schimel, D.; Frankenberg, C.; Drewry, D.; Fisher, J. B.; Verma, M.; Berry, J. A.; Lee, J. E.; Joiner, J.; Guanter, L.

    2014-12-01

    It is still unclear how seasonal variations in vegetation greenness relate to vegetation function (i.e., photosynthesis). Currently, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is a widely used proxy for the period of terrestrial carbon uptake. However, new complementary measures are now available. In this study, we compare the seasonal cycle of NDVI with remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and data-driven gross primary productivity (GPP) over the Northern Hemisphere high latitude forests (40°-55°N). Comparison of the seasonal cycle between these three datasets shows that the NDVI-based phenology has a longer estimated growing season than the growing season estimated using SIF/GPP. The differences are largely explained by a slower decrease in NDVI in the fall relative to SIF/GPP. In the transition seasons, NDVI is linearly related to temperature, while SIF/GPP show nonlinear relationships with respect to temperature. These results imply that autumn greening related to warming found in recent studies may not result in enhanced photosynthesis. Our method of combining remote sensing of NDVI and SIF can help improve our understanding of the large-scale vegetation structural and functional changes.

  7. Sub-seasonal Modulation of Indian Summer Monsoon Seasonal Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Moron, V.; Pai, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the Indian Summer Monsoon is more predictable during the early and late stages of the season, with a drop in rainfall predictability during the core monsoon months of July and August. Various theories have been advanced for this sub-seasonal evolution, but its origins are still poorly understood. We use a new 0.25-degree 1901-2014 daily rainfall dataset from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to investigate this phenomenon at near-local scale, using more than a century of data. The analysis is based on daily rainfall characteristics, including the spatial coherence of sub-seasonal rainfall anomalies, and on relating these to large-scale moisture variables computed from reanalysis data. Indian summer monsoon rainfall is partitioned into three sub-seasonal phases, with a steep ramp-up (June), persistent core (July-August), and a slower decay phase (Sept-Oct). Spatial coherence of sub-seasonal rainfall anomalies is shown to be highest during the onset and decay phases with a marked mark drop during the core phase. Systematic shifts in seasonal timing are found to typify rainfall anomalies during the onset and decay phases, with ENSO preferentially impacting the latter. We identify a large-scale low-level moisture threshold as a necessary condition for local daily rainfall occuring at >5% of spatial locations across monsoonal India. Sub-seasonal rainfall variability during the onset and decay phases is argued to be controlled largely by the crossing of this threshold. However, this necessary condition is generally easily met during the core season, at which time interannual variability in low-level moisture and interannual correlation between rainfall and large-scale ascent both decrease. This decrease in large-scale control and the loss of spatial coherence imply that sub-seasonal to seasonal rainfall variations at local scales during the core of the monsoon are largely a result of local-scale processes, and are thus

  8. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  9. Economical wind powered bioventing systems successfully applied at remote locations

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.; Klein, J.; Dillon, T. Jr.; Wilson, B.; Walker, K.

    1996-12-31

    Wind-powered bioventing systems were designed to operate at remote locations in the absence of electrical power. Laboratory measurements of soil respiration under bioventing conditions indicated the biodegradation of up to 25 mg of weathered diesel per kg of site soil per day. Further testing demonstrated the potential for harnessing wind-power to stimulate air movement through vadose zone soil. Several wind-powered bioventing systems were installed near Nome, Alaska. In situ respiration tests, soil gas composition measurements and measurable pressure changes in the soil indicated that the systems were capable of aerating the soil. Diesel range oil measurements indicated contaminant reductions up to 90% after only two treatments seasons. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of wind-powered biovents. The low cost, low maintenance, and simplicity of the biovents make them a very attractive treatment option for windy, remote sites with unsaturated soil impacted by biodegradable contaminants.

  10. Seasonal variation in diel carbon dynamics, Beaver Creek, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornblaser, M.; Striegl, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic carbon (C) dynamics are relatively well studied for boreal river systems at basin and catchment scales, but are less well know for intermediate tributaries as they transform, transport, and degas C. Lack of easy access to remote northern rivers and streams hinders the collection of high frequency data that can shed light on short time scale C dynamics. However, recent advances in sensor technology have improved our ability to gather such information. We present sensor data for Beaver Creek, Alaska, an intermediate-sized tributary to the Yukon River, focusing on diel time scale patterns that would be unattainable through discrete sampling alone. Dissolved carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) exhibited a diel pattern throughout the open water season, with the greatest amplitude in mid-summer. In early summer, pCO2 peaked in early evening, possibly due to a concentration effect. Coincidentally, this early season was the only period when discharge (Q) exhibited a diel pattern, with flow maxima in early morning and minima in early evening. This suggests an evapotranspiration (ET) signal during this period. In mid and late-summer, pCO2 peaked near 6:00 am, fitting with expected photosynthesis/respiration (P/R) effects. However, while oxygen also exhibited a diel pattern consistent with P/R, the daily amplitude was small, and stream metabolism rates were low, suggesting that pCO2 was largely driven by physical factors. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) also exhibited diel patterns throughout the open water season, with greatest amplitude occurring in early summer. For much of the season, FDOM exhibited minima in early evening, suggesting photo degradation. In addition to the diel pattern, FDOM exhibited a response to changing Q, with lag times ranging from about 6 hours (early season) to 24 hours (late season).

  11. Generalized scaling of seasonal thermal stratification in lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatwell, T.; Kirillin, G.

    2016-12-01

    The mixing regime is fundamental to the biogeochemisty and ecology of lakes because it determines the vertical transport of matter such as gases, nutrients, and organic material. Whereas shallow lakes are usually polymictic and regularly mix to the bottom, deep lakes tend to stratify seasonally, separating surface water from deep sediments and deep water from the atmosphere. Although empirical relationships exist to predict the mixing regime, a physically based, quantitative criterion is lacking. Here we review our recent research on thermal stratification in lakes at the transition between polymictic and stratified regimes. Using the mechanistic balance between potential and kinetic energy in terms of the Richardson number, we derive a generalized physical scaling for seasonal stratification in a closed lake basin. The scaling parameter is the critical mean basin depth that delineates polymictic and seasonally stratified lakes based on lake water transparency (Secchi depth), lake length, and an annual mean estimate for the Monin-Obukhov length. We validated the scaling on available data of 374 global lakes using logistic regression and found it to perform better than other criteria including a conventional open basin scaling or a simple depth threshold. The scaling has potential applications in estimating large scale greenhouse gas fluxes from lakes because the required inputs, like water transparency and basin morphology, can be acquired using the latest remote sensing technologies. The generalized scaling is universal for freshwater lakes and allows the seasonal mixing regime to be estimated without numerically solving the heat transport equations.

  12. Remote sensing and weather information in cotton yield prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, John A.; Wooten, James R.; Gogineni, Swapna; Sui, Ruixiu; Kolla, Bulli M.

    2004-01-01

    If farmers could predict yield on a spatially variable basis, they could better understand risks and returns in applying costly inputs such as fertilizers, etc. To this end, several remotely sensed images of a cotton field were collected during the 2002 growing season, along with daily high and low temperatures. Image data were converted to normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI), and temperature data were used to normalize NDVI changes over periods between image collections. Remote-sensing and weather data were overlaid in a geographic information system (GIS) with data from the field: topography, soil texture, and historical cotton yield. All these data were used to develop relationships with yield data collected at the end of the 2002 season. Stepwise regression was conducted at grid-cell sizes from 10 m square (100 m2) to 100 m square (10,000 m2) in 10-m increments. Relationships at each cell size were calculated with data available at the beginning of the season, at the first image date, at the second image date, and so on. Stepwise linear regression was used to select variables at each date that would constitute an appropriate model to predict yield. Results indicated that, at most dates, model accuracy was highest at the 100-m cell size. Remotely sensed data combined with weather data contributed much information to the models, particularly with data collected within 2.5 months of planting. The most appropriate model had an R2 value of 0.63, and its average prediction error was about 0.5 bale/ha (0.2 bale/ac, or roughly 100 lb/ac).

  13. Advanced servomanipulator remote maintenance demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, T.L.; Bradley, E.C.

    1989-03-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) is a dual-arm, force-reflecting, master/slave servomanipulator that was designed for remote maintenance applications and is digitally controlled. The ASM is installed in the Maintenance Systems Test Area (MSTA) of the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The unique aspect of ASM is that the slave arms were designed to be remotely maintainable, using a similar remote manipulator system, to maximize availability and minimize downtime. This test report describes the results of the maintenance testing conducted on ASM. Demonstration of the ability to maintain ASM remotely is an important precursor to the ultimate application of ASM in a totally remote facility. The approach taken in the design of ASM was for the manipulator slave arms to be composed of modules capable of being removed and replaced by another manipulator system of similar capabilities. The ASM incorporates gear and torque tube drives with drive couplings that facilitate remote maintenance. Although the use of special fixtures is normally discouraged for remote maintenance, special fixtures were required for this demonstration due to the complex nature of the slave arms. This test was performed to demonstrate that the ASM slave arms could be completely disassembled and reassembled remotely. Maintenance of ASM was successfully demonstrated using the M-2 servomanipulator and special fixtures. The entire disassembly process took about 4 h, and the assembly took about 3 1/2 h. Although there were some problems, in general, the arm modules were adequately designed for remote removal and replacement. Recommendations, which are documented in this report, have been made for improvements. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Seasonality of Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity in the last three hundred years reveals that the frequency of onset of volcanic eruptions varies systematically with the time of year. We analysed the Smithsonian catalogue of more than 3200 subaerial eruptions recorded during the last 300 years. We also investigated continuous records, which are not part of the general catalogue, of individual explosions at Sakurajima volcano (Japan, 150 events per year since 1955) and Semeru (Indonesia, 100,000 events during the period 1997-2000). A higher proportion (as much as 18 percent of the average monthly rate) of eruptions occur worldwide between December and March. This observation is statistically significant at above the 99 percent level. This pattern is independent of the time interval considered, and emerges whether individual eruptions are counted with equal weight or with weights proportional to event explosivity. Elevated rates of eruption onset in boreal winter months are observed in northern and southern hemispheres alike, as well as in most volcanically-active regions including, most prominently, the 'Ring of Fire' surrounding the Pacific basin. Key contributors to this regional pattern include volcanoes in Central and South America, the volcanic provinces of the northwest Pacific rim, Indonesia and the southwest Pacific basin. On the smallest spatial scales, some individual volcanoes for which detailed histories exist exhibit peak levels in eruption activity during November-January. Seasonality is attributed to one or more mechanisms associated with the annual hydrological cycle, and may correspond to the smallest time-scale over which fluctuations in stress due to the redistribution of water-masses are felt by the Earth's crust. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment, and offer new insight into possible changes in volcanic activity during periods of long-term changes in global sea level.

  15. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Pyle, D.; Dade, B.; Jupp, T.

    2003-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity in the last three hundred years reveals that the frequency of onset of volcanic eruptions varies systematically with the time of year. We analysed the Smithsonian catalogue of more than 3200 subaerial eruptions recorded during the last 300 years. We also investigated continuous records, which are not part of the general catalogue, of individual explosions at Sakurajima volcano (Japan, 150 events per year since 1955) and Semeru (Indonesia, 100,000 events during the period 1997-2000). A higher proportion (as much as 18 percent of the average monthly rate) of eruptions occur worldwide between December and March. This observation is statistically significant at above the 99 percent level. This pattern is independent of the time interval considered, and emerges whether individual eruptions are counted with equal weight or with weights proportional to event explosivity. Elevated rates of eruption onset in boreal winter months are observed in northern and southern hemispheres alike, as well as in most volcanically-active regions including, most prominently, the 'Ring of Fire' surrounding the Pacific basin. Key contributors to this regional pattern include volcanoes in Central and South America, the volcanic provinces of the northwest Pacific rim, Indonesia and the southwest Pacific basin. On the smallest spatial scales, some individual volcanoes for which detailed histories exist exhibit peak levels in eruption activity during November-January. Seasonality is attributed to one or more mechanisms associated with the annual hydrological cycle, and may correspond to the smallest time-scale over which fluctuations in stress due to the redistribution of water-masses are felt by the Earth's crust. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment, and offer new insight into possible changes in volcanic activity during periods of long-term changes in global sea level.

  16. DESI-Detection of early-season invasives (software-installation manual and user's guide version 1.0)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a software system for detecting early-season invasive plant species, such as cheatgrass. The report includes instructions for installing the software and serves as a user's guide in processing Landsat satellite remote sensing data to map the distributions of cheatgrass and other early-season invasive plants. The software was developed for application to the semi-arid regions of southern Utah; however, the detection parameters can be altered by the user for application to other areas.

  17. Remote Visualization and Remote Collaboration On Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new technology has been developed for remote visualization that provides remote, 3D, high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data (such as fluid dynamics simulations or measurements). Based on this technology, some World Wide Web sites on the Internet are providing fluid dynamics data for educational or testing purposes. This technology is also being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects in computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewer's local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit).

  18. Remote Visualization and Remote Collaboration On Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new technology has been developed for remote visualization that provides remote, 3D, high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data (such as fluid dynamics simulations or measurements). Based on this technology, some World Wide Web sites on the Internet are providing fluid dynamics data for educational or testing purposes. This technology is also being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects in computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewer's local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit).

  19. Practical lessons in remote connectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kouroubali, A.; Starren, J.; Barrows, R. C.; Clayton, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Community Health Information Networks (CHINs) require the ability to provide computer network connections to many remote sites. During the implementation of the Washington Heights and Inwood Community Health Management Information System (WHICHIS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC), a number of remote connectivity issues have been encountered. Both technical and non-technical issues were significant during the installation. We developed a work-flow model for this process which may be helpful to any health care institution attempting to provide seamless remote connectivity. This model is presented and implementation lessons are discussed. PMID:9357643

  20. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  1. Low-cost microwave radiometry for remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikando, Eric Ndjoukwe

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing is now widely regarded as a dominant means of studying the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. This science is based on blackbody theory, which states that all objects emit broadband electromagnetic radiation proportional to their temperature. This thermal emission is detectable by radiometers---highly sensitive receivers capable of measuring extremely low power radiation across a continuum of frequencies. In the particular case of a soil surface, one important parameter affecting the emitted radiation is the amount of water content or, soil moisture. A high degree of precision is required when estimating soil moisture in order to yield accurate forecasting of precipitations and short-term climate variability such as storms and hurricanes. Rapid progress within the remote sensing community in tackling current limitations necessitates an awareness of the general public towards the benefits of the science. Information about remote sensing instrumentation and techniques remain inaccessible to many higher-education institutions due to the high cost of instrumentation and the current general inaccessibility of the science. In an effort to draw more talent within the field, more affordable and reliable scientific instrumentation are needed. This dissertation introduces the first low-cost handheld microwave instrumentation fully capable of surface soil moisture studies. The framework of this research is two-fold. First, the development of a low-cost handheld microwave radiometer using the well-known Dicke configuration is examined. The instrument features a super-heterodyne architecture and is designed following a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) system approach. Validation of the instrument is performed by applying it to various soil targets and comparing measurement results to gravimetric technique measured data; a proven scientific method for determining volumetric soil moisture content. Second, the development of a fully functional receiver RF front

  2. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite ample water supply, vegetation dynamics are subject to seasonal water stress in large fraction of tropical forests. These seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) account for over 40% of tropical forests, harbor high biodiversity, have large potential carbon sink due to forest recovery from human disturbance and also play a critical role in global carbon budget and inter-annual variations. Plants in this biome display notably diverse responses to seasonal and inter-annual variations of water availability, especially inter-specific variations in canopy seasonality and biomass growth. Current process-based dynamic vegetation models cannot represent these diversities and are shown to perform poorly on simulating drought responses of tropical forests, calling into question of their ability to accurately simulate future changes in SDTFs. Accumulated field observations, suggest that hydrological niche separation driven by coordinated plant functional traits is associated with plants' performance under drought. Yet, it remains not clear whether the physiology-level hydrological niche separation can explain the ecosystem-level diversity observed in SDTFs. Here, we test the theory with a model-data fusion approach. We implemented a new plant hydrodynamic module that is able to track leaf water potential at sub-daily scale in ED2 model. We further incorporated a hydrological niche separation scheme based on a meta-data analysis of key functional traits in SDTFs. Simulated ecological patterns with and without hydrological niche separation were then compared with remote-sensing and long-term field observations from an SDTF site in Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Using several numerical experiments, we specifically examine the following questions: (i) Whether hydrological niche separation can explain the diversity in canopy seasonality and biomass growth? (ii) How important are the yet uncertain belowground functional traits, especially root profile in determining canopy

  3. Remote-Controlled Inspection Robot for Nuclear Facilities in Underwater Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhiro Miwa; Syuichi Satoh; Naoya Hirose

    2002-07-01

    A remote-controlled inspection robot for nuclear facilities was developed. This is a underwater robot technology combined with inspection and flaw removal technologies. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot. The inspection robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is inspection and grinding units. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the inspection area. After that it starts inspection and flaw removal with a special grinding wheel. This technology had been developed to inspect some Radioactive Waste (RW) tanks in operating nuclear power plants. There are many RW tanks in these plants, which human workers can be hard to access because of a high level dose. This technology is too useful for inspection works of human-inaccessible areas. And also, in conventional inspection process, some worker go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage and decontamination. It spends too much time for these preparations. If tank inspection and flaw removal can be performed in underwater, the outage period will be reduced. Remote-controlled process can be performed in underwater. This is the great advantage for plant owners. Since 1999 we have been applying this inspection robot to operating nuclear 11 facilities in Japan. (authors)

  4. An eight-year study of internet-based remote medical counselling.

    PubMed

    Labiris, G; Coertzen, I; Katsikas, A; Karydis, A; Petounis, A

    2002-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study of an Internet-based remote counselling service. A total of 15456 Internet users visited the Website over eight years. From these, 1500 users were randomly selected for analysis. Medical counselling had been granted to 901 of the people requesting it (60%). One hundred and sixty-four physicians formed project groups to process the requests and responded using email. The distribution of patients using the service was similar to the availability of the Internet: 78% were from the European Union, North America and Australia. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients lived in urban areas and the remainder were residents of remote rural areas with limited local medical coverage. Sixty-five per cent of the requests were about problems of internal medicine and 30% of the requests concerned surgical issues. The remaining 5% of the patients sought information about recent developments, such molecular medicine or aviation medicine. During the project, our portal became inaccessible five times, and counselling was not possible on 44 days. There was no hacking of the Website. Internet-based medical counselling is a helpful addition to conventional practice.

  5. Ozone measurements in Amazonia: Dry season versus wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H. ); Da Silva, I.M.O. ); Browell, E.V. )

    1990-09-20

    Observations were made almost continuously at the surface, and in addition, 20 ozone profiles were obtained in the troposphere and stratosphere. These ozone measurements were part of a field expedition to the Brazilian Amazon region, the ABLE 2B mission, a joint American-Brazilian effort to measure local concentrations of several species relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The time period of this expedition was April-May 1987, during the local wet season. For the surface ozone data the measurement technique sued was UV absorption. Ozone profiles were obtained with electrochemical concentration cell sondes, launched on balloons. The major site of operation was set up near Manaus (3{degree}S, 60{degree}W). The results are presented and compared with a previous dry season experiment. Surface ozone mixing ratios show diurnal variations that have maxima in the daytime and minima at night. The diurnal maximum at noontime, considered very low (12 ppbv) in the dry season was even lower in this wet season period (6 ppbv). A significant difference can be seen between clearing and forest data, and between different height levels above the surface, showing the existence of a large positive gradient of ozone with height. The ozone profiles in the troposphere show that there is less ozone not only at the surface but in the whole troposphere, with the wet season average showing between 6 and 12 ppbv less ozone. This difference is much smaller in the stratosphere, where there is slightly more ozone in the region of the peak, during the wet season. An isolated shower or thunderstorm in the dry season could produce transient ozone variations (mixing ratio increases or decreases) that were not observed in the wet season.

  6. A Remote Sensing-Based Land Surface Phenology Application for Cropland Monitoring in the Volta River Basin of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Salam El Vilaly, Mohamed; El Vilaly, Audra; Badiane, Ousmane

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the complex feedbacks between climate, environmental change, and human activities is essential to the development of sustainable agricultural systems. A key aspect of crop production that shows immediate response to climate change is crop phenology, which defines the shape and progress of the growing season and is an integrator of all environmental factors controlling crop production. This research aims to characterize remote sensing-based land surface phenology of cropped areas and compare them to the actual crop growing seasons recorded by farmers: planting, emergences, flowering, fruiting, and harvest date. We use the 2000-2013 MODIS Terra 16-day record of vegetation index to extract 4 phenometrics (Start and Length of Growing Season, Date of Growing Season Peak, and the Growing Season Cumulative Signal). Most of these metrics are simple time-related phenometrics. A spatiotemporal phenological characterization of cropped/managed lands in the basin already shows distinct response patterns and trajectories along climate gradients. This permits us to monitor cropped lands and their responses to disturbances, such as drought, fire, flooding, and human activities. In turn, interviewing farmers in the basin and consulting their phenological records. This study will allow for robust validation of remote sensing LSP algorithms, and more crucially, will help characterize any remote sensing-based metrics that contrast with the actual biological phenophases of monitored crops. In terms of its larger significance, this study demonstrates the fundamental role that remote sensing plays in global agriculture in informing conservation and management practices.

  7. Pharmacotherapy of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Pjrek, Edda; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried

    2005-08-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a common variant of recurrent major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Treatment with bright artificial light has been found to be effective in this condition. However, for patients who do not respond to light therapy or those who lack compliance, conventional drug treatment with antidepressants also has been proposed. Substances with selective serotonergic or noradrenergic mechanisms should be preferred over older antidepressants. Although there are a number of open and controlled studies evaluating different compounds, these studies were often limited by relatively small sample sizes. Furthermore, there are no studies specifically addressing bipolar seasonal depression. This article will review the published literature on pharmacotherapy of seasonal affective disorder.

  8. Seasonal variations in Soudan 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M. C.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1999-06-23

    Seasonal Variations in an underground detector may be a signature for Dark Matter. The Soudan 2 detector searches for nucleon decay and atmospheric neutrinos. The trigger rate is about 0.5 Hertz. It is dominated by approximately equal numbers of atmospheric muons and low level radioactivityy. The muon rate has a seasonal variation of {+-}2%, which is consistent with a similar effect at MACRO. The MACRO effect has been correlated with temperature in the upper atmosphere. Our trigger rate has a seasonal variation of {+-}15% which we believe is due to radon in the mine, and variations in air flow with outside temperature.

  9. Contrasting seasonality in optical-biogeochemical properties of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ylöstalo, Pasi; Kallio, Kari Y.; Spilling, Kristian; Kutser, Tiit

    2017-01-01

    Optical-biogeochemical relationships of particulate and dissolved organic matter are presented in support of remote sensing of the Baltic Sea pelagic. This system exhibits strong seasonality in phytoplankton community composition and wide gradients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), properties which are poorly handled by existing remote sensing algorithms. Absorption and scattering properties of particulate matter reflected the seasonality in biological (phytoplankton succession) and physical (thermal stratification) processes. Inherent optical properties showed much wider variability when normalized to the chlorophyll-a concentration compared to normalization to either total suspended matter dry weight or particulate organic carbon. The particle population had the largest optical variability in summer and was dominated by organic matter in both seasons. The geographic variability of CDOM and relationships with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are also presented. CDOM dominated light absorption at blue wavelengths, contributing 81% (median) of the absorption by all water constituents at 400 nm and 63% at 442 nm. Consequentially, 90% of water-leaving radiance at 412 nm originated from a layer (z90) no deeper than approximately 1.0 m. With water increasingly attenuating light at longer wavelengths, a green peak in light penetration and reflectance is always present in these waters, with z90 up to 3.0–3.5 m depth, whereas z90 only exceeds 5 m at biomass < 5 mg Chla m-3. High absorption combined with a weakly scattering particle population (despite median phytoplankton biomass of 14.1 and 4.3 mg Chla m-3 in spring and summer samples, respectively), characterize this sea as a dark water body for which dedicated or exceptionally robust remote sensing techniques are required. Seasonal and regional optical-biogeochemical models, data distributions, and an extensive set of simulated remote-sensing reflectance spectra for testing of remote sensing algorithms

  10. Applying object-based segmentation in the temporal domain to characterise snow seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jeffery A.; Lees, Brian G.

    2014-11-01

    In the context of a changing climate it is important to be able to monitor and map descriptors of snow seasonality. Because of its relatively low elevation range, Australia's alpine bioregion is a marginal area for seasonal snow-cover with high inter-annual variability. It has been predicted that snow-cover will become increasingly ephemeral within the alpine bioregion as warming continues. To assist the monitoring of snow seasonality and ephemeral snow-cover, a remote sensing method is proposed. The method adapted principles of object-based image analysis that have traditionally be used in the spatial domain and applied them in the temporal domain. The method allows for a more comprehensive characterisation of snow seasonality relative to other methods. Using high-temporal resolution (daily) MODIS image time-series, remotely sensed descriptors were derived and validated using in situ observations. Overall, moderate to strong relationships were observed between the remotely sensed descriptors of the persistent snow-covered period (start r = 0.70, p < 0.001; end r = 0.88, p < 0.001 and duration r = 0.88, p < 0.001) and their in situ counterparts. Although only weak correspondence (r = 0.39, p < 0.05) was observed for the number of ephemeral events detected using remote sensing, this was thought to be related to differences in the sampling frequency of the in situ observations relative to the remotely sense observations. For 2009, the mapped results for the number of snow-cover events suggested that snow-cover between 1400 and 1799 m was characterised by a high numbers of ephemeral events.

  11. California nearshore surface currents. [monitoring by remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Murphy, M. J.; Edmisten, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    During the oceanic period from July to November, the southward flowing California current dominates the nearshore current patterns. Commencing about the middle of November and extending to mid-February, the Davidson current, a northward moving countercurrent, is the dominant inshore transporter of water and suspensates. The phenomenon of upwelling is prevalent during the period from the middle of February to the end of July. Thus, every year along the coast of California, there are three successive current seasons: the oceanic, the Davidson, and the upwelling. This paper is a discussion of the nature of these nearshore currents. In addition, the capabilities of various remote sensing platforms and systems for providing methods of monitoring the coastal processes associated with the current seasons of California are demonstrated herein.

  12. remote sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Unold, Georg; Junker, Astrid; Altmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-throughput (HT) plant phenotyping systems enable the quantitative analysis of a variety of plant features in a fully automated fashion. The comprehensive phenomics infrastructure at IPK comprises three LemnaTec conveyor belt-based (plant-to-sensor) systems for the simultaneous analysis of large numbers of individual plants of different sizes. For monitoring of environmental conditions within the plant growth area and soil conditions in individual pots, highly modular and flexible remote sensing devices are required. We present the architecture of a wireless sensor network implemented in the HT plant phenotyping systems at IPK in the frame of the German Plant Phenotyping Network (DPPN). This system comprises 350 soil monitoring modules, each measuring water content, water matrix potential, temperature and electric conductivity. Furthermore small and large sensor platforms enable the continuous monitoring of environmental parameters such as incident photosynthetic active radiation, total radiation balance, relative humidity and CO2 concentration and more. Finally we present an introduction into data management and maintenance."

  13. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  14. Remote dynamic absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Todd S.; Ghoneim, Hany

    2002-06-01

    A new concept, the Passive Remote Electromechanical Dynamic Absorber (RDA) is investigated. The current design utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert the mechanical strain energy of a parent system into electrical energy, which is fed into the RDA. The RDA similarly uses piezoelectric elements to convert the applied electrical energy into mechanical self-excitation and vice versa. A lumped-system model of the coupled system is developed, accounting for the stiffness and mass of both the parent and RDA systems, along with a coupling stiffness term. Additionally, a three dimensional coupled-system finite element model is developed in ANSYS/Multiphysics. Experimental work is conducted to validate the concept of the lumped system model and to validate the finite element modeling technique. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the analytical predictions. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) provides a reasonable prediction of the RDA performance. Furthermore, analytical predictions of the RDA show a successful reduction of the parent response by up to ~30 db, in a narrow frequency band around its uncoupled resonant frequency. The overall qualitative agreement between the analytical and the experiment confirm the validity and potential of the proposed RDA for vibration suppression of dynamic systems.

  15. [Remote wireless monitoring].

    PubMed

    Villar-Montini, Alex

    2009-12-01

    The increasing device implantations to treat cardiovascular diseases such as arrhytmias and heart failures, aging of the population, and the growing number of patients with access to new therapies as well as the wider access to health systems are the reasons why the number of new implantations carried out each year is rising. Hence, we should have an equipment that can control these patients at a distance, making the follow-up closer. The answer to this enormous challenge is the remote monitoring of these devices. Biotronik is a pioneer in this task and since 2001 it has been comercializing pacemakers and portable wireless monitors (CardioMessenger). Currently, there are more than 100,000 installed systems. Thanks to the continuous and completely automatized follow-up, as well as the wireless net, the system integrity can be confirmed, and then proceed to adjust the therapies in an optimized manner according to each patient's needs; also take action to prevent the development of some arrhytmias, or even the evolution of a heart failure. Likewise, the system can improve the clynical efficiency of the treatment and help to economize to the Ministry of Healthcare.

  16. Remotely operable peristaltic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A peristaltic pump is disclosed which includes a roller assembly on which is mounted a series of pump rollers. As the roller assembly is rotated by a drive gear the pump rollers are driven in reverse rotation by means of a stationary ring gear and pump roller gears. An upper pressure shoe plate and a lower pressure shoe plate are positioned above sets of flexible tubing. The tubing is sandwiched between the pressure shoe plates and the pump rollers. A highly compact pump is provided having twice as many fluid channel lines as is conventional. The peristaltic pump device may be remotely operated by means of a rotary actuator which rotates a driving hub to move the shoe plates by means of eccentrically mounted links. The pressure shoe plates may be moved by the rotary actuator to a loaded position in which the fluid lines are pinched by the pump rollers and fluid is pumped to an unloaded position in which the fluid lines are maintained in an undeformed, uncrimped configuration so that no creases or crimps are set into the fluid lines during periods of prolonged nonuse.

  17. REMOTE HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Ginns, D.W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  18. Remote maintenance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G. (Inventor); Owens, Richard C. (Inventor); Rochette, Donn A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A remote maintenance monitoring system retrofits to a given hardware device with a sensor implant which gathers and captures failure data from the hardware device, without interfering with its operation. Failure data is continuously obtained from predetermined critical points within the hardware device, and is analyzed with a diagnostic expert system, which isolates failure origin to a particular component within the hardware device. For example, monitoring of a computer-based device may include monitoring of parity error data therefrom, as well as monitoring power supply fluctuations therein, so that parity error and power supply anomaly data may be used to trace the failure origin to a particular plane or power supply within the computer-based device. A plurality of sensor implants may be rerofit to corresponding plural devices comprising a distributed large-scale system. Transparent interface of the sensors to the devices precludes operative interference with the distributed network. Retrofit capability of the sensors permits monitoring of even older devices having no built-in testing technology. Continuous real time monitoring of a distributed network of such devices, coupled with diagnostic expert system analysis thereof, permits capture and analysis of even intermittent failures, thereby facilitating maintenance of the monitored large-scale system.

  19. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  20. Light-driven growth in Amazon evergreen forests explained by seasonal variations of vertical canopy structure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Dubayah, Ralph

    2017-03-07

    Light-regime variability is an important limiting factor constraining tree growth in tropical forests. However, there is considerable debate about whether radiation-induced green-up during the dry season is real, or an apparent artifact of the remote-sensing techniques used to infer seasonal changes in canopy leaf area. Direct and widespread observations of vertical canopy structures that drive radiation regimes have been largely absent. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns between the canopy and understory layers in Amazon evergreen forests using observations of vertical canopy structure from a spaceborne lidar. We discovered that net leaf flushing of the canopy layer mainly occurs in early dry season, and is followed by net abscission in late dry season that coincides with increasing leaf area of the understory layer. Our observations of understory development from lidar either weakly respond to or are not correlated to seasonal variations in precipitation or insolation, but are strongly related to the seasonal structural dynamics of the canopy layer. We hypothesize that understory growth is driven by increased light gaps caused by seasonal variations of the canopy. This light-regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the drought-induced green-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

  1. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  2. Delineating Floodplain in North Korea using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Korea has been divided into two countries after World War II. So environmental studies about North Korean are not easy and very limited. There were several flood damages every summer in North Korea since 1995, which induces lots of economic loss and agricultural production decrease. Delineating floodplain is indispensable to estimate the magnitude of flood damage and restore the flooded paddy field after unification. Remote Sensing (RS) can provide opportunity to study inaccessible area. In addition, flooding detection is possible. Several research groups study about flooding disaster using RS. Optical images and microwave images have been used in that field. Also, Digital topographic data have been used for flooding detection. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the land characteristics of floodplain by delineating floodplain in inaccessible North Korea using Landsat and digital topographic data. Landsat TM 5 images were used in this study. North Korea had severe flooding disaster since 1995. Among them 1995, 2007 and 2012 flooding are known for serious damages. Two Landsat images before and after flooding of each year were used to delineate floodplain. Study areas are Pyongyang City, Nampo City, North and South Hwanghae Province and South Pyongan Province. Floodplain are derived from overlaid classification image and flood-depth map. 1:25,000 scale digital topographic data were used to make flood-depth map. For land cover classification image enhancement and supervised classification with maximum likelihood classifier were used. Training areas were selected by visual interpretation using Daum-map which provides high resolution image of whole North Korea. The spatial characteristics of the floodplain were discussed based on floodplain map delineated in this study.

  3. It's a Fine Season for Masks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Describes an art lesson, inspired by Giuseppe Arcimboldo's "Seasons" series, in which students construct masks representing one of the four seasons. Discusses the process and lists words and phrases associated with each season. (CMK)

  4. Stormy season on Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowollik, S.

    2008-09-01

    Stormy season on Saturn? Amateur astronomers using telescopes with apertures of 8" or larger now are able to document weather phenomena in the atmosphere of the gas giant planet Saturn. To do this, they use highly sensitive black/white CCD cameras and filters in different wavelengths. Hurricanes with diameters of several thousand km can be observed continuously for weeks or months. The position of the storms within the individual cloud bands of Saturn can be determined by precise measuring of the acquired CCD images. In November 2007 a single, small storm area appeared in the Southern Tropical Zone (STrZ) of Saturn. Until the end of January the storm remained constant in brightness and size and its measured drift [rate] of 1 degree per week corresponds to earlier observations of storms on Saturn. However, beginning in the first week of February 2008 the measurement of the position showed surprising results. The storm appeared brighter and brighter along the "Storm Alley" on the southern hemisphere. In the beginning of March 2008 a further hurricane formed at a distance of about 20 degrees, following the first storm. Bad weather over Germany prevented the observation of Saturn, but observers in Spain, America and the Pacific area could do further observations. The observations were published via the internet and Saturn was nearly continuously observed. During the first half of March the first storm reduced its brightness, whereas the new emerged storm increased in brightness and extent. New small storms emerged and merged into one larger storm. During some days in April 2008 all three storms could be observed several times under good viewing conditions on the disc of Saturn. In May occasionally even five storms were observed. At present, Saturn approaches the ring plane crossing position, when the rings are seen edge-on. It is an open question whether the resulting change in flux of sunlight thereby supplies the energy for the accumulated appearance of the

  5. Remote data monitoring for CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kippenhan, H.A. Jr.; Lidinsky, W.; Roediger, G.

    1995-11-01

    Remote data monitoring from the physicists` home institutions has become an important issue in large international experiments to ensure high performance of the detectors and high quality of data and scientific results. The CDF experiment is a collaboration of 450 physicists from 36 institutions in the U.S., Japan, Canada, Italy and Taiwan. Future experiments at Fermilab, CERN and elsewhere will be even larger, and will be performed over a period of order 10 years. The ability of collaborators at remote sites to monitor the increasingly complex detectors and feed the results back into the data acquisition process will be of great importance We report on the status and performance of remote monitoring from Japan of the CDF experiment in Batavia Illinois. We also discuss feasibilities for modest Remote Control Rooms.

  6. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  7. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  8. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  9. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  10. Seasonal variability of tropospheric aerosols in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardini, Virginia; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Di Liberto, Luca; Tirelli, Cecilia; Casasanta, Giampietro; di Sarra, Alcide; Fiocco, Giorgio; Fuà, Daniele; Cacciani, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The seasonal evolution of the tropospheric aerosol vertical distribution and of its optical properties is investigated using lidar and multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR) measurements collected throughout the period 2006-2009 in the urban environment of Rome. The evolution of the aerosol distribution is studied also in relation to long range transport of dust. Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model backward trajectories are used to identify possible aerosol sources in remote regions. Aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, τ, and Ångström exponent, α, are derived from MFRSR measurements. The Ångström exponent generally displays relatively high values, indicating the predominance of fine particle over the entire column. The average optical depth at 500 nm and Ångström exponent over the whole period are 0.18 ± 0.09 and 1.12 ± 0.39, respectively. Cases affected by Saharan dust (class 1) are separated from those not influenced by dust (class 0) by using backward trajectories. The average values of τ and α are 0.17 ± 0.08 and 1.17 ± 0.36 for class 0, respectively, and 0.22 ± 0.09 and 0.95 ± 0.46 for class 1. About 214 days of lidar measurements are selected for the analysis. The aerosol vertical distribution is influenced by dust events that induce a marked seasonal behaviour. Desert dust generally reaches higher altitudes than other aerosol types; the maxima altitudes are observed during Spring and Summer, when the monthly average altitude exceeds 5 km. The annual average occurrence of desert dust is 27%, with maxima in Spring and in the first part of Summer. The decrease in the dust event frequency observed in winter months is mainly linked to the seasonal behaviour of the synoptic circulation in the Mediterranean. According to the back-trajectories aerosols are primarily observed below 3 km altitude throughout the year when classified as not affected by desert dust. The extinction coefficient vertical profiles for the

  11. Solar electric power for instruments at remote sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Small photovoltaic (PV) systems are the preferred method to power instruments operating at permanent locations away from the electric power grid. The low-power PV power system consists of a solar panel or small array of panels, lead-acid batteries, and a charge controller. Even though the small PV power system is simple, the job of supplying power at a remote site can be very demanding. The equipment is often exposed to harsh conditions. The site may be inaccessible part of the year or difficult and expensive to reach at any time. Yet the system must provide uninterrupted power with minimum maintenance at low cost. This requires good design. Successful small PV systems often require modifications by a knowledgeable fieldworker to adapt to conditions at the site. Much information is available in many places about solar panels, lead-acid batteries, and charging systems but very little of it applies directly to low power instrument sites. The discussion here aims to close some of the gap. Each of the major components is described in terms of this application with particular attention paid to batteries. Site problems are investigated. Finally, maintenance and test procedures are given. This document assumes that the reader is engaged in planning or maintaining low-power PV sites and has basic electrical and electronic knowledge. The area covered by the discussion is broad. To help the reader with the many terms and acronyms used, they are shown in bold when first used and a glossary is provided at the end of the paper.

  12. Physical Principles of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.

    2001-09-01

    Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition includes a discussion of the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques and interferometric radar, an expanded list of problems (with solutions), and a discussion of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This book forms the basis of an introductory course in remote sensing. The main readership will be students and researchers in remote sensing, geography, cartography, surveying, meteorology, earth sciences and environmental sciences generally, as well as physicists, mathematicians and engineers.

  13. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  14. Seasonal Flows in Palikir Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-15

    Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes may be caused by the flow of salty water on Mars, active today when the surface is warm above the freezing point of the solution. This observation is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  15. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  16. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  17. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  18. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  19. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  20. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy medlineplus.gov/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...