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Sample records for remotely sensed precipitation

  1. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; Ihler, A.

    2015-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remote sensed data using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempt to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from satellite information, such as long wave infrared data. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Stacked denoising auto-encoders (SDAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each hidden layer. SDAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as a denoising auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. The results are compared with satellite precipitation product PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network Cloud Classification System). Based on the results, we have several valuable conclusions: By properly training the neural network, it is able to extract useful information for precipitation estimation. For example, it can reduce the mean squared error of the precipitation by 58% for the summer season in the central United States of the validation period. The SDAE method captures the shape of the precipitation from the cloud shape better compared to the CCS product. Design of

  2. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remotely-sensed observations using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempts to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from long wave infrared data from operational geostationary weather satellites. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Denoising stacked auto-encoders (DSAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each layer. DSAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as an auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. Rain/No-rain classification is dealt as the first step of precipitation estimation in this research. Our experiments show that deep neural networks outperform the classic approach originally used in developing the PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System). In an experiment over a 3-month summer period focusing on the central U.S with hourly data, the proposed approach's Probability of Detection (POD) increased to 0.433 as compared to PERSIANN-CCS value of 0.403 and decreased the False Alarm Ratio (FAR) to 0.606 as compared to 0

  3. Temporal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Products for Hydrological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    No study has systematically evaluated streamflow modeling between monthly and daily timescales. This study examines streamflow from eight watersheds across the United States where five different precipitation products were used as primary input into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to generate simulated streamflow. Timescales examined include monthly, dekad (10 day), pentad (5 day), triad (3 day), and daily. The eight basins studied are the San Pedro (Arizona); Cimarron (north-central Oklahoma); mid-Nueces (south Texas); mid-Rio Grande (south Texas and northern Mexico), Yocano (northern Mississippi); Alapaha (south Georgia); Upper Tar (North Carolina) and mid-St. Francis (eastern Arkansas). The precipitation products used to drive simulations include rain gauge, NWS Multisensor Precipitation Estimator, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, Multi-Satellite (TRMM) Precipitation Analysis, TRMM 3B42-V6, and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Method (CMORPH). Understanding how streamflow varies at sub-monthly timescales is important because there are a host of hydrological applications such a flood forecast guidance and reservoir inflow forecasts that reside in a temporal domain between monthly and daily timescales. The major finding of this study is the quantification of a strong positive correlation between performance metrics and time step at which model performance deteriorates. Basically, better performing simulations, with higher Nash-Sutcliffe values of 0.80 and above can support modeling at finer timescales to at least daily and perhaps beyond into the sub-daily realm. These findings are significant in that they clearly document the ability of SWAT to support modeling at sub-monthly time steps, which is beyond the capability for which SWAT was initially designed.

  4. Yesterday's Japan: A system of flood risk estimation over Japan with remote-sensing precipitation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanae, S.; Seto, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

    2008-12-01

    A new river discharge prediction and hindcast system all over Japan in order to issue alerts of flood risks has been developed. It utilizes Japan Meteorological Agency"fs Meso-scale model outputs and remote-sensing precipitation data. A statistical approach that compromises the bias and uncertainty of models is proposed for interpreting the simulated river discharge as a flood risk. A 29-year simulation was implemented to estimate parameters of the Gumbel distribution for the probability of extreme discharge, and the estimated discharge probability index (DPI) showed good agreement with that estimated based on observations. Even more strikingly, high DPI in the simulation corresponded to actual flood damage records. This indicates that the real-time simulation of the DPI could potentially provide reasonable flood warnings. A method to overcome the lack of sufficiently long simulation data through the use of a pre-existing long-term simulation and to estimate statistical parameters is also proposed. A preliminary flood risk prediction that used operational weather forecast data for 2003 and 2004 gave results similar to those of the 29-year simulation for the Typhoon T0423 event on October 2004, demonstrating the transferability of the technique to real-time prediction. In addition, the usefulness of satellite precipitation data for the flood estimation is evaluated via hindcast. We conducted it using several precipitation satellite datasets. The GSMaP product can detect heavy precipitation events, but floods being not well simulated in many cases because of GSMAP"fs underestimation. The GSMaP product adjusted by using monthly and 1 degree rain gauge information can be used to detect flood events as well as hourly rain gauge observations. Another quantitative issue is also disscussed. When a remote-sensing based precipitation data is used as an input for hindcast, we are suffering from underestimation of precipitation amount. The effort for improvement will be shown

  5. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  6. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  7. Aerosols and Precipitation Retrievals over Eureka by Remote Sensing: Validation of Space Based Profiling Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, J. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Hudak, D. R.; Rodriguez, P.; Ivanescu, L.; Eloranta, E.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols and precipitation are among the agents responsible for the ongoing changes in the Arctic climate and the hydrological cycle. The seasonal variations of Arctic aerosols (Arctic haze for e.g.) are linked to the transport efficiency as well as precipitation (wet) scavenging. Aside from affecting aerosol concentrations, precipitation is an important hydrological variable that affects the moisture budget of the atmosphere. Aerosols, in turn, influence the vertical distribution of clouds and this induces changes in the precipitation pattern. The spatial and temporal sparsity of precipitation measurements over the Arctic region means that satellite remote sensing techniques take on an importance that considerably exceeds their role south of the Arctic circle. Radar reflectivity and snow profiles from CloudSat (in support of cloud and precipitation analyses) and backscattering measurements from CALIOP (investigations of aerosol and small cloud particle properties) can be used to study Arctic winter clouds and precipitation and the role of aerosols in their formation. In this study we attempt to validate satellite-based profiling retrievals of precipitation parameters using AHSRL (Arctic High Spectral Resolution Lidar), CRL (CANDAC Raman Lidar) and MMCR (Milli-Meter Cloud Radar) profiles acquired at the PEARL high-Arctic site in Eureka (80 °N, 86 °W), Nunavut, Canada. As part of the process of validating the profiling retrievals we aspire to learn more about the mechanisms controlling aerosol, cloud and precipitation inter-dynamics. In addition, ground-based, high-frequency observations of precipitation will be used for characterizing precipitation totals as well as the conditional probability of the type of precipitation (rain or snow) and thus to help understand and validate comparable information extracted from the satellite retrievals. We also aim to characterize different particle types using AHSRL and CRL depolarization profiles, MMCR Doppler velocity

  8. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ray G.; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of consumptive use of surface water by agriculture are vital for assessing food security, managing water rights, and evaluating anthropogenic impacts on regional hydrology. However, reliable, current, and public data on consumptive use can be difficult to obtain, particularly in international and less developed basins. We combine remotely-sensed precipitation and satellite observations of evapotranspiration and groundwater depletion to estimate surface water consumption by irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley for the 2004-09 water years. We validated our technique against measured consumption data determined from streamflow observations and water export data in the Central Valley. Mean satellite-derived surface water consumption was 291.0 ± 32.4 mm/year while measured surface water consumption was 308.1 ± 6.5 mm/year. The results show the potential for remotely-sensed hydrologic data to independently observe irrigated agriculture's surface water consumption in contested or unmonitored basins. Improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of satellite precipitation, evapotranspiration and gravimetric groundwater observations are needed to reduce the uncertainty in this method and to allow its use on smaller basins and at shorter time scales.

  9. Forecasting Precipitation over the MENA Region: A Data Mining and Remote Sensing Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkadiri, R.; Sultan, M.; Elbayoumi, T.; Chouinard, K.

    2015-12-01

    We developed and applied an integrated approach to construct predictive tools with lead times of 1 to 12 months to forecast precipitation amounts over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The following steps were conducted: (1) acquire and analyze temporal remote sensing-based precipitation datasets (i.e. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission [TRMM]) over five main water source regions in the MENA area (i.e. Atlas Mountains in Morocco, Southern Sudan, Red Sea Hills of Yemen, and Blue Nile and White Nile source areas) throughout the investigation period (1998 to 2015), (2) acquire and extract monthly values for all of the climatic indices that are likely to influence the climatic patterns over the MENA region (e.g., Northern Atlantic Oscillation [NOI], Southern Oscillation Index [SOI], and Tropical North Atlantic Index [TNA]); and (3) apply data mining methods to extract relationships between the observed precipitation and the controlling factors (climatic indices) and use predictive tools to forecast monthly precipitation over each of the identified pilot study areas. Preliminary results indicate that by using the period from January 1998 until August 2012 for model training and the period from September 2012 to January 2015 for testing, precipitation can be successfully predicted with a three-months lead over South West Yemen, Atlas Mountains in Morocco, Southern Sudan, Blue Nile sources and White Nile sources with confidence (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.911, 0.823, 0.807, 0.801 and 0.895 respectively). Future work will focus on applying this technique for prediction of precipitation over each of the climatically contiguous areas of the MENA region. If our efforts are successful, our findings will lead the way to the development and implementation of sound water management scenarios for the MENA countries.

  10. Diurnal and spatial variation of remotely sensed precipitation over Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, D.; Iyengar, G. R.; Mitra, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    The climate of India is dominated by monsoon systems. The remotely sensed estimates obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to examine the most of the Indian monsoon systems. This study deals with the diurnal and spatial variation of precipitation over the Indian region. The precipitation data from TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), blended from a variety of sources (including rain gauges over land) and having both daily and 3- hourly output are being used for evaluation of the Numerical Weather Prediction models Basu (2007) of National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. The precipitation obtained from TRMM 3B42 for this study period has a spatial resolution of 0.25º X 0.25º latitude-longitude. The 3-hourly averaged values are centered at the middle of each 3 hr period. South Asian regions are dominated by seasonal climatic fluctuations and the major rainy season is the southwest monsoon season. In addition to the seasonal fluctuations, Indian summer monsoon is modulated by diurnal fluctuations; nature of diurnal variation of rainfall varies from place to place and depends upon the locations, topography of the region. Diurnal variation of rain-rate, frequency of rain, conditional rain rate, and maximum and minimum rain occurrence is studied. Over Indian tropical region, maximum rainfall over land and Bay of Bengal regions is observed during the late-afternoon and early-morning period, respectively. Drizzle or less rainfall occur frequently in the morning over most land areas, whereas convective activity occurs during the afternoon. The model predicted diurnal cycle of precipitation peaks too early (by ~3h) and the amplitude is too strong over Indian land region and tropical ocean region.

  11. Evaluating the performance of remotely sensed and reanalysed precipitation data over West Africa using HBV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jütten, Thomas; Jackisch, Dominik; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Kusche, Jürgen; Eicker, Annette; Springer, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Water is one of the most crucial natural resources in West Africa, where the livelihoods of large parts of the population rely heavily on rain-fed agriculture. Therefore, the modelling of the water balance is an important tool to aid in water resource management. Precipitation is one of most important atmospheric drivers of hydrological models. However, ground-based observation networks are sparse in Western Africa and a further decline in station numbers due to a variety of reasons such as the deterioration of stations or political unrest has been observed in recent years. In ungauged river basins, or basins with insufficiently available precipitation data, several studies have shown that remotely sensed or reanalysed precipitation data may be used to compliment or replace missing information. However, the uncertainties of these datasets over Western Africa are not well examined and a need for further studies is apparent. For validation purposes, precipitation datasets are traditionally compared to in-situ ground measurements. This is not possible in ungauged basins. A new approach to assess the quality of satellite and reanalysis data which is gaining popularity among researchers compares different precipitation datasets using hydrological models. In this so-called hydrological evaluation, ground-truth data is no longer necessary in order to validate a product. The chosen model is calibrated for different precipitation products and the simulated streamflow generated for each product is compared to the measured streamflow. Multiple state of the art satellite and reanalysis precipitation datasets with various spatial resolutions were used in this study, namely: CFSR (0.3125°), CHIRPS (0.05°), CMORPH (0.25°), PERSIANN (0.25°), RFE 2.0 (0.1°), TAMSAT (0.0375°), TRMM 3B42 v7 (0.25°) and TRMM 3B42RT (real time) (0.25°). These datasets were evaluated at the regional as well as local scale using the HBV light conceptual hydrological model for several basins

  12. Evaluation of Merging Methods of Remotely Sensed and Gauged Precipitation for Rainfall Runoff Simulation in Da River Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, B. T.; Ishidaira, H.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation would be one of the major sources of uncertainty for hydrological analysis since precipitation is the main input of the hydrological models, in that sense, is one of the first factors controlling the accuracy of Rainfall Run-off (R-R) modeling. However, sparse meteorological data in un-gauged or poorly gauged basins has been a long concerning issue that bottlenecks the quantification of the hydrological budget. In recent decades, remote sensing techniques with their broad spatial coverage and repeat temporal coverage would grasp well the spatial distribution of precipitation over the river basin. However, remote sensing rainfall estimates are not direct measurements of rainfall that are subjects to variety of error sources and exhibit the limitation for rainfall budget accuracy. Therefore, it is appealing to incorporate the precision of point measurements of the local rainfall stations with the fine spatial distribution of satellite-based rainfall estimates to obtain a good quality of precipitation field in space and time to take the advantages of the both two datasets. The aim of my research is blending the remote sensing satellite precipitation, GsMAP-MVK (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation moving vector with Kalman filter) with a very high spatial distribution, with the local rainfall measurements for improvement of quantitative rainfall estimates and run-off predictions capability. Several satellite-gauge merging methods with various complexity degrees: from linear merging, power transformation merging to geo-statistical merging techniques were utilized to provide the precipitation input for conceptual hydrological model HBV for run-off simulation in Da river basin in Vietnam. The Geo-statistical merging methods give the best results for stream-flow simulation. Key Words: Remote sensed satellite data, hydrological model, un-gauged basin, bias correction.

  13. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei

    Studies on surface hydrology can generally be classified into two categories, observation for different components of surface water, and modeling their dynamic movements. This study only focuses on observation part of surface water components: snow cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Moreover, instead of discussion on the detailed algorithm and instrument technique behind each component, this dissertation pours efforts on analysis of the standard remotely sensed products and their applications under different settings. First in Chapter 2, validation of MODIS Terra 8-day maximum snow cover composite (MOD10A2) in the Northern Xinjiang, China, from 2000-2006, shows that the 8-day MODIS/Terra product has high agreements with in situ measurements as the in situ snow depth is larger or equal to 4 cm, while the agreement is low for the patchy snow as the in situ snow depth less than 4 cm. According to the in situ observation, this chapter develops an empirical algorithm to separate the cloud-covered pixels into snow and no snow. Continued long-term production of MODIS-type snow cover product is critical to assess water resources of the study area, as well as other larger scale global environment monitoring. Terra and Aqua satellites carry the same MODIS instrument and provide two parallel MODIS daily snow cover products at different time (local time 10:30 am and 1:30 pm, respectively). Chapter 3 develops an algorithm and automated scripts to combine the daily MODIS Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) snow cover products, and to automatically generate multi-day Terra-Aqua snow cover image composites, with flexible starting and ending dates and a user-defined cloud cover threshold. Chapter 4 systematically compares the difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products within a hydrologic year of 2003-2004, validates the MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products using in situ measurements in Northern Xinjiang, and compares the accuracy among the standard MODIS

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing of Tropical Precipitation and Ice Clouds for GCM Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin

    2001-01-01

    This project, supported by the NASA New Investigator Program, has primarily been funding a graduate student, Darren McKague. Since August 1999 Darren has been working part time at Raytheon, while continuing his PhD research. Darren is planning to finish his thesis work in May 2001, thus some of the work described here is ongoing. The proposed research was to use GOES visible and infrared imager data and SSM/I microwave data to obtain joint distributions of cirrus cloud ice mass and precipitation for a study region in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. These joint distributions of cirrus cloud and rainfall were to be compared to those from the CSU general circulation model to evaluate the cloud microphysical amd cumulus parameterizations in the GCM. Existing algorithms were to be used for the retrieval of cloud ice water path from GOES (Minnis) and rainfall from SSM/I (Wilheit). A theoretical study using radiative transfer models and realistic variations in cloud and precipitation profiles was to be used to estimate the retrieval errors. Due to the unavailability of the GOES satellite cloud retrieval algorithm from Dr. Minnis (a co-PI), there was a change in the approach and emphasis of the project. The new approach was to develop a completely new type of remote sensing algorithm - one to directly retrieve joint probability density functions (pdf's) of cloud properties from multi-dimensional histograms of satellite radiances. The usual approach is to retrieve individual pixels of variables (i.e. cloud optical depth), and then aggregate the information. Only statistical information is actually needed, however, and so a more direct method is desirable. We developed forward radiative transfer models for the SSM/I and GOES channels, originally for testing the retrieval algorithms. The visible and near infrared ice scattering information is obtained from geometric ray tracing of fractal ice crystals (Andreas Macke), while the mid-infrared and microwave scattering is computed

  15. Ultraviolet aurora on outer planets: morphology and remote sensing of electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Claude; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Shematovich, Valery; Soret, Lauriane

    2016-07-01

    The aurora is the result of the interaction between energetic particles and the upper atmosphere of a planet. Generally, energetic particles from the magnetosphere penetrate the atmosphere, partly deposit their energy and are partly reflected. Their collisional interactions with the atmospheric atoms and molecules heat the atmosphere and produce auroral emissions. Consequently, the aurora then bears the signature of both the acceleration mechanism and the atmospheric structure and composition. Jupiter's UV auroral H2 and H emissions are generally divided into several components. The main auroral emission at Jupiter is associated with the giant current loop connecting the region of co-rotation breakdown in the middle magnetosphere with the ionosphere. The polar emissions observed inside the main emission are very variable over short timescales. The observed diffuse emission equatorward of the main emission is most likely related to precipitation resulting from wave-particle interactions. Finally, the satellite magnetic footprints are created by accelerated electrons resulting from the interaction between the Galilean moons and the plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere. Saturn's magnetosphere and its aurorae appear to be both solar wind driven as the terrestrial magnetosphere and rotationally dominated, similarly to Jupiter. In addition to the main auroral ring, transient features have been recently identified. Uranus displays aurorae quite different from the other two with faint small-size structures appearing following solar storm activity. These different processes are probably associated with different energy spectra of the precipitated electrons. We present an overview of recent results concerning the relation between morphology, variability and remote sensing of the auroral electron energy in the different components. We show that mapping the UV color ratio is a powerful tool to globally characterize the electron precipitation and the flux-energy relation

  16. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  17. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  18. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  19. Quantifying discharge uncertainty from remotely sensed precipitation data products in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, H.; Raoufi, R.; Yoon, Y.; Beighley, E., II; Alshawabkeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth is a serious health issue in the United States that contributes to over one-third of all infant deaths. Puerto Rico being one of the hot spots, preliminary research found that the high preterm birth rate can be associated with exposure to some contaminants in water used on daily basis. Puerto Rico has more than 200 contaminated sites including 16 active Superfund sites. Risk of exposure to contaminants is aggravated by unlined landfills lying over the karst regions, highly mobile and dynamic nature of the karst aquifers, and direct contact with surface water through sinkholes and springs. Much of the population in the island is getting water from natural springs or artesian wells that are connected with many of these potentially contaminated karst aquifers. Mobility of contaminants through surface water flows and reservoirs are largely known and are highly correlated with the variations in hydrologic events and conditions. In this study, we quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of Puerto Rico's surface water stores and fluxes to better understand potential impacts on the distribution of groundwater contamination. To quantify and characterize Puerto Rico's surface waters, hydrologic modeling, remote sensing and field measurements are combined. Streamflow measurements are available from 27 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging stations with drainage areas ranging from 2 to 510 km2. Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is used to simulate hourly streamflow from watersheds larger than 1 km2 that discharge to ocean. HRR model simulates vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface runoff and river discharge. The model consists of 4418 sub-catchments with a mean model unit area (i.e., sub-catchment) of 1.8 km2. Using gauged streamflow measurements for validation, we first assess model results for simulated discharge using three precipitation products: TRMM-3B42 (3 hour temporal resolution, 0.25 degree spatial resolution); NWS stage

  20. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  1. Effects of 4D-Var data assimilation using remote sensing precipitation products in a WRF over the complex Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoduo; Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, ground-based, in situ observations, remote sensing, and regional climate modeling, individually, cannot provide the high-quality precipitation data required for hydrological prediction, especially over complex terrain. Data assimilation techniques are often used to assimilate ground observations and remote sensing products into models for dynamic downscaling. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to assimilate two satellite precipitation products (TRMM 3B42 and FY-2D) using the 4D-Var data assimilation method. The results show that the assimilation of remote sensing precipitation products can improve the initial WRF fields of humidity and temperature, thereby improving precipitation forecasting and decreasing the spin-up time. Hence, assimilating TRMM and FY-2D remote sensing precipitation products using WRF 4D-Var can be viewed as a positive step toward improving the accuracy and lead time of numerical weather prediction models, particularly for short-term weather forecasting. Future work is proposed to assimilate a suite of remote sensing data, e.g., the combination of precipitation and soil moisture data, into a WRF model to improve 7-8 day forecasts of precipitation and other atmospheric variables.

  2. Propagation Limitations in Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Multi-sensors and systems in remote sensing ; Radar sensing systems over land; Remote sensing techniques in oceanography; Influence of...propagation media and background; Infrared techniques in remote sensing ; Photography in remote sensing ; Analytical studies in remote sensing .

  3. Role of precipitation uncertainty in the estimation of hydrologic soil properties using remotely sensed soil moisture in a semiarid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Mocko, David M.; Garcia, Matthew; Santanello, Joseph A.; Tischler, Michael A.; Moran, M. Susan; Wu, Yihua

    2008-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the role of precipitation uncertainty in the estimation of soil texture and soil hydraulic properties for application to land-atmosphere modeling systems. This work extends a recent study by Santanello et al. (2007) in which it was shown that soil texture and related physical parameters may be estimated using a combination of multitemporal microwave remote sensing, land surface modeling, and parameter estimation methods. As in the previous study, the NASA-GSFC Land Information System modeling framework, including the community Noah land surface model constrained with pedotransfer functions (PTF) for use with the Parameter Estimation Tool, is applied to several sites in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona during the Monsoon '90 experiment period. It is demonstrated that the application of PTF constraints in the estimation process for hydraulic parameters provides accuracy similar to direct hydrologic parameter estimation, with the additional benefit of simultaneously estimated soil texture. Precipitation uncertainty is then represented with systematically varying sources, from the high-density precipitation gauge network in WGEW to lower quality sources, including spatially averaged precipitation, single gauges in and near the watershed, and results from the continental-scale North American Regional Reanalysis data set. It is demonstrated that the quality of the input precipitation data set, and particularly the accuracy of the data set, in both detection of convective (heavy) rainfall events and reproduction of the observed rainfall rate probabilities, is a critical determinant in the use of successive remote sensing results in order to establish and refine estimates of soil texture and hydraulic properties.

  4. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  5. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  6. Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Images to Investigate Hydrologic Connectivity and Degradation Thresholds along a Precipitation Gradient in Semiarid Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, S.; Saco, P. M.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    Arid and semiarid landscapes are particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic disturbances. Previous work has identified that these landscapes are prone to undergo critical degradation thresholds above which rehabilitation is difficult to achieve. This threshold behaviour is tightly linked to the overland flow redistribution and an increase in hydrologic connectivity associated with the climatic or anthropogenic disturbances. In fact, disturbances (such as wildfire, overgrazing or harvesting activities) can disrupt the spatial structure of vegetation, increase landscape hydrologic connectivity, trigger erosion and produce a substantial loss of water. All these effects can eventually affect ecosystem functionality (e.g. Rainfall Use Efficiency). In this study, we explore the impact of degradation processes induced by vegetation disturbances (mostly due to grazing pressure) on ecosystem functionality and connectivity along a precipitation gradient (250 mm to 490 mm annual average rainfall) using a combination of remote sensing observations and Digital Elevation Model data. The sites were carefully selected in the Mulga landscapes bioregion (New South Wales, Queensland) and in sites of the Northern Territory in Australia, which display similar vegetation characteristics and good quality rainfall information. Vegetation patterns and the percent of fractional cover were obtained from high resolution remote sensing images (IKONOS, QuickBird and Pleiades). We computed rainfall use efficiency and precipitation marginal response using local precipitation data and MODIS vegetation indices. We estimated mean Flowlength as an indicator of structural hydrologic connectivity using vegetation binary maps and digital elevation models. We compared the trends for several sites along the precipitation gradient, and found that disturbances substantially increase hydrologic connectivity following a threshold behaviour that affects landscape functionality. Though this threshold

  7. Watershed streamflow estimation utilizing remote sensing time-series proxies of landscape moisture state and radar precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissling, Blake Paul

    This research conjectures that streamflow in large (> 250 km2) semi-arid watersheds, in south central Texas, can be reasonably estimated with statistical regression methods based on a model solely parameterized by remote-sensing derived proxies for landscape moisture state and radar (NEXRAD) precipitation estimates. The utility of such an approach is obvious: estimating streamflow in watersheds for which no other flow records exist. The structure of the research methodology is based on three stages, (1) test the initial hypothesis that remote-sensing-derived biophysicals of the landscape (in a test watershed) are sensitive to land surface soil moisture state, and compare the resulting model against a benchmark model for streamflow estimation, (2) re-assess the significance of the previous model parameters (and evaluate new parameters) in the same test watershed for an extended calibration and validation period, and (3) test for the transferability of parameters to three regionally proximate watersheds of varying dimension and environmental condition. Chapter 2 reports on the development of the original model, including a discussion of the forward stepwise regression approach for the initial selection of model parameters. Spatially distributed NEXRAD radar precipitation estimates are introduced as an improvement over local gauged estimates. A benchmark comparison model, the Natural Resource Conservation Service curve number method, is built with multiple approaches for assessing antecedent moisture condition. The curve number method model is compared to the remote sensing model, demonstrating that the remote sensing model performs at least as well as the benchmark model, as assessed with standard efficiency criteria. Chapter 3 continues the basic line of research but significantly expands on the evaluation of other remote sensing derived parameters potentially sensitive to landscape moisture status. The effects of deseasonalizing (removing long-term mean seasonal

  8. Precipitation effects on the selection of suitable non-variant targets intended for atmospheric correction of satellite remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Retalis, Adrianos; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Michaelides, Silas

    2013-09-01

    One of the most well-established atmospheric correction methods of satellite imagery is the use of the empirical line method using non-variant targets. Non-variant targets serve as pseudo-invariant targets since their reflectance values are stable across time. A recent adaptation of the empirical line method incorporates the use of ground reflectance measurements of selected non-variant targets. Most of the users are not aware of the existing conditions of the pseudo-invariant targets; i.e., whether they are dry or wet. Any omission of such effects may cause erroneous results; therefore, remote sensing users must be aware of such effects. This study assessed the effects of precipitation on five types of commonly located surfaces, including asphalt, concrete and sand, intended as pseudo-invariant targets for atmospheric correction. Spectroradiometric measurements were taken in wet and dry conditions to obtain the spectral signatures of the targets, from January 2010 to May 2011 (46 campaigns). An atmospheric correction of eleven Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images using the empirical line method was conducted. To identify the effects of precipitation, a comparison was conducted of the atmospheric path radiance component for wet and dry conditions. It was found that precipitation conditions such as rainfall affected the reflectance values of the surfaces, especially sand. Therefore, precipitation conditions need to be considered when using non-variant targets in atmospheric correction methods.

  9. The Evolution of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Products for Hydrological Applications with a Focus on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M.

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the evolution of how remotely sensed precipitation products have impacted hydrologic modeling from six basins across the continental United States. Precipitation products include both ground-based (Multisensor Precipitation Estimator - MPE) and space-based products. Two space-based products are from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and include the real-time TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA-RT) and TRMM 3B42 Research product. Precipitation products are compared between early (2004-2008) and late (2008-2010) periods. Additionally, version 6 and the new version 7 of these TRMM products are examined. Watersheds examined were moderately large (1000 to 1,000 square kilometers) and included the San Pedro (Arizona), Cimarron (Oklahoma); Alapaha (Georgia), mid-Nueces (Texas), San Casimiro (Texas), and the mid-Rio Grande basins, which is a bi-national basin that spans the Texas-Mexico border. Precipitation products are used to drive streamflow simulations using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The main results of this study concludes that MPE is a mature remote sensing product that generally supports superior hydrologic simulations based on standard performance metrics such as mass balance error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient, and coefficient of persistence. TRMM products support acceptable simulations and have improved in performance between early and late periods for TMPA-RT (both versions) and version 6 of TRMM 3B42 Research in five out of the six basins examined. This improvement is related to modification of TRMM in January 2009 with the addition of more satellite data and a climatologic bias correction, which greatly improves the real-time TMPA-RT product. Conversely, version 7 of the TRMM 3B42 Research has a positive bias compared to version 6, which is translated into poorer hydrological simulations of streamflow. Future research is urgently needed to determine if the issues observed in this study are

  10. Hydrologic Assessment of Remotely Sensed High Resolution Precipitation Products over Cold-Mountainous Regions, and Analysis of the GPM Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, A.; Andreadis, K.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Painter, T. H.; Granger, S. L.; Das, N. N.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing of precipitation in mountainous and snow-fed basins is challenging, but critical for hydrometeorological applications and water resources management. This study is part of the ongoing effort to develop a Regional Hydrological Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS). Five commonly used satellite-based high-resolution precipitation products (HRPPs) over several basins in the mountainous western United States are investigated. The products (TRMM 3B42, TRMM 3B42-RT, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and PERSIANN-CCS) are analyzed using ground gauge and gauge-adjusted radar precipitation data. In order to diagnose the sources of errors, level 2 products are also explored (AMSR, AMSU, TRMM TMI, TRMM PR, and CloudSat). CloudSat provided useful insight on light rain and snowfall and was used as an additional resource to improve the analysis. For hydrologic assessment, the skill of HRPPs and the resulting streamflow simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model is cross-compared. It was found that over the mountainous west US basins, HRPPs often capture major precipitation events, but seldom capture the observed magnitude of precipitation, especially during winter when snowfall is dominant. Bias adjustment is found to be effective in enhancing the HRPPs and resulting streamflow simulations. The results using collocated AMSR-E, CloudSat, and AMSU suggest that current limitations in retrieving snowfall, precipitation from systems that lack frozen hydrometeors, and systems over frozen land contribute largely to the observed errors transferred to HRPPs. In light of the operation of the GPM mission, further opportunities for enhancing snowfall retrieval and hydrology of cold and mountainous regions are becoming available. We provide some initial assessment of the latest GPM observations and discuss about the impact of GPM over cold-mountainous basins.

  11. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and the inference of boundary-layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Lo, R. C.; Nath, N. R.; Dalu, G.

    1979-01-01

    From the depth of the water vapor spectral lines in the 8-9 micron window region, measured by the Nimbus 4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) with a resolution of about 3/cm, the precipitable water vapor over the oceans is remotely sensed. In addition the IRIS spectral data in the 11-13 micron window region have been used to derive the sea surface temperature (SST). Seasonal maps of w on the oceans deduced from the spectral data reveal the dynamical influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from these remotely sensed w and SST. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the ITCZ. The derived information is in reasonable agreement with some observed climatological patterns over the oceans.

  12. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and the inference of boundary-layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Lo, R. C.; Nath, N. R.; Dalu, G.

    1979-01-01

    From the depth of the water vapor spectral lines in the 8-9 micron window region, measured by the Nimbus 4 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) with a resolution of about 3/cm, the precipitable water vapor over the oceans is remotely sensed. In addition the IRIS spectral data in the 11-13 micron window region have been used to derive the sea surface temperature (SST). Seasonal maps of w on the oceans deduced from the spectral data reveal the dynamical influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from these remotely sensed w and SST. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the ITCZ. The derived information is in reasonable agreement with some observed climatological patterns over the oceans.

  13. The quantitative precipitation estimation system for Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban remote sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haonan; Chandrasekar, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban radar network consists of a combination of high resolution X band radars and a standard National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system operating at S band frequency. High spatiotemporal-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the important applications of such a network. This paper presents a real-time QPE system developed by the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Engineering Research Center for the DFW urban region using both the high resolution X band radar network and the NWS S band radar observations. The specific dual-polarization radar rainfall algorithms at different frequencies (i.e., S- and X-band) and the fusion methodology combining observations at different temporal resolution are described. Radar and rain gauge observations from four rainfall events in 2013 that are characterized by different meteorological phenomena are used to compare the rainfall estimation products of the CASA DFW QPE system to conventional radar products from the national radar network provided by NWS. This high-resolution QPE system is used for urban flash flood mitigations when coupled with hydrological models.

  14. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  15. NARVAL North - Remote Sensing of Postfrontal Convective Clouds and Precipitation over the North Atlantic with the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepp, Christian; Ament, Felix; Bakan, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Hagen, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Jansen, Friedhelm; Konow, Heike; Mech, Mario; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Schäfler, Andreas; Stevens, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The new German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) became recently available for measurement flights in atmospheric research. It's capacity of measuring from a high altitude vertical profiles of all components of atmospheric water - like vapor, liquid and ice, in both cloud and precipitation forms, as well as the aerosol particles upon which cloud droplets form - makes it a unique research platform. The aircraft, equipped with advanced radiometers, radar and lidar technology, the HALO Microwave Package (HAMP), is an initiative by German climate and environmental research institutions and is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). One of the first major missions to exploit the capabilities of HALO was conducted for the NARVAL project (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) during January 2014. After studying subtropical clouds one month before in the first NARVAL phase, the interest of NARVAL North focused on the study of cold air convection and precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Based at Keflavik airport (Iceland), several flights were conducted to examine the specific small-scale precipitation structures behind the backsides of cold fronts over the North Atlantic. This should help to narrow the gap in the understanding of substantial differences between satellite observations and model calculations in such situations. First data analysis of these measurements indicate promising results. The poster will describe the HALO instrument packages as well as the collected observations during the campaign and will present preliminary scientific findings.

  16. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  17. Simulation of Melting Ice-Phase Precipitation Hydrometeors for Use in Passive and Active Microwave Remote-Sensing Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, with active and passive microwave remote-sensing instruments, was designed to be sensitive to precipitation-sized particles. The shape of these particles naturally influences the distribution of scattered microwaves. Therefore, we seek to simulate ice-phase precipitation using accurate models of the physical properties of individual snowflakes and aggregate ice crystals, similar to those observed in precipitating clouds. A number of researchers have examined the single-scattering properties of individual ice crystals and aggregates, but only a few have started to look at the properties of melting these particles. One of the key difficulties, from a simulation perspective, is characterizing the distribution of melt-water on a melting particle. Previous studies by the author and others have shown that even for spherical particles, the relative distribution of liquid water on an ice-particle can have significant effects on the computed scattering and absorption properties in the microwave regime. This, in turn, strongly influences forward model simulations of passive microwave TBs, radar reflectivities, and path-integrated attenuation. The present study examines the sensitivity of the single scattering properties of melting ice-crystals and aggregates to variations in the volume fraction of melt water, and the distribution of meltwater. We make some simple simulations 1-D vertical profiles having melting layers, and compute the radar reflectivities consistent with the GPM DPR at Ku- and Ka-band. We also compute the top-of-the-atmosphere brightness temperatures at GPM GMI channels for the same vertical profiles, and discuss the sensitivities to variances in the aforementioned physical properties.

  18. Climatology of clouds and precipitation over East Antarctica using ground-based remote sensing at the Princess Elizabeth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Tricht, Kristof; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    The surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly dependent on the interaction between clouds and precipitation. Our understanding of these processes is challenged by the limited availability of observations over the area and problems in Antarctic climate simulations by state-of-the-art climate models. Improvements are needed in this field, as the Antarctic ice sheet is expected to become a dominant contributor to sea level rise in the 21st century. In 2010, an observational site was established at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) Antarctic station. PE is located in the escarpment area of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (72°S, 23°E). The instruments consist of several ground-based remote sensing instruments: a ceilometer (measuring cloud-base height and vertical structure), a 24-GHz Micro Rain Radar (MRR; providing vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (measuring effective cloud base temperature). An automatic weather station provides info on boundary-layer meteorology (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, pressure), as well as broadband radiative fluxes and snow height changes. This set of instruments can be used to infer the role of clouds in the Antarctic climate system, their interaction with radiation and their impact on precipitation. Cloud and precipitation characteristics are derived from 5-year-long measurement series, which is unprecedented for the Antarctic region. Here, we present an overview of the cloud and precipitation climatology. Statistics on cloud occurrence are calculated on annual / seasonal basis and a distinction between liquid / mixed phase and ice clouds is made. One can discriminate between liquid-bearing and ice-only clouds by investigating the ceilometer attenuated backscatter, since liquid phase clouds have a much higher signal. Furthermore, by using pyrometer measurements, we are able to identify the range of temperatures at which liquid / ice clouds are

  19. Observing wind, aerosol particles, cloud and precipitation: Finland's new ground-based remote-sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; O'Connor, E. J.; Komppula, M.; Korhonen, K.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Wood, C. R.; Bauer-Pfundstein, M.; Poikonen, A.; Karppinen, T.; Lonka, H.; Kurri, M.; Heinonen, J.; Moisseev, D.; Asmi, E.; Aaltonen, V.; Nordbo, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laurila, T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki, has established a new ground-based remote-sensing network in Finland. The network consists of five topographically, ecologically and climatically different sites distributed from southern to northern Finland. The main goal of the network is to monitor air pollution and boundary layer properties in near real time, with a Doppler lidar and ceilometer at each site. In addition to these operational tasks, two sites are members of the Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS); a Ka band cloud radar at Sodankylä will provide cloud retrievals within CloudNet, and a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, PollyXT (POrtabLe Lidar sYstem eXTended), in Kuopio provides optical and microphysical aerosol properties through EARLINET (the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Three C-band weather radars are located in the Helsinki metropolitan area and are deployed for operational and research applications. We performed two inter-comparison campaigns to investigate the Doppler lidar performance, compare the backscatter signal and wind profiles, and to optimize the lidar sensitivity through adjusting the telescope focus length and data-integration time to ensure sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in low-aerosol-content environments. In terms of statistical characterization, the wind-profile comparison showed good agreement between different lidars. Initially, there was a discrepancy in the SNR and attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles which arose from an incorrectly reported telescope focus setting from one instrument, together with the need to calibrate. After diagnosing the true telescope focus length, calculating a new attenuated backscatter coefficient profile with the new telescope function and taking into account calibration, the resulting attenuated backscatter profiles all showed good agreement with each other. It was thought that harsh Finnish

  20. Global Remote Sensing of Precipitating Electron Energies: A Comparison of Substorms and Pressure Pulse Related Intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) observes aurora responses to incident solar wind pressure pulses and interplanetary shocks such its those associated with coronal mass ejections. Previous observations have demonstrated that the arrival of it pressure pulse at the front of the magnetosphere results in highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions and a substantial increase in both dayside and nightside aurora precipitations. Our observations show it simultaneous brightening over bread areas of the dayside and nightside auroral in response to a pressure pulse, indicating that more magnetospheric regions participate as sources for auroral precipitation than during isolate substorm. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated event to those during isolated substorms. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated events to those during isolated auroral substorms. Electron precipitation during substorms has characteristic energies greater than 10 KeV and is structured both in local time and in magnetic latitude. For auroral intensifications following the arrival of'a pressure pulse or interplanetary shock. Electron precipitation is less spatially structured and has greater flux of lower characteristic energy electrons (Echar less than 7 KeV) than during isolated substorm onsets. These observations quantify the differences between global and local auroral precipitation processes and will provide a valuable experimental check for models of sudden storm commencements and magnetospheric response to perturbations in the solar wind.

  1. Improving Remotely-sensed Precipitation Estimates Over Mountainous Regions For Use In Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.; Akcelik, M.; Kuligowski, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service's (NWS) flash flood warning and heavy precipitation forecast efforts, the NOAA National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) has been providing satellite based precipitation estimates operationally since 1978. Two of the satellite based rainfall algorithms are the Hydro-Estimator (HE) and the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval (SCaMPR). However, unlike the HE algorithm the SCaMPR does not currently make any adjustments for the effects of complex topography on rainfall. This study investigates the potential for improving the SCaMPR algorithm by incorporating an orographic correction and humidity correction based calibration of the SCaMPR against rain gauge transects in northwestern Mexico to identify correctable biases related to elevation, slope, wind direction and humidity. Elevation-dependent bias structure of the SCaMPR algorithm suggest that the rainfall algorithm underestimates precipitation in case of upward atmospheric movements and overestimates rainfall in case of downward atmospheric movements along with mountainous terrain. A regionally dependent empirical elevation-based bias correction technique may help improve the quality of satellite-derived precipitation products. As well as orography, effect of atmospheric indices over precipitation estimates is analyzed. The findings suggest that continued improvement to the developed orographic correction scheme is warranted in order to advance quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain regions for use in weather forecasting and hydrologic applications.

  2. Global Remote Sensing of Precipitating Electron Energies: A Comparison of Substorms and Pressure Pulse Related Intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) observes aurora responses to incident solar wind pressure pulses and interplanetary shocks such its those associated with coronal mass ejections. Previous observations have demonstrated that the arrival of it pressure pulse at the front of the magnetosphere results in highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions and a substantial increase in both dayside and nightside aurora precipitations. Our observations show it simultaneous brightening over bread areas of the dayside and nightside auroral in response to a pressure pulse, indicating that more magnetospheric regions participate as sources for auroral precipitation than during isolate substorm. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated event to those during isolated substorms. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated events to those during isolated auroral substorms. Electron precipitation during substorms has characteristic energies greater than 10 KeV and is structured both in local time and in magnetic latitude. For auroral intensifications following the arrival of'a pressure pulse or interplanetary shock. Electron precipitation is less spatially structured and has greater flux of lower characteristic energy electrons (Echar less than 7 KeV) than during isolated substorm onsets. These observations quantify the differences between global and local auroral precipitation processes and will provide a valuable experimental check for models of sudden storm commencements and magnetospheric response to perturbations in the solar wind.

  3. "A remote sensing approach to determining susceptibility of national park forest areas to forecasted changes in precipitation and temperature"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, T.; Griffin, R.

    2016-12-01

    The United States designates 59 protected areas around the country as national parks, totaling around 51.9 million acres. With the exception of a few, the majority of these parks feature forested areas of biological and/or historical importance. Depending on their location, these forested areas are threatened by climate change in the form of decreasing precipitation and/or increasing temperatures, which can result in significant drying resulting in increased susceptibility to threats and resultant tree mortality. This study aims to survey the forested areas of America's national parks and determine their susceptibility to climate-induced drying. Land cover derived from remotely sensed multispectral data was used to characterize forested areas within national parks. Multiple climate change scenarios to end of century were taken from the NASA Earth Exchange Downscaled Climate Projections (DEX _DCP30) dataset and were compared with the forested areas. Forests projected to experience both an increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation were considered most at risk. A susceptibility analysis was performed to develop an index that would identify these areas most prone to negative effects from climate change in low (B1), medium (A1B), and high (A2) emissions scenarios. With this information, park officials can better focus efforts to monitor and preserve their forested areas.

  4. Remote Sensing of Clouds And Precipitation: Event-Based Characterization, Life Cycle Evolution, and Aerosol Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaili, Rebekah Bradley

    Global climate models, numerical weather prediction, and flood models rely on accurate satellite precipitation products, which are the only datasets that are continuous in time and space across the globe. While there are more earth observing satellites than ever before, gaps in precipitation retrievals exist due to sensor and orbital limitations of low-earth (LEO) satellites, which are overcome by merging data from different sensors in satellite precipitation products (SPPs). Using cloud tracking at higher resolutions than the spatio-temporal scales of LEO satellites, this thesis examines how clouds typically form in the atmosphere, the rate that cloud size and temperature evolve over the life cycle, and the time of day that cloud development take place. This thesis found that cloud evolution was non-linear, which disagrees with the linear interpolation schemes used in SPPs. Longer lasting clouds tended to achieve their temperature and size maturity milestones at different times, while these stages often occurred simultaneously in shorter lasting clouds. Over the ocean, longer lasting clouds were found to occur more frequently at night, while shorter lasting clouds were more common during the daytime. This thesis also examines whether large-scale Saharan dust outbreaks can impact the trajectories and intensity of cloud clusters in the tropical Atlantic, which is predicted by modeling studies. The presented results show that proximity to Saharan dust outbreaks shifts Atlantic cloud development northward and intense storms becoming more common, whereas on days with low dust loading small-scale, warmer clouds are more common. A simplified view of cloud evolution in merged rainfall retrievals is a possible source of errors, which can propagate into higher level analysis. This thesis investigates the difference in the intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation in IMERG, a next-generation satellite precipitation product with ground radar observations over the

  5. Understanding mechanisms behind intense precipitation events in East Antarctica: merging modeling and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Maahn, Maximilian; Gallée, Hubert; Kneifel, Stefan; Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Crewell, Susanne; Van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    Large interannual variability has been found in surface mass balance (SMB) over the East Antarctic ice sheet coastal and escarpment zones, with the total yearly SMB strongly depending on occasional intense precipitation events. Thus for correct prediction of the ice sheet climate and SMB, climate models should be capable to represent such events. Not less importantly, models should also correctly represent the relevant mechanisms behind. The coupled land-atmosphere non-hydrostatic regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) is used to simulate climate and SMB of Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica. DML has shown a significant increase in SMB during the last years attributed to only few occasional very intense snowfall events. MAR is run at 5km horizontal resolution using initial and boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim re-analysis atmospheric and oceanic fields. The MAR microphysical scheme predicts the evolution of the mixing ratios of five water species: specific humidity, cloud droplets and ice crystals, raindrops and snow particles. Additional prognostic equation describes the number concentration of cloud ice crystals. The mass and terminal velocity of snow particles are defined as for the graupel-like snowflakes of hexagonal type. These definitions are important to determine single scattering properties for snow hydrometeors used as input (along with cloud particle properties and atmospheric parameters) into the Passive and Active Microwave radiative TRAnsfer model (PAMTRA). PAMTRA allows direct comparison of the radar-measured and climate model-based vertical profiles of the radar reflectivity and Doppler velocity for particular precipitation events. The comparison is based on the measurements from the vertically profiling 24-GHz MRR radar operating as part of the cloud-precipitation-meteorological observatory at Princess Elisabeth (PE) base in DML escarpment zone, from 2010

  6. Analysis of atmospheric and climatic factors affecting the abnormal high precipitation in Mumbai, India 2005 using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    Mumbai, located on the western coast of India along the Arabian Sea, recorded the highest 24 hour rainfall figure of 944mm (37.2 inches) on the 26 July 2005, the highest ever in India. In the 12 hour period from 8am-8pm the rainfall recorded was 644mm (25.4). Previously the highest recorded 24 hour rainfall in Mumbai was 575 mm (22.6 inches) in 1974. This paper presents the analysis of various atmospheric, climatic and geographic parameters which might have played a role in this natural calamity claiming over 1000 lives and affecting many more. An effort has been made to study the variation and probable effects of different geophysical mechanisms as evidenced in the the wind speed, atmospheric pressure, water vapor, sea surface temperature (SST), surface latent heat flux (SLHF) and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) data on the localized high precipitation over the island city. The wind speed data from QuikSCAT, precipitation data from NOAA-CPC, SLHF and pressure data from NOAA-NCEP, water vapor data from SSMI and the SST from TMI, have been used. Of the above parameters it was observed that the atmospheric pressure was abnormally low (< +2) during this time period resulting in localized high wind speeds. The vegetation of the nearby area shows significant reduction with respect to past vegetation, which can be attributed to anthropogenic activities. The analysis of remote sensing and model data might help us in understanding the causes of such anomalous rainfall, and prevent the loss of life and property.

  7. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  8. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  9. Recent progresses in atmospheric remote sensing research in China —Chinese national report on atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Chen, Hongbin

    2004-06-01

    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003 are summarily introduced. This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3) remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing, including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  10. Evaluating the performance of remotely sensed and reanalysed precipitation data over West Africa using HBV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poméon, Thomas; Jackisch, Dominik; Diekkrüger, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Water is a crucial resource in West Africa, where large parts of the population rely on rainfed agriculture. Therefore, accurate knowledge of the water resources is of the utmost importance. Due to the declining number of rain gauging stations, the use of satellite and reanalysis precipitation datasets in hydrological modelling is steadily rising. However, accurate information on the benefits and deficits of these datasets is often lacking, especially in the West African subcontinent. For validation purposes, these products are commonly compared to freely available rain gauge data, which has in some cases already been used to bias correct the products in the first place. We therefore explored the possibility of a hydrological evaluation, where a model is calibrated for each dataset using streamflow as the observed variable. In this study, ten freely available satellite and reanalysis datasets (CFSR, CHIRPS, CMORPHv1.0 CRT, CMORPHv1.0 RAW, PERSIANN CDR, RFE 2.0, TAMSAT, TMPA 3B42v7, TMPA 3B42 RTv7 and GPCC FDDv1) were thus evaluated for six differently sized and located basins in West Africa. Results show that while performances differ, most datasets manage to somewhat accurately predict the observed streamflow in a given basin. Best results were achieved by datasets which use a multitude of input data, namely infrared and microwave satellite data, as well as observations from rain gauges (usually GPCC) for bias correction. If considering only the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency averaged for all six basins during the calibration phase, best results were achieved by CMORPH CRT and PERSIANN CDR (both 0.66), followed by TAMSAT, CHIRPS and TMPA 3B42 (all three 0.64). Average results were achieved by RFE 2.0 (0.63), GPCC (0.61) and TMPA 3B42 RT (0.54). CMORPH RAW and CFSR performed worst (0.36 and -0.34 on average).

  11. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  12. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  13. The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

  14. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  15. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  16. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  17. Remote hydrogen sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.

  18. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  19. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  20. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  1. Remote sensing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, H. J.; Howard, J. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The accomplishments and publications developed during the study are summarized. They illustrated a series of practical applications of remote sensing data to the urban-regional planning processes in the metropolitan Washington area.

  2. Remote Sensing Spinoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Delta Data Systems Inc., founded by ex-NASA engineers, used ELAS, a COSMIC-provided computer program for processing remotely sensed data as a starting point for its development of ATLAS. ATLAS is used to process satellite and aircraft data, to digitize soil topographic maps, and to generate land use maps. Among its applications are medical digital processing, food processing, and specialized services for the remote sensing community.

  3. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  4. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  5. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  6. Empirical evidence of contrasting feedbacks between remotely sensed soil moisture and gauge-based precipitation in arid vs. humid areas of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, S. E.; Salvucci, G.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface moisture content affects the partitioning of radiative energy into heat and moisture fluxes at the land surface, and thus can affect the state of the overlying atmosphere by supplying water vapor, inducing moist convection and lateral convergence, and growing the planetary boundary layer. However, it is difficult to determine how this influence may in turn affect the propensity for subsequent precipitation. Empirical studies have disagreed on the sign and statistical significance of the estimated influence of soil moisture on precipitation, and have suffered from the difficulty of distinguishing a causal effect from lagged correlations that arise from the autocorrelation, seasonality, and interannual variability of each signal. Modeling studies can more easily establish causality, but feedback behavior has been shown to vary widely among models. We apply Granger Causality (Granger (1969), Econometrica, 37: 424-438) to quantitatively diagnose the relationship between soil moisture state and the occurrence of subsequent precipitation, and implement it over the contiguous United States using remotely sensed soil moisture and gauge-based precipitation observations. This is accomplished through a generalized linear model (GLM), specifically a probit regression model, constructed to estimate the observed record of precipitation occurrence. Predictor variables included in the regression account for external atmospheric and climatic influences on precipitation, the prior occurrence of precipitation, and previous day soil moisture anomalies. We find a generally positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback in the western part of the United States and a negative feedback in the east. These findings suggest that processes linking soil moisture to precipitation triggering may differ in arid versus humid climate regimes, and that soil moisture state can play an important role in determining future weather conditions.

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  8. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  9. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  10. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  11. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  12. Assessing shrub encroachment in a grassland-shrubland desert ecotone using the relationship between remote sensed phenology of vegetation and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Diaz-Sierra, Ruben; Wainwright, John

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and the massive alteration of natural habitats are major drivers of land degradation. Their effects may be especially significant in drylands, where ecosystems are particularly sensitive to degradation, usually involving largely irreversible landscape changes. A paradigmatic case of catastrophic vegetation shift is the shrub-encroachment process that has been taking place over the last 150 years in the Chihuahuan Desert, where large areas of grasslands dominated by perennial grass species (black and blue grama) have shifted to shrublands dominated by woody species (creosotebush and mesquite) accompanied by accelerated water and wind erosion. An array of mechanisms are involved in this process, including external triggering factors such as precipitation and land-use variations, and endogenous amplifying mechanisms brought about by soil erosion-vegetation feedbacks. We track landscape changes at a 20 km2 grasland-shrubland ecotone in the northern edge of the Chihuahuan Desert (McKenzie Flats, Sevilleta LTER site, New Mexico) by studying the relationship between long-term (2000-13) records of medium-resolution remote sensing of landscape phenology (MODIS NDVI) and precipitation. We hypothesize that grass and shrub life-forms exhibit important differences in phenology and water use. Our analysis indicates that herbaceous vegetation (grasses and forbs) shows quick growth pulses associated with short-term (previous 2 months) precipitation, while shrubs show a slow response to medium-term (previous 5 months) precipitation. We use these relationships to (a) determine the broad-scale spatial distribution of herbaceous vegetation and shrubs in our study site, and to (b) decompose and transform the NDVI signal into partial NPP components for herbaceous vegetation and shrubs. We further analyze the influence of inter-annual variations in seasonal precipitation on remotely sensed NPP data. Plant growth for herbaceous vegetation is particularly synchronized with

  13. Assessing Vegetation Structure and Dynamics in a Chihuahuan Grassland-Shrubland Ecotone Using the Relationship Between Remote-Sensed Vegetation Phenology and Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, M.; Diaz-Sierra, R.; Turnbull, L.; Wainwright, J.

    2014-12-01

    Land degradation usually involves largely irreversible vegetation changes in drylands. A typical case of vegetation change is the shrub-encroachment process that has been taking place over the last 150 years in the Chihuahuan Desert, where large areas of grasslands dominated by perennial grass species (black and blue grama) have transitioned to shrublands dominated by woody species (mainly creosotebush and mesquite), accompanied by accelerated water and wind erosion. An array of mechanisms are involved in this process, including external triggering factors such as precipitation variations and land-use change, and endogenous amplifying mechanisms brought about by soil erosion-vegetation feedbacks. We analyze the structure and dynamics of vegetation at an 18-km2 grassland-shrubland ecotone in the northern edge of the Chihuahuan desert (McKenzie Flats, Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico) by investigating the relationship between decade-scale (2000-13) records of medium-resolution remote sensing of vegetation phenology (MODIS NDVI) and precipitation. Our analysis indicates that spatial variations in the NDVI-rainfall relationship reflect functional differences in leaf phenology and water use for herbaceous and shrub vegetation. Herbaceous vegetation shows quick growth pulses associated with short-term (previous 2 months) precipitation, while shrubs show a slow response to medium-term (previous 5 months) precipitation. We use these relationships to (a) determine the broad-scale spatial distribution of dominant vegetation types, and to (b) decompose the NDVI signal into partial net primary production (NPP) components for herbaceous vegetation and shrubs across the study site. We further analyze the influence of inter-annual variations in seasonal precipitation on remotely sensed NPP. Plant growth for herbaceous vegetation is particularly synchronized with monsoonal summer rainfall. For shrubs, annual NPP is better explained by winter plus summer precipitation

  14. Seasonal Variability of Warm Boundary Layer Cloud and Precipitation Properties in the Southern Ocean as Diagnosed from A-Train and Ship-based Remote Sensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    The extensive cloudiness and resulting high albedo of the Southern Oceans (SO) are predominantly due to the occurrence of widespread marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. Recent work finds correlations between biogenically enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and cloud droplet number concentrations derived from passive satellite data. The active remote sensors in the A-Train have created a unique and long-term record of these clouds that include vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and microwave brightness temperature from CloudSat that can be combined with solar reflectances from MODIS. We examine this data record to infer warm-topped cloud and precipitation properties. We find seasonal variations in cloud properties where summer season clouds demonstrate higher cloud droplet number concentrations on average and require higher liquid water contents to produce similar precipitation rates. We compare the properties and processes implied by the A-Train data with a unique cloud and precipitation remote sensing data set collected on board the Australian RV Investigator during March and April, 2016 during a 5-week voyage into the Southern Ocean.

  15. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  16. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Treesearch

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  17. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  18. Active remote sensing.

    Treesearch

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey

    2006-01-01

    The development of remote sensing technologies increases the potential to support more precise, efficient, and ecologically-sensitive approaches to forest resource management. One of the primary requirements of precision forest management is accurate and detailed 3D spatial data relating to the type and condition of forest stands and characteristics of the underlying...

  19. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  20. Geologic remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics. New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  1. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  2. A simplified approach of drought risk assessment in Poyang Lake basin using real-time precipitation and multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haixia

    2015-12-01

    Drought risk assessment is critical to drought early-warning and drought relief decision making. Drought risk assessment is defined as the assessment on both probability and degree of damage caused by drought. This study presents a methodology for risk analysis and assessment of drought disaster t in the Poyang Lake Basin, China based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS).The main objectives of the present study are to: (1) Study the relationships among the precipitation, the water area and NDVI. (2) Assess the degree of drought disaster risk in the Poyang Lake Basin by using a method of quantitative risk analysis. The methodology employed in this study can be applied to the drought of the other area.The study introduced a new simplified approach of drought risk assessment using real-time precipitation and multi-source remote sensing data. The following conclusions are presented on the basis of study.(1)The regression shows a high level of correlation among the precipitation, drought and water area. (2)Short-time series of water area play an important role in determining if there is a drought or not or what is the degree of the drought. Further investigations are required in order to improve the precision. This can be reached by investing the relationship between the precipitation and the vegetation cover.

  3. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  4. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  5. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  6. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  7. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    the Naval Earth Map Observer (NEMO) spacecraft (Wilson and Davis, 1998, in press) in 2001 we have designed and built the Ocean PHILLS instrument. The...this shallow water environment. We imaged the entire study area on five days while other investigators collected in-water optical properties and...remote sensing images. WORK COMPLETED Five flight lines were flown on each of five days during the CoBOP study. The lines run at an angle of 83o

  8. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  9. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  10. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  11. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  12. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  13. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  14. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  15. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  16. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  17. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  18. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  19. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  20. Physical fundamentals of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanda, E.

    The physical principles describing the propagation of EM waves in the atmosphere and their interactions with matter are discussed as they apply to remote sensing, in an introductory text intended for graduate science students, environmental-science researchers, and remote-sensing practitioners. The emphasis is on basic effects rather than an specific remote-sensing techniques or observational results. Chapters are devoted to basic relations, the spectral lines of atmospheric gases, the spectral properties of condensed matter, and radiative transfer.

  1. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  2. Salient features of the dual-frequency, dual-polarized, Doppler radar for remote sensing of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Manuel A.; Chandrasekar, V.; Carswell, James; Beauchamp, Robert M.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Nguyen, Cuong

    2014-11-01

    The global precipitation measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission to obtain accurate observations of precipitation on a global scale every 3 h. Its (GPM) core satellite was launched on 27 February 2014 with two science instruments: the microwave imager and the dual-frequency precipitation radar. Ground validation is an integral part of the GPM mission where instruments are deployed to complement and correlate with spacecraft instruments. The dual-frequency, dual-polarization, Doppler radar (D3R) is a critical ground validation instrument that was developed for the GPM program. This paper describes the salient features of the D3R in the context of the GPM ground validation mission. The engineering and architectural overview of the radar is described, and observations from successful GPM ground validation field experiments are presented.

  3. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  4. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  5. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  6. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  7. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  8. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  9. Polarimetric Interferometry - Remote Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    This lecture is mainly based on the work of S.R. Cloude and presents examples for remote sensing applications Polarimetric SAR Interferometry...PolInSAR). PolInSAR has its origins in remote sensing and was first developed for applications in 1997 using SIRC L-Band data [1,2]. In its original form it

  10. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Shin, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts from 46 refereed journal and conference papers are presented for research on remote sensing of earth terrain. The topics covered related to remote sensing include the following: mathematical models, vegetation cover, sea ice, finite difference theory, electromagnetic waves, polarimetry, neural networks, random media, synthetic aperture radar, electromagnetic bias, and others.

  11. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  12. Three-dimensional aspects of radiative transfer in remote sensing of precipitation: Application to the 1986 COHMEX storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haferman, J. L.; Krajewski, W. F.; Smith, T. F.

    1994-01-01

    Several multifrequency techniques for passive microwave estimation of precipitation based on the absorption and scattering properties of hydrometers have been proposed in the literature. In the present study, plane-parallel limitations are overcome by using a model based on the discrete-ordinates method to solve the radiative transfer equation in three-dimensional rectangular domains. This effectively accounts for the complexity and variety of radiation problems encountered in the atmosphere. This investigation presents result for plane-parallel and three-dimensional radiative transfer for a precipitating system, discusses differences between these results, and suggests possible explanations for these differences. Microphysical properties were obtained from the Colorado State University Regional Atmospehric Modeling System and represent a hailstorm observed during the 1986 Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment. These properties are used as input to a three-dimensional radiative transfer model in order to simulate satellite observation of the storm. The model output consists of upwelling brightness temperatures at several of the frequencies on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager. The radiative transfer model accounts for scattering and emission of atmospheric gases and hydrometers in liquid and ice phases. Brightness temperatures obtained from the three-dimensional model of this investigation indicate that horizontal inhomogeneities give rise to brightness temperature fields that can be quite different from fields obtained using plane-parallel radiative transfer theory. These differences are examined for various resolutions of the satellite sensor field of view. In adddition, the issue of boundary conditions for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer is addressed.

  13. Remote sensing of seasonal distribution of precipitable water vapor over the oceans and inference of boundary layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.

    1979-01-01

    Over the ocean satellite infrared spectral measurements in the 18 micrometer water vapor band and the 11 micrometer window region were used to derive precipitable water vapor, w, in the atmosphere and the sea surface temperature, SST. Seasonal maps of w on the oceans derived from these data reveal the dynamical influence of the large scale atmospheric circulation. With the help of a model for the vertical distribution of water vapor, the configuration of the atmospheric boundary layer over the oceans can be inferred from w when the information of SST is combined. The gross seasonal mean structure of the boundary layer inferred in this fashion reveals the broad areas of the trade wind inversion and the convectively active areas such as the intertropical convergence zones.

  14. Managing Uncertainty Due to a Fundamental Error Source Arising from Scatterer Distribution Complexity in Radar Remote Sensing of Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Meneghini, Robert; Mugnai, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that cloud and rain drops are spatially distributed according to a Poisson distribution within a scattering volume probed by a radar being used to estimate precipitation has represented bedrock theory in establishing 'rules of the game' for pulse averaging--the process needed to beat down noise to an acceptable level in the measurement of radar reflectivity factor. Based on relatively recent observations of 'realistic' spatial distributions of hydrometeor scatterers in a cloudy atmosphere motivates a renewed examination of the consequences of using a too simplified assumption underlying volume scattering--particularly in regards to the standard pulse averaging rule. Our investigation addresses two extremes, simple to complex, insofar as allowed for complexities in an underlying scatterer distribution. It is demonstrated that as the spatial distribution ranges from Poisson (a narrow distribution) to multi-fractal (much broader distribution), uncertainty in a measurement increases if the rule for pulse averaging goes unchanged from its Poisson distribution reference county. [A bounded cascade is used for the multi-fractal distribution, a regularly observed distribution vis-a-vis cloud liquid water content.] The resultant measurement uncertainty leads to a fundamental source of error in the estimation of rain rate from radar measurements, one that has been disregarded since the early 1950s when radar sets first began to be used for rainfall measuring. It is shown how this source of error can be 'managed'--under the assumption that number of data analysis experiments would be carried out, experiments involving pulse-by-pulse measurements obtained from a radar set modified to output individual pulses of reflectivity factor. For practical applications, a new parameter called normalized k-sample intensity invariance is developed to enable defining the required pulse average count according to a preferred degree of uncertainty.

  15. Managing Uncertainty Due to a Fundamental Error Source Arising from Scatterer Distribution Complexity in Radar Remote Sensing of Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Meneghini, Robert; Mugnai, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that cloud and rain drops are spatially distributed according to a Poisson distribution within a scattering volume probed by a radar being used to estimate precipitation has represented bedrock theory in establishing 'rules of the game' for pulse averaging--the process needed to beat down noise to an acceptable level in the measurement of radar reflectivity factor. Based on relatively recent observations of 'realistic' spatial distributions of hydrometeor scatterers in a cloudy atmosphere motivates a renewed examination of the consequences of using a too simplified assumption underlying volume scattering--particularly in regards to the standard pulse averaging rule. Our investigation addresses two extremes, simple to complex, insofar as allowed for complexities in an underlying scatterer distribution. It is demonstrated that as the spatial distribution ranges from Poisson (a narrow distribution) to multi-fractal (much broader distribution), uncertainty in a measurement increases if the rule for pulse averaging goes unchanged from its Poisson distribution reference county. [A bounded cascade is used for the multi-fractal distribution, a regularly observed distribution vis-a-vis cloud liquid water content.] The resultant measurement uncertainty leads to a fundamental source of error in the estimation of rain rate from radar measurements, one that has been disregarded since the early 1950s when radar sets first began to be used for rainfall measuring. It is shown how this source of error can be 'managed'--under the assumption that number of data analysis experiments would be carried out, experiments involving pulse-by-pulse measurements obtained from a radar set modified to output individual pulses of reflectivity factor. For practical applications, a new parameter called normalized k-sample intensity invariance is developed to enable defining the required pulse average count according to a preferred degree of uncertainty.

  16. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  17. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  18. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  19. Physical Principles of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.

    2001-09-01

    Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition includes a discussion of the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques and interferometric radar, an expanded list of problems (with solutions), and a discussion of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This book forms the basis of an introductory course in remote sensing. The main readership will be students and researchers in remote sensing, geography, cartography, surveying, meteorology, earth sciences and environmental sciences generally, as well as physicists, mathematicians and engineers.

  20. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  1. Automatic Tracking Of Remote Sensing Precipitation Data Using Genetic Algorithm Image Registration Based Automatic Morphing: September 1999 Storm Floyd Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, L.; Vongsaard, J.; El-Ghazawi, T.; Weinman, J.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    U Due to the poor temporal sampling by satellites, data gaps exist in satellite derived time series of precipitation. This poses a challenge for assimilating rain- fall data into forecast models. To yield a continuous time series, the classic image processing technique of digital image morphing has been used. However, the digital morphing technique was applied manually and that is time consuming. In order to avoid human intervention in the process, an automatic procedure for image morphing is needed for real-time operations. For this purpose, Genetic Algorithm Based Image Registration Automatic Morphing (GRAM) model was developed and tested in this paper. Specifically, automatic morphing technique was integrated with Genetic Algo- rithm and Feature Based Image Metamorphosis technique to fill in data gaps between satellite coverage. The technique was tested using NOWRAD data which are gener- ated from the network of NEXRAD radars. Time series of NOWRAD data from storm Floyd that occurred at the US eastern region on September 16, 1999 for 00:00, 01:00, 02:00,03:00, and 04:00am were used. The GRAM technique was applied to data col- lected at 00:00 and 04:00am. These images were also manually morphed. Images at 01:00, 02:00 and 03:00am were interpolated from the GRAM and manual morphing and compared with the original NOWRAD rainrates. The results show that the GRAM technique outperforms manual morphing. The correlation coefficients between the im- ages generated using manual morphing are 0.905, 0.900, and 0.905 for the images at 01:00, 02:00,and 03:00 am, while the corresponding correlation coefficients are 0.946, 0.911, and 0.913, respectively, based on the GRAM technique. Index terms ­ Remote Sensing, Image Registration, Hydrology, Genetic Algorithm, Morphing, NEXRAD

  2. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  3. Technology study of quantum remote sensing imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Lin, Xuling; Yang, Song; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-02-01

    According to remote sensing science and technology development and application requirements, quantum remote sensing is proposed. First on the background of quantum remote sensing, quantum remote sensing theory, information mechanism, imaging experiments and prototype principle prototype research situation, related research at home and abroad are briefly introduced. Then we expounds compress operator of the quantum remote sensing radiation field and the basic principles of single-mode compression operator, quantum quantum light field of remote sensing image compression experiment preparation and optical imaging, the quantum remote sensing imaging principle prototype, Quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging technology is brought forward, mainly including quantum remote sensing spaceborne active imaging system composition and working principle, preparation and injection compression light active imaging device and quantum noise amplification device. Finally, the summary of quantum remote sensing research in the past 15 years work and future development are introduced.

  4. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  5. Remote Sensing May Provide Unprecedented Hydrological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Basic hydrological research and water resources management may reap tremendous benefits from remote sensing technology, studies are showing. Satellite coverage may allow unprecedented accuracy in the quantification of the global hydrological cycle, for example. Yet despite such benefits, few hydrologists currently use such data. This is partly because the needed tools and algorithms are not fully developed. Such development requires field experiments that combine remotely sensed data with detailed in situ observations. AGU's Remote Sensing in Hydrology Committee has constructed a Web site (http://Iand.gsfc.nasa.gov/RSHC.html) that gives an overview of many such experiments. Included on the site is information on each experiment's overall goal, the types of in situ and remotely sensed measurements taken, relevant climate and vegetation conditions, and so forth. Links to additional relevant Web sites are included. The site is designed to be a suitable starting point for those interested in learning more about remote sensing in hydrology. It lists members of the committee who can be contacted for further information. Hydrologists have recognized the potential of remote sensing technology since the 1970s. It offers a way to avoid the logistical and economic difficulties associated with obtaining continuous in situ measurements of various hydrological variables, difficulties that are particularly pronounced in remote regions. Microwave instruments in particular can potentially provide all-weather, areally averaged estimates of certain variables (such as precipitation, soil moisture, and snow water content) that have been essentially unattainable in the past. In remote sensing, the conversion of emitted and reflected radiances into useful hydrological data is a complex problem. The measured radiances, for example, reflect the integrated character of a pixel area, a scale inconsistent with the point measurements of traditional hydrology. To develop the needed algorithms

  6. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  7. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  8. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  9. VLF Remote -Sensing of the Lower Ionosphere with AWESOME Receivers: Solar Flares, Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation, Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances, Sprites, Gravity Waves and Gamma-ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inan, U. S.; Cohen, M.; Scherrer, P.; Scherrer, D.

    2006-11-01

    Stanford University Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio receivers have been used extensively for remote sensing of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Among the phenomena that can be uniquely measured via VLF receivers are radio atmospherics, whistlers, electron precipitation, solar flares, sudden ionospheric disturbances, gravity waves, sprites, and cosmic gamma-ray flares. With the use of simple square air-core magnetic loop antennas of a couple of meters in size, the sensitivity of these instruments allows the measurement of magnetic fields as low as several tens of femtoTesla per root Hz, in the frequency range of ~300 Hz to 50 kHz. This sensitivity well exceeds that required to detect any event above the ambient atmospheric noise floor, determined by the totality of lightning activity on this planet. In recent years, as cost of production, timing accuracy (due to low cost GPS cards), and data handling flexibility of the systems has improved, it has become possible to distribute many of these instruments in the form of arrays, to perform interferometric and holographic imaging of the lower ionosphere. These goals can be achieved using the newest version of the Stanford VLF receiver, known as AWESOME: Atmospheric Weather Educational System for Observation and Modeling of Electromagnetics. In the context of the IHY/UNBSS program for 2007, the AWESOME receivers can be used extensively as part of the United Nations initiative to place scientific instruments in developing countries. Drawing on the Stanford experiences from setting up arrays of VLF receivers, including an interferometer in Alaska, the Holographic Array for Ionospheric and Lightning research (HAIL) consisting of instruments at 13 different high schools in mid-western United States, a broader set of ELF/VLF receivers in Alaska, and various receivers abroad, including in France, Japan, Greece, Turkey, and India, a global network of ELF/VLF receivers offer possibilities for a wide range of scientific topics

  10. Remote sensing and global competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Scott

    1994-03-01

    These remarks were given at the First Annual Symposium on Coupling Technology to National Needs as part of a panel on `Visualization and Communication: Overhead Imagery.' Based on the author's involvement with remote sensing policy while at the Department of Commerce from 1990 to 1993, the paper provides a brief overview of U.S. policy and legislation affecting remote sensing, discusses recent developments, and identifies continuing issues for commercial ventures. Example issues include operating licenses, export controls, government as a customer, and strategic partnerships.

  11. Remote sensing procurement package: Remote Sensing Industry Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.

  12. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  13. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  14. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  15. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  16. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  17. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.; Kuehn, Friedrich; King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  18. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  19. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  20. Remote sensing of rangeland biodiversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rangelands are managed based on state and transition models for an ecological site. Transitions to alternative ecological states are indicative of degrading rangelands. Three key variables may be remotely sensed to detect transitions between alternative states: amount of bare soil, presence of inva...

  1. Remote sensing and aerial application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  2. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  3. Remote rainfall sensing for landslide hazard analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; McWreath, Harry; Davenport, Clay

    2001-01-01

    Methods of assessing landslide hazards and providing warnings are becoming more advanced as remote sensing of rainfall provides more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Two recent landslide disasters are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. For the June 27, 1995, storm in Madison County, Virginia, USA, National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar provided rainfall estimates based on a relation between cloud reflectivity and moisture content on a 1 sq. km. resolution every 6 minutes. Ground-based measurements of rainfall intensity and precipitation total, in addition to landslide timing and distribution, were compared with the radar-derived rainfall data. For the December 14-16, 1999, storm in Vargas State, Venezuela, infrared sensing from the GOES-8 satellite of cloud top temperatures provided the basis for NOAA/NESDIS rainfall estimates on a 16 sq. km. resolution every 30 minutes. These rainfall estimates were also compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and landslide distribution. In both examples, the remotely sensed data either overestimated or underestimated ground-based values by up to a factor of 2. The factors that influenced the accuracy of rainfall data include spatial registration and map projection, as well as prevailing wind direction, cloud orientation, and topography.

  4. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  6. Remote sensing data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.

  7. Get a fresh look with remote sensing - remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, D.

    1997-04-01

    The ideal exploration approach finds structures and points out where hydrocarbons are buried. It operates to reduce risk, is cost-effective and feeds creativity. Exploration tools fall into two categories: (1) Those which detect structure (seismic, gravity, remote sensing). (2) Those that detect hydrocarbons (geochemistry, well logs, the drill bit, and remote sensing). All exploration takes place in this sometimes-forgotten context: The crust of Earth is not thick. In proportion, it is as thin as tomato skin. Unlike tomato skin, our crust floats on liquid and is unstable. We seek structure because that`s where hydrocarbons can become trapped. Satellite data-and before them airphotos-find structure efficiently. The methodology is well tested. Positive structures and lineaments find surface expression in many ways.

  8. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires.

  9. Remote-Sensing Practice and Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    Six essential processes that must be accomplished if use of a remote - sensing system is to result in useful information are defined as problem...to be useful in remote - sensing projects are described. An overview of the current state-of-the-art of remote sensing is presented.

  10. VLF Remote Sensing of the Lower Ionosphere: Solar Flares, Electron Precipitation, Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances, Sprites, Gravity Waves and Gamma-ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J. H.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.; Scherrer, P. H.; Scherrer, D.

    2005-12-01

    Stanford University Very Low Frequency (VLF) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radio receivers have been used extensively for remote sensing of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Among the phenomena that can be uniquely measured via ELF/VLF receivers are radio atmospherics, whistlers, electron precipitation, solar flares, sudden ionospheric disturbances, gravity waves, sprites, and cosmic gamma-ray flares. With the use of simple square air-core magnetic loop antennas of a couple of meters in size, the sensitivity of these instruments allows the measurement of magnetic fields as low as several tens of femtoTesla per root-Hz, in the frequency range of ~30 Hz to 50 kHz. This sensitivity well exceeds that required to detect any event above the ambient atmospheric noise floor, determined by the totality of lightning activity on the planet. In recent years, as cost of production, timing accuracy (due to low cost GPS clocks), and data handling flexibility of the systems has improved, it has become possible to distribute many of these instruments in the form of arrays, to perform interferometric and holographic imaging of the lower ionosphere. In the context of the IHY in 2007, the ELF/VLF receiver can used extensively as part of the United Nations initiative to place scientific instruments in developing countries. Stanford University's past experiences setting up arrays of ELF/VLF receivers include an interferometer in Alaska, the Holographic Array for Ionospheric and Lightning research (HAIL) consisting of instruments at 13 different high schools in mid-western United States, a broader set of ELF/VLF receivers in Alaska, and various receivers abroad, including in France, Japan, Greece, Turkey, Ireland, and India. A global network of ELF/VLF receivers offer possibilities for a wide range of scientific topics, as well as serving as a means for educational outreach. These goals will be achieved using the newest version of the Stanford VLF receiver, known as AWESOME

  11. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,

  12. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  13. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  14. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  15. Technology Trends and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The science and application of remote sensing is flourishing in the digital age. Geographical information systems can provide a broad range of information tailored to the specific needs of disaster managers. Recent advances in airborne platforms, sensors and information technologies have come together provide the ability to put geo-registered, multispectral imagery on the web in near real-time. Highlights of a demonstration of NASA's First Response Experiment (FiRE) will be presented.

  16. Remote sensing in biological oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The main attribute of remote sensing is seen as its ability to measure distributions over large areas on a synoptic basis and to repeat this coverage at required time periods. The way in which the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, by showing the distribution of chlorophyll a, can locate areas productive in both phytoplankton and fishes is described. Lidar techniques are discussed, and it is pointed out that lidar will increase the depth range for observations.

  17. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  18. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Han, Hsiu C.; Lim, Harold H.; Arnold, David V.

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing of earth terrain is examined. The layered random medium model is used to investigate the fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from vegetation. The model is used to interpret the measured data for vegetation fields such as rice, wheat, or soybean over water or soil. Accurate calibration of polarimetric radar systems is essential for the polarimetric remote sensing of earth terrain. A polarimetric calibration algorithm using three arbitrary in-scene reflectors is developed. In the interpretation of active and passive microwave remote sensing data from the earth terrain, the random medium model was shown to be quite successful. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar returns from earth terrain. In the terrain cover classification using the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, the applications of the K-distribution model will provide better performance than the conventional Gaussian classifiers. The layered random medium model is used to study the polarimetric response of sea ice. Supervised and unsupervised classification procedures are also developed and applied to synthetic aperture radar polarimetric images in order to identify their various earth terrain components for more than two classes. These classification procedures were applied to San Francisco Bay and Traverse City SAR images.

  19. Satellite remote sensing. An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.

  20. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  1. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William J.

    2004-10-01

    This book provides a general description of many aspects of microwave Earth remote sensing, including a description of many of the basic mathematical techniques used for remote sensing. Also, the book points out the relevance of Earth remote sensing, by describing many remote sensing applications. Many are well-written and interesting, and each chapter includes a paragraph describing its purpose and what it covers. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of the Earth begins with a good discussion of remote sensing and what can be learned from the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the Earth. There is a good comparison of optical, infrared, and microwave remote sensing and what can be learned from each wavelength region. One of the most interesting aspects of this book is the description of a number of Russian aircraft and space microwave experiments in this field. These experiments are somewhat dated, 1980-1990, but provide examples of the pioneering techniques and results achieved by Russian scientists.

  2. Technical keynote address on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holter, M. R.; Park, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    A review of remote sensing techniques is presented. Various types of remote sensors are described and the platforms used to mount the sensors are examined. Examples of remote sensing by aerial photography in infrared, ultraviolet, and visual spectra are included. The types of equipment are designated and their specific areas of application are defined. It is concluded that the primary objective of remote sensing is to contribute to man's ability to manage and use the terrestrial environment.

  3. Passive Remote Sensing of Cloud Ice Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Wang, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Hurricanes, blizzards and other weather events are important to understand not only for disaster preparation, but also to track the global energy balance and to improve weather and climate forecasts. For several decades, passive radiometers and active radars on aircraft and satellites have been employed to remotely sense rain rates and the properties of liquid particles. In the past few years the relationships between frozen particles and millimeter-wave observations have become understood well enough to estimate the properties of ice in clouds. A brief background of passive remote sensing of precipitation will be presented followed by a focused discussion of recent research at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center estimating the properties of frozen particles in clouds. The retrievals are for (1) ice that will eventually melt into rain, (2) for solid precipitation falling in northern climates, and (3) cirrus ice clouds. The electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties and differences of liquid rain versus frozen particles will be summarized for frequencies from 6 to 340+ GHz. Challenges of this work including surface emissivity variability, non-linear and under-constrained relationships, and frozen particle unknowns will be discussed. Retrieved cloud particle contents and size distributions for ice above the melting layer in hurricanes, retrieved snowfall rates for a blizzard, and cirrus ice estimates will be presented. Future directions of this work will also be described.

  4. UAS remote sensing missions for rangeland applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rangelands cover about 50% of the earth’s land surface, are in remote areas and have low population densities, all of which provide an ideal opportunity for remote sensing applications from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). In this paper, we describe a proven workflow for UAS-based remote sensing, an...

  5. Remote Sensing of Plastic Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaba, S. P.; Dierssen, H. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic debris is becoming a nuisance in the environment and as a result there has been a dire need to synoptically detect and quantify them in the ocean and on land. We investigate the possible utility of spectral information determined from hand held, airborne and satellite remote sensing tools in the detection and identification polymer source of plastic debris. Sampled debris will be compared to our derived spectral library of typical raw polymer sources found at sea and in household waste. Additional work will be to determine ways to estimate the abundance of plastic debris in target areas. Implications of successful remote detection, tracking and quantification of plastic debris will be towards validating field observations over large areas and at repeated time intervals both on land and at sea.

  6. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  7. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  8. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  9. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  10. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  11. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  12. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU

    1991-01-01

    In remote sensing, the encountered geophysical media such as agricultural canopy, forest, snow, or ice are inhomogeneous and contain scatters in a random manner. Furthermore, weather conditions such as fog, mist, or snow cover can intervene the electromagnetic observation of the remotely sensed media. In the modelling of such media accounting for the weather effects, a multi-layer random medium model has been developed. The scattering effects of the random media are described by three-dimensional correlation functions with variances and correlation lengths corresponding to the fluctuation strengths and the physical geometry of the inhomogeneities, respectively. With proper consideration of the dyadic Green's function and its singularities, the strong fluctuation theory is used to calculate the effective permittivities which account for the modification of the wave speed and attenuation in the presence of the scatters. The distorted Born approximation is then applied to obtain the correlations of the scattered fields. From the correlation of the scattered field, calculated is the complete set of scattering coefficients for polarimetric radar observation or brightness temperature in passive radiometer applications. In the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems, the development of microwave remote sensing technology and the potential of SAR to measure vegetation structure and biomass have increased effort to conduct experimental and theoretical researches on the interactions between microwave and vegetation canopies. The overall objective is to develop inversion algorithms to retrieve biophysical parameters from radar data. In this perspective, theoretical models and experimental data are methodically interconnected in the following manner: Due to the complexity of the interactions involved, all theoretical models have limited domains of validity; the proposed solution is to use theoretical models, which is validated by experiments, to establish the region in which

  13. Using Remote Sensing to Understand Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.; Gentine, P.

    2014-12-01

    While a major source of uncertainty in global climate model predictions is due to the coarseness of their resolution, a significant amount of error is also generated due to the lack of information regarding the interactions between atmospheric and land parameters over time. When the behavior of a certain parameter is not clearly understood it is frequently estimated as one specific value while in reality it may vary with time and space. Remote sensing is allowing researchers to better estimate each of these parameters so one can see how they change with time. This study is an effort to improve our knowledge of the inter-annual and seasonal variability in radiation, water and the carbon cycle using remote sensing products on a global scale. By examining monthly data over a multi-year period (data parameter and source are listed in Table 1) for fluorescence, groundwater, net radiation, vegetation indices, precipitation, soil moisture and evapotranspiration, we should be able to determine the behavior and interactions between these parameters and better understand how they vary together seasonally, annually and year to year. With this information it is our hope that global climate models can be improved to better understand what is occurring climatologically in the present as well as more accurately make predictions about future conditions. Table 1. Parameters and Sources Parameter Source Fluorescence Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)1 Groundwater Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Net Radiation Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Vegetation Indices Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Precipitation Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Soil Moisture Water Cycle Mutimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) Evapotranspiration Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM) 1In future work, we hope to use fluorescence data from

  14. Ocean Optical Remote Sensing Capability Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    illustrated in relation toIother oceanographic parameters. > reevavy programs which have supported the Remote Sensing Branch’s developments in water ...optics are described. The Navy relevance of water optics to these programs is indicated.’ "I 1 ’ ( ;j "IJl: ,t n ! /H i.i OCEAN OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING...Development Activity (NORDA) Remote Sensing Branch (Code 321) has been conducting investigative programs in water optics since 1977. The major thrust of

  15. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  16. Remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.

    1976-01-01

    The surface emissivity and reflectivity of soil are strong functions of its moisture content. Changes in emissivity, observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry), and changes in reflectivity, observed by active microwave techniques (radar), can provide information on the moisture content of the 0 to 5 cm surface layer. In addition, the thermal inertia of the surface layer, which can be remotely sensed by observing the diurnal range of surface temperature, is an indicator of soil moisture content. The thermal infrared approach to remote sensing of soil moisture has little utility in the presence of cloud cover, but provides soil moisture data at high spatial resolutions and thermal data which are a potentially useful indicator of crop status. Microwave techniques can penetrate cloud covers. The passive technique has been demonstrated by both aircraft and spacecraft instruments, but spatial resolution is limited by the size of the antenna which can be flown. Active microwave systems offer the possibility of better spatial resolution, but have yet to be demonstrated from aircraft or spacecraft platforms.

  17. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  18. Remote sensing for chemical monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jago, R.A.; Curran, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    Imaging spectrometry offers the potential of estimating the biochemical content of vegetation canopies, which is likely to provide a more powerful discriminant of land contamination than remotely sensed estimates of vegetation cover. A red edge/chlorophyll concentration/land contamination relationship provides a novel link between reflectance and the biochemical results of contamination. Canopy reflectance data were collected using a field spectrometer in conjunction with substantial ground-based measurements of chlorophyll concentration and leaf area index (LAI) across a contaminated site. There was a strong red edge/chlorophyll concentration/land contamination relationship across the study site and the correlation between red edge position and chlorophyll concentration was r = 0.86. Spectral mixture modelling demonstrated the effects of variable canopy cover and land contamination on the position of the red edge and provided an understanding of a double-peaked maxima present in derivative spectra. Strong red edge/chlorophyll concentration/land contamination relationships at this study site highlighted the potential use of the CASI to estimate depleted canopy chlorophyll concentration and evaluate further the utility of imaging spectrometers for the remote sensing of contaminated land. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  20. Data Quality in Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batini, C.; Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Albrecht, F.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.; Barsi, Á.; Szabó, G.; Kugler, Zs.

    2017-09-01

    The issue of data quality (DQ) is of growing importance in Remote Sensing (RS), due to the widespread use of digital services (incl. apps) that exploit remote sensing data. In this position paper a body of experts from the ISPRS Intercommission working group III/IVb "DQ" identifies, categorises and reasons about issues that are considered as crucial for a RS research and application agenda. This ISPRS initiative ensures to build on earlier work by other organisations such as IEEE, CEOS or GEO, in particular on the meritorious work of the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO) which was established and endorsed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) but aims to broaden the view by including experts from computer science and particularly database science. The main activities and outcomes include: providing a taxonomy of DQ dimensions in the RS domain, achieving a global approach to DQ for heterogeneous-format RS data sets, investigate DQ dimensions in use, conceive a methodology for managing cost effective solutions on DQ in RS initiatives, and to address future challenges on RS DQ dimensions arising in the new era of the big Earth data.

  1. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  2. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  3. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  4. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  5. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  6. Recent Advances in VLF Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    In this work, we present a complete analysis of a new signal processing method for MSK-modulated VLF signals with the purpose to produce reliable amplitude and phase measurements for ionospheric remote sensing. We analyze the bit-error rate and the resulting amplitude and phase measurements as a function of signal-to-noise ratio under different background noise environments. We also compare the new method to other methods presently in use. We highlight the transient response characteristics by analyzing naturally occurring ionospheric events observed in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We apply the method to observations of solar X-ray flares, lightning-induced electron precipitation, and transient luminous events.

  7. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  8. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  9. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  10. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  11. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  12. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  13. NASA remote sensing programs: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.

  14. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  15. Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts have been focused on understanding the physical properties of planetary surfaces using remote sensing techniques. Specific application has been to the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Our approach has been to use thermal-infrared emission and radar reflectance and scattering as a way of exploring the decimeter-scale structure of these surfaces. At this scale, the techniques are sensitive to physical parameters such as the average or effective particle size of surface materials, the degree of induration or physical bonding between individual regolith grains, and the abundance of rocks of different sizes resting on or admixed in to the surface. The results are relevant to understanding the geological processes that have affected the surface and, in the case of Mars, determining site safety and scientific relevance for planning upcoming lander, rover, and sample-return spacecraft missions. Specific results are discussed below, and publications that have resulted are listed at the end.

  16. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  17. Remote tire pressure sensing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Howard H. (Inventor); Mcginnis, Timothy A. (Inventor); Daugherty, Robert H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A remote tire pressure sensing technique is provided which uses vibration frequency to determine tire pressure. A vibration frequency measuring device is attached to the external surface of a tire which is then struck with an object, causing the tire to vibrate. The frequency measuring device measures the vibrations and converts the vibrations into corresponding electrical impulses. The electrical impulses are then fed into the frequency analyzing system which uses the electrical impulses to determine the relative peaks of the vibration frequencies as detected by the frequency measuring device. The measured vibration frequency peaks are then compared to predetermined data describing the location of vibration frequency peaks for a given pressure, thereby determining the air pressure of the tire.

  18. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  19. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  20. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  1. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  2. What does remote sensing do for ecology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.

  3. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  4. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  5. Conference of Remote Sensing Educators (CORSE-78)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.

  6. Some guidelines for remote sensing in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing in the field of hydrology is beginning to be applied to significant problems, such as thermal pollution, in many programs of the Federal and State Governments as well as in operation of many private organizations. The purpose of this paper is to guide the hydrologist to a better understanding of how he may collect, synthesize, and interpret remote sensing data.

  7. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  8. Emerging Issues in Land Remote Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper summarizes the key questions and issues discussed in three review panels in the 9th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS) held in Oct. 2005 at Beijing. These three panels focused on remote sensing systems and sensors, modeling and inve...

  9. Remote Sensing for Tropical Forest Assessment

    Treesearch

    AJR Gillespie

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to allow remote sensing experts from Latin America, the U.S.A., and FAO to discuss state-of-the-art methodology in remote sensing of forest environments, and to develop plans on how to better incorporate this technology into FAO and national forest inventory efforts. The workshop included numerous presentations of ongoing activities, as...

  10. Sandia multispectral analyst remote sensing toolkit (SMART).

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian Nelson; Smith, Jody Lynn; Geib, Peter L.; Nandy, Prabal; Wang, Nancy Nairong

    2003-03-01

    This remote sensing science and exploitation work focused on exploitation algorithms and methods targeted at the analyst. SMART is a 'plug-in' to commercial remote sensing software that provides algorithms to enhance the utility of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) and other multispectral satellite data. This toolkit has been licensed to 22 government organizations.

  11. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  12. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  13. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  14. Planning and Implementation of Remote Sensing Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: TEKTITE II experiment-upwelling detection (NASA Mx 138); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 159); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 165); Experiments on thermal pollution; Remote sensing newsletter; Symposium on remote sensing in marine biology and fishery resources.

  15. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of August 1, 1984...active and passive microwave remote sensing , (2) used the strong fluctuation theory and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to calculate the brightness

  16. Ionospheric Profiles from Ultraviolet Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    The long-term goal of this project is to obtain ionospheric profiles from ultraviolet remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms... Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a more straightforward process because of the absence of the complications brought about by daytime

  17. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made in the study of active and passive remote sensing of ice during the period of February 1, 1984...the emissivities as functions of viewing angles and polarizations. They are used to interpret the passive microwave remote sensing data from

  18. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  19. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  20. Oceanographic Remote Sensing; A Position Paper,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-26

    The purpose of a Navy R&D remote sensing plan should be to set forth the requirements and direction of basic and exploratory research in satellite... remote sensing which supports the overall Navy oceanographic research and operational programs. The aim of the plan would be to outline the established...addressed. The plan should help serve as a single technology and program reference for implementation and planning of Navy related satellite remote

  1. From planets to crops and back: Remote sensing makes sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.

    2017-04-01

    Remotely sensed data and the instruments that acquire them are core parts of Earth and planetary observation systems. They are used to quantify the Earth's interconnected systems, and remote sensing is the only way to get a daily, or more frequent, snapshot of the status of the Earth. It really is the Earth's stethoscope. In a similar manner remote sensing is the rock hammer of the planetary scientist and the only way comprehensive data sets can be acquired. To risk offending many remotely sensed data acquired across the electromagnetic spectrum, it is the tricorder to explore known and unknown planets. Arriving where we are today in the use of remotely sensed data in the solar system has been a continually evolving synergy between Earth observation, planetary exploration, and fundamental laboratory work.

  2. Spatio-temporal variability of remotely sensed precipitation data from COMS and TRMM: Case study of Korean peninsula in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jongjin; Choi, Minha

    2015-09-01

    While a large amount of quantitative ground-based precipitation data is currently available, many limitations remain when striving to provide data on spatial distribution of precipitation. As satellite-based precipitation data are continuously observed across the globe, they may serve as input data for hydrological models when ground station data is unavailable. The goal of this study was to validate the precipitation data for the Korean peninsula in East Asia at three different time scales (1-h, 3-h, and daily) using several Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and two satellite based precipitation datasets: the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) which is a brand new geostationary satellite, and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The Index of Agreement (IOA) for daily precipitation between the AWS and both the COMS or TRMM averaged 0.65 (ranged from 0.49 to 0.75) and 0.80 (ranged from 0.68 to 0.89), respectively. Bias and RMSE from the COMS (Bias ranged from -2.5 to 3.98 mm, RMSE ranged from 16.78 to 38.2 mm) and TRMM (Bias ranged from -3.37 to 1.84 mm, RMSE ranged from 14.63 to 32.0 mm) also indicated that precipitation data obtained from satellite and AWS showed similar tend on a daily time scale, while the majority of the satellite based datasets exhibited over- or underestimation patterns during pre- or monsoon seasons, respectively. The spatial distribution of data from the TRMM and COMS showed favorable agreement with that of accumulated precipitation at AWS sites. However, TRMM underestimated the precipitation amounts in mountainous areas. Based on these results, COMS data would be helpful for understanding hydrological modeling and spatial-temporal precipitation variability. To improve the discrepancies between the satellite- and ground-based datasets, further validation of satellite algorithms using various climatic and environmental conditions may be required.

  3. Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veysoglu, Murat E.; Yueh, H. A.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of polarimetry in active remote sensing is extended to passive remote sensing. The potential use of the third and fourth Stokes parameters U and V, which play an important role in polarimetric active remote sensing, is demonstrated for passive remote sensing. It is shown that, by the use of the reciprocity principle, the polarimetric parameters of passive remote sensing can be obtained through the solution of the associated direct scattering problem. These ideas are applied to study polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces. The solution of the direct scattering problem is obtained by an integral equation formulation which involves evaluation of periodic Green's functions and normal derivative of those on the surface. Rapid evaluation of the slowly convergent series associated with these functions is observed to be critical for the feasibility of the method. New formulas, which are rapidly convergent, are derived for the calculation of these series. The study has shown that the brightness temperature of the Stokes parameter U can be significant in passive remote sensing. Values as high as 50 K are observed for certain configurations.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing for terrestrial applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Murali Krishna Gumma,; Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing data are considered hyperspectral when the data are gathered from numerous wavebands, contiguously over an entire range of the spectrum (e.g., 400–2500 nm). Goetz (1992) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element of an image it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum.” However, Jensen (2004) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The simultaneous acquisition of images in many relatively narrow, contiguous and/or non contiguous spectral bands throughout the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Remote sensing for exploration - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rock, B. N.; Rowan, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing in resource exploration is reviewed, with emphasis placed on new developments in high spectral resolution remote-sensing techniques for mineralogic and vegetation mapping. Topics discussed include aerial photography and satellite remote sensing, concepts and principles of spectral data collection, spectral properties of rocks and minerals, spectral properties of vegetation, and botanical aspects of geochemical stress. The discussion also covers applications of Landsat multispectral scanner data to lithologic and geobotanic studies and the future development of data acquisition and data interpretation techniques.

  6. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  7. Remote sensing for exploration - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rock, B. N.; Rowan, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing in resource exploration is reviewed, with emphasis placed on new developments in high spectral resolution remote-sensing techniques for mineralogic and vegetation mapping. Topics discussed include aerial photography and satellite remote sensing, concepts and principles of spectral data collection, spectral properties of rocks and minerals, spectral properties of vegetation, and botanical aspects of geochemical stress. The discussion also covers applications of Landsat multispectral scanner data to lithologic and geobotanic studies and the future development of data acquisition and data interpretation techniques.

  8. Remote sensing and urban public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  9. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-26

    92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice NO0014-89-J-l 107 6. AUTHOR(S) 425f023-08 Prof. J.A. Kong 7... REMOTE SENSING OF ICE Sponsored by: Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-89-J-1107 Research Organization: Center for...J. A. Kong Period covered: October 1, 1988 - November 30, 1992 St ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING OF ICE FINAL REPORT This annual report covers

  10. Remote sensing and global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, A.; Cracknell, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    This book, based on lectures from the Dundee Summer Schools in Remote Sensing in 1992, focuses on aspects of remote sensing related to climatic change. The organization of the book focuses on particular parts of the climate system and then discusses the different satellite systems relevant to their measurement. The following subject areas are included in the book: background information about the climate system and remote sensing; atmospheric applications in both lower and upper atmosphere; land surface including snow and ice, altimetry in Antarctica, land surface energy budget and albedo; marine science; ecological monitoring in St. Petersburg, Russia.

  11. Paleovalleys mapping using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibatsha, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    For work materials used multispectral satellite imagery Landsat (7 channels), medium spatial resolution (14,25-90 m) and a digital elevation model (data SRTM). For interpretation of satellite images and especially their infrared and thermal channels allocated buried paleovalleys pre-paleogene age. Their total length is 228 km. By manifestation of the content of remote sensing paleovalleys distinctly divided into two types, long ribbon-like read in materials and space survey highlights a network of small lakes. By the nature of the relationship established that the second type of river paleovalleys flogs first. On this basis, proposed to allocate two uneven river paleosystem. The most ancient paleovalleys first type can presumably be attributed to karst erosion, blurry chalk and carbon deposits foundation. Paleovalleys may include significant groundwater resources as drinking and industrial purposes. Also we can control the position paleovalleys zinc and bauxite mineralization area and alluvial deposits include uranium mineralization valleys infiltration type and placer gold. Direction paleovalleys choppy, but in general they have a north-east orientation, which is controlled by tectonic zones of the foundation. These zones are defined as the burial place themselves paleovalleys and position of karst cavities in areas interfacing with other structures orientation. The association of mineralization to the caverns in the beds paleovalleys could generally present conditions of formation of mineralization and carry it to the "Niagara" type. The term is obviously best reflects the mechanism of formation of these ores.

  12. Suntracker for atmospheric remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawat, Toufic-Michel; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Torguet, Roger J.

    1998-05-01

    A heliostat is designed and built to track the sun for optical remote sensing of the stratosphere from a balloon- borne pointed gondola. The tracking mechanism is controlled by two direct torque motors used to drive a single flat acquisition mirror. A horizontal turntable, rigidly attached to the azimuth drive, supports the elevation assembly. A position sensor receiving a small part of the solar beam reflected off the main acquisition mirror is used for the fine servo control. Using a CCD camera prepointing of the acquisition mirror is achieved when the sun is in the field of view of the heliostat. This system is coupled with a high-resolution (0.02-cm-1) Fourier transform IR spectrometer to retrieve stratospheric trace species concentration profiles. The suntracker directs the solar radiation in a stable direction along the spectrometer optical axis. The pointing precision is 1 arcmin from a stratospheric gondola, which has static and dynamic angular excursions up to 6 deg. The heliostat coupled to the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere instrument performs successfully on several balloon flights. The description, ground tests, and balloon flight results of the suntracker are presented.

  13. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two monographs and 85 journal and conference papers on remote sensing of earth terrain have been published, sponsored by NASA Contract NAG5-270. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric data from earth terrain with polarizations HH, HV, VH, and VV. In this approach, correlated polarizations of radar signals, as characterized by a covariance matrix, are treated as the sum of N n-dimensional random vectors; N obeys the negative binomial distribution with a parameter alpha and mean bar N. Subsequently, and n-dimensional K-distribution, with either zero or non-zero mean, is developed in the limit of infinite bar N or illuminated area. The probability density function (PDF) of the K-distributed vector normalized by its Euclidean norm is independent of the parameter alpha and is the same as that derived from a zero-mean Gaussian-distributed random vector. The above model is well supported by experimental data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the form of polarimetric measurements.

  14. Application of remote sensing for planning purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.

  15. Enhancement of remote sensing through microwave technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cehelsky, M.; Kiebler, J.

    1980-01-01

    This overview begins with a brief look at remote sensing to date, focusing on the state of the art and the benefits that have been derived from it. Current and future microwave sensing developments are discussed pointing out special advantages and capabilities and noting the anticipated benefits. The frequency requirements of microwave sensing are outlined and the particular need to both allocate, and when necessary, protect active and passive operational sensing frequencies is emphasized.

  16. EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct

  17. Remote sensing: An inventory of earth's resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1974-01-01

    The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.

  18. Using GPS Reflections for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickler, David

    2000-01-01

    GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.

  19. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  20. Indicators of international remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.

  1. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  2. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  3. A Teacher's Introduction to Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)

  4. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  5. Inhomogeneous cloud removing from remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liya; Qin, Zhiyuan; Lin, Qing; Shang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Cloud is the common phenomenon in the obtaining and application of the visible-light remote sensing image, and these images are usually degraded by the turbid medium (e.g., fog, cloud) in the atmosphere. This article researched the defogging techniques of the single satellite remote sensing image on the basis of the dark channel prior and the imaging model of the cloud images, and proposed a new approach to calculate the airlight in view of problems of asymmetric thickness of cloud in the satellite remote sensing images and unreasonable estimation of the airlight in the existing defogging algorithms. In my approach, cloud thickness information was added to effectively avoid the phenomenon of 'over-treatment' and 'under-treatment'. Finally, the feature of scientific and effective were validated by the successful testament of respectively using medium-resolution and high-resolution satellite remote sensing data.

  6. Information Processing of Remote-Sensing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)

  7. State remote sensing (LANDSAT) programs catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.

  8. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  9. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  10. Information Processing of Remote-Sensing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)

  11. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  12. Middle infrared remote sensing for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    The middle infrared portion of the spectrum available for geologic remote sensing extends from approximately 3 to 25 micrometers. The source of energy is thermal radiation from surface materials and ambient terrestrial temperatures. The spectral range of usefulness is limited by both the amount of energy available and by transmission of energy through the atmosphere. The best atmospheric window lies between about 8 and 14 micrometers. Remote sensing of the Earth in the infrared is just on the threshold of becoming a valuable geologic tool. Topics which need study include: (1) the used and limitations of the 8 to 14 micrometer region for distinguishing between silicates and nonsilicates; (2) theoretical and experimental understanding of laboratory spectra of rocks and minerals and their relationship to remotely sensed emission spectra; and (3) the possible use of the 3 to 5 and 17 to 25 micrometer portions of the spectrum for remote sensing.

  13. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  14. A Teacher's Introduction to Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)

  15. Scripps Ocean Modeling and Remote Sensing (SOMARS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-20

    Topics in this brief reports include: Kalman filtering of oceanographic data; Remote sensing of sea surface temperature; Altimetry and Surface heat fluxes; Ocean models of the marine mixed layer; Radar altimetry; Mathematical model of California current eddies.

  16. Remote Sensing of Snow and Evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The use of snowmelt runoff models from both the U.S. and Japan for simulating discharge on basins in both countries is discussed as well as research in snowpack properties and evapotranspiration using remotely sensed data.

  17. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures.

  18. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  19. Pilot interministerial operation for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamare, J. M.; Bied-Charreton, M.; Couzy, A.; Jahan, A.; Ledder, J.; Pasquet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of obtaining required information for land and resources management and the possibilities of remote sensing are discussed. The services available, organization and objectives of the pilot operation are presented. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary dialog among designers, builders, operators, interpreters and users in all phases. The principles, operation and practical applications of remote sensing systems and processing systems under the pilot operation are presented.

  20. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  1. Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    of Cross-Correlation and Signal Averaging Appendix B: Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Ammonia using a 33 C02 LIDAR System Ac-’,i- n For AVE...of CO2 differential-absorption LIDAR (DIAL) for the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants was continued during FY84 and consisted of two...individual LIDAR signals and then taking the ratios of the averaged signals in order to deduce the differential-absorption value. This is in contrast to

  2. Summary: Remote sensing soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmer, F. A.; Werner, H. D.; Waltz, F. A.

    1970-01-01

    During the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons research was conducted to investigate the relationship between remote sensing imagery and soil moisture. The research was accomplished under two completely different conditions: (1) cultivated cropland in east central South Dakota, and (2) rangeland in western South Dakota. Aerial and ground truth data are being studied and correlated in order to evaluate the moisture supply and water use. Results show that remote sensing is a feasible method for monitoring soil moisture.

  3. Satellite remote sensing of water turbidity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments obtain an optical measure of water colour and turbidity. Colour increases the absorption of light in water and decreases the remotely sensed signal; turbidity increases the backscatter of light. For low concentrations of suspended materials, spectral reflectance is determined mostly by the absorptance characteristics of water; for higher concentrations, the absorptance characteristics of suspended particles are the most important factors. -from Authorwater colour suspended materials

  4. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weverberg, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  5. Remote sensing the precipitation of the electron radiation belt source population using a network of riometers: Statistical and case-based analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Adam; Makarevich, Roman; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric; Reeves, Geoffrey; Shprits, Yuri

    Recent observations and modeling have demonstrated the importance of chorus waves in the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Important for chorus wave growth is the presence of lower-energy source electrons from which the waves draw their energy. Chorus waves may scatter these lower-energy electrons into the loss cone, where they may precipitate into the atmosphere. Extra-terrestrial radiation (cosmic noise) penetrates the Earth's atmosphere and is absorbed and re-radiated by free electrons until a collision with an ion or neutral particle takes place. Ground based riometers listen to this cosmic noise and detect a reduction in power associated with the product of the number of electrons and the collision frequency, known as absorption. Obtaining a measure of the energy-dependent relationship between riometer absorption and precipitating electrons is important, and may be used to understand the loss of the electrons from the Earth's magnetosphere, connected with scattering my magnetospheric waves. In this study, over a solar cycle of riometer and spacecraft data are used to investigate the energy to which riometers are responding. Employed are daily-averaged and 1-min resolution trapped electron fluxes from the LANL spacecraft and riometer absorption from numerous stations within the NORSTAR array. Time-lagged correlation analysis of trapped to precipitating fluxes shows that daily averaged absorption best correlates with 62.5 keV trapped flux at zero-time lag, while delay times observed between ground-based signatures correspond to inferred energies of 60 keV based on gradient and curvature drift calculations. The analyses presented show that riometers respond to electrons of energy 10-100 keV, with little evidence of any direct relationship to MeV electrons. Thus, riometer absorption may be used as a proxy for the precipitation of the source population of electrons, connected with chorus wave activity.

  6. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. Remote Sensing Basics
    A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
    B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
    1. Sp...

  7. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. Remote Sensing Basics
    A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
    B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
    1. Sp...

  8. Remote sensing of coastal processes and resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the coastal zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of coastal vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.

  9. Laser Remote Sensing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing active remote sensors to monitor the health of Planet Earth and for exploration of other planets. Development and deployment of these remote sensors can have a huge economic impact. Lasers for these active remote sensors span the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared spectral regions. Development activities range from quantum mechanical modeling and prediction of new laser materials to the design, development, and demonstration be deployed in the field.

  10. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, Remote Sensing Systems, Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    Partial Contents: Short Introduction to Nation’s Remote Sensing Units, Domestic Airborne Remote - Sensing System, Applications in Monitoring Natural...Disasters, Applications of Imagery From Experimental Satellites Launched in 1985, 1986, Current Status, Future Prospects for Domestic Remote - Sensing -Satellite...Ground Station, and Radar Remote - Sensing Technology Used to Monitor Yellow River Delta,

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing and Mesoscale Modeling of Biomass Burning Aerosols over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Climatic Implications of Smokes on Regional Energy Balance, Cloud Formations and Precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.

    2015-12-01

    The influences of anthropogenic aerosols have been suggested as an important reason for climate changes over Southeast Asia (SE Asia, 10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E). Accurate observations and modelling of aerosols effects on the weather and climate patterns is crucial for a better understanding and mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. This study uses NASA satellite observations along with online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate aerosols impacts on climate over SE Asia. We assess the direct and semi-direct radiative effects of smoke particles over this region during September, 2009 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity during the last 15 years. Quantification efforts are made to assess how changes of radiative and non radiative parameters (sensible and latent heat) due to smoke aerosols would affect regional climate process such as precipitations, clouds and planetary boundary layer process. Comparison of model simulations for the current land cover conditions against surface meteorological observations and satellite observations of precipitations and cloudiness show satisfactory performance of the model over our study area. In order to quantitatively validate the model results, several experiments will be performed to test the aerosols radiative feedback under different radiation schemes and with/without considering aerosol effects explicitly in the model. Relevant ground-based data (e.g. AERONET), along with aerosol vertical profile data from CALIPSO, will also be applied.

  13. Remote sensing-a geophysical perspective.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this review of developments in the field of remote sensing from a geophysical perspective, the subject is limited to the electromagnetic spectrum from 0.4 mu m to 25cm. Three broad energy categories are covered: solar reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave.-from Authorremote sensing electromagnetic spectrum solar reflected thermal infrared microwave geophysics

  14. The Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) field project: visibility analysis and remote sensing of fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Minnis, P.; Milbrandt, J.; Cober, S. G.; Nguyen, L.; Flynn, C.; Hansen, B.

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of this work is to describe a research project on fog and visibility, and to summarize the results. The Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project was designed to focus on 1) development of microphysical parameterizations for model applications, 2) development of remote sensing methods for fog nowcasting/forecasting, 3) understanding of issues related to instrument capabilities and improvement of the analysis, and 4) integration of model data with observations. The FRAM was conducted over three regions of Canada and US. These locations were: 1) Center for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), Egbert, Ontario 2005-2006, 2) Lunenburg, Nova Scotia June of 2006 and 2007, and 3) U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE) ARM Climate Research Facility at Barrow, Alaska, US during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) field program April of 2008; FRAM C, FRAM-L, and ISDAC-FRAM-B, respectively. FRAM-C was undertaken in a continental fog environment while FRAM-L was in a marine environment. The FRAM-B was undertaken to study ice fog conditions. During the project, numerous in-situ measurements were obtained, including droplet and aerosol spectra, precipitation, and visibility. Analysis of satellite microphysical retrievals and visibility parameterizations suggested that improved scientific understanding of fog formation can lead to better forecasting/nowcasting skills benefiting both aviation and public forecasting applications.

  15. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  16. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  17. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  18. Sensing our Environment: Remote sensing in a physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Schüttler, Tobias; Cohen-Zada, Aviv L.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Girwidz, Raimund; Maman, Shimrit

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing is defined as data acquisition of an object, deprived physical contact. Fundamentally, most remote sensing applications are referred to as the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects mainly on Earth or other planets. In the last years there have been efforts to bring the important subject of remote sensing into schools, however, most of these attempts focused on geography disciplines - restricting to the applications of remote sensing and to a less extent the technique itself and the physics behind it. Optical remote sensing is based on physical principles and technical devices, which are very meaningful from a theoretical point of view as well as for "hands-on" teaching. Some main subjects are radiation, atom and molecular physics, spectroscopy, as well as optics and the semiconductor technology used in modern digital cameras. Thus two objectives were outlined for this project: 1) to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques in physics teaching, and 2) to identify its impact on pupil's interest in the field of natural sciences. This joint project of the DLR_School_Lab, Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at BGU, was conducted in 2016. Thirty teenagers (ages 16-18) participated in the project and were exposed to the cutting edge methods of earth observation. The pupils on both sides participated in the project voluntarily, knowing that at least some of the project's work had to be done in their leisure time. The pupil's project started with a day at EPIF and DLR respectively, where the project task was explained to the participants and an introduction to remote sensing of vegetation was given. This was realized in lectures and in experimental workshops. During the following two months both groups took several measurements with modern optical remote sensing systems in their home region with a special focus on flora

  19. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesev, V.

    2012-07-01

    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  20. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  1. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432

  2. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  3. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  4. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.

  5. Regional Drought Monitoring Based on Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung

    2014-05-01

    Drought originates from the deficit of precipitation and impacts environment including agriculture and hydrological resources as it persists. The assessment and monitoring of drought has traditionally been performed using a variety of drought indices based on meteorological data, and recently the use of remote sensing data is gaining much attention due to its vast spatial coverage and cost-effectiveness. Drought information has been successfully derived from remotely sensed data related to some biophysical and meteorological variables and drought monitoring is advancing with the development of remote sensing-based indices such as the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to name a few. The Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) has also been proposed to be used for humid regions proving the performance of multi-sensor data for agricultural drought monitoring. In this study, remote sensing-based hydro-meteorological variables related to drought including precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture were examined and the SDCI was improved by providing multiple blends of the multi-sensor indices for different types of drought. Multiple indices were examined together since the coupling and feedback between variables are intertwined and it is not appropriate to investigate only limited variables to monitor each type of drought. The purpose of this study is to verify the significance of each variable to monitor each type of drought and to examine the combination of multi-sensor indices for more accurate and timely drought monitoring. The weights for the blends of multiple indicators were obtained from the importance of variables calculated by non-linear optimization using a Machine Learning technique called Random Forest. The case study was performed in the Republic of Korea, which has four distinct seasons over the course of the year and contains complex topography with a variety

  6. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  7. High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.

  8. Roundtable Explores Remote Sensing for Disaster Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-07-01

    Against a backdrop of recent natural disasters—including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the 2010 Haiti earthquake—an 8 July roundtable at the U.S. National Academies explored ways to improve the use of remote sensing data before, during, and after disasters. At the “From Reality 2010 to Vision 2020” roundtable in Washington, D. C., speakers from U.S. federal government agencies and the private sector generally agreed that there would likely be continued improvements in remote sensing instrumentation, including reduced size and weight and the capability for more rapid dissemination of remote sensing data. However, they also stressed the need for closer collaboration among agencies and settling political and turf battles, overcoming security and other restrictions such as with sharing high-resolution data, and responding better to user needs.

  9. Remote sensing of soil moisture - Recent advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advancements in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture include a method for estimating the dependence of the soil dielectric constant on its texture, the use of a percent of field capacity to express soil moisture magnitudes independently of soil texture, methods of estimating soil moisture sampling depth, and models for describing the effect of surface roughness on microwave response in terms of surface height variance and horizontal correlation length, as well as the verification of radiative transfer model predictions of microwave emission from soils and methods for the estimation of vegetation effects on the microwave response to soil moisture. Such researches have demonstrated that it is possible to remotely sense soil moisture in the 0-5 cm soil surface layer, and simulation studies have indicated how remotely sensed surface soil moisture may be used to estimate evapotranspiration rates and root-zone soil moisture.

  10. Support for global science - Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing techniques are discussed. The benefits possible to remote sensing with the new Earth Observing System, which is composed of the Space Station and coorbiting and polar satellite platforms, are examined. Current changes in the remote sensing field, which involve a change from an industrial society to an informational society, force technology to high technology with high touch, short term to long term, centralized to decentralized, hierarchies to networks, and either/or to multiple option systems are studied. The explanatory and objective types of analyses for investigating biophysical, geochemical, and socioeconomic processes are described; the procedures include: morphometric, cause and effect, temporal and functional and ecological system analyses, inventory, mapping, monitoring, and modeling.

  11. Earth Remote Sensing: A Column Closure Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Entering the new millennium, there is no doubt that scientists expand greatly their scientific knowledge of the Earth system by utilizing unique capabilities from the vantage points of space. These global satellite observations include the NASA/NOAA Pathfinder and other ongoing data analysis projects, the Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the Earth System Science Pathfinders (ESSP) small research satellite missions, multi-agency planning for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (NPOESS), and other international satellite missions. However, using satellite remotely sensed data alone cannot explore fully the physical processes and energetic balance involved in our changing climate. To close the loop, the ground-based remote sensing and airborne in situ measurements are required. This talk provides an overview of the general strategy of Earth remote sensing for a column closure approach and discusses necessary instrumentation.

  12. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  13. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  14. Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A

    2001-05-22

    This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.

  15. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  16. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  17. Towards a coherent remote sensing data policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa R.; Backlund, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Access to space-based remote sensing data is critical for earth science and the study of global change. This article summarizes a variety of U.S. government earth science data policies and problems. The authors examine current efforts to develop data policies for the next generation of U.S. remote sensing programs, noting likely problems based on past experiences. They argue that the goal of U.S. earth science data policy should be to provide the widest possible dissemination of data. Setting such a goal permits the development of a simple, coherent data policy that serves scientific, commercial, and U.S. government interests.

  18. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  19. Remotely sensing the photochemical reflectance index, PRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2015-09-01

    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside leaves in a plant stand. Developed by1,2, PRI evolved from laboratory reflectance measurements of individual leaves. Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We compared values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. Our results show the polarized leaf surface reflection should be removed when calculating PRI and that the leaf physiology information is in leaf interior reflectance, not leaf transmittance.

  20. Remote sensing R&D planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A NASA method is described for forecasting remote sensing needs in the last decade of this century and for planning the necessary space system technology R&D. Five- and ten-year plans for earth observations in various disciplines are extrapolated forward to circa 1995 via a scenario which envisions major advances in remote sensing and information management. Space system studies identify the 'technology drivers', and development programs are initiated to develop the enabling technology. An example is given for a multipurpose large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft.

  1. Interpretation of Airphotos and Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainsworth, Thomas L.; Jansen, Robert

    With the proliferation of easily accessible remotely sensed imagery over the last several years, image analysts from a wide variety of working environments are in high demand. These analysts do not always have advanced technical backgrounds in science. Robert Arnold's useful and timely laboratory manual serves as an adequate introduction to interpreting remotely sensed photographs and imagery. The book poses a graduated set of examples and questions with a generally increasing but low level of sophistication. It is easy to read, and considerable care has been exercised in the layout of the subject index and overall organization of the manual.

  2. Coronal structure inferred from remote sensing observations

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.

    1996-09-01

    Remote-sensing observations of the Sun and inner heliosphere are reviewed to appraise our understanding of the mix of the mechanisms that heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind. An assessment of experimental uncertainties and the basic assumptions needed to translate measurables into physical models, reveals very large fundamental uncertainties in our knowledge of coronal structure near the Sun. We develop a time-dependent, filamentary model of the extended corona that is consistent with a large number of remote sensing observations of the solar atmosphere and the solar wind.

  3. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  4. High-speed spectroradiometer for remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Shimizu, H; Yasuoka, Y

    1987-11-15

    A high-speed spectroradiometer designed for spectral reflectance measurement in remote sensing is described. This instrument uses a monochromatic grating and a photomultiplier system for light detection and sweeps over the 400-850-nm wavelength spectral range with the spectral resolution of 2 nm within 1 s. The instrument has the inherent advantage of portability and speed of operation which make it particularly suitable for field work in the area of fast moving surfaces, e.g., water with wave motion. Some applications of its use in laboratory and field experiments also have been presented. The instrument would seem to be an appropriate instrument for ground data collection in remote sensing.

  5. Towards a coherent remote sensing data policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa R.; Backlund, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Access to space-based remote sensing data is critical for earth science and the study of global change. This article summarizes a variety of U.S. government earth science data policies and problems. The authors examine current efforts to develop data policies for the next generation of U.S. remote sensing programs, noting likely problems based on past experiences. They argue that the goal of U.S. earth science data policy should be to provide the widest possible dissemination of data. Setting such a goal permits the development of a simple, coherent data policy that serves scientific, commercial, and U.S. government interests.

  6. Ionospheric Profiles from Ultraviolet Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    remote sensing of the ionosphere from orbiting space platforms. Remote sensing of the nighttime ionosphere is a relatively straightforward process due to the absence of the complications brought about by daytime solar radiation. Further, during the nighttime hours, the O(+)-H(+) transition level in both the mid- and low-latitude ionospheres lies around 750 km, which is within the range of accuracy of the path matrix inversion. The intensity of the O(+)-e(-) recombination radiation as observed from orbiting space platforms can now be used to

  7. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  8. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  9. Remote sensing/vegetation classification. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    The CALVEG classification system for identification of vegetation is described. This hierarchical system responds to classification requirements and to interpretation of vegetation at various description levels, from site description to broad identification levels. The system's major strength is its flexibility in application of remote sensing technology to assess, describe and communicate data relative to vegetative resources on a state-wide basis. It is concluded that multilevel remote sensing is a cost effective tool for assessment of the natural resource base. The CLAVEG system is found to be an economically efficient tool for both existing and potential vegetation.

  10. Irrigated lands: Monitoring by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Vitorelli, I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.

  11. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  12. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  13. Feasibility of remote evaporation and precipitation estimates. [by stereo images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, W. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing by means of stereo images obtained from flown cameras and scanners provides the potential to monitor the dynamics of pollutant mixing over large areas. Moreover, stereo technology may permit monitoring of pollutant concentration and mixing with sufficient detail to ascertain the structure of a polluted air mass. Consequently, stereo remote systems can be employed to supply data to set forth adequate regional standards on air quality. A method of remote sensing using stereo images is described. Preliminary results concerning the planar extent of a plume based on comparison with ground measurements by an alternate method, e.g., remote hot-wire anemometer technique, are supporting the feasibility of using stereo remote sensing systems.

  14. An Overview of GNSS Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-27

    effects as they travel through the atmosphere to the per- manent ground-based GNSS receivers. Using a dense CORS network, the impact of the neutral...atmos- pheric observing system which can accurately sense WV, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60 to 70% of atmospheric warming. Severe... atmosphere , oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms

  15. Wind Predictability and Remote Sensing Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents the unclassified findings from the Investigation of Airborne Wind Sensing Systems conducted under AIRTASK A30303/323/70F17311002. Included is a summary of the current accuracy of wind speed and direction forecasts, a list of possible methods for remote sensing meteorological data, a list of areas of application of the given methods and a list of contacts made for information relevant to this evaluation. (Author)

  16. Remote sensing of wireless devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King-Smith, Deen; Martone, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    Remote detection and characterization of wireless devices in an environment is a topic of growing importance. Characterization of a wireless device is useful in many applications. An example of this is in the testing of FCC Part 15 devices. These devices must adhere to strict guidelines in regards to RF interference. Compliance can be verified by using forensic techniques to classify and characterize the returned signal. We present a framework for remote detection and forensic characterization of RF devices using specially designed probe signals. This framework can be applied to a broad range of devices and models. Probe signals, device models, feature selection, classifier design are described. For the device model we introduce a method for simulating a non-linearity in the RF system based on a known diode model. Experimental results are given to verify our approach.

  17. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  18. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  19. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  20. Remotely Sensed Snow Data Assimilation within Distributed Snow 17 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, C. M.; Leisenring, M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the quantity of water stored in seasonal snow cover, particularly in the mountainous Western United States, is an important tool for water resources management. Challenges in the estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) arise from uncertain model forcing data, model structure/parameter error, poor spatial resolution of in-situ measurements and uncertainties in remotely sensed observations. Currently, the best method for quantifying SWE is to integrate both modeled and remotely sensed estimates of snow by accounting for the relative uncertainties associated with each estimate. Data assimilation techniques account for observed and modeled errors by treating them as a stochastic variable and sequentially updating/resampling the state values. This study examines the effectiveness of three snow data assimilation techniques for creating a more accurate estimate of SWE. In this study, SWE, modeled with a distributed version of the National Weather Service’s SNOW-17 model, and model parameters in the Snow-17 model are updated with remotely sensed snow cover area (SCA). The SNOW-17 model takes precipitation and temperature as an input and estimates both SWE and SCA. Model forcing data was gathered from the North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) dataset. The SCA information used in this study is produced by the MODIS instrument flown on the NASA Terra satellite. The model runs at 1/8th degree and MODIS data is aggregated to this resolution from a 500m resolution. Remotely sensed SCA is used as the observation in three different data assimilation schemes: Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Ensemble Kalman Smoother (EnKS) and the Particle Filter. The EnKF and EnKS both use the same update equation, which assumes normally distributed errors. The Particle Filter takes a different approach that does not require an assumption about the error distribution. The accuracy and uncertainties associated with each of these assimilation techniques are compared

  1. [Biogeocenosis thermodynamics based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Sandlerskiĭ, R B; Puzachenko, Iu G

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues in the studies of spatial and temporal variations in the energy conversion are shown to be solvable on the basis of information thermodynamic approach using the remote sensing techniques. A possibility of evaluation of the main components of the energy balance of a biogeocenosis, considered as an open thermodynamic system maintaining its structure through the conversion of solar energy, is demonstrated by analysis of the southern taiga landscapes of Valdai Hills. Analysis of the ratio of thermodynamic variables for the different types of biogeocenosis shows that the energy flow absorbed by the surface, is being redistributed among balance components by various mechanisms, and it depends on the structure of the redistribution system expressed by the non-equilibrium. Non-equilibrium of the solar energy transformation is determined before all by the energy costs in the synthesis of biological products, and has a little impact on exergy of the solar radiation, i.e., the cost of energy to evaporation. Invariance of energy conversion by landscape as a whole and generalized types of biogeocenoses are estimated. The ability of the taiga landscapes to maintain energy absorbed invariants, exergy and temperatures forms a naturally determined series similar to a succession trend: meadows--falls--deciduous forests--coniferous forest. Anthropogenic objects are shown to possess the weakest autoregulation ability. Raised bogs keep high heating of the territory and preserve precipitation in the subsurface runoff, in contrast to the forests carrying out moisture transport from the soil into the atmosphere. The bog's ability to maintain the level of biological production is comparable to that of coniferous forests. The role of forest vegetation in climate regulation is estimated; it is shown that the absence of forests increases the surface temperature by 4 degrees C.

  2. Thermal remote sensing: theory, sensors, and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...

  3. Optical remote sensing small satellite project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xibin; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhaowei; Xu, Guodong

    2004-01-01

    Optical Remote Sensing Small Satellite is for high-tech flight demonstration's test and three dimensions mapping. Its system overview is presented in the paper, and it includes such items as mission objective and mission requirements, satellite system scheme, reliability, cost budget project schedule and management and operation.

  4. Remote sensing of volcanos and volcanic terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.

  5. Remote Sensing Simulation Activities for Earthlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…

  6. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  7. Remote sensing of geobotanical relations in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arden, D. D., Jr.; Westra, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to geological investigations, with special attention to geobotanical factors, was evaluated. The general areas of investigation included: (1) recognition of mineral deposits; (2) geological mapping; (3) delineation of geological structure, including areas of complex tectonics; and (4) limestone areas where ground withdrawal had intensified surface collapse.

  8. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  9. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  10. Second Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.

  11. Wave climate assessment by satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Barstow, S.F.; Krogstad, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    Satellite remote sensing is quickly becoming a major information source for wave climate assessments. The present paper surveys various measurement principles and illustrates applications of satellite altimeter wave data from both the GEOSAT, Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 Exact Repeat missions. The paper also discusses use of Wave Mode and Image Mode SAR data obtained by ERS-1.

  12. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  13. Remote sensing imaging simulation and cloud removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xifang; Wu, Feng; Wu, Tao; Zhao, Chunyu

    2017-07-01

    Cloud obstacles obscure ground information frequently during remote sensing imaging which leads to valuable information losses. Removing clouds from a single image becomes challenging since no reference images containing cloud-free regions are available. In order to study cloud removal technologies and evaluate their performances, a method to simulate evenly and unevenly distributed clouds was proposed by analyzing the physical model of remote sensing imaging. Dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) and its features were introduced briefly. According to the frequency relationships between clouds and ground objects in remote sensing images, a novel cloud removal algorithm was proposed. The algorithm divided the cloud-contaminated image into low-level high frequency sub-bands, high-level high frequency sub-bands and low frequency sub-band by DTCWT. Low-level high frequency sub-bands were filtered to enhance the ground object information by Laplacian sharpening. The other two types of sub-bands were processed to remove clouds by cloud cover coefficient weighting (CCCW). The experiments were implemented to process cloud disturbed images produced by the proposed simulation method. The results of cloud removal from remote sensing images were analyzed. It proved the proposed algorithm is greatly superior to algorithms based on traditional wavelet transform and dark channel prior.

  14. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  16. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  17. Remote Sensing for Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is being used more and more for decision-making and policy development. Specific examples are: (1) Providing constraints on climate models used in IPCC assessments (2) Framing discussions about greenhouse gas monitoring (3) Providing support for hazard assessment and recovery.

  18. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  19. Microwave remote sensing of natural stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatore, Pasquale; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele

    2011-11-01

    The response of natural stratification to electromagnetic wave has received much attention in last decades, due to its crucial role played in the remote sensing arena. In this context, when the superficial structure of the Earth, whose formation is inherently layered, is concerned, the most general scheme that can be adopted includes the characterization of layered random media. Moreover, a key issue in remote sensing of Earth and other Planets is to reveal the content under the surface illuminated by the sensors. For such a purpose, a quantitative mathematical analysis of wave propagation in three-dimensional layered rough media is fundamental in understanding intriguing scattering phenomena in such structures, especially in the perspective of remote sensing applications. Recently, a systematic formulation has been introduced to deal with the analysis of a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces. Specifically, the results of the Boundary Perturbation Theory (BPT) lead to polarimetric, formally symmetric and physical revealing closed form analytical solutions. The comprehensive scattering model based on the BPT methodologically permits to analyze the bi-static scattering patterns of 3D multilayered rough media. The aim of this paper is to systematically show how polarimetric models obtainable in powerful BPT framework can be successfully applied to several situations of interest, emphasizing its wide relevance in the remote sensing applications scenario. In particular, a proper characterization of the relevant interfacial roughness is adopted resorting to the fractal geometry; numerical examples are then presented with reference to representative of several situations of interest.

  20. Technology transfer of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic philosophy and some current activities of MSFC Technology Transfer with regard to remote sensing technology are briefly reviewed. Among the problems that may be alleviated through such technology transfer are the scarcity of energy and mineral resources, the alteration of the environment by man, unpredictable natural disasters, and the effect of unanticipated climatic change on agricultural productivity.

  1. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.

  2. Remotely sensing homochirality, a powerful generic biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Hough, J. H.; Kolokolova, L.; Germer, T.; Robb, F.

    2014-03-01

    A high quality biosignature arises uniquely from biological processes. If a biosignature can additionally be used in remote sensing, then it can be useful for future telescopic studies of extrasolar planets where remote sensing is a necessity. The remarkable phenomenon of homochirality may be such a biosignature. The optical activity of biological molecules, together with their handedness, can yield a unique signature in circular polarization. Photosynthesis, a surface phenomenon relying on strong polarization-sensitive transitions in the visible, where light from the host star is abundant, is a natural remote sensing target for this approach. Both microbial photosynthesis, which has dominated terrestrial life for much of the history of Earth, and macroscopic vegetation, may in principle be observed. Precision polarimetry from space is likely to be needed, and we describe a promising, innovative approach to acquire sensitive full Stokes polarimetry with a compact, robust configuration well-suited to space application. The homochirality phenomenon is likely to be generic to all biochemical life, and pure in that abiotic processes do not result in homochirality nor do abiotic processes produce circular polarization features with similar character to the biological ones. This uniquely powerful biosignature is amenable to remote sensing, in principle, through circular polarization spectroscopy.

  3. Remote Sensing Simulation Activities for Earthlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…

  4. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  5. Remote sensing of plant functional types.

    PubMed

    Ustin, Susan L; Gamon, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conceptually, plant functional types represent a classification scheme between species and broad vegetation types. Historically, these were based on physiological, structural and/or phenological properties, whereas recently, they have reflected plant responses to resources or environmental conditions. Often, an underlying assumption, based on an economic analogy, is that the functional role of vegetation can be identified by linked sets of morphological and physiological traits constrained by resources, based on the hypothesis of functional convergence. Using these concepts, ecologists have defined a variety of functional traits that are often context dependent, and the diversity of proposed traits demonstrates the lack of agreement on universal categories. Historically, remotely sensed data have been interpreted in ways that parallel these observations, often focused on the categorization of vegetation into discrete types, often dependent on the sampling scale. At the same time, current thinking in both ecology and remote sensing has moved towards viewing vegetation as a continuum rather than as discrete classes. The capabilities of new remote sensing instruments have led us to propose a new concept of optically distinguishable functional types ('optical types') as a unique way to address the scale dependence of this problem. This would ensure more direct relationships between ecological information and remote sensing observations.

  6. Remote Sensing for Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is being used more and more for decision-making and policy development. Specific examples are: (1) Providing constraints on climate models used in IPCC assessments (2) Framing discussions about greenhouse gas monitoring (3) Providing support for hazard assessment and recovery.

  7. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  8. Remote sensing, a sketch of the technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Information is provided on how a potential user of remote sensing technology can gain access to all of the products and services he will need to get started. It was envisioned that these include data, training, hardware, and software. A very brief tutorial summary of the fundamentals of the technology is presented.

  9. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  10. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  11. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  12. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  13. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  14. Multivariate Density Estimation and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Current efforts to develop methods and computer algorithms to effectively represent multivariate data commonly encountered in remote sensing applications are described. While this may involve scatter diagrams, multivariate representations of nonparametric probability density estimates are emphasized. The density function provides a useful graphical tool for looking at data and a useful theoretical tool for classification. This approach is called a thunderstorm data analysis.

  15. Remote optical stethoscope and optomyography sensing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Mark; Polani, Sagi; Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Ruiz-Rivas Onses, Joaquin; Sanz Sabater, Martin; Shatsky, Max; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we present the usage of photonic remote laser based device for sensing nano-vibrations for detection of muscle contraction and fatigue, eye movements and in-vivo estimation of glucose concentration. The same concept is also used to realize a remote optical stethoscope. The advantage of doing the measurements from a distance is in preventing passage of infections as in the case of optical stethoscope or in the capability to monitor e.g. sleep quality without disturbing the patient. The remote monitoring of glucose concentration in the blood stream and the capability to perform opto-myography for the Messer muscles (chewing) is very useful for nutrition and weight control. The optical configuration for sensing the nano-vibrations is based upon analyzing the statistics of the secondary speckle patterns reflected from various tissues along the body of the subjects. Experimental results present the preliminary capability of the proposed configuration for the above mentioned applications.

  16. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-01-15

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  18. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-12

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series Tuesday, July 12, 2016 ... you of a free training opportunity: Introduction to Remote Sensing for Air Quality Applications Webinar Series Beginning in ...

  19. Remote sensing and snowpack management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes the use of an airborne electromagnetic sensing system for measuring snowpack depth, density, and water content. A transmitter sends a sequence of pulses of stepped frequencies, and the reflections are measured by a sensitive receiver. The combination of the snowpack and the earth interacts with the electromagnetic wave so as to modify the characteristics of the reflected signals. The variation of the reflected intensity with frequency provides the desired data. A theoretical analysis of return signal and snowpack parameter relationships is given, and the results of experimental verification of the theory are discussed.

  20. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  1. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  2. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission Using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, R.; Adimi, F.; Nigro, J.

    2007-01-01

    Meteorological and environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters can most conveniently be obtained using remote sensing. Selected provinces and districts in Thailand and Indonesia are used to illustrate how remotely sensed meteorological and environmental parameters may enhance the capabilities for malaria surveillance and control. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  3. Bibliography of Remote Sensing Techniques Used in Wetland Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    remote sensing technology for detecting changes in wetland environments. This report documents a bibliographic search conducted as part of that work unit on applications of remote sensing techniques in wetland research. Results were used to guide research efforts on the use of remote sensing technology for wetland change detection and assessment. The citations are presented in three appendixes, organized by wetland type, sensor type, and author.... Change detection, Wetland assessment, Remote sensing ,

  4. Superflux I, II, and III experiment design: Remote sensing aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Esaias, W. E.; Hypes, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay plume study called Superflux is described. The study was initiated to incorporate the disciplines of both resources management and remote sensing in accomplishing the following objectives: (1) process oriented research to understand the impact of estuarine outflows on continental shelf ecosystems; (2) monitoring and assessment to delineate the role of remote sensing in future monitoring and assessment programs; and (3) remote sensing research: to advance the state of the art in remote sensing systems as applied to sensing of the marine environment, thereby hastening the day when remote sensing can be used operationally for monitoring and assessment and for process oriented research.

  5. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  6. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  7. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  8. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  9. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  10. Reflections on Earth--Remote-Sensing Research from Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the uses of remote sensing in different areas, and introduces the program "Reflections on Earth" which provides access to basic and instructional information on remote sensing to students and teachers. Introduces students to concepts related to remote sensing and measuring distances. (YDS)

  11. An introduction to quantitative remote sensing. [data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Russell, J.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative approach to remote sensing is discussed along with the analysis of remote sensing data. Emphasis is placed on the application of pattern recognition in numerically oriented remote sensing systems. A common background and orientation for users of the LARS computer software system is provided.

  12. Annotated bibliography of remote sensing methods for monitoring desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, A.S.; Robinove, Charles J.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are valuable for locating, assessing, and monitoring desertification. Remotely sensed data provide a permanent record of the condition of the land in a format that allows changes in land features and condition to be measured. The annotated bibliography of 118 items discusses remote sensing methods that may be applied to desertification studies.

  13. History and future of remote sensing technology and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  14. History and future of remote sensing technology and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  15. Reflections on Earth--Remote-Sensing Research from Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the uses of remote sensing in different areas, and introduces the program "Reflections on Earth" which provides access to basic and instructional information on remote sensing to students and teachers. Introduces students to concepts related to remote sensing and measuring distances. (YDS)

  16. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  17. Remote sensing using MIMO systems

    DOEpatents

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-04-28

    A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.

  18. Monitoring vegetation responses to drought -- linking Remotely-sensed Drought Indices with Meteorological drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.; Liu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Effectively monitoring vegetation drought is of great significance in ecological conservation and agriculture irrigation at the regional scale. Combining meteorological drought indices with remotely sensed drought indices can improve tracking vegetation dynamic under the threat of drought. This study analyzes the dynamics of spatially-defined Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and temporally-defined Vegetation Health Index (VHI) from remotely sensed NDVI and LST datasets in the dry spells in Southwest China. We analyzed the correlation between remotely sensed drought indices and meteorological drought index of different time scales. The results show that TVDI was limited by the spatial variations of LST and NDVI, while VHI was limited by the temporal variations of LST and NDVI. Station-based buffering analysis indicates that the extracted remotely sensed drought indices and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) could reach stable correlation with buffering radius larger than 35 km. Three factors affect the spatiotemporal relationship between remotely sensed drought indices and SPI: i) different vegetation types; ii) the timescale of SPI; and iii) remote sensing data noise. Vegetation responds differently to meteorological drought at various time scales. The correlation between SPI6 and VHI is more significant than that between SPI6 and TVDI. Spatial consistency between VHI and TVDI varies with drought aggravation. In early drought period from October to December, VHI and TVDI show limited consistency due to the low quality of remotely sensed images. The study helps to improve monitoring vegetation drought using both meteorological drought indices and remotely sensed drought indices.

  19. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  20. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  1. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  2. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  3. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  4. The California Cooperative Remote Sensing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.

    1988-01-01

    The USDA, the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), the Remote Sensing Research Program of the University of California (UCB) and NASA have completed a 4-yr cooperative project on the use of remote sensing in monitoring California agriculture. This report is a summary of the project and the final report of NASA's contribution to it. The cooperators developed procedures that combined the use of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery and digital data with good ground survey data for area estimation and mapping of the major crops in California. An inventory of the Central Valley was conducted as an operational test of the procedures. The satellite and survey data were acquired by USDA and UCB and processed by CDWR and NASA. The inventory was completed on schedule, thus demonstrating the plausibility of the approach, although further development of the data processing system is necessary before it can be used efficiently in an operational environment.

  5. NORSEX 1979 microwave remote sensing data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne microwave remote sensing measurements obtained by NASA Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment (NORSEX) are summarized. The objectives of NORSEX were to investigate the capabilities of an active/passive microwave system to measure ice concentration and type in the vicinity of the marginal ice zone near Svalbard, Norway and to apply microwave techniques to the investigation of a thermal oceanic front near Bear Island, Norway. The instruments used during NORSEX include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer, airborne microwave scatterometer, precision radiation thermometer and metric aerial photography. The data are inventoried, summarized, and presented in a user-friendly format. Data summaries are presented as time-history plots which indicate when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration. All data are available on nine-track computer tapes in card-image format upon request to the NASA Langley Technical Library.

  6. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  7. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  8. Operational LANDSAT remote sensing system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of $121.6 million dollars from NOAA's LANDSAT development program for FY 1982, and the shortened time period for transferring remote sensing technology to the private sector resulted in changes in the Agency's plans for managing the operational system. Proposed legislation for congressional consideration or enactment to establish conditions under which this private sector transfer will occur, and the expected gradual rise in the price of data products are discussed. No money exists for capital investment and none is projected for investing in an operational data handling system for the LANDSAT D satellite. Candidates knowledgeable of various aspects of the needs and uses of remote sensing are urged to consider participation in NOAA's advisory committee.

  9. Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.

    PubMed

    Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2010-01-01

    A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics.

  10. Other remote sensing systems: Retrospect and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The history of remote sensing is reviewed and the scope and versatility of the several remote sensing systems already in orbit are discussed, especially those with sensors operating in other EM spectral modes. The multisensor approach is examined by interrelating LANDSAT observations with data from other satellite systems. The basic principles and practices underlying the use of thermal infrared and radar sensors are explored and the types of observations and interpretations emanating from the Nimbus, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, and SEASAT programs are examined. Approved or proposed Earth resources oriented missions for the 1980's previewed include LANDSAT D, Stereosat, Gravsat, the French satellite SPOT-1, and multimission modular spacecraft launched from space shuttle. The pushbroom imager, the linear array pushbroom radiometer, the multispectral linear array, and the operational LANDSAT observing system, to be designed the LANDSAT-E series are also envisioned for this decade.

  11. The Texas Remote Sensing Training Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The project was designed to train federal, state and regional agency managers, scientists and engineers. A one-week seminar was designed and implemented to build vocabulary, introduce technical subject areas and give students enough training to allow them to relate remote sensing technology to operational agency projects. The seminar was designed to perform the dual function of conveying enough remote sensing information to be of value as a stand-alone and preparing students for detailed pattern recognition training. The LARSYS III portion of the training project was executed exactly as designed in the LARSYS training materials package; the LARSYS package did not contain a LANDSAT training module. Two LANDSAT training modules were developed using Texas LANDSAT data. One module contained central Texas data and the second module contained coastal zone data.

  12. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  13. The Texas Remote Sensing Training Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The project was designed to train federal, state and regional agency managers, scientists and engineers. A one-week seminar was designed and implemented to build vocabulary, introduce technical subject areas and give students enough training to allow them to relate remote sensing technology to operational agency projects. The seminar was designed to perform the dual function of conveying enough remote sensing information to be of value as a stand-alone and preparing students for detailed pattern recognition training. The LARSYS III portion of the training project was executed exactly as designed in the LARSYS training materials package; the LARSYS package did not contain a LANDSAT training module. Two LANDSAT training modules were developed using Texas LANDSAT data. One module contained central Texas data and the second module contained coastal zone data.

  14. Advancing remote sensing of volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, William I.

    A second international workshop on the remote sensing of volcanic clouds was recently held to improve and expand the use of satellite-based remote sensing data for hazard mitigation and other research purposes, such as volcano-atmosphere interactions and chemical and meteorological effects on the troposphere and stratosphere. Forty-six researchers attended, representing 11 countries, 10 universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations. Also represented were the Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers in Washington, D.C.; Anchorage; Montreal; Darwin; London; and Tokyo, which monitor volcanic ash plumes and predict their displacement within their areas of responsibility The nine VAACs were established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to address various aviation concerns related to volcanic ash.

  15. Remote sensing of volcanic clouds shows promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, William I.

    An international workshop on the Remote Sensing of Volcanic Clouds was held July 29-August 3, 2001, at Michigan Technological University The workshop's goal was to improve and expand the use of satellite-based remote sensing data for hazard mitigation and other research purposes, such as volcano-atmosphere interactions and chemical and meteorological effects on the troposphere and stratosphere. Forty-six researchers attended, representing 11 countries, 9 universities, and several government meteorological and volcanological organizations, as well as the Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers in Washington, D.C., Anchorage, Montreal, Darwin, London, and Toulouse. (The Volcanic Ash Aviation Centers monitor volcanic ash plumes within their assigned airspace. There are 9 in all and they were created at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other aviation concerns.)

  16. Instrumentation for remote sensing over fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfeld, T.; Haugen, G.; Milanovich, F. P.

    1983-09-01

    The sensing and analytical abilities of the laser-fluorescence spectrometer was extended beyond the physical confines of the laboratory by means of communications-grade optical fibers. These fiber probes are extremely rugged, compared with sensitive laboratory equipment, and also extremely inexpensive. Sensitive chemical analyses may be performed in hostile environments without risking damage to the laser and the spectrometer. Special-purpose optrodes that are sensitive to selected chemicals were produced. With multiplexing, a number of fibers whose terminals are at widely scattered locations, gathering information in one central instrument without the expense and delay involved in manual sample gathering are scanned. A remote analyzer for monitoring rare earth ion migration in a nuclear-waste repository, an environment too hostile for any previous remote sensing device is being developed. Optrodes sensitive to a wide variety of non-chemical stimuli are being developed.

  17. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.

  18. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  19. The Fundamental Framework of Remote Sensing Validation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.-G.; Xi, X.-H.; Wu, M.-J.; Li, Z.-L.

    2009-04-01

    Remote sensing is a very complicated course. It is influenced by many factors, such as speciality of remote sensing sensor, radiant transmission characteristic of atmosphere, work environment of remote sensing platform, data transmission, data reception, data processing, and property of observed object etc. Whether the received data is consistent with the design specifications? Can the data meet the demands of remote sensing applications? How about the accuracy of the data products, retrieval products and application products of remote sensing? It is essential to carry out the validation to assess the data quality and application potential. Validation is effective approach to valuate remote sensing products. It is the significant link between remote sensing data and information. Research on remote sensing validation is very important for sensor development, data quality analysis and control. This paper focuses on the study of remote sensing validation and validation system. Different from the previous work done by other researchers, we study the validation from the viewpoint of systematic engineering considering that validation is involved with many aspects as talked about. Validation is not just a single and simple course. It is complicated system. Validation system is the important part of whole earth observation system. First of all, in this paper the category of remote sensing validation is defined. Remote sensing validation includes not only the data products validation, but also the retrieval products validation and application products validation. Second, the new concept, remote sensing validation system, is proposed. Then, the general framework, software structure and functions of validation system are studied and put forward. The validation system is composed of validation field module, data acquirement module, data processing module, data storage and management module, data scaling module, and remote sensing products validation module. And finally the

  20. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  1. Approaches to remote sensing data analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To present an overview of the essential steps in the remote sensing data analysis process, and to compare and contrast manual (visual) and automated analysis methods Rationale: This overview is intended to provide a framework for choosing a manual of digital analysis approach to collecting resource information. It can also be used as a basis for understanding/evaluating invited papers and poster sessions during the Symposium

  2. Structural analysis techniqes for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    The structural analysis of remotely sensed imagery is defined and basic techniques for implementing the process are described. Structural analysis uses knowledge of the properties of an entity, its parts and their relationships, and the relationships in which it participates at a higher level to locate and recognize objects in a visual scene. The representation of structural knowledge, the development of algorithms for using the knowledge to help analyze an image, and techniques for storage and retrieval of relational models are addressed.

  3. Remote sensing on Indian and public lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.; Woll, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques by the Bureaus of Indian Affairs and Land Management in planning resource problems, making decisions, writing environmental impact statements, and monitoring their respective programs is investigated. For Indian affairs, data cover the Papago, Fort Apache, San Carlos, and South Dakota Reservations. For the Land Management Office, data cover cadastral surveys, California desert study, range watersheds, and efforts to establish a natural resources information system.

  4. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  5. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  6. Laser Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    LIDAR Appendix 8: Limitations of Signal Averaging due to Temporal 26 Correlation in Laser Remote-Sensing Measurements Ac cessiol For ICTAB :16t is et ion...following: (1) the initial development of a heterodyne-detection, differential-absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system, (2) the development of a computerized data...near 10 pm. The outputs from these two lasers were directed out the laboratory window and the LIDAR returns collected with a telescope. Through use of

  7. Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanowski, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which

  8. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  9. Adaptive Bayes classifiers for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulston, H. S.; Pace, M. O.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for a learning, adaptive, statistical pattern classifier for remotely sensed data. The estimation procedure consists of two steps: (1) an optimal stochastic approximation of the parameters of interest, and (2) a projection of the parameters in time and space. The results reported are for Gaussian data in which the mean vector of each class may vary with time or position after the classifier is trained.

  10. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  11. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  12. Improved microwave radiometry for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leber, A.; Flattau, T.

    1979-01-01

    Significant improvements in the gain stability and overall performance of microwave radiometers have been achieved with the use of a self-balancing gain modulation technique. This technique, in combination with automatic thermal calibration, is particularly well suited for remote sensing radiometric applications. The essential features of such a radiometer, including typical data obtained from a spaceborne satellite, is presented to show the instrument's utility.

  13. Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.

  14. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng

    2015-07-10

    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications.

  15. Application of Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, Jan

    2014-12-01

    With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.

  16. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers. PMID:28379174

  17. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  18. Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2006-05-01

    Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures

  19. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-04-05

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers.

  20. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  1. National activities in remote sensing: a Canadian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Bruce

    A brief review of the federal government's role in developing remote sensing activities in Canada over the years is given. The struggle to map a large country, together with an interest in space, brought about the Canadian remote sensing program. In particular, the paper focuses on the role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada in coordinating research activities by all levels of government in remote sensing, thus fostering the growth of the remote sensing industry in Canada. An overview is given of the expanding remote sensing market. In addition, the paper looks at the present applications of remote sensing to agriculture, forestry and the study of ice caps and fresh water, for example, as well as its use in assessing and preventing environmental disasters. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of remote sensing in meeting the "Challenge of the 90's"—making sustainable development a way of life.

  2. Satellite oceanic remote sensing; Advances in Geophysics. Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.

    1985-01-01

    Oceanic remote sensing by several NASA sponsored satellite systems is described, and the results of these measurements are discussed. Papers are presented on the Seasat, Nimbus-7, and TIROS-N observations; analysis and interpretation of altimeter sea echo; oceanic surface winds; surface and internal ocean wave observations; and microwave wind and rain observations in severe tropical and midlatitude marine storms. Consideration is given to sea surface temperature determinations, ocean color measurements, observations of the polar regions from satellites using active and passive microwave techniques, precipitation in tropical cyclones, and living marine resources applications. Additional papers provide details of the remote sensors involved in these oceanic studies, details of the Seasat validation program, and a summary of the data availability.

  3. Simulation of Peak Flows Using Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Hernández, F.; Ba, K. M.; Guerra-Cobián, V.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we utilized remotely sensed data (radar and satellite precipitation products) to simulate the peak discharges of some storm events of the Escondido River. This is a poorly gauged watershed located in Northern Mexico, in the State of Coahuila and is a sub-basin of Rio Bravo, known also as Río Grande. The radar data are from NOAA (Radar KDFX located in Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas). We used two satellite product estimates PERSIANN and CMORPH. These three estimated precipitation products have been compared using the hydrologic model HEC-HMS to simulate the peak discharge. The results of the simulations show the importance of the use of this type of data in hydrologic modeling.

  4. Remote temperature distribution sensing using permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; Roberts, Christine C.; Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Nemer, Martin B.

    2016-10-31

    Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of nine magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.

  5. Remote Sensing of Arctic Landscape Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.

    Amplified warming in the Arctic has likely increased the rate of landscape change and disturbances in northern high latitude regions. Remote sensing provides a valuable tool for assessing the spatial and temporal patterns associated with arctic landscape dynamics over annual, decadal, and centennial time scales. In this dissertation, I focused on remote sensing studies associated with four primary components of arctic landscape change and disturbance: (1) permafrost coastline erosion, (2) thermokarst lake dynamics, (3) tundra fires, and (4) using repeat airborne LiDAR for the measurement of vertical deformation in an arctic coastal lowland landscape. By combining observations from several high resolution satellite images for a 9 km segment of the Beaufort Sea Coast between 2008 and 2012, I demonstrated that the report of heightened erosion at the beginning of the 2000s was equaled or exceeded in every year except 2010 and that the mean annual erosion rate was tightly coupled to the number of open water days and the number of storms. By combining historical aerial photographs from the 1950s and 1980s with recent high-resolution satellite imagery from the mid-2000s, I assessed the expansion and drainage of thermokarst lakes on the northern Seward Peninsula. I found that more than half of the lakes in the study area were expanding as a result of permafrost degradation along their margins but that the rate of expansion was fairly consistent (0.35 and 0.39 m/yr) between the 1950s and 1980s and 1980s and mid-2000s, respectively. However, it appeared that in a number of instances that expansion of lakes led to the lateral drainage and that over the 55-year study period the total lake area decreased by 24%. While these studies highlight the utility of quantifying disturbance during the remotely sensed image archive period (~1950s to present) they are inherently limited temporally. Thus, I also demonstrated techniques in which field studies and remote sensing data could be

  6. Rain, Snow, Hurricanes, and Blizzards: Remote Sensing of Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick

    2004-01-01

    Hurricanes, blizzards and other weather events are important to understand not only for disaster preparation, but also to track the global energy balance and to improve weather and climate forecasts. For several decades, passive radiometers and active radars on aircraft and satellites have been employed to remotely sense rain rates and the properties of liquid particles. In the past few years the relationships between frozen particles and millimeter-wave observations have become understood well enough to estimate the properties of ice in clouds. This colloquium will start with a broad background of the use of remote sensing of precipitation and then focus on recent research in the estimation of frozen cloud properties, both for ice that will eventually melt into rain and for solid precipitation falling in northern climates. The electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties of liquid rain and frozen particles will be explained. Retrieved cloud particle contents and size distributions for Hurricane Erin (2001 ) and the March 5-6, 2001 New England regional blizzard will be discussed. Future directions and challenges of this work will also be presented.

  7. The Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote-Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, J.; Riebeek, H.; Ledley, T. S.; Herring, D.; Lloyd, S.

    2008-12-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observational research and data collection conducted by non- professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local and regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote-sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museums and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  8. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  9. The 1994 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 1994)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium focus on remote sensing, particularly on global monitoring of the earth with emphasis on the solution of environmental problems. Topics discussed include remote sensing of clouds and earth troposphere, sea ice remote sensing, optical remote sensing, land monitoring and thermal sensing, atmospheric sounding and monitoring, atmospheric correction, and satellite imaging data. Other subject areas are ecosystems and vegetation monitoring; ocean winds and surface scattering; ocean waves, currents and bathymetry; satellite oceanography; SAR for remote sensing; neural nets application to remote sensing; geographical information systems; and electromagnetic wave propagation. Also discussed environmental monitoring using ERS-1; Topex/Poseidon results; spaceborne instruments; image processing and classification algorithms; and future space missions.

  10. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  11. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  12. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  13. Remote Sensing as a Demonstration of Applied Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Robert N.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the field of remote sensing, including discussions of geo-synchronous and sun-synchronous remote-sensing platforms, the actual physical processes and equipment involved in sensing, the analysis of images by humans and machines, and inexpensive, small scale methods, including aerial photography. (CS)

  14. International Models and Methods of Remote Sensing Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.

    A classification of remote sensing courses throughout the world, the world-wide need for sensing instruction, and alternative instructional methods for meeting those needs are discussed. Remote sensing involves aerial photointerpretation or the use of satellite and other non-photographic imagery; its focus is to interpret what is in the photograph…

  15. Remote Sensing as a Demonstration of Applied Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Robert N.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the field of remote sensing, including discussions of geo-synchronous and sun-synchronous remote-sensing platforms, the actual physical processes and equipment involved in sensing, the analysis of images by humans and machines, and inexpensive, small scale methods, including aerial photography. (CS)

  16. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  17. Overview of international remote sensing through 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glackin, David L.

    1997-12-01

    The field of Earth remote sensing is evolving from one that contains purely governmental and military standalone systems of high complexity and expense to one that includes an increasing number of commercial systems, focused missions using small satellites, and systems of lower complexity and cost. The evolution of the field from 1980 - 2007 is summarized in this paper, with emphasis on the rapid changes of international scope that are taking place in 1997 which will shape the future of the field. As of three years ago, seven counties had built and flown free-flying earth observation satellite systems. Projections are for the number of countries operating such systems to approximately double by three years from now. Rapid changes are taking place in terms of spatial resolution, spectral resolution, proliferation of small satellites, ocean color, commercialization and privatization. Several fully commercial high-resolution systems will be launched over the next three years. Partly commercial synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems became a reality with the launch of Radarsat in 1995. Only a handful of small satellite remote sensing missions have been launched to date, while a large number will be launched over the next few years, including minisats from Australia, Brazil, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and the USA, as well as microsats from many countries including Malaysia, Pakistan and South Africa. Systems with far greater spectral resolution will also become a reality as hyperspectral instruments are launched. In 1997, we truly stand on the cusp of tremendous change in the burgeoning field of Earth remote sensing.

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  19. Remote sensing for land management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet

    1983-05-01

    The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes

  20. Spectroscopic data for thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Nemtchinov, V.; Li, Z.

    1995-01-01

    There has been extensive world-wide use of chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFC's), especially CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2), hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's), HCFC-22 (CHFCl2) in particular, and sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) in numerous many industrial applications. These chemicals possess either a strong ozone-depletion potential or a global-warming potential, or both, and pose a threat to the inhabitability of our planet. Recognition of this fact has led to significant curtailment, if not total banishment, of their use globally. However, as recent satellite observations have shown, decline in their atmospheric concentrations may not be immediate. The marked depletion of ozone which has been observed in recent years at high latitudes has made infrared remote sensing of the atmosphere an activity of high priority. The success of any infrared remote sensing experiment conducted in the atmosphere depends upon the availability of accurate, high-resolution, spectroscopic data that are applicable to that experiment. This paper presents a preliminary phase of a multi-faceted work using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which is in progress in our laboratory. The concept of how laboratory-borne measurements can be geared toward obtaining a database that is directly applicable to satellite-borne remote sensing missions is the main thrust of this paper which addresses itself to ongoing or planned international space missions. Spectroscopic data on the unresolvable bands of the above mentioned as well as several other man-made gases and on the individual spectral lines of such naturally present trace gases as CO2, N2O, NH3, and CH4 are presented. There is often significant overlap between the isolated lines of better known bands of the more abundant species and the weaker absorption features identifiable as bands of the currently less abundant CFC's, HCFC's, and SF6.

  1. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  2. Microwave remote sensing of hydrologic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    A perspective on the implementation of microwave sensors in future airborne and spaceborne observations of hydrologic parameters is presented. The rationale is based on a review of the status and future trends of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave research as applied to the remote sensing of soil moisture content, snowpack water equivalent, freeze/thaw boundaries, lake ice thickness, surface water area, and the specification of watershed runoff coefficients. Analyses and observations based on data acquired from ground based, airborne and spaceborne platforms, and an evaluation of advantages and limitations of microwave sensors are included.

  3. Introduction to Remote Sensing Image Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    For many applications, accurate and fast image registration of large amounts of multi-source data is the first necessary step before subsequent processing and integration. Image registration is defined by several steps and each step can be approached by various methods which all present diverse advantages and drawbacks depending on the type of data, the type of applications, the a prior information known about the data and the type of accuracy that is required. This paper will first present a general overview of remote sensing image registration and then will go over a few specific methods and their applications

  4. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  5. Natural Resource Information System, remote sensing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leachtenauer, J.; Hirsch, R.; Williams, V.; Tucker, R.

    1972-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing data were reviewed, and available imagery was interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and qualities of imagery required to satisfy identified data needs. Ektachrome imagery available over the demonstration areas was reviewed to establish the feasibility of interpreting cultural features, range condition, and timber type. Using the same imagery, a land use map was prepared for the demonstration area. The feasibility of identifying commercial timber areas using a density slicing technique was tested on multispectral imagery available for a portion of the demonstration area.

  6. Satellite remote sensing facility for oceanograhic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. H.; Kent, S. S.; Seidman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The project organization, design process, and construction of a Remote Sensing Facility at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at LaJolla, California are described. The facility is capable of receiving, processing, and displaying oceanographic data received from satellites. Data are primarily imaging data representing the multispectral ocean emissions and reflectances, and are accumulated during 8 to 10 minute satellite passes over the California coast. The most important feature of the facility is the reception and processing of satellite data in real time, allowing investigators to direct ships to areas of interest for on-site verifications and experiments.

  7. Remote Sensing for Farmers and Flood Watching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Sciences Directorate, part of NASA s Science Mission Directorate, makes use of the Agency s remote-sensing capabilities to acquire detailed information about our home planet. It uses this information for a variety of purposes, ranging from increasing agricultural efficiency to protecting homeland security. Sensors fly over areas of interest to detect and record information that sometimes is not even visible from the ground with the human eye. Scientists analyze these data for a variety of purposes and make maps of the areas. These maps are often used to answer questions about the environment, weather, natural resources, community growth, and natural disasters.

  8. Summary of 1971 water remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1972-01-01

    The Earth Resources Laboratory sea remote sensing program has concentrated on project planning, data acquisition procedures, and data preparation techniques to establish a firm procedural basis for the program. Most of these procedural elements were established and proven during the three missions conducted in 1971. It is anticipated that the program in 1972 will see the analysis completed on the Mississippi Sound series and the first series of Eastern Gulf experiments allowing increased emphasis to be given to more intensive technique development studies, the interrelationship of parameters for the measurement and prediction of water circulation, and the demonstration of the application of these techniques.

  9. Applications of remote sensing to estuarine management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.; Hennigar, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was used in the resolution of estuarine problems facing federal and Virginia governmental agencies. A prototype Elizabeth River Surface Circulation Atlas was produced from photogrammetry to aid in oil spill cleanup and source identification. Aerial photo analysis twice led to selection of alternative plans for dredging and spoil disposal which minimized marsh damage. Marsh loss due to a mud wave from a highway dyke was measured on sequential aerial photographs. An historical aerial photographic sequence gave basis to a potential Commonwealth of Virginia legal claim to accreting and migrating coastal islands.

  10. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  11. Spatial reasoning in remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J.; Ehrich, R. W.; Elliott, D.; Haralick, R. M.; Wang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Photointerpreters employ a variety of implicit spatial models to provide interpretations from remotely sensed aerial or satellite imagery. In this paper one application is illustrated: how ridges and valleys can be automatically interpreted from Landsat imagery of a mountainous area, and how a relative elevation terrain model can be constructed from this interpretation. How to examine valleys for the possible presence of streams or rivers is shown, and how a spatial relational model can be set up to make a final interpretation of the river drainage network is explored.

  12. Remote sensing of Mississippi River characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, J. F.; Skinner, M. M.; Winkley, B. R.; Simons, D. B.; Dorratcague, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A data collection program initiated by the Vicksburg District, to develop a workable knowledge of the principles relating to the transport of water and sediment to gain a better understanding of the Mississippi River characteristics is introduced. Aerial photographs and thermal infrared imagery were collected over two test reaches at low and high water stages. Qualitative interpretation of the data relates to the river characteristics such as flow patterns, relative velocities, sediment concentration distribution, water-depth effects, and effects of man made structures. Ground truth information is correlated with the remotely sensed data.

  13. Shape saliency for remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Hong, Huo; Fang, Tao; Li, Deren

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a shape saliency measure for only shape feature of each object in the image is described. Instead biologically-inspired bottom-up Itti model, the dissimilarity is measured by the shape feature. And, Fourier descriptor is used for measuring dissimilarity in this paper. In the model, the object is determined as a salient region, when it is far different from others. Different value of the saliency is ranged to generate a saliency map. It is shown that the attention shift processing can be recorded. Some results from psychological images and remote sensing images are shown and discussed in the paper.

  14. Identification of Terrestrial Reflectance From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.

  15. Remote Sensing of Inner Heliospheric Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    Colloquium 133 held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August, 1991, Z. Svestka, B.V. Jackson and M.E. Machado, eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, (1992) (pg. 322 - 328...Physics, 399, the proceedings of IAU Colloquium 133 held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 August, 1991, Z. Svestka, B.V. Jackson and M.E. Machado, eds...133 on Eruptive Solar Flares held in Iguazu , Argentina 2-6 Au- gust (1991). 9. Jackson, B.V. "Remote Sensing Observations of Mass Ejections and Shocks

  16. Spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent comprehensive results on spectrophotometric remote sensing of planets and satellites are reviewed. The moon and terrestrial planets are considered in terms of individual surface elements, reflectance spectra being analyzed to show the composition of the soils of these bodies. For more distant, unresolved objects, including the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, the small satellites of Jupiter, the rings and satellites of Saturn and Uranus, as well as Triton and Pluto, the global or hemispheric averages of surface composition are the objects of study. The absorptions due to methane gas and frost are indicated.

  17. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of remotely sensed digital data in a computer based information system is seen to be equivalent to the incorporation of any other spatially oriented layer of data. The growing interest in such systems indicates a need to develop a generalized geographically oriented data base management system that could be made commercially available for a wide range of applications. Some concepts that distinguish geographic information systems were reviewed, and a simple model which can serve as a conceptual framework for the design of a generalized geographic information system was examined.

  18. Satellite remote sensing of meteorological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in remote atmospheric sensing are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to vertical temperature and humidity profiles, cloud structure, and wind. Present capabilities and projections of future improvements in accuracy and resolution are given for the Microwave Sounding Unit, High Resolution Infrared Sounder, Defence Meteorological Satellite Project, and VISSR Atmospheric Sounder. It is noted that future sounding systems will require (1) high spectral resolution; (2) multispectral observations of the atmosphere and the surface in order to correct for most of the geophysical processes contaminating the outgoing radiance; and (3) a control algorithm capable of using information from multispectral channels to identify those parameters that have errors larger than a specified value.

  19. Remote sensing for control of tsetse flies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Remotely sensed information is discussed which has potential for aiding in the control or eradication of tsetse flies. Data are available from earth resources meteorological, and manned satellites, from airborne sensors, and possibly from data collection platforms. A new zone discrimination technique, based on data from meteorological satellites may also allow the identification of zones hospitable to one or another species of tsetse. For background, a review is presented of the vegetation of Tanzania and Zanzibar, and illustrations presented of automatic processing of data from these areas. In addition, a review is presented of the applicability of temperature data to tsetse areas.

  20. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  1. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  2. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  3. Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

  4. Remote sensing of particulate concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydor, M.

    1980-01-01

    Determination of residual radiance is essential in remote sensing measurements of suspended solids in the absence of real-time ground-truth data. Some typical background corrections are presented for Lake Superior and the spectral distribution of the residual radiance is determined from three major categories of turbidity in the lake. The results tested with Landsat 2 digital tape data indicate that for large bodies of water general information on atmospheric scattering, water clarity, and optical properties of suspended solids enables one to estimate the concentrations of particulates to within + or - 0.5 mg/liter in the absence of real-time ground-truth data.

  5. Non-Imaging Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spectrometric, radiometric and polarimetric remote sensing observations of wavelengths from gamma-rays to microwaves are addressed. The basic form of the data is one dimensional arrays. At the high energy end of the spectrum, data are typically presented as pulse count versus energy, and at lower energies, as intensity versus wavelength. High spectral resolution measurements (better 1% of wavelength) are particularly useful for identifying atomic, molecular, and ionic species while broader band measurements are adequate for identifying minerals and for determining total energy fluxes. Polarization data permit the study of finely divided material such as clouds and surfaces.

  6. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-02

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  7. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  8. Laser-based remote sensing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, H.; Armandillo, E.

    1991-05-01

    The European Space Agency's R&D program to apply lasers for the remote sensing of the earth's atmosphere from space is reviewed. New space technology to provide global data is being developed to further enhance advances in operational meteorology, climate studies and environmental research. One new approach being investigated is active sensing with laser instruments that utilize short light pulses to obtain depth-resolved information on the physical state and composition of the atmosphere. Atmospheric observables such as aerosol layers, winds and humidity profiles can be observed with unprecedented vertical and horizontal resolution, correcting many of the deficiencies of present passive sensor systems. Consideration is given to space lidar concepts, Doppler wind lidar and lidars for polar-orbiting missions.

  9. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  10. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  11. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  12. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  13. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  14. Proceedings of the eighth thematic conference on geologic remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing. This meeting was held April 29-May 2, 1991, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The conference was organized by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in Cooperation with an international program committee composed primarily of geologic remote sensing specialists. The meeting was convened to discuss state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing as well as research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The presentations in these volumes address the following topics: Spectral Geology; U.S. and International Hydrocarbon Exploration; Radar and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing; Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; Minerals Exploration; Remote Sensing for Marine and Environmental Applications; Image Processing and Analysis; Geobotanical Remote Sensing; Data Integration and Geographic Information Systems.

  15. Remote sensing utility in a disaster struck urban environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.

    1974-01-01

    A project to determine the ways in which remote sensing can contribute to solutions of urban public health problems in time of natural disaster is discussed. The objectives of the project are to determine and describe remote sensing standard operating procedures for public health assistance during disaster relief operations which will aid the agencies and organizations involved in disaster intervention. Proposed tests to determine the validity of the remote sensing system are reported.

  16. [A review on polarization information in the remote sensing detection].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies.

  17. Experimental Sea Slicks in the Marsen (Maritime Remote Sensing) Exercise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-30

    Experimental slicks with various surface properties were generated in the North Sea as part of the MARSEN (Maritime Remote Sensing ) exercise. The one...with remote sensing instrumentation. Because of the numerous effects of surface films on air-sea interfacial processes, these experiments were designed...information was obtained on the influence of sea surface films on the interpretation of signals received by remote sensing systems. Criteria for the

  18. SYMPOSIUM ON REMOTE SENSING IN THE POLAR REGIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Arctic Institute of North America long has been interested in encouraging full and specific attention to applications of remote sensing to polar...research problems. The major purpose of the symposium was to acquaint scientists and technicians concerned with remote sensing with some of the...special problems of the polar areas and, in turn, to acquaint polar scientists with the potential of the use of remote sensing . The Symposium therefore was

  19. Expedition Earth and Beyond: An Introduction to Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current usages of remote sensing, and the science of remote sensing. Included as examples of remote sensing, are emissivity (i.e., infrared) and reflectance (i.e., visible to shortwave infrared) graphs of several minerals, and vegetation spectra. Also, there are pictures of several places on Earth from the photographs that were taken by Astronauts during the earliest missions to later missions.

  20. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  1. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  2. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  3. [Hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-jiong; Fan, Wen-jie; Cui, Yao-kui; Zhou, Lei; Yan, Bin-yan; Wu, Dai-hui; Xu, Xi-ru

    2010-10-01

    The distributing of China's grassland is abroad and the status of grassland degradation is in serious condition. So achieving real-time and exactly grassland ecological monitoring is significant for the carbon cycle, as well as for climate and on regional economies. With the field measured spectra data as data source, hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation was researched in the present article. The warm meadow grassland in Hulunbeier was chosen as a study object. Reflectance spectra of leaves and pure canopies of some dominant grassland species such as Leymus chinensis, Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigid, as well as reflectance spectra of mixed grass community were measured. Using effective spectral feature parametrization methods, the spectral feature of leaves and pure canopies were extracted, so the constructive species and degenerate indicator species can be exactly distinguished. Verification results showed that the accuracy of spectral identification was higher than 95%. Taking it as the foundation, the spectra of mixed grass community were unmixed using linear mixing models, and the proportion of all the components was calculated, and the errors were less than 5%. The research results of this article provided the evidence of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring of grassland degradation.

  4. Progress in remote sensing (1972-1976)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, W. A.; Hemphill, W.R.; Kover, Allan

    1976-01-01

    This report concerns the progress in remote sensing during the period 1972–1976. Remote sensing has been variously defined but is basically the art or science of telling something about an object without touching it. During the past four years, the major research thrusts have been in three areas: (1) computer-assisted enhancement and interpretation systems; (2) earth science applications of Landsat data; (3) and investigations of the usefulness of observations of luminescence, thermal infrared, and microwave energies. Based on the data sales at the EROS Data Center, the largest users of the Landsat data are industrial companies, followed by government agencies (both national and foreign), and academic institutions. Thermal surveys from aircraft have become largely operational, however, significant research is being undertaken in the field of thermal modeling and analysis of high altitude images. Microwave research is increasing rapidly and programs are being developed for satellite observations. Microwave research is concentrating on oil spill detection, soil moisture measurement, and observations of ice distributions. Luminescence investigations offer promise for becoming a quantitative method of assessing vegetation stress and pollutant concentrations.

  5. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  6. Foreland Basin Structures and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rocky Mountain foreland basins are somewhat unique in that the basins may exhibit a variety of structural styles. It is generally agreed that shortening has occurred in the foreland basement but the cause is controversial: vertical vs compressional horizontal tectonics. Even when shortening is attributed to compression, the attitude (dip) of the fault plane and whether the horizontal or vertical component of movement is dominant is unconstrained. The controversy is difficult to resolve from surface data alone due to the variety of possible interpretations. Detailed surface mapping and geologic modeling are needed to constrain subsurface interpretations. In many areas of the Wind River and Bighorn basins detailed geologic maps do not exist. State-of-the-art remote sensing data could potentially provide an efficient means of mapping surface geology. State-of-the-art remote sensing systems now provide geometrically correct data at 30 meter pixel size and increased spectral coverage, capable of more detailed geologic analyses. These data can be photographically enlarged to 1:24,000 scale and combined with 7 1/2' uses topographic quads to provide an excellent base map for geologic interpretations.

  7. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  8. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  9. Remotely Sensing the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern

    2015-01-01

    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside the leaves in a stand of plants. Developed by Gamon et al., (1990 and 1992), PRI evolved from laboratory measurements of the reflectance of individual leaves (Bilger et al.,1989). Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We conducted laboratory experiments comparing values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. We illuminated single detached leaves using a current controlled light source (Oriel model 66881) and measured the leaf weight using an analytical balance (Mettler model AE 260) and the light reflected and transmitted by the leaf during dry down using two Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometers. Polarizers on the incident and reflected light beams allowed us to divide the leaf reflectance into two parts: a polarized surface reflectance and a non-polarized 'leaf interior' reflectance. Our results underscore the importance when calculating PRI of removing the leaf surface reflection, which contains no information about physiological processes ongoing in the leaf interior. The results show that the leaf physiology information is in the leaf interior reflectance, not the leaf transmittance. Applied to a plant stand, these results suggest use of polarization measurements in sun-view directions that minimize the number of sunlit transmitting leaves in the sensor field of view.

  10. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  11. Spatial Inference for Distributed Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, A. J.; Katzfuss, M.; Nguyen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data are inherently spatial, and a substantial portion of their value for scientific analyses derives from the information they can provide about spatially dependent processes. Geophysical variables such as atmopsheric temperature, cloud properties, humidity, aerosols and carbon dioxide all exhibit spatial patterns, and satellite observations can help us learn about the physical mechanisms driving them. However, remote sensing observations are often noisy and incomplete, so inferring properties of true geophysical fields from them requires some care. These data can also be massive, which is both a blessing and a curse: using more data drives uncertainties down, but also drives costs up, particularly when data are stored on different computers or in different physical locations. In this talk I will discuss a methodology for spatial inference on massive, distributed data sets that does not require moving large volumes of data. The idea is based on a combination of ideas including modeling spatial covariance structures with low-rank covariance matrices, and distributed estimation in sensor or wireless networks.

  12. Wetlands Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Myers, D. A.; Anderson, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    The application of remote sensing methods to estimate evapotranspiration has the advantage of good spatial resolution and excellent spatial coverage, but may have the disadvantage of infrequent sampling and considerable expense. The GOES satellites provide enhanced temporal resolution with hourly estimates of solar radiation and have a spatial resolution that is significantly better than that available from most ground-based pyranometer networks. As solar radiation is the primary forcing variable in wetland evapotranspiration, the opportunity to apply GOES satellite data to wetland hydrologic analyses is great. An accuracy assessment of the remote sensing product is important and the subsequent validation of the evapotranspiration estimates are a critical step for the use of this product. A wetland field experiment was conducted in the Paynes Prairie Preserve, North Central Florida during a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. Evapotranspiration and other surface energy balance components of a wet prairie community dominated by Panicum hemitomon (maiden cane), Ptilimnium capillaceum (mock bishop's weed), and Eupatorium capillifolium (dog fennel) were investigated. Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite observations, in combination with local meteorological measurements, were used to model evapotranspiration from a wetland. The satellite solar radiation, derived net radiation and estimated evapotranspiration estimates were compared to measured data at 30-min intervals and daily times scales.

  13. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  14. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  15. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  16. Proceedings of the Conference on Practical Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.

  17. Communicating remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, R.

    1981-01-01

    Although remote sensing is currently multidisciplinary in its applications, many of its terms come from the engineering sciences, particularly from the field of pattern recognition. Scholars from fields such as the social sciences, botany, and biology, may experience initial difficulty with remote sensing terminology, even though parallel concepts exist in their own fields. Some parallel concepts and terminologies from nonengineering fields, which might enhance the understanding of remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary situation are identified. Feedbacks which this analogue strategy might have on remote sensing itself are explored.

  18. The availability of conventional forms of remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturdevant, James A.; Holm, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    For decades Federal and State agencies have been collecting aerial photographs of various film types and scales over parts of the United States. More recently, worldwide Earth resources data acquired by orbiting satellites have inundated the remote sensing community. Determining the types of remotely sensed data that are publicly available can be confusing to the land-resource manager, planner, and scientist. This paper is a summary of the more commonly used types of remotely sensed data (aircraft and satellite) and their public availability. Special emphasis is placed on the National High-Altitude Photography (NHAP) program and future remote-sensing satellites.

  19. Communicating remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, R.

    1981-01-01

    Although remote sensing is currently multidisciplinary in its applications, many of its terms come from the engineering sciences, particularly from the field of pattern recognition. Scholars from fields such as the social sciences, botany, and biology, may experience initial difficulty with remote sensing terminology, even though parallel concepts exist in their own fields. Some parallel concepts and terminologies from nonengineering fields, which might enhance the understanding of remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary situation are identified. Feedbacks which this analogue strategy might have on remote sensing itself are explored.

  20. Application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached concerning the applications of remote sensing to water resources problems: (1) Remote sensing methods provide the most practical method of obtaining data for many water resources problems; (2) the multi-disciplinary approach is essential to the effective application of remote sensing to water resource problems; (3) there is a correlation between the amount of suspended solids in an effluent discharged into a water body and reflected energy; (4) remote sensing provides for more effective and accurate monitoring, discovery and characterization of the mixing zone of effluent discharged into a receiving water body; and (5) it is possible to differentiate between blue and blue-green algae.