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Sample records for removal carbon sources

  1. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is one of the most economical and sustainable methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater. However, the performance of EBPR can be affected by available carbon sources types in the wastewater that may induce different functional microbial communities in the process. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly found by coexisting in the EBPR process. Predominance of GAO population may lead to EBPR failure due to the competition on carbon source with PAO without contributing phosphorus removal. Carbon sources indeed play an important role in alteration of PAOs and GAOs in EBPR processes. Various types of carbon sources have been investigated for EBPR performance. Certain carbon sources tend to enrich specific groups of GAOs and/or PAOs. This review summarizes the types of carbon sources applied in EBPR systems and highlights the roles of these carbon sources in PAO and GAO competition. Both single (e.g., acetate, propionate, glucose, ethanol, and amino acid) and complex carbon sources (e.g., yeast extract, peptone, and mixed carbon sources) are discussed in this review. Meanwhile, the environmental friendly and economical carbon sources that are derived from waste materials, such as crude glycerol and wasted sludge, are also discussed and compared.

  2. Influence of carbon sources on nutrient removal in A(2)/O-MBRs: Availability assessment of internal carbon source.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongle; Fan, Yaobo; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Yawei; Luo, Nan; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Both internal carbon source and some external carbon sources were used to improve the nutrient removal in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic-Membrane Bioreactor (A(2)/O-MBRs), and their technical and cost analysis was investigated. The experimental results showed that the nutrient removals were improved by all the carbon source additions. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency were higher in the experiments with external carbon source additions than that with internal carbon source addition. It was found that pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus transform were different dependent on different carbon source additions by the mass balance analysis. With external carbon source addition, the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in aerobic zone, and the P-uptake in aerobic phase was evident. Therefore, with addition of C-MHP (internal carbon source produced from sludge pretreatment by microwave-H2O2 process), the denitrification and phosphorus-uptake in anoxic zone was notable. Cost analysis showed that the unit nitrogen removal costs were 57.13CNY/kg N of C-acetate addition and 54.48CNY/kgN of C-MHP addition, respectively. The results indicated that the C-MHP has a good technical and economic feasibility to substitute external carbon sources partially for nutrient removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Enhanced nitrogen removal using solid carbon source in constructed wetland with limited aeration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongchen; Yang, Luhua; Wei, Caijie; Wu, Weizhong; Zhao, Xufei; Lu, Ting

    2017-08-04

    In this study, the performances of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands using solid carbon source with limited aeration were investigated. The blends of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) and polyacetic acid (PLA) were used as the carbon source and biofilm support. The performances of nitrogen removal, microbial abundance and microbial community structure in the biofilm attached on PHBV/PLA were investigated. Higher ammonia removal efficiency (91.00%) and total nitrogen removal efficiency (97.03%) than non-aerated constructed wetland (System NA) were achieved in constructed wetland with limited aeration (System A). The limited aeration decreased the average concentrations of COD in effluent. And, System A had higher microbial abundance than System NA. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that denitrifying bacteria Brevinema (41.85%) and Thiothrix (12.33%) were the predominant genus in the biofilm attached on the carbon source in System NA and System A, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-07-01

    As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor.

  5. Effect of carbon source on nitrogen removal in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Peiyu; Dong, Huiyu; Li, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been regarded as an efficient process to treat high-strength wastewater without organic carbon source. To investigate nitrogen removal performance of anammox in presence of organic carbon source can broaden its application on organic wastewater treatment. In this work, effect of carbon source on anammox process was explored. Operating temperature was set at 35 ± 1°C. Influent pH and hydraulic retention time were 7.5 and 6 h, respectively. Effluent [Formula: see text] was affected little with COD no more than 480 mg/L. Independent of carbon source content, nitrite removal rate was around 99%. The variation of [Formula: see text] lagged behind [Formula: see text] at high COD content, and pH could be used as an indicator for [Formula: see text] removal. Specific anammox activity dropped from 0.39 to 0.19  [Formula: see text] at COD=720 mg/L. The remodified logistic model was quite appropriate for describing the nitrogen removal kinetics and predicting the performance of anammox process in presence of carbon source.

  6. Impacts of carbon source addition on denitrification and phosphorus uptake in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-01-01

    In this study, simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus (P) removal were investigated in batch tests using nitrified mixed liquor and secondary wastewater influent from a full-scale treatment plant and different levels of acetate and propionate as supplemental carbon sources. Without supplemental carbon source, denitrification occurred at low rate and P release and P uptake was negatively affected (i.e., P removal of only 59.7%). When acetate and propionate were supplied, denitrification and P release occurred simultaneously under anoxic conditions. For acetate and propionate at a C/N stoichiometric ratio of 7.6, P release was negatively affected by denitrification. For acetate, the percent P removal and denitrification were very similar for C/N ratios of 22 (5X stoichiometric) and 59 (10X stoichiometric). For propionate, both percent P removal and denitrification deteriorated for C/N ratios of 22 (5X stoichiometric) and 45 (10X stoichiometric). It was observed that carbon source added in excess to stoichiometric ratio was consumed in the aerobic zone, but P was not taken up. This implies that PAO bacteria may utilize the excess carbon source in the aerobic zone rather than their polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reserves, thereby promoting deterioration of the system.

  7. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in a simultaneous fermentation, denitrification and phosphate removal reactor using primary sludge as internal carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Shuying; Wu, Chengcheng; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Yayi; Peng, Yongzhen

    2013-04-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from primary sludge and the subsequent application to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, a novel approach of using primary sludge as an additional carbon source was conducted in batch tests. The nitritation effluent was directly injected into the sludge fermentation reactor to achieve nitrogen removal. Complete denitrification could be realized in the combined reactor. Moreover, injecting nitrite not only promoted the sludge stabilization process, but also reduced the release of phosphate and ammonium during sludge stabilization. The novel process was further evaluated in a continuous system by treating sludge dewatering liquors. Under optimum conditions, 85% removal of ammonium and 75% of total nitrogen could be obtained using primary sludge, resulting in the suitable effluent for recycling into the inlet of the wastewater treatment plant.

  8. Enhanced primary sludge sonication by heat insulation to reclaim carbon source for biological phosphorous removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Yanbing; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Lin; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment is a potent step to disintegrate primary sludge (PS). The supernatant of sonicated PS is recycled as an alternative carbon source for biological phosphorus removal. In this study, we investigated the role of temperature on PS disintegration during sonication. We found that a temperature of 60°C yielded a dissolution rate of about 2% soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as compared to 7% SCOD using sonication at the specific energy (SE) of 7359kJ/kg TS. Using the SE of 6000kJ/kg TS with heat insulation during sonication, the SCOD dissolution rate of PS was similar to the result at the SE of 7051kJ/kg TS without heat insulation. Upon treatment with sonication, the PS released low concentrations of Cu and Zn into the supernatant. The phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) used the supernatant of sonicated PS as the carbon source. Supplementation with the diluted sonicated PS supernatant (SCOD≈1000mg/L) in anaerobic phase resulted in the release of phosphorus (36mg/L) and the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) (0.36g PHA/g SS). Compared with sodium acetate, higher polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) faction in the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) was observed in the biomass when incubated with sonicated PS as the carbon source. This work provides a simple pathway to conserve energy and to enhance efficiencies of ultrasonic pretreatment and the recovery of carbon source from the sludge for improving the phosphorus removal in the ENR system.

  9. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  10. [Nitrate removal from recirculating aquaculture system using polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate as carbon source ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanhe; Liu, Lili; Qiu, Tianlei; Gao, Min; Han, Meilin; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Xuming

    2014-09-04

    [ OBJECTIVE] Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) was used as solid carbon source and biofilm carrier to remove nitrate from recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Dynamics of microbial community structure in biofilm coating on carbon source packed into denitrification reactor were investigated. [METHODS] Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the microbial community in biofilm from denitrifiation reactor. Bacteria degrading PHBV were isolated from the reactor using pure culture method. [RESULTS] Nitrate decreased remarkably in the RAS connected with dentrification reactor. In contrast, Nitrate increased continuously in the conventional RAS without dentrification reactor. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the microbes in the biofilm samples from denitrification reactor were divided into Proteobacteria ( p-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and δ- proteobacteria) , Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The major advantageous populations were Acidovorax and Bacillus in the 40-day reactor. The advantageous populations in the 150-day reactor were in order of Clostridium, Desulfitobacterium, Dechloromonas, Pseudoxanthomonas and Flavobacterium. Pure cultures of bacteria degrading PHBV isolated from denitrification reactor were classified into Acidovorax, Methylibium, Pseudoxanthomonas and Dechloromonas. [CONCLUSION] Nitrate could be removed effectively from RAS using PHBV as carbon source. Advantageous bacteria and their dynamic changes were ascertained in biofilm from denitrification reactor packed with PHBV.

  11. Biological phosphorus removal in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor with starch as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dacheng; Yuan, Linjiang; Liu, Lun; Chai, Lu; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In traditional biological phosphorus removal (BPR), phosphorus release in anaerobic stage is the prerequisite of phosphorus excessive uptake in aerobic conditions. Moreover, when low molecular weight of the organic substance such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is scarce in bulk liquid or anaerobic condition does not exist, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) have difficulty removing phosphorus. However, in this work, phosphorus removal in two anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was observed when starch was supplied as a sole carbon source. The relations of the BPR with idle period were investigated in the two identical SBRs; the idle times were set to 0.5 hr (R1) and 4 hr (R2), respectively. Results of the study showed that, in the two SBRs, phosphorus concentrations of 0.26-3.11 mg/L in effluent were obtained after aeration when phosphorus concentration in influent was about 8 mg/L. Moreover, lower accumulations/transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and higher transformation of glycogen occurred in the SBRs, indicating that glycogen was the main energy source that was different from the traditional mechanism of BPR. Under the different idle time, the phosphorus removal was a little different. In R2, which had a longer idle period, phosphorus release was very obvious just as occurs in a anaerobic-aerobic regime, but there was a special phenomenon of chemical oxygen demand increase, while VFAs had no notable change. It is speculated that PAOs can assimilate organic compounds in the mixed liquor, which were generated from glycolysis by fermentative organisms, coupled with phosphorus release. In R1, which had a very short idle period, anaerobic condition did not exist; phosphorus removal rate reached 63%. It is implied that a new metabolic pathway can occur even without anaerobic phosphorus release when starch is supplied as the sole carbon source.

  12. Effect of carbon sources and shock loading on the removal of chlorophenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, S K

    2008-05-01

    The effect of carbon sources and shock loadings have been studied using two sets of sequential upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactors viz., UASB-I followed by RBC-I and UASB-II followed by RBC-II for the removal of two different priority pollutants, 2-CP and 2,4-DCP present in simulated wastewaters. Sodium formate, sodium propionate, glucose and methanol were used separately as four different carbon sources in the feed as co-substrate. Methanol was found to be the best carbon source for UASB reactors showing 95% 2-CP and 81.1% 2,4-DCP removals. The carbon sources formate and propionate were not found suitable in UASB reactors as only 22.6-46.8% 2-CP and 41.9-42.8% 2,4-DCP removals were observed. With glucose as carbon source 93.7% 2-CP and 79.6% 2,4-DCP removals were observed in UASB reactors. For all the four carbon sources more than 97.6% 2-CP and 99.7% 2,4-DCP removals were observed in sequential reactors. Although all the four carbon sources could not serve as good carbon source for UASB reactor alone but could be successfully used by the sequential reactors for the removal of chlorophenols. The Performance of sequential reactors was also evaluated at five different chlorophenolic shock loadings. During shock loading study the concentration of chlorophenols in the wastewaters was increased to 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 mg/l as compared to the normal feed containing 30 mg/l 2-CP or 2,4-DCP. During shock loading study complete removal of 2-CP and more than 99.6% removal of 2,4-DCP was observed in sequential reactors. Sequential reactors successfully withstood all the shock loadings and produced high quality effluents.

  13. Ozonolysate of excess sludge as a carbon source in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal for low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Park, K Y; Lee, J W; Song, K G; Ahn, K H

    2011-02-01

    Potential use of the municipal sludge ozonolysate as a carbon source was examined for phosphorus removal from low strength wastewater in a modified intermittently decanted extended aeration (IDEA) process. At ozone dosage of 0.2 g O(3)/g solids, readily biodegradable COD accounted for about 36% of COD from sludge ozonolysate. The denitrification potential of ozonolysate as a carbon source was comparable to that of acetate. Although, the first order constant for phosphorus release with the ozonolysate was half that of acetate, it was much higher than that of wastewater. Continuous operation of the modified IDEA process showed that the removals of nitrogen and phosphorus were simultaneously enhanced by addition of the ozonolysate. Phosphorus release was significantly induced after complete denitrification indicating that phosphorus release was strongly depended on nitrate concentration. Effectiveness of the ozonolysate as a carbon source for EBPR was also confirmed in a track study of the modified IDEA.

  14. Effect of different carbon sources on the biological phosphorus removal by a sequencing batch reactor using pressurized pure oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Arfarita, Novi; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko; Kanno, Ariyo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different carbon source on the efficiency of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from synthetic wastewater with acetate and two ratios of acetate/starch as a carbon source was investigated. Three pressurized pure oxygen sequencing batch reactor (POSBR) experiments were operated. The reactors (POSBR1, POSBR2 and POSBR3) were developed and studied at different carbon source ratios of 100% acetate, 75% acetate plus 25% starch and 50% acetate plus 50% starch, respectively. The results showed that POSBR1 had a higher phosphate release-to-uptake ratio and, respectively, in a much higher phosphorus removal efficiency (93.8%) than POSBR2 (84.7%) and POSBR3 (77.3%) within 30 days of operation. This indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased the higher the starch concentration was. It was also found that POSBR1 produced more polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) than the other reactors. Based on the effect of the carbon source on the PHA concentration and consumption, the conditions of POSBR1 were favourable for the growth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and therefore, beneficial for the biological phosphorus removal process. PMID:26019532

  15. Effect of different carbon sources on the biological phosphorus removal by a sequencing batch reactor using pressurized pure oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Arfarita, Novi; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko; Kanno, Ariyo

    2014-05-04

    The effect of different carbon source on the efficiency of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from synthetic wastewater with acetate and two ratios of acetate/starch as a carbon source was investigated. Three pressurized pure oxygen sequencing batch reactor (POSBR) experiments were operated. The reactors (POSBR1, POSBR2 and POSBR3) were developed and studied at different carbon source ratios of 100% acetate, 75% acetate plus 25% starch and 50% acetate plus 50% starch, respectively. The results showed that POSBR1 had a higher phosphate release-to-uptake ratio and, respectively, in a much higher phosphorus removal efficiency (93.8%) than POSBR2 (84.7%) and POSBR3 (77.3%) within 30 days of operation. This indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased the higher the starch concentration was. It was also found that POSBR1 produced more polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) than the other reactors. Based on the effect of the carbon source on the PHA concentration and consumption, the conditions of POSBR1 were favourable for the growth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and therefore, beneficial for the biological phosphorus removal process.

  16. Enhanced nitrogen removal in a wastewater treatment process characterized by carbon source manipulation with biological adsorption and sludge hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhao, Fang; Mao, Boyang; Wen, Xianghua

    2012-06-01

    An innovative adsorption/nitrification/denitrification/sludge-hydrolysis wastewater treatment process (ENRS) characterized by carbon source manipulation with a biological adsorption unit and a sludge hydrolysis unit was developed to enhance nitrogen removal and reduce sludge production for municipal wastewater treatment. The system presented good performance in pollutants removal, yielding the effluent with average COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP of 48.5, 0.6, 13.2 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. Sixty percent of the total carbon source in the influent was concentrated and separated by the quick adsorption of activated sludge, providing the possibilities of reusing waste carbon source in the denitrification tank and accumulating nitrobacteria in the nitrification tank. Low temperature of 6-15 °C and high hydraulic loading rate of 3.0-15.0 m(3)/d did not affect NH(4)(+)-N removal performance, yielding the NH(4)(+)-N of lower 1.0 mg/L in the effluent. Furthermore, 50% of the residual sludge in the ENRS system could be transformed into soluble COD (SCOD) by alkaline thermal hydrolysis with temperature of 60 °C and pH of 11, and the hydrolyzed carbon could completely substitute methanol as a good quality carbon to support high efficient denitrification.

  17. Heavy metal removal from synthetic wastewaters in an anaerobic bioreactor using stillage from ethanol distilleries as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M M M; da Costa, A C A; Leite, S G F; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-11-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of using stillage from ethanol distilleries as substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and to evaluate the removal efficiency of heavy metals present in wastewaters containing sulfates. The experiments were carried out in a continuous bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (13 l) operated with a hydraulic retention time of 18 h. The bioreactor was inoculated with 7 l of anaerobic sludge. Afterwards, an enrichment procedure to increase SRB numbers was started. After this, cadmium and zinc were added to the synthetic wastewater, and their removal as metal sulfide was evaluated. The synthetic wastewater used represented the drainage from a dam of a metallurgical industry to which a carbon source (stillage) was added. The results showed that high percentages of removal (>99%) of Cd and Zn were attained in the bioreactor, and that the removal as sulfide precipitates was not the only form of metal removal occurring in the bioreactor environment.

  18. Effects of cattail biomass on sulfate removal and carbon sources competition in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Junwei; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Sulfate is frequently found in the influent of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) used as tertiary treatments. To reveal the effects of plants and litters on sulfate removal, as well as the competition for organic carbon among microorganisms in SSF CWs, five laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms were set up and were operated as a batch system with HRT 5 d. The results showed that the presence of Typha latifolia had little effect on sulfate removal in CWs, with or without additional carbon sources. Cattail litter addition greatly improved sulfate removal in SSF CWs. This improvement was linked to the continuous input of labile organic carbon, which lowers the redox level and supplies a habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of SRB in cattail litter indicated the possibility of sulfate removal around the carbon supplier, but the quantity of microbes in cattail litter was much lower than that in gravel. Stoichiometry calculations showed that the contribution of SRB to COD removal (21-26%) was less than that of methane-producing bacteria (MPB) (47-61%) during the initial stage but dominated COD removal (42-65%) during the terminal stage. The contributions of aerobic bacteria (AB) and denitrification bacteria (DB) to COD removal were always lower than that of SRB. It was also observed that the variations in COD: S ratio had a great influence on the relative abundance of genes between SRB and MPB and both of them could be used as good predictors of carbon competition between SRB and MPB in CWs.

  19. Innovative use of activated carbon for the removal of heavy metals from ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T. III

    1996-12-31

    This report discusses the evaluation of the ENVIRO-CLEAN PROCESS, a technology developed by Lewis Environmental Services, Inc. for the recovery of metals such as chromium, mercury, copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc from surface and groundwater streams. This new heavy metal removal process (patent-pending) utilizes granular activated carbon with a proprietary conditioning pretreatment to enhance heavy metal adsorption combined with electrolytic metal recovery to produce a saleable metallic product. The process generates no sludge or hazardous waste and the effluent meets EPA limits. A 50 gpm system was installed for recovering hexavalent chromium from a ground water stream at a site located in Fresno, California. The effluent from the activated carbon system was reinjected into the ground water table with the hexavalent chromium concentration < 10 ppb. The system simultaneously removed trichloroethylene (TCE) to concentrations levels < 05 ppb. The activated carbon is regenerated off-site and the chromium electrolytically recovered. The full scale system has treated over 5 million gallons of ground water since installation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. [Effects of carbon sources, temperature and electron acceptors on biological phosphorus removal].

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Xu, Song; Dong, Tao; Wang, Bin-Fan; Wang, Xian-Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong

    2015-02-01

    Effects of carbon sources, temperature and electron acceptors on phosphorus uptake and release were investigated in a pilot-scale oxidation ditch. Phosphorus uptake and release rates were measured with different carbon sources (domestic sewage, sodium acetate, glucose) at 25 degrees C. The results showed that the minimum phosphorus uptake and release rates of glucose were 5.12 mg x (g x h)(-1) and 6.43 mg x (g x h)(-1), respectively, and those of domestic sewage are similar to those of sodium acetate. Phosphorus uptake and release rates increased with the increase of temperature (12, 16, 20 and 25 degrees C) using sodium acetate as carbon sources. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate decreased with added COD. Electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite) had significant effects on phosphorus uptake rate and their order was in accordance with oxygen > nitrate > nitrite. The mass ratio of anoxic P uptake and N consumption (P(uptake)/N (consumption)) of nitrate and nitrite were 0.96 and 0.65, respectively.

  1. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6.

  2. Influence of carbon source on nutrient removal performance and physical-chemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lashkarizadeh, Monireh; Yuan, Qiuyan; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of carbon source variation on the physical and chemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge and its biological nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal performance was investigated. Two identical sequencing batch reactors, R1 and R2, were set up. Granular biomass was cultivated to maturity using acetate-based synthetic wastewater. After mature granules in both reactors with simultaneous chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium and phosphorus removal capability were achieved, the feed of R2 was changed to municipal wastewater and R1 was continued on synthetic feed as control. Biological phosphorus removal was completely inhibited in R2 due to lack of readily biodegradable COD; however, the biomass maintained high ammonium and COD removal efficiencies. The disintegration of the granules in R2 occurred during the first two weeks after the change of feed, but it did not have significant impacts on settling properties of the sludge. Re-granulation of the biomass in R2 was then observed within 30 d after granules' disintegration when the biomass acclimated to the new substrate. The granular biomass in R1 and R2 maintained a Sludge Volume Index close to 60 and 47 mL g(-1), respectively, during the experimental period. It was concluded that changing the carbon source from readily biodegradable acetate to the more complex ones present in municipal wastewater did not have significant impacts on aerobic granular sludge characteristics; it particularly did not affect its settling properties. However, sufficient readily biodegradable carbon would have to be provided to maintain simultaneous biological nitrate and phosphorus removal.

  3. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source.

  4. [Effects of external carbon source on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface flow and free water surface integrated constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Tan, Hong-Xin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Dian-Hai

    2007-06-01

    By adding municipal wastewater in effluent of ANOXIC-OXIC (A/O) reactor as external carbon source, effects of external carbon source on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface flow and free water surface integrated constructed wetland were studied in pilot-scale. Results indicate that, COD/TN and (NO2(-) + NO3(-))/TN in influent of wetland are 1.00 and 0.48, respectively, and load removal rates of COD, TN and TP are 1.82, 1.59 and 0.14 g (m2 x d)(-1), respectively, as directly treating effluent of A/O reactor in wetland (working condition I). COD/TN and (NO2(-) + NO3(-))/TN in influent of wetland are 3.55 and 0.44, respectively, and load removal rates of COD, TN and TP are 19.03, 5.42 and 0.29 g (m2 x d)(-1), respectively, as adding municipal wastewater in effluent of A/O reactor as external carbon source in wetland (working condition II). Compared with working condition I, load removal rates of TN and TP for working condition II increase 3.4 times and 2.1 times, respectively. Impact factors of load removal rate of TN and TP are water temperature, HRT, COD/TN and (NO2(-) + NO3(-))/TN, respectively, when ranges of influent load rates are 3.8 - 38.7 g x (m2 x d)(-1) for COD, 5.07 - 13.08 g x (m2 x d)(-1) for TN and 0.57 - 1.92 g x (m2 x d)(-1) for TP, respectively, and range of HRT is 0.5 - 1.0 d. TN load removal rate decreases by exponent function along with increase of HRT, linearly increases along with increase of water temperature and (NO2(-) + NO3(-))/TN, and increases by power function along with increase of COD/TN. TP load removal rate also increases by power function along with increase of COD/TN.

  5. Simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal in an airlift reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yun-Jie; Deng, Ya-Le; Guo, Xi-Shan; Timmons, Michael B; Lu, Hui-Feng; Han, Zhi-Ying; Ye, Zhang-Ying; Shi, Ming-Ming; Zhu, Song-Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an airlift inner-loop sequencing batch reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as the biofilm carrier and carbon source was operated under an alternant aerobic/anoxic strategy for nitrogen removal in recirculating aquaculture system. The average TAN and nitrate removal rates of 47.35±15.62gNH4-Nm(-3)d(-1) and 0.64±0.14kgNO3-Nm(-3)d(-1) were achieved with no obvious nitrite accumulation (0.70±0.76mg/L) and the dissolved organic carbon in effluents was maintained at 148.38±39.06mg/L. Besides, the activities of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and sulfate reduction activities were successfully inhibited. The proteome KEGG analysis illustrated that ammonia might be removed through heterotrophic nitrification, while the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases were enhanced through aeration treatment. The microbial community analysis revealed that denitrifiers of Azoarcus and Simplicispira occupied the dominate abundance which accounted for the high nitrate removal performance. Overall, this study broadened our understanding of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification using biodegradable material as biofilm carrier.

  6. Multi-cycle operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with different carbon sources under high temperature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies reported that it is challenging to apply enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at high temperature. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) could easily gain their dominance over poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) when the operating temperature was in the range of 25 °C-30 °C. However, a few successful EBPR processes operated at high temperature have been reported recently. This study aimed to have an in-depth understanding on the impact of feeding strategy and carbon source types on EBPR performance in tropical climate. P-removal performance of two EBPR systems was monitored through tracking effluent quality and cyclic studies. The results confirmed that EBPR was successfully obtained and maintained at high temperature with a multi-cycle strategy. More stable performance was observed with acetate as the sole carbon source compared to propionate. Stoichiometric ratios of phosphorus and carbon transformation during both anaerobic and aerobic phases were higher at high temperature than low temperature (20±1 °C) except anaerobic PHA/C ratios within most of the sub-cycles. Furthermore, the fractions of PHA and glycogen in biomass were lower compared with one-cycle pulse feed operation. The microbial community structure was more stable in acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor (C2-SBR) than that in propionate-fed reactor (C3-SBR). Accumulibacter Clade IIC was found to be highly abundant in both reactors.

  7. Effects of organic carbon source, chemical oxygen demand/N ratio and temperature on autotrophic nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Guillén, J A; Yimman, Y; Lopez Vazquez, C M; Brdjanovic, D; van Lier, J B

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the Anammox process as a cost-effective post-treatment step for anaerobic sewage treatment, the simultaneous effects of organic carbon source, chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio, and temperature on autotrophic nitrogen removal was studied. In batch experiments, three operating conditions were evaluated at 14, 22 and 30 °C, and at COD/N ratios of 2 and 6. For each operating condition, containing 32 ± 2 mg NH4(+)-N/L and 25 ± 2 mg NO2(-)-N/L, three different substrate combinations were tested to simulate the presence of readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable organic matter (RBCOD and SBCOD, respectively): (i) acetate (RBCOD); (ii) starch (SBCOD); and (iii) acetate + starch. The observed stoichiometric NO2(-)-N/NH4(+)-N conversion ratios were in the range of 1.19-1.43, and the single or simultaneous presence of acetate and starch did not affect the Anammox metabolism. High Anammox nitrogen removal was observed at 22 °C (77-84%) and 30 °C (73-79%), whereas there was no nitrogen removal at 14 °C; the Anammox activity was strongly influenced by temperature, in spite of the COD source and COD/N ratios applied. These results suggest that the Anammox process could be applied as a nitrogen removal post-treatment for anaerobic sewage systems in warm climates.

  8. Industrial wastewater as an external carbon source for optimization of nitrogen removal at the Wschod WWTP in Gdansk (Poland).

    PubMed

    Swinarski, M; Makinia, J; Czerwionka, K; Chrzanowska, M

    2009-01-01

    Carbon source alternatives for denitrification belong to the highest research area priorities as they allow to optimize N removal within the existing capacities. In particular, some food industry effluents appear to be good candidates for such alternatives due to their high C/N ratios and high content of readily biodegradable organic fraction. The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effects of dosing different types of industrial wastewater on the denitrification capability of process biomass originating from the "Wschod" WWTP in Gdansk (northern Poland). Three types of industrial wastewater (effluents from a distillery, brewery and fish-pickling factory) were tested in two kinds of batch experiments. The results of this study revealed that the investigated industrial wastewater can be a potential external carbon source to improve denitrification efficiency. The observed single nitrate utilization rates (NURs) were ranging from 2.4 to 6.0 g N/(kg VSS.h) and were comparable to the rates associated with the utilization of readily biodegradable COD in the settled wastewater. When the NURs were measured during anoxic P uptake, the P uptake rates did not appear to be adversely affected by the addition of any carbon source.

  9. The investigation of effect of organic carbon sources addition in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) sequencing batch reactor for nutrients removal from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Tong, Juan; Li, Hongjing; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-05-01

    The effect of addition of organic carbon sources (acetic acid and waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid) on anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen, 0.15-0.45 mg/L) biological municipal wastewater treatment was investigated. The results showed that carbon source addition affected not only the transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), glycogen, nitrogen and phosphorus, but the net removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were, respectively, 61% and 61% without organic carbon source addition, 81% and 95% with acetic acid addition, and 83% and 97% with waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid addition. It seems that the alkaline fermentation liquid of waste biosolids generated in biological wastewater treatment plant can be used to replace acetic acid as an additional carbon source to improve the anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) municipal wastewater nutrients removal although its use was observed to cause a slight increase of effluent BOD and COD concentrations.

  10. Influence of carbon source on nitrate removal by nitrate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 in batch and chemostat cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L.; Kovarova, K.; Egli, T.

    1998-08-01

    The nitrate-tolerant organism Klebsiella oxytoca CECT-4460 tolerates nitrate at concentrations up to 1 M and is used to treat wastewater with high nitrate loads in industrial wastewater treatment plants. The authors studied the influence of the C source (glycerol or sucrose or both) on the growth rate and the efficiency of nitrate removal under laboratory conditions. With sucrose as the sole C source the maximum specific growth rate was 0.3 h{sup {minus}1}, whereas with glycerol it was 0.45 h{sup {minus}1}. In batch cultures K. oxytoca cells grown on sucrose or glycerol were able to immediately use sucrose as a sole C source, suggesting that sucrose uptake and metabolism were constitutive. In contrast, glycerol uptake occurred preferentially in glycerol-grown cells. Independent of the preculture conditions, when sucrose and glycerol were added simultaneously to batch cultures, the sucrose was used first, and once the supply of sucrose was exhausted, the glycerol was consumed. Utilization of nitrate as an N source occurred without nitrite of ammonium accumulation when glycerol was used, but nitrite accumulated when sucrose was used. In chemostat cultures K. oxytoca CECT 4460 efficiently removed nitrate without accumulation of nitrite or ammonium when sucrose, glycerol, or mixtures of these two C sources were used. The growth yields and the efficiencies of C and N utilization were determined at different growth rates in chemostat cultures. Regardless of the C source, yield carbon (Y{sub C}) ranged between 1.3 and 1.0 g (dry weight) per g of sucrose C or glycerol C consumed. Regardless of the specific growth rate and the C source, yield nitrogen (Y{sub N}) ranged from 17.2 to 12.5 g (dry weight) per g of nitrate N consumed.

  11. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming

    2012-08-01

    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime

  12. Internal carbon source from sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 for nutrient removal in A2/O-membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongle; Zhang, Qing; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong; Fan, Yaobo

    2015-01-01

    To improve the nutrient removal, the feasibility was studied for the organics released from sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 process (MHP) to be used as internal carbon source in two A2/O-membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The experiments were conducted for the nutrient removal and the membrane fouling. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of TN and TP were improved by 11% and 28.34%, respectively, as C/N ratio was adjusted to 8 by adding the internal carbon source, and the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) consumed easily for denitrification was about 46% of the total sCOD in the internal carbon source. The addition of the internal carbon sources did not lead to severe membrane fouling in the experimental A2/O-MBR. It is implied that the organics released from sludge pretreated by MHP could be used as the internal carbon source to enhance the nutrient removal in A2/O-MBRs.

  13. Assessment of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles loaded clays as adsorbents for removal of bacterial contaminants from water sources.

    PubMed

    Hassouna, M E M; ElBably, M A; Mohammed, Asmaa N; Nasser, M A G

    2017-02-01

    This work evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of kaolin clay and its loaded forms with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against bacterial isolates from different water supplies (tap, underground and surface water) in addition to wastewater. A total of 160 water samples were collected from different water sources in the investigated districts. Samples were cultured for isolation and serological identification of pathogenic bacteria. AgNPs were synthesized by a typical one-step synthesis protocol, where CNTs were carried out in a reactor employing the double bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Both were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The antimicrobial efficacy of each of natural kaolin clay, AgNPs- and CNTs-loaded clays were evaluated by their application in four concentrations (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm) at different contact times (5 min, 15 min, 30 min and 2 h). AgNPs-loaded clays at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/l for 2 h contact time exhibited a higher bactericidal efficacy on Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (70, 70, 80 and 90%, respectively) compared to CNTs-loaded clay. Concluding, the application of AgNPs-loaded clay for removal of water bacterial contaminants at a concentration of 0.1 ppm for 2 h contact times resulted in highly effective removals.

  14. Adsorptive removal of sulfate from acid mine drainage by polypyrrole modified activated carbons: Effects of polypyrrole deposition protocols and activated carbon source.

    PubMed

    Hong, Siqi; Cannon, Fred S; Hou, Pin; Byrne, Tim; Nieto-Delgado, Cesar

    2017-10-01

    Polypyrrole modified activated carbon was used to remove sulfate from acid mine drainage water. The polypyrrole modified activated carbon created positively charged functionality that offered elevated sorption capacity for sulfate. The effects of the activated carbon type, approach of polymerization, preparation temperature, solvent, and concentration of oxidant solution over the sulfate adsorption capacity were studied at an array of initial sulfate concentrations. A hardwood based activated carbon was the more favorable activated carbon template, and this offered better sulfate removal than when using bituminous based activated carbon or oak wood activated carbon as the template. The hardwood-based activated carbon modified with polypyrrole removed 44.7 mg/g sulfate, and this was five times higher than for the pristine hardwood-based activated carbon. Various protocols for depositing the polypyrrole onto the activated carbon were investigated. When ferric chloride was used as an oxidant, the deposition protocol that achieved the most N(+) atomic percent (3.35%) while also maintaining the least oxygen atomic percent (6.22%) offered the most favorable sulfate removal. For the rapid small scale column tests, when processing the AMD water, hardwood-based activated carbon modified with poly pyrrole exhibited 33 bed volume compared to the 5 bed volume of pristine activated carbons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IN SITU ENHANCED SOURCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This html report describes and compares the performance of in situ technologies designed to accelerate the removal of organic contaminants from unconsolidated soils and aquifers. The research was conducted through the Enhanced Source Removal (ESR) Program within the Subsurface Pr...

  16. Feasibility study of nitrogen removal with the mecellulose wasted liquor as an external carbon source in the two-stage denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Park, C H; Chung, C W; Lee, Y J; Han, G B

    2005-06-01

    The utilization of mecellulose wasted liquor (MWL) as an external carbon source was investigated to find an alternative for methanol in the two-stage denitrification pilot process. The pilot plant was supplied with the raw water from the J-Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (J-MSTP) in Korea. The raw water of J-Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant contains low and high concentration of biodegradable organics and nitrogen source, respectively, due to the inflow of industrial wastewater and landfill leachate. Methanol was fed to provide external carbon source for high concentration of nitrogen source removal by denitrification in this J-Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant, and thus this study was performed to test effects to the effluent quality and efficiencies of nitrogen source removal with an alternative carbon source for the cost reduction. The 6.5mg 1(-1) and 5.7mg l(-1) of total nitrogen (TN) concentration in the effluent were achieved with mecellulose and methanol, whereas mecellulose and methanol were fed to give the same ratio of gCODgNO,-N(-1), respectively. The 60% of COD in mecellulose wasted liquor was used as a carbon source for denitrification and the stable denitrification rate was earned when one half of the required total carbon source for denitrification was fed to pre-anoxic tank in the pilot plant. The required gCODgNO,-N(-1) ratio with mecellulose wasted liquor was 1.4 times higher than with methanol. Mecellulose wasted liquor is feasible to be used as external carbon source for organic loading, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. If mecellulose wasted liquor is considered as an alternative external carbon source to substitute methanol 26-28m3 mecellulose wasted liquor per 1 m3 methanol will be required. However, to meet with the effluent standard (10 mg BOD l(-1)) for J-Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant, the feed concentration of mecellulose wasted liquor should be recommended to be lower than 200 mgl(-1).

  17. Influence of COD/N ratio and carbon source on nitrogen removal in a structured-bed reactor subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration (SBRRIA).

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla E D; Moura, Rafael B; Damianovic, Márcia H R Z; Foresti, Eugenio

    2016-01-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of COD/N ratio and carbon source on simultaneous nitrogen and carbon removal processes. A continuous up-flow structured-bed reactor subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration (SBRRIA) was operated with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11.2 ± 0.6 h. The carbon sources were meat peptone and sucrose. The COD/N ratio varied by maintaining the organic loading rate fixed at 1.07 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and changing the total-N concentration. The COD/N ratios tested were 9.7 ± 1 (sucrose); 7.6 ± 1 (meat peptone); 2.9 ± 1 (meat peptone) and 2.9 ± 0.4 (sucrose). COD removal efficiencies remained above 90% in all experimental phases. At lower COD/N ratios, NH4(+)-N oxidation efficiencies were higher than 90%. An autotrophic metabolism by anammox process was observed in Phases III and IV, which was responsible for 35% and 27% of total-N loading removal rates, respectively. Therefore, the system achieved total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 84.6 ± 10.1 and 81.5 ± 5.3%, under low availability of organic electron donors.

  18. [Kinetic model of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with mixed acetic and propionic acids as carbon sources. (III): Model application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-03-01

    The kinetic model based on SCFAs metabolism was applied for the prediction of phosphorus-and glycogen-accumulating organisms (PAO and GAO) competition with different carbon sources and m(P)/m(COD) ratios. When acetic acid was used as the sole carbon source, the biomass compositions were almost the same as those before cultivation, and neither PAO nor GAO could be out-competed from EBPR. However, increasing propionic acid in the influent helped PAO to be the predominance organism, and EBPR performance kept excellent when the ratio of propionate to mixed acids (acetate + propionate) was higher than 0.33. It also found that the m(P)/m(COD) ratio should be kept at 0.04-0.10 to avoid phosphorus became a limiting factor for PAO growth. This was because at low m(P)/m(COD) ratios, such as 0.01, GAO would take up 95% of the total (PAO + GAO) biomass.

  19. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  20. Long-term natural attenuation of carbon and nitrogen within a groundwater plume after removal of the treated wastewater source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repert, D.A.; Barber, L.B.; Hess, K.M.; Keefe, S.H.; Kent, D.B.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Smith, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of treated wastewater for more than 60 years onto infiltration beds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts produced a groundwater contaminant plume greater than 6 km long in a surficial sand and gravel aquifer. In December 1995 the wastewater disposal ceased. A long-term, continuous study was conducted to characterize the post-cessation attenuation of the plume from the source to 0.6 km downgradient. Concentrations and total pools of mobile constituents, such as boron and nitrate, steadily decreased within 1-4 years along the transect. Dissolved organic carbon loads also decreased, but to a lesser extent, particularly downgradient of the infiltration beds. After 4 years, concentrations and pools of carbon and nitrogen in groundwater were relatively constant with time and distance, but substantially elevated above background. The contaminant plume core remained anoxic for the entire 10-year study period; temporal patterns of integrated oxygen deficit decreased slowly at all sites. In 2004, substantial amounts of total dissolved carbon (7 mol C m-2) and fixed (dissolved plus sorbed) inorganic nitrogen (0.5 mol N m-2) were still present in a 28-m vertical interval at the disposal site. Sorbed constituents have contributed substantially to the dissolved carbon and nitrogen pools and are responsible for the long-term persistence of the contaminant plume. Natural aquifer restoration at the discharge location will take at least several decades, even though groundwater flow rates and the potential for contaminant flushing are relatively high.

  1. Effects of carbon sources, COD/NO2(-)-N ratios and temperature on the nitrogen removal performance of the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Bian, Wei; Wei, Jia; Zhao, Baihang; Yang, Jingyue

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of carbon sources and chemical oxygen demand (COD)/NO2(-)-N ratios on the anammox-denitrification coupling process of the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm. Also, the anammox activities of the SNAD biofilm were investigated under different temperature. Kaldnes rings taken from the SNAD biofilm reactor were operated in batch tests to determine the nitrogen removal rates. As a result, with the carbon source of sodium acetate, the appropriate COD/NO2(-)-N ratios for the anammox-denitrification coupling process were 1 and 2. With the COD/NO2(-)-N ratios of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, the corresponding NO2(-)-N consumption via anammox was 87.1%, 52.2%, 29.3%, 23.7% and 16.3%, respectively. However, with the carbon source of sodium propionate and glucose, the anammox bacteria was found to perform higher nitrite competitive ability than denitrifiers at the COD/NO2(-)-N ratio of 5. Also, the SNAD biofilm could perform anammox activity at 15 °C with the nitrogen removal rate of 0.071 kg total inorganic nitrogen per kg volatile suspended solids per day. These results indicated that the SNAD biofilm process might be feasible for the treatment of municipal wastewater at normal temperature.

  2. Enhanced removal of humic acid from micro-polluted source water in a surface discharge plasma system coupled with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yujuan; Qu, Guangzhou; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin; Zhu, Lingyan

    2017-07-26

    Surface discharge plasma (SDP) combined with activated carbon (AC) was employed to eliminate dissolved organic matter from micro-polluted source water, with humic acid (HA) as the model pollutant. Synergistic effect on HA removal was observed in the SDP-AC system; HA removal efficiency reached 60.9% within 5-min treatment in the SDP-AC system with 5.0 g AC addition, whereas 16.7 and 17.4% of HA were removed in sole SDP system and AC adsorption, respectively. Scanning electron microscope and Boehm titration analysis showed that chemical reactions between active species and functional groups of AC occurred. The existence of isopropanol or benzoquinone exhibited inhibitive effects on HA removal in the SDP system, while these inhibitive effects were weakened in the SDP-AC system. The influences of AC on ozone equivalent concentration and H2O2 concentration were evaluated, and there were approximately 39 and 20% decline in ozone equivalent concentration and H2O2 concentration within 6-min treatment in the SDP-AC system, respectively, compared with those in the sole SDP system. Dissolved organic carbon, specific ultraviolet absorbance, and UV absorption ratios analysis demonstrated that the SDP treatment destroyed the chromophoric groups, double bonds, and aromatic structure of HA molecules, and these destructive actions were strengthened by AC.

  3. Tertiary nitrogen removal for municipal wastewater using a solid-phase denitrifying biofilter with polycaprolactone as the carbon source and filtration medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Yajiao; Zhao, Jian; Tang, Lei; Li, Zaixing

    2016-04-15

    Tertiary nitrogen removal technologies are needed to reduce the excess nitrogen that is discharged into sensitive aquatic ecosystems. An integrated solid-phase denitrification biofilter (SDNF) was developed with dual media to remove nitrate and suspended solids (SS) from the secondary effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Biodegradable polymer pellets of polycaprolactone (PCL) served as the biofiltration medium and carbon source for denitrification. Long-term continuous operation of the SDNF was conducted with real secondary effluent to evaluate the denitrification performance and effects of influent nitrate loading rates (NLR) and operating temperatures. The results indicated that both nitrate and SS were effectively removed. The SDNF had a strong tolerance for fluctuations in influent NLR, and a maximum denitrification rate of 3.80 g N/(L·d) was achieved. The low temperature had a significant impact on nitrogen removal, yet the denitrification rate was still maintained at a relative high level to as much as 1.23 g N/(L·d) even at approximately 8.0 °C in winter. Nitrite accumulation and excessive organics residue in the effluent were avoided throughout the whole experiment, except on occasional days in the lag phase. The observed biomass yield was calculated to be 0.44 kgVSS/kgPCL. The microbial diversity and community structure of the biofilm in the SDNF were revealed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The special carbon source led to an obvious succession of microbial community from the initial inoculum (activated sludge from aerobic tanks), and included a decrease in microbial diversity and a shift in the dominant groups, which were identified to be members of the family Comamonadaceae in the SDNF. The SDNF developed in this study was verified to be an efficient technology for tertiary nitrogen removal from secondary effluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  5. [Effects of two typical substrates as the sole carbon source on biological phosphorus removal with a single-stage oxic process].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Lin; Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Zou, Gao-Long; Jia, Bin; Zeng, Tian-Jing; Ding, Yan; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the performances of phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with single-stage oxic process using synthetical wastewater, glucose (R1) and acetate (R2) were fed to two SBRs as the sole carbon source, respectively. The operation run mode was determined to be: influent --> aeration (4 h) --> settling (8 h) --> effluent. The results showed that the performance of phosphorus removal in R1 was higher than that in R2 after steady-operation. Total phosphorus (TP) removed per MLVSS in R1 and R2 were 7.2-7.7 and 3.8-4.6 mg x g(-1) during aeration, respectively, but the rate of phosphorus release at the two reactors were 3.6-3.8 and 2.7-3.1 mg x g(-1) during the idle zone, respectively. The energy storage of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was constant nearly in R1 during the whole period, but glycogen was accumulated to the maximum value at 30 minutes of aeration, and then was decreased to the initial level. However in R2, PHA and glycogen were both accumulated at about 45 minutes of aeration. This phenomenon suggested that glycogen is the main energy source for metabolism during aerobic period in R1, and the main energy resource come from the decomposition of PHA and the hydrolysis of glycogen in R2. The facts showed that glycogen could replace PHAs to supply energy for phosphate uptake and polyphosphate accumulation in such a single-stage oxic process. Since glycogen accumulated in R1 was more than that in R2, the efficiency of phosphorus removal in R1 was higher than that in R2.

  6. Removal of chromium and lead by a sulfate-reducing consortium using peat moss as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Reyes, Julia Mariana; López-Chuken, Ulrico Javier; Valdez-González, Arcadio; Luna-Olvera, Hugo Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The effect of pre-treated peat moss on the ability of a sulfate-reducing microbial consortium to remove chromium and lead in solution was evaluated. The most active bacterial community (235.7 mmol H2S/g VSS) was selected from among eight consortia. The peat moss was pre-treated with different HCl concentrations and contact times. The best combination of treatments was 20% HCl for 10 min. The constant substrate affinity Ks was 740 mg COD/L and the ratio COD/SO4(2-) was 0.71. At pH 5, higher production of biogenic sulfide was observed. The up-flowpacked bed bioreactor operated at a flow of 8.3 mL/min for 180 h to obtain removal efficiency (by sulfate-reducing activity) of 90% lead and 65% chromium. It is important to consider that peat moss is a natural adsorbent that further influences the removal efficiency of metal ions.

  7. [Kinetic model of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with mixed acetic and propionic acids as carbon sources. (I): Model constitution].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-03-01

    Based on activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2), the anaerobic/aerobic kinetic model of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO) was established with mixed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the base substance in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The characteristic of the PAO model was that the anaerobic metabolism rates of glycogen degradation, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates synthesis and polyphosphate hydrolysis were expressed by SCFAs uptake equation, and the effects of anaerobic maintenance on kinetics and stoichiometry were considered. The PAO kinetic model was composed of 3 soluble components, 4 particulate components and a pH parameter, which constituted the matrix of stoichiometric coefficients. On the basis of PAO model, the GAO kinetic model was established, which included 7 processes, and phosphorus content influenced the aerobic metabolism only.

  8. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrate removal using polycaprolactone as an organic carbon source and biofilm carrier in fixed-film denitrifying reactors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guozhi; Xu, Guimei; Gao, Jinfang; Tan, Hongxin

    2016-05-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) always accumulates in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) with aerobic nitrification units. The ability to reduce NO3(-)-N consistently and confidently could help RASs to become more sustainable. The rich dissolved oxygen (DO) content and sensitive organisms stocked in RASs increase the difficulty of denitrifying technology. A denitrifying process using biologically degradable polymers as an organic carbon source and biofilm carrier was proposed because of its space-efficient nature and strong ability to remove NO3(-)-N from RASs. The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on heterotrophic denitrification in fixed-film reactors filled with polycaprolactone (PCL) was explored in the current experiment. DO conditions in the influent of the denitrifying reactors were set up as follows: the anoxic treatment group (Group A, average DO concentration of 0.28±0.05mg/L), the low-oxygen treatment DO group (Group B, average DO concentration of 2.50±0.24mg/L) and the aerated treatment group (Group C, average DO concentration of 5.63±0.57mg/L). Feeding with 200mg/L of NO3(-)-N, the NO3(-)-N removal rates were 1.53, 1.60 and 1.42kg/m(3) PCL/day in Groups A, B and C, respectively. No significant difference in NO3(-)-N removal rates was observed among the three treatments. It was concluded that the inhibitory effects of DO concentrations lower than 6mg/L on heterotrophic denitrification in the fixed-film reactors filled with PCL can be mitigated.

  9. Evaluation of the feasibility of alcohols serving as external carbon sources for biological phosphorus removal induced by the oxic/extended-idle regime.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Liao, Dexiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a novel operational regime (i.e., the oxic/extended-idle [OEI] regime) has been reported to successfully achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) when employing glucose and volatile fatty acids as the sole substrate. In the OEI regime, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) could get a selective advantage over other populations during the extended-idle period where polyphosphate released but polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen transformations were negligible/low, thus energy requirements for maintenance purposes in the period could be covered by polyphosphate release. This study further evaluated the feasibility of alcohols as external carbon sources for EBPR induced by the OEI regime, as the available substrate in the raw wastewater is often deficient. First, phosphorus removal in the OEI process was compared, respectively, with methanol and ethanol as the sole substrate. The results showed that the ethanol-reactor achieved 90.8 ± 2.3% of phosphorus removal, which was approximate twofold than the methanol-reactor. Further studies displayed that the cells in the ethanol-reactor contained more PAOs, and had higher activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase than those in the methanol-reactor. Also, the aerobic transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen in the ethanol-reactor were, respectively, higher and lower than those in the methanol-reactor, which were consistent with the reactors performances. Then, the feasibility of using ethanol as external substrate to enhance EBPR in the OEI process was confirmed for a municipal wastewater. Finally, EBPR performance and metabolic transformation values between the OEI and the anaerobic/oxic (A/O) regimes with ethanol as the sole substrate were compared. The results showed that EBPR in the ethanol-OEI reactor was higher than that in the ethanol-A/O reactor. All the above results proved that ethanol was a favorable external substrate to the OEI regime for EBPR enhancement

  10. Performance of an SBR-plant for advanced nutrient removal, using septic sludge as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Morling, S

    2001-01-01

    The Tjustvik SBR-plant outside Stockholm, Sweden has been in operation for four years. The plant has to meet stringent effluent standards, BOD7 < 10 PPM, total N < 15 PPM and total P < 0.3 PPM. The plant is a typical two reactor SBR-plant, sized for about 15,000 inhabitants. During the first year of operation there were difficulties in meeting the P consent level. The difficulties were linked to a deficit of available organic carbon and a secondary phosphorus release. The problem was solved with the addition of septic sludge, in an amount equivalent to about 10,000 to 15,000 inhabitants with respect to the BOD-load. The altered operation resulted in a very stable and good effluent quality from the plant that has been maintained ever since, giving typical discharge levels as follows: BOD7, < 3 mg/l; Total-P, < 0.15 mg/l; Total-N, < 7 mg/l; NH4-N, < 1 mg/l. The change of process saved the community from a major investment in a separate treatment facility for the septic sludge. The stabilisation degree of the waste activated sludge is sufficient to by pass the anaerobic digestion for the time being. In the beginning, the SBR-process stability played an unwanted role during start up as it maintained a secondary phosphorus release for a considerable time. Later the process stability became an asset as the varying loads from the septic sludge addition were handled with very good results.

  11. Removal of some impurities from carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongcheng; Zhou, Gumin; Wang, Guoping; Qu, Meizhen; Yu, Zuolong

    2003-07-01

    A non-destructive mild oxidation method of removing some impurities from as-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), by H 2O 2 oxidation and HCl treatment, has been investigated, and somewhat pure carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The CNTs from which some impurities were removed have been evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and temperature programmed oxidation and gas chromatography (TPO-GC).

  12. Simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Guangfei; Tian, Tian; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-05-01

    An up-flow packed-bed bioreactor was constructed to investigate the simultaneous removal of chromate and nitrate using biodegradable meal box as carbon source and biofilm carriers. The bioreactor was operated for 164days with varying influent Cr(VI) concentrations (2.0-50.0mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10-24h). It was shown that complete denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction could be achieved when influent Cr(VI) concentrations were lower than 20mg/L with a HRT of 17h. Shortening the HRT could significantly reduce the effluent CODcr. It was also observed that Cr(III) was mainly immobilized on the biofilm. Further investigation on Cr distribution in the biofilm compartments indicated that Cr(VI) reduction occurred in all compartments and the intercellular Cr was dominant. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the biofilm and Cr(VI) stress had a negative effect on the abundance of most bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Process for removing carbon from uranium

    DOEpatents

    Powell, George L.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon contamination is removed from uranium and uranium alloys by heating in inert atmosphere to 700.degree.-1900.degree.C in effective contact with yttrium to cause carbon in the uranium to react with the yttrium. The yttrium is either in direct contact with the contaminated uranium or in indirect contact by means of an intermediate transport medium.

  14. Process for removing carbonate from wells

    SciTech Connect

    Derowisch, R.W.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method of removing carbonate deposited in a water supply well by inflowing groundwater. It comprises: treating a supply of water by means of a membrane system for desalinization which places the water in an aggressive state of chemical inequilibrium and ion imbalance having a keen affinity for carbonate; pumping a fluid comprising the treated supply of water, without restabilization, into the well to react with the deposited carbonate; and flushing the product of the reaction from the well.

  15. Carbon removal from trenches on EUV reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, N. B.; Geluk, C. P. E. C.; Versloot, T. W.; Janssen, J. P. B.; Fleming, Y.; Wirtz, T.

    2014-10-01

    We report on our investigation of dry cleaning of reticles with a microwave induced hydrogen plasma on dummy reticles. The dummy reticles were manufactured with 70 nm ALD grown TaN on a Ru surface and test structures were patterned with lines and spaces ranging between 250 and 400 nm. After processing the test structures were contaminated with e-beam grown carbon and exposed in our plasma facility to remove the carbon with the aid of a hydrogen plasma. Analysis of the samples was performed with SEM/EDX and with SIMS-SPM to verify the complete removal of carbon from the bottom of the trench. Analysis showed that there are small traces of carbon still present on the samples. This can be contributed to contamination which has occurred during transport and storage or that the grown carbon has some edges which are higher due to localized high intensity in the focus of the e-beam.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  17. Applying fermentation liquid of food waste as carbon source to a pilot-scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor for enhancing nitrogen removal: Microbial communities and membrane fouling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang C; Hu, Yisong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Li, Yuyou; Zhang, Yongmei

    2017-07-01

    Fermentation liquid of food waste (FLFW) was applied as an external carbon source in a pilot-scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) system to enhance nitrogen removal for treating low COD/TN ratio domestic wastewater. Results showed that, with the FLFW addition, total nitrogen removal increased from lower than 20% to 44-67% during the 150days of operation. The bacterial metabolic activities were obviously enhanced, and the significant change in microbial community structure promoted pollutants removal and favored membrane fouling mitigation. By monitoring transmembrane pressure and characterizing typical membrane foulants, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and inorganics and biopolymers in the cake layer, it was confirmed that FLFW addition did not bring about any additional accumulation of membrane foulants, acceleration of fouling rate, or obvious irreversible membrane fouling in the whole operation period. Therefore, FLFW is a promising alternative carbon source to enhance nitrogen removal for the A/O-MBR system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  19. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  20. Carbon rod furnace infrared source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Blass, W. E.; Gailar, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    A carbon rod furnace infrared source has been built and has proven to be a reliable and trouble-free source despite the high rod temperature of 2500 K. The furnace offers several advantages over previous furnaces. These include an increase in usable rod length to 6.35 cm, extended rod life, and a fully automated power supply for the furnace. Construction and operational details are discussed.

  1. Translating climate model implications on carbon removal into policy action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deich, N.

    2016-12-01

    Leading IPCC integrated assessment models (IAMs) show a major role for carbon removal solutions in meeting climate goals set in the Paris Agreement last December at COP21. However, the assumptions underlying these modeling scenarios have not been vetted in great depth with scientific investigation and technology demonstration and deployment. Furthermore, policymakers in the U.S. have only started to turn attention to carbon removal research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). This presentation will explore the options for a portfolio of carbon removal solutions, as well as where the current state of policy support for carbon removal RD&D is in the U.S. Solutions in scope of this presentation will include terrestrial carbon removal approaches (including ecosystem restoration, soil carbon sequestration, biochar), blue carbon marine restoration approaches, and industrial carbon removal approaches (including bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, direct air capture and storage, and enhanced mineral weathering).

  2. Mechanism of SO2 removal by carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, Anthony A.; DeBarr, Joseph A.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of SO2 with carbon (C) in the presence of O2 and H2O involves a series of reactions that leads to the formation of sulfuric acid as the final product. The rate-determining step in the overall process is the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. Three SO2 oxidation reactions are possible. Adsorbed SO2 (C−SO2) can react either with gas phase O2 or with adsorbed oxygen (C−O complex) to form sulfur trioxide (SO3), or gas phase SO2 can react directly with the C−O complex. In optimizing the SO2 removal capabilities of carbon, most studies only assume a given mechanism for SO2 adsorption and conversion to H2SO4 to be operable. The appropriate SO2 oxidation step and role of the C−O complex in this mechanism remain to be determined. The ultimate goal of this study was to prepare activated char from Illinois coal with optimal properties for low-temperature (80−150°C) removal of sulfur dioxide from coal combustion flue gas. The SO2 adsorption capacity of activated char was found to be inversely proportional to the amount of oxygen adsorbed on its surface. A temperature-programmed desorption technique was developed to titrate those sites responsible for adsorption of SO2 and conversion to H2SO4. On the basis of these results, a mechanism for SO2 removal by carbon was proposed. The derived rate expression showed SO2 adsorption to be dependent only on the fundamental rate constant and concentration of carbon atoms designated as free sites. Recent studies indicate a similar relationship exists between the rate of carbon gasification (in CO2 or H2O) and the number of reactive sites as determined by transient kinetics experiments. Utilizing the concept of active or free sites, it was possible to produce a char from Illinois coal having an SO2 adsorption capacity surpassing that of a commercial catalytic activated carbon.

  3. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  4. Trace elements removal from water using modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Buchler, P M

    2008-02-01

    This paper present the possible alternative options for the remove of trace elements from drinking water supplies in the trace. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causing various adverse effects on living bodies. The performance of three filter bed methods was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon, powder carbon steel and ceramic spheres in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The modified powdered block carbon is a satisfactory and economical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water due to its low unit cost of about $23 and compatibility with the traditional household filtration system.

  5. Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOCs) from the Groundwater Sources of Drinking Water via Granular Activated Carbon Treatment (WaterRF Report 4440)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the feasibility of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment of selected carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (cVOC) to sub-μg/L levels. The project consisted of three tasks. The task objectives are: Task I - determine c...

  6. Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOCs) from the Groundwater Sources of Drinking Water via Granular Activated Carbon Treatment (WaterRF Report 4440)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the feasibility of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment of selected carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (cVOC) to sub-μg/L levels. The project consisted of three tasks. The task objectives are: Task I - determine c...

  7. Removal of carbon-14 from irradiated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Smith, Tara E.

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. On of the isotopes of great concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (14C), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates 14C is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented here is to develop a practical method by which 14C can be removed. In parallel with these efforts, the same irradiated graphite material is being characterized to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam®, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of 14C precursor) and neutron-irradiated (1013 neutrons/cm2/s). During post-irradiation thermal treatment, graphite samples were heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without the addition of an oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon only were performed at 900 °C and 1400 °C to evaluate the selective removal of 14C. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% oxygen at temperatures 700 °C and 1400 °C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of 14C. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient 14C removal.

  8. Nitrate removal using different carbon substrates in a laboratory model.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Ebrahim; Heidarpour, Manouchehr; Mostafazadeh-Fard, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural fields have been frequently identified as major contributors of nitrate leaching into surface and ground waters. Tile drains can act as direct pathways, transferring leached nitrate to surface water. Bioreactor filters are useful for the removal of nitrate from drainage waters; however, these filters require an external carbon supply to sustain denitrification. In this study, four organic carbon sources including wood, barley straw, rice husks, and date palm leaf, were used to enhance denitrification and the effects of water velocity and influent nitrate concentration on the nitrate removal were evaluated. Cumulative nitrate removal was highest for the date palm leaf treatments and was lowest for the wood treatments. The effects were in decreasing order for date palm leaf, barley straw, rice husks, and wood, respectively. The performance of the biofilters improved with increasing influent nitrate concentration and decreasing water velocity, allowing for high nitrate removal rates to be achieved. The results showed that all of the treatments had reduced the effluent nitrate concentrations below the USEPA maximum contaminant level for drinking water of 45 mg L(-1) nitrate at the end of the study.

  9. The Albuquerque carbon monoxide source apportionment study

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.

    1988-07-01

    At the request of the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division, a study was carried out to examine, in detail, the relative contribution of various combustion sources to ambient carbon monoxide in Albuquerque during the winter season evening hours. The two-month field study (January--February 1985) included aerosol and gas monitoring at two sites in the Albuquerque area. Source contributions to ambient carbon monoxide were determined by regression techniques using tracer elements and by carbon isotope measurements on collected carbon monoxide. Results from isotopic carbon analysis of carbon monoxide show that, on average, mobile sources contributed 68 percent and wood burning sources 32 percent to ambient carbon monoxide levels during winter season evening hours. Good agreement was found between results from carbon isotope and linear regression techniques used to estimate average source strengths. The study results point to the significance of both mobile and residential wood burning sources as contributors to ambient carbon monoxide levels. 1 ref., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  11. Carbon dioxide removal and the futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, D.'Maris; Lockley, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Futures contracts are exchange-traded financial instruments that enable parties to fix a price in advance, for later performance on a contract. Forward contracts also entail future settlement, but they are traded directly between two parties. Futures and forwards are used in commodities trading, as producers seek financial security when planning production. We discuss the potential use of futures contracts in Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) markets; concluding that they have one principal advantage (near-term price security to current polluters), and one principal disadvantage (a combination of high price volatility and high trade volume means contracts issued by the private sector may cause systemic economic risk). Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of futures markets in CDR, but urge caution about the prospects for market failure. In particular, we consider the use of regulated markets: to ensure contracts are more reliable, and that moral hazard is minimised. While regulation offers increased assurances, we identify major insufficiencies with this approach—finding it generally inadequate. In conclusion, we suggest that only governments can realistically support long-term CDR futures markets. We note existing long-term CDR plans by governments, and suggest the use of state-backed futures for supporting these assurances.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Removal and the futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, A.; Coffman, D.

    2016-12-01

    Futures contracts are exchange-traded financial instruments that enable parties to fix a price in advance, for performance on a contract at some later date. Forward contracts also entail future settlement, but they are traded over-the-counter between two independent parties. Both futures and forward contracts are commonly used in commodities trading, as producers seek financial security when planning production. We discuss the use of potential use of exchange-traded futures contracts in Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) markets. We conclude that they have one principal advantage (in that they give near-term price security to current polluters), and one principal disadvantage (in that a combination of high price volatility and high trade volume means contracts issued by the private sector may cause systemic economic risk). Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of futures markets in CDR, but urge great caution in the use of this approach. In particular, we consider the use of regulated markets: to ensure contracts are more reliable, and that moral hazard is minimised. Whilst regulation offers generally increased assurances, we identify major insufficiencies with this approach - finding it generally inadequate. In conclusion, we suggest that only governments can realistically support long-term CDR futures markets. We note existing long-term CDR plans by governments, and suggest the use of state-backed futures for supporting these assurances.

  13. Method for the removal of carbon or carbon compounds from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1983-05-17

    A method for the removal of carbon or carbon compounds from a waste stream generated in an unsupported slurry catalyst process utilized for the hydroconversion of heavy hydrocarbonaceous black oil which stream comprises vanadium sulfide, nickel sulfide and carbon or carbon compounds is disclosed. The carbon or carbon compound is removed by contacting the waste stream with sulfur dioxide at oxidizing conditions to yield a solid residue which contains metal sulfides.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Removal by Salty Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols consisting of salt ions dissolved in water are observed in nature as sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such aerosols can be also generated artificially by spraying seawater to the atmosphere to create clouds, which was suggested as a method of solar radiation management (SRM). Salty aerosols can be utilized not only for SRM, but also for carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, if salt ions carrying charges -2 or more negative are added to the seawater. CO2 is a very stable molecule where carbon to oxygen double bond has a bond strength of 8.3 eV (190 kcal/mol). Therefore the approach chosen here to modify CO2 is to further oxidize it to CO3. Quantum mechanical calculations indicate that CO2 reacts readily with hydroxyl minus ion (OH-) or oxygen double minus ion (O-) to form HCO3- or CO3-, respectively. What is studied in this paper is the utilization of hydrated negative salt ions to create OH- and possibly even O-. The negative ions chosen are chlorine minus ion (Cl-), sulfate double minus ion (SO4-), phosphate triple minus ion (PO4--) and silicate quadruple minus ion (SiO4--). The former two ions exist in seawater, but the latter two ions do not, though they are available as part of water soluble salts such as potassium phosphate. Using quantum mechanical calculations, following reactions were investigated: R1: (Cl-) + H2O => HCl + (OH-), R2: (SO4-) + H2O => (HSO4-) + (OH-), R3: (PO4--) + H2O => (HPO4-) + (OH-), R4: (SiO4--) + H2O => (HSiO4--) + (OH-), R5: (HPO4-) + H2O => (H2PO4-) + (OH-), R6: (HSiO4--) + H2O => (H2SiO4-) + (OH-), R7: (H2SiO4-) + H2O => (H3SiO4-) + (OH-), R8: (SiO4--) + H2O => (H2SiO4-) + (O-). Results indicate that singly charged negative salt ions, such as Cl- in R1, cannot create OH-. Doubly charged negative salt ions, such as SO4- in R2, can create OH-, though the amount of SO4- in seawater is relatively small. Triply or quadruply charged negative ions are even more favorable than doubly charged ions in creating

  15. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  16. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  17. Deep mantle: Enriched carbon source detected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Peter H.

    2017-09-01

    Estimates of carbon in the deep mantle vary by more than an order of magnitude. Coupled volcanic CO2 emission data and magma supply rates reveal a carbon-rich mantle plume source region beneath Hawai'i with 40% more carbon than previous estimates.

  18. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on the variation and cycling of carbon source in integrated wastewater treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhimiao, Zhao; Xinshan, Song; Yufeng, Zhao; Yanping, Xiao; Yuhui, Wang; Junfeng, Wang; Denghua, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Iron and calcium carbonate were added in wastewater treatments as the adjusting agents to improve the contaminant removal performance and regulate the variation of carbon source in integrated treatments. At different temperatures, the addition of the adjusting agents obviously improved the nitrogen and phosphorous removals. TN and TP removals were respectively increased by 29.41% and 23.83% in AC-100 treatment under 1-day HRT. Carbon source from dead algae was supplied as green microbial carbon source and Fe(2+) was supplied as carbon source surrogate. COD concentration was increased to 30mg/L and above, so the problem of the shortage of carbon source was solved. Dead algae and Fe(2+) as carbon source supplement or surrogate played significant role, which was proved by microbial community analysis. According to the denitrification performance in the treatments, dead algae as green microbial carbon source combined with iron and calcium carbonate was the optimal supplement carbon source in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Node-3 CDRA (Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly) R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-25

    ISS033-E-007246 (24 Sept. 2012) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, Expedition 33 flight engineer, works on replacing valves in an International Space Station’s Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly.

  20. Denitrification-Efficiencies of Alternate Carbon Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS HAZARDS CARBON HAZARDOUS MATERIALS NITRATES WASTE WATER CONTAMINATION DENITRIFICATION 20. AljThACT (Cinfbu m reveri Ohl It neffe6617 and...carbon source evaluated, while sweet whey, corn steep liquor, acid whey and soluble potato solids followed in order of decreasing efficiency. Three of...contaminated munitions process waters the use of alternate carbon sources will be needed not only for biological nitrate reduction but also for the

  1. Removable well in reaction flask facilitates carbon dioxide collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Removable plastic well with a flange that seats on the rim of an Erlenmeyer screwcap flask aids quantitative collection of carbon dioxide liberated in the flask. The well can be removed without danger of cross-contamination. It can collect other gases using appropriate absorbents.

  2. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  3. Carbon Source Studies in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lisgo, S.; Whyte, D. G.; Watkins, J. G.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; West, W. P.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Groth, M.

    2004-11-01

    Simple as Possible Plasma (SAPP) discharges provide a good environment for investigating the source and transport of carbon impurities. The detailed diagnostic data from repeated identical, L-mode, LSN discharges makes it possible to determine a reliable plasma background through empirical reconstruction' OEDGE code modeling. DIVIMP impurity code analysis of the carbon behavior is then carried out on this plasma background. This study examines the sources of the carbon required to reproduce the experimental measurements of the CI, CII and CIII emission in the outer divertor. For attached SAPP discharges, physical sputtering of the target is sufficient to account for the observed C emission. In detached SAPP discharges, recombination of higher charge state carbon from non-local sources is required to account for the observed emission. Possible sources for the non-local carbon are considered.

  4. Removal of Formaldehyde by Activated Carbons Containing Amino Groups.

    PubMed

    Tanada; Kawasaki; Nakamura; Araki; Isomura

    1999-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been used for disinfection and antisepsis in hospitals due to its bactericidal action, but it is toxic to humans. Hence, we developed adsorbates for the removal of formaldehyde. The adsorbate was prepared by the amination of an activated carbon surface. The removal efficiency and the adsorption mechanism of formaldehyde onto the aminated activated carbon were studied. The concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid treatment introduced nitro groups onto the surface of the activated carbon. The nitro groups were reduced by the reaction of powdered iron and hydrochloric acid to the amino groups. The amount of formaldehyde adsorbed onto the activated carbon increased with the amination of the activated carbon because of the increasing interaction between the surface of the activated carbon and the formaldehyde. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. New PHA products using unrelated carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Matias, Fernanda; de Andrade Rodrigues, Maria Filomena

    2011-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are natural polyesters stored by a wide range of bacteria as carbon source reserve. Due to its chemical characteristics and biodegradability PHA can be used in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industry for many human purposes. Over the past years, few Burkholderia species have become known for production of PHA. Aside from that, these bacteria seem to be interesting for discovering new PHA compositions which is important to different industrial applications. In this paper, we introduce two new strains which belong either to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) or genomovar-type, Burkholderia cepacia SA3J and Burkholderia contaminans I29B, both PHA producers from unrelated carbon sources. The classification was based on 16S rDNA and recA partial sequence genes and cell wall fatty acids composition. These two strains were capable to produce different types of PHA monomers or precursors. Unrelated carbon sources were used for growth and PHA accumulation. The amount of carbon source evaluated, or mixtures of them, was increased with every new experiment until it reaches eighteen carbon sources. As first bioprospection experiments staining methods were used with colony fluorescent dye Nile Red and the cell fluorescent dye Nile Blue A. Gas chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the PHA composition on each strain cultivated on different carbon sources. The synthesized polymers were composed by short chain length-PHA (scl-PHA), especially polyhydroxybutyrate, and medium chain length-PHA (mcl-PHA) depending on the carbon source used.

  6. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M.; Scala, F.R.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  7. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1).

  8. Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from aqueous solution using carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Li, Yong; Han, Sheng; Ma, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, an important type of environmental contamination, have attracted many researchers to the study of their removal from aqueous solutions. Adsorption technology is a fast, efficient, and economical physicochemical method that is extensively used in wastewater treatment. From original activated carbon and carbon nanotubes to the latest graphene-based materials, carbon-based materials have been widely used as highly effective adsorbents for contaminant removal from aqueous solution because of their large specific surface area, high porosity, and high reaction activity. In this article, adsorption removal methods for four major types of antibiotic (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides, and quinolones) are reviewed. We also provide an overview of the application development of carbon materials as adsorbents for antibiotic removal from aqueous solution. The most promising works are discussed, and the main challenges in preparing high-performance adsorbents and the development tendency of adsorbents are also analyzed. This work provides theoretical guidance for subsequent research in the design and modification of carbon materials for applications in the adsorption removal of antibiotics from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotube filter: improving viral removal at low pressure.

    PubMed

    Brady-Estévez, Anna S; Schnoor, Mary H; Vecitis, Chad D; Saleh, Navid B; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-09-21

    The effective removal of viruses by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) filter is demonstrated over a range of solution chemistries. MS2 bacteriophage viral removal by the MWNT filter was between 1.5 and 3 log higher than that observed with a recently reported single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) filter when examined under similar loadings (0.3 mg/cm(2)) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The greater removal of viruses by the MWNT filter is attributed to a more uniform CNT-filter matrix that allows effective removal of viruses by physicochemical (depth) filtration. Viral removal by the MWNT filter was examined under a broad range of water compositions (ionic strength, monovalent and divalent salts, solution pH, natural organic matter, alginate, phosphate, and bicarbonate) and filter approach velocities (0.0016, 0.0044, and 0.0072 cm/s). Log viral removal increased as the fluid approach velocity decreased, exhibiting a dependence on approach velocity in agreement with colloid filtration theory for Brownian particles. Viral removal improved with increasing ionic strength (NaCl), from 5.06 log removal at 1 mM NaCl to greater than 6.56 log removal at 100 mM NaCl. Addition of calcium ions also enhanced viral removal, but the presence of magnesium ions resulted in a decrease in viral removal. Solution pH also played an important role in viral removal, with log removals of 8.13, 5.38, and 4.00 being documented at solution pH values of 3.0, 5.5, and 9.0, respectively. Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) had a negligible effect on viral removal at low concentration (1 mg/L), but higher concentrations of NOM significantly reduced the viral removal by the MWNT filter, likely due to steric repulsion. Addition of alginate (model polysaccharide) also caused a marked decrease in viral removal by the MWNT filter. This highly scalable MWNT-filter technology at gravity-driven pressures presents new, cost-effective options for point-of-use filters for viral removal.

  10. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation.

  11. Removal of benzocaine from water by filtration with activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    Benzocaine is a promising candidate for registration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as an anesthetic in fish culture, management, and research. A method for the removal of benzocaine from hatchery effluents could speed registration of this drug by eliminating requirements for data on its residues, tolerances, detoxification, and environmental hazards. Carbon filtration effectively removes many organic compounds from water. This study tested the effectiveness of three types of activated carbon for removing benzocaine from water by column filtration under controlled laboratory conditions. An adsorptive capacity was calculated for each type of activated carbon. Filtrasorb 400 (12 x 40 mesh; U.S. standard sieve series) showed the greatest capacity for benzocaine adsorption (76.12 mg benzocaine/g carbon); Filtrasorb 300 (8 x 30 mesh) ranked next (31.93 mg/g); and Filtrasorb 816 (8 x 16 mesh) absorbed the least (1.0 mg/g). Increased adsorptive capacity was associated with smaller carbon particle size; however, smaller particle size also impeded column flow. Carbon filtration is a practical means for removing benzocaine from treated water.

  12. Comparison of pre- and post-combustion carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Steinberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, including fuel switching among fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear, end-use conservation, and increased efficiency, nearly all lead to reduction in coal use. Carbon removal technologies along have the potential to allow continued use of coal. All approaches must compete economically, technically, and environmentally for market share within the context of the total energy system. MARKAL, a dynamic energy systems model, was used to simulate this competition through 2025 for the US energy system. Three carbon removal technologies were evaluated: CO{sub 2} scrubbing from coal-fired power plant flue gas, CO{sub 2} separation during coal gasification, and carbon separation in the Hydrocarb process. CO{sub 2} was sequestered in depleted gas wells and the deep ocean, and solid carbon in depleted coal mines. All three technologies evaluated offer a more cost-effective path to CO{sub 2} emission reduction than the reference case. Moreover, the ability of pre-combustion methods of carbon removal can be combined with producing motor fuels as well as electric power fuels, a combination that provided greater opportunity for carbon removal.

  13. Comparison of pre- and post-combustion carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Steinberg, M.

    1992-06-01

    Conventional approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, including fuel switching among fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear, end-use conservation, and increased efficiency, nearly all lead to reduction in coal use. Carbon removal technologies along have the potential to allow continued use of coal. All approaches must compete economically, technically, and environmentally for market share within the context of the total energy system. MARKAL, a dynamic energy systems model, was used to simulate this competition through 2025 for the US energy system. Three carbon removal technologies were evaluated: CO{sub 2} scrubbing from coal-fired power plant flue gas, CO{sub 2} separation during coal gasification, and carbon separation in the Hydrocarb process. CO{sub 2} was sequestered in depleted gas wells and the deep ocean, and solid carbon in depleted coal mines. All three technologies evaluated offer a more cost-effective path to CO{sub 2} emission reduction than the reference case. Moreover, the ability of pre-combustion methods of carbon removal can be combined with producing motor fuels as well as electric power fuels, a combination that provided greater opportunity for carbon removal.

  14. Are Glaciers and Ice Sheets Carbon Sources or Carbon Sinks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graly, J. A.; Drever, J. I.; Humphrey, N. F.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial waters typically contain considerable quantities of HCO3-. Where this HCO3- is coupled with Ca2+ and Mg2+, it will ultimately precipitate as (Ca, Mg)CO3 in the oceans. If the glacial HCO3- is derived from atmospheric CO2, this pathway represents a long-term CO2 sink. If the HCO3- is derived from carbonate minerals, precipitation is equal to dissolution and there is no net effect on the CO2 balance of the atmosphere. Only the weathering of Ca or Mg-bearing silicates can potentially draw CO2 out of the ocean/atmosphere system. Subglacial environments are potential habitats for a range of microbes that may generate CO2 from organic C. If the production of CO2 from organic sources exceeds the weathering of Ca and Mg from silicates, the subglacial environment is a long-term CO2 source. In order to determine whether ice bodies typically act as CO2 sources or sinks, we modeled the evolution of pH and alkalinity through a range of typical subglacial weathering reactions, considering both the case in which CO2 and O2 can openly exchange with the atmosphere and the case in which the subglacial environment is closed from atmospheric interaction. We find that in the closed system scenario, subglacial waters cannot reach atmospheric PCO2 levels under typical conditions. Initial open system weathering followed by closed system weathering can allow CO2 supersaturation when sulfide oxidation is considered. We use this result to analyze pH and alkalinity measurements from a geographically and geologically diverse selection of subglacial waters. The PCO2 of most of the subglacial waters is near or above atmospheric values. This implies that exchange of gases between subglacial waters and the atmosphere is typical and widespread. This input of atmospheric CO2 into the glacial weathering environment implies that about 5 mg of CO2 are typically removed from the atmosphere per l of glacial discharge water. Similar PCO2 values can be produced in an entirely closed system if

  15. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  16. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  17. Microbial Removal of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride in Bulk Aerobic Soils▿

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Y.; Goodwin, K. D.; Happell, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were removed by bulk aerobic soils from tropical, subtropical, and boreal environments. Removal was observed in all tested soil types, indicating that the process was widespread. The flux measured in field chamber experiments was 0.24 ± 0.10 nmol CCl4 (m2 day)−1 (average ± standard deviation [SD]; n = 282). Removal of CCl4 and removal of methane (CH4) were compared to explore whether the two processes were linked. Removal of both gases was halted in laboratory samples that were autoclaved, dry heated, or incubated in the presence of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). In marl soils, treatment with antibiotics such as tetracycline and streptomycin caused partial inhibition of CCl4 (50%) and CH4 (76%) removal, but removal was not affected in soils treated with nystatin or myxothiazol. These data indicated that bacteria contributed to the soil removal of CCl4 and that microeukaryotes may not have played a significant role. Amendments of methanol, acetate, and succinate to soil samples enhanced CCl4 removal by 59%, 293%, and 72%, respectively. Additions of a variety of inhibitors and substrates indicated that nitrification, methanogenesis, or biological reduction of nitrate, nitrous oxide, or sulfate (e.g., occurring in possible anoxic microzones) did not play a significant role in the removal of CCl4. Methyl fluoride inhibited removal of CH4 but not CCl4, indicating that CH4 and CCl4 removals were not directly linked. Furthermore, CCl4 removal was not affected in soils amended with copper sulfate or methane, supporting the results with MeF and suggesting that the observed CCl4 removal was not significantly mediated by methanotrophs. PMID:21724884

  18. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent.

  19. Removal of selected metals from drinking water using modified powdered block carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, V.; Sayeg, I. J.; Buchler, P. M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the possible alternative removal options for the development of safe drinking water supply in the trace elements affected areas. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causes various adverse effects on living bodies. Performance of three filter bed method was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments have been conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon (PBC), powder carbon steel and ball ceramic in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The PBC modified is a satisfactory and practical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water.

  20. Biotechnology for removal of carbon disulfide emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Biological removal in a ``biofilter`` plant of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide from the air effluent of a viscose plant at Teepak, Inc., is analyzed from process and economic standpoints by use of the Aspen Plus simulation program. The metabolic product from the biofilter, 3% sulfuric acid, must be transformed at the source into either a marketable or recyclable commodity (such as 95% sulfuric acid, high-quality sulfur, or high-quality gypsum) or a material with reasonable landfill costs (such as sulfur or gypsum). The simulations indicate that the total capital requirement for production of concentrated sulfuric acid is $48.9 million; for high-quality gypsum, $40.4 million; and for high-quality sulfur, $29.4 million. Production of concentrated sulfur for landfill is not economically practical. The process to neutralize the 3% acid effluent with limestone and landfill the resulting low-quality gypsum requires the lowest total investment of the processes simulated, $8.7 million, including the biofilter plant.

  1. Removal of phosphine contaminant from carbon monoxide gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.; Munday, T.F.; Walden, J.

    1980-01-22

    A method is claimed for removing small concentrations of phosphine contained in a carbon monoxide gas mixture by preferentially oxidizing the phosphine, in which the phosphine is oxidized with air at a temperature of from 500 to 800 to form phosphorus pentoxide, which is recovered from the gas mixture preferably as phosphoric acid.

  2. Crewmember repairing the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System wiring.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Ken Bowersox, busy at work on the wiring harness for the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System located under the mid deck floor. Photo shows Bowersox splicing wires together to 'fool' a faulty sensor that caused the 'air conditioner' to shut down.

  3. Copper crystallite in carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfurfuryl alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  4. Copper modified carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfunctional alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  5. A Fluorescent Source NDIR Carbon Monoxide Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, W. T.; McClatchie, E. A.; Watson, D. A.; Compher, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for measuring trace quantities of carbon monoxide by the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) methods. The technique uses the property of infrared fluorescence in a gas to generate a specific source of radiation which is an exact match of the absorption spectrum of the fundamental band of carbon monoxide. This results in an instrument with high sensitivity and specificity for CO. A novel method of referencing using an isotopic species of CO confers great stability on the instrument.

  6. Removal of carbon constituents from hospital solid waste incinerator fly ash by column flotation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanqiao; Wei, Guoxia; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Hospital solid waste incinerator (HSWI) fly ash contains a large number of carbon constituents including powder activated carbon and unburned carbon, which are the major source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in fly ash. Therefore, the removal of carbon constituents could reduce PCDD/Fs in fly ash greatly. In this study, the effects of the main flotation parameters on the removal of carbon constituents were investigated, and the characteristics of the final product were evaluated. The results showed that loss on ignition (LOI) of fly ash increased from 11.1% to 31.6% during conditioning process. By optimizing the flotation parameters at slurry concentration 0.05 kg/l, kerosene dosage 12 kg/t, frother dosage 3 kg/t and air flow rate 0.06 m(3)/h, 92.7% of the carbon constituents were removed from the raw fly ash. Under these conditions, the froth product has LOI of 56.35% and calorific values of 12.5 MJ/kg, LOI in the tailings was below 5%, and the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs decreased from 5.61 ng-TEQ/g in the raw fly ash to 1.47 ng-TEQ/g in the tailings. The results show that column flotation is a potential technology for simultaneous separation of carbon constituents and PCDD/Fs from HSWI fly ash.

  7. Nitric acid vapor removal by activated, impregnated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.O.

    1996-12-31

    Laboratory and industrial workers can be exposed to vapors of nitric acid, especially in accidents, such as spills. Nitric acid can also be a product of incineration for energy production or waste (e.g., CW agent) disposal. Activated carbons containing impregnants for enhancing vapor and gas removal have been tested for effectiveness in removing vapors of nitric acid from air. The nitric acid vapor was generated from concentrated acid solutions and detected by trapping in a water bubbler for pH measurements. Both low and moderate relative humidity conditions were used. All carbons were effective at vapor contact times representative of air-purifying respirator use. One surprising observation was the desorption of low levels of ammonia from impregnated carbons. This was apparently due to residual ammonia from the impregnation processes.

  8. Removal of dissolved natural organic matter from source water with alum coagulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Kang, S F; Yang, H J; Pa, S Y; Chen, H W

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of enhanced alum coagulation for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) at various alum dosages and pH conditions was assessed for three source waters. Results from the laboratory jar tests at various conditions were compared. Tested pH ranged from 5.0 to 8.0, with alum dosages ranging from 60-120 mg l(-1) for removal of dissolved NOM with various concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity. Alum coagulation profiles of the three source waters were also compared. For Cheng-Kung Water Treatment Plant (high DOC, high alkalinity), laboratory tests showed 50% DOC removal with alum dosage of 70-110 mg (-1). after acidifying the raw water to pH = 6. For Tai Lake Water Treatment Plant (high DOC, low alkalinity), laboratory tests showed that the highest DOC removal (approximately 50%) was achieved at an alum dosage of 80 mg l(-1) at pH = 8 (natural condition). However, alum coagulation showed little DOC removal for source water from Kee-Lung River (low DOC, low alkalinity). Higher alkalinity in Cheng-Kung Reservoir accounts for the necessity to acidify the raw water before enhanced coagulation for optimum DOC removal.

  9. Removal of H{sub 2}S using molten carbonate at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Makoto Otaka, Maromu

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The performance of molten carbonate for the removal of H{sub 2}S improves at higher temperatures. • The degree of H{sub 2}S removal is significantly affected by the CO{sub 2} concentration in syngas. • Addition of carbon elements, such as char and tar, decrease the negative effects of CO{sub 2}. • Continuous addition of carbon elements into molten carbonate enables continuous desulfurization. • Desulfurization using molten carbonate is suitable for gasification gas. - Abstract: Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H{sub 2}S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H{sub 2}S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO{sub 2} in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO{sub 2} is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H{sub 2}S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas

  10. Aqueous adsorption and removal of organic contaminants by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Zhao, Xiu-Hui; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Qiaoqin; Yu, Lin-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Organic contaminants have become one of the most serious environmental problems, and the removal of organic contaminants (e.g., dyes, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals/drugs) and common industrial organic wastes (e.g., phenols and aromatic amines) from aqueous solutions is of special concern because they are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gradually applied to the removal of organic contaminants from wastewater through adsorption processes. This paper reviews recent progress (145 studies published from 2010 to 2013) in the application of CNTs and their composites for the removal of toxic organic pollutants from contaminated water. The paper discusses removal efficiencies and adsorption mechanisms as well as thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. CNTs are predicted to have considerable prospects for wider application to wastewater treatment in the future.

  11. Atmospheric carbon dioxide removal: long-term consequences and commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken

    2010-04-01

    Carbon capture from ambient air has been proposed as a mitigation strategy to counteract anthropogenic climate change. We use an Earth system model to investigate the response of the coupled climate-carbon system to an instantaneous removal of all anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. In our extreme and idealized simulations, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are halted and all anthropogenic CO2 is removed from the atmosphere at year 2050 under the IPCC A2 CO2 emission scenario when the model-simulated atmospheric CO2 reaches 511 ppm and surface temperature reaches 1.8 °C above the pre-industrial level. In our simulations a one-time removal of all anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere reduces surface air temperature by 0.8 °C within a few years, but 1 °C surface warming above pre-industrial levels lasts for several centuries. In other words, a one-time removal of 100% excess CO2 from the atmosphere offsets less than 50% of the warming experienced at the time of removal. To maintain atmospheric CO2 and temperature at low levels, not only does anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere need to be removed, but anthropogenic CO2 stored in the ocean and land needs to be removed as well when it outgasses to the atmosphere. In our simulation to maintain atmospheric CO2 concentrations at pre-industrial levels for centuries, an additional amount of CO2 equal to the original CO2 captured would need to be removed over the subsequent 80 years.

  12. Application of plant carbon source for denitrification by constructed wetland and bioreactor: review of recent development.

    PubMed

    Hang, Qianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Chu, Zhaosheng; Ye, Bibi; Li, Chunmei; Hou, Zeying

    2016-05-01

    Water quality standard for nitrate becomes more and more strict, and the plant carbon source is widely used for denitrification by constructed wetland (CW) and bioreactor. However, the nitrate removal efficiency by different types of plant carbon source are not evaluated comprehensively. Denitrification performance of different plant carbon sources, and the influence of dosing method and pretreatment are thoroughly reviewed in this paper, which aims to investigate the accurate utilization of plant carbon source for nitrogen (as nitrate) removal. It is concluded that plant carbon source addition for all types of CWs and bioreactors can improve the nitrate removal efficiency to some extent, and the dosing method of plant carbon source for denitrification should be further studied and optimized in the future. The popular carbon sources for CW and bioreactor denitrification enhancement are woodchip, chopped macrophytes, crop plants, macrophytes litters, etc. The recommended optimum C:N ratios for CW and bioreactor are 4.0:5.0 and 1.8:3.0, respectively. The physical and biological pretreatments are selected to supply organic carbon for long-term denitrification.

  13. Method for removal of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles D. (Inventor); Clausen, III, Christian A. (Inventor); Collins, Michelle M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for removing NO.sub.X from gas streams emanating from stationary combustion sources and manufacturing plants utilizes the injection of hydrogen peroxide into the gas stream for rapid gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO.sub.2 and water-soluble nitrogen acids HNO.sub.2 and HNO.sub.3. The nitrogen acids may be removed from the oxidized gas stream by wet scrubbing or by contact with a particulate alkaline material to form a nitrite/nitrate salt.

  14. Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. )

    1994-02-01

    A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Removal of Ozone by Carbon Nanotubes/Quartz Fiber Film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen; Nie, Jingqi; Wei, Fei; Yang, Xudong

    2016-09-06

    Ozone is recognized as a harmful gaseous pollutant, which can lead to severe human health problems. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested as a new approach for ozone removal. The CNTs/quartz fiber film was fabricated through growth of CNTs upon pure quartz fiber using chemical vapor deposition method. Ozone conversion efficiency of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was tested for 10 h and compared with that of quartz film, activated carbon (AC), and a potassium iodide (KI) solution under the same conditions. The pressure resistance of these materials under different airflow rates was also measured. The results showed that the CNTs/quartz fiber film had better ozone conversion efficiency but also higher pressure resistance than AC and the KI solution of the same weight. The ozone removal performance of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was comparable with AC at 20 times more weight. The CNTs played a dominant role in ozone removal by the CNTs/quartz fiber film. Its high ozone conversion efficiency, lightweight and free-standing properties make the CNTs/quartz fiber film applicable to ozone removal. Further investigation should be focused on reducing pressure resistance and studying the CNT mechanism for removing ozone.

  16. Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes. Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure. PMID:24401081

  17. A study of JET carbon impurity sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. D.; Corrigan, G.; Stamp, M.; Spence, J.; Zacks, J.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-01

    This paper compares experimental JET carbon and hydrogen visible emission to EDGE2D/NIMBUS calculations. The calculations themselves indicate that: (1) the integrated deuterium ionization in the SOL is proportional to the D α chordal integrated photon flux, (2) the carbon ionization in the SOL or the divertor is proportional to the calculated CIII chordal light, and (3) the ratio of line integrated photon fluxes from a vertical chord to a horizontal chord indicates whether the main chamber SOL content originated primarily from a wall source or from ion flow out of the divertor. Comparison was made to both inter-ELM H-Mode and L-Mode JET gas box divertor plasmas. The calculations infer that the experimental core contamination was caused by carbon sputtering arising primarily from the main chamber. The experimental, main chamber carbon yield was 1-4% in L-Mode and 5-10% in the inter-ELM H-Mode period.

  18. Crewmember repairing the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System wiring.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    STS050-20-012 (26 June 1992) --- Astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox, pilot, performs in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RCRS) on the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Bowersox was joined by four other astronauts and two scientists from the private sector for a record-setting 14-day stay aboard the Space Shuttle in support of the United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1).

  19. Removal of H2S using molten carbonate at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Makoto; Otaka, Maromu

    2013-12-01

    Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H2S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H2S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO2 is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H2S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas-cleaning performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating organic micro-pollutant removal potential of activated carbons using UV absorption and carbon characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Altmann, Johannes; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Dünnbier, Uwe; Dommisch, Ingvild; Sperlich, Alexander; Meinel, Felix; Jekel, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Eight commercially available powdered activated carbons (PAC) were examined regarding organic micro-pollutant (OMP) removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. PAC characteristic numbers such as B.E.T. surface, iodine number and nitrobenzene number were checked for their potential to predict the OMP removal of the PAC products. Furthermore, the PAC-induced removal of UV254 nm absorption (UVA254) in WWTP effluent was determined and also correlated with OMP removal. None of the PAC characteristic numbers can satisfactorily describe OMP removal and accordingly, these characteristics have little informative value on the reduction of OMP concentrations in WWTP effluent. In contrast, UVA254 removal and OMP removal correlate well for carbamazepine, diclofenac, and several iodinated x-ray contrast media. Also, UVA254 removal can roughly describe the average OMP removal of all measured OMP, and can accordingly predict PAC performance in OMP removal. We therefore suggest UVA254 as a handy indicator for the approximation of OMP removal in practical applications where direct OMP concentration quantification is not always available. In continuous operation of large-scale plants, this approach allows for the efficient adjustment of PAC dosing to UVA254, in order to ensure reliable OMP removal whilst minimizing PAC consumption.

  1. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  2. Ecological Limits to Terrestrial Biological Carbon Dioxide Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Mishra, U.; Sanchez, D.; Williams, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many climate change mitigation scenarios include terrestrial atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (BCDR) or carbon neutral bioenergy production through bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECS) or afforestation/reforestation. Very high sequestration potentials for these strategies have been reported, and we evaluate the potential ecological limits (e.g., land and resource requirements) to implementation at the 1 Pg C y-1 scale relevant to climate change mitigation for U.S. and global scenarios. We estimate that removing 1 Pg C y-1 via tropical afforestation would require at least 7×106 ha y-1 of land, 0.09 Tg y-1 of nitrogen, and 0.2 Tg y-1 of phosphorous, and would increase evapotranspiration from those lands by almost 50%. Because of improved carbon capture technologies, we are updating (and reducing) our previous estimates for switchgrass BECS (previous estimate was 2×108 ha land and 20 Tg y-1 of nitrogen (20 % of global fertilizer nitrogen production)). Miscanthus could meet the same biomass production with much lower N demand. Moreover, transitioning the U.S land currently under corn- ethanol production to no-till perennial grasses for bioenergy would meet U.S. needs and have additional environmental benefits (such as improved wildlife habitat and soil restoration). Thus, there are both signficant ecological limits to BCDR as well as potential ecological benefits, depending on implementation.

  3. Bromate removal from aqueous solutions by ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunhua; Wang, Xiaohong; Shi, Xiaolei; Lin, Sheng; Zhu, Liujia; Che, Yaming

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for bromate removal from water. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as the effect of contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial bromate concentration, temperature, pH and effect of competing anions on bromate removal by OMC. The adsorption kinetics indicates that the uptake rate ofbromate was rapid at the beginning: 85% adsorption was completed in 1 h and equilibrium was achieved within 3 h. The sorption process was well described with pseudo-second-order kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity of OMC for bromate removal was 17.6 mg g(-1) at 298 K. The adsorption data fit the Freundlich model well. The amount of bromate removed was found to be proportional to the influent bromate concentration. The effects of competing anions and solution pH (3-11) were negligible. These limited data suggest that OMC can be effectively utilized for bromate removal from drinking water.

  4. Excess cell mass as an internal carbon source for biological denitrification.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Prashant M; Roy, S B; D'Souza, S F; Pandit, A B

    2010-03-01

    Aim of the present work was to examine whether the SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand) released after the physical disruption of excess activated sludge can be used as an alternative carbon source for biological denitrification. In the first stage of research, we investigated the potential use of energy efficient hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) technique for the disruption of activated sludge. In a comparative study between ultrasonic cavitation (UC) and HC, it was observed that UC needs five times more energy than that of HC to release the same amount of SCOD. In the second stage of the experimental study, SCOD was successfully used as an alternative carbon source (alternative to sodium acetate) for biological denitrification. The critical weight ratio (SCOD/NO(3)-N) of seven ensured 100% removal of nitrate. Nitrate removal kinetics indicated that denitrification with SCOD as a carbon source gives higher specific denitrification rate (by approximately 200%) as compared to conventional carbon source (sodium acetate).

  5. Removal of toxic chemicals from water with activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Activated carbon was effective in removing fish toxicants and anesthetics from water solutions. Its capacity to adsorb 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), antimycin, NoxfishA? (5% rotenone), Dibrorms, juglone, MSa??222, and benzocaine ranged from 0.1 to 64 mg per gram of carbon. The adsorptive capacity (end point considered as a significant discharge) of activated carbon for removal of TFM was determined at column depths of 15, 30, and 60 cm; temperatures of 7, 12, 17, and 22 C; pH's of 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5; and flow rates of 50, 78, 100, 200, and 940 ml/min. Adsorptive capacity increased when the contact time was increased by reducing the flow rate or increasing the column depth. The adsorptive capacity was not significantly influenced by temperature but was substantially higher at pH 6.5 than at the other pH's tested. A practical and efficient filter for purifying chemically treated water was developed.

  6. Removal of organic impurities from liquid carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2002-09-01

    The use of a high velocity stream of carbon dioxide snowflakes to clean large optics is well known, and has gained widespread acceptance in the astronomical community as a telescope maintenance technique. Ultimately, however, the success of carbon dioxide snow cleaning depends on the availability of high purity carbon dioxide. The higher the purity of the carbon dioxide, the longer will be the time interval between required mirror washings. The highest grades of commercially produced liquid carbon dioxide are often not available in the more remote regions of the world - such as where major astronomical observatories are often located. Furthermore, the purity of even the highest grades of carbon dioxide are only nominal, and wide variations are known to occur from tank to tank. Occasionally, visible deposits of organic impurities are left behind during cleaning with carbon dioxide that is believed to be 99.999% pure. A zeolite molecular sieve based filtration system has proven to be very effective in removing these organic impurities. A zeolite is a complex alumino-silicate. One example has an empirical formula of Na2O(Al2O3)(SiO2)2yH2O, where y=0 to 8. The zeolites have an open crystal structure and are capable of trapping impurities like 8-methylheptadecane (an oil) and 2,6-octadine-1-ol,3,7- dimethyl-,(E)- (a fatty acid). In fact, a zeolite can trap 29.5% of its own weight in SAE 20 lubricant at 25 degree(s)C. After filtration of liquid CO2 through zeolites, the concentration of measured impurities was below the detection limit for state-of-the-art gas chromatography systems.

  7. Removal of dispersant-stabilized carbon nanotubes by regular coagulants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ni; Liu, Changli; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Daohui

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the water treatment plant, can be the first line of defense against exposures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to aquatic organisms and human beings, which has been rarely documented. This study investigated the removal of dispersant-stabilized CNT suspensions by poly aluminum chloride (PACl) and KAl(SO4)2 x 12H2O (alum), with a focus on the effects of dispersant type, coagulant type and dosage. PACl performed better than alum in the removal of tannic acid-, humic acid-, and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate-stabilized CNTs, but worse for polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether (TX100)-stabilized CNTs. Neither coagulant could effectively precipitate cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-stabilized CNTs. The removal by PACl first increased up to a plateau and then decreased with the continued increase of coagulant dosage. However, the removal rates leveled off but did not decrease after achieving their highest level with the continued addition of alum. The coagulation and flocculation of the CNT suspensions by PACl could be regulated mainly by the mechanism of adsorption charge neutralization, whereas the coagulation by alum mainly involved electrical double-layer compression.

  8. Enhancement of carbon and nitrogen removal by helophytes along subsurface water flowpaths receiving treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Miquel; Bernal, Susana; Nikolakopoulou, Myrto; Vaessen, Timothy N; Cochero, Joaquín; Gacia, Esperança; Sorolla, Albert; Argerich, Alba; Sabater, Francesc; Isnard, Manel; Martí, Eugènia

    2017-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to receiving streams, which can eventually become saturated by excess of DIN. Aquatic plants (i.e., helophytes) can modify subsurface water flowpaths as well as assimilate nutrients and enhance microbial activity in the rhizosphere, yet their ability to increase DIN transformation and removal in WWTP-influenced streams is poorly understood. We examined the influence of helophytes on DIN removal along subsurface water flowpaths and how this was associated with DOC removal and labile C availability. To do so, we used a set of 12 flow-through flumes fed with water from a WWTP effluent. The flumes contained solely sediments or sediments with helophytes. Presence of helophytes in the flumes enhanced both DIN and DOC removal. Experimental addition of a labile C source into the flumes resulted in a high removal of the added C within the first meter of the flumes. Yet, no concomitant increases in DIN removal were observed. Moreover, results from laboratory assays showed significant increases in the potential denitrifying enzyme activity of sediment biofilms from the flumes when labile C was added; suggesting denitrification was limited by C quality. Together these results suggest that lack of DIN removal response to the labile C addition in flumes was likely because potential increases in denitrification by biofilms from sediments were counterbalanced by high rates of mineralization of dissolved organic matter. Our results highlight that helophytes can enhance DIN removal in streams receiving inputs from WWTP effluents; and thus, they can become a relevant bioremediation tool in WWTP-influenced streams. However, results also suggest that the quality of DOC from the WWTP effluent can influence the N removal capacity of these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen in an anaerobic inverse fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Rustrián, E; García-Alvarado, M A; Houbron, E

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen in an anaerobic inverse fluidized bed reactor is described. Continuous and batch experiments were used, with synthetic wastewater and glucose as the carbon source with two different nitrate concentrations of 100 and 250 mg N-NO3/L. The evolution of substrates and the concentrations of intermediary products in the gas phase were followed. Results indicate that the use of the biofilm in the inverse fluidized bed reactor allows the expression of denitrification and methanization activities simultaneously without physical or time separation. The removal of nitrogen with both the feeding of 100 and 250 mgN-NO3/L was higher than 90%, while the removal of carbon was 65% on average for the feeding with 100 mgN-NO3/L and 70% on average for the feeding with 250 mg N-NO3/L. This carbon degradation is equivalent to that obtained during the operation of the reactor in the period previous to the nitrate feeding. It was found that by using high values of the COD/N ratio, the dissimilative reduction of nitrates is favoured. Denitrification and anaerobic digestion occurs simultaneously under low values of COD/N.

  10. Removal of unburned carbon from municipal solid waste fly ash by column flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Unburned carbon (UC) is the major source of organic contaminants in municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash. So most organic contaminants can be removed by the removal of the UC from the MSW fly ash. In this paper, we first used a technique of column flotation to remove UC from MSW fly ash. The influences of column flotation parameters on the recovery efficiency of UC were systematically studied. It was found that the UC recovery efficiency was greatly influenced by the gas flow rate, pH value, collector kerosene's concentration and the types of fly ash. By optimizing the above parameters, we have successfully removed 61.2% of the UC from MSW fly ash having 5.24% UC content. The removal mechanism was well accounted for the kinetic theory of column flotation and surface-chemistry theory. The results indicate that the column flotation technique is effective in removing the UC from MSW fly ash, and show that there is a strong possibility for practical application of this technique in removing the organic contaminants from MSW fly ash.

  11. Removal of MIB and geosmin using granular activated carbon with and without MIEX pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Drikas, Mary; Dixon, Mike; Morran, Jim

    2009-12-01

    This study assessed the impact of MIEX pre-treatment, followed by either coagulation or microfiltration (MF), on the effectiveness of pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) filters for the removal of the taste and odour compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, from a surface drinking water source over a 2-year period. Complete removal of MIB and geosmin was achieved by all GAC filters for the first 10 months, suggesting that the available adsorption capacity was sufficient to compensate for differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) entering the GAC filters. Reduction of empty bed contact time (EBCT), in all but one GAC filter, resulted in breakthrough of spiked MIB and geosmin, with initial results inconclusive regarding the impact of MIEX pre-treatment. MIB and geosmin removal increased over the ensuing 12 months until complete removal of both MIB and geosmin was again achieved in all but one GAC filter, which had been pre-chlorinated. Autoclaving and washing the GAC filters had minimal impact on geosmin removal but reduced MIB removal by 30% in all but the pre-chlorinated filter, confirming that biodegradation impacted MIB removal. The impact of biodegradation was greater than any impact on GAC adsorption arising from DOC differences due to MIEX pre-treatment. It is not clear whether, at a lower initial EBCT, MIEX pre-treatment may have impacted on the adsorption capacity of the virgin GAC. The GAC filter maintained at the longer EBCT, which was also pre-chlorinated, completely removed MIB and geosmin for the period of the study, suggesting that the greater adsorption capacity was compensating for any decrease in biological degradation.

  12. Robust, open-source removal of systematics in Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, S.; Parviainen, H.; Roberts, S.; Reece, S.; Evans, T.

    2017-10-01

    We present ARC2 (Astrophysically Robust Correction 2), an open-source python-based systematics-correction pipeline, to correct for the Kepler prime mission long-cadence light curves. The ARC2 pipeline identifies and corrects any isolated discontinuities in the light curves and then removes trends common to many light curves. These trends are modelled using the publicly available co-trending basis vectors, within an (approximate) Bayesian framework with 'shrinkage' priors to minimize the risk of overfitting and the injection of any additional noise into the corrected light curves, while keeping any astrophysical signals intact. We show that the ARC2 pipeline's performance matches that of the standard Kepler PDC-MAP data products using standard noise metrics, and demonstrate its ability to preserve astrophysical signals using injection tests with simulated stellar rotation and planetary transit signals. Although it is not identical, the ARC2 pipeline can thus be used as an open-source alternative to PDC-MAP, whenever the ability to model the impact of the systematics removal process on other kinds of signal is important.

  13. Impact of source water quality on multiwall carbon nanotube coagulation.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, R David; Kline, Carly N; Filliben, James J

    2010-02-15

    Potable water treatment facilities may become an important barrier in limiting human exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) as ENPs begin to contaminate natural aquatic systems. Coagulation of ENPs will likely be a major process that controls the ENP fate and the subsequent removal in the aqueous phase. The influence that source water quality has on ENP coagulation is still relatively unknown. The current study uses a 2(3) x 2(4-1) fractional factorial design to identify seven key surface water constituents that affect multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coagulation. These seven factors include: influent concentrations of kaolin, organic matter (OM), alginate, and MWCNTs; type and dosage of coagulant; and method of MWCNT stabilization. MWCNT removal was most affected by coagulant type and dosage, with alum outperforming ferric chloride at circumneutral pH. None of the other factors were universally significant but instead depended on coagulant type, dose, and method of stabilization. In all cases where factors were found to have a significant impact on MWCNT removal, however, the relationship was consistent: higher influent concentrations of kaolin and alginate improved MWCNT removal while higher influent concentrations of OM hindered MWCNT coagulation. Once MWCNTs are released into the natural environment, their coagulation behavior will be determined by the type and quantity of pollutants (i.e., factors) present in the aquatic environment and are governed by the same mechanisms that influence the colloidal stability of "natural" nanoparticles.

  14. Removing muscle and eye artifacts using blind source separation techniques in ictal EEG source imaging.

    PubMed

    Hallez, H; De Vos, M; Vanrumste, B; Van Hese, P; Assecondi, S; Van Laere, K; Dupont, P; Van Paesschen, W; Van Huffel, S; Lemahieu, I

    2009-07-01

    The contamination of muscle and eye artifacts during an ictal period of the EEG significantly distorts source estimation algorithms. Recent blind source separation (BSS) techniques based on canonical correlation (BSS-CCA) and independent component analysis with spatial constraints (SCICA) have shown much promise in the removal of these artifacts. In this study we want to use BSS-CCA and SCICA as a preprocessing step before the source estimation during the ictal period. Both the contaminated and cleaned ictal EEG were subjected to the RAP-MUSIC algorithm. This is a multiple dipole source estimation technique based on the separation of the EEG in signal and noise subspace. The source estimates were compared with the subtracted ictal SPECT (iSPECT) coregistered to magnetic resonance imaging (SISCOM) by means of the euclidean distance between the iSPECT activations and the dipole location estimates. SISCOM results in an image denoting the ictal onset zone with a propagation. We applied the artifact removal and the source estimation on 8 patients. Qualitatively, we can see that 5 out of 8 patients show an improvement of the dipoles. The dipoles are nearer to or have tighter clusters near the iSPECT activation. From the median of the distance measure, we could appreciate that 5 out of 8 patients show improvement. The results show that BSS-CCA and SCICA can be applied to remove artifacts, but the results should be interpreted with care. The results of the source estimation can be misleading due to excessive noise or modeling errors. Therefore, the accuracy of the source estimation can be increased by preprocessing the ictal EEG segment by BSS-CCA and SCICA. This is a pilot study where EEG source localization in the presurgical evaluation can be made more reliable, if preprocessing techniques such as BSS-CCA and SCICA are used prior to EEG source analysis on ictal episodes.

  15. Ethylbenzene Removal by Carbon Nanotubes from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Bina, Bijan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The removal of ethylbenzene (E) from aqueous solution by multiwalled, single-walled, and hybrid carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, SWCNTs, and HCNTs) was evaluated for a nanomaterial dose of 1 g/L, concentration of 10–100 mg/L, and pH 7. The equilibrium amount removed by SWCNTs (E: 9.98 mg/g) was higher than by MWCNTs and HCNTs. Ethylbenzene has a higher adsorption tendency on CNTs, so that more than 98% of it adsorbed in first 14 min, which is related to the low water solubility and the high molecular weight. The SWCNTs performed better for ethylbenzene sorption than the HCNTs and MWCNTs. Isotherms study indicates that the BET isotherm expression provides the best fit for ethylbenzene sorption by SWCNTs. Carbon nanotubes, specially SWCNTs, are efficient and rapid adsorbents for ethylbenzene which possess good potential applications to maintain high-quality water. Therefore, it could be used for cleaning up environmental pollution to prevent ethylbenzene borne diseases. PMID:22187576

  16. Nitrate removal performance of Diaphorobacter nitroreducens using biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. T.; Nagao, Y.; Hiraishi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Strain NA10BT and other two strains of the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Diaphorobacter nitroreducens were studied for the performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and some other biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power in wastewater treatment. Sequencing-batch SPD reactors with these organisms and PHBV granules or flakes as the substrate exhibited good nitrate removal performance. Vial tests using cultures from these parent reactors showed higher nitrate removal rates with PHBV granules (ca. 20 mg-NO3-- N g-1 [dry wt cells] h-1) than with PHBV pellets and flakes. In continuous-flow SPD reactors using strain NA10BT and PHBV flakes, nitrate was not detected even at a loading rate of 21 mg-NO3-- N L-1 h-1. This corresponded to a nitrate removal rate of 47 mg-NO3-- N g-1 (dry wt cells) h-1. In the continuous-flow reactor, the transcription level of the phaZ gene, coding for PHB depolymerase, decreased with time, while that of the nosZ gene, involved in denitrificaiton, was relatively constant. These results suggest that the bioavailability of soluble metabolites as electron donor and carbon sources increases with time in the continuous-flow SPD process, thereby having much higher nitrate removal rates than the process with fresh PHBV as the substrate.

  17. Effects of Carbon Source, Carbon Concentration, and Chlorination on Growth Related Parameters of Heterotrophic Biofilm Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Butterfield; Jones; McFeters; Camper

    1999-11-01

    To investigate growth of heterotrophic biofilm bacteria, a model biofilm reactor was developed to simulate a drinking water distribution system. Controlled addition of three different carbon sources (amino acids, carbohydrates, and humics) at three different concentrations (500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppb carbon) in the presence and absence of chlorine were used in separate experiments. An additional experiment was run with a 1:1:2 mixture of the above carbon sources. Biofilm and effluent total and culturable cells in addition to total and dissolved organic carbon were measured in order to estimate specific growth rates (SGRs), observed yields, population densities, and bacterial carbon production rates. Bacterial carbon production rates (µg C/L day) were extremely high in the control biofilm communities (range = 295-1,738). Both growth rate and yield decreased with increasing carbon concentrations. Therefore, biofilm growth rates were zero-order with respect to the carbon concentrations used in these experiments. There was no correlation between growth rate and carbon concentration, but there was a significant negative correlation between growth rate and biofilm cell density (r = -0.637, p = 0.001 control and r = -0.57, p = 0.021 chlorinated biofilms). Growth efficiency was highest at the lowest carbon concentration (range = 12-4.5%, amino acids and humics respectively). Doubling times ranged from 2.3-15.4 days in the control biofilms and 1-12.3 days in the chlorinated biofilms. Growth rates were significantly higher in the presence of chlorine for the carbohydrates, humics, and mixed carbon sources (p = 0.004, < 0.0005, 0.013, respectively). The concept of r/K selection theory was used to explain the results with respect to specific growth rates and yields. Humic removal by the biofilm bacteria (78% and 56% for the control and chlorinated biofilms, respectively) was higher than previously reported literature values for planktonic bacteria. A number of control

  18. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  19. Enhanced biomass production through optimization of carbon source and utilization of wastewater as a nutrient source.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Pawar, Radheshyam R; Jung, Sokhee P; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2016-12-15

    The study aimed to utilize the domestic wastewater as nutrient feedstock for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae by evaluating appropriate carbon source. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in municipal wastewater under various carbon sources (glucose, glycerol, and acetate), followed by optimization of appropriate carbon source concentration to augment the biomass, lipid, and carbohydrate contents. Under optimized conditions, namely of 5 g/L glucose, C. vulgaris showed higher increments of biomass with 1.39 g/L dry cell weight achieving biomass productivity of 0.13 g/L/d. The biomass accumulated 19.29 ± 1.83% total lipid, 41.4 ± 1.46% carbohydrate, and 33.06 ± 1.87% proteins. Moreover, the cultivation of Chlorella sp. in glucose-supplemented wastewater removed 96.9% chemical oxygen demand, 65.3% total nitrogen, and 71.2% total phosphate. The fatty acid methyl ester obtained showed higher amount (61.94%) of saturated fatty acid methyl esters associated with the improved fuel properties. These results suggest that mixotrophic cultivation using glucose offers great potential in the production of renewable biomass, wastewater treatment, and consequent production of high-value microalgal oil.

  20. Removal of Zinc Form Carbonic Anhydrase: A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on kinetics of deactivation of carbonic anhydrase by removal of zinc is demonstrated. Carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, requires on Zn(II) ion in its active site, and removal of the zinc cofactor by complexion to another ligand leaves the apoenzyme, which is totally…

  1. Removal of Zinc Form Carbonic Anhydrase: A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment on kinetics of deactivation of carbonic anhydrase by removal of zinc is demonstrated. Carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, requires on Zn(II) ion in its active site, and removal of the zinc cofactor by complexion to another ligand leaves the apoenzyme, which is totally…

  2. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  3. Performance of novel media in stratified filters to remove organic carbon from lake water.

    PubMed

    Grace, Maebh A; Clifford, Eoghan; Healy, Mark G

    2016-11-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are an ever-increasing occurrence in water networks, particularly those which abstract water from peatland areas. Although much research has been carried out to discover novel methods to remove specific DBPs, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from source water may provide a more sustainable solution in many areas. This study focuses on the removal of NOM by novel filters, which could be retrospectively fitted to any conventional water treatment facility. The filters comprised stratified layers of a variety of media, including sand, Bayer residue, granular activated carbon (GAC), and pyritic fill. The filters were operated under two loading regimes, continuous and intermittent, at loading rates similar to recognised design standards. The most successful filter design comprised stratified layers of sand, GAC, and pyritic fill. Over the duration of a 240 day study, these filters obtained average dissolved organic carbon removal rates of 40%, and achieved average specific ultra-violet absorbance reductions from 2.9 to 2.4 L mg(-1) m(-1). The study demonstrates that these novel filters may be used to reduce NOM levels, thus reducing the potential for DBP formation. Such designs can incorporate the use of waste media, making the overall design more sustainable and robust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of chloroplast formation in Euglena gracilis. Antagonism between carbon and nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Harris, R C; Kirk, J T

    1969-06-01

    1. Cells of Euglena gracilis grown in the dark on high ratios of carbon source to nitrogen source (;high-carbon cells') are unable to form chlorophyll during a subsequent incubation in the light; cells grown in the dark on low ratios of carbon to nitrogen (;low-carbon cells') synthesize chlorophyll at a rapid rate during the subsequent incubation in the light. High-carbon cells will form chlorophyll rapidly if supplied with a nitrogen source during the incubation in the light: of the nitrogen sources tested, ammonium sulphate was the most effective at overcoming the block in chlorophyll synthesis. The nitrogen source does not have to be present during the actual incubation in the light: a 5hr. exposure of high-carbon cells to ammonium sulphate in the dark, followed by removal of the nitrogen source, is sufficient to bring about rapid chlorophyll synthesis during a subsequent incubation in the light. 2. The synthesis of chlorophyll by low-carbon cells exposed to the light is strongly repressed by the addition of ethanol or other utilizable carbon sources during the incubation in the light. Chlorophyll synthesis ceases altogether between 5 and 10hr. after the addition of the carbon source. Carotenoid synthesis is also inhibited, but to a smaller extent. The inhibitory effects of ethanol are prevented if ammonium sulphate is added at the same time. 3. High-carbon cells contain about four times as much carbohydrate per cell and about twice as much lipid per cell as low-carbon cells. The content per cell of total protein, soluble protein and DNA are about the same in both types of cell. The low-carbon cells sometimes, but not always, contain more RNA than the high-carbon cells. Analysis of cold-acid extracts indicates that the two kinds of cells contain about the same concentrations of pool amino acids, but that the low-carbon cells contain somewhat higher concentrations of peptides in the pool. Ion-exchange analysis of pool extracts shows a number of differences

  5. Ecological Limits to Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Removal Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. J.; Torn, M. S.; Jones, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere through terrestrial carbon sequestration and bioenergy (biological CDR) is a proposed climate change mitigation strategy. Biological CDR increases the carbon storage capacity of soils and biomass through changes in land cover and use, including reforestation, afforestation, conversion of land to agriculture for biofuels, conversion of degraded land to grassland, and alternative management practices such as conservation tillage. While biological CDR may play a valuable role in future climate change mitigation, many of its proponents fail to account for the full range of biological, biophysical, hydrologic, and economic complexities associated with proposed land use changes. In this analysis, we identify and discuss a set of ecological limits and impacts associated with terrestrial CDR. The capacity of biofuels, soils, and other living biomass to sequester carbon may be constrained by nutrient and water availability, soil dynamics, and local climate effects, all of which can change spatially and temporally in unpredictable ways. Even if CDR is effective at sequestering CO2, its associated land use and land cover changes may negatively impact ecological resources by compromising water quality and availability, degrading soils, reducing biodiversity, displacing agriculture, and altering local climate through albedo and evapotranspiration changes. Measures taken to overcome ecological limitations, such as fertilizer addition and irrigation, may exacerbate these impacts even further. The ecological considerations and quantitative analyses that we present highlight uncertainties introduced by ecological complexity, disagreements between models, perverse economic incentives, and changing environmental factors. We do not reject CDR as a potentially valuable strategy for climate change mitigation; ecosystem protection, restoration, and improved management practices could enhance soil fertility and protect biodiversity while reducing

  6. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substrates for use in denitrification beds.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Sören; Schipper, Louis A; Matiasek, Michael G; Scow, Kate M; Cameron, Stewart; Bruesewitz, Denise A; McDonald, Ian R

    2011-11-01

    Denitrification beds are containers filled with wood by-products that serve as a carbon and energy source to denitrifiers, which reduce nitrate (NO(3)(-)) from point source discharges into non-reactive dinitrogen (N(2)) gas. This study investigates a range of alternative carbon sources and determines rates, mechanisms and factors controlling NO(3)(-) removal, denitrifying bacterial community, and the adverse effects of these substrates. Experimental barrels (0.2 m(3)) filled with either maize cobs, wheat straw, green waste, sawdust, pine woodchips or eucalyptus woodchips were incubated at 16.8 °C or 27.1 °C (outlet temperature), and received NO(3)(-) enriched water (14.38 mg N L(-1) and 17.15 mg N L(-1)). After 2.5 years of incubation measurements were made of NO(3)(-)-N removal rates, in vitro denitrification rates (DR), factors limiting denitrification (carbon and nitrate availability, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and concentrations of NO(3)(-), nitrite and ammonia), copy number of nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes, and greenhouse gas production (dissolved nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane), and carbon (TOC) loss. Microbial denitrification was the main mechanism for NO(3)(-)-N removal. Nitrate-N removal rates ranged from 1.3 (pine woodchips) to 6.2 g N m(-3) d(-1) (maize cobs), and were predominantly limited by C availability and temperature (Q(10) = 1.2) when NO(3)(-)-N outlet concentrations remained above 1 mg L(-1). The NO(3)(-)-N removal rate did not depend directly on substrate type, but on the quantity of microbially available carbon, which differed between carbon sources. The abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) was similar in replicate barrels under cold incubation, but varied substantially under warm incubation, and between substrates. Warm incubation enhanced growth of nirS containing bacteria and bacteria that lacked the nosZ gene, potentially explaining the greater N(2)O emission in

  8. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  9. Role of heteroatoms in activated carbon for removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Cheung, W H; Zhang, K

    2006-07-31

    Heteroatoms are elements including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen which are found on the surface of activated carbons. This study investigated the surface modification arising from heteroatoms bonding to carbon aromatic rings within the activated carbon and their corresponding influence on the chromium adsorption process. Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse by physical. Chromium removal capacities of these activated carbons by adsorption and reduction were determined. Models which related the chromium adsorption and reduction capacities of activated carbons to carbon acidity and heteroatom site concentrations were established using multi-variable linear regression method. It was found the individual heteroatoms contributed separately to the basicity of the carbon which in turn determined the mechanism by which chromium was removed from solution. The surface areas of the carbons were also observed to influence the adsorption and reduction of chromium. These understandings provide the fundamental method of optimising chromium removal through suitable control of carbon surface chemistry and textural properties.

  10. [Effects of pretreatment methods on corncob as carbon source for denitrification].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Hao, Rui-Xia; Li, Bin; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Du, Peng

    2014-03-01

    The corncob was pretreated by 1.5% NaOH, 1% H2SO4, 1.5% H2O2 and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (caustic soda solution with 1.5% H2O2) combined with ultraviolet radiation. And the characteristics of carbon released, denitrification and bio-attachment capability of using pretreated corncob as carbon source for denitrification were studied in carbon release and denitrification experiments in laboratory scale. The results showed that the denitrification efficiency and the utilizability of the carbon released by the corncob pretreated by alkali or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were significantly enhanced. Especially, for the alkali pretreatment method, the nitrate removal rate could still maintain higher than 90% after 41 days of denitrification experiments. Therefore, the alkali pretreatment method could improve the carbon release performance of the corncob and is beneficial for microbial adsorption and carbon source utilization.

  11. Removal of Selenium and Nitrate in Groundwater Using Organic Carbon-Based Reactive Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of selenium and nitrate in groundwater was evaluated through column experiments. Four columns consisting of reactive mixtures, either organic carbon-limestone (OC-LS) or organic carbon-zero valent iron (OC-ZVI), were used to determine the removal efficiency of selenium with different concentrations of nitrate. The source waters were collected from a mine site in Korea or were prepared artificially based on the mine drainage water or deionized water, followed by spiking of elevated concentrations of Se (40 mg/L) and nitrate (100 or 10 mg/L as NO3-N). The results for the aqueous chemistry showed that selenium and nitrate were effectively removed both in the mine drainage water and deionized water-based artificial input solution. However, the removal of selenium was delayed when selenium and nitrate coexisted in the OC-LS columns. The removal of selenium was not significant when the influent nitrate concentration was 100 mg/L as NO3-N, while most of nitrate was gradually removed within the columns. In contrast, 94% of selenium was removed when the influent nitrate concentration was reduced to 10 mg/L as NO3-N. In the OC-ZVI column, selenium and nitrate was removed almost simultaneously and completely even with the high nitrate concentration; however, a high concentration of ammonia was produced as a by-product of abiotic reaction between ZVI and nitrate. The elemental analysis for the solid samples after the termination of the experiments showed that selenium was accumulated in the reactive materials where removal of aqueous-phase selenium mostly occurred. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study indicated that selenium existed in the forms of SeS2 and Se(0) in the OC-LS column, while selenium was present in the forms of FeSe, SeS2 and absorbed Se(IV) in the OC-ZVI column. This study shows that OC-based reactive mixtures have an ability to remove selenium and nitrate in groundwater. However, the removal of selenium was influenced by the high

  12. Surface heterogeneity effects of activated carbons on the kinetics of paracetamol removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, B.; Cabrita, I.; Mestre, A. S.; Parra, J. B.; Pires, J.; Carvalho, A. P.; Ania, C. O.

    2010-06-01

    The removal of a compound with therapeutic activity (paracetamol) from aqueous solutions using chemically modified activated carbons has been investigated. The chemical nature of the activated carbon material was modified by wet oxidation, so as to study the effect of the carbon surface chemistry and composition on the removal of paracetamol. The surface heterogeneity of the carbon created upon oxidation was found to be a determinant in the adsorption capability of the modified adsorbents, as well as in the rate of paracetamol removal. The experimental kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The parameters obtained were linked to the textural and chemical features of the activated carbons. After oxidation the wettability of the carbon is enhanced, which favors the transfer of paracetamol molecules to the carbon pores (smaller boundary layer thickness). At the same time the overall adsorption rate and removal efficiency are reduced in the oxidized carbon due to the competitive effect of water molecules.

  13. Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey; Curley, Suzanne

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Diox-ide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were per-formed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic sim-ulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

  14. Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Curley, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle s Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were performed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic simulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

  15. Testing a Regenerative Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Removal Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Curley, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration supported the development of a new vacuum-desorbed regenerative carbon dioxide and humidity control technology for use in short duration human spacecraft. The technology was baselined for use in the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle s Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Termed the Carbon Dioxide And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS), the unit was developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and has undergone extensive testing at Johnson Space Center. The tests were performed to evaluate performance characteristics under range of operating conditions and human loads expected in future spacecraft applications, as part of maturation to increase its readiness for flight. Early tests, conducted at nominal atmospheric pressure, used human metabolic simulators to generate loads, with later tests making us of human test subjects. During these tests many different test cases were performed, involving from 1 to 6 test subjects, with different activity profiles (sleep, nominal and exercise). These tests were conducted within the airlock portion of a human rated test chamber sized to simulate the Orion cabin free air volume. More recently, a test was completed that integrated the CAMRAS with a simulated suit loop using prototype umbilicals and was conducted at reduced atmospheric pressure and elevated oxygen levels. This paper will describe the facilities and procedures used to conduct these and future tests, and provide a summary of findings.

  16. Comparing a silver-impregnated activated carbon with an unmodified activated carbon for disinfection by-product minimisation and precursor removal.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2016-01-15

    During disinfection, bromide, iodide and natural organic matter (NOM) in source waters can lead to the formation of brominated and/or iodinated disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are often more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of a silver-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) with the equivalent unimpregnated granular activated carbon (GAC) for the removal of bromide, iodide and NOM from a matrix of synthetic waters with variable NOM, halide, and alkalinity concentrations, and to investigate the impact on DBP formation. An enhanced coagulation (EC) pre-treatment was employed prior to sample exposure to either carbon adsorbent. Excellent halide removals were observed by the SIAC treatment across the sample matrix, with iodide concentrations consistently reduced to below the method reporting limit (<2 μg/L) from as high as 25 μg/L, and 95±4% removal of bromide achieved. Bromide removal by unimpregnated GAC was poor, however iodide removal was comparable to that achieved by SIAC. The combination of EC with SIAC treatment removed 77±8% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present, across the sample matrix, which was similar to removals by EC/GAC (67±14%). Combined EC/SIAC treatment reduced both total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total dihaloacetonitriles (tDHANs) formation by 97±3%, while also achieving a greater than 74% removal of two chloropropanones and a 92±8% decrease in chloral hydrate (CH), compared to untreated samples, regardless of the sample's starting water quality (bromide, alkalinity and NOM concentration). Combined EC/GAC treatment led to similar DBP removals to EC/SIAC for the fully chlorinated DBPs, however, brominated DBPs were less efficiently removed, or experienced concentration increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What Carbon Sources Support Groundwater Microbial Activity in Riparian Forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwick, N. P.; Groffman, P. M.; McCorkle, D. C.; Stolt, M. H.; Kellogg, D. Q.; Gold, A. J.

    2004-05-01

    A major question in riparian research is the source of energy to support subsurface microbial denitrification activity. The supply of microbially-available carbon frequently limits microbial activity in the subsurface. Therefore, identifying the relative importance of carbon sources in the riparian subsurface helps explain the sustainability and spatial heterogeneity of denitrification rates. We have investigated the importance of buried, carbon-rich soil horizons, deep roots and dissolved organic carbon as potential carbon sources to support groundwater denitrification in riparian forests in Rhode Island. We used field observations, laboratory incubations and in-situ experiments to evaluate these sources at four sites in different geomorphic settings. In particular, we measured the 14C-DIC signature and DIC concentration of ambient groundwater and groundwater that had been degassed, re-introduced into the well, and incubated in-situ. Buried horizons appear to be an important source of carbon in the subsurface, as shown by active respiration in laboratory incubations; greater microbial biomass in buried carbon-rich soils compared to surrounding carbon-poor soils; and the presence of very old carbon (>1,000 ybp) in DIC 225 cm beneath the surface. DIC collected from shallower wells showed no clear evidence of ancient carbon. Roots also appear to be important, creating hotspots of carbon availability and denitrification in the generally carbon poor subsurface matrix. Dissolved organic carbon did not stimulate denitrification in aquifer microcosms in the laboratory, suggesting that this was not an important carbon source for denitrification in our sites. Determining which carbon source is fueling denitrification has practical implications. Where buried horizons are the key source, surface management of the riparian zone will likely have little direct influence on groundwater denitrification. Where roots are the key source, changes in the plant community are likely to

  18. Direct comparison of ozonation and adsorption onto powdered activated carbon for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Jekel, Martin

    2014-05-15

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) may occur ubiquitously in the aquatic environment. In order to protect the ecosystem and drinking water sources from potentially toxic effects, discharges of an increasing number of OMPs are being regulated. OMP removal from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents as a point source is a preferred option with removal by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) and OMP transformation to presumably harmless compounds by ozonation as the most promising techniques. In this study, effluents of four WWTPs were treated with PAC and ozone in bench-scale experiments to compare the removal efficiencies of seven relevant OMPs. Concentrations of carbamazepine and diclofenac were reduced by more than 90% with 20 mg/L PAC or 5-7 mg/L ozone (0.5 mg O3 per mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)). Comparing typical doses for practical applications ozonation proved to be more efficient for abatement of sulfamethoxazole, while removal of benzotriazole and iomeprol was comparatively more efficient with activated carbon. While well known for ozonation, DOC-normalized doses were also applied to PAC and correlated better to relative OMP removal than volume proportional PAC addition. Furthermore, OMP removal efficiencies corresponded well with the reduction of ultraviolet light absorption at 254 nm for both treatment options.

  19. [Effect of PLA/starch slow-release carbon source on biological denitrification].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dan-Qi; Wang, Juan; Zheng, Tian-Long; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qun-Hui

    2014-06-01

    We used polylactic acid (PLA) and starch to develop a slow-release carbon source and biofilm carrier by blending and fusing techniques for removing nitrate contamination from groundwater, investigated the changes of nitrate, nitrite concentrations and COD in denitrification process supplied by the slow-release carbon source in different mass ratios [PLA/starch (P: S) were 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, respectively]. The experimental results demonstrated that the best mass ratio of PLA/starch was 5:5, resulting in a nitrate removal rate of more than 99%. A high denitrification performance was achieved in continuous fixed-bed reactor, the effluent nitrate concentration was below 2 mg x L(-1). These experiments provide scientific basis for the development of environmentally-friendly and controllable slow-release carbon source.

  20. Removal of microcystin-LR from spiked water using either activated carbon or anthracite as filter material.

    PubMed

    Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Simard, Marie-Christine; Sauvageau, Christine; Blais, Jean François

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (blue-green algae) in drinking water sources is a big concern for human health. Removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from drinking water was evaluated at the laboratory pilot scale using either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and compared with the treatment using anthracite as filter material. Virgin GAC was more effective at removing MC-LR (initial concentration ranging from 9 to 47 microg L(-1)) to reach the World Health Organization recommended level (1.0 microg L(-1)). When the GAC filter was colonized by bacteria, the filter became less effective at removing MC-LR owing to competitive reactions occurring between protein adsorption (released by bacteria) and MC-LR adsorption. Using PAC, the concentration of MC-LR decreased from 22 to 3 microg L(-1) (removal of 86% of MC-LR) by the addition of 100 mg PAC L(-1).

  1. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

    1999-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C

  2. Selective removal of carbon-14 from ion exchange resins using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, S.A.; Krasznai, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Ion exchange resins (IX) are used extensively in CANDU-PHWR (Canada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) and other reactor systems worldwide to remove ionic contaminants from various coolant circuits. Spent IX resins represent a significant volume of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The presence of long-lived C-14 which is found in significant quantities in IX resins from CANDU reactors, complicates the disposal of these resins. Several experiments were conducted with carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions to determine the feasibility of removing C-14 present as carbonate and/or bicarbonate on IX resins. It has been established that resins containing inorganic C-14 undergo rapid isotopic exchange when exposed to inactive carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions. This treatment reduces the C-14 to the limits of detection and leaves other radioisotopes on the resins largely unaffected. This selective and highly efficient means to remove long-lived C-14 activity from CANDU spent IX resins allows the resin waste to be reclassified as low level waste. This lower classification simplifies the handling, transportation and eventual disposal of IX resins which translates to a very significant cost saving. Since the process is selective the C-14 can be enriched and recovered for commercial purposes.

  3. Effect of plant-based carbon sources on denitrifying microorganisms in a vertical flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guiping; Huangshen, Linkun; Guo, Zhipeng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of supplementing plant-based carbon sources, fermented tissues of Arundo donax and Pontederia cordata, and a combination of the two plants, on the nitrogen removal efficiency and microbial composition in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) were examined. The results showed that the addition of the composite carbon source produced the highest removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N 91.5%, NO3(-)-N 94.5% and TN 92.8% in VFCW. The detected abundance of amoA, nirS, and nxrA genes indicated that ammonia oxidation bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were more abundant than the nitrite oxidation bacteria. Furthermore, the addition of the composite carbon source significantly promoted the growth of the denitrifying bacteria in VFCW. The results indicated that supplementing the system with plant-based carbon sources achieved partial nitrification and denitrification, as well as classic denitrification in VFCWs. The study suggested that multiple nitrogen removal pathways were required to feasibly and efficiently remove nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Carbon and Energy Source on Bacterial Chromate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Petersen, J. N.; Peyton, Brent Michael

    2002-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate carbon and energy sources suitable to support hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction by a bacterial consortium enriched from dichromate-contaminated aquifer sediments. The consortium was cultured under denitrifying conditions in a minimal, synthetic groundwater medium that was amended with various individual potential carbon and energy sources. The effects of these individual carbon and energy sources on Cr(VI) reduction and growth were measured. The consortium was found to readily reduce Cr(VI) with sucrose, acetate, L-asparagine, hydrogen plus carbon dioxide, ethanol, glycerol, glycolate, propylene glycol, or D-xylose as a carbon and energy source. Minimal Cr(VI) reduction was observed when the consortium was cultured with citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, L-lactate, pyruvate, succinate, or thiosulfate plus carbon dioxide as a carbon and energy source when compared with abiotic controls. The consortium grew on all of the above carbon and energy sources, with the highest cell densities reached using D-xylose and sucrose, demonstrating that the consortium is metabolically diverse and can reduce Cr(VI) using a variety of different carbon and energy sources. The results suggest that the potential exists for the enrichment of Cr(VI)-reducing microbial populations in situ by the addition of a sucrose-containing feedstock such as molasses, which is an economical and readily available carbon and energy source.

  5. New Potential Sources for Black Onaping Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, L.; Schultz, P. H.; Wolbach, W. S.

    1997-01-01

    One intriguing and important issue of the Sudbury Structure concerns the source of the relatively large amount of C in the Onaping Formation Black member. This dilemma was recently addressed, and the conclusion was reached that an impactor could not have delivered all of the requisite C. Becker et al. have suggested that much of the C came from the impactor and reported the presence of interstellar He "caged" inside some fullerenes that may have survived the impact. So, conceivably, the C inventory in the Sudbury Structure comes from both target and impactor materials, although the known target rocks have little C. We discuss here the possibility of two terrestrial sources for at least some of the C: (1) impact evaporation/dissociation of C from carbonate target rocks and (2) the presence of heretofore-unrecognized C-rich (up to 26 wt%) siliceous "shale," fragments, which are found in the upper, reworked Black member. Experimental: Hypervelocity impact of a 0.635-diameter Al projectile into dolomite at 5.03 km/s (performed at the Ames Research Center vertical gun range) produced a thin, black layer (= 0.05 mm thick) that partially lined the crater and coated impactor remnants. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) imagery shows this layer to be spongelike on a submicron scale and Auger spectroscopic analyses yield: 33% C, 22% Mg, 19% 0, and 9% Al (from the projectile). Elemental mapping shows that all of the available 0 is combined with Ca and Mg, Al is not oxidized, and C is in elemental form. Dissociation efficiency of C from CO2 is estimated to be <10% of crater volume. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the C is highly disorganized graphite. Another impact experiment [4] also produced highly disordered graphite from a limestone target (reducing collector), in addition to small amounts of diamond/lonsdaleite/chaoite (oxidizing collector). These experiments confirm the reduction of C from carbonates in impact vapor plumes. Observational: SEM observations and

  6. Versatile Cellulose-Based Carbon Aerogel for the Removal of Both Cationic and Anionic Metal Contaminants from Water.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Sara-Maaria; Pileidis, Filoklis; Mäkilä, Ermei; Sevilla, Marta; Repo, Eveliina; Salonen, Jarno; Sillanpää, Mika; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2015-11-25

    Hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose in the presence of the globular protein ovalbumin leads to the formation of nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel with a fibrillar continuous carbon network. The protein plays here a double role: (i) a natural source of nitrogen functionalities (2.1 wt %) and (ii) structural directing agent (S(BET) = 38 m(2)/g). The applicability in wastewater treatment, namely, for heavy metal removal, was examined through adsorption of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) ion solely and in a mixed bicomponent aqueous solutions. This cellulose-based carbogel shows an enhanced ability to remove both Cr(VI) (∼68 mg/g) and Pb(II) (∼240 mg/g) from the targeted solutions in comparison to other carbon materials reported in the literature. The presence of competing ions showed little effect on the adsorption efficiency toward Cr(VI) and Pb(II).

  7. Characteristics of activated carbon remove sulfur particles against smog.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shengbo; Liu, Zhenling; Furuta, Yuzo; Peng, Wanxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur particles, which could cause diseases, were the main powder of smog. And activated carbon had the very adsorption characteristics. Therefore, five sulfur particles were adsorbed by activated carbon and were analyzed by FT-IR. The optimal adsorption time were 120 min of Na2SO3, 120 min of Na2S2O8, 120 min of Na2SO4, 120 min of Fe2(SO4)3 and 120 min of S. FT-IR spectra showed that activated carbon had the eight characteristic absorption of S-S stretch, H2O stretch, O-H stretch, -C-H stretch, conjugated C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 O stretch or CC stretch, CH2 bend, C-O stretch and acetylenic C-H bend vibrations at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1), 3430 cm(-1), 2920 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1), respectively. For Na2SO3, the peaks at 2920 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1) and 1110 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 20 min. For Na2S2O8, the peaks at 3850 cm(-1), 3740 cm(-1) and 2920 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 60 min. The peaks at 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 40 min. For Na2SO4, the peaks at 3430 cm(-1), 2920 cm(-1), 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 60 min. For Fe2(SO4)3, the peaks at 1390 cm(-1), 1110 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 20 min. For S, the peaks at 1630 cm(-1), 1390 cm(-1) and 600 cm(-1) achieved the maximum at 120 min. It provided that activated carbon could remove sulfur particles from smog air to restrain many anaphylactic diseases.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Air using Seafloor Peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Brandt, A. R.; Benson, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a method for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Air (CDR) using CO2 uptake via mineral carbonation, about half the cost of that proposed by Kelemen & Matter [1,2]. Reaction of CO2-bearing fluids and gases with peridotite rapidly forms inert, non-toxic carbonate minerals. In proposed methods for combined capture and storage of ambient CO2 via reaction of seawater or ground water with peridotite [1-5], return of depleted water to the surface draws down CO2 from air. Because they use available chemical and thermal energy that drive spontaneous natural reactions, they may be the least expensive methods for capture of CO2 from air. We focus on subsurface CO2 uptake during flow of surface water through fractured peridotite. Previously [1-3], we envisioned a design similar to enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), involving two large diameter boreholes, subject to the challenges of achieving rapid, efficient return flow that limit the success of EGS. Recent discussions yielded a less expensive, more robust design: A single well produces ambient, CO2-depleted pore water from seafloor peridotite. Such water has low carbon and high pH [6,7,8]. Where such waters are delivered to the surface, observations reveal rapid CO2 uptake from air [1,3,8-10]. Delivery to the sea surface would also reduce local acidification. Thermal buoyancy and pumps powered by wave and tidal energy would bring warm formation water from wells to the surface through conduits surrounded by colder seawater. Recharge would be via flow in natural or enhanced fracture networks in unconfined submarine aquifers. This method could be tested and scaled-up in coastal, sub-seafloor peridotite with onshore drilling off Oman, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, Spain, Morocco, USA, etc. It is possible to achieve much larger scale. Giant volumes of peridotite are exposed on the seafloor along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges [3]. Robotic drills could install wells that deliver CO2-depleted water through fabric tubes

  9. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Liu, Suqin; Liu, Junxin

    2011-08-30

    In this study, coconut shell based carbons were chemically treated by ammonia, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid to determine suitable modification for improving adsorption ability of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on granular activated carbons (GAC). The saturated adsorption capacities of o-xylene, a hydrophobic volatile organic compound, were measured and adsorption effects of the original and modified activated carbons were compared. Results showed that GAC modified by alkalis had better o-xylene adsorption capacity. Uptake amount was enhanced by 26.5% and reduced by 21.6% after modification by NH(3)H(2)O and H(2)SO(4), respectively. Compared with the original, GAC modified by acid had less adsorption capacity. Both SEM/EDAX and BET were used to identify the structural characteristics of the tested GAC, while IR spectroscopy and Boehm's titration were applied to analysis the surface functional groups. Relationships between physicochemical characteristics of GAC and their adsorption performances demonstrated that o-xylene adsorption capacity was related to surface area, pore volume, and functional groups of the GAC surface. Removing surface oxygen groups, which constitute the source of surface acidity, and reducing hydrophilic carbon surface favors adsorption capacity of hydrophobic VOCs on carbons. The performances of modified GACs were also investigated in the purification of gases containing complex components (o-xylene and steam) in the stream.

  10. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture

    PubMed Central

    Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 44 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials. PMID:24964404

  11. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 44 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials.

  12. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture.

    PubMed

    Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-06-25

    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 4(4) square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials.

  13. Early Implementation of Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Removal Projects through the Cement Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of large-scale carbon dioxide reduction projects requires high purity CO2and a reactive cation source. A project seeking to provide both of these requirements will likely face cost barriers with current carbon prices. The cement industry is a suitable early implementation site for such projects by virtue of the properties of its exhaust gases and those of waste concrete. Cement plants are the second largest source of industrial CO2 emissions, globally. It is also the second largest commodity after water, has no ready substitute and is literally the foundation of society. Finally, half of the CO2 emissions originate from process reactions rather than fossil fuel combustion resulting in higher flue gas CO2concentrations. These properties, with the co-benefits of oxygen combustion, create a favorable environment for spatially suitable projects. Oxygen combustion involves substituting produced oxygen for air in a combustion reaction. The absence of gaseous N2 necessitates the recirculation of exhaust gases to maintain kiln temperatures, which increase the CO2 concentrations from 28% to 80% or more. Gas exit temperatures are also elevated (>300oC) and can reach higher temperatures if the multi stage pre-heater towers, that recover heat, are re-designed in light of FGR. A ready source of cations can be found in waste concrete, a by-product of construction and demolition activities. These wastes can be processed to remove cations and then reacted with atmospheric CO2 to produce carbonate minerals. While not carbon negative, they represent a demonstration opportunity for binding atmospheric CO2while producing a saleable product (precipitated calcium carbonate). This paper will present experimental results on PCC production from waste concrete along with modeling results for oxygen combustion at cement facilities. The results will be presented with a view to mineral sequestration process design and implementation.

  14. Enhancement removal of endocrine-disrupting pesticides and nitrogen removal in a biofilm reactor coupling of biodegradable Phragmites communis and elastic filler for polluted source water treatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lijuan; Yang, Guangfeng; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiangyang; Gao, Feng; Mu, Jun; Xu, Yanmei

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of conventional elastic filler and solid carbon source of Phragmites communis (P. communis) as the biofilm support was applied in a biofilm system for treating polluted source water containing nitrogen and trace endocrine-disrupting pesticides (cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos). Results showed that removal efficiencies of TN and EDPs were improved with addition of 3.6kg P. communis/m(3) in the biofilm system. Meanwhile, the uniform distribution of P. communis favored simultaneously nitrogen and organics removal but not to trace EDPs compared with non-uniform distribution of P. communis. The biofilm on elastic filler was mainly responsible for the nitrification with NH4(+)-N oxidation efficiency of 82.9±1.5%. Poor nitrification with NH4(+)-N oxidation efficiency of 36.3±6.1% but effective denitrification with a TN removal efficiency of 56.5±2.0% were obtained by the biofilm on P. communis. Cypermethrin was mainly removed via adsorption and microbial degradation, and chlorpyrifos removal mostly depended on the microbial degradation in biofilm system.

  15. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

  16. Diagnostic Evaluation of Carbon Sources in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional monitoring networks measure only total elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) routinely. Diagnosing model biases with such limited information is difficult. Measurements of organic tracer compounds have recently become available and allow for more detailed di...

  17. Diagnostic Evaluation of Carbon Sources in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional monitoring networks measure only total elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) routinely. Diagnosing model biases with such limited information is difficult. Measurements of organic tracer compounds have recently become available and allow for more detailed di...

  18. Permafrost collapse after shrub removal shifts tundra ecosystem to a methane source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauta, Ake L.; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Blok, Daan; Limpens, Juul; Elberling, Bo; Gallagher, Angela; Li, Bingxi; Petrov, Roman E.; Maximov, Trofim C.; van Huissteden, Jacobus; Berendse, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems are warming almost twice as fast as the global average. Permafrost thaw and the resulting release of greenhouse gases from decomposing soil organic carbon have the potential to accelerate climate warming. In recent decades, Arctic tundra ecosystems have changed rapidly, including expansion of woody vegetation, in response to changing climate conditions. How such vegetation changes contribute to stabilization or destabilization of the permafrost is unknown. Here we present six years of field observations in a shrub removal experiment at a Siberian tundra site. Removing the shrub part of the vegetation initiated thawing of ice-rich permafrost, resulting in collapse of the originally elevated shrub patches into waterlogged depressions within five years. This thaw pond development shifted the plots from a methane sink into a methane source. The results of our field experiment demonstrate the importance of the vegetation cover for protection of the massive carbon reservoirs stored in the permafrost and illustrate the strong vulnerability of these tundra ecosystems to perturbations. If permafrost thawing can more frequently trigger such local permafrost collapse, methane-emitting wet depressions could become more abundant in the lowland tundra landscape, at the cost of permafrost-stabilizing low shrub vegetation.

  19. Nitrate removal performance of Diaphorobacter nitroreducens using biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S. T.; Nagao, Y.; Hiraishi, A.

    2015-02-27

    Strain NA10B{sup T} and other two strains of the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Diaphorobacter nitroreducens were studied for the performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and some other biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power in wastewater treatment. Sequencing-batch SPD reactors with these organisms and PHBV granules or flakes as the substrate exhibited good nitrate removal performance. Vial tests using cultures from these parent reactors showed higher nitrate removal rates with PHBV granules (ca. 20 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} [dry wt cells] h{sup −1}) than with PHBV pellets and flakes. In continuous-flow SPD reactors using strain NA10B{sup T} and PHBV flakes, nitrate was not detected even at a loading rate of 21 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This corresponded to a nitrate removal rate of 47 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} (dry wt cells) h{sup −1}. In the continuous-flow reactor, the transcription level of the phaZ gene, coding for PHB depolymerase, decreased with time, while that of the nosZ gene, involved in denitrificaiton, was relatively constant. These results suggest that the bioavailability of soluble metabolites as electron donor and carbon sources increases with time in the continuous-flow SPD process, thereby having much higher nitrate removal rates than the process with fresh PHBV as the substrate.

  20. Comparison of denitrification performances using PLA/starch with different mass ratios as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanfu; Tang, Danqi; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jianguo; Guo, Yan; Liu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    A suitable carbon source is significant for biological nitrate removal from groundwater. In this study, slow-release carbon sources containing polylactic acid (PLA) and starch at 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, and 3:7 ratios were prepared using a blending and fusing technique. The PLA/starch blend was then used as a solid carbon source for biological nitrate removal. The carbon release rate of PLA/starch was found to increase with increased starch content in leaching experiments. PLA/starch at 5:5 mass ratio was found to have the highest denitrification performance and organic carbon consumption efficiency in semi-continuous denitrification experiments, and was also revealed to support complete denitrification at 50 mg-N/L influent nitrate concentration in continuous experiments. The effluent nitrate concentration was <2 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L, which met the national standard (GB 14848-93) for groundwater. Scanning electron microscopy results further showed that the surface roughness of PLA/starch increased with prolonged experimental time, which may be conducive to microorganism attachment. Therefore, PLA/starch was a suitable carbon source and biofilm carrier for groundwater remediation.

  1. A review of carbon monoxide sources, sinks, and concentrations in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortner, M. H.; Kummler, R. H.; Jaffe, L. S.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic pollutant which is continually introduced into the earth's atmosphere in significant quantities. There are apparently some mechanisms operating which destroy most of the CO in the atmosphere, i.e., a carbon monoxide sink. These mechanisms have not as yet been established in a quantitative sense. This report discusses the various possible removal mechanisms which warrant serious consideration. Particular emphasis is given to chemical reactions (especially that with OH), soil bacteria and other biological action, and transport effects. The sources of carbon monoxide, both natural and anthropogenic, are reviewed and it is noted that there is quite possibly a significant undefined natural source. Atmospheric CO concentrations are discussed and their implications on carbon monoxide lifetime, sinks and sources are considered.

  2. Controlled epitaxial graphene growth within removable amorphous carbon corrals

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, James; Hu, Yike; Hankinson, John; Guo, Zelei; Heer, Walt A. de; Kunc, Jan; Berger, Claire

    2014-07-14

    We address the question of control of the silicon carbide (SiC) steps and terraces under epitaxial graphene on SiC and demonstrate amorphous carbon (aC) corrals as an ideal method to pin SiC surface steps. aC is compatible with graphene growth, structurally stable at high temperatures, and can be removed after graphene growth. For this, aC is first evaporated and patterned on SiC, then annealed in the graphene growth furnace. There at temperatures above 1200 °C, mobile SiC steps accumulate at the aC corral that provide effective step flow barriers. Aligned step free regions are thereby formed for subsequent graphene growth at temperatures above 1330 °C. Atomic force microscopy imaging supports the formation of step-free terraces on SiC with the step morphology aligned to the aC corrals. Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of good graphene sheets on the step-free terraces.

  3. Anaerobic biogranulation using phenol as the sole carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; He, Y.X.; Yan, Y.G.

    2000-04-01

    The granulation process was extensively examined using phenol as sole carbon source in a 2-L laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The study was conducted mesophilically at 35 C. Anaerobically digested sludge was used as seed after a 14-day activation period with glucose feed. Massive initial granules were developed after 3 months of startup, grew at an accelerated pace for 6 months, then became fully grown. The granulation process can be broken into three phases: acclimation, granulation, and maturation. However, granulation with phenol proceeded more slowly than it did in UASB reactors fed with readily biodegradable carbohydrates studied previously. The granular sludge cultivated had a median diameter of 1.8 mm, phenol-degrading activity of 0.65 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g volatile suspended solids (VSS){sm_bullet}d, and a sludge volume index of 14 mL/g. Phenol COD removal efficiency of 86% was achieved when the reactor was operating at an influent phenol concentration of 1,260 mg/L (corresponding to 3,000 mg COD/L), hydraulic retention time of 12 hours, and volumetric loading rate of 6 g COD/L{sm_bullet}d. However, the lower-than-expected phenol COD removal efficiency could be attributed to inhibition by the high influent phenol concentration or loading. The batch test demonstrated that the sludge methanogenic activity was reduced by 52 and 75% at phenol concentrations of 420 and 840 mg/L, respectively.

  4. Intensified nitrogen removal in immobilized nitrifier enhanced constructed wetlands with external carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Ambrose, Richard F; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen removal performance response of twelve constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilized nitrifier pellets and different influent COD/N ratios (chemical oxygen demand: total nitrogen in influent) were investigated via 7-month experiments. Nitrifier was immobilized on a carrier pellet containing 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) and 2.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2). A batch experiment demonstrated that 73% COD and 85% ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were degraded using the pellets with immobilized nitrifier cells. In addition, different carbon source supplement strategies were applied to remove the nitrate (NO3-N) transformed from NH4-N. An increase in COD/N ratio led to increasing reduction in NO3-N. Efficient nitrification and denitrification promoted total nitrogen (TN) removal in immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands (INB-CWs). The results suggested that immobilized nitrifier pellets combined with high influent COD/N ratios could effectively improve the nitrogen removal performance in CWs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reverse osmosis followed by activated carbon filtration for efficient removal of organic micropollutants from river bank filtrate.

    PubMed

    Kegel, F Schoonenberg; Rietman, B M; Verliefde, A R D

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water utilities in Europe are faced with a growing presence of organic micropollutants in their water sources. The aim of this research was to assess the robustness of a drinking water treatment plant equipped with reverse osmosis and subsequent activated carbon filtration for the removal of these pollutants. The total removal efficiency of 47 organic micropollutants was investigated. Results indicated that removal of most organic micropollutants was high for all membranes tested. Some selected micropollutants were less efficiently removed (e.g. the small and polar NDMA and glyphosate, and the more hydrophobic ethylbenzene and napthalene). Very high removal efficiencies for almost all organic micropollutants by the subsequent activated carbon, fed with the permeate stream of the RO element were observed except for the very small and polar NDMA and 1,4-dioxane. RO and subsequent activated carbon filtration are complementary and their combined application results in the removal of a large part of these emerging organic micropollutants. Based on these experiments it can be concluded that the robustness of a proposed treatment scheme for the drinking water treatment plant Engelse Werk is sufficiently guaranteed.

  6. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources utilizing a fixed-bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Jackson, Jeff; Clancy, Tara M; Hyun, Sung Pil; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-09-01

    A novel bioreactor system, consisting of two biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors in series, was developed for the simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from a synthetic groundwater supplemented with acetic acid. A mixed biofilm microbial community that developed on the BAC was capable of utilizing dissolved oxygen, nitrate, arsenate, and sulfate as the electron acceptors. Nitrate was removed from a concentration of approximately 50 mg/L in the influent to below the detection limit of 0.2 mg/L. Biologically generated sulfides resulted in the precipitation of the iron sulfides mackinawite and greigite, which concomitantly removed arsenic from an influent concentration of approximately 200 ug/L to below 20 ug/L through arsenic sulfide precipitation and surface precipitation on iron sulfides. This study showed for the first time that arsenic and nitrate can be simultaneously removed from drinking water sources utilizing a bioreactor system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing nitrogen removal from low carbon to nitrogen ratio wastewater by using a novel sequencing batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Jun; Ni, Yongjiong; Wei, Su

    2016-12-01

    Removing nitrogen from wastewater with low chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) ratio is a difficult task due to the insufficient carbon source available for denitrification. Therefore, in the present work, a novel sequencing batch biofilm reactor (NSBBR) was developed to enhance the nitrogen removal from wastewater with low COD/TN ratio. The NSBBR was divided into two units separated by a vertical clapboard. Alternate feeding and aeration was performed in the two units, which created an anoxic unit with rich substrate content and an aeration unit deficient in substrate simultaneously. Therefore, the utilization of the influent carbon source for denitrification was increased, leading to higher TN removal compared to conventional SBBR (CSBBR) operation. The results show that the CSBBR removed up to 76.8%, 44.5% and 10.4% of TN, respectively, at three tested COD/TN ratios (9.0, 4.8 and 2.5). In contrast, the TN removal of the NSBBR could reach 81.9%, 60.5% and 26.6%, respectively, at the corresponding COD/TN ratios. Therefore, better TN removal performance could be achieved in the NSBBR, especially at low COD/TN ratios (4.8 and 2.5). Furthermore, it is easy to upgrade a CSBBR into an NSBBR in practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

    The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment

  10. [Performance of new solid carbon source materials for denitrification].

    PubMed

    Shao, Liu; Xu, Zu-Xin; Wang, Sheng; Jin, Wei; Yin, Hai-Long

    2011-08-01

    Organic carbon is needed as the electron donor in the process of reduction of nitrate transformation to nitrogen gas, which is essential for biological denitrification. Based on previous research, agriculture wastes including corncob, rice hull, rice straw and sawdust were selected as potential carbon source for denitrification. Using the static organic material of carbon source leaching kinetics test and orthogonal experiments of external factors on carbon emission process, carbon release and its mechanism of a variety of carbon materials were studied. Study showed that release process of various types of carbon source materials follows the second dynamics formula, the release curve displayed a better double-reciprocal relationship. It revealed that release amount of rice straw was the highest and sawdust was the lowest. Results showed that corncob could better be used as carbon source for denitrification. Orthogonal test indicated that the increasing of solid-liquid ratio and water temperature would lead to an enhanced release capacity of carbon, however, the change of pH had no significant effect on release capacity of carbon; according to significant degree of water temperature, pH, solid-liquid ratio impacted on the carbon release, it was sorted by solid-liquid ratio > temperature > pH.

  11. North America carbon dioxide sources and sinks: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthony W.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    North America is both a source and sink of atmospheric CO2. Sources, predominately fossil-fuel combustion in the United States along with contributions from deforestation in Mexico, add CO2 to the atmosphere. Most North America ecosystems, particularly regrowing forests in the United States, are sinks for atmospheric CO2. CO2 is removed from the atmosphere in photosynthesis, converted into biomass and stored as carbon in vegetation, soil and wood products. Fossil-fuel emissions dominate the North American source-sink balance. North America is a net source of atmospheric CO2 with ecosystem sinks balancing approximately 35% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from North America.

  12. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  13. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  14. Implication of using different carbon sources for denitrification in wastewater treatments.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, Carla; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; El-Shawabkeh, Ibrahim; Gu, April Z

    2009-08-01

    Application of external carbon sources for denitrification becomes necessary for wastewater treatment plants that have to meet very stringent effluent nitrogen limits (e.g., 3 to 5 mgTN/L). In this study, we evaluated and compared three carbon sources--MicroC (Environmental Operating Solutions, Bourne, Massachusetts), methanol, and acetate-in terms of their denitrification rates and kinetics, effect on overall nitrogen removal performance, and microbial community structure of carbon-specific denitrifying enrichments. Denitrification rates and kinetics were determined with both acclimated and non-acclimated biomass, obtained from laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor systems or full-scale plants. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the use of MicroC for denitrification processes, with maximum denitrification rates (k(dmax)) of 6.4 mgN/gVSSh and an observed yield of 0.36 mgVSS/mgCOD. Comparable maximum nitrate uptake rates were found with methanol, while acetate showed a maximum denitrification rate nearly twice as high as the others. The maximum growth rates measured at 20 degrees C for MicroC and methanol were 3.7 and 1.2 day(-1), respectively. The implications resulting from the differences in the denitrification rates and kinetics of different carbon sources on the full-scale nitrogen removal performance, under various configurations and operational conditions, were assessed using Biowin (EnviroSim Associates, Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada) simulations for both pre- and post-denitrification systems. Examination of microbial population structures using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) throughout the study period showed dynamic temporal changes and distinct microbial community structures of different carbon-specific denitrifying cultures. The ability of a specific carbon-acclimated denitrifying population to instantly use other carbon source also was investigated, and the chemical-structure-associated behavior patterns observed

  15. Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Chen; Unocic, Raymond R; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Gao, Hongjun; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

  16. Sources of Carbon during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijs, A.; Frieling, J.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Selnes, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 56 Ma ago) was a 170 kyr period of global warming associated with rapid and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, reflected in sedimentary components as a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Carbon cycle modeling has indicated that the shape and magnitude of this CIE are generally explained by a large and rapid initial pulse, followed by 50 kyr of 13C-depleted carbon injection. Suggested sources include submarine methane hydrates, terrigenous organic matter, and thermogenic methane from hydrothermal vent complexes. Previous and new analyses suggest that the initiation of warming started prior to the injection of 13C-depleted carbon. This implies a climatic trigger for massive carbon release representing a positive feedback scenario (Frieling et al. AGU 2016 Session ID# 13189, Abstract ID: 121074), which likely excludes volcanic or extraterrestrial carbon sourcing for the onset of the CIE. Here, we test for the contribution of carbon release associated with volcanic intrusions in the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use dinoflagellate cyst and stable carbon isotope stratigraphy to date the active phase of a hydrothermal vent system and find it to post-date massive carbon release at the onset of the PETM. Crucially, however, it correlates to the period within the PETM of longer-term 13C-depleted carbon release. This finding represents the first actual proof of PETM carbon release from a particular reservoir. Based on carbon cycle box model (LOSCAR) experiments, we show that 4-12 pulses of carbon input from vent systems over 60 kyr with a total mass of 1500 Pg of C, consistent with the vent-literature, match the shape of the CIE and pattern of deep ocean carbonate dissolution as recorded in sediment records. We therefore conclude that CH4 from the Norwegian Sea vent complexes was likely the main source of carbon during the PETM, following its onset.

  17. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Orozco, A Micaela Ferro; Contreras, Edgardo M; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2008-01-15

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2.

  18. Removal of color from biomethanated distillery spentwash by treatment with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Y; Balakrishnan, M

    2007-10-01

    This work examined 19 carbon samples prepared by acid and thermal activation of various agro-residues viz. bagasse, bagasse flyash, sawdust, wood ash and rice husk ash for color removal from biomethanated distillery effluent. Phosphoric acid carbonized bagasse B (PH) showed the maximum color removal (50%). However, commercial activated carbons AC (ME) and AC (LB) showed better performance of over 80% color removal. Besides color removal, activated carbon treatment also showed reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), phenol and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). The performance was related to the characteristics of the investigated samples. Further, adsorption isotherms for melanoidins, which is the primary coloring compound in distillery spentwash, followed the Langmuir isotherm implying monolayer adsorption.

  19. 10 CFR 35.2404 - Records of surveys after source implant and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of surveys after source implant and removal. 35.2404 Section 35.2404 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2404 Records of surveys after source implant and removal. A licensee shall maintain a record...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2404 - Records of surveys after source implant and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of surveys after source implant and removal. 35.2404 Section 35.2404 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2404 Records of surveys after source implant and removal. A licensee shall maintain a record of...

  1. 10 CFR 35.2404 - Records of surveys after source implant and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of surveys after source implant and removal. 35.2404 Section 35.2404 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2404 Records of surveys after source implant and removal. A licensee shall maintain a record of...

  2. 10 CFR 35.2404 - Records of surveys after source implant and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of surveys after source implant and removal. 35.2404 Section 35.2404 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2404 Records of surveys after source implant and removal. A licensee shall maintain a record of...

  3. A comparison of black carbon measurement methods for combustion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, A. L.; Pavlovic, J.; Yelverton, T.; Hagler, G.; Aurell, J.; Ebersviller, S.; Seay, B.; Jetter, J.; Gullett, B.; Hays, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is an important short-term climate forcer that has been linked with adverse health effects. Multiple black carbon measurement methodologies exist, but no standard measurement method or calibration material has been agreed upon. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses elemental carbon in its ambient monitoring networks and in its emissions inventory, assuming that elemental carbon is equivalent to black carbon. Instrument comparisons with ambient aerosols have demonstrated considerable differences between black carbon and elemental carbon, as well as among different black carbon measurements. However, there have been few published comparable studies for source emissions. We used multiple measurement methods to quantify black carbon and elemental carbon emissions from a range of combustion sources (diesel gensets, coal fired boilers, prescribed fires and cookstoves) emitting particles of varying composition and physical characteristics. The ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon (BC/EC) ranged from 0.50 to 2.8 and depended upon the combustion source. The greatest agreement was observed for emissions from cookstoves (BC/EC = 1.1 ± 0.3). The largest differences were seen for emissions from large stationary diesel genset (BC/EC = 2.3 ± 0.5) and were most pronounced when a diesel particulate filter was used (BC/EC 2.5 ± 0.6). This suggests that this source category may be underrepresented in emissions inventories based on elemental carbon. Black carbon concentrations derived from filter-based attenuation were highly correlated with photo-acoustic absorption measurements, but were generally 50% greater. This is likely due to the choice of calibration factor, which is currently ambiguously defined. These results highlight the importance of developing a standard calibration material to improve comparability among measurements.

  4. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    PubMed

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  6. Treatment System for Removing Halogenated Compounds from Contaminated Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Yestrebsky, Cherie L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A treatment system and a method for removal of at least one halogenated compound, such as PCBs, found in contaminated systems are provided. The treatment system includes a polymer blanket for receiving at least one non-polar solvent. The halogenated compound permeates into or through a wall of the polymer blanket where it is solubilized with at least one non-polar solvent received by said polymer blanket forming a halogenated solvent mixture. This treatment system and method provides for the in situ removal of halogenated compounds from the contaminated system. In one embodiment, the halogenated solvent mixture is subjected to subsequent processes which destroy and/or degrade the halogenated compound.

  7. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  8. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  9. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  10. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  11. Optimization of VFAs and ethanol production with waste sludge used as the denitrification carbon source.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jiawen; Yin, Li; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2015-01-01

    An acidification metabolite such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol could be used as denitrification carbon sources for solving the difficult problem of carbon source shortages and low nitrogen removal efficiency. A proper control of environmental factors could be essential for obtaining the optimal contents of VFAs and ethanol. In this study, suspended solids (SS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and shaking rate were chosen to investigate the interactive effects on VFAs and ethanol production with waste sludge. It was indicated that T-VFA yield could be enhanced at lower ORP and shaking rate. Changing the SS, ORP and shaking rate could influence the distribution of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids and ethanol. The optimal conditions for VFAs and ethanol production used as a denitrification carbon source were predicted by analyzing response surface methodology (RSM).

  12. Behavior of solid carbon sources for biological denitrification in groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmei; Feng, Chuanping; Hong, Siqi; Hao, Huiling; Yang, Yingnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the behavior of wheat straw, sawdust and biodegradable plastic (BP) as potential carbon sources for denitrification in groundwater remediation. The results showed that a greater amount of nitrogen compounds were released from wheat straw and sawdust than from BP in leaching experiments. In batch experiments, BP showed higher nitrate removal efficiency and longer service life than wheat straw and sawdust, which illustrated that BP is the most appropriate carbon source for stimulation of denitrification activity. In column experiments, BP was able to support complete denitrification at influent nitrate concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L, showing corresponding denitrification rates of 0.12, 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.22 mg NO(3)(-)-N.L(-1).d(-1).g(-1), respectively. These findings indicate that BP is applicable for use as a carbon source for nitrate-polluted groundwater remediation.

  13. A new activated primary tank developed for recovering carbon source and its application.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Xianbao; Zhang, Qionghua; Wang, Xiaochang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel activated primary tank process (APT) was developed for recovering carbon source by fermentation and elutriation of primary sludge. The effects of solids retention time (SRT), elutriation intensity (G) and return sludge ratio (RSR) on this recovery were evaluated in a pilot scale reactor. Results indicated that SRT significantly influenced carbon source recovery, and mechanical elutriation could promote soluble COD (SCOD) and VFA yields. The optimal conditions of APT were SRT=5d, G=152s(-1) and RSR=10%, SCOD and VFA production were 57.0mg/L and 21.7mg/L. Particulate organic matter in sludge was converted into SCOD and VFAs as fermentative bacteria were significantly enriched in APT. Moreover, the APT process was applied in a wastewater treatment plant to solve the problem of insufficient carbon source. The outcomes demonstrated that influent SCOD of biological tank increased by 31.1%, which improved the efficiency of removing nitrogen and phosphorus.

  14. Poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) utility as a polymeric absorbent for removal of trace organics from air and water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Robeson, L.M.; Langsam, M. )

    1992-08-01

    Poly(trimethylsilylpropyne), PTMSP, is well known to exhibit the highest permeability for gas and vapors of all dense polymeric systems. The high free volume observed yields extremely high diffusion coefficients for penetrating species. These properties have yielded interest for various gas and pervaporation membrane separation processes. It has been found that PTMSP also exhibits unique characteristics as a polymeric absorbent for removal of trace organics from air and water sources. The distribution coefficient for organics between the PTMSP phase and the water phase is extremely high for aliphatic, aromatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In fact, PTMSP approaches activated carbon adsorbents in efficiency (much closer than other polymeric species). The removal of organics from PTMSP proceeds easier than activated carbon, and applications involving simple regeneration of a fixed bed may indeed be possible.

  15. Body Parts Removed during Surgery: A Useful Training Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for…

  16. Body Parts Removed during Surgery: A Useful Training Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for…

  17. Carbon and nutrient removal from centrates and domestic wastewater using algal-bacterial biofilm bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Posadas, Esther; García-Encina, Pedro-Antonio; Soltau, Anna; Domínguez, Antonio; Díaz, Ignacio; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms of carbon and nutrient removal in an open algal-bacterial biofilm reactor and an open bacterial biofilm reactor were comparatively evaluated during the treatment of centrates and domestic wastewater. Comparable carbon removals (>80%) were recorded in both bioreactors, despite the algal-bacterial biofilm supported twice higher nutrient removals than the bacterial biofilm. The main carbon and nitrogen removal mechanisms in the algal-bacterial photobioreactor were assimilation into algal biomass and stripping, while stripping accounted for most carbon and nitrogen removal in the bacterial biofilm. Phosphorus was removed by assimilation into algal-bacterial biomass while no effective phosphorous removal was observed in the bacterial biofilm. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 91 ± 3%, 70 ± 8% and 85 ± 9%, respectively, were recorded in the algal-bacterial bioreactor at 10d of hydraulic retention time when treating domestic wastewater. However, the high water footprint recorded (0.5-6.7 Lm(-2)d(-1)) could eventually compromise the environmental sustainability of this microalgae-based technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  19. Carbon and Energy Sources for the Nitrifying Autotroph Nitrobacter

    PubMed Central

    Delwiche, C. C.; Finstein, M. S.

    1965-01-01

    Delwiche, C. C. (University of California, Davis), and M. S. Finstein. Carbon and energy sources for the nitrifying autotroph Nitrobacter. J. Bacteriol. 90:102–107. 1965.—The effect of various organic compounds on the growth and metabolism of the obligatively autotrophic nitrifying organism Nitrobacter was studied. A slight stimulation of both nitrification and growth was obtainable with a number of organic amendments, including yeast extract, Vitamin Free Casamino Acids, and some amino acids. Depending upon culture conditions, a strong stimulation of growth was obtained with acetate as an amendment to the culture solution. Several compounds, including valine, hydroxyproline, and threonine, were inhibitory at concentrations of 10−3m. The incorporation of carbon from isotopically labeled organic compounds was demonstrated. Acetate and glycine were particularly strong contributors to cell carbons. These could not substitute for carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source for growth, however, nor could any other of the carbon compounds that were tried. PMID:16562002

  20. Removal and decomposition of malodorants by using titanium dioxide photocatalyst supported on fiber activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, M; Tanigawa, K; Hosomi, M; Chikusa, T; Kawada, E

    2001-01-01

    Effective and compact deodorization systems have been required for the measure of small-scale emission sources of offensive odors usually found in urban areas. We have developed a sheet material with titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst supported on fiber activated carbon (FAC) for a compact deodorization system. In the deodorization system using the TiO2/FAC sheet and a ultraviolet lamp, malodorants can be collected on the TiO2/FAC sheet by adsorption and then decomposed by photocatalysis with UV-irradiation. In this study, we obtained basic information about the removal and the decomposition of malodorants in the photocatalytic deodorization system using the TiO2/FAC sheet. The malodorants used in this study were methyl mercaptan, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. In addition, two kinds of light sources, a black light bulb (BLB; dominant wavelength: 365 nm) and an ultraviolet germicidal lamp (UV2; dominant wavelength: 254 nm) were used to analyze the effect on removal and decomposition characteristics by different dominant wavelengths. The removal rates of malodorants from the gas phase were determined in the deodorization system in the presence or absence of the TiO2/FAC sheet and UV-irradiation in order to study each removal effect due to adsorption onto the TiO2/FAC sheet, direct photolysis by UV-irradiation, and photocatalytic decomposition. The effect of adsorption onto the TiO2 /FAC sheet was pronounced in this batch-type experiment. The effect of photocatalysis was observed from the removal rates of methyl mercaptan. The percent oxidation of ammonia to nitrate and that of methyl mercaptan to sulfate were examined by determining products, i.e. nitrate and sulfate ions, with purified water after the reaction. The formation of nitrate or sulfate was not observed without UV-irradiation using the BLB, while the reactions progressed in the presence of the TiO2/FAC sheet. When the UV2 lamp was used, the oxidation of methyl mercaptan to sulfate occurred without the

  1. Adsorptive removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Ibrahim, Muhammad H. C.; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Chong, F. K.

    2012-09-01

    The study of rice husk-based activated carbon as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution was investigated. Rice husk, an agricultural waste, is a good alternative source for cheap precursor of activated carbon due to its abundance and constant availability. In this work, rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via chemical treatment using NaOH as an activation agent prior the carbonization process. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon carbonized at 650°C, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). Other analyses were also conducted on these samples using fourier transmitter infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), CHN elemental analyzer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for characterization study. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were found to be 255 m2/g and 0.17 cm2/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution were carried out as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of Zn(II) ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution.

  2. Electrically Controlled Anion Exchange Based on Polypyrrole and Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite for Perchlorate Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

    2006-06-01

    A novel and stable carbon nanotube/polypyrrole nanocomposite film has been electrosynthesized and the feasibility for removing perchlorate ion through an electrically controlled anion exchange has been evaluated.

  3. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  4. Removal of arsenic(V) from aqueous solutions using iron-oxide-coated modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, Nai-Yun; Lin, Y C; Xu, Bin; Le, Lin-sheng

    2007-08-01

    Removal of arsenic(V) from aqueous solutions was evaluated with the following three different sorption materials: coal-based activated carbon 12 x 40 (activated carbon), iron(II) oxide (FeO)/activated carbon-H, and iron oxide. The apparent characteristics and physical chemistry performances of these adsorbents were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, and scanning electronic microscope. Also, batch experiments for arsenic removal were performed, and the effects of pH value on arsenic(V) removal were studied. The results suggest that the main phases of the iron oxide surface are magnetite, maghemite, hematite, and goethite; fine and uniform iron oxide particles can cover activated carbon surfaces and affect the surface area or pore structures of activated carbon; adsorption kinetics obey a pseudo-first-order rate equation; and adsorption capacities of adsorbents are affected by the values of pH. The optimum value of pH for iron oxide lies in a narrow range between 4.0 and 5.5, and arsenic(V) removal by FeO/activated carbon-H is ideal and stable in the pH range 3 to 7, while activated carbon has the lowest adsorption capacity in the entire pH range. Also, the adsorption characteristics of FeO/activated carbon-H composites and virgin activated carbon match well the Langmuir adsorption model, while those of iron oxide fit well the Freundlich adsorption model.

  5. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  6. Stability Of A Carbon-Dioxide-Removing Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Wood, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experiments determing long-term chemical stability of IRA-45, commerical ion-exchange resin candidate for use in removing CO2 from atmosphere of Space Station. In proposed system, cabin air passes through resin, and acidic CO2 absorbed by weakly-basic hydrated diethylenetriamine bonded to porous resin substrate. When resin absorbs all CO2, disconnects from airstream and heated with steam to desorb CO2. Resin reuseable. Removed by post-treating process air with phosphoric acid on charcoal. Other chemicals removed by trace-contaminant-control subsystem of Space Station.

  7. Biofilm Removal Using Carbon Dioxide Aerosols without Nitrogen Purge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung

    2016-11-06

    Biofilms can cause serious concerns in many applications. Not only can they cause economic losses, but they can also present a public health hazard. Therefore, it is highly desirable to remove biofilms from surfaces. Many studies on CO2 aerosol cleaning have employed nitrogen purges to increase biofilm removal efficiency by reducing the moisture condensation generated during the cleaning. However, in this study, periodic jets of CO2 aerosols without nitrogen purges were used to remove Pseudomonas putida biofilms from polished stainless steel surfaces. CO2 aerosols are mixtures of solid and gaseous CO2 and are generated when high-pressure CO2 gas is adiabatically expanded through a nozzle. These high-speed aerosols were applied to a biofilm that had been grown for 24 hr. The removal efficiency ranged from 90.36% to 98.29% and was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of the biofilm as the treatment time was varied from 16 sec to 88 sec. We also performed experiments to compare the removal efficiencies with and without nitrogen purges; the measured biofilm removal efficiencies were not significantly different from each other (t-test, p > 0.55). Therefore, this technique can be used to clean various bio-contaminated surfaces within one minute.

  8. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  9. Source contributions to atmospheric fine carbon particle concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew Gray, H.; Cass, Glen R.

    A Lagrangian particle-in-cell air quality model has been developed that facilitates the study of source contributions to atmospheric fine elemental carbon and fine primary total carbon particle concentrations. Model performance was tested using spatially and temporally resolved emissions and air quality data gathered for this purpose in the Los Angeles area for the year 1982. It was shown that black elemental carbon (EC) particle concentrations in that city were dominated by emissions from diesel engines including both on-highway and off-highway applications. Fine primary total carbon particle concentrations (TC=EC+organic carbon) resulted from the accumulation of small increments from a great variety of emission source types including both gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles, stationary source fuel oil and gas combustion, industrial processes, paved road dust, fireplaces, cigarettes and food cooking (e.g. charbroilers). Strategies for black elemental carbon particle concentration control will of necessity need to focus on diesel engines, while controls directed at total carbon particle concentrations will have to be diversified over a great many source types.

  10. Copper crystallite in carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.K.; Seshan, P.K.

    1993-06-15

    A copper modified carbon molecular sieve-sorbent having both sorptive and molecular sieving capabilities is described, comprising a carbon molecular sieve and finely divided particles of elemental copper uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the carbon molecular sieve, wherein the particles of elemental copper have an average crystallite size of from about 100 [angstrom] to about 400 [angstrom], wherein the finely divided elemental copper content of the molecular sieve-sorbent is from about 1 to about 40% by weight, and the carbon content thereof is from about 60 to about 99% by weight, and wherein the molecular sieve-sorbent has an effective pore size no greater than about 4.3 [angstrom].

  11. On the performance of Cu-BTC metal organic framework for carbon tetrachloride gas removal.

    PubMed

    Calero, Sofía; Martín-Calvo, Ana; Hamad, Said; García-Pérez, Elena

    2011-01-07

    The performance of Cu-BTC metal organic framework for carbon tetrachloride removal from air has been studied using molecular simulations. According to our results, this material shows extremely high adsorption selectivity in favour of carbon tetrachloride. We demonstrate that this selectivity can be further enhanced by selective blockage of the framework.

  12. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in integrated wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Zhang, Yinjiang; Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Bodi; Wang, Yuhui

    2017-09-08

    In the paper, we explored the influences of different dosages of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands. After 1-year operation of treatment systems, based on the high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities, the optimal operating conditions were obtained as follows: the ACW10 system with Fe(3+) (5.6 mg L(-1)), iron powder (2.8 mg L(-1)), and CaCO3 powder (0.2 mg L(-1)) in influent as the adjusting agents, initial phosphorus source (PO4(3-)) in influent, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) of 30 in influent, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency were improved significantly. The hydrolysis of CaCO3 promoted the physicochemical precipitation in contaminant removal. Meanwhile, Fe(3+) and iron powder produced Fe(2+), which improved contaminant removal. Iron ion improved the diversity, distribution, and metabolic functions of microbial communities in integrated treatment systems. In the treatment ACW10, the dominant phylum in the microbial community was PLANCTOMYCETES, which positively promoted nitrogen removal. After 5 consecutive treatments in ACW10, contaminant removal efficiencies for TN and TP respectively reached 80.6% and 57.3% and total iron concentration in effluent was 0.042 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from sugar beet bagasse.

    PubMed

    Demiral, Hakan; Gündüzoğlu, Gül

    2010-03-01

    In this study, activated carbons were prepared from sugar beet bagasse by chemical activation and the prepared activated carbons were used to remove nitrate from aqueous solutions. In chemical activation, ZnCl(2) was used as chemical agent. The effects of impregnation ratio and activation temperature were investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. The microstructure of the activated carbons was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maximum specific surface area of the activated carbon was about 1826m(2)/g at 700 degrees C and at an impregnation ratio of 3:1. The resulting activated carbon was used for removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, temperature and contact time were investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out and the data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. Three simplified kinetic models were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanism.

  14. Arsenic Removal Technologies and the Effect of Source Water Quality on Performance

    SciTech Connect

    KHANDAKER, NADIM R.; BRADY, PATRICK V.

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic removal technologies that are effective at the tens of ppb level include coagulation, followed by settling/microfiltration, ion exchange by mineral surfaces,and pressure-driven membrane processes (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration). This report describes the fundamental mechanisms of operation of the arsenic removal systems and addresses the critical issues of arsenic speciation, source water quality on the performance of the arsenic removal systems and costs associated with the different treatment technology categories.

  15. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  16. Body parts removed during surgery: a useful training source.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for destruction. The aim of the project is to improve residents' practical training skills. A survey over the last two years has shown that about 60 body parts were available each year. These included 13 upper limbs or their parts (i.e., forearm with hand, hand, and fingers) and 47 lower limbs or their parts (i.e., legs with feet, feet, or toes). The residents explained the aim of the project to potential donors, and, if patients were willing to donate, their informed consent was obtained. The residents were present in the operating theater during the surgical procedure. In the post-operative phase, the same residents performed dissections on the body part(s), following a teaching schedule prepared by a clinical anatomist, who also assisted residents during their studies. Residents also acted as tutors for undergraduate medical students who attended these dissections. The underlying pathology for which the body part was removed was examined, and surgical procedures were practiced on the body part itself. Our project provided an opportunity for a close relationship between anatomists and surgeons, reinforcing core knowledge of anatomy by appreciation of its clinical importance. The active involvement of residents as learners and as teachers in the various steps of this project improved their knowledge of surgical techniques and helped to establish a sense of ethical responsibility and respect for the human body. This approach involves study of anatomical structures from new perspectives and leads to improved surgical practice.

  17. Denitrification using PBS as carbon source and biofilm support in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weizhong; Yang, Luhua; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer was used as carbon source and biofilm support for nitrate removal from aqueous solution as an attractive alternative for biological denitrification. The objective of this paper was to investigate the denitrification performance and microbial community of a packed-bed bioreactor using poly (butanediol succinate) (PBS), a biodegradable polymer, as carbon source and biofilm support. NO(3)-N concentration was determined by UV spectrophotometer. NO(2)-N concentration was assayed by hydrochloric acid naphthyl ethylenediamine spectrophotometry method. Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured using a TOC analyzer. The morphology of the samples was observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The microbial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing method. The experimental results showed that an average removal efficiency of nitrate was 95 %. ESEM observation and FTIR analysis indicated the changes of PBS granules before and after microbial utilization. Pyrosequencing results showed that Betaproteobacteria predominated, and most of PBS-degrading denitrifying bacteria were assigned to the family Comamonadaceae. Denitrifying bacteria accounted for 13.02 % in total population. The PBS granules were suitable support and carbon source for denitrifying bacteria.

  18. Predictable Therma-fil removal technique using the system-B heat source.

    PubMed

    Guess, Garrett M

    2004-01-01

    A clinical tip is suggested to assist in the removal of Therma-fil obturators during conventional endodontic retreatment. Using a heat source such as the System-B, the plastic carriers that are normally an obstacle to retreatment can be efficiently removed using the technique described.

  19. ALARA considerations for the whole body neutron irradiation facility source removal project at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick T

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the activities that were involved with the safe removal of fourteen PuBe sources from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Whole Body Neutron Irradiation Facility (WBNIF). As part of a Department of Energy and BNL effort to reduce the radiological inventory, the WBNIF was identified as having no future use. In order to deactivate the facility and eliminate the need for nuclear safety management and long-term surveillance, it was decided to remove the neutron sources and dismantle the facility. In addition, the sources did not have DOT Special Form documentation so they would need to be encapsulated once removed for offsite storage or disposal. The planning and the administrative as well as engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to safely remove and encapsulate the sources while keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  20. Aging and removal of Black Carbon measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Taketani, F.; Oshima, N.; PAN, X.; Komazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Takami, A.; Yoshino, A.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol is one of the most important aerosols, affecting the Earth's radiative budget both directly through light absorption and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Microphysical parameters of soot aerosols are important to assess their roles in atmosphere. A single particle soot photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies Inc.) can be used to detect and quantify the mass of refractory BC (rBC) in a soot-containing particle. We conducted ground-measurements of rBC-containing particles using the SP2 at Yokosuka (near industrial sources, early summer of 2014, Fig1) and at Fukue island (outflow from Asian continent, spring of 2015, Fig1). During Fukue observation, we measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio (by 48C, Themo Scientific, Inc.) which is useful for investigating polluted air masses. Air mass histories were analyzed with backward trajectories from the sampling point and precipitation along the trajectory calculated using the NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model with the meteorological data sets from NCEP's GDAS. We analysed number-/mass-size distributions and mixing states of rBC-containing particles considering the differences in air mass characteristics and history. The observed rBC mass concentrations (at STP) were ranging from ~50 ng m-3 at Fukue island to ~2000 ng m-3 near industrial sources. The size distributions of rBC-containing particles were systematically changed depending on the sites and air mass histories. Modal mass-equivalent diameters of the observed mass-size distributions showed minima (~0.16 μm) near source area and maxima (~0.21 μm) at Fukue island for Asian outflow period without wet removal. In the presentation, we synthetically discuss the relationship between rBC microphysics and air mass characteristics and histories.

  1. Fabrication of bimetallic Ag/Fe immobilized on modified biochar for removal of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Feng, Qiyan

    2017-04-01

    As an effective conventional absorbent, biochar exhibited limited adsorption ability toward small hydrophobic molecules. To enhance the adsorption capacity, a novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron onto modified biochar (MB) and then the elemental silver was attached to the surface of iron (Ag/Fe/MB). It's noted that spherical Ag/Fe nanoparticles with diameter of 51nm were highly dispersed on the surface of MB. As the typical hydrophobic contaminant, carbon tetrachloride was selected for examining the removal efficiency of the adsorbent. The removal efficiencies of carbon tetrachloride by original biochar (OB), Ag/Fe, Ag/Fe/OB and Ag/Fe/MB were fully investigated. It's found that Ag/Fe/MB showed higher carbon tetrachloride removal efficiency, which is about 5.5 times higher than that of the OB sample due to utilizing the merits of high adsorption and reduction. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of carbon tetrachloride by Ag/Fe/MB was a spontaneous and exothermic process, which was affected by solution pH, initial carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature. The novel Ag/Fe/MB composites provided a promising material for carbon tetrachloride removal from effluent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Performance of activated carbon loaded fibrous filters on simultaneous removal of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Agranovski, I E; Moustafa, S; Braddock, R D

    2005-07-01

    Activated carbons are used for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air carriers. Various arrangements, including fixed and fluidised layers, are employed to meet air quality standards for industrial and domestic applications. Filters are commonly used for the removal of small particles from gas streams. The selective performance of these devices can be high for the removal of either particles or VOCs. However, none of them can be used solely for the simultaneous removal of both contaminants, as their performance for the removal of the alternate group of pollutants is usually very poor. The scope of this project is to combine the above control technologies by loading fibrous filters with activated carbon powder and to investigate the performance of such a single-stage technology on the simultaneous removal of VOCs and particles from the gas stream under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that the efficiency of the carbon loaded filter was about twice as high as the efficiency of the clean filter with respect to the removal of particles (monodisperse polystyrene latex spheres were used for the measurements) with a corresponding increase of the pressure drop across the filter by around 25-35%. Also, carbon loaded filters were capable of purifying VOC (toluene) concentrated air streams over quite substantial time periods.

  3. Ceramic pore channels with inducted carbon nanotubes for removing oil from water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinwei; Hong, Liang; Xu, Yanfang; Ong, Zheng Wei

    2012-04-01

    Water contaminated with tiny oil emulsions is costly and difficult to treat because of the colloidal stability and deformable nature of emulsified oil. This work utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in macro/mesopore channels of ceramic membrane to remove tiny oil droplets from water. The CNTs were implanted into the porous ceramic channels by means of chemical vapor deposition. Being hydrophobic in nature and possessing an interfacial curvature at nanoscale, CNTs enabled tiny oil emulsion in submicrometer and nano scales to be entrapped while permeating through the CNTs implanted pore channels. Optimizing the growth condition of the CNTs resulted in a uniform distribution of CNT grids, which allowed the development of lipophilic layers during filtration. These lipo-layers drastically enhanced the separation performance. The filtration capability of CNT-ceramic membrane was assessed by the purification of a dilute oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion containing ca. 210 ppm mineral oil 1600 ppm emulsifier, and a trace amount of dye, a proxy polluted water source. The best CNT-tailored ceramic membrane, prepared under the optimized CNT growth condition, claimed 100% oil rejection rate and a permeation flux of 0.6 L m(-2) min(-1), driven by a pressure drop of ca. 1 bar for 3 days on the basis of UV measurement. The CNT-sustained adsorption complements the size-exclusion mechanism in removing soluble oil.

  4. Source and age of carbon in peatland surface waters: new insights from 14C analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billett, Michael; Garnett, Mark; Dinsmore, Kerry; Leith, Fraser

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are a significant source of carbon to the aquatic environment which is increasingly being recognised as an important flux pathway (both lateral and vertical) in total landscape carbon budgets. Determining the source and age of the carbon (in its various forms) is a key step to understanding the stability of peatland systems as well as the connectivity between the soil carbon pool and the freshwater environment. Novel analytical and sampling methods using molecular sieves have been developed for (1) within-stream, in situ sampling of CO2 in the field and (2) for the removal/separation of CO2 in the laboratory prior to 14C analysis of CH4. Here we present dual isotope (δ13C and 14C) data from freshwater systems in UK and Finnish peatlands to show that significant differences exist in the source and age of CO2, DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and POC (particulate organic carbon). Individual peatlands clearly differ in terms of their isotopic freshwater signature, suggesting that carbon cycling may be "tighter" in some systems compared to others. We have also measured the isotopic signature of different C species in peatland pipes, which appear to be able to tap carbon from different peat depths. This suggests that carbon cycling and transport within "piped-peatlands" may be more complex than previously thought. Some of our most recent work has focussed on the development of a method to measure the 14C component of CH4 in freshwaters. Initial results suggest that CH4 in peatland streams is significantly older than CO2 and derived from a much deeper source. We have also shown that the age (but not the source) of dissolved CO2 changes over the hydrological year in response to seasonal changes in discharge and temperature. Radiocarbon measurements in the peat-riparian-stream system suggest that a significant degree of connectivity exists in terms of C transport and cycling, although the degree of connectivity differs for individual C species. In summary, 14C

  5. THE REMOVAL OF CARBON/BEUTERIUM FROM STAINLESS STEEL AND TUNGSTEN BY TRANSFERRED-ARC CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. HOLLIS; R. G. CASTRO; ET AL

    2001-04-01

    Tungsten and stainless steel samples have been contaminated with deuterium and carbon to simulate deposited layers in magnetic-confinement fusion devices. Deuterium and carbon were co-deposited onto the sample surfaces using a deuterium plasma seeded with varying amounts of deuterated methane. Deuterium was also implanted into the samples in an accelerator to simulate hydrogen isotope ion implantation conditions in magnetic confinement fusion devices. Cathodic arc, or transferred-arc (TA) cleaning was employed to remove the deposits from the samples. The samples were characterized by ion beam analysis both before and after cleaning to determine deuterium and carbon concentrations present. The deuterium content was greatly reduced by the cleaning thus demonstrating the possibility of using the TA cleaning technique for removing deuterium and/or tritium from components exposed to D-T fuels. Removal of surface layers and significant reduction of subsurface carbon concentrations was also observed.

  6. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater.

  7. Magnetic Carbon Microspheres as a Reusable Adsorbent for Sulfonamide Removal from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kewei; Wang, Fenghe; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yajun; Mao, Jing; Bao, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Novel reusable magnetic carbon microspheres (MCMs) were prepared by hydrothermal method with glucose as carbon source and Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic raw materials. And adsorption performance of MCMs for sulfonamide removal from water was investigated in detail. The results indicated that the calcination temperature and calcination time had significant effects on the surface area and its volume porous of MCMs. When MCMs were calcined in 600 °C for 1 h, the surface area and volume porous of MCMs were 1228 m2/g and 0.448 m3/g, respectively. The adsorption results showed that the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. When the pH value was changed from 4.0 to 10.0, the adsorption capacity of MCMs for sulfonamide was decreased from 24.6 to 19.2 mg/g. The adsorption capacity of as-synthesized MCMs achieved 18.31 mg/g after it was reused four times, which exhibited a desirable adsorption capacity and reusability.

  8. MASKING VERSUS REMOVING POINT SOURCES IN CMB DATA: THE SOURCE-CORRECTED WMAP POWER SPECTRUM FROM NEW EXTENDED CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Scodeller, Sandro; Hansen, Frode K. E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2012-12-20

    In Scodeller et al., a new and extended point source catalog obtained from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data was presented. It includes most of the sources included in the standard WMAP seven-year point source catalogs as well as a large number of new detections. Here, we study the effects on the estimated CMB power spectrum when taking the newly detected point sources into consideration. We create point source masks for all the 2102 sources that we detected as well as a smaller one for the 665 sources detected in the Q, V, and W bands. We also create WMAP7 maps with point sources subtracted in order to compare with the spectrum obtained with source masks. The extended point source masks and point source cleaned WMAP7 maps are made publicly available. Using the proper residual correction, we find that the CMB power spectrum obtained from the point source cleaned map without any source mask is fully consistent with the spectrum obtained from the masked map. We further find that the spectrum obtained masking all 2102 sources is consistent with the results obtained using the standard WMAP seven-year point source mask (KQ85y7). We also verify that the removal of point sources does not introduce any skewness.

  9. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the subsurface Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, A. R.; Gerringa, L. J.; Hansell, D. A.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the global ocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Mediterranean, while expansive phytoplankton blooms contribute autochthonous carbon to the Black Sea's ~800 Tg C DOC reservoir. Here, a basin-wide zonal section of DOC is explored using data from the 2013 Dutch GEOTRACES GA04-N "MedBlack" cruise 64PE373. DOC distributions are interpreted with respect to well-described hydrographic and biogeochemical layers of the Black Sea. DOC concentrations were >180 µmol kg-1 at the surface, decreasing to ~125 µmol kg-1 at the base of the oxic layer and reaching a minimum of ~113 µmol kg-1 in the upper anoxic layer between ~150 and 500 m. Maximum anoxic layer concentrations of 122 µmol kg-1 were found in the homogeneous benthic bottom layer (>1775 m). Determined from the relationship of DOC with salinity, we found that ~34-41 µmol kg-1 was removed from the basin's oxic layer in <5 years, and an additional 13 ± 5 µmol kg-1 was removed from the anoxic layer during its ~300-600 years residence time, given steady state. We find no evidence for DOC accumulation in the anoxic Black Sea, and suggest that concentrations are elevated relative to the ocean due to input of terrigenous DOC from rivers. The Black Sea's relatively elevated DOC pool may be analogous to the previously hypothesized anoxic Eocene ocean's elevated reservoir if the Eocene ocean received a substantial amount of terrigenous DOC from rivers.

  10. The Economics of Carbon Dioxide Removal: The Case against Free Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D. P.; Rickels, W.; Quaas, M.; Oschlies, A.; Reith, F.

    2016-12-01

    Facing the challenge to keep the average global temperature increase below 2°C and to limit long-term climate change, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal, CDR) and disposing of it in non-atmospheric carbon reservoirs is becoming increasingly necessary. The social cost of removing carbon into the terrestrial biosphere (e.g. by afforestation) or the ocean (e.g. by spreading olivine in coastal areas) arises from carbon-cycle feedbacks and saturation effects. Yet they are ignored in existing economic studies on CDR. Neglecting non-atmospheric social cost results in inconsistent estimates with regard to the share and timing of CDR measures in climate policy. Here, we use an intermediate-complexity earth system model, the University of Victoria (UVic) model, to calibrate a dynamic economic model, capturing the temperature feedback and saturation effect of terrestrial carbon uptake and the saturation effect of oceanic carbon uptake to obtain an improved understanding of the net social carbon value of terrestrial and oceanic CDR. We show that planning horizons beyond the year 2100 are required to properly reflect long-term scarcity issues of non-atmospheric carbon reservoirs in current carbon prices and that neglecting non-atmospheric social cost results in too low abatement efforts and in turn in too large and earlier application of CDR measures than if applied optimally. The figure shows the carbon prices for the different carbon reservoirs in the year 2100 in dependence of the planning horizon (for a climate policy aiming to limit global mean temperature increase to 2°C). The difference between the atmospheric and the non-atmospheric carbon prices indicates the benefits of the different CDR options.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Removal Troubleshooting aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Space Shuttle (STS) Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Cover, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a largely closed-system habitable volume which requires active control of atmospheric constituents, including removal of exhaled Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The ISS provides a unique opportunity to observe system requirements for (CO2) removal. CO2 removal is managed by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) aboard the US segment of ISS and by Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) aboard the Space Shuttle (STS). While the ISS and STS are docked, various methods are used to balance the CO2 levels between the two vehicles, including mechanical air handling and management of general crew locations. Over the course of ISS operation, several unexpected anomalies have occurred which have required troubleshooting, including possible compromised performance of the CDRA and LiOH systems, and possible imbalance in CO2 levels between the ISS and STS while docked. This paper will cover efforts to troubleshoot the CO2 removal systems aboard the ISS and docked STS.

  12. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources.

  13. Enhanced post-denitrification without addition of an external carbon source in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Vocks, M; Adam, C; Lesjean, B; Gnirss, R; Kraume, M

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates a post-denitrification process without the addition of an external carbon source combined with an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Three trial plants, with two different process configurations, were operated on two different sites, and a variety of accompanying batch tests were conducted. It was shown that even without dosing of an external carbon source, denitrification rates (DNR) much above endogenous rates could be obtained in post-denitrification systems. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor located ahead of the process had a positive impact on the DNR. Given these surprising results, the project team decided to identify the carbon source used by the microorganisms in the post-denitrification process. Batch tests could demonstrate that lysis products do not play a major role as a C-source for post-denitrification. The following hypothesis was proposed to explain the observations: the glycogen, internally stored by the substrate accumulating bacteria, if anaerobic conditions are followed by aerobic conditions could act as carbon source for denitrification in post-denitrification system. First exploratory batch tests, where the glycogen evolution was monitored, corroborate this assumption.

  14. The role of mesopores in MTBE removal with granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Redding, Adam M; Cannon, Fred S

    2014-06-01

    This activated carbon research appraised how pore size and empty-bed contact time influenced the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at part-per-billion (ppb) concentrations when MTBE was the sole organic impurity. The study compared six granular activated carbons (GACs) from three parent sources; these GACs contained a range of pore volume distributions and had uniform slurry pHs of 9.7-10.4 (i.e. the carbons' bulk surface chemistries were basic). Several of these activated carbons had been specifically tailored for enhanced sorption of trace organic compounds. In these tests, MTBE was spiked into deionized-distilled water (∼pH 7); MTBE loading was measured by isotherms and by rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) that simulated full-scale empty-bed contact times of 7, 14, and 28 min. The results showed that both ultra-fine micropores and small-diameter mesopores were important for MTBE adsorption. Specifically, full MTBE loading during RSSCTs bore a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.94) to the product (mL/g × mL/g) of pore volume ≤4.06 Å wide and pore volume between ∼22 Å and ∼59 Å wide. This correlation was greater than for the product of any other pore volume combinations. Also, this product exhibited a stronger correlation than for just one or the other of these two pore ranges. This multiplicative relationship implied that both of these pore sizes were important for the optimum GAC performance of these six carbons (i.e. favorable mass transfer coupled with favorable sorption). The authors also compared MTBE mass loading during RSSCTs (μg MTBE/g GAC) to isotherm capacity (μg MTBE/g GAC). This RSSCT loading "efficiency" ranged from 28% to 96% for the six GACs; this efficiency correlated most strongly to pores that were 14-200 Å wide (R(2) = 0.94). This correlation indicated that only those carbons with a sufficient volume of 14-200 Å pores could adsorb MTBE to the extent that would be predicted from isotherm data.

  15. Application of a probabilistic modelling approach for evaluation of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon removal efficiency during four successive cycles of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in an anoxic carbonate aquifer.

    PubMed

    Vanderzalm, Joanne L; Page, Declan W; Barry, Karen E; Dillon, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Aquifer storage is increasingly being recognised in its role as a treatment process barrier within a multiple barrier approach to water reuse. Aquifers are postulated to have the ability to provide sustainable treatment for removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon, the dominant nutrient hazards in water recycling, but, to date this treatment performance has remained difficult to validate in field studies. This study applied a statistical method, proposed for validation of the performance of advanced water treatment processes, to evaluate nutrient removal during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) with recycled water. Analysis of observed water quality changes during four successive ASR cycles with highly variable source water quality was used to describe the removal efficiencies for selected nutrients by an anoxic carbonate aquifer. The use of this method was found to be suitable to calculate removal efficiencies for total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) over four ASR cycles with temporally variable concentrations of nutrients in the tertiary treated wastewater injectant. TOC and TN removal was dominated by redox processes, aerobic respiration and denitrification. Median removal of TOC ranged from 25 to 40% and TN from 46 to 87% over the four cycles. There was no observable reduction in this removal with time, suggesting that removal of TOC and TN by redox processes can be sustained in an ASR system. Contrastingly, total phosphorous (TP) was subject to reversible removal via adsorption and desorption processes and as a result, removal efficiency could not be calculated with this method. Thus in general, results indicated that this statistical method could be used to characterise the capacity of the anoxic carbonate aquifer treatment barrier for removal of carbon and nitrogen, but not for removal of phosphorus.

  16. IMPROVING SOURCE PROFILES AND APPORTIONMENT OF COMBUSTION SOURCES USING THERMAL CARBON FRACTIONS IN MULTIVARIATE RECEPTOR MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to improve combustion source profiles and apportionment of a PM2.5 urban aerosol by using 7 individual organic and elemental carbon thermal fractions in place of total organic and elemental carbon. This study used 3 years (96-99) of speciated data...

  17. IMPROVING SOURCE PROFILES AND APPORTIONMENT OF COMBUSTION SOURCES USING THERMAL CARBON FRACTIONS IN MULTIVARIATE RECEPTOR MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to improve combustion source profiles and apportionment of a PM2.5 urban aerosol by using 7 individual organic and elemental carbon thermal fractions in place of total organic and elemental carbon. This study used 3 years (96-99) of speciated data...

  18. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane - The contribution from fossil carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra, is somewhat depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric (C-14)H4 seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 + or - 0.8 percent modern carbon in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 + or - 0.7 percent modern carbon in the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane - The contribution from fossil carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J.

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra, is somewhat depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric (C-14)H4 seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 + or - 0.8 percent modern carbon in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 + or - 0.7 percent modern carbon in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane - The contribution from fossil carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra, is somewhat depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric (C-14)H4 seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 + or - 0.8 percent modern carbon in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 + or - 0.7 percent modern carbon in the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. Elucidating carbon sources driving microbial metabolism during oil sands reclamation.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Lauren M; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Goad, Corey; Warren, Lesley A; Slater, Gregory F

    2017-03-01

    Microbial communities play key roles in remediation and reclamation of contaminated environments via biogeochemical cycling of organic and inorganic components. Understanding the trends in in situ microbial community abundance, metabolism and carbon sources is therefore a crucial component of effective site management. The focus of this study was to use radiocarbon analysis to elucidate the carbon sources driving microbial metabolism within the first pilot wetland reclamation project in the Alberta oil sands region where the observation of H2S had indicated the occurrence of microbial sulphate reduction. The reclamation project involved construction of a three compartment system consisting of a freshwater wetland on top of a sand cap overlying a composite tailings (CT) deposit. Radiocarbon analysis demonstrated that both dissolved and sediment associated organic carbon associated with the deepest compartments (the CT and sand cap) was primarily fossil (Δ(14)C = -769 to -955‰) while organic carbon in the overlying peat was hundreds to thousands of years old (Δ(14)C = -250 to -350‰). Radiocarbon contents of sediment associated microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were consistent with the sediment bulk organic carbon pools (Peat: Δ(14)CPLFA = -257‰; Sand cap Δ(14)CPLFA = -805‰) indicating that these microbes were using sediment associated carbon. In contrast, microbial PLFA grown on biofilm units installed in wells within the deepest compartments contained much more modern carbon that the associated bulk carbon pools. This implied that the transfer of relatively more modern carbon was stimulating the microbial community at depth within the system. Correlation between cellular abundance estimates based on PLFA concentrations and the Δ(14)CPLFA indicated that the utilization of this more modern carbon was stimulating the microbial community at depth. These results highlight the importance of understanding the occurrence and potential outcomes

  2. Seaweeds and halophytes to remove carbon from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, E.P.; Kent, K.J.; Thompson, T.L.; Frye, R.J. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1991-02-01

    The utility industry and other interested parties have investigated strategies to mitigate the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. One option that has been considered is the planting of trees on a massive scale to absorb carbon through photosynthesis. A dilemma of using tree plantations, however, is that they might occupy land that will be needed for food production or other needs for an expected doubling of human population in the tropical regions. We evaluated seaweeds and salt-tolerant terrestrial plants (halophytes) to be grown on the coastal shelves and salt deserts of the world as possible alternatives to tree plantations. An estimated 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of continental shelf and 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of salt desert may be usable for seaweed and halophyte plantations. The production rates of managed seaweed and halophyte plantings are similar to managed tree plantations. Seaweeds and halophytes could conceivably absorb 10--20% of annual fossil fuel carbon emissions through biomass production, similar to estimates made for tree plantations. Present costs of halophyte biomass production are similar to costs of tree biomass production, whereas seaweed biomass is much more expensive to produce using existing technologies. Storage of seaweed carbon might be accomplished by allowing it to enter the sediment detritus chain whereas halophyte carbon might be sequestered in the soil, or used as biomass fuel. As has been concluded for reforestation, these saline biomass crops could at best help delay rather than solve the carbon dioxide build-up problem. 1 fig., 13 tabs.

  3. Carbon sequestration and atmospheric CO2 removal: climate consequence and long-term commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    A variety of methods have been proposed to remove anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere and thus mitigate climate change, such as biospheric carbon sequestration, carbon sequestration through enhanced ocean and land weathering, and direct carbon capture from ambient air. Although these proposed methods differ substantially in their physical, chemical, and biological implementations, the ultimate outcome of all schemes is to remove anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. However, the climate effect of atmospheric CO2 removal has not been studied. Here we use an Earth system model to investigate the response of the coupled climate-carbon system to an idealized removal of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. We use idealized scenarios in our analysis to facilitate exploration of the basic response of the coupled climate-carbon cycle system to proposed methods of removing anthropogenic CO2. In our extreme and idealized simulations, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are halted and all anthropogenic CO2 is removed from the atmosphere at year 2050 under the IPCC A2 CO2 emission scenario. In our simulations a one-time removal of all anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere reduces surface air temperature by 0.8°C within a few years, but 1°C surface warming above pre-industrial levels lasts for several centuries. In other words, a one-time removal of 100% excess CO2 from the atmosphere offsets less than 50% of the warming experienced at the time of removal. To maintain atmospheric CO2 and temperature at low levels, not only does anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere need to be removed, but anthropogenic CO2 stored in the ocean and land needs to be removed as well when it outgasses to the atmosphere. Our study indicts that the amount of CO2 that would need to be removed from the atmosphere, either by biological means or other means, could be much greater than the desired reduction in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and may exceed the total burden of excess atmospheric CO2 at the time

  4. Simultaneous removal of dissolved organic matter and bromide from drinking water source by anion exchange resins for controlling disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Phetrak, Athit; Lohwacharin, Jenyuk; Sakai, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    Anion exchange resins (AERs) with different properties were evaluated for their ability to remove dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bromide, and to reduce disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potentials of water collected from a eutrophic surface water source in Japan. DOM and bromide were simultaneously removed by all selected AERs in batch adsorption experiments. A polyacrylic magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX®) showed faster dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal than other AERs because it had the smallest resin bead size. Aromatic DOM fractions with molecular weight larger than 1600 Da and fluorescent organic fractions of fulvic acid- and humic acid-like compounds were efficiently removed by all AERs. Polystyrene AERs were more effective in bromide removal than polyacrylic AERs. This result implied that the properties of AERs, i.e. material and resin size, influenced not only DOM removal but also bromide removal efficiency. MIEX® showed significant chlorinated DBP removal because it had the highest DOC removal within 30 min, whereas polystyrene AERs efficiently removed brominated DBPs, especially brominated trihalomethane species. The results suggested that, depending on source water DOM and bromide concentration, selecting a suitable AER is a key factor in effective control of chlorinated and brominated DBPs in drinking water. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of chromium Cr(VI) by low-cost chemically activated carbon materials from water.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhongren; Bender, Samantha E; Wang, Jinwen; Economy, James

    2009-07-15

    Low-cost, chemically activated carbon materials, Pellet-600 and PVA-300, were prepared at relatively low temperatures and show more effective removal efficiency of Cr(VI) from water than commercially available activated carbons tested. The Pellet-600 is a pelletized carbon material with high mesoporous volumes and surface area, and the PVA-300 is composed of a high surface area carbon coating on a fiberglass mat substrate. A much faster adsorption kinetics and a much higher adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) are achieved by the Pellet-600. At very low concentrations of Cr(VI), the PVA-300 displays a strong adsorption ability for Cr(VI). XPS data show an increase in the atomic ratio of Cr/C and oxidation of carbon materials after adsorption of Cr(VI). These results suggest that a high content of mesopores with a high surface area and surface functional groups greatly improve the Cr(VI) removal efficiency from water.

  6. Efficient removal of copper from wastewater by using mechanically activated calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huimin; Li, Xuewei; Huang, Pengwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Yuan, Wenyi

    2017-12-01

    Copper removal from aqueous solution is necessary from the stances of both environmental protection and copper resource recycling. It is important to develop a new chemical precipitation method suitable for removing copper particularly at low concentration as the case of waste mine water, with regards to the various problems related to the current precipitation methods by using strong alkalis or soluble sulfides. In this research, we studied a possible chemical precipitation of copper ions at concentration around 60 mg/L or lower by cogrinding copper sulfate in water with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) using wet stirred ball milling. With the aid of ball milling, copper precipitation as a basic sulfate (posnjakite: Cu4 (SO4) (OH)6·H2O) occurred at a very high copper removal rate of 99.76%, to reduce the residual copper concentration in the solution less than 0.5 mg/L, reaching the discharge limit, even with the addition amount of CaCO3 as a stoichiometric ratio of CaCO3/Cu(2+)at 1:1. It is more interesting to notice that, at the same conditions, other heavy metals such as Ni, Mn, Zn and Cd do not precipitate obviously just with CaCO3 addition at CaCO3/M(2+)at 1:1 so that the precipitate without the impurities can be processed as good source to recover copper. This newly proposed concept can be further developed to treat wastewaters with other metals to serve both purposes of environmental purification and resource recovery in a similar way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Abel, A.; McPherson, B. J.; Stringer, J.

    2002-12-01

    The utility industry is currently producing 2.1 x 109 tonnes of CO2 per year from burning coal. The amounts of CO2 produced by a single coal-burning station are typically around 0.1 tonnes/MW/h for a coal burn of 0.04 tonnes/MW/h. These large fixed sources of CO2 constitute an obvious target for carbon sequestration to minimize greenhouse-gas emissions. The generally favored approach in present sequestration research is to achieve a CO2 stream that is highly concentrated, compress it, and transport it to geologic sequestration sites, such as deep saline aquifers. The volume of the CO2 is of some interest here. Supercritical CO2, as supplied for example from natural wells to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites, has a density of approximately 0.9, and is relatively incompressible, which means that the volume of sequestered supercritical CO2 will be somewhat greater than that of the coal from which it was formed. The volume of water displaced by CO2 injection into aquifers would be closely comparable to the volume of the CO2 itself. An alternative path, which we have been following, would capture the gas as calcium carbonate, CaCO3, in a biomimetic approach that offers some obvious advantages. Sequestration, in this case, is in the form of a safe, stable, environmentally benign product. On a geologic timeframe, considerable amounts of CO2 have been sequestered as, for example, oolitic limestone deposits and dolomite deposits, suggesting that very long-lived or even permanent sequestration is possible in solid carbonate form. Not only would our approach remove the costly steps of concentrating and compressing the CO2, but also it is anticipated that it would remove the need for long-term monitoring to check for CO2 leakage. In a separate collaborative study detailed by Abel and others (this volume), ramifications of geologic sequestration of CO2 and/or bicarbonate-enriched brines are evaluated with laboratory flow experiments and computer model simulations. Porosity and

  8. Experimental investigation and modeling of dissolved organic carbon removal by coagulation from seawater.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sanghyun; Sathasivan, Arumugam; Kastl, George; Shim, Wang Geun; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation removes colloidal matters and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which can cause irreversible membrane fouling. However, how DOC is removed by coagulant is not well-known. Jar test was used to study the removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic DOC fractions at various doses (0.5-8.0 mg-Fe(+3) L(-1)) of ferric chloride (FeCl3) and pH (5.0-9.0). Natural organic matter (NOM) in seawater and treated seawater were fractionated by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD). Compared to surface water, the removal of DOC in seawater by coagulation was remarkably different. Majority of DOC could be easily removed with very low coagulant dose (<5.0 mg-Fe(+3) L(-1)) and the removal efficiency did not vary with pH, but the DOC composition in treated water had significantly changed. Hydrophobic fraction (HB) was better removed at high pH while hydrophilic fraction (HF) was better removed at low pH. A modified model of Kastl et al. (2004) which assumed that the removal occurred by adsorption of un-dissociated compounds onto ferric hydroxide was formulated and successfully validated against the jar test data.

  9. Particle characterization in retail environments: concentrations, sources, and removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zaatari, M; Siegel, J

    2014-08-01

    Particles in retail environments can have consequences for the occupational exposures of retail workers and customers, as well as the energy costs associated with ventilation and filtration. Little is known about particle characteristics in retail environments. We measured indoor and outdoor mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 , number concentrations of submicron particles (0.02-1 μm), size-resolved 0.3-10 μm particles, as well as ventilation rates in 14 retail stores during 24 site visits in Pennsylvania and Texas. Overall, the results were generally suggestive of relatively clean environments when compared to investigations of other building types and ambient/occupational regulatory limits. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations (mean ± s.d.) were 20 ± 14 and 11 ± 10 μg/m(3), respectively, with indoor-to-outdoor ratios of 1.0 ± 0.7 and 0.88 ± 1.0. Mean submicron particle concentrations were 7220 ± 7500 particles/cm(3) with an indoor-to-outdoor ratio of 1.18 ± 1.30. The median contribution to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations from indoor sources (vs. outdoors) was 83% and 53%, respectively. There were no significant correlations between measured ventilation rates and particle concentrations of any size. When examining options to lower PM2.5 concentrations below regulatory limits, the required changes to ventilation and filtration efficiency were site specific and depended on the indoor and outdoor concentration, emission rate, and infiltration level. Little is known about particle concentrations, contribution of indoor sources, and emission rates in retail environments. Knowledge of these particle characteristics informs health scientists with input parameters to include in exposure modeling. The predicted concentration change in response to different ventilation rates and filtration efficiencies may be used for guidance to develop control strategies to lower particulate matter concentrations in retail environments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  10. Removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine precursors with powdered activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Ersan, Mahmut Selim; Uzun, Habibullah; Karanfil, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the roles of powdered activated carbon (PAC) characteristics (i.e., surface chemistry, pore size distribution, and surface area) in the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (FP) in surface and wastewater-impacted waters. Also, the effects of natural attenuation of NDMA precursors in surface waters, NDMA FP concentration, and carbon dose on the removal of NDMA FP by PAC were evaluated. Finally, the removal of NDMA FP by PAC at two full-scale DWTPs was monitored. Wastewater-impacted and surface water samples were collected to conduct adsorption experiments using different PACs and activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with a wide range of physicochemical characteristics. The removal efficiency of NDMA FP by PAC was significantly higher in wastewater-impacted than surface waters. Adsorbable NDMA precursors showed a size distribution in the waters tested; the adsorbable fraction included precursors accessing the pore size regions of 10-20 Å and <10 Å. Basic carbons showed higher removal of NDMA FP than acidic carbons on a surface area basis. The overall removal of NDMA FP by PAC on a mass basis depended on the surface area, pore size distribution and pHPZC. Thus, PACs with hybrid characteristics (micro and mesoporous), higher surface areas, and basic surface chemistry are more likely to be effective for NDMA precursor control by PAC adsorption. The application of PAC in DWTPs for taste and odor control resulted in an additional 20% removal of NDMA FP for the PAC doses of 7-10 mg/L. The natural attenuation of NDMA precursors through a combination of processes (biodegradation, photolysis and adsorption) decreased their adsorbability and removal by PAC adsorption.

  11. Utilization of carbon sources by clinical isolates of Aeromonas.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Karoline C; Surek, Monica; Dallagassa, Cibelle B; Assis, Flávia E A; Piantavini, Mario S; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Farah, Sônia M S S; Alberton, Dayane; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia M T

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria in the genus Aeromonas are primarily aquatic organisms; however, some species can cause diseases in humans, ranging from wound infections to septicemia, of which diarrhea is the most common condition. The ability to use a variety of carbon substrates is advantageous for pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, we used Biolog GN2 microplates to analyze the ability of 103 clinical, predominantly diarrheal, isolates of Aeromonas to use various carbon sources, and we verified whether, among the substrates metabolized by these strains, there were some endogenous to the human intestine. The results indicate that Aeromonas present great diversity in the utilization of carbon sources, and that they preferentially use carbohydrates and amino acids as carbon sources. Among the carbon sources metabolized by Aeromonas in vitro, some were found to be components of intestinal mucin, including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, l-serine, galactose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and glucose, which were used by all strains tested. Additionally, mannose, d-serine, proline, threonine, and N-acetyl-galactosamine were used by several strains. The potential to metabolize substrates endogenous to the intestine may contribute to Aeromonas' capacity to grow in and colonize the intestine. We speculate that this may help explain the ability of Aeromonas to cause diarrhea.

  12. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  13. Removal of lead from aqueous effluents by adsorption on coconut shell carbon.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, M Chandra

    2008-04-01

    The application of adsorption for removal of heavy metals is quite popular and activated carbon is universally used as an adsorbent. However, high cost of its preparation and regeneration has led to a search for alternative sorbents, especially in the developing countries. A number of sorbents are used to remove metals by adsorption from industrial effluents, which include insoluble starch, xanthates, modified cotton and wool, tree barks, activated carbon, plant leaves and agricultural products. Therefore, as an alternative, coconut shell carbon (CSC), a low cost sorbent derived from organic waste material, was used in the present work, for removal of lead from aqueous effluents. The results of the batch sorption studies indicated that the efficiency of lead removal by coconut shell carbon is comparable to that of commercially available activated carbon. From the kinetic and equilibrium studies, the sorptive capacity of coconut shell carbon for lead was found to be 30 mg/g. Desorption and subsequent recovery of the metal from the surface of the sorbent was successfully demonstrated. Parameters affecting the sorption were evaluated.

  14. Bench to bedside review: Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, past present and future

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a substantial mortality rate and annually affects more than 140,000 people in the USA alone. Standard management includes lung protective ventilation but this impairs carbon dioxide clearance and may lead to right heart dysfunction or increased intracranial pressure. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal has the potential to optimize lung protective ventilation by uncoupling oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance. The aim of this article is to review the carbon dioxide removal strategies that are likely to be widely available in the near future. Relevant published literature was identified using PubMed and Medline searches. Queries were performed by using the search terms ECCOR, AVCO2R, VVCO2R, respiratory dialysis, and by combining carbon dioxide removal and ARDS. The only search limitation imposed was English language. Additional articles were identified from reference lists in the studies that were reviewed. Several novel strategies to achieve carbon dioxide removal were identified, some of which are already commercially available whereas others are in advanced stages of development. PMID:23014710

  15. Effective carbon and nitrogen removal with reduced sulfur oxidation in an anaerobic baffled reactor for fresh leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhixuan; Xie, Li; Cui, Xinwei; Zhou, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The application of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with four compartments was investigated for the simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen from leachate. The nitrified effluent was recycled to compartment 3 of the ABR, thereby avoiding the adverse influence of nitrogen oxides on anaerobic methanogenesis in compartment 1. Nitrified effluent recirculation not only enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal (>95.6%) but also improved the total nitrogen removal efficiency from 12.7% to 67.4% with increasing recirculation ratio from 0.25 to 2. The challenge of insufficient carbon sources for heterotrophic denitrification in compartment 3 with a high recirculation ratio could be overcome by step feeding of leachate. Moreover, various reduced sulfurs (e.g., sulfide, elemental sulfur, and organic sulfur) were involved in nitrate reduction via sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification. The addition of sulfide to compartment 3 further confirmed nitrate reduction using reduced sulfur as an electron donor. The interaction of organic carbon, reduced sulfur, and nitrate in leachate treatment needs further study. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Static and dynamic removal of aquatic natural organic matter by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Abbott Chalew, Talia E; Schwab, Kellogg J; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Huang, Haiou

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated for their capability and mechanisms to simultaneously remove colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and humic substances from natural surface water. Static removal testing was conducted via adsorption experiments while dynamic removal was evaluated by layering CNTs onto substrate membranes and filtering natural water through the CNT-layered membranes. Analyses of treated water samples showed that removal of humic substances occurred via adsorption under both static and dynamic conditions. Removal of colloidal NOM occurred at a moderate level of 36-66% in static conditions, independent of the specific surface area (SSA) of CNTs. Dynamic removal of colloidal NOM increased from approximately 15% with the unmodified membrane to 80-100% with the CNT-modified membranes. Depth filtration played an important role in colloidal NOM removal. A comparison of the static and dynamic removal of humic substances showed that equilibrium static removal was higher than dynamic (p < 0.01), but there was also a significant linear relationship between static and dynamic removal (p < 0.05). Accounting for contact time of CNTs with NOM during filtration, it appeared that CNT mat structure was an important determinant of removal efficiencies for colloidal NOM and humic substances during CNT membrane filtration.

  17. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  18. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  19. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Secondes, Mona Freda N; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Ballesteros, Florencio

    2014-01-15

    Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs.

  20. A review: Potential and challenges of biologically activated carbon to remove natural organic matter in drinking water purification process.

    PubMed

    Korotta-Gamage, Shashika Madushi; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    The use of biologically activated carbon (BAC) in drinking water purification is reviewed. In the past BAC is seen mostly as a polishing treatment. However, BAC has the potential to provide solution to recent challenges faced by water utilities arising from change in natural organic matter (NOM) composition in drinking water sources - increased NOM concentration with a larger fraction of hydrophilic compounds and ever increasing trace level organic pollutants. Hydrophilic NOM is not removed by traditional coagulation process and causes bacterial regrowth and increases disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during disinfection. BAC can offer many advantages by removing hydrophilic fraction and many toxic and endocrine compounds which are not otherwise removed. BAC can also aid the other downstream processes if used as a pre-treatment. Major drawback of BAC was longer empty bed contact time (EBCT) required for an effective NOM removal. This critical review analyses the strategies that have been adopted to enhance the biological activity of the carbon by operational means and summarises the surface modification methods. To maximize the benefit of the BAC, a rethink of current treatment plant configuration is proposed. If the process can be expedited and adopted appropriately, BAC can solve many of the current problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon Source Metabolism and Its Regulation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengqian; Qie, Shuo; Sang, Nianli

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell proliferation and progression require sufficient supplies of nutrients including carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and molecular oxygen. Particularly, carbon sources and molecular oxygen are critical for the generation of ATP and building blocks, and for the maintenance of intracellular redox status. However, solid tumors frequently outgrow the blood supply, resulting in nutrient insufficiency. Accordingly, cancer cell metabolism shows aberrant biochemical features that are consequences of oncogenic signaling and adaptation. Those adaptive metabolism features, including the Warburg effect and addiction to glutamine, may form the biochemical basis for resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that link the signaling pathways to adaptive metabolic reprogramming may identify novel biomarkers for drug development. In this review we focus on the regulation of carbon source utilization at a cellular level, emphasizing its relevance to proliferative biosynthesis in cancer cells. We summarize the essential needs of proliferating cells and the metabolic features of glucose, lipids, and glutamine, and we review the roles of transcription regulators (i.e.,HIF-l, c-Myc, and p53) and two major oncogenic signaling pathways (i.e., PI3K-Akt and MAPK) in regulating the utilization of carbon sources. Finally, the effects of glucose on cell proliferation and perspective from both biochemical and cellular angles are discussed. PMID:22339657

  2. Black carbon and carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during W_ICARB: Source characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Prabha R.

    2014-09-01

    The ship borne measurements of near-surface black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the winter period of 2009 under W_ICARB, the second phase of ‘Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)'. The CO mixing ratio and BC mass concentration varied in the ranges of 80-480 ppbv and 75-10,000 ng m-3, respectively over this marine region. The BC and CO showed similar variations over northern BoB where airmass from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region prevailed during the observations period leading to a very strong positive correlation. The association of BC and CO was poor over the eastern and southern part of BoB could be due to the removal of BC aerosols by rain and/or processes of dilution and mixing while transported over to BoB. The highest value of CO observed over eastern BoB was partially due to biomass burning over East Asia. The BC/CO ratio for IGP airmass found to be 20.3 ng m-3 ppb-1 and ∼16 ng m-3 ppb-1 during winter and pre-monsoon, respectively which indicate the role of biomass burning as the source of BC over the region. Based on the emission flux of CO from various inventories and observed BC/CO ratios during pre-monsoon and winter, the BC emission for India is estimated to be in the range of 0.78-1.23 Tg year-1. The analysis of scavenging of BC revealed the loss rate of BC due to relative humidity 0.39 ± 0.08 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over northern BoB and 0.53 ± 0.04 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over the southern-BoB during winter.

  3. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water.

  4. Biological removal of carbon disulfide from waste air streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hugler, W.; Acosta, C.; Revah, S.

    1999-09-30

    A pilot-scale biological control system for the treatment of 3,400 m{sup 3} h{sup {minus}1} of a gaseous stream containing up to 7.8 g CS{sub 2} m{sup {minus}3} and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) was installed in a cellulose sponge manufacturing facility. The objective was to demonstrate the capability of the process to attain sustained removal efficiencies of 90% for CS{sub 2} and 99% for H{sub 2}S. The system consisted of two sequential biotrickling reactors, which had been previously inoculated with an adapted microbial consortium. During the pilot test, stable removal efficiency and elimination capacity of +90% and 220g CS{sub 2} m{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1}, respectively, were attained with an empty bed residence time (EBTR) of 33 seconds for a period of several weeks. Efficiencies greater than 99% were always obtained for H{sub 2}S. Based on the results, the system was determined to be an effective process to remediate waste air streams containing reduced sulfur compounds generated at cellulose sponge facilities.

  5. Removal characteristics of trace compounds of landfill gas by activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Park, Jin-Won; Park, Kwinam; Song, Ho-Cheol

    2002-01-01

    The removal characteristics of trace compounds and moisture in raw landfill gas (LFG) were studied. The LFG from the extraction well was saturated with water and moisture was eliminated by physical methods including cyclone-type dehydrator and compressor. The moisture removal efficiency of dehydrator and compressor was above 80%. As the moisture contents of LFG decreased, the toxic compounds like aromatics and chlorinated compounds were effectively removed by using the granular activated carbon. The breakthrough time and adsorption capacity of benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene decreased rapidly when the relative humidity is over 60%. The effect of moisture was more pronounced at lower adsorbate concentrations tested than at higher concentrations. The breakthrough curves for multi-component mixtures show displacement effects. In the course of competing adsorption, adsorbates with strong interaction force to displace weakly bounded substances. Adsorption by activated carbon is in descending order of xylene, ethylbenzene, toluene, tri or tetrachloroethylene, benzene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in LFG, respectively.

  6. Biotemplate synthesis of carbon nanostructures using bamboo as both the template and the carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiaodan; Yang, Qian; Zheng, Yifan; Mo, Weimin; Hu, Jianguan; Huang, Wanzhen

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures was demonstrated. • The bamboo was selected as both the green carbon source and the biotemplate. • Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructure have been identified. • The corresponding growth mechanism of each carbon nanostructure was proposed. - Abstract: A series of carbon nanostructures were prepared via a biotemplate method by catalytic decomposition of bamboo impregnated with ferric nitrate. The natural nanoporous bamboo was used as both the green carbon source and the template for the in situ growth of carbon nanostructures. Scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope were used to characterize the product. Four distinct structural types of carbon nanostructures have been identified, namely nanofibers, hollow carbon nanospheres, herringbone and bamboo-shaped nanotubes. The effect of reaction temperature (from 600 to 900 °C) on the growth behavior of carbon nanostructures was investigated and the corresponding growth mechanism was proposed. At low temperature the production of nanofibers was favored, while higher temperature led to bamboo-shaped nanostructures.

  7. [Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal by gas-water alternative membrane bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-yi; Wang, Hong-jie; Li, Wei-guang; Yin, Weng-chao; Gan, Guang-hua; Yang, Yue

    2009-08-15

    A bench-scale comparative study between gas-water alternative membrane bioreactor (AMBR) and traditional submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) treating synthetic municipal wastewater was conducted with respect to the effects of carbon and nitrogen removal and membrane fouling. The results showed that both the AMBR and the SMBR had very good removal in COD and NH4+ -N of more than 96%. In SMBR, carbon and nitrogen removal was enabled by biomass in bulk liquid, while in AMBR, it was supposed to be functioned mainly by the biofilm attached to the surface of hollow fiber membrane since little sludge was found in the bulk liquid. However, TN removal was 76.94% in AMBR and 52.41% in SMBR, showing a more effective denitrification in AMBR compared to SMBR. Also, AMBR was found to be more effective in membrane fouling alleviation than SMBR through long time investigation of trans-membrane pressure.

  8. Mechanistic investigation of industrial wastewater naphthenic acids removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm based processes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) have known environmental toxicity and are resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. The granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm treatment process has been shown to effectively treat OSPW NAs via combined adsorption/biodegradation processes despite the lack of research investigating their individual contributions. Presently, the NAs removals due to the individual processes of adsorption and biodegradation in OSPW bioreactors were determined using sodium azide to inhibit biodegradation. For raw OSPW, after 28 days biodegradation and adsorption contributed 14% and 63% of NA removal, respectively. For ozonated OSPW, biodegradation removed 18% of NAs while adsorption reduced NAs by 73%. Microbial community 454-pyrosequencing of bioreactor matrices indicated the importance of biodegradation given the diverse carbon degrading families including Acidobacteriaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae. Overall, results highlight the ability to determine specific processes of NAs removals in the combined treatment process in the presence of diverse bacteria metabolic groups found in GAC bioreactors.

  9. Effect of carbon source on compost nitrogen and carbon losses.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Suzelle; Choinière, Denis; Trigui, Maher; Knight, William

    2002-07-01

    The effect of C source on N losses by volatilization during composting was measured using four bulking agents, each at three humidity levels and composted in duplicate under passive and active aeration. The bulking agents were pine shavings alone and corrected with soybean, chopped grass hay alone and corrected with urea, long (unchopped) wheat straw and chopped oat straw. The readily available C of each bulking agent was determined by analyzing for BOD5. In 105 l laboratory vessels, the bulking agents were mixed with liquid swine manure and tap water for a C/N of 20 and three humidity levels of 60%, 65% and 70%. While being aerated actively or passively, the mixtures were composted for 21 days. Their initial and final C and N contents were measured to conduct a mass balance analysis and calculate C and N losses. C and N losses were compared to bulking agent BOD5. N losses were compared to C losses. The humidity level and aeration regime had no effect on C and N losses but the N losses were correlated to C losses and only the C losses could be correlated to the BOD5 of the bulking agent. Thus, the N losses are related not only to the availability of C but also to the extent of composting. A relationship established between N and C losses indicated that 85% of the initial total N of the compost was available for microbial degradation and that 70% of the available C was lost as CO2 during the immobilization process.

  10. Enhanced Sulfur Removal of Coal Via Carbon Fiber Production

    SciTech Connect

    Alesha Patterson; David Grffith; Delbert Buffinger; Edward Asikele; Herbert Smitherman; Osagie Evbuoma

    1997-05-30

    The characterization of highly graphitic vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) produced by the floating catalyst method was determined to evaluate the effect of processing changes on the VGCF properties. Properties examined were bulk density, bulk resistivity of compressed fiber bundles, UV absorption of acetone extractables, graphitic index, pH value, and ASTM dibutyl phthalate absorption number. The data show the properties do not vary significantly from three different reactor tubes used to produce the fibers. Of the properties examined, only graphitic index, density and UV absorption of acetone extractables appear to be independent of sampling handling. Resistivity is directly correlated to the pressure exerted to from the fiber pellet due to the layering of the fiber bundles. The pH of fiber samples suspended in water does not vary significantly. The dibutyl phthalate absorption number is strongly affected by the compression of the material. Thus, only the graphitic index, the UV absorption of acetone extractables, and the apparent density will be used to aid in process quality control and to determine the process conditions required to produce carbon fiber with properties optimized for specific conditions using high sulfur coal dust.

  11. Role of the surface chemistry of activated carbons in dye removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua-lei; Zhen, Wen-juan; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Xiao-bin; Chang, Zhi-dong; Li, Wen-jun

    2015-07-01

    Commercial activated carbons were modified by a series of chemical or physical treatments using H2O2, NH3, and heating under N2 flow without notably changing their pore structures. The resultant carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and Bohem titration and then used to remove Ponceau 4R, methyl orange and brilliant blue from aqueous solutions. Surface chemistry was found to play a significantly different role in removing these three compounds. The removal of anionic Ponceau 4R increases with increasing carbon surface basicity due to the predominant dispersive interaction mechanism. In contrast, surface chemistry has little effect on the removal of anionic methyl orange, which can be explained by two parallel mechanisms involving electrostatic and dispersive interactions due to the basic amine group in a dye molecule. The influence of surface chemistry on the removal of amphoteric brilliant blue dye can also be ignored due to a weak interaction between the carbons and dye molecules, which is resulted from strong cohesive energy from electrostatic forces inside amphoteric dye molecules.

  12. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (ISS CDRA) Concepts and Advancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ElSherif, Dina; Knox, James C.

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of air revitalization for life support in spacecraft is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air. Several types of carbon dioxide removal systems are in use in spacecraft life support. These systems rely on various removal techniques that employ different architectures and media for scrubbing CO2, such as permeable membranes, liquid amine, adsorbents, and absorbents. Sorbent systems have been used since the first manned missions. The current state of key technology is the existing International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), a system that selectively removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. The CDRA system was launched aboard UF-2 in February 2001 and resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory module. During the past four years, the CDRA system has operated with varying degrees of success. There have been several approaches to troubleshooting the CDRA system aimed at developing work-around solutions that would minimize the impact on astronaut time required to implement interim solutions. The paper discusses some of the short-term fixes applied to promote hardware life and restore functionality, as well as long-term plans and solutions for improving operability and reliability. The CDRA is a critical piece of life support equipment in the air revitalization system of the ISS, and is demonstrated technology that may ultimately prove well-suited for use in lunar or Mars base, and Mars transit life support applications.

  13. Elevated pCO2 enhances bacterioplankton removal of organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    James, Anna K.; Passow, Uta; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Parsons, Rachel J.; Trapani, Jennifer N.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect the removal of organic carbon by heterotrophic bacterioplankton can impact the rate and magnitude of organic carbon loss in the ocean through the conversion of a portion of consumed organic carbon to CO2. Through enhanced rates of consumption, surface bacterioplankton communities can also reduce the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) available for export from the surface ocean. The present study investigated the direct effects of elevated pCO2 on bacterioplankton removal of several forms of DOC ranging from glucose to complex phytoplankton exudate and lysate, and naturally occurring DOC. Elevated pCO2 (1000–1500 ppm) enhanced both the rate and magnitude of organic carbon removal by bacterioplankton communities compared to low (pre-industrial and ambient) pCO2 (250 –~400 ppm). The increased removal was largely due to enhanced respiration, rather than enhanced production of bacterioplankton biomass. The results suggest that elevated pCO2 can increase DOC consumption and decrease bacterioplankton growth efficiency, ultimately decreasing the amount of DOC available for vertical export and increasing the production of CO2 in the surface ocean. PMID:28257422

  14. Preparation of Bamboo Chars and Bamboo Activated Carbons to Remove Color and COD from Ink Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hata, Motohide; Amano, Yoshimasa; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Machida, Motoi

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo chars and bamboo activated carbons prepared by steam activation were applied for ink wastewater treatment. Bamboo char at 800 °C was the best for the removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from ink wastewater compared to bamboo chars at 300 to 700 °C due to higher surface area and mesopore volume. Bamboo activated carbon at 600 °C (S600) was the best compared to bamboo activated carbon at 800 °C (S800), although S800 had larger surface area (1108 m(2)/g) than S600 (734 m(2)/g). S600 had higher mesopore volume (0.20 cm(3)/g) than S800 (0.16 cm(3)/g) and therefore achieved higher color and COD removal. All bamboo activated carbons showed higher color and COD removal efficiency than commercial activated carbon. In addition, S600 had the superior adsorption capacity for methylene blue (0.89 mmol/g). Therefore, bamboo is a suitable material to prepare adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants.

  15. Elevated pCO2 enhances bacterioplankton removal of organic carbon.

    PubMed

    James, Anna K; Passow, Uta; Brzezinski, Mark A; Parsons, Rachel J; Trapani, Jennifer N; Carlson, Craig A

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect the removal of organic carbon by heterotrophic bacterioplankton can impact the rate and magnitude of organic carbon loss in the ocean through the conversion of a portion of consumed organic carbon to CO2. Through enhanced rates of consumption, surface bacterioplankton communities can also reduce the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) available for export from the surface ocean. The present study investigated the direct effects of elevated pCO2 on bacterioplankton removal of several forms of DOC ranging from glucose to complex phytoplankton exudate and lysate, and naturally occurring DOC. Elevated pCO2 (1000-1500 ppm) enhanced both the rate and magnitude of organic carbon removal by bacterioplankton communities compared to low (pre-industrial and ambient) pCO2 (250 -~400 ppm). The increased removal was largely due to enhanced respiration, rather than enhanced production of bacterioplankton biomass. The results suggest that elevated pCO2 can increase DOC consumption and decrease bacterioplankton growth efficiency, ultimately decreasing the amount of DOC available for vertical export and increasing the production of CO2 in the surface ocean.

  16. Removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater through adsorption on modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ben Hariz, Ichrak; Al Ayni, Foued; Monser, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater on a chemically modified activated carbon (MAC) was investigated. The modification technique (nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and thermal modification) enhanced the removal capacity of carbon and therefore decreases cost-effective removal of sulfide from refinery wastewater. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data were determined for sulfur removal from real refinery wastewater. The data were evaluated according to several adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. The Freundlich isotherm fitted well with the equilibrium data of sulfur on different adsorbents, whereas the kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. Insights of sulfide removal mechanisms indicated that the sorption was controlled through the intraparticle diffusion mechanism with a significant contribution of film diffusion. The MAC adsorbent was found to have an effective removal capacity of approximately 2.5 times that of non-modified carbon. Using different MAC, sulfides were eliminated with a removal capacity of 52 mg g(-1). Therefore, MAC can be utilized as an effective and less expensive adsorbent for the reduction of sulfur in refinery wastewater.

  17. Metal Ion Removal from Wastewaters by Sorption on Activated Carbon, Cement Kiln Dust, and Sawdust.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Eissa, Fawzy I; Ghanem, Khaled M; El-Din, Hala M Gamal; Al Anany, Fathia S

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of activated carbon, cement kiln dust (CKD), and sawdust for the removal of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) from aqueous solutions under mono-metal and competitive sorption systems and the removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn from different industrial wastewaters. Batch equilibrium experiments were conducted in a mono-metal and competitive sorption system. The efficiency of the sorbents in the removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn from industrial wastewaters was also investigated. Cement kiln dust expressed the highest affinity for the metals followed by activated carbon and sawdust. Competition among the metals changed their distribution coefficient (Kd) with the sorbents. Sorption of Pb and Cu was higher than Cd and Zn. The average metal removal from the wastewaters varied from 74, 61, and 60% for Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively, to nearly 100%. The efficiencies of CKD and activated carbon in removing metals were higher than sawdust, suggesting their potential as low-cost sorbents for the removal of toxic metals from wastewaters.

  18. Removal of cadmium ion from wastewater by carbon-based nanosorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Chawla, Jyoti; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2015-03-01

    A green environment and a healthy life are dream projects of today's science and technology to save the world. Heavy metal ions in water affect both environment and human health. Cadmium has been identified as one of the heavy metals that causes acute or chronic toxic effects if ingested. Increasing use of cadmium in different technological fields has raised concern about its presence and removal from water/wastewater. Researchers have made many systematic efforts to remove heavy metals from water to reduce their impact on human beings and the environment. Adsorption is one of the best methods to remove heavy metals from water among the different proposed methods. This study explores carbon-based nanosorbents which have been proved as effective adsorbents for removal of cadmium ions from water. The adsorption efficiency of carbon-based nanosorbents is the main criterion to rank and select them for removal of cadmium ions from water. Toxicity, reusability and environmentally friendly characteristics of sorbents are also taken considered while ranking the suitable carbon-based nanosorbents for removal of cadmium ions from water.

  19. Chemoselective Synthesis of Carbamates using CO2 as Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Daniel; Hirapara, Pradipbhai; Das, Shoubhik

    2016-08-09

    Synthesis of carbamates directly from amines using CO2 as the carbon source is a straightforward and sustainable approach. Herein, we describe a highly effective and chemoselective methodology for the synthesis of carbamates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This methodology can also be applied to protect the amino group in amino acids and peptides, and also to synthesize important pharmaceuticals.

  20. A mobile light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, W. P.; Karev, A. I.; Melekhin, V. N.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Sobenin, N. P.

    1995-05-01

    The pulsed light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras developed to image concealed narcotics/explosives is described. This race-track microtron will produce 40 mA pulses of 70 MeV electrons, have minimal size and weight, and maximal ruggedness and reliability, so that it can be transported on a truck.

  1. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, H; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Spångberg, J; Davidsson, Å

    2017-04-06

    Source separation systems for the management of domestic wastewater and food waste has been suggested as more sustainable sanitation systems for urban areas. The present study used an attributional life cycle assessment to investigate the carbon footprint and potential for nutrient recovery of two sanitation systems for a hypothetical urban area in Southern Sweden. The systems represented a typical Swedish conventional system and a possible source separation system with increased nutrient recovery. The assessment included the management chain from household collection, transport, treatment and final return of nutrients to agriculture or disposal of the residuals. The results for carbon footprint and nutrient recovery (phosphorus and nitrogen) concluded that the source separation system could increase nutrient recovery (0.30-0.38 kg P capita(-1) year(-1) and 3.10-3.28 kg N capita(-1) year(-1)), while decreasing the carbon footprint (-24 to -58 kg CO2-eq. capita(-1) year(-1)), compared to the conventional system. The nutrient recovery was increased by the use of struvite precipitation and ammonium stripping at the wastewater treatment plant. The carbon footprint decreased, mainly due to the increased biogas production, increased replacement of mineral fertilizer in agriculture and less emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. In conclusion, the study showed that source separation systems could potentially be used to increase nutrient recovery from urban areas, while decreasing the climate impact.

  2. Removing material using atomic force microscopy with single- and multiple-tip sources.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ampere A

    2011-12-16

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been an effective material removing tool for fabricating various nanostructures because of its sub-nanometer precision and simplicity in operation. AFM material removing techniques have evolved from a solely mechanical process to one in which the tip can be loaded by additional energy sources, such as thermal, electric, or chemical, to enhance its fabrication abilities. In this paper, these material removing techniques are reviewed with an emphasis on their capabilities and recent progress. The recent hardware and software developments are first presented to provide a general view on the current status of the technology to be assessed. Following an overview of the feasibility and effectiveness of using mechanical scratching for removing various types of soft and hard materials, the processes of a wide range of approaches using multiple tip sources are then assessed with a focus on their principles, versatilities, and potentials for future applications.

  3. A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).

  4. Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

    2014-06-24

    Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

  5. Growth of carbon nanotube field emitters on single strand carbon fiber: a linear electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ha Jin; Jong Bae, Min; Kim, Yong C.; Cho, Eun S.; Sohn, Y. C.; Kim, D. Y.; Lee, S. E.; Kang, H. S.; Han, In T.; Kim, Young H.; Patole, Shashikant P.; Yoo, Ji Beom

    2011-03-01

    The multi-stage effect has been revisited through growing carbon nanotube field emitters on single strand carbon fiber with a thickness of 11 µm. A prepared linear electron source exhibits a turn-on field as low as 0.4 V µm - 1 and an extremely high field enhancement factor of 19 300, when compared with those results from reference nanotube emitters grown on flat silicone wafer; 3.0 V µm - 1 and 2500, respectively. In addition, we introduce a novel method to grow nanotubes uniformly around the circumference of carbon fibers by using direct resistive heating on the continuously feeding carbon threads. These results open up not only a new path for synthesizing nanocomposites, but also offer an excellent linear electron source for special applications such as backlight units for liquid crystal displays and multi-array x-ray sources.

  6. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  7. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen source effects on basidiomycetes exopolysaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, V I; Kachlishvili, E T; Wasser, S P

    2009-01-01

    The capability to synthesize the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is widespread among eight mushroom species which accumulated 0.6-2.2 g/l of EPS in submerged cultivation. Glucose, maltose, and mannitol were the most appropriate carbon sources for biomass and EPS production. Organic nitrogen sources appeared to be the most suitable nitrogen sources for biomass and EPS accumulation. The cultivation process in shake flasks was successfully reproduced in a laboratory fermentor with enhanced EPS production. The highest yield of EPS (3.8-4.0 g/l) was achieved in cultivation of Agaricus nevoi and Inonotus levis.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS FLUX REDUCTION AND SOURCE-ZONE MASS REMOVAL: ANALYSIS OF FIELD DATA

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Erica L.

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of contaminant mass flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60% for all but three of the studies. Mass flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90% vs. ~8%) for similar mass removals (~40%). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass removal was inefficient

  10. Implications of biocrust removal on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion in a badlands area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Raúl Román, José; Miralles, Isabel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems, soils are characterized by having low organic carbon (OC) content and low fertility. In these systems, runoff, often generated in interplant soils, plays a crucial role in OC redistribution from source (interplant) areas to sink (vegetation) patches. Far from being bare, interplant soils in most arid and semiarid ecosystems are commonly covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts, which may reach up to 80% of soil cover. Biocrusts fix atmospheric C and increase the soil OC pool by several folds respect bare soils. In addition, biocrusts form a film on the surface that strongly protects soils against water erosion and prevents from OC losses. However, the role of BSCs in reducing OC losses associated to runoff and erosion may depend on the type and development of biocrust. On the other hand, loss of BSCs provoked by frequent disturbances in arid and semiarid areas leads to an increase in runoff and erosion, which may have important effects on OC losses and nutrient impoverishment in interplant areas. Despite their recognized role, very few studies have explicitly evaluated OC losses from runoff and erosion in soils covered by different types of biocrusts and, more importantly, the effects of biocrust disturbance on OC losses. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of two biocrust types (cyanobacteria and lichens) as well as of biocrust removal on dissolved and sediment OC losses, in a badlands site of southeastern Spain. Runoff and erosion after rain were measured in small field plots (1 m2) during one hydrological year and water samples collected for determination of dissolved OC and OC bonded to sediments. Our results showed that total OC losses decreased with biocrust development and that biocrust removal caused a dramatic increase in OC losses. The first rain after biocrust removal contributed the most to OC losses as runoff and, more noticeable, erosion greatly increased

  11. Model-based diagnosis of a carbon dioxide removal assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, David R.; Scarl, Ethan A.

    1992-03-01

    Model-based diagnosis (MBD) has been applied to a variety of mechanisms, but few of these have been in fluid flow domains. Important mechanism variables in these domains are continuous, and the mechanisms commonly contain complex recycle patterns. These properties violate some of the common assumptions for MBD. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) for the cabin atmosphere aboard NASA's Space Station Freedom is such a mechanism. Early work on diagnosing similar mechanisms showed that purely associative diagnostic systems could not adequately handle these mechanisms' frequent reconfigurations. This suggested a model-based approach and KATE was adapted to the domain. KATE is a constraint-based MBD shell. It has been successfully applied to liquid flow problems in handling liquid oxygen. However, that domain does not involve complex recycle streams, but the CDRA does. KATE had solved constraint sets by propagating parameter values through constraints; this method often fails on constraints sets which describe recycle systems. KATE was therefore extended to allow it to use external algebraic programs to solve its constraint sets. This paper describes the representational challenges involved in that extension, and describes adaptions which allowed KATE to work within the representational limitations imposed by those algebraic programs. It also presents preliminary results of the CDRA modeling.

  12. Strontium removal from caustic carbonate waste solutions using carrier coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    A carrier coprecipitation procedure has been developed for the radioactive strontium from caustic liquid low-level waste (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The from caustic liquid low-level waste (LLLW) generated at Oak two-step treatment process involves the addition of normal Sr (as SrCl{sub 2}) to the waste matrix, which is composed primarily of 0.3 M NAOH and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The active Sr equilibrates with the normal Sr carrier and coprecipitates as SrCO{sub 3} at pH 13. A liquid/solid separation is made before the pH of the supernate is reduced to pH 8 with sulfuric acid. During the neutralization step, the aluminum in the waste precipitates as Al(OH){sub 3} Further Sr decontamination is achieved as traces of active Sr sorb to the Al(OH){sub 3} that precipitates during the neutralization step. A final liquid/solid separation is made at pH 8 to remove the sorbed active Sr.

  13. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of metals from landfill leachate by sorption to activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines.

    PubMed

    Modin, Hanna; Persson, Kenneth M; Andersson, Anna; van Praagh, Martijn

    2011-05-30

    Sorption filters based on granular activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines were tested for their efficiency of removing metals from landfill leachate. Removal of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were studied in a laboratory scale setup. Activated carbon removed more than 90% of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni. Ca, Pb, Sr and Zn were removed but less efficiently. Bone meal removed over 80% of Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn and Sr and 20-80% of Al, Ca, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn. Iron fines removed most metals (As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn) to some extent but less efficiently. All materials released unwanted substances (metals, TOC or nutrients), highlighting the need to study the uptake and release of a large number of compounds, not only the target metals. To remove a wide range of metals using these materials two or more filter materials may need to be combined. Sorption mechanisms for all materials include ion exchange, sorption and precipitation. For iron fines oxidation of Fe(0) seems to be important for metal immobilisation.

  15. Removal of bromide from surface waters using silver impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Apul, Onur Guven; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-04-15

    The main objectives of this study were to develop an understanding of silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) preparation for enhanced bromide (Br(-)) removal from water, and to investigate the impact of aqueous background composition on the Br(-) removal. Several SIACs were produced using various combinations of oxidation and silver impregnation procedures and powdered activated carbons (ACs). Regardless of the preparation procedure, SIACs showed significantly Br(-) uptakes than the virgin ACs. The Br(-) removal efficiency was affected by (i) the background water composition (e.g. Cl(-) and NOM competition reduced the Br(-) uptake), (ii) silver impregnation process (e.g. silver content, pre-oxidation of virgin AC; silver impregnation largely increased the Br(-) removal, and the pre-oxidation of AC prior to silver impregnation was found to be important), and (iii) AC characteristics (e.g. surface area, oxygen content; SIACs with higher silver contents and larger surface areas exhibited higher degrees of Br(-) removal). The Br(-) removal by SIAC reduced the formation of brominated THMs. Jar test results showed that coagulation did not have an impact on Br(-) removal by SIAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of chromium(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Fahim, N F; Barsoum, B N; Eid, A E; Khalil, M S

    2006-08-21

    Chromium is commonly found in huge quantities in tannery wastewaters. For this reason, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of tannery wastewaters is crucial for environmental protection and economic reasons. Removal and recovery of chromium were carried out by using low-cost potential adsorbents. For this purpose three types of activated carbon; C1, the waste generated from sugar industry as waste products and the others (C2, C3) are commercial granular activated carbon, were used. The adsorption process and extent of adsorption are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental condition. The effect of pH, particle size and different adsorbent on the adsorption isotherm of Cr(III) was studied in batch system. The sorption data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model. The efficiencies of activated carbon for the removal of Cr(III) were found to be 98.86, 98.6 and 93 % for C1, C2 and C3, respectively. The order of selectivity is C1>C2>C3 for removal of Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. Carbon "C1" of the highest surface area (520.66 m(2)/g) and calcium content (333.3 mg/l) has the highest adsorptive capacity for removal of Cr(III). The results revealed that the trivalent chromium is significantly adsorbed on activated carbon collected from sugar industry as waste products and the method could be used economically as an efficient technique for removal of Cr(III) and purification of tannery wastewaters.

  17. Application of activated carbons from coal and coconut shell for removing free residual chlorine.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Ueda, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuko; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of free residual chlorine by activated carbon (AC). ACs were prepared from coal (AC1) and coconut shell (AC2). The specific surface area of AC1 was larger than that of AC2. The removal of free residual chlorine increased with elapsed time and amount of adsorbent. The removal mechanism of free residual chlorine was the dechlorination reaction between hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite ion and AC. Moreover, AC1 was useful in the removal of free residual chlorine in tap water. The optimum condition for the removal of free residual chlorine using a column is space velocity 306 1/h; liner velocity 6.1 m/h.

  18. Carbon-Based Regenerable Sorbents for the Combined Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia Removal for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Manthina, Venkata; Singh, Prabhakar; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data on TC sorption presented in this paper are limited to ammonia, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon sorbents for the reversible, concurrent sorption of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested, and multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also a carbon surface conditioning technique that enhances the combined carbon dioxide and ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration.

  19. Development of a carbon filter system for removing malachite green from hatchery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, L.L. ); Leith, D. ); Davis, J. )

    1990-04-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service was granted an investigational New Animal Drug permit by the US Food and Drug Administration for the use of malachite green as a fungicide at selected state and federal fish hatcheries. However, the permit required that the fungicide be removed from all treated water after March 1989. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient for removal of malachite green and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 {times} 30-mesh granular carbon was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 d at a flow rate of 500 gal/min and for only 62 d at a flow rate of 1,000 gal/min. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 1.1 oz of malachite green per pound of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gal/min (6.4 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 h of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be sufficient for 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gal/min (4.0 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and also at faster flow rates. Removal efficiency decreased only slightly for faster flows in both filter systems, and the efficiency improved when treated water was passed through two filter chambers in series.

  20. Australian net (1950s-1990) soil organic carbon erosion is an omitted CO2 source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, A.; Webb, N.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Bui, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    The debate about agricultural erosion substantially offsetting fossil fuel emissions and acting as an important source or sink of CO2 is informed by studies of water and tillage erosion at the field scale and extrapolated across regions based on gross erosion. We use ';catchment' scale (~25 km2) estimates of 137Cs-derived net (1950s-1990) soil redistribution of all processes (wind, water and tillage) to calculate the soil organic carbon (SOC) net redistribution across Australia. We include the selective removal of SOC at net eroding locations, SOC enrichment of transported sediment and net depositional locations. We show that the total SOC net redistribution for Australia is -4.06 Tg SOC y-1, a net loss of SOC from the terrestrial ecosystem and 2% of the total carbon stock (0-10 cm) of Australia. Assuming the SOC is mineralised, these losses represent 12% of CO2-e emissions from all carbon pools in Australia and a significant source of uncertainty in the carbon budget SOC net redistribution as a proportion (%) of SOC stocks Calculation of soil organic carbon net (1950s-1990) redistribution and its proportion for land use classes across Australia *Using an equal area projection the area of a pixel is approximately 4.53 km x 4.87 km ≈ 22.03 km2 equivalent to 2203 ha

  1. A review on the removal of antibiotics by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qiao; Yuan, Xing; Qu, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Increasing concerns have been raised regarding the potential risks of antibiotics to human and ecological health due to their extensive use. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have drawn special research attention because of their unique properties and potential applications as a kind of adsorbents. This review summarizes the currently available research on the adsorption of antibiotics on CNTs, and will provide useful information for CNT application and risk assessment. Four different models, the Freundlich model (FM), Langmuir model (LM), Polanyi-Mane model (PMM), and Dubinin-Ashtakhov model (DAM), are often used to fit the adsorption isotherms. Because different mechanisms may act simultaneously, including electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, π-π bonds, and hydrogen bonds, the prediction of organic chemical adsorption on CNTs is not straightforward. Properties of CNTs, such as specific surface area, adsorption sites, and oxygen content, may influence the adsorption of antibiotics on CNTs. Adsorption heterogeneity and hysteresis are two features of antibiotic-CNT interactions. In addition, CNTs with adsorbed antibiotics may have potential risks for human health. So, further research examining how to reduce such risks is needed.

  2. Supporting the process of removing humic substances on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Olesiak, Paulina; Stępniak, Longina

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on biosorption process used in water treatment. The process has a number of advantages and a lot of research has been done into its intensification by means of ultrasonic modification of solutions. The study carried out by the authors leads to the conclusion that sonication of organic solutions allows for extension of the time of operation of carbon beds. For the analysis of the results obtained during the sorption of humic substances (HS) from the solution dependencies UV/UV₀ or DOC/DOC₀ were used. In comparative studies the effectiveness of sorption and sonosorption (UV/UV₀) shows that the share of ultrasounds (US) is beneficial for extension of time deposit, both at a flow rate HS solution equal to 1 m/h and 5 m/h. Analysis of the US impact sorption on HS sorption in a biological fluidized bed, both prepared from biopreparat and the activated sludge confirms the higher efficiency compared to sonobiosorption than biosorption. These results confirm the degree of reduction UV₂₅₄/UV₀ and DOC/DOC₀ for the same processes. EMS index also confirms the improvement of HSbiodegradation by sludge microorganisms.

  3. Seasonal-related effects on ammonium removal in activated carbon filter biologically enhanced by heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen; Li, Wei-Guang; Gong, Xu-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Fei; Fan, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Duoying; Yao, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Ju; Song, Yang

    2017-07-05

    To determine the potential effects of seasonal changes on water temperature and water quality upon removal of ammonium and organic carbon pollutants and to characterize the variations in microbial characteristics, a pilot-scale activated carbon filter biologically enhanced with heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria was investigated for 528 days. The results show that 69.2 ± 28.6% of ammonium and 23.1 ± 11.6% of the dissolved organic carbon were removed by the biologically enhanced activated carbon (BEAC) reactor. It is shown that higher biodegradable dissolved organic carbon enhances ammonium removal, even at low temperatures. The C/N ratio consumed by the BEAC reactor reached a steady value (i.e., 3.3) after 2 months of operation. Despite seasonal fluctuations and competition of the indigenous community, the heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. HRBLi 16 and Acinetobacter harbinensis strain HITLi 7) remained relatively stable. The amount of carbon source was the most significant environmental parameter and dramatically affected the microbial community compositions in the BEAC reactor. The present study provides new insights into the application of a BEAC reactor for ammonium removal from drinking water, resisting strong seasonal changes.

  4. Tracking Nonpoint Source Nitrogen and Carbon in Watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Duan, S.; Blomquist, J.

    2012-12-01

    Humans have altered nitrogen and carbon cycles in rivers regionally with important impacts on coastal ecosystems. Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is a leading contributor to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Shifts in sources of carbon impact downstream ecosystem metabolism and fate and transport of contaminants in coastal zones. We used a combination of stable isotopes and optical tracers to investigate fate and transport of nitrogen and carbon sources in tributaries of the largest estuary in the U.S., the Chesapeake Bay. We analyzed isotopic composition of water samples from major tributaries including the Potomac River, Susquehanna River, Patuxent River, and Choptank River during routine and storm event sampling over multiple years. A positive correlation between δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in the Potomac River above Washington D.C. suggested denitrification or biological uptake in the watershed was removing agriculturally-derived N during summer months. In contrast, the Patuxent River in Maryland showed elevated δ15N-NO3- (5 - 12 per mil) with no relationship to δ18O-NO3- suggesting the importance of wastewater sources. From the perspective of carbon sources, there were distinct isotopic values of the δ13C-POM of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMS) for rivers influenced by their dominant watershed land use. EEMS showed that there were increases in the humic and fulvic fractions of dissolved organic matter during spring floods, particularly in the Potomac River. Stable isotopic values of δ13C-POM also showed rapid depletion suggesting terrestrial carbon "pulses" in the Potomac River each spring. The δ15N-POM peaked to 10 - 15 per mil each spring suggested a potential manure source or result of biological processing within the watershed. Overall, there were considerable changes in sources and transformations of nitrogen and carbon that varied across rivers and that contribute to nitrogen and carbon loads

  5. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p < 0.0001). It is feasible and economical to use the denitrification biofilter to treat nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required.

  6. Laser Patterning of Diamond. Part II. Surface Nondiamond Carbon Formation and its Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, J.; Jaye, C; Bohon, J; Rao, T; Fischer, D

    2009-01-01

    As diamond becomes more prevalent for electronic and research applications, methods of patterning diamond will be required. One such method, laser ablation, has been investigated in a related work. We report on the formation of surface nondiamond carbon during laser ablation of both polycrystalline and single-crystal synthetic diamonds. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to confirm that the nondiamond carbon layer formed during the ablation was amorphous, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to estimate the thickness of this layer to be {approx} 60 nm. Ozone cleaning was used to remove the nondiamond carbon layer.

  7. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide for contaminant removal from solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Smith, H.M.; Olson, R.B.

    1994-06-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is being explored as a waste minimization technique for separating oils, greases and solvents from solid waste. The containments are dissolved into the supercritical fluid and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Definitions of the temperature, pressure, flowrate and potential co-solvents are required to establish the optimum conditions for hazardous contaminant removal. Excellent extractive capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been observed in both supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide. Solubility measurements are being used to better understand the extraction process, and to determine if the minimum solubility required by federal regulations is met.

  8. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration.

  9. The use of nutshell carbons in drinking water filters for removal of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Ahmedna, Mohamed; Marshall, Wayne E; Husseiny, Abdo A; Rao, Ramu M; Goktepe, Ipek

    2004-02-01

    Filtration of drinking water by point-of-use (POU) or point-of-entry (POE) systems is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Drinking water is filtered to remove both organic and inorganic contaminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of granular activated carbon from nutshells (almond, English walnut, pecan) in a POU water filtration system to determine its effectiveness in removing select, potentially toxic metal ions, namely, copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+) or zinc (Zn2+) found in drinking water. The nutshell-based carbon system was designated "Envirofilter" and was compared to four commercial POU systems with brand names of BRITA, Omni Filter, PUR and Teledyne Water Pik. Eight prototype "Envirofilters", consisting of individual or binary mixtures of carbons made from acid-activated almond or pecan shells and steam-activated pecan or walnut shells were constructed and evaluated for adsorption of the three metal ions. The results indicated that a binary mixture of carbons from acid-activated almond and either steam-activated pecan or walnut shells were the most effective in removing these metals from drinking water of all the POU systems evaluated. Binary mixtures of acid-activated almond shell-based carbon with either steam-activated pecan shell- or walnut shell-based carbon removed nearly 100% of lead ion, 90-95% of copper ion and 80-90% of zinc ion. Overall the performance data on the "Envirofilters" suggest that these prototypes require less carbon than commercial filters to achieve the same metal adsorption efficiency and may also be a less expensive product.

  10. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies.

  11. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a 13CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified 13C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly 13C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more 13C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic 13CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. PMID:26740559

  12. Warming influenced by the ratio of black carbon to sulphate and the black-carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, M. V.; Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.; Yoon, S.-C.; Kim, S.-W.; Carmichael, G. R.; Schauer, J. J.

    2010-08-01

    Black carbon is generated by fossil-fuel combustion and biomass burning. Black-carbon aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are probably a major source of global warming. However, the extent of black-carbon-induced warming is dependent on the concentration of sulphate and organic aerosols-which reflect solar radiation and cool the surface-and the origin of the black carbon. Here we examined the impact of black-carbon-to-sulphate ratios on net warming in China, using surface and aircraft measurements of aerosol plumes from Beijing, Shanghai and the Yellow Sea. The Beijing plumes had the highest ratio of black carbon to sulphate, and exerted a strong positive influence on the net warming. Compiling all the data, we show that solar-absorption efficiency was positively correlated with the ratio of black carbon to sulphate. Furthermore, we show that fossil-fuel-dominated black-carbon plumes were approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass-burning-dominated plumes. We suggest that climate-change-mitigation policies should aim at reducing fossil-fuel black-carbon emissions, together with the atmospheric ratio of black carbon to sulphate.

  13. Sources and Fate of Reactive Carbon over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Millet, D. B.; Singh, H. B.; Wisthaler, A.

    2016-12-01

    We apply a high-resolution chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM at 0.25°×0.3125°) to generate, a comprehensive gas-phase reactive carbon budget over North America. Based on state-of-science source inventories and known chemistry, we find in the model that biogenic sources dominate the overall reactive carbon budget, with 49, 15, 4, and 39 TgC, respectively, introduced to the North American atmosphere from the biosphere, anthropogenic sources, fires, and from methane oxidation in 2013. Biogenic and anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds contribute 60% and 10%, respectively, to the total OH reactivity over the Southeast US, along with other contributions from methane and inorganics. Oxidation to CO and CO2 then represents the overwhelming fate of that reactive carbon, with 65, 15, 7 and 5 TgC, respectively, oxidized to produce CO/CO2, dry deposited, wet deposited and transported (net) out of North America. We confront this simulation with an ensemble of recent airborne measurements over North America (SEAC4RS, SENEX, DISCOVER-AQ, DC3) and interpret the model-measurement comparisons in terms of their implications for current understanding of atmospheric reactive carbon and the processes driving its distribution.

  14. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arrest and mechanically ventilated for 3 hours with heliox (50% helium; 50% oxygen). A fixed protective ventilation protocol (6 mL/kg) was used, with prospective observation for changes in lung mechanics and gas exchange. Statistics was by Bonferroni post-hoc correction with statistical significance set at P < 0.017. Results. During heliox ventilation, respiratory rate decreased (25 ± 4 versus 23 ± 5 breaths min(-1), P = 0.010). Minute volume ventilation showed a trend to decrease compared to baseline (11.1 ± 1.9 versus 9.9 ± 2.1 L min(-1), P = 0.026), while reducing PaCO2 levels (5.0 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 kPa, P = 0.011) and peak pressures (21.1 ± 3.3 versus 19.8 ± 3.2 cm H2O, P = 0.024). Conclusions. Heliox improved CO2 elimination while allowing reduced minute volume ventilation in adult patients during protective mechanical ventilation.

  15. Selective Removal of Nitrosamines from a Model Amine Carbon-Capture Waterwash Using Low-Cost Activated-Carbon Sorbents.

    PubMed

    Widger, Leland R; Combs, Megan; Lohe, Amit R; Lippert, Cameron A; Thompson, Jesse G; Liu, Kunlei

    2017-09-19

    Nitrosamines generated in the amine solvent loop of postcombustion carbon capture systems are potent carcinogens, and their emission could pose a serious threat to the environment or human health. Nitrosamine emission control strategies are critical for the success of amine-based carbon capture as the technology approaches industrial-scale deployment. Waterwash systems have been used to control volatile and aerosol emissions, including nitrosamines, from carbon-capture plants, but it is still necessary to remove or destroy nitrosamines in the circulating waterwash to prevent their subsequent emission into the environment. In this study, a cost-effective method for selectively removing nitrosamines from the absorber waterwash effluent with activated-carbon sorbents was developed to reduce the environmental impact associated with amine-based carbon capture. The results show that the commercial activated-carbon sorbents tested have a high capacity and selectivity for nitrosamines over the parent solvent amines, with capacities up to 190 mg/g carbon, under simulated amine waterwash conditions. To further reduce costs, an aerobic thermal sorbent regeneration step was also examined due to the low thermal stability of nitrosamines. To model the effect of oxidation on the sorbent performance, thermal- and acid-oxidized sorbents were also prepared from the commercial sorbents and analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of nitrosamines, the parent amine, and the influence of the physical properties of the carbon sorbents on nitrosamine adsorption was examined. Key sorbent properties included the sorbent hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, surface pKa of the sorbent, and chemical structure of the parent amine and nitrosamine.

  16. Comparison research on denitrification efficiency of two types of solid carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Zhang, J. D.; Li, F.; Cao, Y. X.; Zhu, L. Y.; Yang, Z. F.

    2017-05-01

    C/N rates can greatly influence efficiency of denitrification. It is difficult for current treated effluent to reach GB18918-2002 primary effluent standard because of its low C/N rate. To improve the efficiency of denitrification, the quality of effluent, and realize the waste recycling, this article selected magnolia leaves and degradable meal box as the solid carbon source for periodic denitrification stage to study the change of NO3 --N, TN, COD, NO2 --N, NH4 +, PO4 3- and color. The results showed that in the condition of influent nitrate concentration of 40 mg/L, carbon dosage of 10 g, the reaction temperature of 25°C the nitrate removal rates of magnolia leaves and degradable meal box reached 89.0% and 56.3% respectively, and the TN removal rates reached 91.7% and 53.9% respectively. But in the aspect of final treated effluent COD concentration level, magnolia leaves experiment (608 mg/L) was much higher than the degradable meal box (78 mg/L). Besides, the accumulation of nitrite, the released concentration of ammonia nitrogen and phosphate of magnolia leaves experiment were also higher than the degradable meal box. Under the integrated analysis, the magnolia leaves are more suitable than the degradable meal box as the denitrification external carbon source.

  17. Tetracycline removal from water by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbons and sludge-derived adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Utrilla, José; Gómez-Pacheco, Carla V; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; López-Peñalver, Jesús J; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2013-12-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of activated carbons with different chemical and textural natures in the adsorption of three tetracyclines (TCs) (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline). We also assessed the influence of the solution pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of these compounds and studied their removal by the combined use of microorganisms and activated carbon (bioadsorption). Sludge-derived materials were also used to remove TC from water. The capacity of these materials to adsorb TC was very high and was much greater than that of commercial activated carbon. This elevated adsorption capacity (512.1-672.0 mg/g) is explained by the high tendency of TC to form complex ions with some of the metal ions present in these materials. The medium pH and presence of electrolytes considerably affected TCs adsorption on commercial activated carbon. These results indicate that electrostatic adsorbent-adsorbate interactions play an important role in TC adsorption processes when conducted at pH values that produce TC deprotonation. The presence of bacteria during the TCs adsorption process decreases their adsorption/bioadsorption on the commercial activated carbon, weakening interactions between the adsorbate and the microfilm formed on the carbon surface. The adsorptive capacity was considerably lower in dynamic versus static regime, attributable to problems of TC diffusion into carbon pores and the shorter contact time between adsorbate and adsorbent.

  18. Arsenic removal from groundwater using low-cost carbon composite electrodes for capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Young; Chaimongkalayon, Nantanee; Lim, Jinho; Ha, Heung Yong; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Affordable carbon composite electrodes were developed to treat low-concentrated groundwater using capacitive deionization (CDI). A carbon slurry prepared using activated carbon powder (ACP), poly(vinylidene fluoride), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was employed as a casting solution to soak in a low-cost porous substrate. The surface morphology of the carbon composite electrodes was investigated using a video microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The capacitance and electrical conductivity of the carbon composite electrodes were then examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. According to the CV and EIS measurements, the capacitances and electrical conductivities of the carbon composite electrodes were in the range of 8.35-63.41 F g(-1) and 0.298-0.401 S cm(-1), respectively, depending on ACP contents. A CDI cell was assembled with the carbon composite electrodes instead of with electrodes and current collectors. The arsenate removal test included an investigation of the optimization of several important operating parameters, such as applied voltage and solution pH, and it achieved 98.8% removal efficiency using a 1 mg L(-1) arsenate solution at a voltage of 2 V and under a pH 9 condition.

  19. Influence and efficiency of catalytic stripper in organic carbon removal from laboratory generated soot aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic stripper (CS) is a device used to remove the semi-volatile, typically organic carbon, fraction by passing raw or diluted exhaust over an oxidation catalyst heated to 300˚C. The oxidation catalyst used in this study is a commercially available diesel oxidation ca...

  20. Pd/RGO modified carbon felt cathode for electro-Fenton removing of EDTA-Ni.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Junya; Ye, Xiaokun; Hu, Yongyou; Chen, Yuancai

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms stable complexes with toxic metals such as nickel due to its strong chelation. The electro-Fenton (EF) process using a cathode made from palladium (Pd), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon felt, fed with air, exhibited high activities and stability for the removal of 10 mg L(-1) EDTA-Ni solution. Pd/RGO catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis; the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated nanoparticles and RGO were well distributed on carbon felt, forming three dimensional architecture with both large macropores and a mesoporous structure. The cyclic voltammetric results showed that the presence of RGO in Pd/RGO/carbon felt significantly increased the current response of two-electron reduction of O2 (0.45 V). The key factors influencing the removal efficiency of EDTA-Ni, such as pH, current and Fe(2+) concentration, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of EDTA-Ni reached 83.8% after 100 min EF treatment. Mechanism analysis indicated that the introduction of RGO in Pd/RGO/carbon felt significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activities by inducing •OH in the EF process; direct H2O2 oxidation still accounted for a large amount of EDTA-Ni removal efficiency.

  1. Influence and efficiency of catalytic stripper in organic carbon removal from laboratory generated soot aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic stripper (CS) is a device used to remove the semi-volatile, typically organic carbon, fraction by passing raw or diluted exhaust over an oxidation catalyst heated to 300˚C. The oxidation catalyst used in this study is a commercially available diesel oxidation ca...

  2. Pathways and mechanisms for removal of dissolved organic carbon from leaf leachate in streams

    Treesearch

    Clifford N. Dahm

    1981-01-01

    Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water resulting from adsorption and microbial uptake was examined to determine the importance of biotic and abiotic pathways. Physical–chemical adsorption to components of the stream sediment or water and biotic assimilation associated with the microbial population was determined in recirculating chambers utilizing...

  3. Regenerable metallic oxide systems for removal of carbon dioxide: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Design concepts for portable canisters for removal of carbon dioxide are described. One is screen pack configuration consisting of brazed rectangular canister with four metal oxide packs inserted. Other is radial flow canister with perforated central tube. Methods of production and operating principles are presented.

  4. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-11-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater.

  5. Removal of hexavalent chromium from acidic aqueous solutions using rice straw-derived carbon.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nai-Hua; Wang, Shan-Li; Liao, Yi-Huei; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Yuh-Ming

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the removal of Cr(VI) from water by carbon derived from the burning of rice straw. Rice straw was burned in the air to obtain rice carbon (RC), and then the removal of Cr(VI) by RC was investigated under various pHs and ionic strengths. After the experiments, the oxidation state of Cr bound to RC was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that Cr bound to RC was predominately in the trivalent form. The results showed that upon reacting with RC, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either adsorbed on RC or released back into solution. The extent and rate of Cr(VI) removal increased with decreasing solution pH because the Cr(VI) adsorption and the subsequent reduction of adsorbed Cr(VI) to Cr(III) both occur preferentially at low pH. The minimal effect of ionic strength on the rates of Cr(VI) removal and Cr(III) adsorption indicated specific interactions between Cr(VI)/Cr(III) and their surface binding sites on RC. These results suggest that rice straw-based carbon may be effectively used at low pH as a substitute for activated carbon for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water.

  6. Source Separation of Urine as an Alternative Solution to Nutrient Management in Biological Nutrient Removal Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose; Bott, Charles; Love, Nancy; Bratby, John

    2015-12-01

    Municipal wastewater contains a mixture of brown (feces and toilet paper), yellow (urine), and gray (kitchen, bathroom and wash) waters. Urine contributes approximately 70-80% of the nitrogen (N), 50-70% of the phosphorus (P) load and 60-70% of the pharmaceutical residues in normal domestic sewage. This study evaluated the impact of different levels of source separation of urine on an existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. A process model of an existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant was used. Increasing the amount of urine diverted from the water reclamation facilities, has little impact on effluent ammonia (NH₃-N) concentration, but effluent nitrate (NO₃-N) concentration decreases. If nitrification is necessary then no reduction in the sludge age can be realized. However, a point is reached where the remaining influent nitrogen load matches the nitrogen requirements for biomass growth, and no residual nitrogen needs to be nitrified. That allows a significant reduction in sludge age, implying reduced process volume requirements. In situations where nitrification is required, lower effluent nitrate (NO₃-N) concentrations were realized due to both the lower influent nitrogen content in the wastewater and a more favorable nitrogen-to-carbon ratio for denitrification. The external carbon requirement for denitrification decreases as the urine separation efficiency increases due to the lower influent nitrogen content in the wastewater and a more favorable nitrogen-to-carbon ratio for denitrification. The effluent phosphorus concentration decreases when the amount of urine sent to water reclamation facilities is decreased due to lower influent phosphorus concentrations. In the case of chemical phosphate removal, urine separation reduces the amount of chemicals required.

  7. Effect of geological carbon sources on eddy covariance measurements: analysis and possible correction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, D.; Rey, A.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.; Etiope, G.; Pegoraro, E.

    2013-12-01

    A recent set of studies carried out in the SE of Spain highlighted the need to consider geological carbon sources when estimating the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of terrestrial ecosystems located in areas potentially affected by geofluid circulation. In this study we present the mechanisms and propose a new methodology using physical parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer to quantify the CO2 coming from deep origin. To test our approach, we compare NECB estimates with seasonal patterns of soil CO2 efflux and vegetation activity measured by satellite images (NDVI) over two-year period at this site (2007/2008). According with the eddy covariance measurements the alpha grass ecosystem was a net carbon source (93.7 and 145.0 g C m-2, for the years 2007 and 2008, respectively) particularly as a result of large amounts of carbon released over the dry period. This relevant CO2 emission (reaching up to 15 umol m-2 s-1) was however not related to ecosystem activities as confirmed by measurements of soil CO2 efflux using chambers (ca. 0.5 umol m-2 s-1) and plant productivity that was minimal during this period. A simple correction based on a linear relationship between NECB and wind speed for different stability conditions and wind sectors has been used to estimate the geological flux FGEO and subtracted it from the NECB to obtain the biological flux FBIO. We then partitioned FBIO into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration and proved that, after removing FGEO, ecosystem and soil respiration followed similar temporal patterns. The annual contribution of the geological component to NECB was 49.6 and 46.7 % for the year 2007 and 2008, respectively. Therefore, potential contribution of geological carbon sources should be tested and quantified in those ecosystems located in areas with potential natural emission of geologic gases to the surface. References: REY A., BELELLI MARCHESINI L., WERE A., SERRANO ORTIZ P., ETIOPE G., PAPALE D, DOMINGO F

  8. Dynamics of intracellular polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes under different organic carbon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lizhen; Ren, Li; Tang, Bo; Wu, Guangxue; Guan, Yuntao

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  9. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lizhen; Ren, Li; Tang, Bo; Guan, Yuntao

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate. PMID:24381942

  10. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Kunwar P; Singh, Vinod K

    2006-07-31

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 degrees C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 degrees C: ATFAC--10.97 mg/g, ACF--36.05 mg/g; 40 degrees C: ATFAC--16.10 mg/g, ACF--40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.

  11. [Denitrification and kinetic characteristics using biodegradable polymers as carbon source and biofilm carrier].

    PubMed

    Lai, Cai-sheng; Tan, Hong-xin; Luo, Guo-zhi; Ruan, Yun-jie; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Da-chuan

    2010-08-01

    The PBS material that in the form of insoluble biodegradable polymers pellets was investigated as the solid carbon source and the biofilm carrier for nitrate removal from wastewater. The denitrification of nitrate removal and kinetic process were carried out in a packed-bed reactor in order to remove nitrate in recirculation aquaculture system. The experimental results indicated that the optimal influent loading rate was in the range of 0.107-1.098 kg/(m3 x d), when the water temperature was (29 +/- 1) degrees C and the influent nitrate concentration was in the range of 25-334 mg/L. The maximum nitrate volumetric removal rate of 0.577 kg/(m3 x d) was achieved at the influent loading rate of 1.098 kg/(m3 x d). When the influent loading rate exceeded 1.098 kg/(m3 x d), the nitrate volumetric removal rate was declined. The kinetic experimental results show that the denitrification rate of PBS as the solid carbon source and the biofilm carrier corresponds to first-order kinetics. Based on the kinetics characteristics, constants n and K used in Eckenfelder model were deduced, which can be successfully applied for the prediction of effluent nitrate concentration. The two groups' predictive values and actual values were analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software for Paired-Samples t test analysis. The Paired-Samples t test analysis indicates that the corresponding p > 0.05 values are 0.553 and 0.632, which proved that no significant differences exist between the predictive values and actual values of the model.

  12. Africa as source and sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchu, P.; Faure, H.; Ambrosi, J.-P.; van Zinderen Bakker, E. M.; Faure-Denard, L.

    1993-05-01

    Comparison of a set of paleogeographic maps of Africa for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene Climatic Optimum (HCO) allows us to discuss the contribution of paleocontinental proxy-data in paleobiomass calculations and their accuracy. Maps show considerable shifts in the area covered by the main ecosystems. In this study we have quantified these areal changes, from the LGM to the HCO, in terms of variations in carbon storage. Each biome has been assigned a carbon density in living and soil organic matter. From desert to tropical forest the mean carbon densities vary from 0 to 20 kg m -2 for phytomass and from 0 to 13 kg m -2 for soil (peat excluded). During the world deglaciation Africa was a sink for 154 Gt (standard deviation 42 Gt) of atmospheric carbon. Since the HCO Africa has been a source of carbon. More recently human deforestation is responsible for a carbon flux towards the atmosphere which is ten times the mean annual flux due to vegetation change in response to climate change. Extended to a global scale this regional test shows that the paleoenvironmental approach is more appropriate for paleobiomass estimates than calculations based only on oceanic data.

  13. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J.; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  14. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-07-19

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  15. Maximising biohydrogen yields via continuous electrochemical hydrogen removal and carbon dioxide scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Jones, Rhys Jon; Guwy, Alan; Dinsdale, Richard; Premier, Giuliano; Mulder, Martijn J J

    2016-10-01

    The use of electrochemical hydrogen removal (EHR) together with carbon dioxide removal (CDR) was demonstrated for the first time using a continuous hydrogen producing fermenter. CDR alone was found to increase hydrogen yields from 0.07molH2molhexose to 0.72molH2molhexose. When CDR was combined with EHR, hydrogen yields increased further to 1.79molH2molhexose. The pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production are consistent with the hypothesis that increased yields are the result of relieving end product inhibition and inhibition of microbial hydrogen consumption. In situ removal of hydrogen and carbon dioxide as demonstrated here not only increase hydrogen yield but also produces a relatively pure product gas and unlike other approaches can be used to enhance conventional, mesophilic, CSTR type fermentation of low grade/high solids biomass.

  16. Enhanced removal of carbon dioxide and alleviation of dissolved oxygen accumulation in photobioreactor with bubble tank.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xin

    2012-07-01

    Reduction of carbon loss from the effluent is one of the most important aspects of photobioreactors design. In this study, a novel gas sparger of bubble tank was adopted in a photobioreactor to enhance carbon dioxide (CO(2)) mass transfer rate as well as alleviate dissolved oxygen (DO) accumulation. The results showed that low DO level in the culture can be obtained due to the turbulent hydrodynamic condition provided by the bubble tank. The effects of CO(2) concentration, flow rate of influent, and light intensity on CO(2) removal efficiency were investigated. The maximum CO(2) removal efficiency was 94% at flow rate of 30 mL min(-1), light intensity of 179 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and CO(2) concentration of 10%, implying that the novel gas sparger is a promising alternative for CO(2) removal from CO(2)-enriched air by cultivating microalgae in the photobioreactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrically controlled anion exchange based on polypyrrole and carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for perchlorate removal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli; Bontha, Jagan

    2006-06-15

    A simple and highly effective process for perchlorate removal based on electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) was developed by using polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on high surface area carbon nanotubes. The redox switching of conducting polymers such as polypyrrole is accompanied by the exchange of ions into or out of the polymer. This effect could be used for the development of an electrically switchable ion-exchanger for water purification, particularly for the removal of anions. In the research presented in this paper, the anion-exchange behavior and ion-exchange capacity of electrochemically prepared polypyrrole on glassy carbon electrodes with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) backbones are characterized using cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the presence of carbon nanotube backbone results in an improvement in the anion exchange stability of polypyrrole, which may be due to the stronger interaction between carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole. Chronoamperometric studies show that the process of electrically switched anion exchange could be finished within 10 s. The selectivity of PPy/CNTs films for the perchlorate ion is demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of the present study point to the possibility of developing a green process for removing ClO4- from wastewater using such a novel nanostructured PPy/CNT composite thin film through an electrically switched anion exchange.

  18. Carbonate effects on hexavalent uranium removal from water by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Meng, Xiaoguang; Korfiatis, George P; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2006-08-10

    A novel nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was used to treat depleted uranium (DU)-contaminated water under neutral and alkaline conditions. The novel material had a total surface area of 329 m(2)/g, total surface site density of 11.0 sites/nm(2), total pore volume of 0.415 cm(3)/g and crystallite size of 6.0 nm. It was used in batch tests to remove U(VI) from synthetic solutions and contaminated water. However, the capacity of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water decreased in the presence of inorganic carbonate at pH > 6.0. Adsorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface charge measurements were used to investigate the causes of the reduced capacity. The surface charge and the FTIR measurements suggested that the adsorbed U(VI) species was not complexed with carbonate at neutral pH values. The decreased capacity of titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water in the presence of carbonate at neutral to alkaline pH values was attributed to the aqueous complexation of U(VI) by inorganic carbonate. The nanocrystalline titanium dioxide had four times the capacity of commercially available titanium dixoide (Degussa P-25) to adsorb U(VI) from water at pH 6 and total inorganic carbonate concentration of 0.01 M. Consequently, the novel material was used to treat DU-contaminated water at a Department of Defense (DOD) site.

  19. A Virtual Laboratory for the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, James; O'Connor, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing work to improve water and carbon dioxide separation systems to be used on crewed space vehicles combines sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. Thus, as part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program and the Life Support Systems Project (LSSP), fully predictive COMSOL Multiphysics models of the Four Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) have been developed. This Virtual Laboratory is being used to help reduce mass, power, and volume requirements for exploration missions. In this paper we describe current and planned modeling developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support future missions as well as the resolution of anomalies observed in the ISS CDRA.

  20. Growth of carbon structures on chrysotile surface for organic contaminants removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Bruno R S; Soares, Érico A R; Teixeira, Ana Paula C; Ardisson, José D; Fernandez-Outon, Luis E; Amorim, Camila C; Lago, Rochel M; Moura, Flávia C C

    2016-09-01

    Amphiphilic magnetic composites were produced based on chrysotile mineral and carbon structures by chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures (600-900 °C) and cobalt as catalyst. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, adsorption and desorption of N2, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, and thermal analysis showed an effective growth of carbon structures in all temperatures. It was observed that at 800 and 900 °C, a large amount of carbon structures are formed with fewer defects than at 600 and 700 °C, what contributes to their stability. In addition, the materials present magnetic phases that are important for their application as catalysts and adsorbents. The materials have shown to be very active to remove the oil dispersed in a real sample of emulsified wastewater from biodiesel production and to remove methylene blue by adsorption and oxidation via heterogeneous Fenton mechanism.

  1. Removal of free carbon and crystal structure change of amorphous silica fume by calcination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Shengnian; Zhang, Shaohong

    2017-07-01

    The calcination process was used to remove free carbon and to change the structure of amorphous microsilica powder. The results show that the carbon content in amorphous silica powder strongly depends on the calcination temperature. When the calcination temperature is higher than 900∘C, the free carbon content, SiO2 content and weight loss of microsilica powder tend to be stable, with values of 0.05%, 83.8% and 4.8%, respectively. The crystalline structure, particle size and morphology start changing at a calcination temperature of 850∘C. When the calcination temperature is higher than 900∘C, the amorphous microsilica powder is fully crystallized. The morphology of the silica fume kept its original spherical shape under 850∘C, while above 850∘C the microsilica powder recrystallizes. These results provide a basis for chemical removal of metal impurities in the preparation of high-purity silica powder.

  2. Computational study of ibuprofen removal from water by adsorption in realistic activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bahamon, Daniel; Carro, Leticia; Guri, Sonia; Vega, Lourdes F

    2017-07-15

    Molecular simulations using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method have been performed in order to obtain physical insights on how the interaction between ibuprofen (IBP) and activated carbons (ACs) in aqueous mixtures affects IBP removal from water by ACs. A nanoporous carbon model based on units of polyaromatic molecules with different number of rings, defects and polar-oxygenated sites is described. Individual effects of factors such as porous features and chemical heterogeneities in the adsorbents are investigated and quantified. Results are in good agreement with experimental adsorption data, highlightening the ability of GCMC simulation to describe the macroscopic adsorption performance in drug removal applications, while also providing additional insights into the IBP/water adsorption mechanism. The simulation results allow finding the optimal type of activated carbon material for separating this pollutant in water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An innovative carbonate coprecipitation process for the removal of zinc and manganese from mining impacted waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Chambers, M.A.; Deaguero, A.L.; Wildeman, T.R.; Reisman, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters involves pH adjustment, but this often results in excessive sludge formation and removal of nontoxic species such as magnesium and calcium. Theoretical consideration of the stability of metal carbonate species suggests that the target metals could be removed from solution by coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a limestone-based process for remediation of acid mine drainage that increases calcium carbonate saturation. This treatment could then be coupled with carbonate coprecipitation as an innovative method for removal of toxic metals from circumneutral mine drainage waters. The new process was termed the carbonate coprecipitation (CCP) process. The CCP process was tested at the laboratory scale using a synthetic mine water containing 50 mg/L each of Mn and Zn. Best results showed over 95% removal of both Mn and Zn in less than 2 h of contact in a limestone channel. The process was then tested on a sample of water from the Palmerton zinc superfund site, near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, containing over 300 mg/L Zn and 60 mg/L Mn. Treatment of this water resulted in removal of over 95% of the Zn and 40% of the Mn in the limestone channel configuration. Because of the potential economic advantages of the CCP process, further research is recommended for refinement of the process for the Palmerton water and for application to other mining impacted waters as well. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Removal and Conversion to Ocean Alkalinity: Why and How

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reduction in anthropogenic CO2 emissions is the most obvious way to stabilize atmospheric CO2. However, there is growing risk that effective emissions reduction policies and technologies will not engage soon enough to avoid significant CO2-induced climate and ocean acidification impacts. This realization has lead to increased interest (e.g., IPCC AR5, 2014; NRC/NAS, 2014) in the possibility of pro-actively increasing CO2 removal (CDR) from the atmosphere above the 55% of our emissions that are already removed from air by natural land and ocean processes. While a variety of biotic, abiotic, and hybrid CDR methods have been proposed, those involving geochemistry have much to recommend them. These methods employ the same geochemical reactions that naturally and effectively remove excess planetary CO2 and neutralize ocean acidity on geologic time scales. These reactions proceed when the hydrosphere, acidified by excess air CO2, contacts and reacts with carbonate and silicate minerals (>90% of the Earth's crust), producing dissolved bicarbonates and carbonates, i.e., ocean alkalinity. This alkalinity is eventually removed and the excess carbon stored via carbonate precipitation. So while the importance and global effectiveness of such reactions are not in question, it remains to be seen if this very slow, natural CDR could be safely and cost-effectively accelerated to help manage air CO2 levels on human rather than geologic time scales. Various terrestrial and marine, geochemistry-based CDR methods will be reviewed including: 1) the addition of minerals to soils and the ocean, 2) removal of CO2 from waste streams, esp. from biomass energy, via wet mineral contacting, and 3) the production and use of mineral derivatives, e.g. oxides or hydroxides, as CDR agents. The additional potential environmental benefits (e.g., reversal of ocean carbonate saturation loss) and impacts (e.g., increased mineral extraction), as well as potential economics will also be discussed.

  5. Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams.

    PubMed

    de Wilt, Arnoud; Butkovskyi, Andrii; Tuantet, Kanjana; Leal, Lucia Hernandez; Fernandes, Tânia V; Langenhoff, Alette; Zeeman, Grietje

    2016-03-05

    Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams was studied. Batch experiments with the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana grown on urine, anaerobically treated black water and synthetic urine were performed to assess the removal of six spiked pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, paracetamol, metoprolol, carbamazepine and trimethoprim). Additionally, incorporation of these pharmaceuticals and three estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol and ethinylestradiol) into algal biomass was studied. Biodegradation and photolysis led to 60-100% removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, paracetamol and metoprolol. Removal of carbamazepine and trimethoprim was incomplete and did not exceed 30% and 60%, respectively. Sorption to algal biomass accounted for less than 20% of the micropollutant removal. Furthermore, the presence of micropollutants did not inhibit C. sorokiniana growth at applied concentrations. Algal treatment systems allow simultaneous removal of micropollutants and recovery of nutrients from source separated wastewater. Nutrient rich algal biomass can be harvested and applied as fertilizer in agriculture, as lower input of micropollutants to soil is achieved when algal biomass is applied as fertilizer instead of urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of Direct Current Link Harmonic Ripple in Single Phase Voltage Source Inverter Systems Using Supercapacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    CURRENT LINK HARMONIC RIPPLE IN SINGLE-PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER SYSTEMS USING SUPERCAPACITORS by Gabriel D. Hernandez September 2016...REMOVAL OF DIRECT CURRENT LINK HARMONIC RIPPLE IN SINGLE- PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER SYSTEMS USING SUPERCAPACITORS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...bank as the only DC energy storage device, the DC link voltage ripple causes a second-order harmonic ripple in battery current that leads to a

  7. Removal of earthy-musty odorants in drinking water by powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cunzhen; Wang, Dongsheng; Yang, Min; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Shifang

    2005-01-01

    The removal of four earthy-musty compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxy-pyrazine (IPMP), and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxy-pyrazine (IBMP), by powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated under the simulative condition of Xicun water plant, Guangzhou. The adsorption kinetics of odor compounds by two PACs show that main removal of odor compounds occurs within contact time of 1 h. Compared with the wood-based PAC, the coat-based PAC evidently improves the removal efficiency of poorly adsorbed compounds like MIB. The effects on removal efficiency such as optimum PAC dosage, initial concentration of the organics, chlorine residual, background organics, and changes of water quality were investigated. The percent removal of trace odorants at any given time for a particular carbon dosage is irrelative to the initial concentration of the odor compounds. Adsorptive capacity of PAC for target compounds is reduced by chlorine residual and background organics. Characteristics of raw water have vast influence on the removal of target compounds by PAC.

  8. Selective removal of dental composite using a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Dental restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. In this study a carbon dioxide laser operating at high laser pulse repetition rates integrated with a galvanometer based scanner was used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. A diode array spectrometer was used to measure the plume emission after each laser pulse and determine if the ablated material was tooth mineral or composite. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. The laser was able to rapidly remove the composites rapidly from both surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel.

  9. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g).

  10. Linking Contaminant Mass Discharge to DNAPL Source Zone Architecture and Mass Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, K. D.; Suchomel, E. J.; Amos, B. K.; Loeffler, F. E.; Capiro, N. L.

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between partial dense nonaqueous phase (DNAPL) mass removal and plume behavior, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional aquifer cell containing a tetrachloroethene (PCE) source zone and a down-gradient plume region. PCE-DNAPL saturation distributions were quantified using a light transmission system and expressed in terms of a ganglia-to-pool (GTP) volume ratio. To achieve incremental mass removal, the aquifer cells were flushed with a 4% Tween 80 surfactant solution that increased the solubility of PCE by more than two orders-of-magnitude with minimal mobilization of entrapped PCE-DNAPL. For a ganglia-dominated source zone (GTP = 1.6) greater than 70% mass removal was required before measurable reductions in mass discharge were realized, while for pool-dominated source zones (GTP < 0.3) reductions in mass discharge versus mass removal approached a 1:1 correlation. Current experiments are designed to evaluate the potential for coupling aggressive mass removal with microbial reductive dechlorination.

  11. Effects of activated carbon fibre-supported metal oxide characteristics on toluene removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Peng, Yu-Hui; Li, Wen-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the use of activated carbon fibres (ACFs) impregnated with metal oxides for the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, the effects of the ACF-supported metal oxides on toluene removal are determined in this study. Three catalysts, namely, Ce, Mn, and Cu, two pretreatment solutions NaOH and H2O2, and three reaction temperatures of 250 degrees C, 300 degrees C, and 350 degrees C, were employed to determine toluene removal. The composition and morphology of the catalysts were analysed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), and thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) to study the effects of the catalyst's characteristics on toluene removal. The results demonstrated that the metal catalysts supported on the ACFs could significantly increase toluene removal. The Mn/ACFs and Cu/ACFs were observed to be most active in toluene removal at a reaction temperature of 250 degrees C with 10% oxygen content. Moreover, the data also indicated that toluene removal was slightly improved after pretreating the ACFs with NaOH and H2O2. The results suggested that surface-metal loading and the surface characteristics of the ACFs were the determinant parameters for toluene removal. Furthermore, the removal of toluene over Mn/ACFs-H202 decreased when the reaction temperature considered was > 300 degrees C.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and dye removal study of activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell.

    PubMed

    García, Juan Rafael; Sedran, Ulises; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2017-04-08

    Palm oil mill wastes (palm kernel shell (PKS)) were used to prepare activated carbons, which were tested in the removal of colorants from water. The adsorbents were prepared by 1-h impregnation of PKS with ZnCl2 as the activating agent (PKS:ZnCl2 mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1), followed by carbonization in autogenous atmosphere at 500 and 550 °C during 1 h. The characterization of the activated carbons included textural properties (porosity), surface chemistry (functional groups), and surface morphology. The dye removal performance of the different activated carbons was investigated by means of the uptake of methylene blue (MB) in solutions with various initial concentrations (25-400 mg/L of MB) at 30 °C, using a 0.05-g carbon/50-mL solution relationship. The sample prepared with 1:1 PKS:ZnCl2 and carbonized at 550 °C showed the highest MB adsorption capacity (maximum uptake at the equilibrium, q max = 225.3 mg MB / g adsorbent), resulting from its elevated specific surface area (BET, 1058 m(2)/g) and microporosity (micropore surface area, 721 m(2)/g). The kinetic experiments showed that removals over 90% of the equilibrium adsorptions were achieved after 4-h contact time in all the cases. The study showed that palm oil mill waste biomass could be used in the preparation of adsorbents efficient in the removal of colorants in wastewaters.

  13. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, V; Rajkumar, S; Murugesh, S; Darchen, A

    2012-07-30

    Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  14. Impact of solution chemistry on viral removal by a single-walled carbon nanotube filter.

    PubMed

    Brady-Estévez, Anna S; Nguyen, Thanh H; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) filter for removal of viruses from water. MS2 bacteriophage viral removal was examined over a range of environmentally relevant solution chemistries, spanning various ionic strengths, monovalent and divalent salts, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) concentrations. Viral removal by the SWNT filter was governed by physicochemical (depth) filtration. The removal of viruses increased at higher ionic strengths (NaCl) due to suppression of repulsive electrostatic interactions between viruses and SWNTs. Addition of divalent salts, however, had varying impacts. While CaCl(2) increased virus removal, likely due to complexation of calcium ions to viral surfaces, addition of MgCl(2) reduced viral removal by the SWNT filter. Solution pH also had significant impact on viral removal as the interactions between viral particles and SWNTs changed from attractive below the virus isoelectric point (about pH 3.9) to repulsive at higher pH. Suwannee River NOM was shown to be detrimental to filter viral removal. Reduction of viral removal by NOM was attributed to adsorption of NOM macromolecules to viruses and SWNTs, thereby resulting in steric repulsive forces. Modifications of the filter to incorporate thicker SWNT layers mitigate the negative impacts of NOM on filter performance. This study has shown that while it is possible to attain high levels of viral removal over a broad range of solution chemistries, the extent of viral removal will be highly dependent on the specific solution chemistry of the treated water.

  15. Carbon-14 in methane sources and in atmospheric methane: The contribution from fossil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlen, M.; Tanaka, N.; Henry, R.; Deck, B.; Zeglen, J. ); Vogel, J.S.; Southon, J. ); Shemesh, A.; Fairbanks, R.; Broecker, W. )

    1989-07-21

    Measurements of carbon-14 in small samples of methane from major biogenic sources, from biomass burning, and in clean air samples from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveal that methane from ruminants contains contemporary carbon, whereas that from wetlands, peat bogs, rice fields, and tundra is somewhat, depleted in carbon-14. Atmospheric {sup 14}CH{sub 4} seems to have increased from 1986 to 1987, and levels at the end of 1987 were 123.3 {plus minus} 0.8% modern carbon (pMC) in the Northern Hemisphere and 120.0 {plus minus} 0.7 pMC in the Southern Hemisphere. Model calculations of source partitioning based on the carbon-14 data, CH{sub 4} concentrations, and {delta}{sup 13}C in CH{sub 4} indicate that 21 {plus minus} 3% of atmospheric CH{sub 4} was derived from fossil carbon at the end of 1987. The data also indicate that pressurized water reactors are an increasingly important source of {sup 14}CH{sub 4}. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 10 CFR 35.2404 - Records of surveys after source implant and removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of surveys after source implant and removal. 35.2404 Section 35.2404 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records... results of the survey, the survey instrument used, and the name of the individual who made the survey....

  17. Production of biodiesel from carbon sources of macroalgae, Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Yu Ri; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-10-01

    As aquatic biomass which is called "the third generation biomass", Laminaria japonica (also known as Saccharina japonica) consists of mannitol and alginate which are the main polysaccharides of algal carbohydrates. In this study, oleaginous yeast (Cryptococcus curvatus) was used to produce lipid from carbon sources derived from Laminaria japonica. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced by fermentation of alginate extracted from L. japonica. Thereafter, mannitol was mixed with VFAs to culture the oleaginous yeast. The highest lipid content was 48.30%. The composition of the fatty acids was similar to vegetable oils. This is the first confirmation of the feasibility of using macroalgae as a carbon source for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioavailability of PAHs: effects of soot carbon and PAH source.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Waverly A; Cope, W Gregory; Shea, Damian

    2004-04-01

    The bioavailability of 38 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds was determined through calculation of biota-sediment-accumulation factors (BSAF). BSAF values were calculated from individual PAH concentrations in freshwater mussel, marine clam, and sediment obtained from field and laboratory bioaccumulation studies. Sediment that was amended with different types of soot carbon (SC) was used in some of the bioaccumulation experiments. BSAF values for petrogenic PAH were greater than those for pyrogenic PAH (e.g., 1.57 +/- 0.53 vs 0.25 +/- 0.23, respectively), indicating that petrogenic PAH are more bioavailable than pyrogenic PAH (p < 0.05). This trend was consistent among marine and freshwater sites. Increased SC content of sediment resulted in a linear decrease in the bioavailability of pyrogenic PAHs (r2 = 0.85). The effect of increasing SC content on petrogenic PAH was negligible. SC was considered as an additional sorptive phase when calculating BSAF values, and using PAH-SC partition coefficients from the literature, we obtained unreasonably large BSAF values for all petrogenic PAH and some pyrogenic PAH. This led us to conclude that a quantitative model to assess bioavailability through a combination of organic carbon and soot carbon sorption is not applicable among field sites with a wide range of soot carbon fractions and PAH sources, at least given our current knowledge of PAH-SC partitioning. Our data offer evidence that many factors including analysis of a full suite of PAH analytes, PAH hydrophobicity, sediment organic carbon content, sediment soot carbon content, and PAH source are importantto adequately assess PAH bioavailability in the environment.

  19. The potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dyes removal.

    PubMed

    Graham, N; Chen, X G; Jayaseelan, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to study the potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dye removal. Methylene blue and crystal violet were the two dyes investigated in the present study. Three activated carbons were produced from the exclusive sewage sludge (referred to as DS), the sludge with the additive of coconut husk (DC) and sludge with the additive of peanut shell (DP) respectively. They were characterized by their surface area and porosity and their surface chemistry structure. Adsorption studies were performed by the batch technique to obtain kinetic and equilibrium data. The results show that the three sludge-derived activated carbons had a developed porosity and marked content of surface functional groups. They exhibited a rapid three-stage adsorption process for both methylene blue and crystal violet. Their adsorption capacities for the two dyes were high, the carbon DP performed best in the adsorption whereas the carbon DC performed worst. It is therefore concluded that the activated carbons made from sewage sludge and its mixtures are promising for dye removal from aqueous streams.

  20. Activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceutical residues from treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ek, Mats; Baresel, Christian; Magnér, Jörgen; Bergström, Rune; Harding, Mila

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical residues, which pass naturally through the human body into sewage, are in many cases virtually unaffected by conventional wastewater treatment. Accumulated in the environment, however, they can significantly impact aquatic life. The present study indicates that many pharmaceutical residues found in wastewater can be removed with activated carbon in a cost-efficient system that delivers higher resource utilisation and security than other carbon systems. The experiment revealed a substantial separation of the analysed compounds, notwithstanding their relatively high solubility in water and dissimilar chemical structures. This implies that beds of activated carbon may be a competitive alternative to treatment with ozone. The effluent water used for the tests, performed over 20 months, originated from Stockholm's largest sewage treatment plant. Passing through a number of different filters with activated carbon removed 90-98% of the pharmaceutical residues from the water. This paper describes pilot-scale tests performed by IVL and the implications for an actual treatment plant that has to treat up to several thousand litres of wastewater per second. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages and costs of the method are discussed. This includes, for example, the clogging of carbon filters and the associated hydraulic capacity limits of the activated carbon.

  1. MBBR system performance improvement for petroleum hydrocarbon removal using modified media with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sayyahzadeh, Amir Hossein; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Ayati, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system has a successful operation in the treatment of different types of wastewater. Since the media, i.e. the place of growth and formation of biofilm, play the main role in the treatment in this system, MBBR systems were operated in the present research with modified Bee-cell media. Activated carbon granules of almond or walnut shells were placed in media pores to improve the treatment of refinery oil wastewater and their operation with MBBR system was compared with the conventional Bee-cell media. In these experiments, the effects of organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), media filling ratio (MFR), and activated carbon concentration (ACC) used in the media were investigated on the operation of MBBR systems. The analysis of results estimated the optimal values of HRT, MFR, and ACC used in the media between the studied levels, being equal to 22 h, 50%, and 7.5 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, total petroleum hydrocarbons removal efficiencies for MBBR systems using Bee-cell media with carbon of almond, carbon of walnut shells, and a carbon-free system were 95 ± 1.17%, 91 ± 1.11%, and 57 ± 1.7%, respectively, which confirms the adsorption ability of systems with the media containing activated carbon in the removal of petroleum compounds from wastewater.

  2. Methane and carbon at equilibrium in source rocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Methane in source rocks may not exist exclusively as free gas. It could exist in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons: CH4 + C < = > Hydrocarbon. Three lines of evidence support this possibility. 1) Shales ingest gas in amounts and selectivities consistent with gas-carbon equilibrium. There is a 50% increase in solid hydrocarbon mass when Fayetteville Shale is exposed to methane (450 psi) under moderate conditions (100°C): Rock-Eval S2 (mg g-1) 8.5 = > 12.5. All light hydrocarbons are ingested, but with high selectivity, consistent with competitive addition to receptor sites in a growing polymer. Mowry Shale ingests butane vigorously from argon, for example, but not from methane under the same conditions. 2) Production data for a well producing from Fayetteville Shale declines along the theoretical curve for withdrawing gas from higher hydrocarbons in equilibrium with carbon. 3) A new general gas-solid equilibrium model accounts for natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium, and C6-C7 hydrocarbons constrained to invariant compositions. The results make a strong case for methane in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons. If correct, the higher hydrocarbons in source rocks are gas reservoirs, raising the possibility of substantially more gas in shales than analytically apparent, and far more gas in shale deposits than currently recognized. PMID:24330266

  3. Methane and carbon at equilibrium in source rocks.

    PubMed

    Mango, Frank D

    2013-12-12

    Methane in source rocks may not exist exclusively as free gas. It could exist in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons: CH4 + C < = > Hydrocarbon. Three lines of evidence support this possibility. 1) Shales ingest gas in amounts and selectivities consistent with gas-carbon equilibrium. There is a 50% increase in solid hydrocarbon mass when Fayetteville Shale is exposed to methane (450 psi) under moderate conditions (100°C): Rock-Eval S2 (mg g-1) 8.5 = > 12.5. All light hydrocarbons are ingested, but with high selectivity, consistent with competitive addition to receptor sites in a growing polymer. Mowry Shale ingests butane vigorously from argon, for example, but not from methane under the same conditions. 2) Production data for a well producing from Fayetteville Shale declines along the theoretical curve for withdrawing gas from higher hydrocarbons in equilibrium with carbon. 3) A new general gas-solid equilibrium model accounts for natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium, and C6-C7 hydrocarbons constrained to invariant compositions. The results make a strong case for methane in equilibrium with carbon and higher hydrocarbons. If correct, the higher hydrocarbons in source rocks are gas reservoirs, raising the possibility of substantially more gas in shales than analytically apparent, and far more gas in shale deposits than currently recognized.

  4. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang; Guo, Jun

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  5. Bisphenol A removal by combination of powdered activated carbon adsorption and ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongchang; Tong, Hao; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Jianfu

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) removal from surface water in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) by combination of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated in this study. It was especially focused on the effects of various factors on BPA removal, such as PAC dosage, NOM concentration and pH value. BPA removal by UF+PAC process increased sharply from 4% to 92%, when PAC dosage increased from 0 to 120 mg/L. The optimal PAC dosage was determined to be 30 mg/L. The results also showed that BPA retention was slightly favored in the presence of NOM. As pH increased from 7.0 to 10.5, BPA removal substantially decreased from 90% to 59%. PAC+UF process is recommended to be used as an emergence facility in drinking water treatment, especially when an accidental spilling of deleterious substance, e.g., BPA, in the water resources happens.

  6. Removal of perfluorinated surfactants by sorption onto granular activated carbon, zeolite and sludge.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2008-08-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants are emerging pollutants of increasing public health and environmental concern due to recent reports of their world-wide distribution, environmental persistence and bioaccumulation potential. Treatment methods for the removal of anionic perfluorochemical (PFC) surfactants from industrial effluents are needed to minimize the environmental release of these pollutants. Removal of PFC surfactants from aqueous solutions by sorption onto various types of granular activated carbon was investigated. Three anionic PFC surfactants, i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), were evaluated for the ability to adsorb onto activated carbon. Additionally, the sorptive capacity of zeolites and sludge for PFOS was compared to that of granular activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms were determined at constant ionic strength in a pH 7.2 phosphate buffer at 30 degrees C. Sorption of PFOS onto activated carbon was stronger than PFOA and PFBS, suggesting that the length of the fluorocarbon chain and the nature of the functional group influenced sorption of the anionic surfactants. Among all adsorbents evaluated in this study, activated carbon (Freundlich K(F) values=36.7-60.9) showed the highest affinity for PFOS at low aqueous equilibrium concentrations, followed by the hydrophobic, high-silica zeolite NaY (Si/Al 80, K(F)=31.8), and anaerobic sludge (K(F)=0.95-1.85). Activated carbon also displayed a superior sorptive capacity at high soluble concentrations of the surfactant (up to 80 mg l(-1)). These findings indicate that activated carbon adsorption is a promising treatment technique for the removal of PFOS from dilute aqueous streams.

  7. Carbon mass balance and microbial ecology in a laboratory scale reactor achieving simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Li, Liang; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

    2014-04-15

    Solids reduction in activated sludge processes (ASP) at source using process manipulation has been researched widely over the last two-decades. However, the absence of nutrient removal component, lack of understanding on the organic carbon, and limited information on key microbial community in solids minimizing ASP preclude the widespread acceptance of sludge minimizing processes. In this manuscript, we report simultaneous solids reduction through anaerobiosis along with nitrogen and phosphorus removals. The manuscript also reports carbon mass balance using stable isotope of carbon, microbial ecology of nitrifiers and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Two laboratory scale reactors were operated in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic (A(2)O) mode. One reactor was run in the standard mode (hereafter called the control-SBR) simulating conventional A(2)O type of activated sludge process and the second reactor was run in the sludge minimizing mode (called the modified-SBR). Unlike other research efforts where the sludge minimizing reactor was maintained at nearly infinite solids retention time (SRT). To sustain the efficient nutrient removal, the modified-SBR in this research was operated at a very small solids yield rather than at infinite SRT. Both reactors showed consistent NH3-N, phosphorus and COD removals over a period of 263 days. Both reactors also showed active denitrification during the anoxic phase even if there was no organic carbon source available during this phase, suggesting the presence of denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs). The observed solids yield in the modified-SBR was 60% less than the observed solids yield in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the modified-SBR was almost 44% more than the control-SBR under identical feeding conditions, but was nearly the same for both reactors under fasting conditions. The modified-SBR showed greater diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and PAOs compared to the control-SBR. The diversity of PAOs

  8. The stoichiometric ratio during biological removal of inorganic carbon and nutrient in the Mississippi River plume and adjacent continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Cai, W.-J.; Powell, R. T.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2012-02-01

    The stoichiometric ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients during biological removal have been widely assumed to follow the Redfield ratios (especially the C/N ratio) in large river plume ecosystems. However, this assumption has not been systematically examined and documented because DIC and nutrients are rarely studied simultaneously in a river plume area, a region in which they can be affected by strong river-ocean mixing as well as intense biological activity. We examined stoichiometric ratios of DIC, total alkalinity (TA), and nutrients (NO3, PO43- and Si(OH)4) data during biological removal in the Mississippi River plume and adjacent continental shelf in June 2003 and August 2004 with biological removals defined as the difference between measured values and values predicted on the basis of conservative mixing determined using a multi-endmember mixing model. Despite complex physical and biogeochemical influences, relationships between DIC and nutrients were strongly dependent on salinity range and geographic location, and influenced by biological removal. Lower C/Si and N/Si ratios in one nearshore area were attributed to a potential silicate source induced by water exchange with coastal salt marshes. When net biological uptake was separated from river-ocean mixing and the impact of marshes and bays excluded, stoichiometric ratios of C/N/Si were similar to the Redfield ratios, thus supporting the applicability of the Redfield-type C/N/Si ratios as a principle in river-plume biogeochemical models.

  9. Arsenate removal from water by zero-valent iron/activated carbon galvanic couples.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiaomin; Li, Rui; Zhao, Bei; Liang, Wenyan

    2010-10-15

    Galvanic couples composed of zero-valent iron and activated carbon (Fe(0)/AC) were investigated for As(V) removal from water. The effects of Fe(0) to AC mass ratio (FCR), solution pH, ionic strength and co-existing anions (phosphate, carbonate, silicate, nitrate, chloride and sulfate) and humic acid (HA) on As(V) removal were evaluated. The results showed that the optimum mass ratio was 1:1, and Fe(0)/AC with this ratio was more effective for As(V) removal than Fe(0) and AC alone at pH of 7 and ion strength of 0.03 M NaCl. The enhanced performance for As(V) removal was fulfilled through an accelerated corrosion process of Fe(0), which meant more corrosion products for efficient As(V) removal. The As(V) removal followed a pseudo-first order reaction. The rate constants (k) for 1:1 Fe(0)/AC and Fe(0) alone were 0.802 and 0.330 h(-1), respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization scans further confirmed that Fe(0) corrosion was promoted when Fe(0) was coupled with AC. Except silicates, other co-existing anions promoted As(V) removal. No reduction form of As (As(III) or As(0)) could be detected on iron corrosion products (ICPs) and in solutions. Identified ICPs included poorly crystallized lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and magnetite/maghemite (Fe(3)O(4)/gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) for both of Fe(0)/AC and Fe(0) systems. In conclusion, the Fe(0)/AC couple exhibited higher As removal performance than that of Fe(0) alone from water.

  10. Optimization of magnetic powdered activated carbon for aqueous Hg(II) removal and magnetic recovery.

    PubMed

    Faulconer, Emily K; von Reitzenstein, Natalia V Hoogesteijn; Mazyck, David W

    2012-01-15

    Activated carbon is known to adsorb aqueous Hg(II). MPAC (magnetic powdered activated carbon) has the potential to remove aqueous Hg to less than 0.2 μg/L while being magnetically recoverable. Magnetic recapture allows simple sorbent separation from the waste stream while an isolated waste potentially allows for mercury recycling. MPAC Hg-removal performance is verified by mercury mass balance, calculated by quantifying adsorbed, volatilized, and residual aqueous mercury. The batch reactor contained a sealed mercury-carbon contact chamber with mixing and constant N(2) (g) headspace flow to an oxidizing trap. Mercury adsorption was performed using spiked ultrapure water (100 μg/L Hg). Mercury concentrations were obtained using EPA method 245.1 and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. MPAC synthesis was optimized for Hg removal and sorbent recovery according to the variables: C:Fe, thermal oxidation temperature and time. The 3:1 C:Fe preserved most of the original sorbent surface area. As indicated by XRD patterns, thermal oxidation reduced the amorphous characteristic of the iron oxides but did not improve sorbent recovery and damaged porosity at higher oxidation temperatures. Therefore, the optimal synthesis variables, 3:1 C:Fe mass ratio without thermal oxidation, which can achieve 92.5% (± 8.3%) sorbent recovery and 96.3% (± 9%) Hg removal. The mass balance has been closed to within approximately ± 15%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal using a litre-scale upflow microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-ling; Song, Tian-shun

    2014-01-01

    A 10 L upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC) was constructed for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal. During the 6-month operation, the UMFC constantly removed carbon and nitrogen, and then generated electricity with synthetic wastewater as substrate. At 5.0 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen, 100 Ω external resistance, and pH 6.5, the maximum power density (Pmax) and nitrification rate for the UMFC was 19.5 mW m(-2) and 17.9 mg·(L d)(-1), respectively. In addition, Pmax in the UMFC with chicken manure wastewater as substrate was 16 mW m(-2), and a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 94.1% in the UMFC was achieved at 50 mM phosphate-buffered saline. Almost all ammonia in the cathode effluent was effectively degraded after biological denitrification in the UMFC cathode. The results can help to further develop pilot-scale microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal.

  12. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDR-MIP) Initial Results and Future Experiment Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D. P.; Scott, V.; Lenton, A.; Vaughan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate threatening "severe, pervasive and irreversible" impacts. Inadequate emissions reduction is resulting in increased attention on Climate Intervention (CI) - deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget, or remove the primary greenhouse gas from the atmosphere - Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR). The majority of future scenarios that do not exceed 2°C warming by 2100 include CDR methods. At present, there is little consensus on the efficacy and impacts of CDR and proposed CDR methods. In response, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDR-MIP) has been initiated. This project brings together a suite of Earth System Models (ESMs) and Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICS) in a common framework to explore the potential, risks, and challenges of CDR and different proposed CDR methods. The first set of CDR-MIP experiments investigate climate "reversibility" and the response of the Earth system to idealized engineered permanent CO2 removal. Here we present early results of these experiments and also discuss the design and implementation of the next experiments that explore CDR via land use change and ocean alkalinization. In particular we will highlight which components of the simulated climate system exhibit "reversibility", when CO2 increases and then decreases, and the time scales over which this occurs. Many of the trends are similar in different models; however, there is some disagreement in the response of the simulated carbon cycle.

  13. Removal of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems of a temperate river network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Aiken, G.; Butler, K. D.; Morse, N.; Salisbury, J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface waters play an important role in the global carbon balance. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are a major transfer of terrestrial carbon to river systems, and the net removal of terrestrial DOC in aquatic systems is poorly constrained. We used a combination of spatially distributed sampling of three DOC fractions, nitrate, and chloride in streams of different size throughout a river network and modeling to quantify the net removal of terrestrial DOC relative to other constituents during a summer base flow period. The approach was applied to the 400 km2 Ipswich River watershed, MA, USA. We found that aquatic reactivity of terrestrial DOC leading to net loss is low, closer to conservative chloride than to reactive nitrogen. Net removal of DOC occurred mainly from the hydrophobic organic acid fraction, while hydrophilic and transphilic acids showed no net change. Model fits were improved using the different DOC fractions than when using bulk DOC, indicating that partitioning of bulk DOC into different fractions is critical for understanding terrestrial DOC removal. These findings suggest that river systems may have only a modest ability to alter the amounts of terrestrial DOC delivered to coastal zones.

  14. Cryogenic Heat-Exchanger Design for Freeze-out Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Landfill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Chung, Myung Jin; Park, Seong Bum

    A cryogenic heat exchanger to remove carbon dioxide from landfill gas (LFG) is proposed and designed for applications to LNG production in distributed-scale. Since the major components of LFG are methane and carbon dioxide, CO2 removal is a significant pre-process in the liquefaction systems. A new and simple approach is proposed to directly remove carbon dioxide as frost on the surface wall along the cooling passage in a liquefying heat exchanger and to install two identical heat exchangers in parallel for alternative switching. As a first step of feasibility study, combined heat and mass transfer analysis is performed on the freeze-out process of CO2 in a counterflow heat exchanger, where CH4-CO2 mixture is cooled below its frost temperature in thermal contact with cold refrigerant. Engineering correlations for the analogy of heat and mass transfer are incorporated into numerical heat exchanger analysis with detailed fluid properties. The developed analytical model is used to estimate the distribution of CO2 accumulation and the required heat exchanger size with latent thermal load for the cryogenic CO2 removal in various operating conditions.

  15. Critical review of black carbon and elemental carbon source apportionment in Europe and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Nicole L.; Long, Christopher M.

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of air pollution source apportionment studies in Europe and the United States have focused on the black carbon (BC) fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) given its linkage with adverse public health and climate impacts. We conducted a critical review of European and US BC source apportionment studies published since 2003. Since elemental carbon (EC) has been used as a surrogate measure of BC, we also considered source apportionment studies of EC measurements. This review extends the knowledge presented in previous ambient PM source apportionment reviews because we focus on BC and EC and critically examine the differences between source apportionment results for different methods and source categories. We identified about 50 BC and EC source apportionment studies that have been conducted in either Europe or the US since 2003, finding a striking difference in the commonly used source apportionment methods between the two regions and variations in the assigned source categories. Using three dominant methodologies (radiocarbon, aethalometer, and macro-tracer methods) that only allow for BC to be broadly apportioned into either fossil fuel combustion or biomass burning source categories, European studies generally support fossil fuel combustion as the dominant ambient BC source, but also show significant biomass burning contributions, in particular in wintertime at non-urban locations. Among US studies where prevailing methods such as chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models have allowed for estimation of more refined source contributions, there are fewer findings showing the significance of biomass burning and variable findings on the relative proportion of BC attributed to diesel versus gasoline emissions. Overall, the available BC source apportionment studies provide useful information demonstrating the significance of both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning BC emission sources in Europe and the US

  16. Photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Yasser A.; El Sayed, Mohamed A.; El Maradny, Amr A.; Al Farawati, Radwan Kh.; Al Zobidi, Mosa I.; Khan, Shahed U. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the sonicated sol-gel method was used for synthesizing carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Carbon incorporation was achieved by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a titanium and carbon-containing precursor. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst was assessed by examining the photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solution. For comparison, unmodified (regular) titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) was used as a reference catalyst. To confirm the carbon incorporation in CM-n-TiO2 nanoparticles, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used. Significantly, the bandgap energy was found to be reduced from 2.99 eV for n-TiO2 to 1.8 eV for CM-n-TiO2, which in turn improved the performance of CM-n-TiO2 toward the photocatalytic removal of PCBs. The effects of CM-n-TiO2 loading, PCBs concentration, and pH of the solution on the photodegradation rate of PCBs were investigated. The highest removal rate was found to be at pH 5 and CM-n-TiO2 loading of 0.5 g L-1. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photodegradation of PCBs using CM-n-TiO2 followed a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics.

  17. Comparison of residual NAPL source removal techniques in 3D metric scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atteia, O.; Jousse, F.; Cohen, G.; Höhener, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study compared four treatment techniques for the removal of a toluene/n-decane as NAPL (Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) phase mixture in identical 1 cubic meter tanks filled with different kind of sand. These four treatment techniques were: oxidation with persulfate, surfactant washing with Tween80®, sparging with air followed by ozone, and thermal treatment at 80 °C. The sources were made with three lenses of 26 × 26 × 6.5 cm, one having a hydraulic conductivity similar to the whole tank and the two others a value 10 times smaller. The four techniques were studied after conditioning the tanks with tap water during approximately 80 days. The persulfate treatment tests showed average removal of the contaminants but significant flux decrease if density effects are considered. Surfactant flushing did not show a highly significant increase of the flux of toluene but allowed an increased removal rate that could lead to an almost complete removal with longer treatment time. Sparging removed a significant amount but suggests that air was passing through localized gas channels and that the removal was stagnating after removing half of the contamination. Thermal treatment reached 100% removal after the target temperature of 80 °C was kept during more than 10 d. The experiments emphasized the generation of a high-spatial heterogeneity in NAPL content. For all the treatments the overall removal was similar for both n-decane and toluene, suggesting that toluene was removed rapidly and n-decane more slowly in some zones, while no removal existed in other zones. The oxidation and surfactant results were also analyzed for the relation between contaminant fluxes at the outlet and mass removal. For the first time, this approach clearly allowed the differentiation of the treatments. As a conclusion, experiments showed that the most important differences between the tested treatment techniques were not the global mass removal rates but the time required to reach 99% decrease in

  18. Comparison of residual NAPL source removal techniques in 3D metric scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Atteia, O; Jousse, F; Cohen, G; Höhener, P

    2017-07-01

    This study compared four treatment techniques for the removal of a toluene/n-decane as NAPL (Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) phase mixture in identical 1 cubic meter tanks filled with different kind of sand. These four treatment techniques were: oxidation with persulfate, surfactant washing with Tween80®, sparging with air followed by ozone, and thermal treatment at 80°C. The sources were made with three lenses of 26×26×6.5cm, one having a hydraulic conductivity similar to the whole tank and the two others a value 10 times smaller. The four techniques were studied after conditioning the tanks with tap water during approximately 80days. The persulfate treatment tests showed average removal of the contaminants but significant flux decrease if density effects are considered. Surfactant flushing did not show a highly significant increase of the flux of toluene but allowed an increased removal rate that could lead to an almost complete removal with longer treatment time. Sparging removed a significant amount but suggests that air was passing through localized gas channels and that the removal was stagnating after removing half of the contamination. Thermal treatment reached 100% removal after the target temperature of 80°C was kept during more than 10d. The experiments emphasized the generation of a high-spatial heterogeneity in NAPL content. For all the treatments the overall removal was similar for both n-decane and toluene, suggesting that toluene was removed rapidly and n-decane more slowly in some zones, while no removal existed in other zones. The oxidation and surfactant results were also analyzed for the relation between contaminant fluxes at the outlet and mass removal. For the first time, this approach clearly allowed the differentiation of the treatments. As a conclusion, experiments showed that the most important differences between the tested treatment techniques were not the global mass removal rates but the time required to reach 99% decrease in the

  19. Carbon and black carbon in Yosemite National Park soils: sources, prescribed fire impacts, and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Traina, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the chemical and radiocarbon properties of black carbon recently deposited and accumulated in surface soils of six sites along an altitudinal gradient in Yosemite National Park, central California. The effect of prescribed (or controlled) forest burning on existing carbon and black carbon in surface soils was assessed to illuminate the role of this forest management and wildfire control strategy in the soil carbon cycle. The proportional contribution of fossil fuel or radiocarbon dead carbon versus biomass sources on these black carbon materials was analyzed to elucidate their origin, estimate their ages and explore the possible effects of prescribed burning on the amount of black carbon produced recently as well as historically. Supplementing these field results, we conducted a comparative spatial analysis of recent prescribed burn and wildfire coverage in Central California's San Joaquin Valley to approximate the effectiveness of prescribed burning for wildfire prevention. Federal and California policies pertaining to prescribed forest fires and/or black carbon were then evaluated for their effectiveness, air quality considerations, and environmental benefits. 13C NMR spectrum of soil surface char from study sites Prescribed burn coverage versus wildfires in central California

  20. Effect of VOC loading on the ozone removal efficiency of activated carbon filters.

    PubMed

    Metts, T A; Batterman, S A

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filters are used widely in air cleaning to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone (O(3)). This paper investigates the O(3) removal efficiency of AC filters after previous exposure to VOCs. Filter performance was tested using coconut shell AC and two common indoor VOCs, toluene and d-limonene, representing low and high reactivities with O(3). AC dosed with low, medium and high loadings (28-100% of capacity) of VOCs were exposed to humidified and ozonated air. O(3) breakthrough curves were measured, from which O(3) removal capacity and parameters of the Elovich chemisorption equation were determined. VOC-loaded filters were less efficient at removing O(3) and had different breakthrough behavior than unloaded filters. After 80 h of exposure, VOC-loaded AC samples exhibited 75-95% of the O(3) removal capacity of unloaded samples. O(3) breakthrough and removal capacity were not strongly influenced by the VOC-loading rate. Toluene-loaded filters showed rapid O(3) breakthrough due to poisoning of the AC, while pseudo-poisoning (initially higher O(3) adsorption rates that rapidly decrease) is suggested for limonene-loaded filters. Overall, VOC loadings provide an overall reduction in chemisorption rates, a modest reduction in O(3) removal capacity, and sometimes dramatic changes in breakthrough behavior, important considerations in filter applications in environments where both O(3) and VOCs are present.

  1. Removal of potentially toxic elements from aqueous solutions and industrial wastewater using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Ali Baig, Shams; Munir, Saduf; Naz, Alia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2017-06-01

    Water contamination with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) has become one of the key issues in recent years that threatens human health and ecological systems. The present study is aimed at removing PTEs like cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) from aqueous solutions and industrial wastewater using activated carbon (AC) as an adsorbent through different batch and column experiments. Results demonstrated that the removal of PTEs from aqueous solutions was highly pH dependent, except for Cr, and the maximum removal (>78%) was recorded at pH 6.0. However, maximum Cr removal (82.8%) was observed at pH 3.0. The adsorption reached equilibrium after 60 min with 2 g of adsorbent. Coefficient (R(2)) values suggested by the Langmuir isotherm model were 0.97, 0.96, 0.93 and 0.95 for Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively, indicating the fit to this model. In column experiments, the maximum removal of PTEs was observed at an adsorbent bed height of 20 cm with the optimal flow rate of 3.56 mL/min. Furthermore, PTEs removal by AC was observed in the order of Cu > Cd > Pb > Cr. Findings from this study suggest that AC could be used as a promising adsorbent for simultaneously removing several PTEs from wastewaters.

  2. Activated carbon fibers impregnated with Pd and Pt catalysts for toluene removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Jian-Yuan; Peng, Yu-Hui

    2013-07-15

    Few studies have investigated the use of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) impregnated with noble metals for the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study determined the removal efficiency of toluene as a function of time over ACF-supported metal catalysts. Two catalysts (Pt and Pd), five reaction temperatures (120, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C), and three oxygen contents (6%, 10%, and 21%) were investigated to determine the removal of toluene. To study the effects of the characteristics of the catalysts on toluene removal, the composition and morphology of the ACFs were analyzed using the BET, XPS, ICP, and FE-SEM. The results showed that the 0.42%Pd/ACFs showed greater activity for toluene removal than did 2.68%Pt/ACFs at a reaction temperature of 200°C and an oxygen content of 10%. The main removal mechanism of toluene over the 2.68%Pt/ACFs at reaction temperatures less than 200°C was adsorption. The long-term catalytic activity of the 2.68%Pt/ACFs for toluene removal at a reaction temperature of 250°C and an oxygen content of 10% could be obtained. Furthermore, toluene removal over the 2.68%Pt/ACFs at 200°C could be enhanced with increasing oxygen content.

  3. Study on the removal of pesticide in agricultural run off by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Ahmad; Hartini, W J H; Ali, Nora'aini; Endut, A

    2011-05-01

    In this batch study, the adsorption of malathion by using granular activated carbon with different parameters due to the particle size, dosage of carbons, as well as the initial concentration of malathion was investigated. Batch tests were carried out to determine the potential and the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC) in removal of pesticide in agricultural run off. The granular activated carbon; coconut shell and palm shells were used and analyzed as the adsorbent material. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity of 909.1mg/g. The results indicate that the GAC could be used to effectively adsorb pesticide (malathion) from agricultural runoff. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmaceutical Removal from Water Effluents by Adsorption on Activated Carbons: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Bahamon, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F

    2017-08-16

    Adsorption on activated carbons of five pharmaceutical molecules (ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, paracetamol, and amoxicillin) in aqueous mixtures has been investigated by molecular simulations using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method. A virtual nanoporous carbon model based on polyaromatic units with defects and polar-oxygenated sites was used for this purpose. The simulation results show excellent agreement with available experimental data. The adsorption capacities of the carbons for the five drugs were quite different and were linked, essentially, to their molecular dimensions and atom affinities. The uptake behavior follows the trend PRM > DCF, NPX > IBP > AMX in all the studied structures. This work is a further step in order to describe macroscopic adsorption performance of activated carbons in drug removal applications.

  5. [Removal of fluorescent whitening agent by hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Zhang, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Xia; Jiao, Ru-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of fluorescent whitening agent VBL in the processes of activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon modified (ACM) adsorptions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon were studied. Mechanism of the above catalytic oxidation was also investigated by adding tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), the free radical scavenger, and detecting the released gases. The results showed that: the activated carbon modified by Fe (NO3)3 (ACM)exhibited better adsorption removal than AC. Catalytic oxidation showed efficient removal of VBL, and the catalytic removal of AC (up to 95%) was significantly higher than that of ACM (58% only). Catalytic oxidation was inhibited by TBA, which indicates that the above reaction involved *OH radicals and atom oxygen generated by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of AC. The results of H2O2 decomposition and released gases detection involved in the process showed that activated carbon enhanced the decomposition of H2O2 which released oxygen and heat. More O2 was produced and higher temperature of the reactor was achieved, which indicated that H2O2 decomposition catalyzed by ACM was significantly faster than that of AC. Combining the results of VBL removal, it could be concluded that the rate of active intermediates (*OH radicals and atom oxygen) production by ACM catalytic reaction was faster than that of AC. These intermediates consumed themselves and produced O2 instead of degrading VBL. It seemed that the improper mutual matching of the forming rate of activating intermediates and the supply rate of reactants was an important reason for the lower efficiency of ACM catalytic reaction comparing with AC.

  6. Optimizing the weight loss-on-ignition methodology to quantify organic and carbonate carbon of sediments from diverse sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingren; Li, Yuncong; Wang, Y

    2011-03-01

    The sequential weight loss-on-ignition (WLOI) method for determination of organic and carbonate or inorganic carbon (C) content was evaluated on sediments from diverse sources with a great range of C contents. The sediments were collected from canal, wetland, river, estuary, lake, and marine sites. The organic and inorganic C contents of these samples ranged from 1 to 430 g kg( -1) and from 4 to 97 g kg( -1), respectively. Combinations of the combustion time and temperature and optimal weight ranges of representative samples were tested, and comparisons of the WLOI method with other methods, including dry combustion and wet combustion, were made. These methods were (1) use of the carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (CNS) autoanalyzer with normal and reduced temperatures for total and organic C, (2) thermogravimetry for both organic and inorganic C, (3) use of the CNS autoanalyzer after removal of inorganic (carbonate) C by fumigating samples with concentrated HCl for organic C, (4) Walkley-Black wet combustion method for organic C, and (5) pressure-calcimeter associated with subtraction method (total C minus inorganic C) for organic C determinations. The results of analyzing samples of sediments of diverse origins showed that the optimal combination of temperature and time of WLOI depended mostly on the sources of the analyzed sediment. The WLOI analysis of sediment samples for organic C from wetlands, canal, estuary, or river sites needed a relatively low temperature but that of sediment samples from lake and marine sites required a relatively high temperature. Overall, to obtain reliable analysis results of samples from widely varied sediment sources except marine sediments, 500°C for 12 h was optimal for organic C content determination, and 800°C for yet another 12 h was optimal for inorganic C content determination. The temperature could even be reduced to 475°C if only wetland and stream sediments were included, but for marine sediments, 550°C for 12 h was

  7. A study on NO removal of activated carbon fibers with deposited silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2005-02-01

    In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs), onto which silver (Ag) nanoparticles have been introduced by an electroplating technique, were used to remove NO. Surface properties of the ACFs were determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K were investigated by BET and t-plot methods to characterize the specific surface areas and pore volumes, and NO removal efficiency was confirmed by a gas chromatographic technique. As for the experimental results, Ag content on the ACFs increased with plating time. However, adsorption properties such as the BET specific surface area and the total pore volume were somewhat decreased in the presence of Ag nanoparticles. NO removal efficiency of all Ag-ACFs was higher than that of untreated ACFs and increased with Ag content. However, a decrease in the extent of NO removal was shown in the excessively plated ACFs, which might be associated with the blocking of the micropores in the carbon; therefore, an optimal Ag content needs to exist in the presence of initially well-developed micropores to lead to an increase in the efficient NO removal ability of the ACF.

  8. Removing Dissolved Silica from Waste Water with Catechol and Active Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sasan, Koroush; Brady, Patrick; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity is going to be a global great challenge in the near future because of the increasing population. Our water resources are limited and, hence, water treatment and recycling methods are the only alternatives for fresh water procurement in the upcoming decades. Water treatment and recycling methods serve to remove harmful or problematic constituents from ground, surface and waste waters prior to its consumption, industrial supply, or other uses. Scale formation in industrial and domestic installations is still an important problem during water treatment. In water treatment, silica scaling is a real and constant concern for plant operations. The focus of this study is on the viability of using a combination of catechol and active carbon to remove dissolved silica from concentrated cooling tower water (CCTW). Various analytical methods, such as ICP-MS and UV-vis, were used to understand the structure-property relationship between the material and the silica removal results. UV-Vis indicates that catechol can react with silica ions and form a silica-catecholate complex. The speciation calculation of catechol and silica shows that catechol and silica bind in the pH range of 8 – 10; there is no evidence of linkage between them in neutral and acidic pHs. The silica removal results indicate that using ~4g/L of catechol and 10g/L active carbon removes up to 50% of the dissolved silica from the CCTW.

  9. Simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen using a novel carbon-membrane aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowei; Yang, Fenglin; Sun, Cui; Zhang, Jianye; Wang, Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    A membrane aerated biofilm reactor is a promising technology for wastewater treatment. In this study, a carbon-membrane aerated biofilm reactor (CMABR) has been developed, to remove carbon organics and nitrogen simultaneously from one reactor. The results showed that CMABR has a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency, as it is operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, and it also showed a perfect performance, even if the HRT was shortened to 12 h. In this period, the removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) reached 86%, 94%, and 84%, respectively. However, the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and TN declined rapidly as the HRT was shortened to 8 h. This is because of the excessive growth of biomass on the nonwoven fiber and very high organic loading rate. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were mainly distributed in the inner layer of the biofilm. The coexistence of AOB and eubacteria in one biofilm can enhance the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen.

  10. Functionalized carbon nanotubes based filters for chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Elsehly, Emad M; Chechenin, N G; Makunin, A V; Motaweh, H A; Leksina, E G

    2017-04-01

    This investigation examines the filtration efficiency of chromium from aqueous solution using two types of commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (Taunit-M (TM) and Taunit-MD (TMD)). These MWCNTs were modified using two complementary treatments, purification (using a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide) and functionalization (using nitric acid). The effect of these treatments on the morphology of MWCNT Taunit filters was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to estimate the outer diameter distribution and element content deposited on filters. Effects of different parameters, i.e., carbon nanotube filter mass, concentration of chromium in aqueous solution, and pH of aqueous solution, on removal of this heavy metal were determined. From these investigations, the removal efficiency of chromium could reach 97% for modified TM and 70% for modified TMD at concentration of 10 ppm, suggesting that modified TM is an excellent adsorbent for chromium removal from aqueous solutions and more efficient than modified TMD. A significant increase in chromium removal by modified TM at pH = 2 has been observed compared with higher pH values. It was found that modified TM filters can be reused through many cycles of regeneration with high performance. Modified TM filters may be a promising candidate for heavy metal ion removal from industrial wastewater.

  11. Outstanding adsorption performance of high aspect ratio and super-hydrophobic carbon nanotubes for oil removal.

    PubMed

    Kayvani Fard, Ahmad; Mckay, Gordon; Manawi, Yehia; Malaibari, Zuhair; Hussien, Muataz A

    2016-12-01

    Oil removal from water is a highly important area due to the large production rate of emulsified oil in water, which is considered one of the major pollutants, having a negative effect on human health, environment and wildlife. In this study, we have reported the application of high quality carbon nanotube bundles produced by an injected vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD) reactor for oil removal. High quality, bundles, super hydrophobic, and high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes were produced. The average diameters of the produced CNTs ranged from 20 to 50 nm while their lengths ranged from 300 to 500 μm. Two types of CNTs namely, P-CNTs and C-CNTs, (Produced CNTs from the IV-CVD reactor and commercial CNTs) were used for oil removal from water. For the first time, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to measure maximum oil uptake using CNT and it was found that P-CNT can take oil up to 17 times their weight. The effect of adsorbent dosage, contact time, and agitation speed were examined on the oil spill clean-up efficiency using batch sorption experiments. Higher efficiency with almost 97% removal was achieved using P-CNTs compared to 87% removal using C-CNTs.

  12. A comparison of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Manuel, Michelle; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2016-05-15

    This study demonstrates simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in laboratory-scale continuous flow microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and provides side-by side comparison of these bioelectrochemical systems. The maximum organic carbon removal rates in MFC and MEC tests were similar at 5.1 g L(-1) d(-1) and 4.16 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively, with a near 100% carbon removal efficiency at an organic load of 3.3 g L(-1) d(-1). An ammonium removal efficiency of 30-55% with near-zero nitrite and nitrate concentrations was observed in the MFC operated at an optimal external resistance, while open-circuit MFC operation resulted in a reduced carbon and ammonium removal of 53% and 21%, respectively. In the MEC ammonium removal was limited to 7-12% under anaerobic conditions, while micro-aerobic conditions increased the removal efficiency to 31%. Also, at zero applied voltage both carbon and ammonium removal efficiencies were reduced to 42% and 4%, respectively. Based on the observed performance under different operating conditions, it was concluded that simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal was facilitated by concurrent anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation pathways at the anode and cathode, which balanced bioelectrochemical nitrification and denitrification reactions.

  13. Mass discharge assessment at a brominated DNAPL site: Effects of known DNAPL source mass removal.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C D; Davis, G B; Bastow, T P; Woodbury, R J; Rao, P S C; Annable, M D; Rhodes, S

    2014-08-01

    Management and closure of contaminated sites is increasingly being proposed on the basis of mass flux of dissolved contaminants in groundwater. Better understanding of the links between source mass removal and contaminant mass fluxes in groundwater would allow greater acceptance of this metric in dealing with contaminated sites. Our objectives here were to show how measurements of the distribution of contaminant mass flux and the overall mass discharge emanating from the source under undisturbed groundwater conditions could be related to the processes and extent of source mass depletion. In addition, these estimates of mass discharge were sought in the application of agreed remediation targets set in terms of pumped groundwater quality from offsite wells. Results are reported from field studies conducted over a 5-year period at a brominated DNAPL (tetrabromoethane, TBA; and tribromoethene, TriBE) site located in suburban Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater fluxes (qw; L(3)/L(2)/T) and mass fluxes (Jc; M/L(2)/T) of dissolved brominated compounds were simultaneously estimated by deploying Passive Flux Meters (PFMs) in wells in a heterogeneous layered aquifer. PFMs were deployed in control plane (CP) wells immediately down-gradient of the source zone, before (2006) and after (2011) 69-85% of the source mass was removed, mainly by groundwater pumping from the source zone. The high-resolution (26-cm depth interval) measures of qw and Jc along the source CP allowed investigation of the DNAPL source-zone architecture and impacts of source mass removal. Comparable estimates of total mass discharge (MD; M/T) across the source zone CP reduced from 104gday(-1) to 24-31gday(-1) (70-77% reductions). Importantly, this mass discharge reduction was consistent with the estimated proportion of source mass remaining at the site (15-31%). That is, a linear relationship between mass discharge and source mass is suggested. The spatial detail of groundwater and mass flux distributions

  14. Mass discharge assessment at a brominated DNAPL site: Effects of known DNAPL source mass removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, C. D.; Davis, G. B.; Bastow, T. P.; Woodbury, R. J.; Rao, P. S. C.; Annable, M. D.; Rhodes, S.

    2014-08-01

    Management and closure of contaminated sites is increasingly being proposed on the basis of mass flux of dissolved contaminants in groundwater. Better understanding of the links between source mass removal and contaminant mass fluxes in groundwater would allow greater acceptance of this metric in dealing with contaminated sites. Our objectives here were to show how measurements of the distribution of contaminant mass flux and the overall mass discharge emanating from the source under undisturbed groundwater conditions could be related to the processes and extent of source mass depletion. In addition, these estimates of mass discharge were sought in the application of agreed remediation targets set in terms of pumped groundwater quality from offsite wells. Results are reported from field studies conducted over a 5-year period at a brominated DNAPL (tetrabromoethane, TBA; and tribromoethene, TriBE) site located in suburban Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater fluxes (qw; L3/L2/T) and mass fluxes (Jc; M/L2/T) of dissolved brominated compounds were simultaneously estimated by deploying Passive Flux Meters (PFMs) in wells in a heterogeneous layered aquifer. PFMs were deployed in control plane (CP) wells immediately down-gradient of the source zone, before (2006) and after (2011) 69-85% of the source mass was removed, mainly by groundwater pumping from the source zone. The high-resolution (26-cm depth interval) measures of qw and Jc along the source CP allowed investigation of the DNAPL source-zone architecture and impacts of source mass removal. Comparable estimates of total mass discharge (MD; M/T) across the source zone CP reduced from 104 g day- 1 to 24-31 g day- 1 (70-77% reductions). Importantly, this mass discharge reduction was consistent with the estimated proportion of source mass remaining at the site (15-31%). That is, a linear relationship between mass discharge and source mass is suggested. The spatial detail of groundwater and mass flux distributions also

  15. Role of metabolite transporters in source-sink carbon allocation

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Frank; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or – in combination with nitrogen – as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters. PMID:23847636

  16. Role of metabolite transporters in source-sink carbon allocation.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, Frank; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or - in combination with nitrogen - as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters.

  17. Full System Modeling and Validation of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, James; Gauto, Hernando; Gomez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was initiated in September of 2011 as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Under the ARREM project, testing of sub-scale and full-scale systems has been combined with multiphysics computer simulations for evaluation and optimization of subsystem approaches. In particular, this paper describes the testing and modeling of various subsystems of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). The goal is a full system predictive model of CDRA to guide system optimization and development. The development of the CO2 removal and associated air-drying subsystem hardware under the ARREM project is discussed in a companion paper.

  18. Application of Vacuum Swing Adsorption for Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Removal from Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J.; Fulda, P.; Howard, D.; Ritter, J.; Levan, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design and testing of a vacuum-swing adsorption process to remove metabolic 'water and carbon dioxide gases from NASA's Orion crew exploration vehicle atmosphere is presented. For the Orion spacecraft, the sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system must remove all metabolic water, a technology approach 1Lhathas not been used in previous spacecraft life support systems. Design and testing of a prototype SBAR in sub-scale and full-scale configurations is discussed. Experimental and analytical investigations of dual-ended and single-ended vacuum desorption are presented. An experimental investigation of thermal linking between adsorbing and desorbing columns is also presented.

  19. Application of Vacuum Swing Adsorption for Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Removal from Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J.; Fulda, P.; Howard, D.; Ritter, J.; Levan, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design and testing of a vacuum-swing adsorption process to remove metabolic 'water and carbon dioxide gases from NASA's Orion crew exploration vehicle atmosphere is presented. For the Orion spacecraft, the sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system must remove all metabolic water, a technology approach 1Lhathas not been used in previous spacecraft life support systems. Design and testing of a prototype SBAR in sub-scale and full-scale configurations is discussed. Experimental and analytical investigations of dual-ended and single-ended vacuum desorption are presented. An experimental investigation of thermal linking between adsorbing and desorbing columns is also presented.

  20. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  1. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  2. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-02

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  3. A method for preparing ferric activated carbon composites adsorbents to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao Li; Lin, Y C; Chen, X; Gao, Nai Yun

    2007-09-30

    Iron oxide/activated carbon (FeO/AC) composite adsorbent material, which was used to modify the coal-based activated carbon (AC) 12 x 40, was prepared by the special ferric oxide microcrystal in this study. This composite can be used as the adsorbent to remove arsenic from drinking water, and Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation well describes the experimental adsorption isotherms. Then, the arsenic desorption can subsequently be separated from the medium by using a 1% aqueous NaOH solution. The apparent characters and physical chemistry performances of FeO/AC composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch and column adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate and compare the arsenic removal capability of the prepared FeO/AC composite material and virgin activated carbon. It can be concluded that: (1) the main phase present in this composite are magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)), hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) and goethite (alpha-FeO(OH)); (2) the presence of iron oxides did not significantly affect the surface area or the pore structure of the activated carbon; (3) the comparisons between the adsorption isotherms of arsenic from aqueous solution onto the composite and virgin activated carbon showed that the FeO/AC composite behave an excellent capacity of adsorption arsenic than the virgin activated carbon; (4) column adsorption experiments with FeO/AC composite adsorbent showed that the arsenic could be removed to below 0.01 mg/L within 1250 mL empty bed volume when influent concentration was 0.5mg/L.

  4. Scat removal: A source of bias in feces-related studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, T.R.; Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Sanchez, D.M.; Krausman, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of feces (coprophagy) may alter findings of dietary studies and population estimates based on fecal analyses, but its magnitude is poorly understood. We investigated seasonal incidence of scat removal on Fort Riley, Kansas, from January through December 2000. We placed feces from captive bobcats (Lynx rufus), captive coyotes (Canis latrans), and free-ranging coyotes randomly on tracking stations in forest and prairie landscapes to determine rates of scat removal by local wildlife. Rates of removal of feces from captive bobcats, captive coyotes, and free-ranging coyotes varied from 7% during spring to 50% during summer. We identified opossums (Didelphis virginiana) as the most common species present at stations where scat removal occurred. Feces may be an important seasonal source of food for opossums and may provide seasonal dietary supplements for other species. Other factors responsible for disturbance of feces included a woodrat (Neotoma floridana) caching coyote feces, removal of captive coyote feces by free-ranging coyotes accompanied by deposition of fresh feces, a bobcat burying a captive bobcat sample and depositing fresh feces, and rain storms. Dietary studies based on fecal analyses could be biased by scat removal, assuming that contents in feces are representative of the proportion of foods consumed.

  5. Fluoride removal in water by a hybrid adsorbent lanthanum-carbon.

    PubMed

    Vences-Alvarez, Esmeralda; Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Diaz-Flores, Paola E; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2015-10-01

    Various health problems associated with drinking water containing high fluoride levels, have motivated researchers to develop more efficient adsorbents to remove fluoride from water for beneficial concentrations to human health. The objective of this research was to anchor lanthanum oxyhydroxides on a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) to remove fluoride from water considering the effect of the solution pH, and the presence of co-existing anions and organic matter. The activated carbon was modified with lanthanum oxyhydroxides by impregnation. SEM and XRD were performed in order to determine the crystal structure and morphology of the La(III) particles anchored on the GAC surface. FT-IR and pK(a)'s distribution were determined in order to elucidate both the possible mechanism of the lanthanum anchorage on the activated carbon surface and the fluoride adsorption mechanism on the modified material. The results showed that lanthanum ions prefer binding to carboxyl and phenolic groups on the activated carbon surface. Potentiometric titrations revealed that the modified carbon (GAC-La) possesses positive charge at a pH lower than 9. The adsorption capacity of the modified GAC increased five times in contrast to an unmodified GAC adsorption capacity at an initial F(-) concentration of 20 mg L(-1). Moreover, the presence of co-existing anions had no effect on the fluoride adsorption capacity at concentrations below 30 mg L(-1), that indicated high F(-) affinity by the modified adsorbent material (GAG-La). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Santhy, K; Selvapathy, P

    2006-07-01

    The removal efficiency of activated carbon prepared from coir pith towards three highly used reactive dyes in textile industry was investigated. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption of dyes increased with an increase in contact time and carbon dose. Maximum de-colorisation of all the dyes was observed at acidic pH. Adsorption of dyes was found to follow the Freundlich model. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed first order and the values of the Lagergren rate constants of the dyes were in the range of 1.77 x 10(-2)-2.69 x 10(-2)min(-1). The column experiments using granular form of the carbon (obtained by agglomeration with polyvinyl acetate) showed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in bed depth and decrease of flow rate. The bed depth service time (BDST) analysis carried out for the dyes indicated a linear relationship between bed depth and service time. The exhausted carbon could be completely regenerated and put to repeated use by elution with 1.0M NaOH. The coir pith activated carbon was not only effective in removal of colour but also significantly reduced COD levels of the textile wastewater.

  7. A nanofilter composed of carbon nanotube-silver composites for virus removal and antibacterial activity improvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Pyo; Kim, Jae Ha; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Soo No; Park, Han-Oh

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new nanofilter using a carbon nanotube-silver composite material that is capable of efficiently removing waterborne viruses and bacteria. The nanofilter was subjected to plasma surface treatment to enhance its flow rate, which was improved by approximately 62%. Nanoscale pores were obtained by fabricating a carbon nanotube network and using nanoparticle fixation technology for the removal of viruses. The pore size of the nanofilter was approximately 38 nm and the measured flow rate ranged from 21.0 to 97.2L/(min·m(2)) under a pressure of 1-6 kgf/cm(2) when the amount of loaded carbon nanotube-silver composite was 1.0 mg/cm(2). The nanofilter was tested against Polio-, Noro-, and Coxsackie viruses using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the presence of viral particles within the outflow. No trace of viruses was found to flow through the nanofilter with carbon nanotube-silver composite loaded above 0.8 mg/cm(2). Moreover, the surface of the filter has antibacterial properties to prevent bacterial clogging due to the presence of 20-nm silver nanoparticles, which were synthesized on the carbon nanotube surface.

  8. Performance evaluation of a full-scale natural treatment system for nonpoint source and point source pollution removal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang; Huang, Chih-Hong; Chen, Way-Ling; Chueh, Nai-Ling

    2009-10-01

    This study presents a full-scale performance of a natural treatment system (NTS) facility in Taiwan with nearly 2 years of observations. The study site, composed of several treatment ponds in series, was designed primarily to reduce polluted stormwater runoff from tea gardens and partially to untreated domestic wastewater from nearby villages. Thus, both nonpoint source and point source pollution are treated in this system. From 28 field samplings in 2006-2007, the NTS site shows satisfactory treatment performance and the effluent water quality is significantly improved. Seven of the 28 sampling events are storm events (nonpoint source pollution) and the remainder are from regular monitoring (point source pollution). The average volume of influent and effluent is 533 CMD and 196 CMD, respectively. In order to determine the removal efficiency, several assessment measures are employed in an attempt to obtain unbiased conclusions. They are removal rate (RR), efficiency rate (ER), summation of loads (SOL), flux rate (FR), and effluent probability method (EPM). The average percent removal efficiency of NH(3)-N is 53.5-75.2% and of TP is 59.0-84.7%, in which the highest result is calculated by SOL method and the lowest rate is obtained from RR. In FR evaluation, larger treatment capacity for NH(3)-N than for TP is provided in the site and the average FR is respectively 0.230 g/m(2) day and 0.017 g/m(2) day. Of the methods examined, EPM is the only method capable of illustrating data distribution. Finally, recommendations on the usefulness of these measures are summarized to facilitate the understandings of NTS performance evaluations.

  9. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The data base required to adequately ascertain seasonal source and sink strengths in the arctic regions is difficult to obtain. However, there are now a reasonable quantity of data for this polar region to estimate sources and sinks within the Arctic which may contribute significantly to the annual tropospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration fluctuation. The sea-ice-air and the sea-air interfaces account for most of the contribution to the sources and sinks for carbon dioxide. Although the arctic and subarctic region is small in extent, it certainly is not impervious and ice sealed. Our estimate, based on historical data and current research, indicates that the Arctic, which is about 4% of the earth's surface, is an annual net sink for approx. 10/sup 15/ g CO/sub 2/ accounting for an equivalent of approx. 3% of the annual anthropogenic contribution of CO/sub 2/ to the troposphere.

  10. Optical Performance of Carbon-Nanotube Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jonge, Niels de; Allioux, Myriam; Oostveen, Jim T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Milne, William I.

    2005-05-13

    The figure of merit for the electron optical performance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron sources is presented. This figure is given by the relation between the reduced brightness and the energy spread in the region of stable emission. It is shown experimentally that a CNT electron source exhibits a highly stable emission process that follows the Fowler-Nordheim theory for field emission, fixing the relationship among the energy spread, the current, and the radius. The performance of the CNT emitter under realistic operating conditions is compared with state-of-the-art electron point sources. It is demonstrated that the reduced brightness is a function of the tunneling parameter, a measure of the energy spread at low temperatures, only, independent of the geometry of the emitter.

  11. Carbon utilization profiles of river bacterial strains facing sole carbon sources suggest metabolic interactions.

    PubMed

    Goetghebuer, Lise; Servais, Pierre; George, Isabelle F

    2017-05-01

    Microbial communities play a key role in water self-purification. They are primary drivers of biogenic element cycles and ecosystem processes. However, these communities remain largely uncharacterized. In order to understand the diversity-heterotrophic activity relationship facing sole carbon sources, we assembled a synthetic community composed of 20 'typical' freshwater bacterial species mainly isolated from the Zenne River (Belgium). The carbon source utilization profiles of each individual strain and of the mixed community were measured in Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays PM1 and PM2A microplates that allowed testing 190 different carbon sources. Our results strongly suggest interactions occurring between our planktonic strains as our synthetic community showed metabolic properties that were not displayed by its single components. Finally, the catabolic performances of the synthetic community and a natural community from the same sampling site were compared. The synthetic community behaved like the natural one and was therefore representative of the latter in regard to carbon source consumption. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption on a 5A Zeolite Designed for CO2 Removal in Spacecraft Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Finn, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide adsorption data were obtained for a 5A zeolite manufactured by AlliedSignal Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois). The material is planned for use in the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) for U.S. elements of the International Space Station. The family of adsorption isotherms covers a temperature range of O to 250 C, and a pressure range of 0.001 to 800 torr. Coefficients of the Toth equation are fit to the data. Isosteric heats of adsorption are derived from the equilibrium loading data.

  13. Removal performance and mechanism of ibuprofen from water by catalytic ozonation using sludge-corncob activated carbon as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Liqiu; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xue; Li, Lu; Feng, Li

    2014-09-01

    To discover the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon in catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen, the performance of sludge-corncob activated carbon and three selected commercial activated carbons as catalysts in catalytic ozonation was investigated. The observation indicates the degradation rate of Ibuprofen increases significantly in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon is much higher than that of the other three commercial activated carbons. Ibuprofen's removal rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics model well. It is also found that the adsorption removal of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon is less than 30% after 40 min. And the removal efficiency of Ibuprofen in the hybrid ozone/sludge-corncob activated carbon system is higher than the sum of sludge-corncob activated carbon adsorption and ozonation alone, which is a supportive evidence for catalytic reaction. In addition, the results of radical scavenger experiments demonstrate that catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon follows a hydroxyl radical reaction pathway. During ozonation of Ibuprofen in the presence of activated carbon, ozone could be catalytically decomposed to form hydrogen peroxide, which can promote the formation of hydroxyl radical. The maximum amount of hydrogen peroxide occurs in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon, which can explain why sludge-corncob activated carbon has the best catalytic activity among four different activated carbons.

  14. Enhanced coagulation with powdered activated carbon or MIEX secondary treatment: a comparison of disinfection by-product formation and precursor removal.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The removal of both organic and inorganic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors prior to disinfection is important in mitigating DBP formation, with halide removal being particularly important in salinity-impacted water sources. A matrix of waters of variable alkalinity, halide concentration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were treated with enhanced coagulation (EC) followed by anion exchange (MIEX resin) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and the subsequent disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBP-FPs) assessed and compared to DBP-FPs for untreated samples. Halide and DOC removal were also monitored for both treatment processes. Bromide and iodide adsorption by MIEX treatment ranged from 0 to 53% and 4-78%, respectively. As expected, EC and PAC treatments did not remove halides. DOC removal by EC/PAC was 70 ± 10%, while EC/MIEX enabled a DOC removal of 66 ± 12%. Despite the halide removals achieved by MIEX, increases in brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation were observed relative to untreated samples, when favourable Br:DOC ratios were created by the treatment. However, the increases in formation were less than what was observed for the EC/PAC treated waters, which caused large increases in Br-DBP formation when high Br-DBP-forming water quality conditions occurred. The formation potential of fully chlorinated DBPs decreased after treatment in all cases.

  15. The role of ozonation and activated carbon filtration in the natural organic matter removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, A; Iivari, P; Sallanko, J; Heiska, E; Tuhkanen, T

    2006-10-01

    Aquatic natural organic matter is one of the most important problems in the drinking water treatment process design and development. In this study, the removal of the natural organic matter was followed both in the full-scale drinking water treatment process and in the pilot-scale studies. The full-scale process consisted of coagulation, flocculation and flotation, sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration and disinfection. The aim of the pilot study was to investigate the influence of the dose and contact time of ozonation, and also the impact of activated carbon filtration, on the removal efficiency of organic matter. Several methods, including high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, total organic carbon content and assimilable organic carbon content measurements were used to characterize the behaviour of organic matter and its removal efficiency. On the full-scale process, total organic carbon was removed by over 90 %. According to size-exclusion measurements, chemical coagulation removed the high molar mass organic matter with an efficiency of 98%. The ozonation further removed the smaller molar mass fraction compounds by about 27%, while residual higher molar mass matter remained quite unaltered. Activated carbon filtration removed primarily intermediate and low molar mass organic matter. In the pilot-tests, conducted with sand filtered water from the full-scale process, it was noticed, that the ozonation removed primarily smaller organic compounds. The amount of assimilable organic carbon increased with increasing ozone dose, up to 0.4 mg l(-1) with the highest ozone dose of 4.0 mg 1(-1). The activated carbon filtration removed the assimilable organic carbon. Total organic carbon content was not reduced in ozonation.

  16. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  17. Agenda and Meeting Summary from Best Practices Training on Arctic Black Carbon: Reduction of Black Carbon from Diesel Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    From April 15-19, 2013, EPA's partners hosted the Best Practices Training on Arctic Black Carbon: Reduction of Black Carbon from Diesel Sources in Murmansk, Russia. Over the course of this event, participants:

  18. Agenda and Meeting Summary from Final Workshop on Arctic Black Carbon: Reduction of Black Carbon from Diesel Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Battelle Memorial Institute and WWF-Russia organized the final workshop on Arctic Black Carbon: Reduction of Black Carbon from Diesel Sources on November 5, 2014 in Murmansk, Russia.

  19. Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

    2011-09-15

    In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon source utilization profiles as a method to identify sources of faecal pollution in water.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, C; Crozier, J B; Mentz, K A; Booth, A M; Graves, A K; Nelson, N J; Reneau, R B

    2003-01-01

    Carbon source utilization profiles as a phenotypic fingerprinting methodology for determining sources of faecal pollution in water were evaluated. Three hundred and sixty-five Enterococcus isolates were collected from known faecal sources in four different geographical regions and were identified to species with the commercial Biolog system. Discriminant analysis (DA) was used to identify the substrate-containing wells that best classified the 365 isolates by source. By using 30 of the 95 wells for the analysis, the average rate of correct classification (ARCC) by source was 92.7% for a human vs non-human two-way classification when isolates from all regions were combined into one library. Corresponding ARCCs for other classification schemes were 81.9% for a four-way classification of human vs livestock vs wildlife vs domestic pets, and 85.7% for a three-way classification without human isolates. When three individual libraries were made based on classification of sources within Enterococcus species, the ARCC was 95.3% for the Ent. faecalis library, 95.8% for the Ent. gallinarum library and 94.7% for the Ent. mundtii library. Thirty Enterococcus isolates (unknown sources) were obtained from each of three stream sites where a specific source of pollution was apparent; 90.0% of the isolates from a human-suspected source were classified as human, 86.6% were classified as livestock from a livestock-suspected site, and 93.3% were classified as wildlife from a wildlife-suspected site. Phenotypic fingerprinting with carbon source utilization profiles provided levels of correct classification by sources from an Enterococcus library that were in the upper range of those reported in the literature. ARCCs for three Enterococcus species-specific libraries were very high and may be the best approach for further developing this concept and methodology. SIGNIFICANCE ANC IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results, based on a modest Enterococcus library and a preliminary field validation

  1. Utilization of carbon sources in a northern Brazilian mangrove ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Schwamborn, Ralf; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ( 13C and 15N) and trophic level (TL) estimates based on stomach content analysis and published data were used to assess the contribution of autotrophic sources to 55 consumers in an intertidal mangrove creek of the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Primary producers showed δ 13C signatures ranging between -29.2 and -19.5‰ and δ 15N from 3.0 to 6.3‰. The wide range of the isotopic composition of carbon of consumers (-28.6 to -17.1‰) indicated that different autotrophic sources are important in the intertidal mangrove food webs. Food web segregation structures the ecosystem into three relatively distinct food webs: (i) mangrove food web, where vascular plants contribute directly or indirectly via POM to the most 13C-depleted consumers (e.g. Ucides cordatus and zooplanktivorous food chains); (ii) algal food web, where benthic algae are eaten directly by consumers (e.g. Uca maracoani, mullets, polychaetes, several fishes); (iii) mixed food web where the consumers use the carbon from different primary sources (mainly benthivorous fishes). An IsoError mixing model was used to determine the contributions of primary sources to consumers, based on δ 13C values. Model outputs were very sensitive to the magnitude of trophic isotope fractionation and to the variability in 13C data. Nevertheless, the simplification of the system by a priori aggregation of primary producers allowed interpretable results for several taxa, revealing the segregation into different food webs.

  2. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation.

    PubMed

    Winiger, Patrik; Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P; Dudarev, Oleg V; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-02-14

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ng⋅m(-3) to 302 ng⋅m(-3)) and dual-isotope-constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth.

  3. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ng⋅m−3 to 302 ng⋅m−3) and dual-isotope–constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. PMID:28137854

  4. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiger, Patrik; Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ngṡm-3 to 302 ngṡm-3) and dual-isotope-constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth.

  5. [Effluent carbon source improvement and sludge reduction by hydrolysis reactor with enhanced sludge utilization].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Wang, Qiang; Song, Ying-Hao; Zhu, Min; Lin, Xiu-Jun

    2013-07-01

    In order to strengthen the sludge hydrolysis and improve effluent carbon source, the structure of currently existing hydrolysis reactor was reformed. The new process combined separation of suspended solids in influent and hydrolysis of settled sludge. Experimental results show that the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, the average SS/BOD5 ratio of effluent was dropped to 0.4, far less than that of the influent ratios; SCOD/COD and COD(0.45-5)/COD ratio of the effluent increased by 35.4% and 17.7%, but the COD(> 100)/COD ratio reduced by 53.2%; BOD5/TN ratio increased from 3.7 to 4.7 and the BOD5/TP ratio from 23.8 to 36.4. The improvement of effluent carbon source was helpful for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in follow-up process. Meanwhile, the hydrolytic rate of sludge was up to 51.9%, realizing the reduction and resource-regeneration.

  6. Modeling the PAO-GAO competition: effects of carbon source, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos M; Oehmen, Adrian; Hooijmans, Christine M; Brdjanovic, Damir; Gijzen, Huub J; Yuan, Zhiguo; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2009-02-01

    The influence of different carbon sources (acetate to propionate ratios), temperature and pH levels on the competition between polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms (PAO and GAO, respectively) was evaluated using a metabolic model that incorporated the carbon source, temperature and pH dependences of these microorganisms. The model satisfactorily described the bacterial activity of PAO (Accumulibacter) and GAO (Competibacter and Alphaproteobacteria-GAO) laboratory-enriched cultures cultivated on propionate (HPr) and acetate (HAc) at standard conditions (20 degrees C and pH 7.0). Using the calibrated model, the effects of different influent HAc to HPr ratios (100-0, 75-25, 50-50 and 0-100%), temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C) and pH levels (6.0, 7.0 and 7.5) on the competition among Accumulibacter, Competibacter and Alphaproteobacteria-GAO were evaluated. The main aim was to assess which conditions were favorable for the existence of PAO and, therefore, beneficial for the biological phosphorus removal process in sewage treatment plants. At low temperature (10 degrees C), PAO were the dominant microorganisms regardless of the used influent carbon source or pH. At moderate temperature (20 degrees C), PAO dominated the competition when HAc and HPr were simultaneously supplied (75-25 and 50-50% HAc to HPr ratios). However, the use of either HAc or HPr as sole carbon source at 20 degrees C was not favorable for PAO unless a high pH was used (7.5). Meanwhile, at higher temperature (30 degrees C), GAO tended to be the dominant microorganisms. Nevertheless, the combined presence of acetate and propionate in the influent (75-25 and 50-50% HAc to HPr ratios) as well as a high pH (7.5) appear to be potential factors to favor the metabolism of PAO over GAO at higher sewage temperature (30 degrees C).

  7. Measurement of Trace Water Vapor in a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Product Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wormhoudt, Joda; Shorter, Joanne H.; McManus, J. Barry; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Freedman, Andrew; Campbell, Melissa; Chang, Clarence T.; Smith, Frederick D.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) uses regenerable adsorption technology to remove carbon dioxide (COP) from cabin air. Product water vapor measurements from a CDRA test bed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center were made using a tunable infrared diode laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) provided by NASA Glenn Research Center. The TILDAS instrument exceeded all the test specifications, including sensitivity, dynamic range, time response, and unattended operation. During the COP desorption phase, water vapor concentrations as low as 5 ppmv were observed near the peak of CO2 evolution, rising to levels of approx. 40 ppmv at the end of a cycle. Periods of high water concentration (>100 ppmv) were detected and shown to be caused by an experimental artifact. Measured values of total water vapor evolved during a single desorption cycle were as low as 1 mg.

  8. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Ameda, Emmanuel; Sharma, Saroj K; Grützmacher, Gesche; Amy, Gary L

    2010-07-01

    Natural treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (via an infiltration basin) are a robust barrier for many organic micropollutants (OMPs) and may represent a low-cost alternative compared to advanced drinking water treatment systems. This study analyzes a comprehensive database of OMPs at BF and artificial recharge (AR) sites located near Lake Tegel in Berlin (Germany). The focus of the study was on the derivation of correlations between the removal efficiencies of OMPs and key factors influencing the performance of BF and AR. At the BF site, shallow monitoring wells located close to the Lake Tegel source exhibited oxic conditions followed by prolonged anoxic conditions in deep monitoring wells and a production well. At the AR site, oxic conditions prevailed from the recharge pond along monitoring wells to the production well. Long residence times of up to 4.5 months at the BF site reduced the temperature variation during soil passage between summer and winter. The temperature variations were greater at the AR site as a consequence of shorter residence times. Deep monitoring wells and the production well located at the BF site were under the influence of ambient groundwater and old bank filtrate (up to several years of age). Thus, it is important to account for mixing with native groundwater and other sources (e.g., old bank filtrate) when estimating the performance of BF with respect to removal of OMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate correlations between OMP removals and hydrogeochemical conditions with spatial and temporal parameters (e.g., well distance, residence time and depth) from both sites. Principal component-1 (PC1) embodied redox conditions (oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen), and principal component-2 (PC2) embodied degradation potential (e.g., total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon) with the calcium carbonate dissolution potential (Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-)) for the BF

  9. Optimizing external carbon source addition in domestics wastewater treatment based on online sensoring data and a numerical model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qibin; Chen, Qiuwen; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The removal of total nitrogen in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often unsatisfactory for a variety of reasons. One possible measure to improve nitrogen removal is the addition of external carbon. However, the amount of carbon addition is directly related to WWTP operation costs, highlighting the importance of accurately determining the amount of external carbon required. The objective of this study was to obtain a low nitrate concentration in the anoxic zone of WWTPs efficiently and economically by optimizing the external carbon source dosage. Experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale pre-denitrification reactor at a Nanjing WWTP in China. External carbon source addition based on online monitoring of influent wastewater quality and a developed nitrification-denitrification numerical model was investigated. Results showed that carbon addition was reduced by 47.7% and aeration costs were reduced by 8.0% compared with those using a fixed-dose addition mode in the pilot reactor. The obtained technology was applied to the full-scale Jiangxinzhou WWTP in Nanjing with promising results.

  10. Optimizing the removal of carbon phases in soils and sediments for sequential chemical extractions by coulometry.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M K; Biegalski, S R; Inn, K G; Yu, L; Burnett, W C; Thomas, J L; Smith, G E

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a coulometric technique to optimize the removal of the carbonate and organic fractions for sequential chemical extractions of soils and sediments. The coulometric system facilitates optimizing these two fractions by direct real-time measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved during the removal of these two fractions. Further analyses by ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry aided in interpreting the results of coulometry experiments. The effects of time, temperature, ionic strength and pH were investigated. The sensitivity of the coulometric reaction vessel/detection system was sufficient even at very low total carbon content (< 0.1 mol kg-1). The efficiency of the system is estimated to be 96% with a standard deviation of 8%. Experiments were carried out using NIST Standard Reference Materials 4357 Ocean Sediment (OS), 2704 Buffalo River Sediment (BRS), and pure calcium carbonate. Carbonate minerals were dissolved selectively using an ammonium acetate-acetic acid buffer. Organic matter was then oxidized to CO2 using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in nitric acid. The carbonate fraction was completely dissolved within 120 min under all conditions examined (literature suggests up to 8 h). For the OS standard, the oxidation of organic matter self-perpetuates between 45 and 50 degrees C, a factor of two less than commonly suggested, while organic carbon in the BRS standard required 80 degrees C for the reaction to proceed to completion. For complete oxidation of organic matter, we find that at least three additions of H2O2 are required (popular methods suggest one or two).

  11. Zinc-sulphate-heptahydrate coated activated carbon for microbe removal from stormwater.

    PubMed

    Guest, R M; Schang, C; Deletic, A; McCarthy, D T

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to develop effective stormwater filters for passive (without any addition of chemicals or energy) and effective removal of pathogens in order to mainstream stormwater harvesting. This study focuses on the development of coated granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration material in order to develop filters for effective removal of pathogens from urban stormwater. Several laboratory trials were performed to gauge the effectiveness of the filters, which use a mixture of the zinc-sulphate-heptahydrate coated GAC and sand, on the removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from semi-natural stormwater. On average, a 98% removal of the inflow concentration of E. coli was achieved. Furthermore, there was also an improvement of approximately 25% in the removal of phosphorous. However, it was found that the treated material was leaching zinc. It was important to determine whether the observed removal of E. coli was indirectly caused by the sampling methodology. The results showed that the inactivation of the E. coli in the collected sample was small compared with the inactivation which actually occurred within the filter. This provides much promise to the filter, but the presence of zinc in the outflow demonstrates the need for further investigation into the stabilisation of the coating process.

  12. Simultaneous activated carbon adsorption within a membrane bioreactor for an enhanced micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Hai, Faisal I; Nghiem, Long D

    2011-05-01

    Significant adsorption of sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine to powdered activated carbon (PAC) was confirmed by a series of adsorption tests. In contrast, adsorption of these micropollutants to the sludge was negligible. The removal of these compounds in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was dependent on their hydrophobicity and loading as well as the PAC dosage. Sulfamethoxazole exhibited better removal rate during operation under no or low (0.1g/L) PAC dosage. When the PAC concentration in MBR was raised to 1.0 g/L, a sustainable and significantly improved performance in the removal of both compounds was observed - the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine increased to 82 ± 11% and 92 ± 15% from the levels of 64 ± 7%, and negligible removal, respectively. The higher removal efficiency of carbamazepine at high (1.0 g/L) PAC dosage could be attributed to the fact that carbamazepine is relatively more hydrophobic than sulfamethoxazole, which subsequently resulted in its higher adsorption affinity toward PAC.

  13. Phosphonate removal from discharged circulating cooling water using iron-carbon micro-electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Qiao, Weimin; Lin, Yangbo; Shen, Xuelian; Hu, Dalong; Zhang, Jianqiao; Jiang, Lu-Man; Wang, Luochun

    2014-01-01

    Phosphonate is a commonly used corrosion and scale inhibitor for a circulating cooling water (CCW) system. Its discharge could cause eutrophication of receiving waters. The iron-carbon (Fe/C) micro-electrolysis technology was used to degrade and remove phosphonate from discharged CCW. The influences of initial pH, Fe/C ratio (FCR) and temperature on phosphonate removal were investigated in a series of batch tests and optimized by response surface methodology. The quadratic model of phosphonate removal was obtained with satisfactory degrees of fitness. The optimum conditions with total phosphorus removal efficiency of 95% were obtained at pH 7.0, FCR of 1.25, and temperature of 45 °C. The phosphonate removal mechanisms were also studied. Phosphonate removal occurred predominantly via two consecutive reactive phases: the degradation of phosphonate complexes (Ca-phosphonate) and the precipitation of Fe/C micro-electrolysis products (PO₄(3-), Ca²⁺ and Fe³⁺).

  14. Removal of perfluorinated carboxylates from washing wastewater of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride using activated carbons and resins.

    PubMed

    Du, Ziwen; Deng, Shubo; Chen, Youguang; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2015-04-09

    Perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) washing wastewater contains high concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) including perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA, 0.10 mmol/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA, 0.11 mmol/L), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 0.29 mmol/L). For the first time, we investigated the removal of these PFCAs from actual wastewater using the bamboo-derived activated carbon (BAC) and resin IRA67. Adsorption kinetics, effects of adsorbent dose, solution pH, and inorganic ions, as well as regeneration and reuse experiments were studied. The removal percents of three PFCAs by BAC and IRA67 followed the increasing order of PFHxA < PFHpA < PFOA, but the adsorption equilibrium time conformed to the reverse trend. PFCAs removal on IRA67 decreased with increasing pH, but BAC almost kept stable PFCAs removal at pH above 5.0. Among competitive adsorption of three PFCAs, PFOA was preferentially adsorbed on both BAC and IRA67. PFCAs removal from actual wastewater by BAC was higher than that in simulated solution, due to the presence of high concentration of inorganic ions in the wastewater. However, the co-existing organic compounds in wastewater significantly suppressed the adsorption of PFCAs. Both spent BAC and IRA67 were successfully regenerated by ethanol solution or NaCl/methanol mixture, and IRA67 showed the stable removal of PFCAs in five adsorption cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of virus and toxin using heatable multi-walled carbon nanotube web filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hoon-Sik; Jeon, Sang Koo; Ryu, Kwon-Sang; Nahm, Seung Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have used a carbon nanotube (CNT) filter for pathogen removal and/or inactivation by means of electrochemical or electrochlorination. The large surface area, fine pore size and high electrical and thermal conductivity of CNTs make them suitable and distinct to use for the filtering and removal of pathogens. Here, we grew spin-capable multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and manufactured a web filter using the spun MWCNTs. Botulinum toxin type E light chain (BoT/E-LC) and vaccinia virus (VV) were filtered using the MWCNT web filters and were evaporated and removed by applying direct current (DC) voltage to both sides of the MWCNT webs, excluding electrochemical or electrochlorination. The filtering and removal of BoT/E-LC and VV were performed after seven layers of the MWCNT sheets were coated onto a silicon oxide porous plate. The electrical resistance of the webs in the seven layer sheet was 293 Ω. The temperature of MWCNTs webs was linearly increased to ˜300 °C at 210 V of DC voltage. This temperature was enough to remove BoT/E-LC and VV. From the SEM and XPS results, we confirmed that BoT/E-LC and VV on the MWCNT webs were almost removed by applying a DC voltage and that some element (N, Na, Cl, etc.) as residues on the MWCNT webs remained.

  16. Regional blood acidification enhances extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: a 48-hour animal study.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Alberto; Mangili, Paolo; Redaelli, Sara; Scaravilli, Vittorio; Giani, Marco; Ferlicca, Daniela; Scaccabarozzi, Diletta; Pirrone, Federica; Albertini, Mariangela; Patroniti, Nicolò; Pesenti, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal has been proposed to achieve protective ventilation in patients at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. In an acute study, the authors previously described an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal technique enhanced by regional extracorporeal blood acidification. The current study evaluates efficacy and feasibility of such technology applied for 48 h. Ten pigs were connected to a low-flow veno-venous extracorporeal circuit (blood flow rate, 0.25 l/min) including a membrane lung. Blood acidification was achieved in eight pigs by continuous infusion of 2.5 mEq/min of lactic acid at the membrane lung inlet. The acid infusion was interrupted for 1 h at the 24 and 48 h. Two control pigs did not receive acidification. At baseline and every 8 h thereafter, the authors measured blood lactate, gases, chemistry, and the amount of carbon dioxide removed by the membrane lung (VCO2ML). The authors also measured erythrocyte metabolites and selected cytokines. Histological and metalloproteinases analyses were performed on selected organs. Blood acidification consistently increased VCO2ML by 62 to 78%, from 79 ± 13 to 128 ± 22 ml/min at baseline, from 60 ± 8 to 101 ± 16 ml/min at 24 h, and from 54 ± 6 to 96 ± 16 ml/min at 48 h. During regional acidification, arterial pH decreased slightly (average reduction, 0.04), whereas arterial lactate remained lower than 4 mEq/l. No sign of organ and erythrocyte damage was recorded. Infusion of lactic acid at the membrane lung inlet consistently increased VCO2ML providing a safe removal of carbon dioxide from only 250 ml/min extracorporeal blood flow in amounts equivalent to 50% production of an adult man.

  17. Synthesis of Large Pore Carbon Nanoparticles for Removal of Malachite Green.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pranav K; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized high surface area and large pore volume carbon nanoparticles (CNP) by a simple and easy sol-gel approach. The sol was prepared by mixing Pluronic F127 and phloroglucinol-terephthalaldehyde in acidic ethanol solution and the gel was formed after the vacuum removal of ethanol. In the sol-gel process, hydrophobic segments of Pluronic F127 forms enhanced hydrogen bonding with trihydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol. A polymeric network of carbon precursor was also prepared by making the interconnectivity between four phloroglucinol and one terephthalaldehyde molecules. After thermal polymerization and carbonization of the gel, the CNP had a very high surface area (1441 m² g⁻¹) and large pore volume (1.7 cm³ g⁻¹) with narrow micropore (1.0 nm) and mesopore (2.3 nm) diameters. The mesopore was developed due to the enhanced hydrogen bonding between Pluronic F127 and phloroglucinol, while the micropores were generated due to hydrocarbon polymeric network of phloroglucinol-terephthalaldehyde. The CNP had a size about ca. 20 nm. The CNP were applied for the removal of the highly hazardous water pollutant malachite green (MG) and achieved a very high adsorption capacity (1892 mg g⁻¹). The commercials powder activated carbon (PAC) was also applied for the removal of MG and achieved an adsorption capacity of PAC was 1390 mg g⁻¹. It believes that shape and size of CNP and PAC played an important role in the adsorptive removal of MG.

  18. Studies on the Removal of Carbon Monoxide From the Atmosphere at Ambient Temperature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    palladium on alumina powder. LBERTA L . COX -7 - - - - . . . .. . - UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) REPORT...IDITION OFo Go s No.LATIIii! | ~/N 0102-IF.014 - 01 UNJ’C [’ L S TFT~n SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Maen Date &.te) 1: UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...economic advantage over acid or ammoniacal solutions. Ethanolamine is presently employed in scrubbers on submarines for removal of carbon dioxide, by

  19. Current Applications for the Use of Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Camporota, Luigi; Barrett, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure has been associated with secondary lung injury, termed ventilator-induced lung injury. Extracorporeal venovenous carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) appears to be a feasible means to facilitate more protective mechanical ventilation or potentially avoid mechanical ventilation in select patient groups. With this expanding role of ECCO2R, we aim to describe the technology and the main indications of ECCO2R. PMID:26966691

  20. Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase on Hollow Fiber Membranes Accelerates CO(2) Removal from Blood.

    PubMed

    Arazawa, David T; Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A; Woolley, Joshua R; Wagner, William R; Federspiel, William J

    2012-06-01

    Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO(2)R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO(2) directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO(2) removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m(2)) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO(2) inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m(2) CO(2) removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO(2) removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO(2) removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices.

  1. Immobilized Carbonic Anhydrase on Hollow Fiber Membranes Accelerates CO2 Removal from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Arazawa, David T.; Oh, Heung-Il; Ye, Sang-Ho; Johnson, Carl A.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Wagner, William R.; Federspiel, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Current artificial lungs and respiratory assist devices designed for carbon dioxide removal (CO2R) are limited in their efficiency due to the relatively small partial pressure difference across gas exchange membranes. To offset this underlying diffusional challenge, bioactive hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) increase the carbon dioxide diffusional gradient through the immobilized enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which converts bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. In this study, we tested the impact of CA-immobilization on HFM CO2 removal efficiency and thromboresistance in blood. Fiber surface modification with radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) introduced hydroxyl groups, which were activated by 1M CNBr while 1.5M TEA was added drop wise over the activation time course, then incubation with a CA solution covalently linked the enzyme to the surface. The bioactive HFMs were then potted in a model gas exchange device (0.0084 m2) and tested in a recirculation loop with a CO2 inlet of 50mmHg under steady blood flow. Using an esterase activity assay, CNBr chemistry with TEA resulted in 0.99U of enzyme activity, a 3.3 fold increase in immobilized CA activity compared to our previous method. These bioactive HFMs demonstrated 108 ml/min/m2 CO2 removal rate, marking a 36% increase compared to unmodified HFMs (p < 0.001). Thromboresistance of CA-modified HFMs was assessed in terms of adherent platelets on surfaces by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Results indicated HFMs with CA modification had 95% less platelet deposition compared to unmodified HFM (p < 0.01). Overall these findings revealed increased CO2 removal can be realized through bioactive HFMs, enabling a next generation of more efficient CO2 removal intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices. PMID:22962517

  2. Comparison between two forms of granular activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceuticals from different waters.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lisandra; Baêta, Bruno E L; Lima, Diego R S; Afonso, Robson J C F; de Aquino, Sérgio F; Libânio, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two forms of basic granular activated carbon (GAC), mineral (pH = 10.5) and vegetal (pH = 9), for the removal of three pharmaceuticals, as sulphamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF) and 17β-estradiol (E2), from two different matrices: fortified distilled (2.4-3.0 mg L(-1) and pH from 5.5 to 6.5) and natural (∼1.0 mg L(-1) and pH from 7.1 to 7.2) water in a bench scale. The Rapid Small-Scale Column Test used to assess the ability of mineral and vegetal GAC on removal of such pharmaceuticals led to removal capacities varying from 14.9 to 23.5 mg g(-1) for E2, from 23.7 to 24.2 mg g(-1) for DCF and from 20.5 to 20.6 mg g(-1) for SMX. Removal efficiencies of 71%, 88% and 74% for DCF, SMX and E2, respectively, were obtained at breakthrough point when using mineral GAC, whereas for the vegetal GAC the figures were 76%, 77% and 65%, respectively. The carbon usage rate at the breakthrough point varied from 11.9 to 14.5 L g(-1) for mineral GAC and from 8.8 to 14.8 L g(-1) for vegetal GAC. Mineral CAG also exhibited the best performance when treating fortified natural water, since nearly complete removal was observed for all contaminants in the column operated for 22 h at a carbon usage rate of 2.9 L g(-1).

  3. Removal of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trace organic compounds by bank filtration and artificial recharge.

    PubMed

    Grünheid, Steffen; Amy, Gary; Jekel, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Bank filtration and artificial recharge provide an important drinking water source to the city of Berlin. Due to the practice of water recycling through a semi-closed urban water cycle, the introduction of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and persistent trace organic pollutants in the drinking water is of potential concern. In the work reported herein, the research objectives are to study the removal of bulk and trace organics at bank filtration and artificial recharge sites and to assess important factors of influence for the Berlin area. The monthly analytical program is comprised of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance (UVA254), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), differentiated adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and single organic compound analysis of a few model compounds. More than 1 year of monitoring was conducted on observation wells located along the flowpaths of the infiltrating water at two field sites that have different characteristics regarding redox conditions, travel time, and travel distance. Two transects are highlighted: one associated with a bank filtration site dominated by anoxic/anaerobic conditions with a travel time of up to 4-5 months, and another with an artificial recharge site dominated by aerobic conditions with a travel time of up to 50 days. It was found that redox conditions and travel time significantly influence the DOC degradation kinetics and the efficiency of AOX and trace compound removal.

  4. Arsenic removal by iron-doped activated carbons prepared by ferric chloride forced hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Fierro, V; Muñiz, G; Gonzalez-Sánchez, G; Ballinas, M L; Celzard, A

    2009-08-30

    Ferric chloride forced hydrolysis is shown to be a good method for increasing the iron content of activated carbons (ACs). Iron content increased linearly with hydrolysis time, and ACs with iron content as high as 9.4wt.% at 24h hydrolysis time could be prepared. The increase in iron content did not produce any modification in the textural parameters determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. Iron-based nanoparticles, homogeneous in size and well-dispersed in the carbon matrix, were obtained. Nanoparticles forming iron (hydr)oxide agglomerates at the outer surface of the carbon grains at hydrolysis times higher than 6h were also produced. The AC obtained after 6h of ferric chloride forced hydrolysis removed 94% of the arsenic present in a groundwater from the State of Chihuahua (Mexico), whereas the commercial AC used as precursor allowed the removal of only 14%. The lower performance in arsenic removal observed for AC prepared using long forced hydrolysis time (24h) is probably due to the existence of iron (hydr)oxides nanoparticles agglomerates, which once hydrated could prevent diffusion of arsenate (HAsO(4)(-)) towards the inner surface of the AC grain.

  5. Synergistic removal of aniline by carbon nanotubes and the enzymes of Delftia sp. XYJ6.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai; Yang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jian; Yin, Chunhua; Xiao, Chengbin; Chen, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Synergistic removal of aniline by carbon nanotubes and the enzymes of Delftia sp. XYJ6, a newly isolated bacterial strain for biodegrading aniline, was investigated. It showed that biodegradation rate of aniline was increased with the augment of protein concentration in cell-free extract of Delftia sp. XYJ6. The adsorption amount of aniline by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was slightly higher than that by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), however the adsorption amount of protein of Delftia sp. XYJ6 by MWCNTs was lower than that by SWCNTs. Much more amount of aniline could be removed by CE of Delftia sp. XYJ6 in the presence of SWCNTs than MWCNTs, which indicated that an efficient reaction between aniline and enzymes of Delftia sp. XYJ6 on the surface of SWCNTs played a key role in the rapid enzymatic biodegradation of aniline. This study is not previously reported and may be useful in basic research and the removal of aniline from wastewater.

  6. [Removal of arsenate from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-jie; Jia, Yong-feng; Yao, Shu-hu; Wu, Xing; Wang, Shu-ying

    2009-12-01

    A new adsorbent, activated carbon impregnated with nano zero-valent iron was prepared, which size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) nm x (1000-3000) nm and approximately 8.2% of iron was loaded onto it. The arsenate removal percentage was 99.5% by 1.5 g/L NZVI/AC in the 2 mg/L arsenic solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The adsorption capacity was about 15.4 mg/g when equilibrium concentration was 1.0 mg/L. Kinetics revealed that uptake of arsenate ion by NZVI/AC was 91.4% in the first 12 h and equilibrium time was about 72 h. The intraparticle diffusion model was applied to study the mechanics of arsenate in the activated carbon. The presence of phosphate and silicate could significantly decrease arsenate removal while the effects of the other anions and cations on the arsenic removal were neglectable. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated when elution is done with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Our results suggest that NZVI/AC is a suitable candidate for drinking water treatment due to its high reactivity.

  7. Lead and copper removal from aqueous solutions using carbon foam derived from phenol resin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Jeon, Jun-Woo; Hwang, Min-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic resin-based carbon foam was prepared as an adsorbent for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The surface of the produced carbon foam had a well-developed open cell structure and the specific surface area according to the BET model was 458.59m(2)g(-1). Batch experiments showed that removal ratio increased in the order of copper (19.83%), zinc (34.35%), cadmium (59.82%), and lead (73.99%) in mixed solutions with the same initial concentration (50mgL(-1)). The results indicated that the Sips isotherm model was the most suitable for describing the experimental data of lead and copper. The maximum adsorption capacity of lead and copper determined to Sips model were 491mgg(-1) and 247mgg(-1). The obtained pore diffusion coefficients for lead and copper were found to be 1.02×10(-6) and 2.42×10(-7)m(2)s(-1), respectively. Post-sorption characteristics indicated that surface precipitation was the primary mechanism of lead and copper removal by the carbon foam, while the functional groups on the surface of the foam did not affect metal adsorption.

  8. Utilization of granular activated carbon adsorber for nitrates removal from groundwater of the Cluj region.

    PubMed

    Moşneag, Silvia C; Popescu, Violeta; Dinescu, Adrian; Borodi, George

    2013-01-01

    The level of nitrates from groundwater from Cluj County and other areas from Romania have increased values, exceeding or getting close to the allowed limit values, putting in danger human and animal heath. In this study we used granular activated carbon adsorbent (GAC) for nitrate (NO(-)3) removal for the production of drinking water from groundwater of the Cluj county. The influences of the contact time, nitrate initial concentration, and adsorbent concentration have been studied. We determined the equilibrium adsorption capacity of GAC, used for NO(-)3 removal and we applied the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for process characterization. We also determined: pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness. The GAC adsorbents have excellent capacities of removing nitrate from groundwater from Cluj County areas.

  9. Enhanced removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid in an activated carbon cloth by electroadsorption in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    López-Bernabeu, S; Ruiz-Rosas, R; Quijada, C; Montilla, F; Morallón, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the electrochemical treatment (potentiostatic treatment in a filter-press electrochemical cell) on the adsorption capacity of an activated carbon cloth (ACC) was analyzed in relation with the removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid pollutant from water. The adsorption capacity of an ACC is quantitatively improved in the presence of an electric field (electroadsorption process) reaching values of 96% in comparison to 55% in absence of applied potential. In addition, the cathodic treatment results in higher removal efficiencies than the anodic treatment. The enhanced adsorption capacity has been proved to be irreversible, since the removed compound remains adsorbed after switching the applied potential. The kinetics of the adsorption processes is also improved by the presence of an applied potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring and removal of cyanobacterial toxins from drinking water by algal-activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Salim, Emad H; Azab, Yahia A; Ismail, Abdel-Hamid M

    2016-10-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most potent toxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water supplies. This study investigated the abundance of toxin-producing algae in 11 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). A total of 26 different algal taxa were identified in treated water, from which 12% were blue green, 29% were green, and 59% were diatoms. MC levels maintained strong positive correlations with number of cyanophycean cells in raw and treated water of different DWTPs. Furthermore, the efficiency of various algal-based adsorbent columns used for the removal of these toxins was evaluated. The MCs was adsorbed in the following order: mixed algal-activated carbon (AAC) ≥ individual AAC > mixed algal powder > individual algal powder. The results showed that the AAC had the highest efficient columns capable of removing 100% dissolved MCs from drinking water samples, thereby offering an economically feasible technology for efficient removal and recovery of MCs in DWTPs.

  11. Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from rice husk residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Ruiguang; Li, Guiying; Hu, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of dye wastewater by activated carbon (AC) prepared from rice husk residue wastes was studied. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (50-450 mg/L), pH (3-11) and temperature (30-70 °C) on the removal of methylene blue (MB), neutral red, and methyl orange. Kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of dyes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggested that AC was effective to remove dyes, especially MB, from aqueous solutions. Desorption studies found that chemisorption by the adsorbent might be the major mode of dye removal. Fourier transform infrared results suggested that dye molecules were likely to combine with the O-H and P=OOH groups of AC.

  12. Distribution and Sources of Black Carbon in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ling

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global rate over recent decades. To slow down this warming trend, there is growing interest in reducing the impact from short-lived climate forcers, such as black carbon (BC), because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly relative to CO2 reduction. To propose efficient mitigation policies, it is imperative to improve our understanding of BC distribution in the Arctic and to identify the sources. In this dissertation, we investigate the sensitivity of BC in the Arctic, including BC concentrations in snow (BCsnow) and BC concentrations in air (BCair), to emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging using a global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. By including flaring emissions, estimating dry deposition velocity using resistance-in-series method, and including Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) in wet scavenging, simulated BCsnow in the eight Arctic sub-regions agree with the observations within a factor of two, and simulated BCair fall within the uncertainty range of observations. Specifically, we find that natural gas flaring emissions in Western Extreme North of Russia (WENR) strongly enhance BCsnow (by up to ?50%) and BCair (by 20-32%) during snow season in the so-called 'Arctic front', but has negligible impact on BC in the free troposphere. The updated dry deposition velocity over snow and ice is much larger than those used in most of global CTMs and agrees better with observation. The resulting BCsnow changes marginally because of the offsetting of higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. In contrast, surface BCair decreases strongly due to the faster dry deposition (by 27-68%). WBF occurs when the environmental vapor pressure is in between the saturation vapor pressure of ice crystals and water drops in mixed-phase clouds. As a result, water drops evaporate and releases BC particles in them back into the interstitial air. In most CTMs, WBF is either missing or represented by a uniform and low BC

  13. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    DOE PAGES

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-12

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission modelmore » (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58% of all diesel BC in Russia.« less

  14. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-12

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58% of all diesel BC in Russia.

  15. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emi