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Sample records for renal arteriovenous fistula

  1. [Idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S

    1996-06-01

    The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed.

  2. Selective Embolization of Large Symptomatic Iatrogenic Renal Transplant Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, Fay L.; Kessel, David Nicholson, Tony; Robertson, Iain

    2006-12-15

    We report on the successful treatment of hypertension by occlusion of a large iatrogenic renal transplant arteriovenous fistula using detachable embolization coils with concomitant flow reduction by occlusion balloon in two patients.

  3. Arteriovenous Fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arteriovenous fistula By Mayo Clinic Staff An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery ... body, but especially in the lungs. Surgical creation (AV fistula procedure). People who have late-stage kidney ...

  4. [Right renal arteriovenous fistula after nephrectomy with streptococcal endarteritis].

    PubMed

    Natali, J; Emerit, J; Reynier, P; Maraval, M

    1975-01-18

    The authors add a new case, to the 41 already published, of arterio-venous fistula of the renal pedicle after nephrectomy, with the peculiarity of its presentation as a prolonged fever resulting from streptococcal bacterial endarteritis at the site of the fistula (3rd case in the literature). Surgical treatment in association with massive and prolonged antibiotic therapy resulted in recovery.

  5. Transcatheter Embolization of a Renal Arteriovenous Fistula Complicated by an Aneurysm of the Feeding Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kensella, Denise; Kakani, Nirmal Pocock, Richard; Thompson, John; Cowan, Andrew; Watkinson, A.

    2008-03-15

    Renal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. Renal AVF complicated by aneurysm of the feeding artery presents a technical challenge for endovascular treatment. We report a case managed by covered stenting of the renal artery aneurysm, coil embolization of the fistula, and bare stenting of the aorta.

  6. Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula in a Renal Allograft: The Result of a TAD Guidewire Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lee-Elliott, Catherine; Khaw, Kok-Tee; Belli, Anna-Maria; Patel, Uday

    2000-07-15

    A case is presented of an iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula developing in a renal allograft following guidewire manipulation during transplant renal artery angioplasty. Hyperdynamic flow through the fistula was causing a shunt of blood away from the renal cortex as demonstrated on sonography and scintigraphy. Selective embolization was performed, correcting the maldistribution of flow to the peripheral renal cortex. The diagnosis and difficulty in management of asymptomatic renal arteriovenous fistulae is also discussed.

  7. Renal aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula. Management with transcatheter embolization.

    PubMed

    Savastano, S; Feltrin, G P; Miotto, D; Chiesura-Corona, M

    1990-01-01

    Embolization was performed in six patients with renal artery aneurysms (n = 2) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (n = 5). The aneurysms were observed in one patient with fibromuscular dysplasia and in another with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. All the AVFs were intraparenchymal and secondary to iatrogenic trauma. Elective embolization was performed in five patients with good clinical results at follow-up between 1 and 9 years. Because of rupture of the aneurysm emergency embolization was attempted without success in the patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and nephrectomy was carried out. A postembolization syndrome complicated three procedures in which Gelfoam and polyvinyl alcohol were used; in two of these cases unexpected reflux of the particulate material occurred, resulting in limited undesired ablation of the ipsilateral renal parenchyma. Embolization is the most reliable and effective treatment for intrarenal vascular abnormalities since it minimizes the parenchymal damage.

  8. Three cases of hypertension and renal arteriovenous fistula with a de novo fistula.

    PubMed

    Melo, Natalia Correa Vieira; Mundim, Juliano Sacramento; Costalonga, Elerson Carlos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Santello, Jose Luiz; Praxedes, Jose Nery

    2009-05-01

    The Renal Arteriovenous Fistula (RAVF) is a rare and potentially reversible cause of hypertension and kidney and/or heart failure. The treatment of RAVF aims at preserving the most of the renal parenchyma and, concomitantly, eradicating the symptoms and hemodynamic effects caused by the RAVF. The present study reports three cases of RAVF, including one case of a de novo idiopathic RAVF, which presented with hypertension and kidney and/or heart failure and describes the therapeutic measures used to treat these patients as well as the outcomes.

  9. Hemodynamic and Biologic Determinates of Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes in Renal Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis depends on a functioning vascular access. Although a variety of access options are available, the arteriovenous fistula remains the best vascular access. Unfortunately the success rate of mature fistula use remains poor. The creation of an arteriovenous fistula is followed by altered hemodynamic and biological changes that may result in neointimal hyperplasia and eventual venous stenosis. This review provides an overview of these changes and the needed research to provide a long lasting vascular access and hence improve outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:26495286

  10. Giant idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula managed by coils and amplatzer device: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Prashant; Bathla, Girish; Saboo, Sachin S; Khandelwal, Ashish; Goyal, Abhishek; Rybicki, Frank J; Steigner, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    An idiopathic renal arteriovenous (AV) fistula is a rare malformation of the kidney that may present insidiously with heart failure or hematuria. The treatment may be challenging due to large fistula size that may limit endovascular management. The authors report a case of an 85-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with acute heart failure and was found to have a right renal AV fistula. Since she had no prior history of renal intervention or trauma, a diagnosis of idiopathic renal AV fistula was made. She was managed by endoluminal occlusion using multiple stainless steel coils and Amplatzer vascular plug II device. The follow-up computed tomography showed complete occlusion of the fistula. This report highlights the late presentation of this rare disease and presents the utility of the combination of coils and Amplatzer device for management of a large fistula. It also reiterates that even if large, these fistulas can be managed by endovascular occlusion. PMID:27900325

  11. CT angiography of renal arteriovenous fistulae: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Ehab A; Housseini, Ahmed M; Cherry, Kenneth J; Bonatti, Hugo; Maged, Ismaeel M; Norton, Patrick T; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Renal arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare abnormal communications between the arterial and venous circulations that can be congenital or acquired. We describe the multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) appearance of 2 cases of renal AVF, one with the cirsoid and one with the aneurysmal subtype, and the impact of these findings on therapeutic decision making and treatment follow-up.

  12. [RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PRESENTING WITH HIGH-OUTPUT HEART FAILURE DUE TO ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Akio; Isono, Makoto; Sinchi, Masayuki; Masunaga, Ayako; Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman who has a history of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital with the exacerbation of exertional dyspnea and urinary retention due to severe gross hematuria. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor involving the inferior and middle poles of the right kidney with no nodal involvement, or distant metastases, but that was accompanied by markedly proliferated blood vessels around the inferior vena cava and right renal vein, seemingly a result of an arteriovenous fistula. After embolization of the right renal artery, right radical nephrectomy was performed via a thoracoabdominal incision. The histological diagnosis of the tumor was clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G2 > G3, Fuhrman nuclear grade3, pT2a. Although the presence of an arteriovenous fistula was not confirmed histologically, the severely condensed proliferation of the blood vessels in the renal hilum is consistent with the diagnosis of an arteriovenous fistula accompanying renal cell carcinoma. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms of congestive heart failure, including dyspnea, subsided and her serum BNP levels and CTR value returned to normal levels. Two years after the operation, she shows no signs of recurrence or metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, there have been 25 cases of arteriovenous fistulas accompanied by renal cell carcinoma but only a few in which the symptoms were those of severe congestive heart failure. Clinicians should be aware that renal cell carcinoima could be a cause of heart failure.

  13. Nursing Strategies for Patients with Chronic Renal Failure Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis Treatment by Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    QIN, Hong Yan; JIA, Ping; LIU, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to analyze the effect of nursing strategies on patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment by puncturing on arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Methods: Ninety-two patients with chronic renal failure undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) between Jan 2014 and Jan 2015 were included in the study (all undergoing AVF, dialysis for 2–3 sessions per week, 4–5 h per session) and randomly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in control group were given standard nursing care and patients in observation group were given professional nursing of internal fistula. The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period, fistula usage time and effect on life quality of patients of these two groups were compared (during 18-month follow-up). Results: The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median time of internal fistula usage was significantly prolonged, and the health index, emotion index and psychology index quality-of-life in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Professional nursing strategies of internal fistula can prolong service time, decrease complications and improve life quality for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment via arteriovenous fistula. PMID:27957433

  14. Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kentaro; Ohe, Naoyuki; Yoshimura, Shin-ichi; Iwama, Toru

    2007-12-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with a rare intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula manifesting as monoparesis and hypesthesia of the right lower extremity. Computed tomography demonstrated an approximately 10-mm diameter subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus. Two months after suffering the ictus, angiography demonstrated a pial arteriovenous fistula in the late arterial phase fed by the left paracentral artery and drained into the left precentral vein. No nidus or dural arteriovenous fistula was detected. Left parietal craniotomy was performed and the pial arteriovenous fistula was extirpated by electrocoagulation. Intraoperative angiography demonstrated disappearance of the fistula. She experienced no postoperative neurological deterioration, but hypesthesia of the right leg persisted. Obliteration of the pial arteriovenous fistula was reconfirmed by postoperative angiography. She suffered no rebleeding episodes during the 36-month follow-up period. Pial arteriovenous fistula causing mild symptoms should be treated by flow disconnection because the direct arteriovenous shunt and attendant high blood flow usually results in huge venous varices. To determine whether direct surgery or endovascular treatment is appropriate, the position and shape of the lesion must be known.

  15. Thermography and colour duplex ultrasound assessments of arterio-venous fistula function in renal patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, John; Oates, Crispian P; Chishti, Ahmed D; Ahmed, Ihab A M; Talbot, David; Murray, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Vascular and clinical assessments of arterio-venous fistula (AVF) function and access are important in patients undergoing or preparing to undergo renal dialysis. Objective assessment techniques include colour duplex ultrasound and more recently medical infrared thermography. Ideally, these should help assess problems relating to fistula failure or to vascular steal from the hand which can result from excessive fistula blood flow. The clinical value of thermography, as yet, has not been assessed for this patient group. The aims of this study were therefore to investigate the relationships between thermography skin temperature measurement and (a) quantitative ultrasound measurement of AVF blood flow, and (b) qualitative clinical assessment of vascular steal from the hands. Fifteen adult patients underwent thermal imaging of the upper limbs, colour duplex ultrasound to derive AVF blood flow from brachial artery blood flow measurements, and a clinical evaluation for vascular steal. Temperature measurements were extracted from the thermograms, including bilateral arm and hand (Fistula -- Non-Fistula) differences, for comparison with derived AVF blood flow and steal grading. Derived AVF blood flow ranged from 30 to 1,950 ml min(-1), with a mean rate close to one litre per minute. Thermography detected the warmer superficial veins in proximity to the patent fistulas, with bilateral differences in fistula region skin temperature correlated with derived AVF blood flow (using maximum temperature measurements the correlation was +0.71 [p < 0.01]; and using mean temperature measurements the correlation was +0.56 [p < 0.05]). When thermography measurements were compared with the clinical assessment of steal the mean hand temperature differences separated steal from non-steal patients with an accuracy of greater than 90%. In summary, we have now demonstrated the potential clinical value of medical infrared thermography for assessing AVF function in renal patients.

  16. Renal arteriovenous fistula simulating hydronephrosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lusenti, T; Fiorini, F; Barozzi, L

    2011-12-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Tra le fistole arterovenose (FAV) acquisite vi sono quelle che si formano quale complicanza dell’esecuzione di una biopsia renale. CASO CLINICO: Gli autori riportano il caso di una paziente giunta in ambulatorio di ecografia nefrologica per l’esecuzione di un’ecografia dei reni e delle vie urinarie per un’ipertensione sistolica di I grado di recente insorgenza. Negli esami di laboratorio era presente microematuria con proteinuria <0.5 g/24 ore. La funzionalità renale risultava ai limiti inferiori della norma (FG 58 mL/min secondo la formula MDRD). L’esame ecografico evidenziava una formazione anecogena “arboriforme” centropielica a livello del rene sinistro suggestiva per idronefrosi. Il color Doppler mostrava viceversa presenza di flusso turbolento all’interno dell’area anecogena stessa, con flusso arterioso elevato e arterializzazione del flusso venoso all’analisi spettrale. La successiva angiografia renale selettiva confermava il sospetto ecografico di FAV mediorenale sinistra con pseudoaneurisma, conseguente ad una biopsia renale effettuata più di 10 anni prima presso altro Centro. Essendo la paziente in pieno benessere veniva consigliato un più stretto follow-up clinico-ecografico. DISCUSSIONE: Tra le malformazioni vascolari renali di non rara osservazione sono le FAV. Il caso descritto ribadisce l’importanza dell’impiego dell’eco color Doppler (ECD) nel sospetto di uropatia ostruttiva, per diagnosticare una FAV, specialmente nei pazienti già sottoposti a biopsia renale.

  17. Transcatheter Amplatzer vascular plug-embolization of a giant postnephrectomy arteriovenous fistula combined with an aneurysm of the renal pedicle by through-and-through, arteriovenous access.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Ole; Schäfer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Although endovascular transcatheter embolization of arteriovenous fistulas is minimally invasive, the torrential flow prevailing within a fistula implies the risk of migration of the deployed embolization devices into the downstream venous and pulmonary circulation. We present the endovascular treatment of a giant postnephrectomy arteriovenous fistula between the right renal pedicle and the residual renal vein in a 63-year-old man. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate that the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) can be safely positioned to embolize even relatively large arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Secondly, we illustrate that this occluder can even be introduced to the fistula via a transvenous catheter in cases where it is initially not possible to advance the deployment-catheter through a tortuous feeder artery. Migration of the vascular plug was ruled out at follow-up 4 months subsequently to the intervention. Thus, the Amplatzer vascular plug and the arteriovenous through-and-through guide wire access with subsequent transvenous deployment should be considered in similar cases.

  18. Transcatheter Embolization of High-flow Renal Arteriovenous Fistula Using N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Accompanied by Delayed Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Morita, Yuka; Fuwa, Sokun; Arioka, Hiroko; Harano, Yumi; Niwa, Koichiro; Saida, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Renal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an uncommon anomaly characterized by the communication between renal arteries and veins. Renal AVFs are often asymptomatic but are occasionally accompanied by hematuria or heart failure. Transcatheter closure with embolization is a safe and effective treatment for renal AVF. We herein report an 87-year-old patient with heart failure due to renal AVF who was treated by transcatheter embolization. She developed bacteremia with hydronephrosis, which is a rare complication following the embolization of renal AVF. PMID:27904109

  19. Arteriovenous Fistula Affects Bone Mineral Density Measurements in End-Stage Renal Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Torregrosa, José-Vicente; Fuster, David; Peris, Pilar; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Solà, Oriol; Domenech, Beatriz; Martín, Gloria; Casellas, Joan; Pons, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Hemodialysis needs an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that may influence the structure and growth of nearby bone and affect bone mass measurement. The study analyzed the effect of AVF in the assessment of forearm bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examined its influence on the final diagnosis of osteoporosis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Forty patients (52 ± 18 yr) in hemodialysis program (12 ± 8 yr) with permeable AVF in forearm were included. Patients were divided in two groups (over and under 50 yr). BMD of both forearms (three areas), lumbar spine, and femur was measured by DXA. Forearm measurements in each arm were compared. Patients were diagnosed as normal only if all territories were considered nonpathologic and osteoporosis/osteopenia was determined by the lowest score found. Results: Ten patients were excluded and 30 patients were analyzed. BMD in the forearm with AVF was significantly lower than that observed in the contralateral forearm in both groups of patients and in all forearm areas analyzed. When only lumbar spine and femur measurements were considered, 70% of patients were nonpathologic and 30% were osteoporotic. However, inclusion of AVF forearm classified 63% as osteoporotic and a further 27% as osteopenic, leaving only 10% as nonpathologic. Conclusions: Forearm AVF affects BMD measurements by decreasing their values in patients with end-stage renal failure. This may produce an overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, which should be taken into account when evaluating patients of this type. PMID:19713298

  20. Successful Embolization of a Renal Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Arteriovenous Fistula and Extravasations Using Onyx After Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Sopilko, Igor; Svihra, Jan; Kliment, Jan

    2009-01-15

    Partial nephrectomy can be associated with vascular complications. Computed tomography (CT) with CT angiography is ideal for noninvasive imaging of this process. The treatment of choice is selective embolization. Successful transcatheter embolization of right renal subsegmental artery pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula and extravasations using Onyx was performed in a 66-year-old woman with macrohematuria 12 days after partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

  1. Intraparenchymal Renal Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Arteriovenous Fistula on a Solitary Kidney Occurring 38 Years after Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Frank; Tombal, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistulae of the renal artery are rare complications of kidney trauma. They commonly result from open traumas and occur within days after the injury. Common symptoms include acute haematuria, pain, or hypertension. We report the case of a fifty-three-year-old man presenting with symptomatic complex chronic high flow kidney arteriovenous fistula with interposition of a pseudoaneurysmal pouch and arterial aneurysmal dilatation in a solitary left kidney 38 years after a blunt trauma. Those conditions were successfully treated by endovascular embolization followed by regular radiologic, biological, and clinical follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, few similar cases were reported more than 20 years after trauma. However, no case combining an arteriovenous fistula and a pseudoaneurysm revealing as late as 38 years after trauma was found. In addition, management of those conditions on a solitary kidney and outcomes has not been described. We believe that our case depicts the clinical presentation and management of this rare entity that should not be unrecognized due to its potential lethal implications. PMID:28386510

  2. Large-volume sirolimus-induced upper limb lymphedema after renal transplantation ipsilateral to the arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Vignes, Stéphane; Brunet, Morgan; Blanchard, Marie; Smail, Amar; Arrault, Maria

    2014-09-01

    To analyze upper-limb lymphedema characteristics of renal transplant recipients taking sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor. Cross-sectional study of sirolimus-treated upper-limb lymphedema patients (01/2009-12/2013). Three men and two women, whose mean age at transplantation was 60 (range: 49-76) years, were included. Sirolimus (1-2.5 mg/day) had been taken for 27.5 ± 21 (range: 7-58) months before left (n=4) or right (n=1), whole limb (n=4), or hand and forearm (n=1) upper-limb lymphedema onset, always ipsilateral to the functional arteriovenous fistula. Ultrasonography or fistulography excluded venous thrombosis in all patients. At the time lymphedema appeared, all five arteriovenous fistulas were functional. Mean upper-limb lymphedema volume, calculated with the truncated-cone formula, was 774 ± 162 [range: 594-1035] mL, (i.e. 44%± 11% [range: 36%-64%] excess volume compared to the contralateral limb. One patient also had ipsilateral breast lymphedema. The three lymphoscintigraphies obtained showed total absence of ipsilateral axillary-region tracer uptake. Sirolimus was maintained in all cases. Upper-limb lymphedema treatment included low-stretch bandages (n=4) and elastic sleeve (20-36 mm Hg) (n=5) without fistula complications. Two patients had their fistulas closed without any impact on lymphedema volume. Sirolimus may be implicated in large-volume upper-limb lymphedema in kidney-transplant recipients, ipsilateral to the arteriovenous fistula, and requires compression-based therapy.

  3. Cardiac complications of arteriovenous fistulas in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Alkhouli, Mohamad; Sandhu, Paul; Boobes, Khlaed; Hatahet, Kamel; Raza, Farhan; Boobes, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of the death in dialysis patients. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are associated with lower mortality and are viewed as the desired access option in most patients with advanced kidney disease needing dialysis. However, AVFs have significant and potentially deleterious effects on cardiac functions particularly in the setting of preexisting heart disease. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review to what is known about the impact of AVFs on: congestive heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2008-08-01

    Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare cerebrovascular lesion that has only recently been recognized as a distinct pathological entity. A 41-year-old woman (Patient 1) presented with the sudden development of an altered mental state. Brain CT showed an acute subdural hematoma. A red sylvian vein was found intraoperatively. A pial AVF was revealed on postoperative angiography, and surgical disconnection of the AVF was performed. A 10-year-old boy (Patient 2) presented with a 10-day history of paraparesis and urinary incontinence. Brain, spinal MRI and angiography revealed an intracranial pial AVF and a spinal perimedullary AVF. Endovascular embolization was performed for both lesions. The AVFs were completely obliterated in both patients. On follow-up, patient 1 reported having no difficulty in performing activities of daily living. Patient 2 is currently able to walk without assistance and voids into a diaper. Intracranial pial AVF is a rare disease entity that can be treated with surgical disconnection or endovascular embolization. It is important for the appropriate treatment strategy to be selected on the basis of patientspecific and lesion-specific factors in order to achieve good outcomes.

  5. Arteriovenous fistula complication following MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Danielle; Junglee, Naushad; Mullins, Paul; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Health professionals should be aware of medical procedures that cause vascular access complications. This case describes a haemodialysis patient who experienced pain, swelling and bruising over a radiocephalic fistula following MRI. Exactly the same signs and symptoms were evident following a second scan performed 3 months later. Plausible explanations include a radio frequency-induced electrical current being formed at the arteriovenous fistula, or varying gradients of the MRI sequence stimulating peripheral nerves, leading to a site of increased tissue stimulation. Of note, a juxta-anastomotic venous stenosis was confirmed by fistulogram 4 days after the second scan, although whether this access failure was due to the MRI scan per se could not be ascertained. Nevertheless, these previously undocumented observations suggest that careful patient and fistula monitoring is required when completing MRI scans in those with an arteriovenous fistula. PMID:22927271

  6. Arteriovenous fistula complication following MRI.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Danielle; Junglee, Naushad; Mullins, Paul; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2012-08-27

    Health professionals should be aware of medical procedures that cause vascular access complications. This case describes a haemodialysis patient who experienced pain, swelling and bruising over a radiocephalic fistula following MRI. Exactly the same signs and symptoms were evident following a second scan performed 3 months later. Plausible explanations include a radio frequency-induced electrical current being formed at the arteriovenous fistula, or varying gradients of the MRI sequence stimulating peripheral nerves, leading to a site of increased tissue stimulation. Of note, a juxta-anastomotic venous stenosis was confirmed by fistulogram 4 days after the second scan, although whether this access failure was due to the MRI scan per se could not be ascertained. Nevertheless, these previously undocumented observations suggest that careful patient and fistula monitoring is required when completing MRI scans in those with an arteriovenous fistula.

  7. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Challoumas, Dimitris; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakaki, Inetzi A.; Danelatos, Christos; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Coronary arteriovenous fistulae are a coronary anomaly, presenting in 0.002% of the general population. Their etiology can be congenital or acquired. We present a review of recent literature related to their epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic management. PMID:24940026

  8. Physical examination of arteriovenous fistulae by a renal fellow: does it compare favorably to an experienced interventionalist?

    PubMed

    Leon, Carlos; Asif, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Physical examination (PE) has been highlighted to detect vascular access stenosis with high degree of accuracy when performed by an interventional nephrologist (IN) with expertise in physical examination. This study examines the accuracy of PE compared with angiography when performed by a nephrology fellow (NF). It also compares NF results to that of IN. Didactic and hands-on PE training was provided to a renal fellow for 1 month during an interventional nephrology rotation. Forty-five and 142 consecutive cases of arteriovenous fistula dysfunction were examined by the NF and IN, respectively. Preprocedure PE was performed by the NF and IN and the finding secured in a sealed envelope. Angiography from the feeding artery to the right atrium was then performed. The images were reviewed by an independent interventionalist with expertise in endovascular dialysis access procedures and the diagnosis was rendered. The reviewer was blinded to the physical examination. Cohen's Kappa was used as a measurement of the level of agreement beyond chance between the diagnosis made by physical examination and angiography. Outflow stenosis: NF [strong agreement (81%), Kappa value = 0.63]; IN [strong agreement (89%), Kappa score = 0.78]. Inflow stenosis: NF [strong agreement (80%), Kappa value = 0.56]; IN [strong agreement (83%), Kappa score = 0.55]. These differences between NF and IN were not significant. NF performed significantly better than the IN regarding central vein stenosis. NF [strong agreement (79%), Kappa value = 0.44]; IN [weak agreement (11%), Kappa value = 0.17]. An NF can be trained in physical examination and accurately detect and localize stenoses in a great majority of arteriovenous fistulae when compared with an IN. We suggest that nephrology training programs should place more emphasis on this aspect of vascular access education.

  9. Predictive parameters of arteriovenous fistula functional maturation in a population of patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khalid; Zafar, Adeel; Elsheikh, Sawsan; Healy, Donagh A; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Casserly, Liam; Burke, Paul E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Stewart R

    2015-01-01

    With increasing numbers of patients diagnosed with ESRD, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation has become a major factor in improving both dialysis related outcomes and quality of life of those patients. Compared to other types of access it has been established that a functional AVF access is the least likely to be associated with thrombosis, infection, hospital admissions, secondary interventions to maintain patency and death. Study of demographic factors implicated in the functional maturation of arteriovenous fistulas. Also, to explore any possible association between preoperative haematological investigations and functional maturation. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with ESRD who were referred to the vascular service in the University Hospital of Limerick for creation of vascular access for HD. We included patients with primary AVFs; and excluded those who underwent secondary procedures. Overall AVF functional maturation rate in our study was 53.7% (52/97). Female gender showed significant association with nonmaturation (P = 0.004) and was the only predictor for non-maturation in a logistic regression model (P = 0.011). Patients who had history of renal transplant (P = 0.036), had relatively lower haemoglobin levels (P = 0.01) and were on calcium channel blockers (P = 0.001) showed better functional maturation rates. Female gender was found to be associated with functional non-maturation, while a history kidney transplant, calcium channel-blocker agents and low haemoglobin levels were all associated with successful functional maturation. In view of the conflicting evidence in the literature, large prospective multi-centre registry-based studies with well-defined outcomes are needed.

  10. Predictive Parameters of Arteriovenous Fistula Functional Maturation in a Population of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bashar, Khalid; Zafar, Adeel; Elsheikh, Sawsan; Healy, Donagh A.; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Casserly, Liam; Burke, Paul E.; Kavanagh, Eamon G.; Walsh, Stewart R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With increasing numbers of patients diagnosed with ESRD, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation has become a major factor in improving both dialysis related outcomes and quality of life of those patients. Compared to other types of access it has been established that a functional AVF access is the least likely to be associated with thrombosis, infection, hospital admissions, secondary interventions to maintain patency and death. Aim Study of demographic factors implicated in the functional maturation of arteriovenous fistulas. Also, to explore any possible association between preoperative haematological investigations and functional maturation. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with ESRD who were referred to the vascular service in the University Hospital of Limerick for creation of vascular access for HD. We included patients with primary AVFs; and excluded those who underwent secondary procedures. Results Overall AVF functional maturation rate in our study was 53.7% (52/97). Female gender showed significant association with nonmaturation (P = 0.004) and was the only predictor for non-maturation in a logistic regression model (P = 0.011). Patients who had history of renal transplant (P = 0.036), had relatively lower haemoglobin levels (P = 0.01) and were on calcium channel blockers (P = 0.001) showed better functional maturation rates. Conclusion Female gender was found to be associated with functional non-maturation, while a history kidney transplant, calcium channel-blocker agents and low haemoglobin levels were all associated with successful functional maturation. In view of the conflicting evidence in the literature, large prospective multi-centre registry-based studies with well-defined outcomes are needed. PMID:25768440

  11. Beneficial cardiovascular remodeling following arterio-venous fistula ligation post-renal transplantation: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Benjamin K; Torpey, David K; Nelson, Adam J; Wong, Dennis T L; Duncan, Rae F; Meredith, Ian T; Faull, Randall J; Worthley, Stephen G; Worthley, Matthew I

    2014-08-01

    Despite improvements in survival following renal transplantation, high rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain. Persistence of arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) may contribute to maladaptive cardiovascular remodeling and poor health outcomes in this cohort. Utilizing recent advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), we prospectively evaluated alterations in cardiac and vascular structure and function six months after elective ligation of AVF, following stable, successful renal transplantation. Eighteen subjects underwent CMR evaluation of cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility and endothelial function prior to AVF ligation and at six months. At follow-up, while left ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged, mean cardiac output decreased by 15.6% (9.6 ± 2.9 L/min vs. 8.1 ± 2.3 L/min, p = 0.004) and left ventricular mass had regressed by 10% (166 ± 56 g vs. 149 ± 51 g, p = 0.0001). Significant improvements were also noted in right ventricular and biatrial structure and function. Aortic distensibility was unchanged at follow-up, but endothelial dependent vasodilatation had improved (2.5 ± 6.5% vs. 8.0 ± 5.9%, p = 0.04). Elective AVF ligation following successful renal transplantation is associated with improvements in left ventricular mass, right ventricular, and biatrial structure and function. Further randomized studies are warranted to determine the potential clinical improvement following AVF ligation in this cohort. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Arteriovenous Fistulas and Their Characteristic Sites of Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Quencer, Keith Bertram; Arici, Melih

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, more than 250,000 patients with end-stage renal disease are dialyzed through arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). The three most common AVFs are the radiocephalic fistula, the brachiocephalic fistula, and the brachial artery-to-transposed basilic vein fistula. Although many potential access site stenoses can and do occur within any given fistula, each fistula has a characteristic site of stenosis. This article will discuss the characteristic site of stenosis for each type of fistula including the effects of stenosis at that site on fistula function, and their treatment. The characteristic sites of stenosis in AVFs used for dialysis share in common significant angulation, which likely causes stenosis by leading to turbulent flow and intimal injury. While balloon dilation is considered first-line therapy, further interventions such as stent placement or surgical revision are sometimes needed to treat these recalcitrant areas of stenosis.

  13. Preoperative ultrasonographic mapping of blood vessels before arteriovenous fistula construction in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Persic, Vanja; Ponikvar, Rafael; Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka

    2009-08-01

    The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic mapping of both arm and forearm vessels before primary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) construction in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease. There were 129 patients aged 75 +/- 6 (65-93) years, 58% men, 37% diabetics, who participated in the study. The inner diameter of veins (under compression) and arteries, and the arterial peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured. The presence of arterial calcifications was noted. The positions for possible native AVF construction (radiocephalic and brachiocephalic) were suggested and an AVF was constructed by a trained nephrologist. An adequate cephalic vein was present in 76 (59%) patients (diameter 4.9 +/- 1.1 mm) in the right arm, and in 83 (64%) patients (4.7 +/- 1.2 mm) in the left arm. Suitable veins in the forearm were recorded in 73 (57%) patients on the right (3.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and in 76 (59%) patients on the left (3.5 +/- 1.0 mm) side. The inner arterial diameter was: brachial-right 4.6 +/- 0.6 mm (calcifications in 26%), left 4.6 +/- 0.7 mm (calcifications in 20%); radial-right 2.3 +/- 0.4 mm (calcifications in 36%), left 2.3 +/- 0.5 mm (calcifications in 29%). In 32% of patients, one native AVF was possible, in 17% two, in 23% three and in 18% four, while in 10% no AVF was possible. In 84% of patients an AVF was constructed, with no significant difference in non-diabetic vs. diabetic patients (88% vs. 80%) or females vs. males (87% vs. 83%). Native AVF can be constructed in the majority of elderly patients, often in multiple positions, with no significant differences in terms of sex or diabetic status.

  14. Arteriovenous fistula stent infection diagnosed with radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Miyeon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chang, Jee Won; Song, Heesung

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications of haemodialysis in patients with arteriovenous fistula stent are rare. In addition, patients with low-grade infection are more difficult to diagnose. Here, we report the first case of low-grade infection of an arteriovenous fistula stent diagnosed using (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. A 62-year-old man with end-stage renal disease was referred for prolonged fever. We performed (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy following a work-up according to fever of unknown origin. A focal uptake on the left forearm compatible with the arteriovenous fistula stent insertion site was shown, and the stent was removed. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy could be a suitable method for assessing vascular stent infection in low-grade fever.

  15. New Approaches to Arteriovenous Fistula Creation.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Dheeraj K

    2016-03-01

    An autogenous arteriovenous fistula is considered the ideal access for hemodialysis delivery. However, surgical creation of an arteriovenous fistula is associated with less than optimal technical success, and multiple interventions are often required to assist maturation or maintain early patency. Given these shortcomings, multiple new approaches are now under investigation that possibly improve on surgical techniques and/or outcomes. Minimally invasive methods of creation with novel devices are under investigation, with preliminary published results available.

  16. [Spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula manifestating as radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Osamu; Nishimura, Ataru; Ishido, Katsuya; Hitotsumatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-08-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with a rare case of spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula manifesting as radiculopathy of the left arm. MRI demonstrated an abnormal dilated vascular space on the left ventral aspect of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space. MRA disclosed a single high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula. Angiography showed a direct high-flow fistula at the C2-3 level between the left vertebral artery and the spinal extradural veinous plexus, and an abnormal dilated left vertebral artery with "string of beads"-like feature. The fistula was successfully obliterated by coil embolization with preservation of patency of the left vertebral artery, resulting in improvement of the signs and symptoms. Retrospectively this spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula was considered in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.

  17. Ischemic steal syndrome following arm arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Payman; Kaufman, James; Kinlay, Scott

    2009-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae in the arm are commonly used for hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease. Although physiological steal with reverse flow in the artery distal to the fistula is common, hand ischemia or infarction are rare. The ischemic steal syndrome (hand or forearm ischemia) is usually a result of arterial disease proximal or distal to the fistula and/or poor collateral supply to the hand. The diagnosis is primarily clinical; however, markedly reduced digital pressures and pulse volume recordings support the diagnosis. Management requires imaging for focal stenoses or disease in arteries proximal and distal to the fistula from the aorta to the hand. We present a case caused by subclavian artery occlusion that was initially missed due to focusing investigation only on the fistula. We describe the percutaneous treatments and surgical revisions that attempt to restore flow to the hand without compromising the fistula.

  18. Post-Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Koo; Hur, Jin Woo; Lee, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula of the scalp is relatively rare disease. We report a traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the scalp treated with complete surgical excision and review the literature with regard to etiology, pathogenesis, and management of these unusual lesions. PMID:26539278

  19. MR of superior mesenteric artery--renal vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Conces, D J; Kreipke, D L; Tarver, R D

    1986-01-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the superior mesenteric artery are rare. Diagnosis is most commonly made shortly after the injury. Symptoms, when present, are usually related to intestinal ischemia. Angiography has been the conventional modality used in diagnosing arteriovenous fistulas. We report a patient with a superior mesenteric artery to left renal vein fistula who presented in overt heart failure five years after a gun shot wound. The fistula was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Endovascular Management of Posttraumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae

    SciTech Connect

    Koshy, Chiramel George Keshava, Shyamkumar Nigudala; Surendrababu, Narayanam R. S.; Moses, Vinu; Stephen, Edwin; Agarwal, Sunil

    2009-09-15

    Surgery is considered to be the treatment of choice for vascular injuries caused by trauma. However, endovascular techniques are emerging as an alternative means of treatment. In this article, we describe three patients with posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae in different body regions that were managed using endovascular techniques. Each case had its unique set of associated problems requiring innovative methods and a multidisciplinary approach. While the short-term results are encouraging, long-term follow-up of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae that have been treated with endovascular techniques is still required.

  1. Incomplete restoration of homeostatic shear stress within arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Eugene Zierler, R; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are surgically created to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is, in part, a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. We present computational hemodynamic simulations in four patient-specific models of mature arteriovenous fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Our results suggest that these mature fistulae have remodeled to return to ''normal'' shear stresses away from the anastomoses: about 1.0 Pa in the outflow veins and about 2.5 Pa in the inflow arteries. Large parts of the anastomoses were found to be under very high shear stresses >15 Pa, over most of the cardiac cycle. These results suggest that the remodeling process works toward restoring mechanical homeostasis in the fistulae, but that the process is limited or incomplete, even in mature fistulae, as evidenced by the elevated shear at or near the anastomoses. Based on the long term clinical viability of these dialysis accesses, we hypothesize that the elevated nonhomeostatic shear stresses in some portions of the vessels were not detrimental to fistula patency.

  2. Preoperative Venous Intimal Hyperplasia, Postoperative Arteriovenous Fistula Stenosis, and Clinical Fistula Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Robbin, Michelle L.; Young, Carlton J.; Deierhoi, Mark H.; Goodman, Jeremy; Hanaway, Michael; Lockhart, Mark E.; Litovsky, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Arteriovenous fistulas often fail to mature, and nonmaturation has been attributed to postoperative stenosis caused by aggressive neointimal hyperplasia. Preexisting intimal hyperplasia in the native veins of uremic patients may predispose to postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis and arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This work explored the relationship between preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis, and clinical arteriovenous fistula outcomes in 145 patients. Venous specimens obtained during arteriovenous fistula creation were quantified for maximal intimal thickness (median thickness=22.3 μm). Postoperative ultrasounds at 4–6 weeks were evaluated for arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Arteriovenous fistula maturation within 6 months of creation was determined clinically. Results Postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis was equally frequent in patients with preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia (thickness>22.3 μm) and patients without hyperplasia (46% versus 53%; P=0.49). Arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation occurred in 30% of patients with postoperative stenosis versus 7% of those patients without stenosis (hazard ratio, 4.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.55 to 12.06; P=0.001). The annual frequency of interventions to maintain arteriovenous fistula patency for dialysis after maturation was higher in patients with postoperative stenosis than patients without stenosis (0.83 [95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 1.14] versus 0.42 [95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.62]; P=0.008). Conclusions Preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia does not predispose to postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis is associated with a higher arteriovenous fistula nonmaturation rate. Arteriovenous fistulas with hemodynamically significant stenosis frequently mature without an intervention. Postoperative

  3. Acute Renal Failure and Volume Overload Syndrome Secondary to a Femorofemoral Arteriovenous Fistula Angioplasty in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Dominique; Desbuissons, Geoffroy; Pallet, Nicolas; Sartorius, Albane; Legendre, Christophe; Mamzer, Marie-France; Sberro Soussan, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies analyzing the impact of AVF on cardiovascular and renal parameters, as well as outcomes, in kidney transplant recipients are lacking. On the other hand, it is not known whether AVF ligation after transplantation modifies hemodynamic parameters and kidney function. We report a case of a renal transplant recipient who developed an acute congestive heart failure accompanied by renal failure, which were triggered by femorofemoral AVF angioplasty. Prompt AVF ligation rapidly reversed clinical symptoms and normalized cardiac and renal functions. This paper illustrates the potential deleterious consequences of high-output AVF after kidney transplantation and raises considerations regarding the impact of the fistula on cardiac status and kidney function after kidney transplantation and, consequently, the management AVF after transplantation. PMID:23533921

  4. Renal Arteriovenous Fistula with Rapid Blood Flow Successfully Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization: Application of Interlocking Detachable Coil as Coil Anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Takeki Sugimoto, Koji; Taniguchi, Takanori; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Konishi, Junya; Zamora, Carlos A.; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-08-15

    A 70-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a large idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) using interlocking detachable coils (IDC) as an anchor was planned. However, because of markedly rapid blood flow and excessive coil flexibility, detaching an IDC carried a high risk of migration. Therefore, we first coiled multiple loops of a microcatheter and then loaded it with an IDC. In this way, the coil was well fitted to the arterial wall and could be detached by withdrawing the microcatheter during balloon occlusion ('pre-framing technique'). Complete occlusion of the afferent artery was achieved by additional coiling and absolute ethanol. This technique contributed to a safe embolization of a high-flow AVF, avoiding migration of the IDC.

  5. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958

  6. Vascular malformations and arteriovenous fistulas of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Cura, Marco; Elmerhi, Fadi; Suri, Rajeev; Bugnone, Alejandro; Dalsaso, Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Vascular malformations of the kidney are disease processes that involve renal veins and arteries and include congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas. AVMs are congenital communications between arteries and veins with a vascular nidus that bypass the capillary bed. Congenital AVMs are rare and subclassified in cirsoid, angiomatous, and aneurysmal types. Congenital AVMs are different from iatrogenic or traumatic arteriovenous fistulas (AVF), which are characterized by a single direct communication between an artery and a vein without an intervening vascular nidus. These lesions may present with a wide range of signs and symptoms that vary from hypertension to renal masses. Imaging is valuable in the detection and characterization of AVM and AVF. The presence of arteriovenous shunting characterizes AVM and AVF. These lesions represent an important group of entities for diagnostic consideration, and understanding the vascular anatomy helps in guiding for proper treatment. This article describes the imaging features of each lesion that help to differentiate it from the others and the endovascular therapies to treat these vascular processes and their possible complications.

  7. Clinical epidemiology of arteriovenous fistula in 2007.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Pietro; Spergel, Lawrence M; Asif, Arif; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Besarab, Anatole

    2007-01-01

    The native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered the best access for hemodialysis due to its longer survival and lower complication rates as compared with other forms of vascular access. However, broad practice variation exists in the use of AVF among different countries and even within the same country among different regions and centers. Several barriers to AVF placement have been identified in the last decade that might explain its suboptimal use among both prevalent and incident patients. The present review summarizes and discusses recent findings from epidemiological studies on practice patterns and risk factors for AVF failure. Special emphasis is devoted to drawbacks and payoffs consequent upon the choice of the AVF as access for dialysis. In fact the AVF requires major investments in the short run but far less assistance and rework thereafter. Primary AVF failure, due to early failure or lack of maturation, is currently considered a key area of investigation to improve vascular access outcomes. The main challenge for the nephrologist today is to minimize the risk of primary failure while attempting to provide most patients with a native AVF. Improving vascular access outcomes is clearly a complex and difficult task. Recent experience from the United States suggests that multidisciplinary management is the most appropriate approach to deal with all the multifaceted aspects of end-stage renal disease care and to increase the likelihood of success.

  8. Hematuria following kidney tumorectomy: can it hide an arteriovenous fistula?

    PubMed

    Pavan, Nicola; Liguori, Giovanni; Vedovo, Francesca; Bucci, Stefano; Bertolotto, Michele; Trombetta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We present the case and radiologic images of a 64-year-old man who presented with gross hematuria and fever 2 months after undergoing retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy for a 4.7 × 4.6 cm papillary renal cell carcinoma. Angio-TC demonstrated an aneurysmatic dilatation of the anterior inferior segmental artery of the right kidney with an arteriovenous fistula; the patient was treated with angiography and selective cannulation by deploying 4 platinum coils. At follow-up, we used contrast-enhanced ultrasound to monitor coil embolization of the renal artery pseudoaneurysm.

  9. Negotiating living with an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Cleo J; Engebretson, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how clients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis negotiate living with an arteriovenous fistula. A fistula is the preferred access for hemodialysis, and clients must continually monitor and protect their fistula. In this qualitative, ethnographic study, data were collected during fieldwork and semistructured interviews. Constructivism and a cultural negotiation model provided frameworks for the study. Fourteen clients were interviewed; interviews lasted 1.5 to 4 hours. Results revealed new insights into informants'perspectives and experiences with a vascular access. The overarching theme was vulnerability, and underlying themes were body awareness, dependency, mistrust, and stigma. The response to vulnerability was to be continually vigilant and assertive to protect the holistic self Stigma of the vascular access was an important issue for informants and evoked the greatest emotional responses.

  10. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a treatable dementia

    PubMed Central

    Enofe, Ikponmwosa; Thacker, Ike

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a chronic loss of neurocognitive function that is progressive and irreversible. Although rare, dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) could present with a rapid decline in neurocognitive function with or without Parkinson-like symptoms. DAVFs represent a potentially treatable and reversible cause of dementia. Here, we report the case of an elderly woman diagnosed with a DAVF after presenting with new-onset seizures, deteriorating neurocognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms. PMID:28405088

  11. Saphenofemoral arteriovenous fistula as hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Correa, João A; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Pires, Adilson C; Breda, João R; Yamazaki, Yumiko R; Fioretti, Alexandre C; Valenti, Vitor E; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Macedo, Hugo; Colombari, Eduardo; Miranda, Fausto

    2010-10-18

    An upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the access of choice for haemodialysis (HD). There have been few reports of saphenofemoral AV fistulas (SFAVF) over the last 10-20 years because of previous suggestions of poor patencies and needling difficulties. Here, we describe our clinical experience with SFAVF. SFAVFs were evaluated using the following variables: immediate results, early and late complications, intraoperative and postoperative complications (up to day 30), efficiency of the fistula after the onset of needling and complications associated to its use. Fifty-six SFAVF fistulas were created in 48 patients. Eight patients had two fistulas: 8 patent (16%), 10 transplanted (20%), 12 deaths (24%), 1 low flow (2%) and 20 thrombosis (39%) (first two months of preparation). One patient had severe hypotension during surgery, which caused thrombosis of the fistula, which was successfully thrombectomised, four thrombosed fistulae were successfully thrombectomised and revised on the first postoperative day. After 59 months of follow-up, primary patency was 44%. SFAVF is an adequate alternative for patients without the possibility for other access in the upper limbs, allowing efficient dialysis with good long-term patency with a low complication rate.

  12. Saphenofemoral arteriovenous fistula as hemodialysis access

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the access of choice for haemodialysis (HD). There have been few reports of saphenofemoral AV fistulas (SFAVF) over the last 10-20 years because of previous suggestions of poor patencies and needling difficulties. Here, we describe our clinical experience with SFAVF. Methods SFAVFs were evaluated using the following variables: immediate results, early and late complications, intraoperative and postoperative complications (up to day 30), efficiency of the fistula after the onset of needling and complications associated to its use. Results Fifty-six SFAVF fistulas were created in 48 patients. Eight patients had two fistulas: 8 patent (16%), 10 transplanted (20%), 12 deaths (24%), 1 low flow (2%) and 20 thrombosis (39%) (first two months of preparation). One patient had severe hypotension during surgery, which caused thrombosis of the fistula, which was successfully thrombectomised, four thrombosed fistulae were successfully thrombectomised and revised on the first postoperative day. After 59 months of follow-up, primary patency was 44%. Conclusion SFAVF is an adequate alternative for patients without the possibility for other access in the upper limbs, allowing efficient dialysis with good long-term patency with a low complication rate. PMID:20955561

  13. A case of giant arteriovenous shunt in a renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rangel, A; Albarrán, H; Gómez-Orta, F; Soriano, M; Baduí, E

    1997-01-01

    We present the case of a 51 year-old-white male with a giant right renal arteriovenous fistula secondary to a carcinoma. Neither the aorta nor the kidneys were visualized after the injection of 60 mL of contrast media into the abdominal aorta. Moreover, the right kidney could not be visualized after 30 mL of contrast media were injected selectively into the right renal artery. This was due to a great arteriovenous shunt through the right kidney. The right renal angiogram was obtained through digital imaging, after injecting contrast media into the right renal artery, previously occluded by a balloon-catheter. The image of an hypervascularized nephroma was obtained, depicting an important arteriovenous shunt of the contrast material toward the inferior vena cava from a fistula located in the right inferior renal pole. The occlusion of the right renal artery was partially achieved by injecting 40 mL of boiling contrast media, followed by small fragments of Gelfoam suspended in the contrast substance. The balloon-catheter remained inflated in the right renal artery until a nephrectomy was performed. As far as we know, a case in which the aorta and renal circulation are unable to be seen by means of conventional angiography, because of the presence of a renal arteriovenous shunt to the fistula, has not been described.

  14. Vascular access for hemodialysis: arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Malovrh, Marko

    2005-06-01

    The long-term survival and quality of life of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is dependant on the adequacy of dialysis via an appropriately placed vascular access. The optimal vascular access is unquestionably the autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF), with the most common method being the conventional radio-cephalic fistula at the wrist. Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend the creation of native fistula or synthetic graft before the start of chronic HD therapy to prevent the need for complication-prone dialysis catheters. This could also have a beneficial effect on the rapidity of worsening kidney failure. A multidisciplinary approach (nephrologists, surgeons, radiologists and nurses) should improve the HD outcome by promoting the use of AVF. An important additional component of this program is the Doppler ultrasound for preoperative vascular mapping. Such an approach may be realized without unsuccessful surgical explorations, with a minimal early failure rate and a high maturation, even in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  15. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  16. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  17. [A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiodermatitis after spinal arteriovenous fistula embolisation.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Elena; Causin, Francesco; Brumana, Marta Benedetta; Alaibac, Mauro

    2016-05-10

    We report acute radiation dermatitis on a patient's back and left arm, which developed 4 weeks after endovascular embolisation of a spinal arteriovenous malformation. Vesciculation and erosions were followed by a gradual re-epithelisation of the skin resulting in rectangular hyperpigmented patches that resolved almost completely within 1 month. Fluoroscopic radiodermatitis has been reported with more frequency over the past decades because of the rise in duration and number of procedures performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Articles concerning this issue are mostly limited to case reports after coronary interventions, renal artery catheterisations, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures and embolisations of intracranial arteriovenous malformation. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of radiation dermatitis after spinal arteriovenous malformation embolisation have been reported to date. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  20. Research into pain perception with arteriovenous fistula (avf) cannulation.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana E; Viegas, Ariani; Monteiro, Mara; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E

    2008-12-01

    Patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are repeatedly exposed to stress and pain from approximately 300 punctures per year to their arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Repeated AVF punctures lead to a considerable degree of pain, due to the calibre and length of the bevel of fistula needles. Pain is a sensitive, emotional and subjective experience. The objective of this study was to measure pain associated with AVF needling. The analogue visual scale (AVS) divided into 10 equal parts (0 indicating lack of pain, and 10 unbearable pain) was used. Patients(7) perceptions were measured in three different HD sessions. Pain was considered mild during AVF needling. The buttonhole technique caused a mean degree of pain of 2.4 (+/-1.7), compared to 3.1 (+/-2.3) using the conventional ropeladder technique. Although without reaching a statistically significant difference, diminished pain was associated with the buttonhole technique.

  1. Arteriovenous fistula complicating operative treatment of an ununited tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Ward, A S; Carty, N J

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the peroneal vessels following a bone graft operation for an un-united tibial fracture. The fistula was recognised as a result of a bruit at the site of the fracture. The fistula was repaired and the fracture subsequently united.

  2. Surgical management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Chibbaro, Salvatore; Gory, Benjamin; Marsella, Marco; Tigan, Leonardo; Herbrecht, Anne; Orabi, Mikael; Bresson, Damien; Baumann, Fabian; Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre; George, Bernard; Kehrli, Pierre; Houdart, Emmanuel; Manisor, Monica; Pop, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are the most common type of spinal arteriovenous malformations. Treatment options consist of microsurgical exclusion and/or endovascular embolization. We retrospectively identified all patients who benefited from surgical treatment at our tertiary center between January 2001 and December 2008. Clinical and imaging data were collected from patient files, including pre- and post-operative formal neurological examination, complete spine MRI and spinal digital subtraction angiography. Of our 30 patients, 25 were men and five were women with a median age of 62 years (range 24-76). The average delay between symptom onset and clinical diagnosis was 27 months (range 1-90). Complete cure of the fistula was obtained in all patients in a single surgical session with no procedural complications and no surgical morbidity. After a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range 14-128), 25 patients (83%) had improved, four were stable and one worsened. Despite recent advances in endovascular techniques and materials, there is a subgroup of patients for which surgery remains the best treatment option. Careful patient selection, a multidisciplinary approach and standardized surgical techniques can lead to excellent results with virtually no complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Progressive versus Nonprogressive Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Characteristics and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hetts, S W; Tsai, T; Cooke, D L; Amans, M R; Settecase, F; Moftakhar, P; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Lawton, M T; Halbach, V V

    2015-10-01

    A minority of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas progress with time. We sought to determine features that predict progression and define outcomes of patients with progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a retrospective imaging and clinical record review of patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula evaluated at our hospital. Of 579 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, 545 had 1 fistula (mean age, 45 ± 23 years) and 34 (5.9%) had enlarging, de novo, multiple, or recurrent fistulas (mean age, 53 ± 20 years; P = .11). Among these 34 patients, 19 had progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas with de novo fistulas or fistula enlargement with time (mean age, 36 ± 25 years; progressive group) and 15 had multiple or recurrent but nonprogressive fistulas (mean age, 57 ± 13 years; P = .0059, nonprogressive group). Whereas all 6 children had fistula progression, only 13/28 adults (P = .020) progressed. Angioarchitectural correlates to chronically elevated intracranial venous pressures, including venous sinus dilation (41% versus 7%, P = .045) and pseudophlebitic cortical venous pattern (P = .048), were more common in patients with progressive disease than in those without progression. Patients with progressive disease received more treatments than those without progression (median, 5 versus 3; P = .0068), but as a group, they did not demonstrate worse clinical outcomes (median mRS, 1 and 1; P = .39). However, 3 young patients died from intracranial venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage related to progression of their fistulas despite extensive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments. Few patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas follow an aggressive, progressive clinical course despite treatment. Younger age at initial presentation and angioarchitectural correlates to venous hypertension may help identify these patients prospectively. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block versus local infiltration anesthesia for arteriovenous fistula creation at the forearm for hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, WH; El Fawal, SM; Shoukry, AA; Sabek, EAS; Malak, WFA

    2017-01-01

    Background: The primary failure rate for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation under local anesthesia for hemodialysis is about 30%. Axillary brachial plexus block (BPB) may improve blood flow through blood vessels used in fistula creation; it may improve the AVF blood flow and thus may reduce the primary failure rate after 3 months. Methods: Hundred and forty patients with chronic renal failure scheduled for AVF creation for hemodialysis were divided into two equal groups; Group 1 (AxBP-G) received ultrasound (US) guided axillary BPB, and Group 2 (LI-G) received local infiltration. We recorded the measurements of the brachial and radial arteries before and after anesthesia and the AVF blood flow in both groups at three different time points. Furthermore, the primary failure rate was recorded in each group and compared. Results: After anesthesia, the mean radial artery blood flow in the AxBP-group was 3.52 ml/min more than the LI-group, and the brachial artery diameter was also 0.68 mm more than in the LI-group, both differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in the AVF blood flow in the AxBP-group more than the LI-group with mean differences of 29.6, 69.8, and 27.2 ml/min at 4 h, 1 week, and 3 months, respectively. The overall mean of AVF blood flow was 42.21 ml/min more in the AxBP group than the LI-group a difference which is statistically significant (P < 0.001). The primary failure rate was 17% in the AxBP group versus 30% in the LI-group; however, this difference is not significant statistically (P = 0.110). Conclusion: The US-guided axillary block increases AVF blood flow significantly more than local infiltration and nonsignificantly decreases the primary failure rate of the AVF after 3 months. PMID:28217059

  5. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulas in Adult Patients: Surgical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Albeyoglu, Sebnem; Aldag, Mustafa; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Sargin, Murat; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Kutlu, Hakan; Dagsali, Sabri

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical and anatomic characteristics of coronary arteriovenous fistulas in adult patients who underwent open cardiac surgery and to review surgical management and outcomes. Methods Twenty-one adult patients (12 female, 9 male; mean age: 56.1±7.9 years) who underwent surgical treatment for coronary arteriovenous fistulas were retrospectively included in this study. Coronary angiography, chest X-ray, electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were preoperatively performed in all patients. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Postoperative courses of all patients were monitored and postoperative complications were noted. Results A total of 25 coronary arteriovenous fistulas were detected in 21 patients; the fistulas originated mainly from left anterior descending artery (n=9, 42.8%). Four (19.4%) patients had bilateral fistulas originating from both left anterior descending and right coronary artery. The main drainage site of coronary arteriovenous fistulas was the pulmonary artery (n=18, 85.7%). Twelve (57.1%) patients had isolated coronary arteriovenous fistulas and 4 (19.4%), concomitant coronary artery disease. Twenty (95.3%) of all patients were symptomatic. Seventeen patients were operated on with and 4 without cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no mortality. Three patients had postoperative atrial fibrillation. One patient had pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade who underwent reoperation. Conclusion The decision of surgical management should be made on the size and the anatomical location of coronary arteriovenous fistulas and concomitant cardiac comorbidities. Surgical closure with ligation of coronary arteriovenous fistulas can be performed easily with on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, even in asymptomatic patients to prevent fistula related complications with very low risk of mortality and morbidity.

  6. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of stenosis of arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Miquelin, Daniel Gustavo; Reis, Luis Fernando; da Silva, Adinaldo Adhemar Menezes; de Godoy, José Maria Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Background Thrombosis following stenosis of arteriovenous fistulae resulting in the loss of vascular access for hemodialysis is an important complication in patients with chronic renal failure. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is being used more frequently in the treatment of stenosis aiming at increasing the patency of arteriovenous fistulae. Objective To evaluate the primary patency of arteriovenous fistulae following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Patients and method Patients submitted to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the Angiology service of Hospital de Base in 2004 were analyzed over an average follow-up of 10 months (2 to 16 months). Results A total of 22 angioplasties were performed in 20 fistulae of 19 patients. Of the 19 patients, one did not complete follow-up and one presented with a rupture of the fistulae. The following complications occurred in the remaining 18 fistulae, three deaths with two fistulae patent until death; one exeresis of prosthesis due to infection (53 days after the procedure); two thromboses (3 and 49 days after the procedure) and four restenosis (3 were submitted to a second angioplasty and one treated surgically). At the end of the follow-up, 11 fistulae (55%) were patent and with a flow rate in hemodialysis > 300 mL/min. Primary patency was 82.4% over three months; 81.2% over six months; 54.5% over 9 months and 50% over 1 year. Conclusion Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is an efficacious method for the correction of stenosis of arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis, prolonging the patency of the fistula and enabling new interventions. PMID:18811974

  7. Papilledema due to a permanent catheter for renal dialysis and an arteriovenous fistula: a "two hit" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Melissa A; Duffis, Ennis J; Curi, Michael A; Turbin, Roger E; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Frohman, Larry P

    2014-03-01

    Elevated intracranial pressure in patients with chronic renal failure has several potential causes. Its rare occurrence secondary to the hemodynamic effects of hemodialysis is described and the findings support a multifactorial etiology ("two hits").

  8. The construction of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis in patients with chronic obstructive arterial disease in the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Linardi, Fábio; Costa, Jose A; Angelieri, Fernanda R; Marabezzi, Maria G; Bevilacqua, Jose L

    2017-03-21

    Describe the construction of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis in chronic renal patient on hemodialysis who presented chronic arterial obstruction in the upper limb. A surgical procedure was performed on a patient with obstruction of the brachial artery in its proximal third. The procedure was carried out by the construction of a bypass with autologous vein between the proximal brachial and distal brachial arteries and the performing of an arteriovenous fistula with superficialized and anteriorized basilic vein, with anastomosis in the bypass at the same surgical procedure. There was good immediate result and arteriovenous fistula presented function for 43 months. Even when faced with chronic obstructive arterial disease in the arm, there is the possibility of creating a new arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.

  9. Onyx Embolization of Intracranial Pial Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Min; Kim, Ki-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare cerebrovascular lesions consisting of one or more arterial connections to a single venous channel without an intervening nidus. Because of the location and high flow dynamics of these lesions, neurosurgeons may have a difficulty deciding between endovascular treatment and open surgical treatment. We report on a patient who underwent endovascular treatment with liquid embolic agent. A 50-year-old man with a decreased mental state and a tonic seizure event was brought to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain showed a subcortical hematoma in the right temporoparietal lobe. On three-dimensional cerebral artery CT, there was no evidence of definite cerebrovascular abnormality. Cerebral angiography showed a pial AVF supplied by the right middle cerebral artery with early drainage into the right superior cerebral vein. The patient was treated with Onyx embolization for definitive closure of the fistula. The patient was transferred to the department of rehabilitation medicine two weeks later with grade 4 left hemiparesis. The application of advanced equipment, such as the latest angiography and endovascular tools, will facilitate the correct diagnosis and delicate treatment of pial AVF. PMID:27847777

  10. [Spondylodiscitis after embolization of an extramedullary intraspinal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Baudrillard, J C; Toubas, O; Lerais, J M; Auquier, F; Gatfosse, M; Bernard, M H

    1985-04-01

    The authors report a case of spondylitis Th11-Th12 occurred 1 month after embolization of an intraspinal extramedullary arteriovenous fistulae; this fistulae was fed by 11th left intercostal artery. The infecting organism isolated from the affected intervertebral disc was streptococcus sanguis a common agent of dental abscess.

  11. PREDICTIVE PARAMETERS FOR SUCCESSFUL FUNCTIONAL MATURATION OF NATIVE ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Usman, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Successful arteriovenous fistula (AVF) significantly reduces both the morbidity as well as mortality of the patients who have end stage renal disease, and significantly improve their survival rate. The objective of the study was to high light the role of various parameters in the functional maturation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This descriptive analytical study conducted at Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore from January 2014 to January 2015. All consecutive patients who underwent creation of AVF and had pre and post-operative Duplex scan to assess the arteries and veins of the upper limbs, were included. The AVFs were created at wrist, forearm and arm under local anaesthesia. The data was collected from radiology department and dialysis centre and correlated with the data from operation theatre. A total of 127 patients (89 males and 38 females) were included in this study. Only 57.5% (n = 73) patients showed functional maturation of their AVFs. Of these, only 14 (36.8%) were females. Arterial and venous diameters of more than 2.5 mm (p = 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively), fistulae created at elbow (p = 0.001), presence of on-table thrill (p = 0.003), presence of on-table bruit (p = 0.001), patients having their AVFs created before the start of dialysis (p = 0.0037) and kidney transplant (p = 0.0042) were all positive predictors for successful functional maturation of AVFs. Female gender was a negative predictor and was responsible for non-maturation (p-value 0.003). Maturation of AVFs is a complex process influenced by a lot of factors. Although in our study various parameters proved to have positive impact on AVFs maturation, large prospective multi-centre studies are needed to provide well defined outcome.

  12. Creation of arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Watorek, Ewa; Golebiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Letachowicz, Waldemar; Augustyniak Bartosik, Hanna; Garcarek, Jerzy; Madziarska, Katarzyna; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Elderly patients, defined as octogenarians and nonagenarians, are an increasing population entering renal replacement therapy. Advanced age appears as an exclusive factor negatively influencing dialysis practice. Elderly patients are referred late for the initiation of hemodialysis and more likely are offered catheters rather than arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), which increase mortality and negatively affect quality of life. We present our approach to the creation of vascular access for hemodialysis in this demanding population. In 2006-2012, 39 patients aged 85.9 ± 2.05 with end-stage renal disease, mainly resulting from ischemic nephropathy, were admitted to the Department of Nephrology to establish permanent vascular access for hemodialysis: preferably AVF. Temporary dialysis catheters were implanted in uremic emergency to bridge the time to fistula creation/maturation. AVF was attempted in 87.2% of the patients. Primary AVF function was achieved in 54% of the patients. Cumulative proportional survival of AVF at months 12 and 24 was 81.5%. Ninety-four percent of AVF were localized on the forearm: 74% in the distal and 20% in the proximal part. Mean duration of hemodialysis therapy was 20.80 ± 19.45 months. The mean time of AVF use was 15.9 ± 20.2 months. Until present, 38% have been dialyzed using AVF for 31.0 ± 18.8 months. Five patients died with functioning fistula. Eight patients initiated hemodialysis therapy with fistula. During further observation, the use of AVF increased to 62%. Elderly patients should not be denied creation of AVF as a rule. The outcome of AVF benefits more from acknowledging individual vascular conditions rather than age of the patient. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Hemodialysis vascular access options after failed Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The survival of patients on long-term hemodialysis has improved. End-stage renal disease patients now need maintenance of their vascular access for much longer periods. Arteriovenous fistulae formed at the wrist are the first choice for this purpose, but, in many patients, these fistulae fail over time or are not feasible because of thrombosed veins. We searched the Pubmed database to evaluate the various options of vascular access in this group of patients based on the published literature. It is quite evident that, whenever possible, autogenous fistulae should be preferred over prosthetic grafts. Use of upper arm cephalic and basilic veins with transpositions wherever required can enhance autogenous fistula options to a large extent. Upper arm grafts should be used when no autogenous fistula is possible. Lower limb and body wall fistula sites are to be considered at the end, when all options in both upper limbs are exhausted. PMID:21814303

  14. Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807

  15. Embryological Consideration of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    The topographical distribution of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was analyzed based on the embryological anatomy of the dural membrane. Sixty-six consecutive cases of intracranial and spinal DAVFs were analyzed based on the angiography, and each shunt point was identified according to the embryological bony structures. The area of dural membranes was categorized into three different groups: a ventral group located on the endochondral bone (VE group), a dorsal group located on the membranous bone (DM group) and a falcotentorial group (FT group) located in the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diaphragm sellae. The FT group was designated when the dural membrane was formed only with the dura propria (meningeal layer of the dura mater) and not from the endosteal dura. Cavernous sinus, sigmoid sinus, and anterior condylar confluence was categorized to VE group, which had a female predominance, more benign clinical presentations, and a lower rate of cortical and spinal venous reflux. Transverse sinus, confluence, and superior sagittal sinus belonged to the DM group. Olfactory groove, falx, tent of the cerebellum, and nerve sleeve of spinal cord were categorized to the FT group, which presented later in life and which had a male predominance, more aggressive clinical presentations, and significant cortical and spinal venous reflux. The DAVFs was associated with the layers of the dural membrane characterized by the two different embryological bony structures. The FT group was formed only with the dura propria as an independent risk factor for aggressive clinical course and hemorrhage of DAVFs. PMID:27250699

  16. Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization in Suspected Parauterine Choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Almarzooqi, Mohamed-Karji; Oliva, Vincent; Gilbert, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of choriocarcinoma that did not regress after chemotherapy treatment. A 30-year-old female patient (gravida 2, para 2), presented to our ER with stroke and persistent mild pelvic pain 2 months after a Caesarean section. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an ischemic left hemicerebellar region and a hypervascular mass in the pelvic region. This mass was not present on routine fetal ultrasound during pregnancy. The lesion was treated by chemotherapy after closure of a foramen ovale and insertion of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. After that, 2 courses of EMACO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide, and Vincristine) chemotherapy regimen were given. Posttreatment CT showed the hypervascular mass without any changes. Arteriography showed the arteriovenous fistulae that were embolized successfully with plugs, coils, and glue. Embolization was considered due to the risk of acute hemorrhagic life-threatening complications. Eight chemotherapy courses were added after embolization. Treatment by endovascular approach and reduction of the hypervascular mass can be a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy treatment of choriocarcinoma. PMID:27403360

  17. Axillary arteriovenous fistula after axillary plexus block.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dao-Jun; Yuan, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Heng

    2013-08-01

    This report presents the case of a 51-year-old man who had an axillary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as a complication of an axillary plexus block that was performed for internal fixation for a right forefinger phalanx fracture 4 years previously. While performing the axillary plexus block, a 22-gauge needle was placed inside the axillary sheath by observing the pulsations of the axillary artery. A pulsatile mass was found in the right axilla 1 day after the block was performed. Apart from this soft mass, the patient had no symptoms of vascular nerve damage. As the mass gradually increased in size, it became painful. During the past 3 months, in particular, the patient experienced repeated attacks of intermittent sharp pain and requested surgery. Digital subtraction angiography, performed 4 years after the axillary block, showed a tumor-like dilation was developing in both the right axillary artery and vein, almost simultaneously. Thus, the diagnosis of AVF was confirmed. The false aneurysm sac was excised and lateral repair of the axillary artery and vein was carried out under general anesthesia. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The possible occurrence of an AVF after axillary plexus block should be kept in mind, because early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid development of AVF and false aneurysm.

  18. Large spinal intraosseous arteriovenous fistula: case report.

    PubMed

    Imajo, Yasuaki; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Here the authors report the case of a fresh vertebral body fracture with a large spinal intraosseous arteriovenous fistula (AVF). A 74-year-old woman started to experience low-back pain following a rear-end car collision. Plain radiography showed diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Sagittal CT sections revealed a transverse fracture of the L-4 vertebral body with a bone defect. Sagittal fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI revealed a flow void in the fractured vertebra. Spinal angiography revealed an intraosseous AVF with a feeder from the right L-4 segmental artery. A fresh fracture of the L-4 vertebral body with a spinal intraosseous AVF was diagnosed. Observation of a flow void in the vertebral body on fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI was important for the diagnosis of the spinal intraosseous AVF. Because conservative treatment was ineffective, surgery was undertaken. The day before surgery, embolization through the right L-4 segmental artery was performed using 2 coils to achieve AVF closure. Posterolateral fusion with instrumentation at the T12-S2 vertebral levels was performed without L-4 vertebroplasty. The spinal intraosseous AVF had disappeared after 4 months. At 24 months after surgery, the bone defect was completely replaced by bone and the patient experienced no limitations in daily activities. Given their experience with the present case, the authors believe that performing vertebroplasty or anterior reconstruction may not be necessary in treating spinal intraosseous AVF.

  19. Arteriovenous fistula salvage utilizing a hybrid vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert G; Inston, Nicholas G; Brown, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Loss of arteriovenous fistula as access for hemodialysis leads to significant morbidity and increased mortality risk. Maintenance of this access is of paramount importance and we describe a case of a patient with a functioning radiocephalic fistula with associated arm swelling due to poor narrow caliber venous drainage above the elbow but with normal central veins. A hybrid vascular graft was anastomosed to the upper extent of the fistula and the nitonol stent section introduced into the patent axillary vein. The described method led to resolution of symptoms and arm swelling. The described method allowed the continued use of a mature fistula.

  20. Paradoxical embolism following thromboaspiration of an arteriovenous fistula thrombosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Paradoxical embolism is an increasingly reported cause of arterial embolism. Several embolic sources have been described, but thrombosis of an arteriovenous fistula as a paradoxical emboligenic source has not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman received a renal graft for primary hyperoxaluria. After transplantation, she was maintained on daily hemodialysis. Thrombosis of her arteriovenous fistula occurred two weeks post-transplantation and was treated by thromboaspiration, which was partially successful. During a hemodialysis session immediately following thromboaspiration, she developed a coma with tetraplegia requiring intensive cardiorespiratory resuscitation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed various hyperdense areas in the vertebrobasilar territory resulting from bilateral occlusion of posterior cerebral arteries. Transesophageal echocardiographic examination showed a patent foramen ovale, while pulse echography of the arteriovenous fistula revealed the persistence of extensive clots that were probably the embolic source. A paradoxical embolus through a patent foramen ovale was suggested because of the proximity of the neurological event to the thrombectomy procedure. Conclusions The risk of paradoxical embolism in a hemodialyzed patient with a patent foramen ovale deserves consideration and requires careful evaluation in situations of arteriovenous fistula thrombosis. PMID:21029407

  1. Effect of arteriovenous fistula and usage of arm with fistula on bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Turk, Ayla Cagliyan; Sahin, Fusun; Ozkurt, Sultan; Tomak, Leman; Guray, Gurkan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence of osteoporosis in hemodialysis patients, to evaluate the differences due to arteriovenous fistula on bone mineral density (BMD) and to investigate whether usage of arm with fistula has an effect on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 96 patients with chronic renal disease undergone to dialysis were included. Place of fistula (radial and brachial) and dominant hand were recorded. All patients were asked to complete Likert's scale in order to determine the frequency of their usage of arm with fistula. Patients were assigned in two groups: age >51 and < 50 years. Age-matched control group included 60 subjects. BMD measurements were done on lumbar vertebra, femur and both forearms. BMD measurement of proximal femur and total radius were significantly lower in patients >50 years compared to healthy controls and bone density measurement of lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, 1/3 distal and total radius were significantly lower in patients < 50 years compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). BMD measurement was significantly lower in arms with fistula, especially with radial fistula, compared to both arms without fistula and healthy controls (p < 0.05). When all patients were evaluated, BMD scores were lowering by increasing age, duration of dialysis and fistula and decreasing usage of arm with fistula. BMD in hemodialysis patients is lower than normal population. BMD of arm with fistula is lower than arm without fistula and healthy controls. Both radial and brachial fistula affect negatively ipsilateral BMD. Movement of arm with fistula has positive effects on BMD.

  2. Intraluminal Drug Delivery to the Mouse Arteriovenous Fistula Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kota; Foster, Trenton; Bai, Hualong; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Dardik, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents to enhance arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation can be administered either via intraluminal or external routes. The simple murine AVF model was combined with intraluminal administration of drug solution to the venous endothelium at the same time as fistula creation. Technical aspects of this model are discussed. Under general anesthesia, an abdominal incision is made and the aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) are exposed. The infra-renal aorta and IVC are dissected for clamping. After proximal and distal clamping, the puncture site is exposed and a 25 G needle is used to puncture both walls of the aorta and into the IVC. Immediately after the puncture, a reporter gene-expressing viral vector was infused in the IVC via the same needle, followed by 15 min of incubation. The intraluminal administration method enabled more robust viral gene delivery to the venous endothelium compared to administration by the external route. This novel method of delivery will facilitate studies that explore the role of the endothelium in AVF maturation and enable intraluminal drug delivery at the time of surgical operation. PMID:26967580

  3. The mouse aortocaval fistula recapitulates human arteriovenous fistula maturation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D.; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Hall, Michael R.; Wong, Daniel J.; Lu, Daniel Y.; Assi, Roland; Williams, Willis T.; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Bai, Hualong; Miyata, Tetsuro; Madri, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Several models of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) have excellent patency and help in understanding the mechanisms of venous adaptation to the arterial environment. However, these models fail to exhibit either maturation failure or fail to develop stenoses, both of which are critical modes of AVF failure in human patients. We used high-resolution Doppler ultrasound to serially follow mice with AVFs created by direct 25-gauge needle puncture. By day 21, 75% of AVFs dilate, thicken, and increase flow, i.e., mature, and 25% fail due to immediate thrombosis or maturation failure. Mature AVF thicken due to increased amounts of smooth muscle cells. By day 42, 67% of mature AVFs remain patent, but 33% of AVFs fail due to perianastomotic thickening. These results show that the mouse aortocaval model has an easily detectable maturation phase in the first 21 days followed by a potential failure phase in the subsequent 21 days. This model is the first animal model of AVF to show a course that recapitulates aspects of human AVF maturation. PMID:24097429

  4. Angiosarcoma Developing in an Arteriovenous Fistula after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Constantino Fernández; Rodríguez, Maria Calvo; Romero, Teresa Hermida; Muñiz, Andrés López; Hermida, Tamara Ferreiro; Lista, Felipe Sacristán; Díaz, Pilar Iglesias; Hernández, Ángel Alonso

    2017-01-01

    After transplantation, the main concerns involve immunosuppression, the prevention and treatment of infections and graft rejection, and tumor prevention. Sometimes the complications that may appear in the arteriovenous fistula are neglected following kidney transplantation. This is the reason why we are presenting the case of an angiosarcoma developing in an arteriovenous fistula after kidney transplantation. It is a very rare case and our goal is to create an alarm so that after kidney transplantation clinicians do not lose sight of the patients' previous history. PMID:28845318

  5. Noninvasive evaluation for congenital arteriovenous fistulas and malformations.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert B

    2012-03-01

    Although relatively rare, congenital arteriovenous fistulas and other vascular anomalies present a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The same noninvasive tests that are used for diagnosing arterial occlusive disease in the extremities will also detect arteriovenous fistulas. These tests include segmental limb pressure measurements, segmental plethysmography, and arterial waveform analysis. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging can be used to determine the extent of these vascular anomalies and the involvement of muscle skin and bone, all of which have a direct bearing on resectability. This article will examine these diagnostic modalities and explain how they can be used in this setting.

  6. Angiosarcoma Developing in an Arteriovenous Fistula after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bruna Natacha Leite; Rivera, Constantino Fernández; Rodríguez, Maria Calvo; Romero, Teresa Hermida; Muñiz, Andrés López; Hermida, Tamara Ferreiro; Lista, Felipe Sacristán; Díaz, Pilar Iglesias; Hernández, Ángel Alonso

    2017-01-01

    After transplantation, the main concerns involve immunosuppression, the prevention and treatment of infections and graft rejection, and tumor prevention. Sometimes the complications that may appear in the arteriovenous fistula are neglected following kidney transplantation. This is the reason why we are presenting the case of an angiosarcoma developing in an arteriovenous fistula after kidney transplantation. It is a very rare case and our goal is to create an alarm so that after kidney transplantation clinicians do not lose sight of the patients' previous history.

  7. Effects of Wall Distensibility in Hemodynamic Simulations of an Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e. mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10–15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to “normal” values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:24037281

  8. Effects of wall distensibility in hemodynamic simulations of an arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10-15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to "normal" values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae.

  9. Radial Artery Approach to Salvage Nonmaturing Radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Mu-Yang; Lin, Lin; Tsai, Kuei-Chin; Wu, Chih-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the usefulness of an approach through the radial artery distal to the arteriovenous anastomosis for salvaging nonmaturing radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas.MethodsProcedures that fulfilled the following criteria were retrospectively reviewed: (1) autogenous radiocephalic fistulas, (2) fistulas less than 3 months old, (3) distal radial artery approach for salvage. From 2005 to 2011, a total of 51 patients fulfilling the above criteria were enrolled. Outcome variables were obtained from angiographic, clinical and hemodialysis records, including the success, complication, and primary and secondary patency rates.ResultsThe overall anatomical and clinical success rates for the distal radial artery approach were 96 and 94 %, respectively. The average procedure time was 36 {+-} 19 min. Six patients (12 %) experienced minor complications as a result of extravasations. No arterial complication or puncture site complication was noted. The postinterventional 6-month primary patency rate was 51 %, and the 6-month secondary patency rate was 90 %. When the patients were divided into a stenosed group (20 patients) and an occluded group (31 patients), there were no differences in the success rate, complication rate, or primary and secondary patency rates.ConclusionAn approach through the radial artery distal to the arteriovenous anastomosis is an effective and safe alternative for the salvage of nonmaturing radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas, even for occluded fistulas.

  10. Interventional embolization therapy of puerile congenital deep femoral arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JING; TAN, XIAO-YUN; ZHOU, SHAO-YI; CHEN, KUN-SHAN; LI, HAI-BO; CHUANQIANG-NIU; JIANG, YI-ZHOU; LIN, QUE-QING

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the treatment efficiency of interventional embolization therapy in puerile congenital deep femoral arteriovenous fistula. A retrospective analysis was conducted for 9 cases of congenital deep femoral arteriovenous fistulae treated in our department in the past 5 years. B-ultrasound examination indicated that all puerile patients suffered from deep femoral arteriovenous fistulae, which was confirmed by angiography examination. For all patients, endovascular interventional embolization therapy was conducted and angiography re-examination was implemented after 4 weeks. If there were residual orificium fistulae, the interventional embolization therapy was conducted again. In the 6 month to 2 year follow-up period, improvement of clinical symptoms was observed. Following interventional embolization, 9 cases of deep femoral arteriovenous fistulae were completely occluded and the clinical symptoms were improved. No relapses occurred. In addition, after three embolization treatments, the disease condition of one case was controlled well and the disease condition did not progress. Interventional embolization therapy has a number of advantages, including simple surgery and reliable treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is worthy of promotion and application in the clinic. PMID:23407852

  11. Thrombophilia and Arteriovenous Fistula Survival in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Birgitta; Hartman, Jari; Peltonen, Seija; Albäck, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The role of thrombophilia in failing arteriovenous fistula (AVF) among patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis is not established. This study aimed to assess whether AVF primary patency is associated with thrombophilia and coagulation abnormalities. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This observational study screened 219 patients between 2002 and 2004 for thrombophilia before AVF surgery. Thrombophilia included factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, protein C and antithrombin activities, and protein S. Coagulation abnormalities included high factor VIII:C, homocysteine, fibrinogen, and d-dimer levels; presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; and short thrombin time. We reviewed patient charts for comorbid conditions, AVF maturation and interventions, kidney transplantation, and patient survival (mean follow-up duration, 3.6 [range, 2.3–5.8] years). Primary patency from the AVF placement and functional primary patency from the first AVF cannulation were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results Thrombophilia was present in 9% of the patients, and coagulation abnormalities occurred in 77%. One-year primary patency was 68%; 46% of the AVF failures occurred before the initiation of hemodialysis. Female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–4.1) and thrombophilia (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.2) were independent risk factors for loss of primary patency. Thrombophilia mutations or low antithrombin level (HR, 3.8), female sex (HR, 2.5), and diabetes (HR, 1.9) were associated with shortened functional primary patency of AVF. Conclusions Against the background of frequent coagulation abnormalities, thrombophilia and female sex predispose patients with ESRD to access failure, mostly due to thrombosis or stenosis. PMID:23411429

  12. A modified nontransposed brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula versus brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula for maintenance hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dayong; Li, Changbin; Sun, Liping; Zhou, Chunyu; Li, Xinhua; Ai, Zisheng; Tang, Jie; Peng, Ai

    2016-10-01

    With the growing need for reliable and durable upper arm hemodialysis access, we sought to compare the performance of a novel modified nontransposed brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula (mNT-BBAVF) with that of the more traditional brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (BCAVF). Briefly, to construct an mNT-BBAVF, an incision is made on the ulnar side of the elbow. The brachial artery and basilic vein are then isolated, and a side-to-side anastomosis is performed without transposition of the basilic vein. Next, the proximal basilic vein and the perforating veins within the surgical field are ligated. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent either an mNT-BBAVF or a BCAVF between January 2011 and October 2014 to compare 1-year primary unassisted patency, cumulative patency, and complications. We also examined hemodynamic parameters of vessels in each fistula type. We identified a total of 84 patients: 45 had a BCAVF, and 39 had an mNT-BBAVF. The two groups were well matched for baseline characteristics. Maturation rates at 1 month were 97% for mNT-BBAVF and 96% for BCAVF. The 1-year primary unassisted patency was significantly higher in the mNT-BBAVF group than that in the BCAVF group (87% vs 67%; hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-6.40; P = .03), although cumulative patency did not differ (90% vs 73%; hazard ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-6.96 ; P = .06). There were no differences in thrombosis, failure of maturation, bleeding, steal syndrome, arm swelling, aneurysm, and stenosis between the two groups during the 12-month study. Importantly, diameters and blood flow volumes of the proximal cephalic vein, distal cephalic vein, and distal basilic vein in patients who received an mNT-BBAVF increased significantly after 12 months. All three vessels met the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) criteria for fistula maturation and were available for dialysis cannulation

  13. Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula and Cecal Arteriovenous Malformation in a Boy

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Vimlesh; Vaidya, Pankaj C; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and cecal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are very rare. A 6-year old boy presented with lower limb paresis after trauma. On imaging work-up spinal dural AVF was found. It was managed with endovascular glue embolization. After two years, the boy presented with severe anemia and occult gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleed. Cecal AVM was diagnosed and managed with embolization. PMID:28164000

  14. Arteriovenous fistula in dialysis patients: Factors implicated in early and late AVF maturation failure.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khalid; Conlon, Peter J; Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H; Aherne, Thomas; Walsh, Stewart R; Leahy, Austin

    2016-10-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are being diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the demand for on haemodialysis (HD) is rising. Arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) remain the best conduit for adequate HD, with fewer complications associated with long-term use compared to bypass grafts and central venous catheters. However, it is known that many newly formed fistulae do not mature to provide useful HD access. The paper provides a narrative overview of factors influencing the process of AVF maturation failure. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary diagnosis of abdominal arteriovenous fistula by MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Amparo, E G; Higgins, C B; Hricak, H

    1984-12-01

    Two cases of abdominal arteriovenous (AV) fistula were imaged by magnetic resonance (MR). Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormally increased flow with resultant dilatation of the veins draining the site of the fistula. Findings were correlated with CT, digital subtraction angiography, and arteriography. This report suggests the usefulness of MR imaging as the initial imaging technique of choice in clinically suspected cases of AV fistula. The diagnosis can be made within 30 to 45 min of imaging time and does not require administration of contrast material.

  16. [Arteriovenous fistula in patients with a complicated postphlebitic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Quiñones Castro, M; Fernández de la Vara Sánchez, L; Perera González, F; Alvarez Sánchez, J A

    1991-01-01

    An investigation, which goal is to evidencing AV fistulas in patients with a complicated postthrombotic syndrome, as well as to determinate the efficacy of noninvasive methods used for the study of AV fistulas in such patients, is presented. So, patients with a complicated postphlebitic syndrome interned into the Instituto de Angiología were studied. Twenty-five patients were included in the study, 9 of these patients (36%) had arteriovenous fistulas, arteriographically evidenced. Haemodynamic study do not support the evidence of such communications.

  17. Arteriovenous Fistula Creation by Nephrologist Access Surgeons Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mishler, Rick; Yang, Zhongguang; Mishler, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Several years ago, we published an article in this journal entitled "Autologous Arteriovenous Fistula Creation by Nephrologists." The goal of that effort was to review outcomes published by nephrologist access surgeons from around the world. An attempt was also made to define the elements that were necessary for successful autologous fistula creation in hopes that they might be used by others in an effort to increase the number of and durability of autologous fistulas in the dialysis population. Our goal, here, is to update the previous information based on recently published literature to better understand the role that nephrologist access surgeons play in the care of our dialysis patients worldwide.

  18. Tips and tricks in creation of forearm arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Bourquelot, Pierre; Pirozzi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Forearm arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a direct anastomosis between the radial artery and the cephalic vein or the ulnar artery and the basilic vein, which are small-caliber vessels. The surgical technique must be precise to avoid postoperative stenosis of the anastomosis which may result in early thrombosis or nonmaturation. In our experience, microsurgery and preventive hemostasis are two major contributions to creation of forearm AVF. Using these techniques, construction of a radial-cephalic fistula was possible in 78% of children in our hospital, with 60% secondary patency rates at 4 years. In a personal unpublished series, 69% of the first arteriovenous angioaccess of adult patients were forearm fistulae, with 63% and 91% primary and secondary 1-year patency rates, respectively. Finally, 68% primary patency and 96% secondary patency rates at 1 year were reported by Pirozzi et al. in adults with an internal diameter of <1.6 mm in the radial artery.

  19. Basilic vein transposition in the forearm for secondary arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Glowinski, Jerzy; Glowinska, Irena; Malyszko, Jolanta; Gacko, Marek

    2014-04-01

    Radiocephalic (RC) fistulae remain the first choice access for hemodialysis. The antecubital fossa is recommended as the next site. However, for some patients a basilic vein can be used to create an arteriovenous (av) fistula. We report a series of patients where the forearm basilic vein served as an alternative conduit for secondary procedures. Over an 8-year period, 30 patients who had a failed RC fistula underwent a basilic vein transposition. The immediate results were satisfactory. All fistulas were successfully cannulated. Cumulative patency was 93% after 1 year, 78% after 2 years, and 55% after 3 years. No ischemic or infectious complications were noted during the study period. The use of the forearm basilic vein to create a native av fistula appears to be a good alternative to procedures in the antecubital fossa or upper arm, thus preserving more proximal veins for future use.

  20. Does regional compared to local anaesthesia influence outcome after arteriovenous fistula creation?

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Alan James Robert; Kearns, Rachel Joyce; Aitken, Emma; Kinsella, John; Clancy, Marc James

    2013-08-19

    An arteriovenous fistula is the optimal form of vascular access in patients with end-stage renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of fistulae fail at an early stage. Different anaesthetic techniques can influence factors associated with fistula success, such as intraoperative blood flow and venous diameter. A regional anaesthetic brachial plexus block results in vasodilatation and improved short- and long-term fistula flow compared to the infiltration of local anaesthetic alone. This, however, has not yet been shown in a large trial to influence long-term fistula patency, the ultimate clinical measure of success.The aim of this study is to compare whether a regional anaesthetic block, compared to local anaesthetic infiltration, can improve long-term fistula patency. This study is an observer-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Patients scheduled to undergo creation of either brachial or radial arteriovenous fistulae will receive a study information sheet, and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either: (i) an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block using lignocaine with adrenaline and levobupivicaine, or (ii) local anaesthetic infiltration with lignocaine and levobupivicaine.A total of 126 patients will be recruited. The primary outcome is fistula primary patency at three months. Secondary outcomes include primary patency at 1 and 12 months, secondary patency and fistula flow at 1, 3 and 12 months, flow on first haemodialysis, procedural pain, patient satisfaction, change in cephalic vein diameter pre- and post-anaesthetic, change in radial or brachial artery flow pre- and post-anaesthetic, alteration of the surgical plan after anaesthesia as guided by vascular mapping with ultrasound, and fistula infection requiring antibiotics. No large randomised controlled trial has examined the influence of brachial plexus block compared with local anaesthetic

  1. Does regional compared to local anaesthesia influence outcome after arteriovenous fistula creation?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An arteriovenous fistula is the optimal form of vascular access in patients with end-stage renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of fistulae fail at an early stage. Different anaesthetic techniques can influence factors associated with fistula success, such as intraoperative blood flow and venous diameter. A regional anaesthetic brachial plexus block results in vasodilatation and improved short- and long-term fistula flow compared to the infiltration of local anaesthetic alone. This, however, has not yet been shown in a large trial to influence long-term fistula patency, the ultimate clinical measure of success. The aim of this study is to compare whether a regional anaesthetic block, compared to local anaesthetic infiltration, can improve long-term fistula patency. Methods This study is an observer-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Patients scheduled to undergo creation of either brachial or radial arteriovenous fistulae will receive a study information sheet, and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either: (i) an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block using lignocaine with adrenaline and levobupivicaine, or (ii) local anaesthetic infiltration with lignocaine and levobupivicaine. A total of 126 patients will be recruited. The primary outcome is fistula primary patency at three months. Secondary outcomes include primary patency at 1 and 12 months, secondary patency and fistula flow at 1, 3 and 12 months, flow on first haemodialysis, procedural pain, patient satisfaction, change in cephalic vein diameter pre- and post-anaesthetic, change in radial or brachial artery flow pre- and post-anaesthetic, alteration of the surgical plan after anaesthesia as guided by vascular mapping with ultrasound, and fistula infection requiring antibiotics. Conclusions No large randomised controlled trial has examined the influence of brachial plexus block

  2. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

    2014-11-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae.

  3. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  4. Retrograde angiography and the risk of arteriovenous fistula perforation.

    PubMed

    Salman, Loay; Asif, Arif; Beathard, Gerald A

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the inflow segment of an arteriovenous fistula is mandatory for optimum access evaluation. Retrograde angiography (RA) is routinely used to image this region of the access system. Traditionally, RA is performed by manually occluding the outflow track of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and forcing the radiocontrast into the inflow segment against arterial pressure. While this technique is largely successful in visualizing the juxta-anastomotic region, anastomosis and a portion of the feeding artery, the approach carries a potential risk of vascular rupture between the occluded portion of the fistula and the anastomosis. This article presents six cases of fistulas that suffered vascular rupture during RA. In three cases, vascular damage occurred prior to the application of angioplasty. The remaining cases suffered perforation after angioplasty. Balloon tamponade was successful in salvaging two fistulas. Another AVF with a perforation did not require any intervention to maintain flow. The complication was successfully managed in one AVF by the insertion of an endovascular stent graft. Two fistulas were lost due to vascular damage. This report demonstrates that RA performed by occluding the outflow track of an AVF to assess the results of angioplasty of an inflow stenosis can result in vascular rupture. There is a risk of such adversity even before the application of angioplasty in this region. It is suggested that the first of these be avoided and the latter be done with care.

  5. Outcomes after ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wing; Lagaac, Regin; Pettigrew, Gavin J; Callaghan, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula (UBAVF) is rarely used owing to perceived problems with poor patency and prolonged maturation times. We report outcomes after UBAVF formation. Patients who had a forearm UBAVF formed between October 1, 2002 and September 31, 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Fifty-two UBAVFs were formed in 48 patients. The majority were male (77.1%), with a median (range) age of 69.5 (18-86) years. Primary and secondary patencies at 1, 3, and 5 years were 43%, 13%, 13%, and 54%, 18%, and 13%, respectively. Primary patencies were higher in those with previously functioning radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas on the same arm (P = 0.03). Thirty-six percent of UBAVFs became functional, with a median (range) time to maturation of 100 (32-471) days. Nine UBAVFs (17.3%) required revision surgery. Complications were rare (7.7%), with only one case of steal syndrome. Although UBAVF patency and functionality rates are low, we believe that these are acceptable, given the low risk of complications and preservation of precious upper-arm venous capital. Maturation can be prolonged, but when the forearm cephalic vein is unusable, UBAVFs can provide an alternative to upper-arm fistulas, and should be utilized more widely, especially in those with previously functioning ipsilateral radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urokinase treatment for arteriovenous fistulae declotting in dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Canavese, C; Thea, A; Segoloni, G P; Stratta, P; Salomone, M; Vercellone, A

    1984-01-01

    Urokinase treatment, previously employed with success in the declotting of deep venous thrombosis and arteriovenous shunts in patients undergoing regular dialytic treatment (RDT), was used in 23 cases of arteriovenous fistula thrombotic occlusion in 18 RDT patients. The treatment was successful in 65.2% of the cases without any negative side effects, except 1 case which may have developed a pulmonary embolism. Patients with severe hypofibrinolysis may need larger doses or may have a recurrence of the thrombotic episode. All therapeutic failures correlated with the presence of fibrosis or sclerosis.

  7. Congenital Extrahepatic Abdominal Arteriovenous Fistula and Apparent Patent Ductus Venosus in a Dog.

    PubMed

    White, Robert N; Murphy, Kate; Renfrew, Helen; Shales, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male German shepherd dog presented with a 2 wk history of diarrhea with possible melena followed by inappetence and progressive abdominal distension. Clinical findings, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominal ultrasound were highly suggestive of an extrahepatic abdominal arteriovenous fistula and concurrent patent ductus venosus, which were confirmed during an abdominal exploratory surgery. Renal biopsies taken at the time of surgery confirmed a chronic glomerulopathy. The dog made a good initial recovery from the procedure but was euthanatized 6 wk postoperatively for medically unresponsive renal disease.

  8. Functional diagnostic parameters for arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Rajabi-Jagahrgh, Ehsan; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2015-06-01

    The inability to detect the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) dysfunction in a timely manner under the current surveillance programs, which are based on either diameter (d), flow rate (Q), or pressure (p) measurements, is one of the major challenges of dialysis treatment. Thus, our aim is to introduce new functional diagnostic parameters that can better predict AVF functionality status. Six AVFs were created between the femoral arteries and veins of three pigs, each pig having two AVFs on either limb. Flow fields and pressure drop (Δp) in AVFs were obtained via numerical analysis utilizing the CT scan and Doppler ultrasound data at 2D (D: days), 7D, and 28D postsurgery. The dataset included 16 (two pigs [four AVFs] for three time points, and one pig [two AVFs] for two time points) repeated measurements over time, and the statistical analysis was done using a mixed model. To evaluate the nature of pressure drop-flow relationships in AVFs, the Δp was correlated with the average velocity at proximal artery (v) and also the corresponding scaled velocity (v*) by the curvature ratio of anastomotic segment. Based on these relationships, two new functional diagnostic parameters, including the nonlinear pressure drop coefficient (Cp ; pressure drop divided by dynamic pressure at proximal artery) and the linear resistance index (R; pressure drop divided by velocity at proximal artery), were introduced. The diagnostic parameters that were calculated based on scaled velocity are represented as R* and Cp *. A marginal (P = 0.1) increase in d from 2D (5.4 ± 0.7 mm) to 7D (6.8 ± 0.7 mm), along with a significant increase in Q (2D: 967 ± 273 mL/min; 7D: 1943 ± 273 mL/min), was accompanied by an almost unchanged Δp over this time period (2D: 16.42 ± 4.6 mm Hg; 7D: 16.40 ± 4.6 mm Hg). However, the insignificant increase in d and Q from 7D to 28D (d = 7.8 ± 0.8 mm; Q = 2181 ± 378 mL/min) was accompanied by the elevation in Δp (24.6 ± 6.5 mm Hg). The functional diagnostic

  9. [Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula draining into spinal cord veins: case report].

    PubMed

    Seda, Lauro Franco; Pieruccetti, Marco Antonio; Freitas, José Maria Modenesi; Listik, Sérgio; Pereira, Clemente Augusto Brito

    2002-09-01

    We present an usual case of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary and spinal cord venous plexus drainage and discuss its etiological, physiopathological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  10. Foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Manisor, Monica; Aloraini, Ziad; Chibarro, Salvatore; Proust, Francois; Quenardelle, Véronique; Wolff, Valérie; Beaujeux, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) with perimedullary drainage represent a rare subtype of intracranial dAVF. Patients usually experience slowly progressive ascending myelopathy and/or lower brainstem signs. We present a case of foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula with an atypical clinical presentation. The patient initially presented with a generalised tonic-clonic seizure and no signs of myelopathy, followed one month later by rapidly progressive tetraplegia and respiratory insufficiency. The venous drainage of the fistula was directed both to the left temporal lobe and to the perimedullary veins (type III + V), causing venous congestion and oedema in these areas and explaining this unusual combination of symptoms. Rotational angiography and overlays with magnetic resonance imaging volumes were helpful in delineating the complex anatomy of the fistula. After endovascular embolisation, there was complete remission of venous congestion on imaging and significant clinical improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a craniocervical junction fistula presenting with epilepsy. PMID:26472637

  11. Onyx embolization of anterior condylar confluence dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Koichiro; Tateshima, Satoshi; Rastogi, Sachin; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary; Vinuela, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The anterior condylar confluence (ACC) is a small complex venous structure located medial to the jugular vein and adjacent to the hypoglossal canal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transvenous Onyx embolization for ACC dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). Three patients with ACC DAVF were treated using the Onyx liquid embolic agent with or without detachable coils. Complete angiographic obliteration of the fistulas was achieved in all cases without permanent lower cranial neuropathy. This report suggests that the controlled penetration of Onyx is advantageous in order to obliterate ACC DAVFs with a small amount of embolic material. PMID:23459160

  12. Severe Symptomatic Vasospasm following Intraventricular Hemorrhage from Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Park, Beom Seok; Choi, Chun Sik; Kim, Byung Moom

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of severe vasospasm following the rupture of arteriovenous fistula. On initial CT scan, hematoma in the corpus callosum and left inferior frontal region with surrounding cerebromalacia and all ventricles without apparent subarachnoid hemorrhage were seen. Angiograms showed arterivenous fistula but did not show cerebral vasospasm. Thirteen days after admission the neurological state of patient suddenly deteriorated and bilateral motor weaknesses developed. Following angiograms revealed severe narrowing on the supraclinoid portion of bilateral internal carotid arteries, bilateral anterior cerebral arteries and bilateral middle cerebral arteries. Transluminal angioplasty and intra-arterial papaverine infusion were performed. The patient remained stable with moderate neurologic deficits. PMID:19516949

  13. Acquired arteriovenous fistula in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; MacLean, Robert A; Linder, Keith; Cullen, John M; Wolfe, Barbara A; Loomis, Michael

    2009-03-01

    A captive adult male grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) was evaluated due to multifocal wounds of the skin and subcutaneous tissues sustained as a result of trauma from another grizzly bear. On presentation, one lesion that was located in the perineal region seemed to be a deep puncture with purple tissue protruding from it. This perineal wound did not heal in the same manner or rate as did the other wounds. Twenty-five days after initial detection, substantial active hemorrhage from the lesion occurred and necessitated anesthesia for examination of the bear. The entire lesion was surgically excised, which later proved curative. An acquired arteriovenous fistula was diagnosed via histopathology. Arteriovenous fistulas can develop after traumatic injury and should be considered as a potential complication in bears with nonhealing wounds.

  14. Delayed treatment and late complications of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Huang, William; Villavicencio, J Leonel; Rich, Norman M

    2005-04-01

    An 18-year-old soldier had a gunshot wound to his left thigh during the Mexican Civil War (1910-1917). He presented with persistent bright red bleeding. His wound was treated by compression. A few years after the injury, he noticed a thrill, large varicose veins, limb swelling, and skin changes. A plain film showed an 8 x 10-cm midthigh mass. After a bullfighting incident, the pseudoaneurysm ruptured. Because of increased bulk and discomfort, the patient agreed 3 years later to be treated. Angiography showed a chronically obstructed femoral artery and vein. A 3000-mL hematoma was evacuated. This case illustrates the long-term sequelae of an arteriovenous fistula. This report describes a 51-year delay of treatment for causes unrelated to diagnosis. To our knowledge, this case is the longest delay in treatment of an arteriovenous fistula and its complications reported in the literature.

  15. [Traumatic arteriovenous pial fistula masquerading as a carotid-cavernous fistula: an uncommon disorder with an unusual presentation].

    PubMed

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Lee, Angel; Nava-Salgado, Giovanna; Zenteno, Marco; Gómez-Villegas, Thamar; Dávila-Romero, Julio César

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulae are infrequent lesions. Their cardinal signs have been related to mass effect and hemorrhage, but their clinical manifestations due to venous retrograde flow into ophthalmic veins has never been described. This phenomenon is usually seen in dural arteriovenous fistula draining to the cavernous sinus or carotid-cavernous sinus fistula.A traumatic intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula arising from the supraclinoid internal carotid artery in a young patient was revealed by aggressive behavior and ophthalmologic manifestations. The endovascular management included the use of coils, stent, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol with transient balloon occlusion of the parent vessel.

  16. Pre-operative ultrasonography and arteriovenous fistulae maturation.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khalid; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Walsh, Stewart R

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are preferred for haemodialysis access, but maturation is unpredictable. Clinical examination alone is unreliable for AVF planning. Duplex ultrasonography may provide useful anatomical and physiological data to allow more accurate prediction of likely AVF success. Selective use of duplex ultrasonography appears to enhance AVF success rates, but there are insufficient data to recommend routine duplex screening of AVF candidates. Agreed vessel criteria are needed.

  17. Current tools for prediction of arteriovenous fistula outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGrogan, Damian G.; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Khawaja, Aurang Z.; Inston, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains challenging to accurately predict whether an individual arteriovenous fistula (AVF) will mature and be useable for haemodialysis vascular access. Current best practice involves the use of routine clinical assessment and ultrasonography complemented by selective venography and magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this literature review is to describe current practices in relation to pre-operative assessment prior to AVF formation and highlight potential areas for future research to improve the clinical prediction of AVF outcomes. PMID:26034589

  18. Accessory veins in nonmaturing autogenous arteriovenous fistulae: analysis of anatomic features and impact on fistula maturation.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Bjorn I; Grimm, Lars J; Ronald, James; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate management of nonmaturing arteriovenous (AV) fistulae continues to be a controversial issue. While coil embolization of accessory side-branch veins can be performed to encourage maturation of nonmaturing AV fistulae, the true efficacy and optimal patient population are not well understood. Fistulagrams performed on nonmaturing AV fistulae were retrospectively reviewed in 145 patients (86 males, median age 63 years) for the presence of accessory veins. Fistula and accessory vein measurements were obtained, as were rates of eventual fistula maturation after accessory vein coil embolization. Of 145 nonmaturing fistulae, 49 (34%) had a stenosis without any accessory veins, 76 (52%) had a stenosis and one or more accessory veins, and 20 (14%) had an accessory vein without concurrent stenosis. Eighteen AV fistulae had one or more accessory veins without coexisting stenosis. Nine fistulae had a caliber decrease immediately downstream from the accessory vein. Coil embolization of dominant accessory veins with a caliber decrease immediately downstream (n = 6) resulted in a 100% eventual fistula maturation rate versus 67% for fistulae without this configuration (n = 6, p = 0.15). Accessory vein size was not correlated with maturation rates (p = 0.51). The majority of nonmaturing fistulae with accessory veins had a coexisting stenosis. Higher maturation rates may result with selected anatomic parameters, although additional studies with more robust sample sizes are needed prior to definitive conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Two-stage brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula for chronic haemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Francis, David M A; Lu, Yufan; Robertson, Amanda J; Millar, Robert J; Amy, Jayne

    2007-03-01

    Many haemodialysis patients are unable to have or maintain distal upper limb arteriovenous (AV) fistulas because of inadequate veins or arteries and therefore require more proximal access. We have reviewed our experience with a two-stage brachiobasilic AV haemodialysis fistula fashioned in the arm. Ninety-one brachiobasilic AV fistulas were fashioned in 87 patients between August 1999 and October 2004. Four AV fistulas failed because of early thrombosis. The second stage 'superficialization' was carried out at a median (range) of 73 days (32-1827 days) after fistula formation and involved mobilizing the arterialized basilic vein through a curved longitudinal incision on the anteromedial aspect of the arm and transposing it beneath the skin incision. Primary and secondary patency rates were 87 and 89%, respectively, at 1 year and 78 and 84%, respectively, at 2 years. Early complications included infection (3%) and haemorrhage (4%) and late complications included thrombosis (15%) and stenosis (14%). The two-stage superficialized brachiobasilic AV fistula described in this article has good patency. The operative techniques are straightforward, have relatively low complication rates and result in a large-diameter fistula on the anteromedial aspect of the arm allowing easy and painless cannulation for haemodialysis.

  20. Stent explantation from an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nano, Giovanni; Dalainas, Ilias; Casana, Renato; Bianchi, Paolo; Lupattelli, Tommaso; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the first treatment of a dysfunctional vascular access for hemodialysis. A case of stenting of a native arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula is reported that was treated with a stent placement at the anastomosis level, with explantation of the stent after complete thrombosis of the fistula 48 hours after the procedure. It is preferable to treat arteriovenous fistulas with simple balloon dilatation, avoiding stenting of the fistula, especially in the anastomosis site.

  1. Anesthesia considerations and intraoperative monitoring during surgery for arteriovenous malformations and dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christina; Mirski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The anesthetic considerations for surgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) incorporate many principles that are common to craniotomies for other indications. However, a high-flow, low-resistance shunt results in chronic hypoperfusion of adjacent brain tissue that is vulnerable to ischemia and at high risk for hyperemia and hemorrhage as resection of the lesion redirects blood flow. A comprehensive understanding of AVM pathophysiology and rapidly titratable anesthetic and vasoactive agents allow the anesthesiologist to alter blood pressure targets as resection evolves for optimal patient outcome. Intensive management is continued post-operatively as the brain acclimatizes to new parameters.

  2. Comparison of Efficacy of Side to Side Versus End to Side Arteriovenous Fistulae Formation in Chronic Renal Failure as a Permanent Hemodialysis Access

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffar, Mohammad; Fallah, Mahtab; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza; Gholizadeh, Barmak; Jabbehdari, Sayena; Mahdi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background In candidate patients for permanent hemodialysis or dialysis on a regular basis, an appropriate vascular access has great importance. The best permanent access is AVF (arterio venous fistula). Use of a technique to create AVF with better patency seems to be logical. Objectives The present study aimed to compare the efficacy rate of AVFs using two different anastomosis methods; Side to Side (STS) versus End to Side (ETS) and to determine whether the different approaches render any preferences or complications. Patients and Methods Sixty end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients were included in this clinical trial in two assigned groups of 30 patients. In one group end to side method to create AVF was used while in the other group Side to Side technique was applied for access in surgery. Both groups were followed for duration of 6 months to assess patency. For evaluating the quantitive variables, t-test was used while qualitative variables were measured using the chi-square and Fisher`s exact tests. Results In the 6 months duration, 6 patients (20%) in the STS (side to side) group and 5 patients (16.6%) in the ETS (end to side) group experienced a non-functional AVF. In the ETS group the failure was generally a result of thrombosed access while in the STS group, 4 out of 6 patients with complications, experienced thrombosis while the other 2 patients had venous hypertension. The total failure rate was 18.3% and during the 6 months of follow up no significant difference was detected in the efficacy rate. Nevertheless, in case of longer follow ups, different outcomes could be seen. Conclusions This study demonstrated that there was no significant statistical difference between the functional patency rates of fistulae placed by STS or ETS methods. PMID:24282794

  3. Delayed diagnosis of post-traumatic arteriovenous fistula from trip wire-detonated booby trap in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Coy, J D; Coy, V L

    1991-11-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas are very common, especially with penetrating injuries. Undiagnosed traumatic arteriovenous fistulas for long periods, as in this case, however, are less frequent because the patient often experiences clinical manifestations associated with arteriovenous shunting. This patient denied any history of problems that might be associated with this arteriovenous shunting. He was operated on for the arteriovenous fistula and had an uneventful postoperative course.

  4. Volume flow in arteriovenous fistulas using vector velocity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lange, Theis; Heerwagen, Søren; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Rix, Marianne; Lönn, Lars; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-11-01

    Volume flow in arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis was measured using the angle-independent ultrasound technique Vector Flow Imaging and compared with flow measurements using the ultrasound dilution technique during dialysis. Using an UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) with a linear transducer, 20 arteriovenous fistulas were scanned directly on the most superficial part of the fistula just before dialysis. Vector Flow Imaging volume flow was estimated with two different approaches, using the maximum and the average flow velocities detected in the fistula. Flow was estimated to be 242 mL/min and 404 mL/min lower than the ultrasound dilution technique estimate, depending on the approach. The standard deviations of the two Vector Flow Imaging approaches were 175.9 mL/min and 164.8 mL/min compared with a standard deviation of 136.9 mL/min using the ultrasound dilution technique. The study supports that Vector Flow Imaging is applicable for volume flow measurements. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased expression of HIF-1α, VEGF-A and its receptors, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the venous stenosis of arteriovenous fistula in a mouse model with renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sanjay; Shergill, Uday; Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Misra, Khamal D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A mouse model of renal insufficiency with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and venous stenosis was created. We tested the hypothesis that there is increased gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor- A (VEGF-A) and its receptors (VEGFR-1, -2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin-1 (ADAMTS-1) at the venous stenosis. Materials and methods Nineteen male C57BL/6 mice underwent a left nephrectomy and a surgical occlusion of the right upper pole to induce renal insufficiency and characterized in eight mice. Twenty eight days later, an AVF (n=11) was created from the right carotid artery to ipsilateral jugular vein and the mice were sacrificed at day 7 (n=4) and day 14 (n=4). The outflow and control veins were removed for gene expression. Three mice were sacrificed at day 28 for histologic analysis. Results The mean serum blood urea nitrogen remained significantly elevated for 8 weeks when compared to baseline (P<0.05). By day 7, there was a significant increase in the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with HIF-1α and TIMP-1 being significantly elevated at day 14 (P<0.05). By day 28, the venous stenosis was characterized by a thickened vein wall and neointima. Conclusions A mouse model of renal insufficiency with AVF was developed which had increased expression of HIF-1α, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with venous stenosis by day 28. PMID:20598569

  6. Surgical aspects and biological considerations of arteriovenous fistula placement.

    PubMed

    Achneck, Hardean E; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Li, Madison; Partington, Erin J; Peterson, David A; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2010-01-01

    Since the Fistula First Initiative was formulated in 2003, providers and payers have increasingly emphasized the need to create more arteriovenous fistulae. To maximize the chances of successful fistula maturation, a thorough understanding of the biology and surgical aspects of fistula placement are essential. A functional endothelium in the target vessels is the prerequisite for the adaptive remodeling of the vessel wall, which has to take place after fistula formation. Mechanoreceptors of the endothelium sense the increase in shear stress and, through a variety of activated signaling cascades, induce the necessary changes and vasodilation of the respective vessels. The successful fistula placement starts with a thorough preoperative evaluation, which focuses on protecting the target vessels and avoiding intravenous catheters and devices. Intraoperatively, the risk of endothelial dysfunction and hyperplasia is further minimized through an atraumatic dissection with minimal manipulation of the vein and artery. The surgical technique should also focus on decreasing the vessel compliance mismatch and avoiding an inflammatory response secondary to hematoma formation. Postoperatively, the fistula must be diligently monitored for the complications of thrombosis, postoperative steal syndrome, neuropathy, aneurysm formation, infection, and high-output cardiac failure. Early recognition of a problem is the key to saving an otherwise doomed fistula. An armamentarium of percutaneous techniques is available to the access surgeon to treat the most common causes of failed access formation. However, in some cases a surgical revision of the access site through patch angioplasty, a jump graft, and graft interposition is necessary to create a fistula which can be successfully used for hemodialysis.

  7. Pseudoaneurysm with Arteriovenous Fistula after Arthroscopic Procedure: A Rare Complication of Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Yoon, Young Chul; Han, Il-Yong; Park, Kyung-Taek; Wi, Jin Hong

    2015-08-01

    Pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula is a rare complication of arthroscopy, and can be diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or angiography. This condition can be treated with open surgical repair or endovascular repair. We report our experience with the open surgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm with an arteriovenous fistula in a young male patient who underwent arthroscopy five months previously.

  8. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-12-15

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  9. Developmental outcomes for neonatal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Hartman, Tyler K; Barbaresi, William; Raffel, Corey; Colby, Christopher E

    2009-02-01

    Large dural arteriovenous malformations (DAVMs) accompanied by cardiac failure usually carry a poor prognosis with a high risk of morbidity and death. The authors report on the case of a male neonate with a massive DAVM who presented at birth with macrocephaly and high-output cardiac failure. The child initially underwent treatment with surgical clipping of the large main feeding artery. Hydrocephalus, thought to be due to venous hypertension, developed when the boy was 8 months old. The condition resolved after interventional embolization treatment. The patient did not require placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. At 21 months of age, the child had near normal development without any focal neurological deficits.

  10. Surgical Correction of an Arteriovenous Fistula in a Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta)

    PubMed Central

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Guzzetta, Philip; Rosenthal, Steven L; Padilla, Luis R; Murray, Suzan; Newman, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. The lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. Examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. A diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. The lemur was maintained on furosemide until surgical ligation of the fistula was performed. Postoperative examination confirmed successful closure of the fistula and resolution of the signs of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an artery and a vein that bypass the capillary bed. Large arteriovenous fistulas may result in decreased peripheral resistance and an increase in cardiac output with consequent cardiomegaly and high output heart failure. This lemur's high-flow arteriovenous fistula with secondary heart failure may have been iatrogenically induced during blood collection by prior femoral venipuncture. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an arteriovenous fistula in a prosimian. Successful surgical correction of suspected iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) have been reported previously. Arteriovenous fistula formation should be considered as a rare potential complication of venipuncture and as a treatable cause of congestive heart failure in lemurs. PMID:24672831

  11. Surgical correction of an arteriovenous fistula in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Guzzetta, Philip; Rosenthal, Steven L; Padilla, Luis R; Murray, Suzan; Newman, Kurt

    2014-02-01

    A 10-y-old ovariohysterectomized ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented for exacerbation of respiratory signs. The lemur had a history of multiple examinations for various problems, including traumatic lacerations and recurrent perivulvar dermatitis. Examination revealed abnormal lung sounds and a femoral arteriovenous fistula with a palpable thrill and auscultable bruit in the right inguinal area. A diagnosis of congestive heart failure was made on the basis of exam findings, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography. The lemur was maintained on furosemide until surgical ligation of the fistula was performed. Postoperative examination confirmed successful closure of the fistula and resolution of the signs of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an artery and a vein that bypass the capillary bed. Large arteriovenous fistulas may result in decreased peripheral resistance and an increase in cardiac output with consequent cardiomegaly and high output heart failure. This lemur's high-flow arteriovenous fistula with secondary heart failure may have been iatrogenically induced during blood collection by prior femoral venipuncture. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an arteriovenous fistula in a prosimian. Successful surgical correction of suspected iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) have been reported previously. Arteriovenous fistula formation should be considered as a rare potential complication of venipuncture and as a treatable cause of congestive heart failure in lemurs.

  12. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting with Status Epilepticus Treated Successfully with Endovascular Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Yu; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Tsai, Li-Kai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-06-01

    Status epilepticus was rarely reported as the initial manifestation of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. Successful treatment with endovascular intervention has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of dural arteriovenous fistulas initially presenting with various types of status epilepticus, including generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, complex partial status epilepticus, and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The status epilepticus of these patients was successfully terminated through aggressive endovascular intervention in conjunction with antiepileptic drugs. These cases highlight the importance of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas in diagnosing patients with status epilepticus. Moreover, directly treating dural arteriovenous fistulas plays a crucial role in addition to anti-epileptic drugs therapy in controlling seizures in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas related status epilepticus.

  13. Unilateral hemothorax in a 46 year old South Indian male due to a giant arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Shihas; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A; Vemuri, Divya; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash

    2008-01-01

    In a patient undergoing regular hemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula access, pleural effusion is a known long term complication. However, a unilateral hemothorax is relatively uncommon. Here we report a 46 year old male, end-stage renal disease patient, on maintenance hemodialysis, who presented with a giant brachiocephalic AV fistula in his left arm and progressive breathlessness. Radiological imaging revealed a left sided pleural effusion. Ultrasound guided aspiration revealed a hemorrhagic pleural fluid. A Doppler study of the fistula revealed a high velocity blood flow through the fistula, thereby establishing the cause of the unilateral hemothorax. Ligation of the fistula resulted in complete resolution of the hemothorax. The other possible causes for hemothorax in a dialysis patient are also discussed in this case report. PMID:18840271

  14. Postcatheterization Femoral Arteriovenous Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Stent-Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Baran Kosar, Sule; Gumus, Terman; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Akpek, Sergin

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To report our results of stent-graft implantation for the endovascular treatment of postcatheterization femoral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) occurring between the deep femoral artery and the femoral vein.Methods: Endovascular treatment of iatrogenic femoral AVFs as a result of arterial puncture for coronary angiography and/or angioplasty was attempted in 10 cases. Balloon-expandable stent-grafts, one for each lesion, were used to repair the fistulas, which were between the deep femoral artery and the femoral vein in all cases. Stent-graft implantation to the deep femoral artery was performed by a contralateral retrograde approach.Results: All stent-grafts were deployed successfully. Complete closure of the fistulas was accomplished immediately in nine of 10 cases. In one case, complete closure could not be obtained but the fact that the complaint subsided was taken to indicate clinical success. In three cases, side branch occlusion of the deep femoral artery occurred. No complications were observed after implantation. Follow-up for 8-31 months (mean 18.5 months) with color Doppler ultrasonography revealed patency of the stented arterial segments without recurrent arteriovenous shunting in those nine patients who had successful immediate closure of their AVFs.Conclusion: Our results with a mean follow-up 18.5 months suggest that stent-graft implantation for the closure of postcatheterization femoral AVFs originating from the deep femoral artery is an effective, minimally invasive alternative procedure.

  15. Brachiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula for Hemodialysis through the Median Antecubital Vein

    PubMed Central

    Elamurugan, E.; Hemachandar, R.

    2017-01-01

    In patients unsuitable for radiocephalic fistula creation, the next option is brachiocephalic fistula. In such patients, we exploited the venous interconnections in the cubital fossa for median cubital vein-Brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. In this article, we describe our experience in the creation of such technical variant of the brachiocephalic fistula AVF, its success and associated complications. A retrospective review of such AVF created between September 2014 and August 2015 was done. The data collected included demographics, co-morbidities, basic disease, operative details, patency, complications, and mortality. A total of 68 vascular access surgeries were done which included 26 (38.2%) brachiocephalic AVF using the median antecubital vein. The mean cephalic vein diameter and mean flow rate were 7.18 mm and 1415 ml/min, respectively 2 months after fistula creation. The primary and secondary failure rates were 3.87% and 7.69% respectively. Complications included aneurysm (7.69%), edema (19.23%), hematoma (11.53%), and wound infection (3.8%). Using reverse flow in the median antecubital vein is a safe and simple way to perform brachiocephalic AVF before brachiobasilic AVF and grafts. PMID:28553035

  16. Superior mesenteric aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula: angiographic and CT features

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, M.; Chuang, V.P.; Stewart, M.T.

    1985-08-01

    Of all splanchnic artery aneurysms, the superior mesenteric aneurysm is the least common type, and most of the reported cases are in the surgical literature. Reports of radiographic findings of superior mesenteric aneurysms and their complications are scarce. The authors present the first case of spontaneous rupture of an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with resultant arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Not only are the angiographic features diagnostic, but the CT scan also shows an interesting and suggestive finding that will be useful for the future diagnosis of similar cases.

  17. [Arteriovenous fistulae of posttraumatic origin: apropos 7 cases].

    PubMed

    Lerma, R; Galego, G; Lisbona, C; Martorell, A; Silveira, P; Callejas, J M

    1992-01-01

    We present our experience with arterio-venous traumatic fistulas. Seven cases, between 6 patients are reviewed. Respective etiologies were: 4 cases after an accidental traumatism, 2 cases produced by iatrogenicity and 1 case of idiopathic etiology. Respective localizations were: 6 cases at lower limbs (85.7%) and one case at cervical column (14.2%). All patients underwent surgical treatment. There was any case of mortality and treatment results were satisfactory in all cases. Patients were followed and, up to now, no recidives have been registered. follow-time ranged from 1.5 to more than 6 years.

  18. Novalis Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyoung-Su; Song, Young-Jin; Kim, Ki-Uk

    2016-07-01

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is rare, presenting with progressive, insidious symptoms, and inducing spinal cord ischemia and myelopathy, resulting in severe neurological deficits. If physicians have accurate and enough information about vascular anatomy and hemodynamics, they achieve the good results though the surgery or endovascular embolization. However, when selective spinal angiography is unsuccessful due to neurological deficits, surgery and endovascular embolization might be failed because of inadequate information. We describe a patient with a history of vasospasm during spinal angiography, who was successfully treated by spinal stereotactic radiosurgery using Novalis system.

  19. Novalis Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kyoung-Su; Song, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is rare, presenting with progressive, insidious symptoms, and inducing spinal cord ischemia and myelopathy, resulting in severe neurological deficits. If physicians have accurate and enough information about vascular anatomy and hemodynamics, they achieve the good results though the surgery or endovascular embolization. However, when selective spinal angiography is unsuccessful due to neurological deficits, surgery and endovascular embolization might be failed because of inadequate information. We describe a patient with a history of vasospasm during spinal angiography, who was successfully treated by spinal stereotactic radiosurgery using Novalis system. PMID:27446527

  20. Delayed postoperative dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with progressive dementia.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Tetsuhiro

    2015-12-09

    A 64-year-old woman underwent right suboccipital craniotomy to treat spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhoea. Although the CSF leak was cured, the patient developed pulsatile tinnitus, ambulatory disturbance and progressive dementia. Four years after the surgery, she presented with generalised seizure. Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula at the right transverse-sigmoid sinus, which was associated with sinus occlusion, retrograde blood flow in the sinus and diffuse intracranial cortical venous reflux. A combination of endovascular transarterial embolisation and transvenous embolisation with direct sinus puncture was performed. After the procedure, the patient's mental status and cognitive function improved significantly.

  1. Comparison of survival of upper arm arteriovenous fistulas and grafts after failed forearm fistula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Barker, Jill; Allon, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Although arteriovenous fistulas are considered superior to grafts, it is unknown whether that is true in the subset of patients with a previous failed fistula. For investigation of this question, a prospective vascular access database was queried retrospectively to compare the outcomes of 59 fistulas and 51 grafts that were placed in the upper arm after primary failure of an initial forearm fistula. Primary access failure was higher for subsequent fistulas than for subsequent grafts (44 versus 20%; P = 0.006). Fistulas required more interventions than grafts before their successful use (0.42 versus 0.16 per patient; P = 0.04). The time to catheter-free dialysis was longer for fistulas than for grafts (131 versus 34 d; P < 0.0001) and was associated with more episodes of bacteremia before permanent access use (1.3 versus 0.4 per patient; P = 0.003). Cumulative survival (from placement to permanent failure) was higher for fistulas than for grafts when primary failures were excluded (hazard ratio 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.94; P = 0.03), but similar when primary failures were included (hazard ratio 0.99; 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 1.62; P = 0.97). Fistulas required fewer interventions to maintain long-term patency for dialysis after maturation (0.73 versus 2.38 per year; P < 0.001). In conclusion, as compared with grafts, subsequent upper arm fistulas are associated with a higher primary failure rate, more interventions to achieve maturation, longer catheter dependence, and more frequent catheter-related bacteremia. However, once the access is usable for dialysis, fistulas have superior cumulative patency than do grafts and require fewer interventions to maintain patency.

  2. Laparotomized Direct Puncture for Embolization of a Retroperitoneal Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Inagawa, Shoichi; Unno, Naoki; Yamashita, Shuhei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakahara, Harumi

    2010-02-15

    A 28-year-old woman was referred to our institution with hope for another child after having an abortion several months previously to avoid a potential risk of catastrophic hemorrhage from a retroperitoneal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with enlarged and twisted draining veins in the pelvis. Multiple branches coming from the right lumbar arteries and the right iliac arteries fed fistulae converging on an enlarged venous pouch anterior to the psoas major muscle in the right retroperitoneal space. It seemed impossible to achieve complete occlusion of the lesion in a single session by either transarterial or transvenous approach. A laparotomy and direct puncture of the enlarged draining vein immediately downstream of the venous pouch was performed and embolization was done with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and the aid of coils. Complete occlusion of the retroperitoneal AVF was achieved and confirmed in control angiography 5 months later.

  3. Upper arm arteriovenous fistula versus forearm looped arteriovenous graft for hemodialysis access: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Jason T; Schanzer, Andres; McVicar, John P; Chin, Andrew I; Perez, Richard V; Troppmann, Christoph

    2005-11-01

    If an autogenous wrist radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula cannot be created, the next choice for chronic hemodialysis access may be a prosthetic forearm looped arteriovenous graft (FAL-AVG) or a native upper arm arteriovenous fistula (UA-AVF). We reviewed our experience with these two forms of dialysis access to determine which is preferable. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcomes were time to first use, complications, and reinterventions as well as primary and assisted primary patency. Eighty-six patients underwent creation of UA-AVF, and 60 patients underwent placement of FAL-AVG. Time to first use was 3.8 months for UA-AVFs vs. 1.8 months for FAL-AVGs (p < 0.018). Complication rates were 42% vs. 65% for UA-AVFs vs. FAL-AVGs, respectively (p = 0.006). Thrombosis was more common in FAL-AVGs than UA-AVFs (42% vs. 17%, p = 0.001), as was nonelective reintervention (50% vs. 30%, p = 0.016). Patency rates were similar at 1 and 2 years. Although UA-AVFs and FAL-AVGs share similar early patency rates, UA-AVFs may be a better choice for chronic hemodialysis access because of a lower incidence of complications and nonelective reinterventions. To maximize the benefits of UA-AVFs, however, early surgical referral is required.

  4. High-output heart failure secondary to arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adam B; Klemmer, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    In the hemodialysis patient population, a surgically created arteriovenous fistula is the preferred vascular access option. Development of high-output heart failure may be an underappreciated complication in patients who have undergone this procedure. When a large proportion of arterial blood is shunted from the left-sided circulation to the right-sided circulation via the fistula, the increase in preload can lead to increased cardiac output. Over time, the demands of an increased workload may lead to cardiac hypertrophy and eventual heart failure. Patients may present with the usual signs of high-output heart failure including tachycardia, elevated pulse pressure, hyperkinetic precordium, and jugular venous distension. Typically, the AV fistula is quite large and is likely located in the upper arm, more proximal to the heart. Routine access flow monitoring should demonstrate blood flows (Qa) >2000 ML/min. Echocardiogram may reveal either a low or high left ventricular ejection fraction, and right-heart catheterization demonstrates an elevated cardiac output with a low to normal systemic vascular resistance. When addressing the problem of high-output heart failure, the nephrologist is faced with the dilemma of preventing progression of heart failure at the expense of loss of vascular access. Nevertheless, treatment should be directed at correcting the underlying problem by surgical banding or ligation of the fistula. © 2011 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Improving vascular access outcomes: attributes of arteriovenous fistula cannulation success

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Lori E.; Wilson, Barbara M.; Oudshoorn, Abe

    2016-01-01

    Background Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred access for hemodialysis (HD) yet they are underutilized. Cannulation of the fistula is a procedure requiring significant skill development and refinement and if not done well can have negative consequences for patients. The nurses' approach, attitude and skill with cannulation impacts greatly on the patient experience. Complications from miscannulation or an inability to needle fistulas can result in the increased use of central venous catheters. Some nurses remain in a state of a ‘perpetual novice’ resulting in a viscous cycle of negative patient consequences (bruising, pain), further influencing patients' decisions not to pursue a fistula or abandon cannulation. Method This qualitative study used organizational development theory (appreciative inquiry) and research method to determine what attributes/activities contribute to successful cannulation. This can be applied to interventions to promote change and skill development in staff members who have not advanced their proficiency. Eighteen HD nurses who self-identified with performing successful cannulation participated in audio-recorded interviews. The recordings were transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Four common themes, including patient-centered care, teamwork, opportunity and skill and nurse self-awareness, represented successful fistula cannulation. Successful cannulation is more than a learned technique to correctly insert a needle, but rather represents contextual influences and interplay between the practice environment and personal attributes. Conclusions Practice changes based on these results may improve cannulation, decrease complications and result in better outcomes for patients. Efforts to nurture positive patient experiences around cannulation may influence patient decision-making regarding fistula use. PMID:26985384

  6. Staged approach for surgical management of external iliac vein aneurysm associated with traumatic femoral arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Julio C; Montesinos, Efrain; DeLarosa, Jacob; Leon, Juan J

    2009-12-01

    Aneurysms of the iliac vein are rare. They can occur in association with arteriovenous fistulae located elsewhere. Here, we present a 30-year-old man who developed a large left external iliac vein aneurysm in association with a chronic traumatic arteriovenous fistula in the left thigh. Less than 25 cases of iliac vein aneurysms have been reported in the last 40 years. The presentation and treatment of this condition has been heterogeneous. We suggest that adequate surgical treatment can be offered in a staged approach: aneurysm resection with reconstruction should be done first, followed by closure of the arteriovenous fistula 6 months later.

  7. An unusual presentation of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Payam; Adabi, Marzie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal dural AVF is the most common type of spinal vascular malformation. However, presenting symptoms differ according to site of spinal involvement. This study described a case of arteriovenous malformation with paraparesis and incontinence. Case Presentation: Diagnosis of patient was confirmed by clinical and imaging examination using magnetic resonance image and ruling out other possibilities Result: A definitive diagnosis of arterio venous fistula was confirmed by clinical and MRI examination and demonstrated abnormalities compatible with dural arteriovenous fistula. Conclusion: Dural arteriovenous fistula should be considered in patients with paresis in both lower extremities. PMID:27757211

  8. Transverse and Sigmoid Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Mimicking Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension and Carotid Cavernous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Spitze, Arielle; Gersztenkorn, David; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Diaz, Orlando; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) can produce a variety of symptoms depending on fistula location, size, and venous drainage. Although cavernous sinus fistulas (CCFs) classically present with symptoms of orbital venous congestion due to retrograde venous drainage into the superior ophthalmic vein (i.e. an arterialised "red eye") (Miller NR. Neurosurg Focus 2007;23:1--15), dAVFs not localised to the cavernous sinus rarely present with a "red eye" and instead produce increased intracranial pressure, which can mimic idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The authors present a unique case of an intracranial dAVF with clinical features suggestive of both CCF and IIH. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility to avoid delayed diagnosis of the intracranial dAVF.

  9. Can a Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio Derived from Preoperative Blood Tests Predict Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation?

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khalid; Zafar, Adeel; Ahmed, Khalid; Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H; Healy, Donagh; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Burke, Paul E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Stewart R

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between inflammatory markers expressed as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and process of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation. A retrospective review of patients with end-stage renal disease referred for formation of a new AVF in one center. Patients referred to the vascular service in the University Hospital of Limerick for creation of vascular access between 2009 and 2013. The association between NLR, calculated from preoperative blood tests, and functional fistula maturation, as determined by successful use of the AVF for 6 consecutive hemodialysis sessions, was investigated using univariate and logistic regression analyses. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess potential influence from other factors related to AVF maturation. Stepwise regression test was performed including the NLR. Overall AVF functional maturation rate in our study was 53.7% (66/123). Patients with matured AVFs had an NLR of 4.850 (1.8-15.7) compared with 3.554 (1.7-15.0); this difference was found to be significant (P = 0.024). Female gender (P = 0.008) and a history of kidney transplant (P = 0.004) were the only independent factors of fistula maturation outcome in a logistic regression model. Increased level of NLR was found to be associated with fistula maturation; however, more studies are needed to validate this finding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Histopathology of Veins Obtained at Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula Creation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Charles E; Imrey, Peter B; Hudkins, Kelly L; Wietecha, Tomasz A; Radeva, Milena; Allon, Michael; Cheung, Alfred K; Dember, Laura M; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Terry, Christi M; Farber, Alik; Beck, Gerald J; Feldman, Harold I; Kusek, John W; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2017-07-19

    Stenosis from venous neointimal hyperplasia is common in native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the preexisting histologic characteristics of veins at fistula creation, and associations thereof with baseline patient factors, have not been well characterized. In this study, we conducted histologic analysis of a segment of the vein used for anastomosis creation, obtained during AVF creation from 554 of the 602 participants in the multicenter Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Cohort Study. We quantified intimal and medial areas and lengths of the internal and external elastic lamina by morphometry and assessed venous wall cells by immunohistochemistry, extracellular matrix with Movat stain, and calcium deposition by alizarin red stain. We also studied a representative subset of veins for markers of monocyte/macrophage content, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neoangiogenesis. Neointima occupied >20% of the lumen in 57% of fully circumferential vein samples, and neointimal hyperplasia associated positively with age and inversely with black race. The neointima was usually irregularly thickened, sometimes concentric, and contained α-smooth muscle actin-expressing cells of smooth muscle or myofibroblast origin. Proteoglycans admixed with lesser amounts of collagen constituted the predominant matrix in the neointima. In 82% of vein samples, the media of vessel walls contained large aggregates of collagen. A minority of veins expressed markers of inflammation, cell proliferation, cell death, calcification, or neoangiogenesis. In conclusion, we observed preexisting abnormalities, including neointimal hyperplasia and prominent accumulation of extracellular matrix, in veins used for AVF creation from a substantial proportion of this cohort. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Management of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas: interventional techniques and results.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Dinesh; Levitt, Michael R; Sekhar, Laligam N; Kim, Louis J; Hallam, Danial K; Ghodke, Basavaraj V

    2014-03-01

    Spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (SEDAVF) are rare and poorly understood clinical entities. We report a series of five (three men, two women) consecutive cases treated at our center to analyze their characteristic and treatment strategies in their management. We report a successful technique of percutaneous embolization of fistulas in a patient with failed previous attempts. All five patients were symptomatic; three patients presented with a history of back pain, which progressed to myelopathic symptoms, one patient had symptoms of persistent back pain, and one patient had intermittent numbness of the left arm and thigh. Of the three patients who had myelopathic symptoms, two were successfully treated with transarterial embolizations with Onyx copolymer. The third patient who had a prominent epidural venous pouch with numerous arterial feeders was embolized percutaneously with a flat detector CT guided navigation (XperCT) and real time fluoroscopic monitoring of the injected n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue, after previous unsuccessful attempts with surgery and arterial embolizations. All three myelopathic treated patients had complete angiographic remission of the fistulas and symptoms on follow-up (mean 7.2 months). The diagnosis and treatment of SEDAVF can be challenging due to their rarity and intricate pathomechanics. Patients with severe pain or progression of symptoms or myelopathic symptoms need to be treated at the earliest opportunity, while asymptomatic patients can be closely monitored. Percutaneous embolization is an effective strategy to embolize SEDAVF associated venous pouch.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Oh, Hyuk-Jin; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) remains a challenge. However, after introduction of Onyx, transarterial approach is the preferred treatment option in many centers. We report our experience of dAVFs embolization with special emphasis on transarterial approach. Methods Seventeen embolization procedures were performed in 13 patients with dAVFs between Jan 2009 and Oct 2014. Clinical symptoms, location and type of fistulas, embolization methods, complications, radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated using charts and PACS images. Results All 13 patients had symptomatic lesions. The locations of fistulas were transverse-sigmoid sinus in 6, middle fossa dura in 4, cavernous sinus in 2, and superior sagittal sinus in 1 patient. Cognard types were as follows : I in 4, IIa in 2, IIa+IIb in 5, and IV in 2. Embolization procedures were performed ≥2 times in 3 patients. Nine patients were treated with transarterial Onyx embolization alone. One of these required direct surgical puncture of middle meningeal artery. Complete obliteration of fistulas was achieved in 11/13 (85%) patients. There were no complications except for 1 case of Onyx migration in cavernous dAVF. Modified Rankin scale score at post-operative 3 months were 0 in 11, and 3 in 2 patients. Conclusion Transarterial Onyx embolization can be a first line therapeutic option in patients with dAVFs. However, transvenous approach should be tried first in cavernous sinus dAVF because of the risk of intracranial migration of liquid embolic materials. Furthermore, combined surgical endovascular approach can be considered as a useful option in inaccessible route. PMID:26885282

  13. Use of a balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for treatment of arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Halil; Mavili, Ertuğrul; Toker, Birgül; Oztürk, M Halil; Soylu, Serra O; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2008-07-01

    We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

  14. Use of a Balloon and N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Treatment of Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Mavili, Ertugrul; Toker, Birguel; Oztuerk, M. Halil; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2008-07-15

    We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

  15. Spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula in a child with hartnup disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doris Maria; Benndorf, Goetz; Von Moers, Arpad; Campi, Adriana; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas

    2004-06-01

    To report the endovascular treatment of a spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a child with Hartnup disease. A 6-year-old girl with Hartnup disease presented with recurrent attacks of intense, migraine-like, right-sided headache; a tender, pulsatile small mass was observed in the scalp. Selective digital subtraction angiography revealed a high-flow scalp AVF fed by the frontal branch of the right superficial temporal artery draining via the scalp veins. Endovascular treatment was performed by direct puncture of the distal feeding artery and injection of 2 mL of a 50% mixture of N-butyl-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol. Serial arteriograms performed 6 months and 2 years later documented complete resolution of the lesion. The patient has had no recurrence of clinical symptoms or local signs for recanalization. Scalp AVFs may progress in size, causing significantly disabling symptoms, particularly in children. We recommend endovascular treatment at the earliest possible stage.

  16. Cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae infection distal to the arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Van Ende, Charlotte; Wilmes, Dunja; Lecouvet, Frédéric E; Labriola, Laura; Cuvelier, René; Van Ingelgem, Grégory; Jadoul, Michel

    2016-10-01

    A few single cases of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infection have been reported in haemodialysis patients. We report three additional cases that share peculiar clinical characteristics, pointing to diagnostic clues. All three cases presented as erythematous nodules developing distally to a proximal arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This presentation was identical to that of two published cases. A survey of all Belgian haemodialysis units during the period 2007-11 yields an estimated incidence of ∼0.9/10 000 patient-years. Although the source of M. chelonae remains unclear, this specific clinical presentation should be added to the listing of potential complications of an AVF and should be recognized, as it is fully treatable if diagnosed by culture and tissue biopsy.

  17. Cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae infection distal to the arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Van Ende, Charlotte; Wilmes, Dunja; Lecouvet, Frédéric E.; Labriola, Laura; Cuvelier, René; Van Ingelgem, Grégory; Jadoul, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A few single cases of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infection have been reported in haemodialysis patients. We report three additional cases that share peculiar clinical characteristics, pointing to diagnostic clues. All three cases presented as erythematous nodules developing distally to a proximal arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This presentation was identical to that of two published cases. A survey of all Belgian haemodialysis units during the period 2007–11 yields an estimated incidence of ∼0.9/10 000 patient-years. Although the source of M. chelonae remains unclear, this specific clinical presentation should be added to the listing of potential complications of an AVF and should be recognized, as it is fully treatable if diagnosed by culture and tissue biopsy. PMID:27679721

  18. Venous aneurysm complicating arteriovenous fistula access and matrix metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; Grande, Raffaele; Placida, Girolamo Domenico; Rubino, Paolo; Settimio, Ugo Francesco; Quarto, Gennaro; Amato, Maurizio; Furino, Ermenegildo; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Bruno; Gallelli, Luca; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for placed for hemodialysis may be burdened by one particular complication—the formation of a venous aneurysm. It has been shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) could represent markers of disease in both venous and arterial vessels. Materials and methods This case study reports a rare case of enormous venous aneurysm-correlated MMP and NGAL levels in a woman with an AVF. Results Significantly higher levels of plasma MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and NGAL were detected in this patient during aneurysmal evaluation before the surgery; these levels significantly decreased 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Conclusion MMP and NGAL levels could represent a marker of aneurysmal disease, and their plasma evaluation could help physicians to stratify the risk of complications in patients with an AVF. PMID:28352747

  19. Central vasomotor failure in a patient with medulla arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hwung; Lo, Yuk-Keung; Lin, Yuh-Te; Li, Jie-Yuan; Lai, Ping-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen

    2006-09-01

    We report on the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from hiccup, dysphagia and unsteady gait for three months. He was diagnosed with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula in medulla with retrograde perimedullary vein drainage. He developed quadriplegia, persistent shock status and symptomatic bradycardia immediately after a conventional cerebral angiography study. After excluding cardiogenic, hypovolemic, anaphylactic and septic shock, central vasomotor failure caused by venous thrombosis of the lesion was considered. The patient's central vasomotor failure recovered after continuous dopamine infusion treatment for 42 days. We concluded that venous hypertension with venous thrombosis in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a major vasomotor center in the brainstem, was the lesion site. In our case, vasomotor dysfunction caused by an RVLM lesion related to venous thrombosis is considered as causative.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Vertebro-Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Briganti, F.; Tedeschi, E.; Leone, G.; Marseglia, M.; Cicala, D.; Giamundo, M.; Napoli, M.; Caranci, F.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes endovascular approaches for occlusion of vertebro-vertebral arteriovenous fistula (W-AVF) in a series of three cases and a review of the literature. Complete neuroimaging assessment, including CT, MR and DSA was performed in three patients (two female, one male) with W-AVF. Based on DSA findings, the W-AVF were occluded by endovascular positioning of detachable balloons (case 1), coils (case 2), or a combination of both (case 3) with parent artery patency in two out of three cases. In this small series, endovascular techniques for occlusion of W-AVF were safe and effective methods of treatment. To date, there are no guidelines on the best treatment for W-AVF. Detachable balloons, endovascular coiling, combined embolization procedures could all be considered well-tolerated treatments. PMID:23859293

  1. Physical examination: how to examine the arm with arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Apóstolo, João Luís; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta; Martins, Maria Manuela; Dias, Vanessa Filipa

    2013-04-01

    Physical examination has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). It should be initiated at the stage prior to the construction of the AVF and continue in its accomplishment, maturation, and subsequent use in the treatment of hemodialysis. Nurses should incorporate the physical examination in their practices, in order to preserve the vascular net of patients and assist in the recognition of complications of AVF. It is intended to describe aspects of the physical examination that enable the identification of the AVF complications including: infection, accessory veins, venous stenosis, steal syndrome, high-output cardiac failure, and venous hypertension. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Rare giant traumatic cervical arteriovenous fistula in neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Douglas G; Alleyne, Cargill H

    2012-06-28

    Arteriovenous fistulas can rarely occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. These lesions typically result from traumatic insult to the dysplastic parent artery. The damaged artery forms abnormal connections with nearby paraspinal and epidural venous structures. Surgical treatment of these lesions can be extremely challenging given the proximity to the spinal cord and the ability of the fistula to recruit vessels from adjacent vascular structures. A 29-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 and a motor vehicle collision 2 years earlier presented with gait difficulty, lower extremity spasticity and neck and arm pain. Her investigation revealed a giant cervical vertebral arteriovenous fistula. The fistula was successfully treated in multiple stages using all endovascular techniques including detachable coils, stents and glue embolisation. Reduction in flow and improvement in symptoms are reasonable goals in this specific rare subgroup of complex cervical arteriovenous fistulae.

  3. Single center experience with treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Neriman; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Goerike, Sophia Luise; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Kleist, Bernadette; Stein, Klaus-Peter; Gembruch, Oliver; Sandalcioglu, Ibrahim Erol; Wanke, Isabel; Sure, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are rare pathologies with a yearly incidence of 5-10 new cases/million, constituting 60-80 % of spinal arteriovenous malformations. Clinical symptoms include progressive paraparesis, paresthesias, bladder, and bowel disturbances. The pathophysiology of SDAVFs is not well elucidated. Microneurosurgery and endovascular techniques are established treatment modalities for permanent fistula occlusion, which are oftentimes accompanied by an amelioration of neurological deficits in the long run. Here, we report our interdisciplinary neurosurgical/neuroradiological management strategy of SDAVFs in 32 patients who were evaluated retrospectively. We focused on clinical presentation, microneurosurgical and interventional technique, early, and late neurological results. Quality of life (QoL) was additionally assessed in 12 patients at last follow-up. We discuss the results against the background of the current literature. Our series and the literature indicate that clinical outcome after treatment of SDAVF is favorable in general. Both neurosurgical and neurointerventional therapies appear to be safe and effective, but short-term neurological deterioration after the intervention constitutes an as-of-yet unsolved problem. Beyond age and preoperative neurological state, presence of comorbidities had a significant influence on neurological outcome in our study sample. Self-assessed physical and mental QoL at long-term follow-up was reduced in quite a number of patients and was associated with a poorer neurological result as well as presence of comorbidities. The patients' perspective in terms of QoL was first investigated in this study, but further research on QoL and psychosocial impairment of SDAVF patients is needed to enable individualized counseling and rehabilitation strategies.

  4. Transarterial Embolization of a Cervical Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S.A.; Lassig, J.P.; Nicol, E.; Thompson, B.G.; Gemmete, J.J.; Gandhi, D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of a 75-year-old man who presented with acute onset of headache and subarachnoid hemorrhage and initial cerebral angiography was deemed "negative". In retrospect, a faint contrast collection was present adjacent to the right vertebral artery at the C1 level suspicious for a small dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF). Follow-up angiography with selective microcatheter injections of the right vertebral artery and C1 radicular artery confirmed a complex dAVF with characteristically specific venous drainage patterns associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage presentation. Subsequently, the cervical dAVF was treated with superselective glue embolization resulting in complete occlusion. Cervical dAVFs are extremely rare vascular causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both diagnostic angiography and endovascular treatment of these lesions can be challenging, especially in an emergent setting, requiring selective evaluation of bilateral vertebral arteries and careful attention to their cervical segments. Although only a single prior case of a cervical dAVF presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage has been successfully treated with embolization, modern selective transarterial techniques may allow easier detection and treatment of subtle pathologic arteriovenous connections. PMID:20569588

  5. Endophthalmitis: a rare complication of arteriovenous fistula infection.

    PubMed

    Desai, Madhav; Rapoor, Ram; Gudithi, Swarna Latha; Kumar, Ravi; Prasad, Neela; Dakshinamurty, Kaligotla Venkata

    2008-04-01

    Vascular access infection is a frequent problem in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Infection of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is less common than dialysis catheter-associated infection. Previous case reports described endophthalmitis secondary to hemodialysis catheter-related infection, but not secondary to native AVF infection. We report a rare patient of endophthalmitis as a metastatic infection of AVF cannulation site abscess. A 19-year-old girl on maintenance hemodialysis for the past 2 years has presented with a history of fever, chills, and rigor of 3-days duration and painful dimness of vision in the left eye of 1-night duration. It was followed by redness of the eye, photophobia, and ocular discharge. On examination, the patient was febrile with an abscess near cannulation site of AVF. There was no perception of light in the left eye, conjunctiva was congested, cornea was clear, hypopyon present, and pupil was mid-dilated, not reacting to light. Lens was clear. Vitreitis and exudative retinal detachment was present. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from blood, pus from AVF abscess and vitreous fluid. Diagnosis of endophthalmitis was confirmed by B-scan ultrasound. She was treated with both intravenous and intraocular antibiotics and drainage of pus from AVF abscess and therapeutic vitrectomy. Though arteriovenous abscess responded to sensitive antibiotics and drainage, vision has not improved much. Strict aseptic precautions during regular AVF cannulation are required. Lapses may lead to loss of vision apart from described complications like access closure, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis.

  6. Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation and Aspirin Use on Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Patients Requiring Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Irish, Ashley B; Viecelli, Andrea K; Hawley, Carmel M; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Pascoe, Elaine M; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Badve, Sunil V; Mori, Trevor A; Cass, Alan; Kerr, Peter G; Voss, David; Ong, Loke-Meng; Polkinghorne, Kevan R

    2017-02-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients requiring hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistulae are preferred over synthetic grafts and central venous catheters due to superior long-term outcomes and lower health care costs, but increasing their use is limited by early thrombosis and maturation failure. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) have pleiotropic effects on vascular biology and inflammation and aspirin impairs platelet aggregation, which may reduce access failure. To determine whether fish oil supplementation (primary objective) or aspirin use (secondary objective) is effective in reducing arteriovenous fistula failure. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular Access Outcomes in Renal Disease (FAVOURED) study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that recruited participants with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease from 2008 to 2014 at 35 dialysis centers in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Participants were observed for 12 months after arteriovenous fistula creation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive fish oil (4 g/d) or matching placebo. A subset (n = 406) was also randomized to receive aspirin (100 mg/d) or matching placebo. Treatment started 1 day prior to surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fistula failure, a composite of fistula thrombosis and/or abandonment and/or cannulation failure, at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Of 1415 eligible participants, 567 were randomized (359 [63%] male, 298 [53%] white, 264 [47%] with diabetes; mean [SD] age, 54.8 [14.3] y). The same proportion of fistula failures occurred in the fish oil and placebo arms (128 of 270 [47%] vs 125 of 266 [47%]; relative risk [RR] adjusted for aspirin use, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.23; P = .78). Fish oil did not reduce fistula thrombosis (60 [22%] vs 61 [23%]; RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0

  7. Clinical Analysis of Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Comparision of Autogenous Arterioveonus Fistula & Arteriovenous Prosthetic Graft

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-Sil; Kim, Jun-Chul; Cho, Ji-Hyung; Kong, Joon-Hyuk; Park, Chang-Ryul

    2011-01-01

    Background Mature autogenous arteriovenous fistulas have better long term patency and require fewer secondary interventions compared to arteriovenous prosthetic graft. Our Study evaluated vascular patency rates and incidence of interventions in autogenous arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. Material and Methods A total of 166 vascular access operations were performed in 153 patients between December 2002 and November 2009. Thirty seven caeses were excluded due to primary access failure and loss of follow-up. One group of 92 autogenous arterioveous fistulas and the other group of 37 arteriovenous prosthetic grafts were evaluated retrospectively. Primary and secondary patency rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The primary patency rate (84%, 67%, 51% vs. 51%, 22%, 9% at 1, 3, 5 year; p=0.0000) and secondary patency rate (96%, 88%, 68% vs. 88%, 65%, 16% at 1. 3, 5 year; p=0.0009) were better in autogenous fistula group than prosthetic graft group. Interventions to maintain secondary patency were required in 23% of the autogenous fistula group (average 0.06 procedures/patient/year) and 65% of prosthetic graft group (average 0.21 procedures/patient/year). So the autogenous fistula group had fewer intervention rate than prosthetic graft group (p=0.01) The risk factor of primary patency was diabetus combined with ischemic heart disease and the secondary patency's risk factor was age. Conclusion Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas showed better performance compared to prosthetic grafts in terms of primary & secondary patency and incidence of interventions. PMID:22263120

  8. Transarterial venous sinus occlusion of dural arteriovenous fistulas using ONYX.

    PubMed

    Torok, Collin M; Nogueira, Raul G; Yoo, Albert J; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Hirsch, Joshua A; Stapleton, Christopher J; Patel, Aman B; Rabinov, James D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case series of transarterial venous sinus occlusion for dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. From 2006 to 2012, 11 patients with DAVF of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses were treated with transarterial closure of the affected venous sinus using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (ONYX). The consecutive retrospective cohort included six female and five male patients with an age range of 30-79. Patients presented with stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, seizure, headache, focal neurologic deficit or cognitive change. Lesions were categorized as Cognard II a + b (n = 5) or Cognard II b (n = 6). Four of this latter group consisted of isolated sinus segments. Selection criteria for dural sinus occlusion included direct multi-hole fistulas involving a broad surface in length or circumference of the sinus wall. External carotid artery (ECA) branches were directly embolized when considered safe. High-risk arterial supply from ICA, PICA, AICA or ECA cranial nerve branches were closed via retrograde approach during sinus occlusion. DAVF closure was accomplished in all 11 patients with a total of 17 embolization procedures using ONYX. High-risk arterial collaterals were closed via artery-artery or artery-sinus-artery embolization. The vein of Labbe was spared in the four cases with initial antegrade flow. No neurologic complications occurred, and DAVF closures were durable on three-month angiography. Transarterial closure of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Complex Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula and Ruptured Aneurysm in Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Tori C.; Manness, Wayne K; Hershey, Beverly L.; Yazdi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The objective and importance of this study was to describe the challenges encountered with treating a high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and ruptured aneurysm in a patient with life-threatening hemorrhage. A 36-year-old female with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented 2 weeks after uneventful cesarean section with a rapidly expanding pulsatile neck mass. Angiography demonstrated a complex left vertebral AVF and multiple associated vertebral artery aneurysms. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed using a retrograde and antegrade approach to occlude the fistulas and trap the ruptured aneurysm, successfully treating the acute hemorrhage. Subsequent definitive therapy was accomplished utilizing a combined neurointerventional and neurosurgical strategy of direct-puncture acrylic embolization and ligation of the vertebral artery. Recent advances in neurointerventional technology allow novel approaches in the primary and/or preoperative treatment of complex vascular lesions such as those seen in NF1. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5p40-b PMID:17171099

  10. Dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction with perimedullary venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, M; Scazzeri, F; Prosetti, D; Ferrito, G; Salvi, F; Quilici, N

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging showed swelling and diffuse signal changes in the spinal cord in two patients with progressive myelopathy. MR angiography revealed slow-flow perimedullary vessels extending to the skull base, which are consistent with drainage vessels of a dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction. This fistula was subsequently seen in both patients on selective arteriograms of the ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries.

  11. [Arteriovenous fistula of the A. vertebralis after catheterization of V. jugularis interna (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beeger, R; Grabbe, E; Vogel, H

    1982-09-01

    The article reports on an arteriovenous fistula between the a. vertebralis and the v. vertebralis with blood flowing off via the v. vertebralis, v. cervicalis profunda and v. brachiocephalica. The fistula occurred after application of a central venous catheter to the v. jugularis interna.

  12. Selective digital venous hypertension: A rare complication of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, L.C.; Manstein, C.; Somers, R.; Cope, C.

    1983-04-01

    We report and document angiographically a case of selective venous hypertension, masquerading as an infection, which involved the three middle digits of the right hand in a patient with an access arteriovenous (AV) fistula. This complication arose following hemodialysis and was resolved after resection of the right radial artery at the site of AV fistula and re-anastomosis.

  13. The Impact of Vein Mechanical Compliance on Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, George E; Barnes, Rachel; Fagan, Michael; Chetter, Ian C

    2016-04-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are the preferred access for hemodialysis but suffer a high early failure rate. The aim of this study was to determine how venous distensibility, as measured in vitro, relates to early outcomes of AVF formed with the sampled vein. Ethical approval was obtained for all aspects of this study. During AVF formation a circumferential segment of the target vein was sampled. Mechanical stress testing of the venous segments was undertaken using a dynamic mechanical analyzer, with progressive stress loading at 2 N/min to a maximum of 10 N or until sample disruption. Stress-strain curves were obtained for vein samples and Young's modulus (YM) calculated. Duplex assessment of the fistulae was undertaken at 30 days. Thirty patients consented to participate with 29 samples obtained for analysis. Statistical comparison of YM demonstrated no relationship with common cardiovascular risk factors or dialysis status. Subject age greater than 65 was the only patient factor which showed a significant difference in YM (P = 0.05). Furthermore, a negative correlation was confirmed between age and YM (Pearson's r = -0.465, P < 0.05). Nine of the 29 subjects suffered an early AVF failure. Mann-Whitney U testing for differences in distribution reported that YM was significantly higher in those fistulas which failed (P < 0.005). Reduced venous compliance appears to result in higher failure rates of AVFs. With the advancement of clinical tools such as speckle tracing ultrasound identification of vessel compliance in vivo may produce valuable additional information for clinicians planning AVF surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maintenance Hemodialysis Using Native Arteriovenous Fistula in a Patient with Severe Generalized Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takayasu; Ishikawa, Eiji; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Mika; Murata, Tomohiro; Isoda, Kenichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure and infectious disease are strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with severe generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB-sev gen). However, it is reportedly difficult to introduce hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We encountered a 32-year-old man with RDEB-sev gen in whom hemodialysis with a native AVF was introduced that favorably affected his long-term survival. This patient eventually died because of cachexia related to the recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma 51 months after hemodialysis introduction. We believe that in this patient, the frequency of vascular access troubles related to infection or reduction of blood flow was probably low as a result of hemodialysis with his native AVF. Thus, it seems likely that patients with RDEB-sev gen with end stage kidney disease who are on hemodialysis can be successfully managed with a native AVF. PMID:27722157

  15. Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula in the arm in an infant: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Kotagal, Meera; Reiss, Aya; Vo, Nghia; Feldman, Kenneth; Drugas, George; Avansino, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are well described in adults; however, this complication is rarely described and reported in infants. We report the case of a 3-month-old infant with complicated gastroschisis requiring multiple venipunctures who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of traumatic arteriovenous fistula. Ultrasound imaging confirmed the presence of a wide-necked AVF between the brachial artery and vein. The fistula was surgically repaired. This case report describes the clinical imaging and treatment options for infants with iatrogenic AVF. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula in the Arm in an Infant: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kotagal, Meera; Reiss, Aya; Vo, Nghia; Feldman, Kenneth; Drugas, George; Avansino, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are well described in adults; however, this complication is rarely described and reported in infants. We report the case of a 3-month-old infant with complicated gastroschisis requiring multiple venipunctures who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of traumatic arteriovenous fistula. Ultrasound imaging confirmed the presence of a wide-necked AVF between the brachial artery and vein. The fistula was surgically repaired. This case report describes the clinical imaging and treatment options for infants with iatrogenic AVF. PMID:22102366

  17. Orbital arteriovenous fistula with symptoms contralateral to the arterial supply. A case report.

    PubMed

    Frankefort, N; Salu, P; Van Tussenbroek, F

    2005-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas presenting signs and symptoms contralateral to the arterial supply of the fistulas are not uncommon. We describe a thoroughly documented case of an orbital arteriovenous fistula with symptoms exclusively contralateral to the arterial source, a rarer entity. A carotid angiography performed on a patient who presented a red chemotic and proptotic left eye showed a shunt between the meningeal branches of the right internal carotid artery and a left orbital vein.

  18. Distal Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula with Iliac Vein Thrombosis after Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk Sil; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Hyun Seok; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Choe, Michael SungPil

    2017-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman arrived at our emergency department, complaining of severe pain and swelling of her left leg. She had slipped down stairs and injured on her left leg about 3 months ago. Computed tomography angiography showed left distal superficial femoral artery’s pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula and thrombotic occlusion of left common iliac vein. We decided to do endovascular intervention due to severe venous hypertension and chronic inflammation around the fistula. The femoral arteriovenous fistula was closed via stent-graft (7 mm×5, 9 mm×5 cm) deployment. The occluded left iliac vein was reopened by nitinol metal stenting (12 mm×4 cm, 14 mm×4 cm). The authors report a very rare case of femoral arteriovenous fistula combined with iliac vein thrombosis developed after a blunt trauma. PMID:28377911

  19. Distal Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula with Iliac Vein Thrombosis after Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Sil; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Hyun Seok; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Choe, Michael SungPil

    2017-03-01

    A 39-year-old woman arrived at our emergency department, complaining of severe pain and swelling of her left leg. She had slipped down stairs and injured on her left leg about 3 months ago. Computed tomography angiography showed left distal superficial femoral artery's pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula and thrombotic occlusion of left common iliac vein. We decided to do endovascular intervention due to severe venous hypertension and chronic inflammation around the fistula. The femoral arteriovenous fistula was closed via stent-graft (7 mm×5, 9 mm×5 cm) deployment. The occluded left iliac vein was reopened by nitinol metal stenting (12 mm×4 cm, 14 mm×4 cm). The authors report a very rare case of femoral arteriovenous fistula combined with iliac vein thrombosis developed after a blunt trauma.

  20. A comparison between one-stage and two-stage procedures for the creation of brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Sheldrake, Ian L; Rowlands, Timothy E

    2015-06-01

    Vascular access is essential to end-stage renal failure patients requiring haemodialysis. Many patients require multiple fistula formation attempts in order to gain good access, making secondary and tertiary fistula options vital. Brachiobasilic fistulas are well established, but there is little evidence to compare the different surgical techniques in creating them. This study aimed to determine the patency and complication rates associated with these procedures. Retrospective data was collected by reviewing case notes to determine fistula survival time and surgical setting. Patency, complications and required interventions were recorded for each group at three time intervals. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival for each cohort. 37 brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistulas were created in 35 patients. 17 fistulas were one-stage procedures; 20 fistulas were made in two stages. Survival proportions were measured as 70.6%, 58.8% and 51.5% for the one-stage procedure and 95%, 90% and 78% for the two-stage procedure at 1 month, 1 year and 2 years respectively with p = 0.0385. Native brachiobasilic fistulas have advantages over prosthetic grafts. There are technical aspects which make the two-staged procedure preferable, including being more amenable to a day case surgery setting. Despite this, there is a lack of relative outcome differences in the literature, thus necessitating further work. Our data suggests creation of brachiobasilic fistulas using a two-staged procedure may result in improved patency rates. Complication rates were found to be statistically equivocal, with fistuloplasties and embolectomy shown to be effective in fistula salvage. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Colovesical Fistula After Renal Transplantation: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Imafuku, A; Tanaka, K; Marui, Y; Sawa, N; Ubara, Y; Takaichi, K; Ishii, Y; Tomikawa, S

    2015-09-01

    Colovesical fistula is a relatively rare condition that is primarily related to diverticular disease. There are few reports of colovesical fistula after renal transplantation. We report of a 53-year-old man who was diagnosed with colovesical fistula after recurrent urinary tract infection, 5 months after undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Laparoscopic partial resection of the sigmoid colon with the use of the Hartmann procedure was performed. Six months after that surgery, there was no evidence of recurrent urinary tract infection and the patient's renal graft function was preserved. Physicians should keep colovesical fistula in mind as a cause of recurrent urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients, especially in those with a history of diverticular disease.

  2. Radio-median cubital / radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula at elbow to prevent vascular steal syndrome associated with brachiocephalic fistula: Review of 320 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anant; Jha, Mrigank S.; Singla, Manish; Gupta, Nitin; Raina, Pamposh; Dubey, Deepak; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) at wrist is the vascular access of choice for dialysis. In the absence of a suitable vein at the wrist, a brachiocephalic fistula at elbow is usually constructed. In order to avoid the complication of vascular steal syndrome associated with the brachiocephalic fistula, an alternative operative technique involving the creation of radio-median cubital vein / radiocephalic fistula at elbow was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Between January 1990 and October 2005, 320 patients underwent creation of radio-median cubital vein / radiocephalic AVF at elbow as a primary procedure or following failure of a fistula at the wrist. A transverse skin incision was made 4cm below the elbow crease, centering in line with the brachial artery pulsation. The median cubital vein / cephalic vein was anastomosed to the radial artery in end to side fashion. The surgical complications and patency of the fistulae were analyzed in the immediate and late postoperative period. Results: Mean operative time was 55 ± 7.15 min. There were no major intraoperative complications. Immediate patency and a palpable distal radial pulse were present in all the patients. Mean time to fistula maturation was 26 ± 5.2 days. No patient developed a vascular steal syndrome at a median follow-up of 54 months (range 12–168 months) Early fistula failure was seen in 16 (5%) patients whereas eight (2.5%) fistulas failed at a later date. Pseudoaneurysm of the arterialized vein at the fistula site developed in only one (0.3%) patient. Pseudoaneurysm proximal to the anastomosis developed in three (0.9%) patients. Sixteen (5%) patients requested for closure of the fistula following successful renal transplant due to unsightly dilated veins and continuous noisy murmur disturbing their sleep. Conclusions: The radio-median cubital vein / radiocephalic AV fistula at elbow is safe and is a better vascular access procedure for

  3. Arteriovenous fistula for long-term venous access for boys with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Walter J; Valentino, Leonard A; Bonilla, Ana Silvia; Goncharova, Irina; Taylor, Audrey; Pooley, Thomas A; Jacobs, Chad E

    2007-05-01

    Hemophilia is a sex-linked condition affecting about 1 of every 5000 males in the United States. The management of children with hemophilia can be improved with regular intravenous infusion of factor VIII or IX, thus preventing crippling and sometimes fatal hemorrhage. Maintaining this vital intravenous access is often hampered by gradual loss of superficial veins or repeated central catheter sepsis and thrombosis. This study reviewed an experience with arteriovenous fistula in selected hemophilia patients with limited venous access. Consecutive patients operated on between October 2000 and July 2006 for venous access with the creation of an arteriovenous fistula were reviewed. They were selected because of repeated problems with other venous access. Patency, ease of use, duplex scan derived brachial artery diameter, and arm length were assessed. During a 69-month period, 10 arteriovenous fistulas (five brachial artery-basilic vein fistulas, 5 brachial artery-cephalic vein fistulas) were created for nine patients. The patients were a median age of 5.5 years (range, 1 to 27 years), and all were <13 except the 27-year-old patient. There were no postoperative hematomas requiring evacuation. One arteriovenous fistula failed to mature and was redone in the opposite arm, which subsequently occluded after 13 months. Of the mature fistulas, patency was 100% at 1 year, 80% (4/5) at 3 years, and 75% (3/4) at 4 years, with mean follow-up of 22 months. Brachial artery diameter increased in the involved arm by a ratio of 1.95 (range, 1.51 to 2.5) compared with the opposite arm. Arm length disparity was increased by 0.5 cm (range, 0.8 to 1.5 cm) in the involved arm. All fistulas allowed good access at home by a care provider. For hemophilia patients with compromised venous access, arteriovenous fistulas provide good early patency. Brachial artery diameter and arm length require continued follow-up.

  4. Association between Preoperative Vascular Function and Postoperative Arteriovenous Fistula Development.

    PubMed

    Allon, Michael; Greene, Tom; Dember, Laura M; Vita, Joseph A; Cheung, Alfred K; Hamburg, Naomi M; Imrey, Peter B; Kaufman, James S; Robbin, Michelle L; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Terry, Christi M; Umphrey, Heidi R; Feldman, Harold I

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure is the primary cause of dialysis vascular access dysfunction. To evaluate whether preoperative vascular functional properties predict postoperative AVF measurements, patients enrolled in the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study underwent up to five preoperative vascular function tests (VFTs): flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, and venous occlusion plethysmography. We used mixed effects multiple regression analyses to relate each preoperative VFT to ultrasound measurements of AVF blood flow rate and venous diameter at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after AVF placement. After controlling for AVF location, preoperative ultrasound measurements, and demographic factors (age, sex, race, and dialysis status), greater NMD associated with greater 6-week AVF blood flow rate and AVF diameter (per absolute 10% difference in NMD: change in blood flow rate =14.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.7% to 25.3%; P<0.01; change in diameter =0.45 mm; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.65 mm; P<0.001). Greater FMD also associated with greater increases in 6-week AVF blood flow rate and AVF diameter (per absolute 10% difference in FMD: change in blood flow rate =11.6%; 95% CI, 0.6% to 23.9%; P=0.04; change in diameter =0.31 mm; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.57 mm; P=0.02). None of the remaining VFT parameters exhibited consistent statistically significant relationships with both postoperative AVF blood flow rate and diameter. In conclusion, preoperative NMD and FMD positively associated with changes in 6-week AVF blood flow rate and diameter, suggesting that native functional arterial properties affect AVF development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Surgical management of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb

    PubMed Central

    Benes, L.; Kappus, C.; Sure, U.; Farhoud, A.; Bien, S.; Bertalanffy, H.

    2006-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas located in the vicinity of the jugular foramen are complex vascular malformations and belong to the most challenging skull base lesions to treat. The authors comprehensively analyze multiple features in a series of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb. Four patients who underwent surgery via the transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas around the jugular foramen were retrospectively reviewed. Previously, endovascular treatment was attempted in all patients. The success of the surgical treatment was examined with postoperative angiography. Complete obliteration of the dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was achieved in three patients, and significant flow reduction in one individual. All patients had a good postoperative outcome, and only one experienced mild hypoglossal nerve palsy. Despite extensive bone drilling, an occipitocervical fusion was necessary in only one patient with bilateral lesions. The use of an individually tailored transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas at the region of the jugular foramen is most effective. This approach allows for complete obliteration of the connecting arterial feeders, and removal of bony structures containing pathological vessels. PMID:17109181

  6. The middle arm arteriovenous fistula is an additional option to expand autogenous hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Capurro, Federica; De Mauri, Andreana; Navino, Carlo; David, Paola; Chiarinotti, Doriana; De Leo, Martino

    2012-01-01

    The native arteriovenous fistula is the gold standard for hemodialysis access. Unfortunately, the wrist fistula is often not practical and the upper arm fistula is hindered by several complications. The aim of this study is to assess the safety of the middle-arm fistula as additional native access. We reviewed and compared the patency rates at 12, 48, and 60 months of distal, middle, and upper arm fistula performed from January 2003 to December 2008. For diabetic and old patients we compared distal and middle-arm fistulas. Of 273 native access, 149 (54.6%) were distal, 92 (33.7%) middle-arm, and 32 (11.7%) upper fistula. Patency rates were 81%, 58%, and 52% for distal, 85%, 69%, and 69% for middle-arm, and 82%, 46%, and 29% for upper arm fistula (P NS). Patency rates were 92%, 70%, and 54% in middle-arm fistula as first access and 80%, 71%, and 71% in middle-arm fistula as a rescue access (P NS). Among patients > 75 years patency rates were 78%, 62%, and 62% for distal and 87%, 67%, and 67% for middle-arm fistula. Among diabetic subjects patency rates were 81%, 58%, and 58% for middle-arm and 65%, 57%, and 57% for distal fistula at 12, 48, and 60 months (P NS) respectively. A middle-arm fistula is as safe as a distal fistula among dialyzed patients, even diabetic and elderly. This could be considered a reliable option to expand native accesses.

  7. Giant extramedullary arteriovenous fistula supplied by the anterior spinal artery: treatment by detachable balloons.

    PubMed

    Riché, M C; Scialfa, G; Gueguen, B; Merland, J J

    1983-01-01

    A case of a large extramedullary arteriovenous fistula in a young man, which was deemed inoperable, is described. The fistula was mainly supplied by the anterior spinal artery and was responsible for a progressive myeloradicular syndrome. Successful treatment with detachable balloons was carried out. Along with this case report, a review is made of the different types of extramedullary arteriovenous fistulas and their treatment based upon 11 cases seen at Lariboisière Hospital: type 1 is a plain small fistula where embolization is contraindicated; type 2 shows an enlarged anterior spinal artery with dysplastic vein and may be embolized with solid particles; type 3 is a very large multipediculated fistula where the best treatment seems to be detachable balloons. The indications for using detachable balloons for temporary occlusion and for definitive treatment are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the possibility of detaching balloons without the need for a coaxial catheter.

  8. Is low magnesium a clue to arteriovenous fistula complications in hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Stolic, Radojica V; Jovanovic, Aleksandar N; Trajkovic, Goran Z; Kostic, Mirjana M; Odalovic, Andrijana M; Sovtic, Sasa R; Sipic, Maja V; Pajovic, Slavica D; Sojevic-Timotijevic, Zorica N

    2016-05-01

    Magnesium insufficiency is a pro-atherogenic factor involved in endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and vascular calcification. Our aim was to examine the role of magnesium in the development of arteriovenous fistula complications in hemodialysis. This was a retrospective clinical investigation of data from 88 patients who were divided into two groups: those with and without arteriovenous fistula complications. We examined the influence of sex, demographics, and clinical and laboratory parameters. The existence of fistula stenosis was determined by measuring Doppler flow, while B-mode ultrasound was used to detect plaques and evaluate the carotid artery intima-media thickness. Patients with arteriovenous fistula complications had significantly higher leukocyte counts (p = 0.03), platelet counts (p = 0.03), phosphate concentrations (p = 0.044), and alkaline phosphatase concentrations (p = 0.04). Patients without complications had significantly greater blood flow through the arteriovenous fistula (p < 0.0005), higher magnesium concentrations (p = 0.004), and a lower carotid artery intima-media thickness (p = 0.037). The magnesium level was inversely correlated with leukocyte (p = 0.028) and platelet (p = 0.016) counts. The magnesium concentration was significantly lower in patients with carotid artery plaques (p = 0.03). Multiple linear regression, using magnesium as the dependent variable in patients with arteriovenous fistula complications, indicated statistically significant correlations with platelet (p = 0.005) and leukocyte (p = 0.027) counts and carotid plaques (p = 0.045). Hypomagnesemia is a significant pro-atherogenic factor and an important predictor of arteriovenous fistula complications.

  9. Brain Abscesses Associated with Asymptomatic Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-sook; Kwon, Jeong-taik

    2017-01-01

    Brain abscess commonly occurs secondary to an adjacent infection (mostly in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses) or due to hematogenous spread from a distant infection or trauma. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal direct communications between the pulmonary artery and vein. We present two cases of brain abscess associated with asymptomatic pulmonary AVF. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with a headache and cognitive impairment that aggravated 10 days prior. An magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a brain abscess with severe edema in the right frontal lobe. We performed a craniotomy and abscess removal. Bacteriological culture proved negative. Her chest computed tomography (CT) showed multiple AVFs. Therapeutic embolization of multiple pulmonary AVFs was performed and antibiotics were administered for 8 weeks. A 45-year-old woman presented with a 7-day history of progressive left hemiparesis. She had no remarkable past medical history or family history. On admission, blood examination showed a white blood cell count of 6290 cells/uL and a high sensitive C-reactive protein of 2.62 mg/L. CT and MR imaging with MR spectroscopy revealed an enhancing lesion involving the right motor and sensory cortex with marked perilesional edema that suggested a brain abscess. A chest CT revealed a pulmonary AVF in the right upper lung. The pulmonary AVF was obliterated with embolization. There needs to consider pulmonary AVF as an etiology of cerebral abscess when routine investigations fail to detect a source. PMID:28061502

  10. Clinical evaluation of an expert system for arteriovenous fistula assessment.

    PubMed

    Chanliau, Jacques; Charasse, Christophe; Rose, Cédric; Béné, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of ionic dialysance in hemodialysis allows early detection of arterio-venous fistula stenosis. One limitation to the practical use of ionic dialysance is that the analysis is very time consuming on a majority of normal cases.The purpose of the study is to evaluate the utility of an expert system reproducing a human analysis and allowing continuous monitoring of the ionic dialysance by helping the physician to focus his or her expertise on the abnormal cases.The method is based on a Bayesian model that analyzes the blood flow rate, the ionic dialysance, and the venous and arterial pressures measured on the extra corporeal circuit.The clinical evaluation was performed on 90 dialysis patients at the hospital dialysis center of Saint Brieux in France with a history of at least four consecutive months of validated recording. The retrospective automated analysis was evaluated in comparison to vascular access problems identified from invasive investigation or treatment. The sensitivity of the automated analysis is 92% with a specificity of 75%.As a conclusion we suggest that this expert system could be used in a continuous vascular access monitoring procedure consisting in a weekly review of the patient population at the dialysis center. The patients with the highest risk score need a further investigation of their historical data and their medical history in order to decide whether or not to perform an invasive intervention.

  11. Permanent arteriovenous fistula or catheter dialysis for heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Roca-Tey, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the most frequent cardiovascular disease associated with chronic kidney disease and represents a high risk for cardiovascular mortality in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. This risk is especially high during the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation period due to the marked hemodynamic changes related to the large increase in the blood flow and also within the first 120 days after HD inception because in this period the highest mortality rate occurs. When planning the vascular access for each incident HF patient, the risk of aggravating HF after AVF creation must be evaluated carefully alongside the risk of catheter-related complications, but avoiding a non-selective 'catheter first' approach for all these patients. HF patients classified within the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I-II and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Stage A-B could initiate HD through a distal arm AVF. High-flow brachial artery-based AVF creation must be avoided because it displays the highest risk of worsening the cardiac function. The decision for AVF creation or tunneled central catheter placement in HF patients classified within the NYHA Class III and the ACC/AHA Stage C must have been individualized according the degree of systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. HF patients with significant reduction in systolic function (ejection fraction lower than 30%) or classified within the NYHA Class IV and the ACC/AHA Stage D, are candidates for tunneled catheter placement to start HD treatment.

  12. Arteriovenous Fistula Development in the First 6 Weeks after Creation

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Tom; Cheung, Alfred K.; Allon, Michael; Berceli, Scott A.; Kaufman, James S.; Allen, Matthew; Imrey, Peter B.; Radeva, Milena K.; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Umphrey, Heidi R.; Young, Carlton J.; Group, For the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the anatomic development of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) during the first 6 weeks after creation by using ultrasonographic (US) measurements in a multicenter hemodialysis fistula maturation study. Materials and Methods Each institutional review board approved the prospective study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. Six hundred and two participants (180 women and 422 men, 459 with upper-arm AVF and 143 with forearm AVF) from seven clinical centers underwent preoperative artery and vein US mapping. AVF draining vein diameter and blood flow rate were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Relationships among US measurements were summarized after using multiple imputation for missing measurements. Results In 55% of forearm AVFs (68 of 124) and 83% of upper-arm AVFs (341 of 411) in surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to 6 weeks, at least 50% of their 6-week blood flow rate measurement was achieved at 1 day. Among surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to week 2, 70% with upper-arm AVFs (302 of 433) and 77% with forearm AVFs (99 of 128) maintained at least 85% of their week 2 flow rate at week 6. Mean AVF diameters of at least 0.40 cm were seen in 85% (389 of 459), 91% (419 of 459), and 87% (401 of 459) of upper-arm AVFs and in 40% (58 of 143), 73% (104 of 143), and 77% (110 of 143) of forearm AVFs at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. One-day and 2-week AVF flow rates and diameters were used to predict 6-week levels, with 2-week prediction of 6-week measures more accurate than those of 1 day (flow rates, R2 = 0.47 and 0.61, respectively; diameters, R2 = 0.49 and 0.82, respectively). Conclusion AVF blood flow rate at 1 day is usually more than 50% of the 6-week blood flow rate. Two-week measurements are more predictive of 6-week diameter and blood flow than those of 1 day. US measurements at 2 weeks may be of value in the early identification of

  13. Arteriovenous Fistula Development in the First 6 Weeks after Creation.

    PubMed

    Robbin, Michelle L; Greene, Tom; Cheung, Alfred K; Allon, Michael; Berceli, Scott A; Kaufman, James S; Allen, Matthew; Imrey, Peter B; Radeva, Milena K; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Umphrey, Heidi R; Young, Carlton J

    2016-05-01

    To assess the anatomic development of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) during the first 6 weeks after creation by using ultrasonographic (US) measurements in a multicenter hemodialysis fistula maturation study. Each institutional review board approved the prospective study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. Six hundred and two participants (180 women and 422 men, 459 with upper-arm AVF and 143 with forearm AVF) from seven clinical centers underwent preoperative artery and vein US mapping. AVF draining vein diameter and blood flow rate were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Relationships among US measurements were summarized after using multiple imputation for missing measurements. In 55% of forearm AVFs (68 of 124) and 83% of upper-arm AVFs (341 of 411) in surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to 6 weeks, at least 50% of their 6-week blood flow rate measurement was achieved at 1 day. Among surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to week 2, 70% with upper-arm AVFs (302 of 433) and 77% with forearm AVFs (99 of 128) maintained at least 85% of their week 2 flow rate at week 6. Mean AVF diameters of at least 0.40 cm were seen in 85% (389 of 459), 91% (419 of 459), and 87% (401 of 459) of upper-arm AVFs and in 40% (58 of 143), 73% (104 of 143), and 77% (110 of 143) of forearm AVFs at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. One-day and 2-week AVF flow rates and diameters were used to predict 6-week levels, with 2-week prediction of 6-week measures more accurate than those of 1 day (flow rates, R(2) = 0.47 and 0.61, respectively; diameters, R(2) = 0.49 and 0.82, respectively). AVF blood flow rate at 1 day is usually more than 50% of the 6-week blood flow rate. Two-week measurements are more predictive of 6-week diameter and blood flow than those of 1 day. US measurements at 2 weeks may be of value in the early identification of fistulas that are unlikely to develop optimally

  14. Brachiobasilic versus brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Koksoy, Cuneyt; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Balci, Deniz; Solak, Tuba; Köse, S Kenan

    2009-01-01

    The most recent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines recommend that the order of preference for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) placement is the radial-cephalic primary AVF, followed by the secondary brachiocephalic (BC) and, if either of these is not viable, then brachiobasilic (BB) AVF should be fashioned. However, there is limited prospective data comparing technical and clinical outcomes of these two approaches. The purpose of our study was to compare outcome, patency, and complication rates in these two autogenous upper arm AV accesses. Between December 2003 and and January 2007, patients (61 male, 39 female) who have lost more distal AVFs were enrolled in the study. After preoperative duplex mapping, patients with patent both basilic and cephalic veins greater than 3 mm of diameter were randomized into BCAVF and BBAVF groups, each group consisting of 50 patients. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia as one-stage procedures. Follow-up data were prospectively collected. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate primary and secondary patency rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analysis was used to find risks for the occurrence of thrombosis. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and preoperative history dialysis access were comparable between groups with the exception of the fact that mean caliber of the basilic veins were larger (4.51 +/- 0.93 mm vs 3.90 +/- 0.1 mm; P = .002). The mean duration of operation was significantly shorter in the BC group compared with the BB group (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the thirty day mortality, wound complications, 24 hour thrombosis, postoperative hemorrhage, maturation, and time to maturation between the groups. Mean follow-up was 43.2 +/- 1.8 months. Primary patency at 1 and 3 years of follow-up was 87% and 81% for the BC group and 86% and 73% for the BB group (P = .7) Secondary patency at one and three year follow-up was 87% and 70% for

  15. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula as consequence of TMJ arthroscopic surgery. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Fernandez, Ana-Belen; Monsalve-Iglesias, Fernando; Roman-Ramos, Maria; Garcia-Medina, Blas

    2016-01-01

    The ocurrence of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula after arthroscopic surgery of TMJ represents an extremely rare event. Specifically, this uncommon complication has been described only in a few case reports. In this light, the most frequent symptoms showed by this disease are thrills, bruits, pulsatile tinnitus, and an expansible vascular mass. Importantly, the severity of these symptoms is also dependent on the vessels involved. With regard to the management, is important to note that the vessel ligation with surgery as well as vessel emolization with endovascular procedures have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these cases. In view of that, the present study describes a case of superficial temporal arteriovenous fistula that arose as a postoperative complication of a bilateral arthroscopic eminoplasty of TMJ. The aim of the present report is to characterize this rare syndrome with the goal of proposing suitable treatments. Key words:Arteriovenous fistula, arthroscopic surgery, eminoplasty of TMJ, temporal vessels. PMID:27398189

  16. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Manifested as Rapid Progressive Dementia Successfully Treated by Endovascular Embolization Only

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Heewon; La, Yun Kyung; Baek, Min Seok; Baik, Kyoungwon; Suh, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with daytime sleepiness at work and indifferent behavior like never before. Two weeks prior to hospital admission, he had episodic memory loss with well preserved remote memory. Brain MRI showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the right lateral transverse sinus with a bilateral thalamic venous infarction. Cerebral angiography confirmed a right transverse sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistula with a feeding artery of the right occipital artery and left posterior meningeal artery. The DAVF was completely eliminated through multiple endovascular interventions. Recently, endovascular treatment has become one of the main therapeutic options to obliterate a fistulous site, which has led to a rapid diagnostic approach and management of DAVFs with high curative rates. We report a rare case of posterior fossa located at a dural arteriovenous fistula that caused rapid progressive dementia and was successfully eliminated through only endovascular treatment. PMID:28316870

  17. Rete mirabile associated with pial arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with literature review.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2017-02-24

    A rete mirabile is a vascular network of intercommunicating small arteries or arterioles that replace the definitive adult artery supplying the brain. It supplies the brain in lower mammals but is not seen in normal human embryological development. A 26-year-old man presented with worsening tinnitus that was interfering with his sleep. On CT and digital subtraction angiography he was found to have a temporal lobe pial arteriovenous fistula with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered open surgical and endovascular treatment options for pial arteriovenous fistula but he refused both and opted for conservative medical management. At 6-month follow-up he continued to have pulsatile tinnitus but was otherwise neurologically normal. We present the first described association of rete mirabile with pial arteriovenous fistula and discuss its clinical presentation and imaging features, with a review of the literature for bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile.

  18. Rete mirabile associated with pial arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with literature review.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2017-02-16

    A rete mirabile is a vascular network of intercommunicating small arteries or arterioles that replace the definitive adult artery supplying the brain. It supplies the brain in lower mammals but is not seen in normal human embryological development. A 26-year-old man presented with worsening tinnitus that was interfering with his sleep. On CT and digital subtraction angiography he was found to have a temporal lobe pial arteriovenous fistula with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered open surgical and endovascular treatment options for pial arteriovenous fistula but he refused both and opted for conservative medical management. At 6-month follow-up he continued to have pulsatile tinnitus but was otherwise neurologically normal. We present the first described association of rete mirabile with pial arteriovenous fistula and discuss its clinical presentation and imaging features, with a review of the literature for bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile.

  19. Dural arteriovenous fistula in the falx cerebri treated with transarterial embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Oda, Masashi; Narumi, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background: A dural arteriovenous fistula in the falx cerebri is a relatively rare lesion, with only two cases reported till date. One was treated with direct surgery, and the other was followed-up conservatively. Advances in catheter design and embolic materials have made safe and curative transarterial embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas possible in the current era. Case Description: We describe a 67-year-old man with left putaminal hemorrhage who was diagnosed with an arteriovenous fistula in the anterior part of the falx cerebri that was treated with curative transarterial glue embolization through the middle meningeal artery by using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Conclusion: Although the procedure was safely performed, understanding the potential risks of the migration of embolic materials into the ophthalmic and anterior cerebral artery system is mandatory. PMID:28144483

  20. Superior maturation and patency of primary brachiocephalic and transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistulae in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hakaim, A G; Nalbandian, M; Scott, T

    1998-01-01

    Primary radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas (RCAVFs) have classically been used for the initiation of dialysis. If a suitable forearm cephalic vein can be demonstrated, it is used to construct such a fistula. However, we have noted a tendency for RCAVF in patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (type I and type II) to remain patent but not mature to the point of cannulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with diabetes who required initial access for hemodialysis at an urban medical center and tertiary Veterans Medical Center underwent creation of an RCAVF (n = 10), brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (BCAVF; n = 22), or transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistula (TBAVF; n = 26). The vein used was determined by physical examination with tourniquet compression. If neither forearm or upper-arm cephalic veins were 2 mm in diameter, a TBAVF was created after venography. Patency was determined by Kaplan-Meier estimate; differences between groups were assessed by Fisher's exact test. The 70% rate of nonmaturation of RCAVFs was significantly greater than the 27% rate for BCAVFs and 0% for TBAVFs (p < 0.05). The 33% cumulative primary patency rate at 18 months for RCAVFs was significantly less than 78% for BCAVFs and 79% for TBAVFs (p < 0.001). Within and between groups, there were no significant differences in age, gender, aspirin use, history of congestive heart failure, erythropoietin use, hematocrit level, history of peripheral vascular disease, or mortality rate. In patients with renal failure and a history of diabetes, both primary BCAVFs and TBAVFs demonstrate significantly greater maturation and increased primary cumulative patency rates compared with RCAVFs; therefore, these autogenous conduits are considered to be optimal in this group of patients. Whether the discrepancy in lower-arm vein maturation is a result of a lack of compensatory increase in radial arterial flow or an intrinsic defect in the lower

  1. An unusual presentation of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the sphenoparietal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Andrew; Plaha, Puneet; Byrne, James

    2014-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) are a rare form of intracranial arteriovenous malformation. We present the case of a patient who presented in a previously undescribed manner with facial swelling and bruising initially misdiagnosed as cellulitis. He was found subsequently to have DAVFs of the sphenoparietal sinus that had hemorrhaged. The rarity of DAVFs at this location may account for this unique presentation. Successful treatment was achieved by transarterial embolization. PMID:24632907

  2. Successful creation of arteriovenous fistulas in nonuremic patients with heparin and aspirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Flye, M W; Mundinger, G H; Schulz, S C; Karsh, J; Van Kammen, D P

    1981-12-01

    From November 1977 through June 1979, 26 of 28 nonuremic patients had forearm arteriovenous fistulas successfully created for dialysis, lymphapheresis or vascular access. To improve patency, aspirin and heparin therapy was begun the night before operation and continued postoperatively in all except one patient. No major change in coagulation parameters resulted from this treatment. Twenty-five radial artery to cephalic vein fistulas were created in 23 patients, brachial artery to basilic vein fistulas in 3 patients, and 8 mm polytetrafluoroethylene brachial artery to basilic vein loop grafts in two patients. Early fistula failures (within 11 days) required thrombectomy once in four patients and twice in another patient. A sixth patient was not given heparin or aspirin and required multiple thrombectomies before the graft was removed because of infection. One other patient refused further surgery after two unsuccessful attempts to create an arteriovenous fistula. In the remaining 26 patients, the fistulas have been successfully maintained, and in 18 patients more than 214 dialysis or lymphapheresis treatments have been performed without problems. The successful establishment of arteriovenous fistulas in nonuremic patients has been achieved by giving aspirin and low dose heparin therapy, which appears to be an integral step in maintaining patency.

  3. High-flow Paraspinal Osseous Epidural Arteriovenous Fistula. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yuo; Suzuki, Mitimasa; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Shimoji, Keigo; Komura, Shinji

    2008-06-03

    We report the clinical and neuroradiological imaging findings of a 26-year-old man who presented with lumbago related to high flow paraspinal osseous epidural arteriovenous fistulas in the thoracic spine. This case was of particular interest because of his exclusive epidural and paraspinal venous drainage and the presence of a prominent dilated venous pouch in the spinal canal. Angiography demonstrated multiple high flow arteriovenous fistulas with an osseous nidus. Transarterial glue embolization was performed by multistage sessions. Clinical symptoms improved dramatically. The unusual features of this case have important implications for therapeutic management.

  4. Percutaneous Endoluminal Stent-Graft Repair of an Old Traumatic Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan; Elliott, Bruce M.

    1996-03-15

    A stent-graft was custom made to close a high-flow traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the left superficial femoral artery, present for 30 years, in a 60-year-old man with congestive heart failure and ischemic ulceration in the left foot. A balloon expandable Palmaz stent (P394; 2.5 mm x 3.9 cm) was covered with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft and was inserted percutaneously through an 11 Fr vascular sheath. Follow-up Doppler ultrasound at 6 months demonstrated occlusion of the arteriovenous fistula, patency of the artery, and luminal integrity of the artery and vein.

  5. Endovascular repair of post-traumatic, concomitant popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Randall W; Jump, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Popliteal artery trauma is a potentially devastating injury to the lower extremity with substantial associated morbidity. Pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula formation are complications of arterial injury that often present in a delayed fashion. Although these have traditionally been repaired using an open procedure, the growth of minimally invasive techniques has provided new therapeutic options for the treatment of such lesions. The present report discusses the successful treatment of concomitant popliteal pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula after delayed presentation by placing covered stents endovascularly. PMID:22477476

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Bulk Flow Parameters Within an Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Browne, Leonard D; Walsh, Michael T; Griffin, Philip

    2015-12-01

    The creation of an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis has been reported to generate unstable to turbulent flow behaviour. On the other hand, the vast majority of computational fluid dynamic studies of an arteriovenous fistula use low spatial and temporal resolutions resolution in conjunction with laminar assumptions to investigate bulk flow and near wall parameters. The objective of the present study is to investigate if adequately resolved CFD can capture instabilities within an arteriovenous fistula. An experimental model of a representative fistula was created and the pressure distribution within the model was analysed for steady inlet conditions. Temporal CFD simulations with steady inflow conditions were computed for comparison. Following this verification a pulsatile simulation was employed to assess the role of pulsatility on bulk flow parameters. High frequency fluctuations beyond 100 Hz were found to occupy the venous segment of the arteriovenous fistula under pulsatile conditions and the flow within the venous segment exhibited unstable behaviour under both steady and pulsatile inlet conditions. The presence of high frequency fluctuations may be overlooked unless adequate spatial and temporal resolutions are employed. These fluctuations may impact endothelial cell function and contribute to the cascade of events leading to aggressive intimal hyperplasia and the loss of functionality of the vascular access.

  7. Systemic-pulmonary arteriovenous fistula of traumatic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M; Maroko, I; Gueron, M; Goleman, L

    1983-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas between the systemic circulation and the pulmonary artery are extremely rare. Continuous precordial murmur is the usual clinical sign while unilateral rib notching may be the only radiologic manifestation of this condition. Selective angiographic investigation is necessary to localize the site of such an arteriovenous (AV) fistula before surgery is performed. In a review of the literature of 15 published cases, the majority were of congenital origin, with four of these systemic-pulmonary AV fistulas of traumatic origin, of which one occurred after insertion of an intercostal catheter. We describe one case of traumatic origin 9 years after percutaneous thoracic drainage for spontaneous pneumothorax, in which transcatheter embolic occlusion of the feeding arteries of an AV fistula was attempted. The advantages and the disadvantages of the nonsurgical and surgical therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  8. Development of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae in children after cavopulmonary shunt.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, H S; Brook, M M; Silverman, N H; Bristow, J

    1995-11-01

    The cavopulmonary shunt procedure is now used for palliation of complex congenital heart lesions in infants. While pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae (PAVF) are a well-known complication of this surgery in older patients, no study of the prevalence of this condition in children and young infants has been reported. We compared 29 patients with cavopulmonary shunts or total caval exclusion with 53 control subjects evaluated by contrast echocardiography at the University of California, San Francisco. The primary cardiac lesion, age at the time of surgery, type of right heart bypass procedure, provision of auxiliary pulmonary blood flow, and changes in oxygen saturation over time were compared. The prevalence of PAVF in children after cavopulmonary anastomosis is 60%, higher than previously reported. The prevalence is significantly higher in infants < 6 months old and in those with a heterotaxy syndrome. The provision of an additional source of pulsatile, pulmonary blood flow appears to have little effect on the development of PAVF. Patients who developed PAVF had arterial oxygen saturations at the time of discharge from surgery similar to those who did not develop them. Those with PAVF had significantly lower arterial and pulmonary venous oxygen saturations at follow-up as a result of their intrapulmonary shunt. Contrast echocardiography provides a sensitive method for the detection of PAVF. While the origins, natural history, and ultimate clinical significance of PAVF in children after cavopulmonary anastomosis are unclear, surveillance by contrast echocardiography is indicated for all patients who have had this procedure because PAVF may cause significant intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting in some patients.

  9. Screening for subclinical stenosis in native vessel arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, M; Jindal, K; Hirsch, D; Taylor, S; Kane, C; Henbrey, S

    2001-08-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of ultrasound dilution techniques (UDT), including measurement of access recirculation (AR) and access blood flow (Q(a)), to screen for subclinical vascular access dysfunction. Although these techniques are efficacious in polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, data in native vessel arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are lacking. A prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate the utility of UDT screening in AVF. Q(a) and AR were measured bimonthly. Positive studies required fistulograms and were defined by Q(a) < 500 ml/min, DeltaQ(a) > 20% from baseline or AR > 5%. Accesses with stenosis underwent percutaneous angioplasty. After 1 yr, there were 1355 mo of follow-up in 177 patients. There were 44 positive studies in 40 patients. Q(a) was <500 ml/min in 36 (82%), DeltaQ(a) was >20% in 5 (11%), and AR was >5% in 6 (14%). Of patients with Q(a) < 500 ml/min, 29 (81%) had stenosis. Only two patients (40%) with DeltaQ(a) > 20% but Q(a) > 500 ml/min had stenosis. No patient with AR > 5% had stenosis unless Q(a) was also <500 ml/min. Immediate patency rate was 93% post-PTA. Mean Q(a) increased from 303 +/- 154 ml/min to 602 +/- 220 ml/min (P < 0.0001), and mean urea reduction ratio increased from 70.4 +/- 8.4% to 74.6 +/- 6.5% (P = 0.003) post-PTA. The results demonstrate that UDT could detect subclinical stenoses in AVF, and most lesions were amenable to angioplasty. AVF that underwent PTA delivered higher Q(a) and urea reduction ratio, and immediate patency rates were acceptable. Access failure after negative UDT was unusual. Measuring AR increases the time required to perform UDT but does not improve utility. Serial measurements of Q(a) alone may be the best strategy for screening AVF.

  10. Salvage of Immature Arteriovenous Fistulas with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo Choo, Sung Wook; Lieu, Wei Chiang; Choo, In-Wook

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the salvage of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that fail to mature. From November 1998 to February 2003, 19 patients who were treated with PTA due to immature forearm AVFs were selected. Fistulography and PTA were performed via a retrograde transvenous approach after direct puncture of the fistular vein. Technical success was defined as less than a 30% residual stenosis, whereas clinical success was defined as the ability to perform at least one session of normal hemodialysis after PTA. Findings of fistulograms, success rates of PTA, and patency rates were evaluated. On initial fistulograms, stenoses were observed in all cases and 68% (13/19) of the stenoses were located in the perianastomotic area of these immature AVFs. The initial technical success rate was 84% (16/19). Technical failures comprised two patients with diffuse narrowing and segmental thrombosis of the cephalic veins and one case of elastic recoil of the anastomotic site stenosis after PTA. Two patients were immediately lost on follow-up. The remaining 14 cases underwent successful hemodialysis 0 to 33 (mean = 15) days after PTA, showing 74% (14/19) clinical success. Although accessory branch veins were noted in most cases (74%, 14/19), leaving them alone did not affect the maturation of AVFs following PTA. There was no significant procedural or late complication. Primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 61 and 82%, respectively. For those AVFs that failed to mature, there were stenoses along their vascular courses as underlying causes. For the percutaneous procedure, the retrograde transvenous approach was a reasonable one. As PTA is effective and quick for the salvation of immature AVFs, it can be considered a primary method for salvaging these immature AVFs.

  11. External carotid artery pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula: A rare complication of glass shrapnel injury

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Rashmi; Sharma, Rajaram; Jaini, Lodha V; Mhashal, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula is a rare condition. An 8-year-old child presented with painful pulsatile swelling in the preauricular region following a penetrating glass shrapnel injury. Detailed evaluation showed distal external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm with fistula, which was draining into the retromandibular vein. Endovascular treatment was performed. This case highlights the role of endovascular intervention for such rare complicated vascular pathologies. PMID:28104948

  12. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials Comparing Surgery versus Endovascular Therapy for Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts in Hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhan, G. Antoniou, G. A.; Nikam, M.; Mitra, S.; Farquharson, F.; Brittenden, J.; Chalmers, N.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To carry out a systematic review of randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts. Methods. All randomized trials which compared surgery and endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts were retrieved from 1990 onwards. The following search terms were used: 'haemodialysis,' 'thrombosis,' 'arteriovenous fistula,' 'arteriovenous shunt,' 'end stage renal failure' on Medline and PubMed. The results of the pooled data were analysed by a fixed-effect model. Results. There were no randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for native fistulas and vein grafts. Six randomized studies reporting on 573 occluded grafts were identified. Technical success, need for access line and primary patency at 30 days were similar between the two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.91-2.14; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.44-1.34; and OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.79-1.68, respectively). There was no significant difference in morbidity at 30 days between groups (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.67-1.86). There were no statistical difference between the two groups for 1 year primary patency (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 0.97-4.45). Primary assisted patency at 1 year was better with surgery (OR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.12-8.18) in a single study. Conclusion. Comparable results to surgery have been achieved with endovascular techniques for occluded prosthetic grafts for dialysis access. Long-term data comparing the two groups were lacking. Further trials designed to encompass variation in methods are warranted in order to obtain the best available evidence particularly for native fistulas.

  13. [The role of arms color Doppler before creation arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Varlaj-Knobloch, Vesna; Krnić, Anton; Orsanić-Brcić, Dubravka; Marinković, Davor

    2008-01-01

    our experience with color Doppler of arms blood vessels before creation arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. three years ago all patients who need surgery creation of arteriovenous fistula had Doppler ultrasound preoperative vascular mapping. Purpose of the view is to take a picture of proximal and distal part of arteria radials both arms, distal part of venous cephalica and proximal part of venous mediana antebrachii. We must know if these blood vessels have good morphological and hemodinamic criteria for creation arteiovenous fistula. in the study were twenty patients, creation of AV fistula was unsuccessful by two patients, but ultrasonic doctor had warning on very gracile blood vessels; by 18 patients in period of 2 to 36 months (mean 12.2 moths) we have optimal effective flow through dialysis filter 300 ml/min, and they are still in good function. carefully blood vessels review with color Doppler before creation arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis, and marking suitable blood vessels with marker on the skin under sonography control reduced unsuccessful number of surgery exploration and destruction of blood vessels if AV fistula don't work. This is very important for hemodialysis patients, especially for diabetics.

  14. Collaborative Approach to the Creation of an Arteriovenous Fistula on a US Navy Hospital Ship.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly A; Krishnan, Amrish; Stehman, Charles; Hanling, Steven; Casey, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Early creation of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) decreases morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease and is the standard of care in the United States. However, this procedure is frequently not accessible in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We present the first reported case of successful AVF creation as part of a humanitarian assistance mission. The patient was a 51-year-old male with diabetes, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis via a temporary dialysis catheter. Preoperative assessment and patient selection were coordinated with the host nation (HN) nephrologist and dialysis team. The visiting surgical team provided education on AVF anatomy, complications, and cannulation techniques to the HN dialysis team. A left brachiocephalic AVF was created under regional anesthesia performed by the visiting surgeon and anesthesiologists. There were no postoperative complications, and the AVF was matured and accessed successfully by the HN dialysis team 7 weeks after creation. Performing AVFs as part of humanitarian assistance missions has the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in LMICs.

  15. A Case of Superficial Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula and Severe Venous Stasis Ulceration, Managed with an Iliac Extender Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Selena; Yang, Chun; Dudkiewicz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Most femoral artery arteriovenous fistulas occur as a result of percutaneous interventions. However, arteriovenous fistulas can occur in the setting of trauma, with resultant consequences such as heart failure, steal syndrome, or venous insufficiency. Indications for endovascular repair in this setting are limited to patients who are at too high risk for anesthesia, have a hostile groin, or would not survive significant bleeding. We report the case of a traumatic femoral arteriovenous fistula, causing severe venous insufficiency and arteriomegaly, in a 58-year-old male, with history of traumatic gunshot wound complicated by popliteal DVT. Surgical options for arteriovenous fistula include open and endovascular repair but this patient's fistula was more suitable for endovascular repair for reasons that will be discussed. PMID:28808595

  16. Calcification in arteriovenous fistula blood vessels may predict arteriovenous fistula failure: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandar; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Djuric, Zivka; Marinkovic, Jelena; Schlieper, Georg; Djuric, Petar; Dragovic, Jelena Tosic; Bulatovic, Ana; Mitrovic, Milos; Popovic, Jovan; Floege, Jürgen; Dimkovic, Nada

    2017-05-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis. The impact of vascular calcification process on AVF survival remains unclear and results of several studies about this issue are controversial. In the light of the new knowledge about the different susceptibility for calcification process in different blood vessels, the aim of our study was to analyze whether the calcification of AVF-blood vessels may have an impact on AVF longevity. The study included 90 patients, 49 males and 41 females, all of them Caucasians, with a mean age 62 ± 11 years, on regular hemodialysis for more than 1 year with patent primary AVFs. Vascular calcification in AVF-blood vessels or in the anastomotic region was detected using X-ray examination. Calcification in AVF-blood vessels was found in 62% of patients. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that male gender, presence of diabetes mellitus and longer duration of AVF before calcification determination were associated with calcification of AVF-blood vessels. Using a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for these standardized predicted values revealed that patients with present AVF-blood vessels calcification had increased risk to develop AVF failure with a hazard rate of 3.42 (95% confidence interval 1.00-11.67; P = 0.049). Calcifications of AVF-blood vessels are found frequently among dialysis patients and may jeopardize the survival of native AVF. We suggested the local X-ray as simple and valid method for detection of patients that are at risk for AVFs failure which should be monitored more closely.

  17. Colovesical fistula demonstrated on renal cortical scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Stathaki, Maria; Vamvakas, Lampros; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Papadimitraki, Elisavet; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of weight loss, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia had rectal adenocarcinoma. He was palliated with diverting colostomy, followed by radiochemotherapy. Bilateral hydronephrosis was found incidentally on lower abdominal CT scan. He underwent 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan prior to percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Apart from the renal cortex, scintigraphy showed activity in the ascending colon continuous to the activity of the bladder. This indicated urine extravasation on account of a colovesical fistula, complicating postoperative radiation treatment. Here we highlight the contribution of renal cortical scintigraphy in the detection of colovesical fistulas.

  18. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Benjamin K; Torpey, Kim; Nelson, Adam J; Wong, Dennis Tl; Duncan, Rae F; Meredith, Ian T; Faull, Randall J; Worthley, Stephen G; Worthley, Matthew I

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001). Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01]), left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01]), and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase) (P<0.01). Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased at follow up (9.0%±9% vs 3.0%±6%) (P=0.01). No significant change in aortic distensibility was identified. In patients with end-stage renal failure, fistula-formation is associated with an increase in cardiac output, dilation of all cardiac chambers and deterioration in endothelial function.

  19. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Dundon, Benjamin K; Torpey, Kim; Nelson, Adam J; Wong, Dennis TL; Duncan, Rae F; Meredith, Ian T; Faull, Randall J; Worthley, Stephen G; Worthley, Matthew I

    2014-01-01

    Aim Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via “gold standard” imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001). Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01]), left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01]), and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase) (P<0.01). Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased at follow up (9.0%±9% vs 3.0%±6%) (P=0.01). No significant change in aortic distensibility was identified. Conclusion In patients with end-stage renal failure, fistula-formation is associated with an increase in cardiac output, dilation of all cardiac chambers and deterioration in endothelial function. PMID:25258554

  20. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula showing a fall in shunt fraction during exercise.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Monden, Y; Nakahara, K; Miyoshi, S; Kawashima, Y

    1984-04-01

    A 23-year-old man with pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas of the right middle lobe is described. During the incremental exercise test, the shunt fraction dropped from 19 percent to 12 percent as the cardiac output increased. We discuss the mechanism of this fall in shunt fraction in this patient during exercise.

  1. [Arterial steal via an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. A clinical case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Juliá Montoya, J; Lozano Vilardell, P; Corominas Roura, C; Blanes Mompó, I; Flores López, D; Manuel-Rimbau Muñoz, E; García de la Torre, A

    1993-01-01

    We related a case of arterial atrappment in the left upper limb by an arteriovenous humerus-cephalic hyperfunctioning fistula. Surgical procedure consisted on the insertion of a PTFE's banding around the arterialized vein obtaining satisfactory clinic and functional results. We review in the literature, the frequency the pathogeny and the therapeutics possibilities.

  2. Arteriovenous fistula at the site of balloon dilatation complicating femoropopliteal angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, Paul N.; King, David H.; Crabbe, Ray W.; Taylor, Peter R.; Reidy, John F.

    1997-01-15

    We describe an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) at the site of balloon dilatation immediately after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. This occurred during an otherwise uncomplicated angioplasty with a good clinical result. The AVF closed spontaneously within 2 months as monitored by color duplex ultrasound. This uncommon complication of PTA is not widely recognized.

  3. Digital infarction in a hemodialysis patient due to embolism from a thrombosed brachial arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Yj, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Acute onset of digital ischemia and infarction is an unusual complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This is a report of a patient on regular hemodialysis who presented with acute distal extremity ischemia, progressing to digital infarction and on evaluation was found to have thrombosis of brachial arteriovenous fistula with embolization to the distal arteries causing digital artery occlusion.

  4. Arteriovenous Fistula of a Colic Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: Endovascular Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard D. Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Bhat, Rajesh

    2010-08-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) of the superior mesenteric artery and its branches are exceedingly rare. We report an unusual case of a patient who was found to be symptomatic from such an AVF, with diarrhea and terminal ileal thickening. We describe the findings from magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and catheter angiography and discuss the endovascular management.

  5. Superior patency of upper arm arteriovenous fistulae in high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Chiulli, Larissa C; Vasilas, Penny; Dardik, Alan

    2011-09-01

    Despite an increased propensity to primary failure in forearm arteriovenous fistulae compared with upper arm fistulae, forearm fistulae remain the preferred primary access type for chronic hemodialysis patients. In a high risk patient population with multiple medical comorbidities associated with requirement for intravenous access we compared the rates of access failure in forearm and upper arm fistulae. The records of all patients having primary native arteriovenous fistulae placed between 2004 and 2009 at the VA Connecticut Healthcare system were reviewed (n = 118). Primary and secondary patency of upper arm and forearm fistulae were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The effects of medical comorbidities on access patency were analyzed with Cox regression. The median time to primary failure of the vascular access was 0.288 y in the forearm group compared with 0.940 y in the upper arm group (P = 0.028). Secondary patency was 52% at 4.9 y in upper arm fistulae compared with 52% at 1.1 y in the forearm group (P = 0.036). There was no significant effect of patient comorbidities on fistula failure; however, there was a trend toward upper arm surgical site as a protective factor for primary fistula patency (hazard ratio = 0.573, P = 0.076). In veterans needing hemodialysis, a high risk population with extensive comorbid factors often requiring intravascular access, upper arm fistulae are not only a viable option for primary vascular access, but are likely to be a superior option to classic forearm fistulae. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Superior Patency of Upper Arm Arteriovenous Fistulae in High Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiulli, Larissa C; Vasilas, Penny; Dardik, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite an increased propensity to primary failure in forearm arteriovenous fistulae compared to upper arm fistulae, forearm fistulae remain the preferred primary access type for chronic hemodialysis patients. In a high risk patient population with multiple medical comorbidities associated with requirement for intravenous access we compared the rates of access failure in forearm and upper arm fistulae. Materials and Methods The records of all patients having primary native arteriovenous fistulae placed between 2004 and 2009 at the VA Connecticut Healthcare system were reviewed (n=118). Primary and secondary patency of upper arm and forearm fistulae were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The effects of medical comorbidities on access patency were analyzed with Cox regression. Results The median time to primary failure of the vascular access was 0.288 years in the forearm group compared to 0.940 years in the upper arm group (p=0.028). Secondary patency was 52% at 4.9 years in upper arm fistulae compared to 52% at 1.1 years in the forearm group (p=0.036). There was no significant effect of patient comorbidities on fistula failure; however, there was a trend toward upper arm surgical site as a protective factor for primary fistula patency (Hazard Ratio=0.573, p=0.076). Conclusions In veterans needing hemodialysis, a high risk population with extensive comorbid factors often requiring intravascular access, upper arm fistulae are not only a viable option for primary vascular access, but are likely to be a superior option to classic forearm fistulae. PMID:21571318

  7. [Blood flow measurement in arteriovenous fistula. Comparison of 2 ultrasonic methods, direct and indirect by compression of the fistula].

    PubMed

    Deklunder, G; Goullard, L; Lecroart, J L; Foulard, M; Houdas, Y

    1990-05-19

    Measuring blood flow in arteriovenous fistulae in patients under chronic dialysis is of interest to evaluate the repercussions of the fistula on the heart. The apparently simplest method is direct measurement of the mean blood flow velocity by the pulsed doppler technique and ot the cross-section area by ultrasonography, the product of these two values being the blood flow rate. Another method has been proposed, which consists of measuring the cardiac output before and after compression of the fistula, the difference between the two values being supposed to represent the blood flow rate in the fistula. A comparative study of these two methods was conducted in 17 patients aged from 2 to 21 years (mean: 14 years). The direct method gave a figure of 475 ml.min-1.m-2 (SD = 240), while the figure obtained with the indirect method was 471 ml.min-1.m-2 (SD = 227); the difference was statistically not significant. In terms of concept, however, the indirect method is open to much more severe criticism than the direct method, and whenever possible the latter should be preferred when measuring blood flow in arteriovenous fistulae.

  8. Microvascular anatomy of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: arteriovenous connections and their relationships with the dura mater.

    PubMed

    Takai, Keisuke; Komori, Takashi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT The microvascular anatomy of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), especially the relationships of the vessels with the dura mater, has yet to be angiographically demonstrated in detail and proven histologically. METHODS From January 2012 through April 2014, a total of 7 patients with spinal dural AVFs in the thoracic region underwent open microsurgical obliteration at Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital. The microvascular anatomy of spinal dural AVFs was comprehensively assessed by using advanced microangiography, including 3D computer graphics and intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography, and by histological findings. RESULTS The 2 microangiography techniques revealed the spatial course and in vivo blood flow of the meningeal vessels and their relationships with the dura mater in sufficient detail. The meningeal branch of the intercostal artery split into multiple meningeal vessels on the outer dural surface adjacent to the root sleeve. After crossing the dura mater to the inner dural surface, these vessels gathered and joined a single intradural draining vessel. On the inner dural surface, the single draining vessel was fed by the surrounding multiple meningeal vessels, which appeared to be caput medusae. Histological findings revealed that the structure of the meningeal branch of the intercostal artery corresponded to that of a normal artery. The structure of intradural draining vessels corresponded to that of a vein modified by retrograde arterial inflow. On the inner dural surface, more than 1 meningeal artery gathered and joined with the proximal radiculomedullary vein. CONCLUSIONS Spinal dural AVFs are located on the inner dural surface, where multiple direct AV connections between more than 1 meningeal feeding artery and a single proximal radiculomedullary vein occur at the site where the vein connects to the dura mater.

  9. Resolution of Trigeminal Neuralgia After Transvenous Embolization of a Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Fukutome, Kenji; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Wada, Takeshi; Motoyama, Yasushi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) resulting from a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) are rare. A case of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) in a patient with TN that resolved immediately after transvenous embolization (TVE) is described. A 75-year-old woman presented with continuous facial pain. On time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), a CSDAVF was suspected, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed a CSDAVF. The TN completely resolved immediately after TVE, with no recurrence. Follow-up MRA showed complete obliteration of the fistula 13 months after TVE. The pulsatile flow at the posteromedial part of the cavernous sinus might have compressed the upper aspect of the Gasserian ganglion, causing TN. Disappearance of pulsatile flow after TVE might result in complete resolution of TN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Percutaneous Transcatheter Embolization of a Large Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula with an Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Bovio, Giulio; Seitun, Sara; Rossi, Giovanni A.

    2007-04-15

    Percutaneous transcatheter embolization has become the treatment of choice for pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (PAVFs), in most cases replacing surgical intervention. However, while 'classic' devices, such as intravascular coils and detachable balloons, have proved to be successful for interventional occlusions of small or medium-sized PAVFs, they are not ideal in larger fistulas because of the risk for embolization to the systemic circulation. We describe the case of a 61-year-old woman with a symptomatic huge solitary pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (4.5 cm in diameter), occupying part of the lung in the lower right lobe with two feeding arteries (10 and 4 mm in diameter, respectively), who underwent successful transcatheter closure with an Amplatzer Vascular Plug, a new device designed for the occlusion of vascular abnormalities.

  11. Hydrocephalus in a patient with an unruptured pial arteriovenous fistula: hydrodynamic considerations, endovascular treatment, and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gómez, Jesús A; Garza-Oyervides, Vicente V; Arenas-Ruiz, José A; Mercado-Flores, Mariana; Elizondo-Riojas, C Guillermo; Boop, Frederick A; de León, Ángel Martínez-Ponce

    2017-03-01

    Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas, also known as nongalenic fistulas, are rare vascular malformations affecting predominantly the pediatric population. Hydrocephalus is an unusual presentation in which the exact pathophysiology is not fully understood. The aim of treatment in these cases is occlusion of the fistula prior to considering ventricular shunting. Here, the authors describe the hydrodynamic considerations of the paravascular pathway and the resolution of hydrocephalus with endovascular treatment of the fistula.

  12. Surgeon experience affects outcome of forearm arteriovenous fistulae more than outcomes of upper-arm fistulae.

    PubMed

    Regus, Susanne; Almási-Sperling, Veronika; Rother, Ulrich; Meyer, Alexander; Lang, Werner

    2017-03-21

    There is still an ongoing discussion about the influence of vascular surgeon experience on the immediate and long-term outcome of newly created arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for patients on hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to compare failure and patency rates of AVF between experienced consultants and resident trainees with special focus on location of the anastomosis on the forearm or upper arm. Between November 2012 and September 2016, 159 patients (83 on HD and 76 preemptive) received an AVF (90 radiocephalic [RCAVF] on the forearm; 69 brachiocephalic [BCAVF] in the elbow) by two experienced vascular surgeons (group A; n = 74) or five residents in training with one-to-four years of experience (group B; n = 85). We compared the two groups for demographic and treatment data, immediate failures (IF), bleeding complications and patency rates. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. Vessel diameters were significantly lower for forearm compared to upper arm arteries (p = 0.026) and veins (p = 0.05). There was a significantly increased risk for IF in group B for RCAVF (p = 0.003), but not for BCAVF (p = 1.000). Furthermore, the cumulative primary patency was reduced in group B for RCAVF (p<0.001), but not for BCAVF (p = 0.899). Surgeon experience seems to have more influence on the immediate and long-term outcome of newly created forearm AVF compared to those located on the upper arm.

  13. Patients started on hemodialysis with tunneled dialysis catheter have similar survival after arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft creation.

    PubMed

    Yuo, Theodore H; Chaer, Rabih A; Dillavou, Ellen D; Leers, Steven A; Makaroun, Michel S

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines suggest that arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is associated with survival advantage over arteriovenous graft (AVG). However, AVFs often require months to become functional, increasing tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC) use, which can erode the benefit of an AVF. We sought to compare survival in patients with end-stage renal disease after creation of an AVF or AVG in patients starting hemodialysis (HD) with a TDC and to identify patient populations that may benefit from preferential use of AVG over AVF. Using U.S. Renal Data System databases, we identified incident HD patients in 2005 through 2008 and observed them through 2008. Initial access type and clinical variables including albumin levels were assessed using U.S. Renal Data System data collection forms. Attempts at AVF and AVG creation in patients who started HD through a TDC were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. We accounted for the effect of changes in access type by truncating follow-up when an additional AVF or AVG was performed. Survival curves were then constructed, and log-rank tests were used for pairwise survival comparisons, stratified by age. Multivariate analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards regressions; variables were chosen using stepwise elimination. An interaction of access type and albumin level was detected, and Cox models using differing thresholds for albumin level were constructed. The primary outcome was survival. Among the 138,245 patients who started with a TDC and had complete records amenable for analysis, 22.8% underwent AVF creation (mean age ± standard deviation, 68.9 ± 12.5 years; 27.8% mortality at 1 year) and 7.6% underwent AVG placement (70.2 ± 12.0 years; 28.2% mortality) within 3 months of HD initiation; 69.6% remained with a TDC (63.2 ± 15.4 years; 33.8% mortality). In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression, AVF creation is equivalent to AVG placement in terms of survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; 95% confidence

  14. Defining a significant stenosis in an autologous radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fahrtash, Farzan; Kairaitis, Lukas; Gruenewald, Simon; Spicer, Tim; Sidrak, Hannah; Fletcher, John; Allen, Richard; Swinnen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The current definition of a significant stenosis in an autologous arteriovenous fistula (aAVF), the percentage narrowing compared with the adjacent "normal" vessel, is inaccurate. We believe a significant stenosis in the aAVF is an absolute minimal luminal diameter determined by the requirements of the hemodialysis pump. To determine what absolute diameter constitutes a hemodynamically significant stenosis in a radio-cephalic autologous arteriovenous fistula (RC aAVF), the minimal luminal diameter of dysfunctional RC aAVF was compared to that of functional RC aAVF using grayscale and color ultrasound. There were 93 fistulas in study group and 77 in control group. The mean minimum luminal diameter in study group was significantly lower than in control group (2.19 vs. 4.71 mm, p 0.001). With a cutoff value of 2.7 mm, there was 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity in distinguishing functional fistula from dysfunctional fistula. The area under the receiver-operator curve was 90% (CI 84-94%), indicating that a 2.7 mm diameter is accurate in discriminating functional from dysfunctional fistulas. An absolute minimal luminal diameter of 2.7 mm, as determined with grayscale and color ultrasound, is a useful cutoff for defining significant stenosis in a RC aAVF. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Does regional anesthesia influence early outcome of upper arm arteriovenous fistula?

    PubMed

    Elsharawy, Mohamed A; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi

    2010-11-01

    To assess the effect of regional anesthesia on the outcome of elbow arteriovenous fistula (AVF), prospectively studied consecutive patients with end-stage renal disease referred for permanent vascular access to the Vascular Unit of King Fahd University Hospital between September 2004 and September 2007. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: patients who underwent the construction of the AVF under regional anesthesia and Group 2: patients who were operated under general anesthesia, indicated by their preferences or failure of regional anesthesia. Data including patient characteristics and type of AVF were recorded. The internal diameter of the vein and the artery and intra-operative blood flow were measured. The complications of both types of anesthesia were recorded. The patients were followed up for three months. Eighty four cases were recruited in this study. Complete brachial plexus block was achieved in 57 (68%) patients. Seven patients were converted to general anesthesia and 20 patients had AVF under general anesthesia from the start. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to basic characteristics or operative data. There were no instances of systemic toxicity, hematomas, or nerve injury from the regional block. No major complications were reported from the general anesthesia. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding early failure of AVF (Group 1, 14% vs. Group2; 11%. P= 0.80). No significant advantage of regional over general anesthesia in terms of early outcome of AVF was seen in this study.

  16. Right Ventricular Enlargement within Months of Arteriovenous Fistula Creation in 2 Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ragupathi, Loheetha; Johnson, Drew; Marhefka, Gregary D

    2016-08-01

    Surgically created arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) for hemodialysis can contribute to hemodynamic changes. We describe the cases of 2 male patients in whom new right ventricular enlargement developed after an AVF was created for hemodialysis. Patient 1 sustained high-output heart failure solely attributable to the AVF. After AVF banding and subsequent ligation, his heart failure and right ventricular enlargement resolved. In Patient 2, the AVF contributed to new-onset right ventricular enlargement, heart failure, and ascites. His severe pulmonary hypertension was caused by diastolic heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnea. His right ventricular enlargement and heart failure symptoms did not improve after AVF ligation. We think that our report is the first to specifically correlate the echocardiographic finding of right ventricular enlargement with AVF sequelae. Clinicians who treat end-stage renal disease patients should be aware of this potential sequela of AVF creation, particularly in the upper arm. We recommend obtaining preoperative echocardiograms in all patients who will undergo upper-arm AVF creation, so that comparisons can be made postoperatively. Alternative consideration should be given to creating the AVF in the radial artery, because of less shunting and therefore less potential for right-sided heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. A multidisciplinary approach is optimal when selecting patients for AVF banding or ligation.

  17. Percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas: use of thromboaspiration and balloon angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    ÇILDAĞ, BURAK MEHMET; KÖSEOĞLU, KUTSI ÖMER FARUK

    2017-01-01

    Background Endovascular strategies have been used to manage patients with thrombosed vascular access for hemodialysis. We analyzed primary success rate and patency rates of balloon angioplasty following mechanical thrombectomy for the treatment of thrombosed native arteriovenous fistulas. Methods This was a retrospective study of 24 patients with thrombosed native arteriovenous fistulas who were referred for treatment in the intervention unit of the Radiology Department. All patients had been performed percutaneous thrombo-aspiration and balloon angioplasty. Technical and clinical success rates as well as the 6th and 12th months primary and secondary patency of fistulas were evaluated. Results Technical and clinical success was 83%. In the 6 of 20 patients, early re-thrombosis were detected. Patent AVF with primary and secondary patency rates at 6 and 12 months was 55%-40%. The secondary patency rates at 6 and 12 months were 75% and 70%. Conclusion Mechanical thrombectomy with balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive and effective procedure for the treatment of thrombosed native arteriovenous fistula. Advantages of this technique are minor complication rates, cost effectiveness, high technical success rate. PMID:28246500

  18. [Giant cervical angioma caused by "malignant" arteriovenous fistulae].

    PubMed

    Palou, J; Mir y Mir, L

    1992-01-01

    A case of angioma by malignant AV fistula (described by F. Martorell in 1970) is reported. Such kind of fistulas have usually a lethal course. The case reported underwent a surgical correction, and after a following of 10 years, no major complications have been reported.

  19. Spontaneous Aggressive Conversion of Venous Drainage Pattern in Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Treated with Onyx Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yeongu; Choi, Seok Keun; Lee, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) that showed spontaneous conversion of venous drainage pattern from Borden type II to type III within a four month period of follow-up. Upon admission, the patient presented with aggravated neurologic status and newly developed seizure. After admission, endovascular embolization was performed through the middle meningeal artery with Onyx®. Complete obliteration of dural arteriovenous shunt was confirmed by angiography, and the patient's clinical symptoms improved. Although most cases of DAVF show benign clinical course and conversion pattern, close follow-up is required to detect potential aggravation. PMID:28184352

  20. Determination of cardiovascular mechanics evolution in the presence of the arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Giustina; Lanzarone, Ettore; Miglietta, Ferruccio; Remuzzi, Andrea; Fumero, Roberto; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2009-01-01

    Uremic patients are prone to heart damage as a consequence of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) presence and hemodialysis treatment. Arteriovenous fistula induces hand ischemic syndrome and cardiac work increase, thus determining cardiac insufficiency in the medium to long term. This work investigates the cardiovascular mechanics evolution induced by the fistula presence. Twenty patients were enrolled; blood pressure, heart rate (HR), cardiac dimensions, and fistula flow were measured at scheduled intervals. A mathematical model of the cardiocirculatory system was implemented to simulate cardiovascular evolution. Input parameters were heart and vessel features; output of the model were cardiac performances indicators, partly reproducing measurable data and partly quantifiable only by using the model. Input and output variability and their long-term variations were analyzed. Blood pressure and peripheral resistance were found to be higher in uremic than in healthy subjects. Fistula tailoring showed increased cardiac fiber contractility and decreased peripheral resistances. Moreover, between 10 days and 3 months, an increased blood flow at the vascular access determined an increment in fiber contractility. In the same period, the 85% of the patients showed an increase in cardiac fiber stiffness. Similar but less pronounced trends were observed between 3 months and 1 year. The developed model reproduces the cardiovascular system in physiologic and pathologic conditions and allows description of the cardiovascular evolution for a uremic patient.

  1. Arteriovenous fistula and graft evaluation in hemodialysis patients using MDCT: a primer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Lin; Tsai, I-Chen; Chan, Si-Wa; Liao, Wan-Chun; Lin, Pao-Chun; Yang, Su Jing

    2010-03-01

    Patent arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is related to better prognosis and quality of life for patients on long-term dialysis. When AVF dysfunction is suspected, MDCT is a good noninvasive tool for evaluating the entire AVF structure and determining reversible conditions for treatment. The aim of this article is to introduce the scanning and interpretation techniques and to illustrate the conditions related to early and late fistula failures. MDCT is a fast, noninvasive, and accurate technique for diagnosing AVF complications. Radiologists familiar with these techniques can help to improve the prognosis and quality of life for hemodialysis patients.

  2. Utilization of a tubularized cormatrix extracellular matrix for repair of an arteriovenous fistula aneurysm.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Joseph J; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Salvage of failing autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) access sites is a primary concern in dialysis access preservation and a key emphasis of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Aneurysmal degeneration of autogenenous fistulae represents a significant complication, associated with potential skin breakdown, rupture, infection, and access loss. The utilization of conduits derived from extracellular matrix (ECM), currently approved for cardiovascular repairs, may mitigate some of the risks associated with salvage using synthetic materials. We report the utilization of a tubularized CorMatrix(®) ECM graft as a novel conduit for repair of a brachiocephalic AVF aneurysm. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Impact of Poverty and Health Care Insurance on Arteriovenous Fistula Use among Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Nee, Robert; Moon, Deepti S; Jindal, Rahul M; Hurst, Frank P; Yuan, Christina M; Agodoa, Lawrence Y; Abbott, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    The impact of socioeconomic factors on arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in hemodialysis (HD) patients is not well understood. We assessed the association of area and individual-level indicators of poverty and health care insurance on AVF use among incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients initiated on HD. In this retrospective cohort study using the United States Renal Data System database, we identified 669,206 patients initiated on maintenance HD from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2012. We assessed the Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligibility status as an indicator of individual-level poverty and ZIP code-level median household income (MHI) data obtained from the 2010 United States Census. We conducted logistic regression of AVF use at start of dialysis as the outcome variable. The proportions of dual-eligible and non-dual-eligible patients who initiated HD with an AVF were 12.53 and 16.17%, respectively (p<0.001). Dual eligibility was associated with significantly lower likelihood of AVF use upon initiation of HD (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.91; 95% CI 0.90-0.93). Patients in the lowest area-level MHI quintile had an aOR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99) compared to those in higher quintile levels. However, dual eligibility and area-level MHI were not significant in patients with Veterans Affairs (VA) coverage. Individual- and area-level measures of poverty were independently associated with a lower likelihood of AVF use at the start of HD, the only exception being patients with VA health care benefits. Efforts to improve incident AVF use may require focusing on pre-ESRD care to be successful. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Evaluation of efficacy of regional and local anesthesia techniques in arteriovenous fistula criation for dialysis.

    PubMed

    Shoshiashvili, V; Tataradze, A; Beglarishvili, L; Managadze, L; Chkhotua, A

    2014-11-01

    Both, regional and local anesthesia are used for dialysis arterio-venous fistula (AVF) formation in end-stage renal disease patients. There are no prospective, randomized clinical trials comparing effectiveness of these types of anesthesia in these patients. It was a prospective, randomized study. 103 patients with ESRD underwent dialysis AVF operations on upper limb. The patients have been randomly divided in two groups. Group I: 49 patients in whom the operations have been done under the local anesthesia; and Group II: 54 patients in whom the operation has been performed under the vertical infraclavicular block. Radio-Cefalic, Brachio-Cefalic and Brachio-Basilic(I stage transposition) fistulas have been created in all patients.Influence of the type of anesthesia on intra- and postoperative pain has been evaluated and compared between the groups. The mean follow-up was 359.5 days in Group I and 340.5 days in Group II (p-NS).The mean patients age was 59.7±13.1 years and 60.1±14 years in local and regional anesthesia groups, respectively (p=NS). For the whole group, significantly less number of patients with regional anesthesia required additional perioperative analgesics as compared with the local anesthesia group (p=0.0363). Time to postoperative pain initiation was significantly higher in Group II (2.3 hours) as compared with the Group I (1.7 hours, p=0.0477). The need for postoperative pain killers was significantly less in regional as compared with the local anesthesia (p=0.0318). Duration of operation was significantly less in regional (67.5 min.) as compared with local anesthesia (134.7 min. p=0.0007) group. This difference has been detected in Brachio-Cefalic and Brachio-Basilic fistulas (p=0.0257 and 0.001, respectively) but not in Radio-Cefalic one. No anesthesia related complications have been detected. Insufficiency of regional anesthesia has been identified in 3 cases (5.5%).In 5 patients from regional anesthesia group (9.4%) as a result of

  5. Endovascular management of six simultaneous intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas in a single patient.

    PubMed

    Gist, Taylor L; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Krishna, Chandan; Roman, Gustavo C; Cech, David A; Diaz, Orlando

    2014-03-01

    A 64-year-old man with a history of traumatic brain injury 4 years previously presented with progressive cognitive decline and gait abnormality. MRI revealed diffusion restriction in the bilateral centrum semiovale and multiple serpiginous flow voids. Cerebral angiogram revealed a total of six intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with separate fistulas of the right and left sphenoid bones, left clival plexus, right transverse sinus, right sigmoid sinus, and superior sagittal sinus. A diffuse pseudophlebitic pattern of venous drainage indicating severe venous hypertension was also observed. The patient underwent a series of endovascular treatments over the next 10 months to achieve resolution of all arteriovenous shunting. Repeat MRI showed resolution of the diffusion restriction and marked reduction in T2 vascular flow voids. The patient's clinical status improved significantly over the course of treatment, paralleling the improvement in venous hypertension.

  6. An Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Internal Mammary Artery and the Pulmonary Vein Following Blunt Chest Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, T. Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Norio, Hirofumi; Kaji, Tatsumi; Okada, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-15

    A 67-year-old man suffered a traffic accident and was transferred to an emergency hospital close to the scene. He was diagnosed to have bilateral pneumohemothorax with a lung contusion, an anterior fracture dislocation of the C6-vertebra and a cervical cord injury at the level of C7. On the 48th day, massive hemoptysis was suddenly recognized. He was transferred in a state of shock to our hospital to undergo hemostasis for the bleeding. On the day of admission, a selective arteriogram showed extravasation from the left bronchial artery, for which embolization was carried out using Gelfoam. In spite of this treatment, his hemoptysis continued. On the next day, a selective left internal mammary arteriogram showed an arteriovenous fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the left pulmonary vein without any apparent extravasation. The arteriovenous fistula was successfully embolized using platinum fiber coils. The patient no longer demonstrated any hemoptysis after embolization.

  7. Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula After Kickboxing Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) after repetitive blunt trauma has not been described previously. In a 34-year-old male, the first reported case of such an injury after repetitive blunt trauma is described. Case Presentation: A 34-year-old gentleman presented with a non-healing ulcer near his medial malleolus. A bone scan was performed and then treated for presumed osteomyelitis. An arteriogram confirmed an AVF, and coil embolization was performed with complete occlusion of the AVF. Subsequently, the ulcer healed rapidly with no complication. Along with the cause of AVF, this case is notable for symptom presentation. Conclusions: Arteriovenous fistula after blunt trauma can present as a non-healing venous stasis ulcer, which could be treated non-invasively. PMID:25032168

  8. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula after kickboxing injury: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    A traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) after repetitive blunt trauma has not been described previously. In a 34-year-old male, the first reported case of such an injury after repetitive blunt trauma is described. A 34-year-old gentleman presented with a non-healing ulcer near his medial malleolus. A bone scan was performed and then treated for presumed osteomyelitis. An arteriogram confirmed an AVF, and coil embolization was performed with complete occlusion of the AVF. Subsequently, the ulcer healed rapidly with no complication. Along with the cause of AVF, this case is notable for symptom presentation. Arteriovenous fistula after blunt trauma can present as a non-healing venous stasis ulcer, which could be treated non-invasively.

  9. Extensive Renal Arteriovenous Malformations Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Tajirika, Hironao; Yoshigi, Jun; Kobayashi, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman was referred to our department due to gross hematuria. Enhanced computed tomography revealed early enhancement of the right renal vein and multiple tortuous vessels around the right renal hilus, part of which had invaded into the renal parenchyma and renal calix. We diagnosed her with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and performed transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Angiography showed extensive and complex AVMs located in the central and peripheral areas of her kidney. After TAE, the hematuria resolved and she became hemodynamically stable. PMID:28326220

  10. Creating arteriovenous fistulas in 132 consecutive patients: exploiting the proximal radial artery arteriovenous fistula: reliable, safe, and simple forearm and upper arm hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Jennings, William C

    2006-01-01

    Dialysis by native arteriovenous fistula (NAVF) clearly offers lower infection rates, fewer procedures, and lower mortality risk compared with access by catheter or graft, in addition to lower cost. However, NAVFs are utilized for vascular access in only 30% of hemodialysis patients in the United States. Wrist NAVFs are not feasible or successful in many patients and upper arm brachial artery NAVFs may be impractical or lead to additional procedures or complications. Careful preoperative evaluation of all options for NAVF construction including the proximal radial artery (PRA) as an arterial inflow site will find most, if not all, patients to be candidates for successful NAVFs. Retrospective review of consecutive operations for hemodialysis access preformed by an individual surgeon from May 2003 to November 2004. Two university-affiliated tertiary medical centers. All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound evaluation by the operating surgeon. A wrist fistula was first choice for access when success was predicted by ultrasound and physical examination. The second choice, and most common operation, was a PRA NAVF with distal forearm (retrograde) flow established by disrupting the initial venous valve using a vessel probe. One hundred thirty-two patients aged 11 to 90 years (mean = 61) were reviewed. Sixty-eight patients had diabetes and 61 were female. Thirty-four had previous failed access surgery. Native arteriovenous fistulas were created in all patients. No grafts were used. A PRA NAVF was utilized in 105 operations. Overall (assisted) patency was 97%, with a mean follow-up of 11 months. Importantly, there were no infections or hospitalizations due to the NAVF access operations. No grafts were used in this series of 132 consecutive patients. The PRA NAVF was the most common operation and an important addition to wrist, brachial, and transposition fistulas. Proximal radial artery NAVFs increase the opportunity for construction of successful NAVFs and are

  11. Traumatic Inferior Gluteal Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Arteriovenous Fistula Managed with Emergency Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, A. N.; Naughton, P. A.; Leahy, A. L.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-07-15

    We present a case of blunt trauma to the buttock resulting in an inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula. The characteristic diagnostic features on CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), along with the emergency percutaneous management of this traumatic vascular injury, are described. A review of the literature demonstrates inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition, while successful treatment with glue embolization is previously unreported.

  12. Massive intravascular hemolysis with mechanical rheolytic thrombectomy of a hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Louis A; Reddy, Rachita; Pamoukian, Vicken N; Michelis, Michael F; DeVita, Maria V; Rosenstock, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with chronic kidney disease stage 5 presented for ambulatory evaluation of his arteriovenous fistula. He underwent rheolytic thrombectomy with tissue plasminogen activator infusion, angioplasty, and brachial artery stenting under local sedation. His immediate postoperative course was complicated by hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias and hyperkalemia requiring emergent hemodialysis, due to severe intravascular hemolysis. This case illustrates that mechanical thrombectomy can cause clinically significant intravascular hemolysis, thus careful postoperative monitoring is recommended.

  13. Percutaneous embolization of a high-flow pancreatic transplant arteriovenous fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J. Fritz; Matsumoto, Alan H.; McGraw, J. Kevin; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Spinosa, David J.; McCullough, Christopher S.

    1999-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  14. Percutaneous Embolization of a High-Flow Pancreatic Transplant Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J. Fritz; Matsumoto, Alan H.; McGraw, J. Kevin; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Spinosa, David J.; McCullough, Christopher S.

    1998-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  15. Balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) of the arteriovenous fistula: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Lee, Timmy; Woodle, Ben; Wadehra, Davinder; Campos-Naciff, Begoña; Munda, Rino

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure is currently a huge clinical problem. One approach to enhance the AVF maturation rate is an aggressive sequence of balloon angioplasty procedures, often known as balloon-assisted maturation. The goal of the current paper is to explore the pros and cons of this procedure and to try and better identify its impact on AVF maturation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Balloon protection of the Labbé vein during transarterial embolization of a dural arterio-venous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Manisor, Monica; Wolff, Valérie; Aloraini, Ziad; Tigan, Leonardo; Kehrli, Pierre; Marescaux, Christian; Beaujeux, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endovascular treatment of type III dural arterio-venous fistulas can be challenging if the fistulous point is close to a functionally important cortical vein. Methods A technique is described for temporary balloon protection of the vein of Labbé during transarterial Onyx embolization of a type III dural arterio-venous fistula. One illustrative case is presented. Careful anatomic consideration of the concerned venous segment (at the insertion point into the lateral sinus) and the choice of balloon minimized the risk of venous rupture. Results Using this method, satisfactory progression of Onyx was obtained within the arterio-venous shunt while preserving the patency of the Labbé vein. Conclusion Temporary balloon protection of the Labbé vein is a feasible option to preserve its patency during embolization of dural arterio-venous fistulas. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the use of temporary balloon protection of a cortical vein. PMID:26438051

  17. Arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral ocular symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Tahir, Fadzillah; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Wan Hazabbah, W H

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  18. Paraplegia in a chiropractic patient secondary to atraumatic dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary hypertension: case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal communications between higher-pressure arterial circulation and lower-pressure venous circulation. This abnormal communication can result in important and frequently misdiagnosed neurological abnormalities. A case of rapid onset paraplegia following cervical chiropractic manipulation is reviewed. The patient’s generalized spinal cord edema, lower extremity paraplegia and upper extremity weakness, were initially believed to be a complication of the cervical spinal manipulation that had occurred earlier on the day of admission. Subsequent diagnostic testing determined the patient suffered from impaired circulation of the cervical spinal cord produced by a Type V intracranial arteriovenous fistula and resultant venous hypertension in the pontomesencephalic and anterior spinal veins. The clinical and imaging findings of an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with pontomesencephalic venous congestion and paraplegia are reviewed. This case report emphasizes the importance of thorough and serial diagnostic imaging in the presence of sudden onset paraplegia and the potential for error when concluding atypical neurological presentations are the result of therapeutic misadventure. PMID:23830411

  19. Paraplegia in a chiropractic patient secondary to atraumatic dural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary hypertension: case report.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Stephen M; Stahl, Michael J; Schultz, Gary D

    2013-07-08

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal communications between higher-pressure arterial circulation and lower-pressure venous circulation. This abnormal communication can result in important and frequently misdiagnosed neurological abnormalities.A case of rapid onset paraplegia following cervical chiropractic manipulation is reviewed. The patient's generalized spinal cord edema, lower extremity paraplegia and upper extremity weakness, were initially believed to be a complication of the cervical spinal manipulation that had occurred earlier on the day of admission. Subsequent diagnostic testing determined the patient suffered from impaired circulation of the cervical spinal cord produced by a Type V intracranial arteriovenous fistula and resultant venous hypertension in the pontomesencephalic and anterior spinal veins.The clinical and imaging findings of an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula with pontomesencephalic venous congestion and paraplegia are reviewed.This case report emphasizes the importance of thorough and serial diagnostic imaging in the presence of sudden onset paraplegia and the potential for error when concluding atypical neurological presentations are the result of therapeutic misadventure.

  20. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  1. Retroperitoneal Bleeding and Arteriovenous Fistula after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Successfully Treated with Intravascular Ultrasound-guided Covered Stent Implantation.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Satoshi; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Keiichi; Noma, Shigetaka

    2016-01-01

    The major puncture-site complications of the transfemoral approach are retroperitoneal bleeding (RPB), arteriovenous (AV) fistula, and arterial pseudoaneurysm. Although the management of RPB and AV fistula depends on individual cases, our experience shows that the use of a covered stent with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance can successfully manage percutaneous coronary intervention-associated RPB and AV fistula. IVUS guidance can therefore make it easy to use an optimal-size covered stent.

  2. Coronary steal from a left internal mammary artery coronary bypass graft by a left upper extremity arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Steven D; Butterly, David W; Peter, Robert H; Schwab, Steve J

    2002-10-01

    In patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis, the upper extremity arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the dialysis access recommended by the DOQI guidelines for patients with appropriate vasculature. Upper extremity AV fistulae have long periods of usefulness, high flow rates, and low associated complication rates. Placement of AV access may result in increased cardiac output and increased cardiac oxygen demand in these patients. In general, cardiovascular complications from AV access have been limited. We report a novel cardiovascular complication of AV access in an end-stage renal disease patient with a coronary artery bypass graft employing the left internal mammary artery who experienced angina while undergoing hemodialysis. The angina was mediated at least in part by cardiac catheterization laboratory-documented steal of blood flow from the internal mammary artery graft. This phenomenon suggests the need to consider the impact of upper extremity access placement on blood flow to the left internal mammary artery in patients who previously have undergone placement of a coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  3. Trifocal Monomyelomeric Spinal Cord Arteriovenous Fistulae in a Seven-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Piske, R.; Sampaio, M.; Campos, C.; Nunes, J.A.; Lima, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Summary We describe a rare case of multiple arteriovenous fistulae of the spinal cord (SCΛVF) in the same myelomer in a five-year-old boy. This case report consists of a trifocal SCAVF at the Thl2 myelomeric level without communication between the three different fistulae. Two AVF were located posteriorly`, bilateraly, in the spinal cord, fed by left and right posterior radiculopial arteries and one anteriorly in the anterior spinal axis. The venous drainage was independent for each lesion. The patient presents associated lesions characterized by cutaneous stain and inferior limb asymmetry. A metameric distribution is the explanation for the multiplicity of these lesions in a syndromic association related to Cobb syndrome. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization using glue with occlusion of the three different fistulae. The patient achieved a good improvement in neurological status. PMID:20663337

  4. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2015-07-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The middle-arm fistula: A new native arteriovenous vascular access for hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bonforte, Giuseppe; Zerbi, Simona; Surian, Maurizio

    2004-07-01

    Dialysis access procedures and complications are important causes of morbidity and hospitalization for chronic hemodialysis patients. The number of complicated subjects on dialysis is increasing, and creating a successful native arteriovenous fistula for these patients is a challenge. The classic Brescia-Cimino fistula may not be the best first choice for a native vascular access. We describe the surgical technique of middle-arm fistula (MAF) for hemodialysis. A total of 112 surgical procedures were performed on 106 patients with primary unassisted 24- and 48-month patency rates of 93% and 83%, respectively, and a very low incidence of complications. Our approach was found to be a useful method in patients with comorbid factors.

  6. A Prospective, Randomized Trial of Routine Duplex Ultrasound Surveillance on Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ahram; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Mi-Sook; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Jungsun; Ha, Jongwon; Lee, Joongyub; Min, Sang-Il

    2016-10-07

    Use of arteriovenous fistulas, the most preferred type of access for hemodialysis, is limited by their high maturation failure rate. The aim of this study was to assess whether aggressive surveillance with routine duplex ultrasound and intervention can decrease the maturation failure rate of arteriovenous fistulas. We conducted a single-center, parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial of patients undergoing autogenous arteriovenous fistula. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the routine duplex or selective duplex group. In the routine duplex group, duplex ultrasound and physical examination were performed 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively. In the selective duplex group, duplex examination was performed only when physical examination detected an abnormality. The primary end point was the maturation failure rate 8 weeks after fistula creation. Maturation failure was defined as the inability to achieve clinical maturation (i.e., a successful first use) and failure to achieve sonographic maturation (fistula flow >500 ml/min and diameter >6 mm) within 8 weeks. Between June 14, 2012, and June 25, 2014, 150 patients were enrolled (75 patients in each group), and 118 of those were included in the final analysis. The maturation failure rate was lower in the routine duplex group (8 of 59; 13.6%) than in the selective duplex group (15 of 59; 25.4%), but the difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 1.19; P=0.10). Factors associated with maturation failure were women (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 14.06; P=0.04), coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 6.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 24.95; P<0.01), diabetes (odds ratio, 6.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76 to 21.19; P<0.01), and the preoperative cephalic vein diameter (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.71; P<0.01). Postoperative routine duplex surveillance failed to prove superiority compared with selective

  7. Surgical bypass of symptomatic central venous obstruction for arteriovenous fistula salvage in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Ahmed; Greenberg, Joshua I; Angle, Niren

    2008-03-01

    Venous hypertension due to proximal central venous outflow obstruction coexisting with a functioning arteriovenous fistula in the ipsilateral arm presents with a complex management problem in hemodialysis patients. Ligation of the arteriovenous communication is the simplest procedure to relieve symptoms; however, this sacrifices the patient's hemodialysis access, which may be the only available access in that patient. Surgical bypass of the occlusion is a potential option as it obviates the symptoms of venous hypertension while preserving dialysis access. Our objective was to evaluate our experience and outcome with dialysis patients undergoing surgical bypass for symptomatic central venous obstruction and dialysis access salvage. There were three hemodialysis patients with severe venous hypertension secondary to subclavian vein obstruction who had functioning ipsilateral arteriovenous fistulae. All underwent cephalic vein (n = 2) or axillary vein (n = 1) to internal jugular vein bypass of the obstructed subclavian segment via an 8-mm polytetrafluoroethylene bridge graft. All patients had unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) attempts prior to surgical bypass. In two patients, a wire could not be passed through the occlusion; in the third, PTA was only transiently successful despite four repeated procedures. All patients had complete resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. The bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous fistulae to provide functional access for the entire duration of follow-up after surgery (3-8 months). Surgical bypass of a central vein obstruction relieves the symptoms of venous hypertension and prolongs the use of the existing hemodialysis access. This surgical option should be well recognized within the dialysis community.

  8. Interventions to promote self-care of people with arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente N; Apóstolo, João Luís; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta; Martins, Maria Manuela; Dias, Vanessa Filipa

    2014-07-01

    The literature shows many self-care behaviours related to people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Our aim is to identify interventions within the 'teaching' that promote self-care (behaviour) with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The development of self-care behaviours with the AVF allows the access to maintain the best possible conditions, because its state influences the efficacy of the dialysis treatment. However, few studies assess self-care behaviours that people with ESRD have with the AVF, as well as interventions that promote this self-care. Discursive paper. Our research was conducted in MEDLINE, Health Nursing and Allied Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science and SCOPUS using three search expressions, between the period of 2000-2010. We selected studies that identified interventions that promote self-care with AVF. No study has shown in detail the interventions that aimed at promoting self-care behaviours with the AVF for patients with ESRD. We verify that the interventions that promote self-care are directed mostly to the moments after AVF construction. This paper reinforces the need to develop guidelines that provide guidance for self-care with the AVF to be developed by people with ESRD. We also found that self-care behaviours directed to the AVF are mostly associated with postconstruction of the access. Based on these results, it is necessary to delineate clear intervention programmes and objectives, in order to assess self-care with the AVF by people with ESRD, as well as to develop guidelines that provide guidance for self-care for the person with an AVF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Preoperative radial artery volume flow is predictive of arteriovenous fistula outcomes.

    PubMed

    Masengu, Agnes; McDaid, James; Maxwell, Alexander P; Hanko, Jennifer B

    2016-02-01

    Guidelines recommend the creation of a wrist radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RAVF) as initial hemodialysis vascular access. This study explored the potential of preoperative ultrasound vessel measurements to predict AVF failure to mature (FTM) in a cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease in Northern Ireland. A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients who had preoperative ultrasound mapping of upper limb blood vessels carried out from August 2011 to December 2014 and whose AVF reached a functional outcome by March 2015. There were 152 patients (97% white) who had ultrasound mapping and an AVF functional outcome recorded; 80 (54%) had an upper arm AVF created, and 69 (46%) had a RAVF formed. Logistic regression revealed that female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-5.55; P = .025), minimum venous diameter (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95; P = .029), and RAVF (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89; P = .026) were associated with FTM. On subgroup analysis of the RAVF group, RAVFs with an arterial volume flow <50 mL/min were seven times as likely to fail as RAVFs with higher volume flows (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 2.35-20.87; P < .001). In this cohort, a radial artery flow rate <50 mL/min was associated with a sevenfold increased risk of FTM in RAVF, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported in the literature. Preoperative ultrasound mapping adds objective assessment in the clinical prediction of AVF FTM. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic Spontaneous Nephrocutaneous Fistula Associated With Renal Replacement Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Khallouk, A; Tazi, M. F; Elfassi, M. J; Farih, M. H

    2010-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis. PMID:21234262

  11. Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula associated with renal replacement lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; Elfassi, M J; Farih, M H

    2010-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis.

  12. Onyx is associated with poor venous penetration in the treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Spiros L; Kadkhodayan, Yasha; Ray, Wilson Z; Zipfel, Gregory J; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2014-09-01

    The use of Onyx has become the mainstream for the treatment of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and arteriovenous malformations, but the reported success for type I spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (sDAVFs) remains limited. We review our experience with Onyx and report its limitations in the treatment of spinal AVFs. We retrospectively reviewed the Interventional Neuroradiology Procedure database at Washington University for cases of sDAVF embolization. Radiology reports were reviewed for fistula classification, treatment technique, and initial and follow-up results. Angiographic images were reviewed to confirm diagnosis, treatment, and penetration of embolisate into the draining vein. With the use of Onyx, sDAVFs were obliterated in six of seven patients at the time of treatment. Follow-up angiography confirmed sDAVF obliteration in two patients, and recurrence in two cases. Two patients had no follow-up. One patient not cured at the time of treatment was treated surgically. Of the nine total treatments, Onyx successfully crossed the nidus into the draining vein in only four cases. Successful venous embolization was facilitated with positioning of the microcatheter to less than 5 mm from the nidus in three of the four cases. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) resulted in venous penetration in eight of 10 cases, and short term follow-up cure in seven of 10 patients. Our experience with Onyx for type I sDAVF embolization has been tempered by difficulty in achieving venous penetration and, consequently, a high rate of recurrence. For management of these fistulas, we favor NBCA or surgical treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography for detecting arteriovenous fistula dysfunction in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jin, W T; Zhang, G F; Liu, H C; Zhang, H; Li, B; Zhu, X Q

    2015-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA), using time-of-flight and black-blood MRA, in the evaluation of arteriovenous fistulas in haemodialysis patients in comparison to multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA). NCE-MRA and MDCTA were performed on the same day in 21 patients on maintenance haemodialysis with dysfunctional arteriovenous fistulas. The fistulas included three segments: arterial inflow, anastomosis, and venous outflow. Two experienced observers, who were blinded to the results of the NCE-MRA, recorded in consensus the significant stenoses (≥50%) seen on CTA. Two other experienced observers, unaware of the results of CTA, independently recorded significant stenoses (≥50%) in the NCE-MRA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of NCE-MRA were calculated, with MDCTA as the standard reference. Sixty-three vascular segments in the 21 patients were clearly displayed. For the two observers of NCE-MRA, the accuracy was 98% and 95.4%; sensitivity 96.4% and 96.4%; specificity 97.1% and 94.3%; positive predictive value 96.4% and 93.1%; and, negative predictive value 97.1% and 97.1%. Inter-/intra-observer agreement for detecting stenosis was excellent for NCE-MRA, with a weighted kappa of 0.968 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.874-1) and 0.936 (95% CI, 0.848-1). Non-contrast-enhanced MRA, using time-of-flight and black-blood MRA, is a reproducible and reliable imaging technique for detecting ≥50% stenosis in dysfunctional haemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Left-sided high-flow arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula combined with a persistent left superior vena cava causing coronary sinus dilatation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Scott, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    We present an interesting case illustrating the possible hemodynamic consequences when a left-sided arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula is combined with the congenital anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Our case illustrates the importance of an echocardiographic examination with attention to the coronary sinus (CS) caliber-raising suspicion of a PLSVC-in the assessment for the hemodialysis access in end-stage renal disease patients. The causes and symptoms of CS dilatation, as well as the literature on PLSVC, are also discussed in detail.

  15. In vivo validation of the in silico predicted pressure drop across an arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Browne, Leonard D; Griffin, Philip; Bashar, Khalid; Walsh, Stewart R; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    The creation of an arteriovenous fistula offers a unique example of vascular remodelling and adaption. Yet, the specific factors which elicit remodelling events which determine successful maturation or failure have not been unambiguously determined. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are increasingly been employed to investigate the interaction between local hemodynamics and remodelling and can potentially be used to assist in clinical risk assessment of maturation or failure. However, these simulations are inextricably linked to their prescribed boundary conditions and are reliant on in vivo measurements of flow and pressure to ensure their validity. The study compares in vivo measurements of the pressure distribution across arteriovenous fistulae against a representative numerical model. The results of the study indicate relative agreement (error ≈ 8-10%) between the in vivo and CFD prediction of the mean pressure drop across the AVFs. The large pressure drop across the AVFs coincided with a palpable thrill (perivascular vibration) in vivo and fluctuations were observed in the numerical pressure drop signal due to flow instabilities arising at the anastomosis. This study provides a benchmark of the pressure distribution within an AVF and validates that CFD solutions are capable of replicating the abnormal physiological flow conditions induced by fistula creation.

  16. Failing Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula and Percutaneous Treatment: Imaging with CT, MRI and Digital Subtraction Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagna, Enrico; D'Andrea, Paolo; Schiavon, Francesco; Tarroni, Giovanni

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas with helical CT angiography (CTA), MR angiography (MRA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and to compare the efficacy of the three techniques in detecting the number, location, grade, and extent of stenoses and in assessing the technical results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting.Methods: Thirteen patients with Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula malfunction underwent MRA and CTA of the fistula and, within 1 week, DSA. A total of 11 PTAs were performed; in three cases an MR-compatible stent was placed. DSA served as the gold standard for comparison in all patients. The presence, site, and number of stenoses or occlusions and the technical results of percutaneous procedures were assessed with DSA, CTA, and MRA.Results: MRA underestimated a single stenosis in one patient; CTA and MRA did not overestimate any stenosis. Significant artifacts related to stent geometry and/or underlying metal were seen in MRA sequences in two cases.Conclusions: CT and MRI can provide information regarding the degree of vascular impairment, helping to stratify patients into those who can have PTA (single or multiple stenoses) versus those who require an operative procedure (occlusion). Conventional angiography can be reserved for candidates for percutaneous intervention.

  17. Improvement of depression after treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula: a case report and a review.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Minoru; Sugiu, Kenji; Tokunaga, Koji; Sakamoto, Chihoko; Fujiwara, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    Patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the transverse-sigmoid sinus suffer from several symptoms: bruit, headache, visual impairment, and so on. But depression is rare in patients with DAVF. The authors reported a rare case presenting the improvement of depression after the treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. A 46-year-old male had suffered from depression and was treated with antidepressants at a local hospital for four years. The patient was temporarily laid off due to his depression. Afterwards, he had Gerstmann's syndrome and came to our hospital. A DAVF in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus was demonstrated on the angiogram. The DAVF was successfully treated with endovascular surgery, coil embolization of the isolated diseased sinus through the mastoid emissary vein which was a draining vein from the fistula. After this treatment, his depression as well as Gerstmann's syndrome was improved and the quantity of the antidepressants decreased. The patient returned to work without any antidepressant two years after the treatment. DAVFs might be one of the causes of depression. It may be necessary to evaluate cerebral vessels in patients suffering from depression by using MRA or 3D-CTA even if there are not any abnormal findings on plain CT scans.

  18. Improvement of Depression after Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Case Report and a Review

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Minoru; Sugiu, Kenji; Tokunaga, Koji; Sakamoto, Chihoko; Fujiwara, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    Patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the transverse-sigmoid sinus suffer from several symptoms: bruit, headache, visual impairment, and so on. But depression is rare in patients with DAVF. The authors reported a rare case presenting the improvement of depression after the treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. A 46-year-old male had suffered from depression and was treated with antidepressants at a local hospital for four years. The patient was temporarily laid off due to his depression. Afterwards, he had Gerstmann's syndrome and came to our hospital. A DAVF in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus was demonstrated on the angiogram. The DAVF was successfully treated with endovascular surgery, coil embolization of the isolated diseased sinus through the mastoid emissary vein which was a draining vein from the fistula. After this treatment, his depression as well as Gerstmann's syndrome was improved and the quantity of the antidepressants decreased. The patient returned to work without any antidepressant two years after the treatment. DAVFs might be one of the causes of depression. It may be necessary to evaluate cerebral vessels in patients suffering from depression by using MRA or 3D-CTA even if there are not any abnormal findings on plain CT scans. PMID:23243544

  19. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as myelopathy: Case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Robert; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Max; Dorbeistein, Curtis; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Khan, Muhib

    2014-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare type of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Common presenting symptoms are related to hemorrhage. However, rarely these patients may present with myelopathy. We present two cases of DAVF presenting as rapidly progressive myelopathy. Two treatment options are available: microsurgical interruption of the fistula and endovascular embolization. These treatment options of DAVFs have improved significantly in the last decade. The optimal treatment of DAVFs remains controversial, and there is an ongoing debate as to whether primary endovascular or primary microsurgical treatment is the optimal management for these lesions. However, despite treatment a high percentage of patients are still left with severe disability. The potential for functional ambulation in patients with DAVF is related to the time of intervention. This emphasizes the important of early diagnosis and early intervention in DAVF. The eventual outcome may depend on several factors, such as the duration of symptoms, the degree of disability before treatment, and the success of the initial procedure to close the fistula. The usage of magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography has significantly improved the ability to characterize DAVFs, however, these lesions remain inefficiently diagnosed. If intervention is delayed even prolonged time in rehabilitation does not change the grave prognosis. This review outlines the presentation, classication and management of DAVF as well as discussing patient outcomes. PMID:25516869

  20. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Following Translabyrinthine Resection of Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peter M.M.C.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Do, Huy M.; Blevins, Nikolas H.

    2011-01-01

    We describe two cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) developing in a delayed fashion after translabyrinthine resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Two patients in an academic tertiary referral center, a 46-year-old woman and a 67-year-old man, underwent translabyrinthine resection of a 2-cm left vestibular schwannoma and a 4-cm left petrous meningioma, respectively. Both patients subsequently developed DAVF, and in each case the diagnosis was delayed despite serial imaging follow-up. In one patient, cerebrospinal fluid diversion before DAVF was identified as the cause of her intracranial hypertension; the other patient was essentially asymptomatic but with a high risk of hemorrhage due to progression of cortical venous drainage. Endovascular treatment was effective but required multiple sessions due to residual or recurrent fistulas. Dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare complication of translabyrinthine skull base surgery. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion and an understanding of subtle imaging findings that may be present on follow-up studies performed for tumor surveillance. Failure to recognize this complication may lead to misguided interventions for treatment of hydrocephalus and other complications, as well as ongoing risks related to venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage. As this condition is generally curable with neurointerventional and/or surgical methods, timely diagnosis and treatment are essential. PMID:23984203

  1. Value of Duplex Ultrasound Assistance for Thromboaspiration and Dilation of Thrombosed Native Arterio-Venous Fistulae

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Medina, J.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of duplex ultrasound assistance during thromboaspiration of thrombosed arteriovenous fistulae for haemodialysis. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 54 thrombosed native fistulae (23 with total thrombosis and 31 with partial thrombosis), in which we performed manual thromboaspiration guided by ultrasonography associated with fluoroscopy. Results: The fistulae were located in the forearm (n = 39) or in the upper arm (n = 15) of 46 patients. Mean patient age was 65 years, and hypertension was the most common risk factor (74 %). Mean access age was 928 days (range 69-2,290), and most fistulae were on the left side (41 cases, 75.92 %). The success rate was 83 % in the total thrombosis group and 100 % in the partial thrombosis group. Including initial failures, the respective primary patency rates in the total thrombosis group and the partial thrombosis group were, respectively, 83 {+-} 8 % (n = 20) and 87 {+-} 6 % (n = 28) at 1 month, 39 {+-} 10 % (n = 10) and 61 {+-} 8 % (n = 20) at 6 months, and 17 {+-} 8 % (n = 5) and 26 {+-} 8 % (n = 9) at 1 year. The mean decrease of fluoroscopy time with ultrasound was 3 min (range 1-5). The mean decrease of radiation dose was 2.6 Gy cm Superscript-Two (range 0.9-4.3]. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a feasible and useful tool in the management of thrombosed native fistulae, thus decreasing radiation exposure, and has no detrimental effect on success rates.

  2. Anatomically Based Approach for Endovascular Treatment of Vertebro-Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yao-Liang; Wu, Yi-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Wong, Ho-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vertebro-vertebral arteriovenous fistula (VV-AVF) is a rare vascular disorder with an abnormal high-flow shunt between the extracranial vertebral artery (VA), its muscular or radicular branches and an adjacent vein. To date, there are no guidelines on the best treatment for VV-AVF. We present our experience of VV-AVF treatment with covered stents in three patients and detachable coils in two patients. One patient with fistula at the V3 segment had rapid fistula recurrence one week after covered stent treatment. The possible causes of failed treatment in this patient are discussed. The currently available treatment modalities for VV-AVF are also summarized after a literature review. At the end of this article, we propose a new concept of anatomically based approach for endovascular treatment of VV-AVF. Fistula in the V1-2 segments of vertebral artery could be treated safely and effectively by covered stent with the benefit of preserving VA patency. Embolization with variable embolizers should be considered first for fistula in the V3 segment because of the tortuous course and flexibility of the VA in this segment. PMID:25496689

  3. Outcomes of arteriovenous fistula creation, effect of preoperative vein mapping and predictors of fistula success in incident haemodialysis patients: A single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kian-Guan; Chong, Tze-Tec; Goh, Nicholette; Achudan, Shaam; Tan, Yi-Liang; Tan, Ru-Yu; Choong, Hui-Lin; Tan, Chieh-Suai

    2017-05-01

    Vascular access in haemodialysis is critical for effective therapy. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in incident haemodialysis patients, impact of preoperative vein mapping and predictors of successful AVF maturation in our centre. Data of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients initiated on haemodialysis from January 2010 to December 2012 in our centre were retrospectively obtained from electronic medical records and clinical notes. Demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, perioperative details were collected, and patients were followed up until 1 January 2014. A total of 708 patients (median age 64, IQR 55-72) were included with mean duration of follow up of 2.3 ± 1.2 years, with access of AVF and arteriovenous graft (AVG) in 694 (98%) and 14 (2%) patients respectively. Eight patients were lost to follow-up. Successful AVF maturation was achieved in 542 patients (78%), with 1-year cumulative patency rate of 74%. Multivariate analysis revealed male gender, upper arm AVF and good postoperative thrill and pulse as predictors of successful AVF maturation. Preoperative vein mapping was performed in 42.5% (295/694) of patients, with mean vein diameter of 2.44 ± 0.82 mm. Maturation rates with and without vein mapping were 72.2% and 82.4%, respectively, (P = 0.001). In patients with vein diameters of <2 mm and ≥2 mm, there was no statistically significant difference in maturation rates (71.3% vs. 72.6%; P = 0.887) and median maturation time (66 vs. 78 days; P = 0.73). Arteriovenous fistula can be successfully created in most incident haemodialysis patients. Routine vein mapping is not necessary if veins are suitable on physical examination alone, and vein sizes of <2 mm on ultrasound is not associated with lower AVF maturation rate. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Renal arteriovenous malformation: an unusual cause of recurrent haematuria.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mazhar; Aziz, Wajahat; Abbas, Farhat

    2013-07-17

    A 54-year-old woman presented with gross painless haematuria. Initial workup showed no abnormality except mild hydronephrosis on CT scan. Cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography did not find any gross lesion and her urine cytology was also negative. She had recurrent haematuria so her CT was reviewed with the radiologist with clinical suspicion of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) which was suggested by relatively increased contrast density in the hemiazygous vein and renal vein in the arterial phase. She underwent angioembiolisation of left renal AVM after which her haematuria settled.

  5. Microscope-assisted endoscopic interlaminar ligation of spinal arteriovenous fistulas: technical note.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Chien-Min; Shen, Fang; Fang, Xiao-Dong; Ying, Guang-Yu; Ren, Yu-Cheng; Yu, Dan-Feng; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Zhu, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2016-09-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are the most common type of spinal arteriovenous malformations, and microsurgical ligation is the treatment modality most frequently used for these lesions. Developments in endoscopic techniques have made endoscopy an even less invasive alternative to routine microsurgical approaches in spine surgery, but endoscopic management of SDAVF or other intradural spinal lesions has not been reported to date. The authors describe the use of a microscope-assisted endoscopic interlaminar approach for the ligation of the proximal draining vein of an L-1 SDAVF in a 58-year-old man. A complete cure was confirmed by postoperative angiography. The postoperative course was uneventful, and short-term follow-up showed improvements in the patient's neurological function. The authors conclude that the endoscopic interlaminar approach with microscope assistance is a safe, minimally invasive, innovative technique for the surgical management of SDAVFs in selected patients.

  6. Arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis access in children and adolescents using the proximal radial artery inflow site.

    PubMed

    Jennings, William C; Turman, Martin A; Taubman, Kevin E

    2009-07-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) for children and adolescents with renal failure is increasingly common in the United States. Consensus opinion views an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as the best long-term access option, although catheter-based HD remains the most common vascular access in children and has greater risks of complications and higher mortality rates than AVF access. This report reviews our experience with children and adolescents undergoing vascular access operations. We reviewed 721 consecutive vascular access patients who had vascular access surgery by a single surgeon during the previous 5 years. Ten patients 20 years or younger were included in this study. In addition to physical examination, each patient had preoperative vascular ultrasound mapping by the operating surgeon. A radiocephalic AVF (RC-AVF) at the wrist was the first choice for dialysis access when feasible; however, the patients in this report were generally seen after years of intravenous access and venipunctures that necessitated more proximal AVF constructions. A proximal radial artery AVF (PRA-AVF) was our most common choice for vascular access when an RC-AVF was not suitable. Patient ages were 9 to 20 years (mean, 16). Seven were male. Renal failure was caused by glomerulnephitis in 4 patients, 3 had a history of obstuctive uropathy, 2 were diabetic and one had congenital nephrotic syndrome. Eight patients had PRA-AVFs created, 1 had an RC-AVF, and 1 patient required a transposition AVF. Follow-up was 4 to 56 months (mean, 32 months). Primary, primary-assisted, and cumulative patencies were 77.8%, 100%, and 100% at 24 months. No prosthetic grafts were used in any vascular access patient during the study period. We found HD access in children and adolescents was reliably established through use of a PRA-AVF when an RC-AVF was not feasible. Access sites were often possible through the upper arm cephalic veins and/or with retrograde flow into the forearm. Cumulative (secondary) patency was 100% at

  7. Successful Management of Acute Liver Failure Patients Waiting for Liver Transplantation by On-Line Hemodiafiltration with an Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Yuki; Yasui, Shin; Kanda, Tatsuo; Hattori, Noriyuki; Wakamatsu, Toru; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Oda, Shigeto; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    On-line hemodiafiltration (OLHDF) is one of the treatment options in the management of acute liver failure (ALF) in Japan. It is essential to avoid infection in the management of ALF. In fact, infection is one of the prognostic factors in ALF. In this report, we present a middle-aged Japanese man with ALF associated with benzbromarone use. He was successfully managed without infection until liver transplantation by creating an arteriovenous fistula for OLHDF. Utilizing an arteriovenous fistula for OLHDF, rather than inserting a vascular access catheter, is a beneficial option to avoid infectious diseases in the management of ALF. PMID:27403116

  8. Vascular changes at the puncture segments of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ju-Feng; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Hsu, Lung-An; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Tsu-Shiu; Chang, Chi-Jen

    2010-09-01

    Repeated puncture is a mechanical injury to the hemodialysis accesses. We systemically observed the vascular changes at the puncture segments of arteriovenous fistulas. The native arteriovenous fistulas in 104 patients on maintenance hemodialysis using the buttonhole technique for puncture were studied. We used the duplex scan to observe the intimal lesions, the maximal diameters at the arterial and venous puncture segments, and the references. Intimal lesions were found in 42% and 40% of the arterial and venous puncture segments, none of which resulted in significant luminal stenosis. The differences between diameters at the arterial or venous puncture segments and the corresponding references were significant (arterial, 11.07 +/- 4.45 vs 6.85 +/- 2.35 mm, P < .001; venous, 8.82 +/- 4.13 vs 5.54 +/- 2.22 mm, P < .001). All segments, except only three arterial and four venous puncture segments, were larger than the corresponding references. The degree of vascular dilatation, defined as the diameter difference between the puncture segments and the references calibrated by the reference diameter, were 64.1 +/- 49.6% at arterial puncture segments and 59.9 +/- 42.2% at venous segments. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patient age and the puncture duration were strongly correlated with the degree of vascular dilatation at both the arterial (P = .018 and .007, respectively) and venous puncture segments (P = .020 and .011, respectively). Puncture of arteriovenous fistula using a buttonhole technique resulted in a consistent vascular dilatation and moderately high incidence of intimal thickness, but no significant luminal stenosis was found.

  9. Dural arteriovenous fistula at the anterior clinoid process draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein.

    PubMed

    Ushikoshi, Satoshi; Honma, Toshimi; Uchida, Kazuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Ajiki, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Selective angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the right anterior clinoid process, draining into the superficial middle cerebral vein in a retrograde fashion. Two internal carotid artery aneurysms were also demonstrated at the origin of the posterior communicating artery and the anterior choroidal artery on the same side. The patient underwent craniotomy, and all lesions were treated simultaneously. Rupture of the anterior choroidal artery aneurysm was confirmed. DAVF draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein is extremely rare. The precise location of the shunt, the anatomical features, and venous drainage must be evaluated to consider treatment.

  10. Stent graft repair of iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula: a useful therapeutic approach in a hostile groin.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Randall R; Nolan, Brian W; Powell, Richard J; Walsh, Daniel B; Stone, David H

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas (IFAVF) has increased in contemporary practice. We herein report the case of a 55-year-old obese woman with significant surgical comorbidities who sustained an IFAVF between the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and the femoral vein. Given her substantial risk factors, she was treated with a SFA stent-graft (iCast 6 x 22 mm) using a contralateral endovascular approach. She remains asymptomatic at 15 months with ongoing resolution of the AVF. This report highlights the utility of stent-graft repair of an IFAVF in high surgical risk patients or in those with ''hostile'' anatomy.

  11. An unexpected complication of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy: arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Kuku, Irfan; Kaya, Emin; Kutlu, Ramazan; Koroglu, Mustafa; Yigit, Ali; Unlu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) following bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy. A 76-year-old man was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Pain and hematoma were detected in his left leg and hip 4 days after bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy. A pelvic arteriography was performed, and a diagnosis of AVF was made. This case shows that clinicians should be aware of AVF, especially in cases with refractory bleeding after bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy despite normal blood coagulation parameters. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Iatrogenic or congenital arteriovenous fistula of left upper arm used for hemodialysis after venous superficialization.

    PubMed

    Kusztal, Mariusz; Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Wątorek, Ewa; Szyber, Przemysław; Garcarek, Jerzy; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of iatrogenic brachial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) on the left arm in a 20-year-old man with a history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney and failing kidney transplant. An attempt to create vascular access for hemodialysis by utilization of an existing iatrogenic brachial AVF was undertaken. The patient underwent surgical superficialization of a concomitant enlarged and deeply located vein. Four weeks after the procedure, the AVF was successfully cannulated for hemodialysis. In this case, iatrogenic/congenital AVF was successfully converted to vascular access for hemodialysis. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis Syndrome in a Child: Association with Multiple High Flow Cerebral Arteriovenous Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Husson, B.; Rasmussen, J.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary We describe the case of a three-year-old Danish boy born at term by Cesarean due to cardiac insufficiency in the last trimestre of intra-uterine life for which he is being treated with cardiac drugs. At birth, he was noted to have bilateral ocular malformations on the upper eyelids, and diffuse scalp lipoma and alopecia. Due to the retarded growth (score - 3D) he had a MRI and angiography which demonstrated a high flow fistula on the basilar tip artery and another one on the MCA branch treated by endovascluar approach. Intracranial arachnoid cysts, dysplastic cortex, ventricular enlargement and lipoma were noted too, establishing the diagnosis of Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis Syndrome, a rare disease, especially in bilateral presentation. To our knowledge this is the first observation of ECCL associated with intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas. PMID:20594485

  14. Recurrence of “cured” dural arteriovenous fistulas after Onyx embolization

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Peter; Amar, Arun Paul; Mack, William J.; Larsen, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    Endovascular embolization with Onyx has been increasingly used to treat intracranial and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). Several case series have been published in recent years reporting high DAVF cure rates with this technique. Although it is seldom reported, DAVF recurrence may occur despite initial “cure.” The authors present 3 separate cases of a recurrent DAVF after successful transarterial Onyx embolization. Despite adequate Onyx penetration into the fistula and draining vein, these cases demonstrate that DAVF recanalization may reappear with filling from previous or newly recruited arterial feeders. Other published reports of DAVF recurrence are examined, and potential contributory factors are discussed. These cases highlight the need for awareness of this possible phenomenon and suggest that follow-up angiography should be considered in patients treated with catheter embolization. PMID:22537121

  15. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula manifesting as contralateral trigeminal neuralgia: resolution after transarterial Onyx embolization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaojian; Qin, Xuanfeng; Ni, Lanchun; Chen, Jian; Xu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) as a cause of trigeminal neuralgia is extremely rare. Although less than 10 cases have been reported in the literature, all cases presented with ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia. Here we report a unique case of tentorial DAVF manifesting as contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. A 58-year-old man presented with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia. Cerebral angiography revealed a left tentorial DAVF and the MR imaging demonstrated a variceal venous dilatation occupying the left lateral pontine cistern and multiple venous flow voids adjacent to the right trigeminal nerve root entry zone. Transarterial Onyx embolization resulted in near complete obliteration of the fistula with immediate resolution of facial pain. The patient remains symptom free and without evidence of recurrence during 9 months of follow-up. Transarterial Onyx embolization may be an effective treatment modality for such an usual case. PMID:24285803

  16. Successful endovascular treatment of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with trisacryl gelatin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Rodiek, S O

    2002-09-01

    We report on the endovascular treatment of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) in a 50-year-old man, who presented with rapidly progressive paraparesis of lower extremities. Standard treatment of SDAVFs is by either embolization with liquid adhesive agents like NBCA or microsurgery. In our case the fistula was successfully occluded by application of trisacryl gelatin microspheres (TGM). Due to a small size of the feeding intercostal artery a superselective catheterization of the fistula itself by a microcatheter could not be performed. The particles were hence delivered through a diagnostic spinal catheter positioned within the proximal part of the feeding intercostal artery. Control MRI five weeks after intervention showed normalized perimedullary veins, which were dilated and tortuous initially. It also displayed a clinically silent focal ischaemia within the spongiosa of an adjacent hemi-vertebra due to particle passage through intersegmental vascular collaterals. A control angiogram confirmed the disappearance of the fistula. The patient underwent physiotherapy and experienced significant improvement of his gait within three months after intervention.

  17. The aneurysmal arteriovenous fistula - morphological study and assessment of clinical implications. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kenneth R; Gallagher, Maeve; Ross, Rose; Severn, Alison; Nagy, Janos; Cochrane, Lynda; Griffiths, Gareth D

    2015-10-01

    Aneurysmal dilation of arteriovenous fistulae used for haemodialysis is a recognised complication but its clinical significance is a contentious issue. Our aims were to describe aneurysmal fistulae morphologically and clinically.Sixty patients underwent duplex scanning to measure the maximum diameter and skin thickness of their fistula. Haemodialysis function and bleeding risk were assessed clinically.The 75th percentile of maximum diameter was 2.05 cm. In addition to conventional diameter measurement, we describe a novel volume measurement technique which may be of value. No relationship was found between maximum diameter or volume and function, skin thickness or bleeding.Some studies define aneurysm at 2 cm (75th percentile); however, this definition and other arbitrary definitions lack clinical significance. This work suggests that fistula dilation should be considered together with clinical issues when determining the clinical significance of an aneurysm. Our finding that haemodialysis function, skin thickness and bleeding were not associated with diameter needs further study.

  18. Transvenous Approach to Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (Cognard V): a Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Aiuxut Lorenzo, S.; Tomasello Weitz, A.; Blasco Andaluz, J.; Sanroman Manzanera, L.; Macho Fernández, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The endovascular technique is the gold standard treatment in dural arteriovenous fistulas. Due to the limited number of series published it is difficult to create rigid guidelines in terms of the best endovascular treatment approach. Treatment must be tailored to each particular case, but it is important to keep in mind that the possibility of treating a type V dAVF by the transvenous approach should not be discarded. In selected cases the transvenous approach may be helpful to increase the chance of success in the endovascular treatment of type V dAVF. We describe a patient in whom the first arterial treatment failed to achieve occlusion of the fistulous point with the glue. Clinical symptoms improved due to the diminished flow at the fistula after the first embolization but as soon as collateral arteries were recruited by the fistula, spinal cord venous drainage impairment led to symptoms recurrence. Transvenous access allowed us to close the fistula completely in one only session with a complete disappearance of the pathologically inverted perimedullary venous flow. PMID:21561567

  19. Access blood flow and the risk of complications in mature forearm and upper arm arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Henricus J T A M; Bots, Michiel L; Wittens, Cees H A; Schrama, Yvonne C; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of vascular access use in the 'fistula first' era requires comprehension of its clinical behavior. Little is known about mature arteriovenous fistula (AVF) performance and the role of fistula location. Widely used access flow (Qa) was used to analyze complication risks and functionality after first hemodialysis use. 178 Mature AVFs were analyzed. Complication was defined as permanent failure or >or=1 intervention. Factors associated with complications and mean Qa were determined using Cox proportional-hazards and linear regression models. Baseline Qa was significantly lower in complicated versus uncomplicated forearm and upper arm AVFs. In complicated forearm AVFs, preoperative arterial diameter was smaller while the risk of complications was graded per 100 ml/min baseline Qa increase. Diabetics had an increased risk of upper arm AVF complications. In uncomplicated forearm AVFs, diabetes was related to lower mean Qa, and BMI to higher Qa. In mature AVFs, baseline Qa depends on fistula location and is related to the risk of complications in a graded manner.

  20. Arteriovenous fistula formation using transposed basilic vein: extensive single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J F; Goncalves, I; Doughman, T; Nicholson, M L

    2008-08-01

    The expanding haemodialysis population has lead to increased requirement for more complex vascular access. The aim of this study is to present the results of an extensive series of brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistulae. BBAVF were performed using single-stage vein transposition. A retrospective review of case notes was performed. One hundred and sixty eight BBAVF were created in 144 patients. This was the first access procedure in only 30 cases and the fourth or fifth in 30. At 24h, 165 fistulas (98%) were patent. One hundred and eleven fistulas (66%) were used for haemodialysis and 57 (34%) were never used, of which 39 (23%) were due to fistula failure. The cumulative secondary patency at 1, 2 and 3 years was 66%, 50% and 41% respectively. There were 201 complications in 119 patients (71%), including thrombosis (29%), arm oedema (17%), infection (13%) and arterial steal syndrome (11%). Ten angioplasties and 48 operative procedures were performed for complications. Pre-operative ipsilateral subclavian catheter had been placed in 62 cases (37%) and was associated with poor patency. BBAVF represents an important option for vascular access with acceptable patency rates, although complication rates remain significant.

  1. Brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula with transpositionof the basilic vein: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Pantea, Stelian; Bengulescu, Iustinia; Orosan, Gabriela; Strambu, Ir; Strambu, Victor Dan Eugen

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this paper was to present our 3-year multicenter experience in creating a vascular access using the basilic vein. The third choice in creating vascular access is the brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula (AVFs) with transposition of the basilic vein. During 2010-2012, out of a total of 874 AVFs that were performed in our two centers, 54 were brachiobasilic fistulas (6.71%), performed on 54 patients. All surgical procedures were performed by two surgical teams, one for each center. There were no significant differences regarding the patients' age, sex, and comorbidities between the two centers. We reported a total of six postoperative complications (11.10%): two wound infections, two arm edemas, one hematoma, and one bleeding (due to a collateral ligature slippage), which required surgical intervention the same day. None of the other complications required another surgery. The first year patency rate was 89.79% (four fistulas failed due to thrombosis and one due to perforation) and the second year patency rate was 62.12%. The brachiobasilic AVF with transposition of the basilic vein, according to the latest guidelines, remains a well-documented and feasible third option in creating vascular access with better results than graft fistulas.

  2. Dural arteriovenous fistulas as a cause of intracranial hypertension due to impairment of cranial venous outflow

    PubMed Central

    Cognard, C.; Casasco, A.; Toevi, M.; Houdart, E.; Chiras, J.; Merland, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A retrospective study was carried out on 13 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) who presented with isolated or associated signs of intracranial hypertension.
METHODS—Nine patients presented with symptoms of intracranial hypertension at the time of diagnosis. Ocular fundoscopy available in 12 patients showed bilateral papilloedema in eight and optic disk atrophy in four. Clinical evolution was particularly noticeable in five patients because of chronic (two patients) or acute (after lumbar shunting or puncture: three patients, one death) tonsillar herniation.
RESULTS—Two patients had a type I fistula (drainage into a sinus, with a normal antegrade flow direction). The remaining 11 had type II fistulas (drainage into a sinus, with abnormal retrograde venous drainage into sinuses or cortical veins). Stenosis or thrombosis of the sinus(es) distal to the fistula was present in five patients. The cerebral venous drainage was abnormal in all patients.
CONCLUSION—Type II (and some type I) DAVFs may present as isolated intracranial hypertension mimicking benign intracranial hypertension. Normal cerebral angiography should be added as a fifth criterion of benign intracranial hypertension. The cerebral venous drainage pattern must be carefully studied by contralateral carotid and vertebral artery injections to correctly evaluate the impairment of the cerebral venous outflow. Lumbar CSF diversion (puncture or shunting) may induce acute tonsillar herniation and should be avoided absolutely. DAVF may induce intracranial hypertension, which has a poor long term prognosis and may lead to an important loss of visual acuity and chronic tonsillar herniation. Consequently, patients with intracranial hypertension must be treated, even agressively, to obliterate the fistula or at least to reduce the arterial flow and to restore a normal cerebral venous drainage. The endovascular treatment may associate arterial or transvenous

  3. Coincidental vascular anomalies at the foramen magnum: dural arteriovenous fistula and high flow aneurysm on perimedullary fistula.

    PubMed

    Gilard, V; Curey, S; Tollard, E; Proust, F

    2013-12-01

    We report the case of a 59-year-old woman admitted for a sudden headache due to a subarachnoid haemorrhage. On CT scan, the clots predominated into the posterior fossa without high-density in the sylvian or interhemispheric fissures. The vertebral angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula at the foramen magnum associated to an aneurysm of the cervical anterior spinal artery. Due to the high rebleeding risk of a dural shunt, we proposed curative treatment using microsurgical interruption of the intradural draining vein. On the postoperative angiography at 15-day follow-up, the 2 malformations were corrected and the outcome at 6 months was excellent. Based on the literature, we assess this exceptional association and suggest its possible management.

  4. [Intraoperative fluid therapy in infants with congestive heart failure due to intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Fernández, F J; Calderón-Seoane, E; Rodríguez-Peña, F; Torres-Morera, L M

    2016-05-01

    Pial arteriovenous fistula is a rare intracranial congenital malformation (0.1-1: 100,000). It has a high blood flow between one or more pial arteries and drains into the venous circulation. It is usually diagnosed during the childhood by triggering an intracranial hypertension and/or congestive heart failure due to left-right systemic shunt. It is a rare malformation with a complex pathophysiology. The perioperative anaesthetic management is not well established. We present a 6-month-old infant diagnosed with pial arteriovenous fistula with hypertension and congestive heart failure due to left-right shunt. He required a craniotomy and clipping of vascular malformation. Anaesthetic considerations in patients with this condition are a great challenge. It must be performed by multidisciplinary teams with experience in paediatrics. The maintenance of blood volume during the intraoperative course is very important. Excessive fluid therapy can precipitate a congestive heart failure or intracranial hypertension, and a lower fluid therapy may cause a tissue hypoxia due to the bleeding. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral arteriovenous fistula as vascular access for long-term chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kovalyov, Oleksiy O; Kostyuk, Oleksandr G; Tkachuk, Tetyana V

    To provide long-term vascular access in clinical oncology peripheral forearm veins (up to 95% of patients in Ukraine), central venous access and "complete implanted vascular systems" are used most often. Many oncology patients have contraindications to catheterization of superior vena cava. Besides, exploitation of central veins is associated with potential technical and infectious complications. The aim - to study short-term and long-term results of arteriovenous fistula exploitation as vascular access for continuous anticancer therapy. Peripheral venous bed status in 41 oncology patients taking long-term chemotherapy treatment is analyzed in the article. Doppler sonography, morphologic and immune histochemical analyses were used in the study. Doppler sonography found qualitative and quantitative changes in forearm veins at different time periods after initiation of chemotherapy in the majority of patients. The major morphologic manifestations of venous wall damage were chemical phlebitis, local or extended hardening of venous wall, venous thrombosis and extravasations with necrosis and subsequent paravasal tissue sclerosis. Alternative vascular access created in 12 patients completely met the adequacy criteria (safety, multiple use, longevity, realization of the designed therapy program). The conclusion was made about inapplicability of forearm veins for long-term administration of cytostatic agents. If it is impossible to use central veins, arteriovenous fistula can become an alternative vascular access.

  6. Novel use of infrared thermal imaging to predict arteriovenous fistula patency and maturation.

    PubMed

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Hodson, James; Field, Melanie; Inston, Nicholas

    2017-07-14

    The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred method of long-term haemodialysis. However, it has been shown to have a substantial rate of maturation failure. The formation of an AVF creates haemodynamic changes to blood flow in the arm with diversion of blood away from the distal circulation into the low pressure venous system, in turn, leading to thermal changes distally. In this study, we aimed to assess the novel use of infrared thermal imaging as a predictor of arteriovenous maturation. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 100 consecutive patients who had AVF formation from December 2015 to June 2016. Infrared thermal imaging was undertaken pre- and post-operatively on the day of surgery to assess thermal changes to the arms and to assess them as predictors of clinical patency and functional maturation. For clinical patency, infrared thermal imaging was found to have a positive predictive value of 88% and a negative predictive value of 86%. For functional maturation, it was found to have a positive predictive value of 84%, a negative predictive value of 95%. In addition, it was shown to have superiority to the commonly used intra-operative predictor of thrill as well as other independent pre-operative patient factors. Infrared thermal imaging has been found to be a very useful tool in accurately predicting fistula patency and maturation.

  7. Hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula-related complications and surgery in kidney graft recipients.

    PubMed

    Vajdič Trampuž, Barbara; Ponikvar, Rafael; Kandus, Aljoša; Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka

    2013-08-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) remains functional after kidney transplantation in many patients. The aim of this historical cohort study was to evaluate the data on AVF-related complications and surgery performed after kidney transplantation in our patients. The study cohort included the recipients of a kidney transplant with AVF complications between January 2006 and April 2012. 74 renal transplant recipients (47% male, mean age 51 ± 10, range 14 to 73 years) with complications related to AVF were analyzed. Among all AVFs, 51 (72%) were located in the forearm, nine (13%) in the upper arm, and 14 (15%) in the elbow. Complications occurred in 12.5% (74/592) of kidney graft recipients who were treated at our Outpatient Transplant Unit during the study period. The most common complication was painful thrombosis with or without thrombophlebitis, which occurred in 32 patients (43.2%). Other complications included growing aneurysms (27%, 20/74), venous hypertension with arm edema (8.1%, 6/74), distal hypoperfusion (8.1%, 6/74), high flow AVF with cardiac failure (8.1%, 6/74), trauma (1.3%, 1/74), and cosmetic appearance (4%, 3/74). Fifty-one surgical interventions were performed in 49 patients (mean age 52 ± 12, range 28 to 73 years). AVF closure was performed in 29/51 (56%) patients. Furthermore, an extirpation of aneurysm was performed in 12/51 (23%) and an extirpation of thrombosed AVF was performed in 1/51 (2%) patients, simple trombectomies were performed in 5/51 (10%) and a thrombectomy with reanastomosis was performed in 4/51 (8%) patients. One patient underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for underlying stenosis after surgery. The most common AVF-related complications in kidney graft recipients are painful thrombosis (often accompanied with thrombophlebitis) and growing aneurysms. Surgical intervention is performed in a significant proportion of patients, mainly AVF closure, aneurysm extirpation, and thrombectomy. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic

  8. Surgical Outcomes of Forearm Loop Arteriovenous Fistula Formation Using Tapered versus Non-Tapered Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sun; Seo, Pil Won; Ryu, Jae-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Background Tapered grafts, which have a smaller diameter on the arterial side, have been increasingly used for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) formation. We compared the outcomes of 4–6-mm tapered and 6-mm straight forearm loop arteriovenous grafts. Methods A total of 103 patients receiving forearm loop arteriovenous grafts between March 2005 and March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and separated into 2 groups (group A, 4- to 6-mm tapered grafts, n=78; group B, 6-mm straight grafts, n=25). In each group, complications and patency rates after surgery were assessed. Results Clinical characteristics and laboratory results, except for cerebrovascular disease history (group A, 7.7%; group B, 28.0%; p=0.014), were similar between the groups. No significant differences were found for individual complications. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed no significant differences in 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year patency rates between groups (61.8%, 44.9%, and 38.5% vs. 62.7%, 41.1%, and 35.3%, respectively). Conclusion We found no significant differences in complication and patency rates between the tapered and straight graft groups. If there are no differences in complication and patency between the two graft types, tapered grafts may be a valuable option for AVF formation in light of their other advantages. PMID:28180100

  9. Use of arteriovenous fistulae for home parenteral nutrition--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Azzam; Wood, Jonathan; Atturu, Gnanesh; Gouda, Mohammed R; Donnellan, Clare F; Burke, Dermot A

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of home parenteral nutrition (HPN), traditionally via tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) is associated with several complications, the commonest being catheter related bloodstream infections. We have reviewed the literature to investigate the use of arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) as a viable alternative to traditional routes for long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). A literature search was performed using the Medline database, PubMed and a Google Scholar search. Search terms (keywords) used were: parenteral AND nutrition AND arteriovenous AND fistula for Title and Abstract. Our search yielded 12 articles (1972-2012). Two were excluded because of foreign language and difficult retrieval. The final yield was 10 papers There were four case reports, six original papers (one Swedish, one French--both excluded), one abstract and one letter to the editor. There were 19 native AVF, 11 bovine grafts (BG), four synthetic grafts (SG) and 10 autologous venous grafts (AVG). The maximum recorded length of use was 86, 54, 16.7 and 300 months, respectively. Complication rates per fistula calculated from literature were 0.47, 1.18, 2.0 and 0.3 respectively. Apart from these results, a recent retrospective study (13) of 62 AVFs for HPN patients revealed an infection rate far lower than all types of CVC and a slightly higher occlusion rate than long-term CVCs. There is relatively little data regarding this method. AVFs have been used successfully for HPN in patients with poor vasculature, on hemodialysis or recurrent line sepsis. This technique perhaps warrants more thorough exploration. Further research is required.

  10. The Role of Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation and Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Browne, Leonard D; Bashar, Khalid; Griffin, Philip; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Stewart R; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Non-maturation and post-maturation venous stenosis are the primary causes of failure within arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). Although the exact mechanisms triggering failure remain unclear, abnormal hemodynamic profiles are thought to mediate vascular remodelling and can adversely impact on fistula patency. The review aims to clarify the role of shear stress on outward remodelling during maturation and evaluate the evidence supporting theories related to the localisation and development of intimal hyperplasia within AVFs. A systematic review of studies comparing remodelling data with hemodynamic data obtained from computational fluid dynamics of AVFs during and after maturation was conducted. Outward remodelling occurred to reduce or normalise the level of shear stress over time in fistulae with a large radius of curvature (curved) whereas shear stress was found to augment over time in fistulae with a small radius of curvature (straight) coinciding with minimal to no increases in lumen area. Although this review highlighted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting low and oscillating shear stress may stimulate the initiation and development of intimal medial thickening within AVFs. Further lines of evidence are needed to support the disturbed flow theory and outward remodelling findings before surgical configurations and treatment strategies are optimised to conform to them. This review highlighted that variation between the time of analysis, classification of IH, resolution of simulations, data processing techniques and omission of various shear stress metrics prevented forming pooling of data amongst studies. Standardised measurements and data processing techniques are needed to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between shear stress and intimal medial thickening. Advances in image acquisition and flow quantifications coupled with the increasing prevalence of longitudinal studies commencing from fistula creation offer viable techniques and

  11. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas--presentation, management and outcome in a single neurosurgical institution.

    PubMed

    Clark, S; Powell, G; Kandasamy, J; Lee, M; Nahser, H; Pigott, T

    2013-08-01

    To compare the outcome, with respect to treatment modality, of patients treated with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF). Retrospective cohort study of patients with SDAVF assessed at a single tertiary referral centre, between 1999 and 2009. Intervention type, pre-/ post-intervention Aminoff-Logue disability score (ALDS) and recurrence rate were obtained from medical records. 26 patients were identified with 23 receiving intervention. All patients initially received super selective angiogram, with 13 undergoing endovascular embolization at this stage, after discussion between the surgeon and interventional radiologist. Six patients who underwent embolization had a recurrence. The remaining 10 patients had fistulas marked during angiography, and were then treated surgically, after discussion. One of these recurred. The difference in recurrence rate between the two intervention types was not statistically significant. Fistulas treated with the embolization material onyx were twice as likely to recur as those treated with the alternative material, histoacryl-lipiodol. There was a statistically significant difference between the modes of intervention in relation to clinical outcome. Surgeries lead to an improvement in neurology, whereas treatment via embolization did not. Neurological improvement was seen in non-recurring cases, however deterioration in neurological function occurred with fistula recurrence. Super selective angiography is effective in defining the relevant vascular anatomy and allows for precise fistula localization during any potential subsequent surgery. Onyx was associated with a higher recurrence rate, suggesting it is less suitable as an embolization material for SDAVF treatment. Surgery appeared to correlate to reversal of neurological impairment seen at presentation, possibly due to a lower recurrence rate. The study is limited by small patient numbers, emphasizing the need for further studies of SDAVF patients.

  12. The Role of Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation and Failure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Leonard D.; Bashar, Khalid; Griffin, Philip; Kavanagh, Eamon G.; Walsh, Stewart R.; Walsh, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-maturation and post-maturation venous stenosis are the primary causes of failure within arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). Although the exact mechanisms triggering failure remain unclear, abnormal hemodynamic profiles are thought to mediate vascular remodelling and can adversely impact on fistula patency. Aim The review aims to clarify the role of shear stress on outward remodelling during maturation and evaluate the evidence supporting theories related to the localisation and development of intimal hyperplasia within AVFs. Methods A systematic review of studies comparing remodelling data with hemodynamic data obtained from computational fluid dynamics of AVFs during and after maturation was conducted. Results Outward remodelling occurred to reduce or normalise the level of shear stress over time in fistulae with a large radius of curvature (curved) whereas shear stress was found to augment over time in fistulae with a small radius of curvature (straight) coinciding with minimal to no increases in lumen area. Although this review highlighted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting low and oscillating shear stress may stimulate the initiation and development of intimal medial thickening within AVFs. Further lines of evidence are needed to support the disturbed flow theory and outward remodelling findings before surgical configurations and treatment strategies are optimised to conform to them. This review highlighted that variation between the time of analysis, classification of IH, resolution of simulations, data processing techniques and omission of various shear stress metrics prevented forming pooling of data amongst studies. Conclusion Standardised measurements and data processing techniques are needed to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between shear stress and intimal medial thickening. Advances in image acquisition and flow quantifications coupled with the increasing prevalence of longitudinal studies commencing from fistula

  13. Embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae with ONYX: Indications, techniques, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Rashmi; Shrivastava, Manish; Kumar, Nishant; Limaye, Uday

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the liquid embolic agent, ONYX, in the treatment of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) and to redefine the indications, techniques and outcomes of treatment with ONYX. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 25 DAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment with ONYX between February 2006 and July 2008. All patients of DAVF presenting in this period were treated with ONYX. Results: Anatomic cure (i.e., complete angiographic closure of the fistula) was achieved in a single session and through a single arterial pedicle injection in 21 out of 25 patients (cure rate of 84%). Out of four patients with residual fistulae, one achieved cure that was evident on a control angiogram obtained at 3 months while three had no vascular access for further embolization and so were referred for radiosurgery. There was only one recurrence seen in angiograms obtained at the end of one year and this patient was re-embolized successfully with ONYX. Complications were seen in two patients. Conclusion: ONYX embolization of DAVFs has revolutionized the endovascular treatment of DAVFs, achieving high cure rates in a single session with minimal complications. Transarterial ONYX embolization should be the first option for all locations, except cavernous DAVFs. PMID:20351988

  14. Clinical approach of using Onyx via transarterial access in treating tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanghong; Xu, Bin; Song, Donglei; Leng, Bing; Mao, Ying; Gu, Yuxiang; Liao, Yujun

    2014-11-01

    In this study, based on clinical presentation and angiographic findings, we try to investigate the possibility to do transarterial embolization using Onyx to treat tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (TDAVF). Particular attention will be given to the relationship between vascular anatomic characteristics and clinical management. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 26 patients with TDAVFs, who were treated via transarterial approach using Onyx (including three cases treating with balloon assisting) at our department from January 2005 to April 2010. The total obliterated rate was 85.7, 53.8, and 66.7% in the tentorial marginal, lateral, and medial subtype, respectively. Symptoms were improved significantly in the patients whose fistulas were totally and sub-totally obliterated. The mean follow-up duration was 2.9 years. After operation, patients' symptom was dramatically improved indicated by the decrease of individual modified Rankin scale (MRS). Only one patient suffered from temporary paralysis of cranial nerve (CN) III. All 26 patients were clinically stable and without any relapsed, increased, or new symptoms. All patients had resumed their normal activities until the latest follow-up. Treating the TDAVF via transarterial approach using Onyx maybe a feasible clinical practice. The fistula obliterated rate is highly related to the anatomic characteristic, and high complete obliterated rate can be achieved. Our preliminary results showed that Onyx injection with 'balloon assisting' technique can be helpful in some of the cases.

  15. The role of computed tomography in detecting splenic arteriovenous fistula and concomitant atrial myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Rroji, Arben; Bilaj, Fatmir; Qirinxhi, Denis; Vucini, Ortencia; Hasimi, Endri; Goda, Artan

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 45 Final Diagnosis: Arterio-venous fistula of the splean Symptoms: Lef-side abdominal pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Splenic arterial-venous fistula and atrial myxoma are not rare cases but the co-existence of both lesions in the same patient is unpublished so far. Case Report: A 45- year-old woman presented with vague left flank pain. She was initially scanned by B-dimensional echography, which revealed multiple enlarged hypo-echoic lesions in the splenic hilum. To further characterize the lesion, we performed computed tomography angiography (CTA). CTA showed dilatation of the splenic artery, and aneurismal dilatation of the splenic vein, associated with early opacification of the portal system. CTA showed also an intrasplenic venous aneurism, which was presumed to be the site of fistulous communication. Celiac arteriography confirmed the CTA findings. A left atrial mass was detected by cardiac echography, which was evaluated better by CTA, and was consistent with atrial myxoma. The patient underwent open surgery in different stage with resection of the atrial mass and spleen. The postoperative period was uneventful. Conclusions: This is a unique case in the literature, showing the coexistence of a dual-pathology splenic arterial venous fistula and atrial myxoma. PMID:24803978

  16. A radiation-induced meningioma "cures" a complex dural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William R; Link, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of spontaneous thrombosis of an extremely complex dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), believed to be previously incurable, after the development of a radiation-induced meningioma resulting from prior attempts to treat the fistula with radiosurgery. A very large DAVF was treated over the course of 3 decades with a combination of partial embolization and stereotactic radiosurgery with no angiographic or clinical treatment response at long-term follow-up. However, with the development of new neurologic symptoms 13 years after radiosurgery, a meningioma was found to have arisen in the previously irradiated field, and surprisingly, the fistula had spontaneously thrombosed. The meningioma was successfully removed. We discuss the unique pathophysiology of the radiation-induced meningioma causing this previously incurable DAVF progressing to obliteration. We also review the natural history of DAVFs, including reported rates of spontaneous occlusion, as well as the success of radiosurgery in their treatment. Finally, the incidence of radiosurgery-induced tumors, particularly meningiomas, is reviewed. The relationship between the spontaneous thrombosis of a DAVF and the radiation-induced meningioma is unique and has not previously been reported. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Simulations of the blood flow in the arterio-venous fistula for haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Jodko, Daniel; Obidowski, Damian; Reorowicz, Piotr; Jóźwik, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ciminio-Brescia arterio-venous fistula is a preferred vascular access for haemodialysis, but it is often associated with the development of vascular complications, due to changes in hemodynamic conditions. Computational fluid dynamics methods were involved to carry out seven simulations of the blood flow through the fistula for the patient specific (geometrical) case and various boundary conditions. The geometrical data, obtained from the angio-computed tomography, were used to create a 3-dimensional CAD model of the fistula. The blood flow patterns, blood velocity and the wall shear stress, thought to play a key role in the development of typical complications (stenoses, thromboses, aneurysms, etc.), have been analyzed in this study. The blood flow is reversed locally downstream the anastomosis (where the artery is connected to the vein) and downstream the stenosis in the cannulated vein. Blood velocity reaches abnormal value in the anastomosis during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle (2.66 m/s). The wall shear stress changes in this place during a single cycle of the heart operation from 27.9 to 71.3 Pa (average 41.5 Pa). The results are compared with data found in the literature.

  18. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B.

  19. Cognard Type V intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting in a pediatric patient with rapid, progressive myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Jermakowicz, Walter J; Weil, Alexander G; Vlasenko, Artyom; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Niazi, Toba N

    2017-08-01

    Cognard Type V dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are a unique type of cranial vascular malformation characterized by congestion of the perimedullary venous system that may lead to devastating spinal cord pathology if left untreated. The authors present the first known case of a pediatric patient diagnosed with a Type V dAVF. A 14-year-old girl presented with a 3-week history of slowly progressive unilateral leg weakness that quickly progressed to bilateral leg paralysis, sphincter dysfunction, and complete sensory loss the day of her presentation. MRI revealed an extensive T2 signal change in the cervical spine and tortuous perimedullary veins along the entire length of the cord. An emergency cranial angiogram showed a Type V dAVF fed by the posterior meningeal artery with drainage into the perimedullary veins of the cervical spine. The fistula was not amenable to embolization because vascular access was difficult; therefore, the patient underwent urgent suboccipital craniotomy and ligation of the arterialized venous drainage from the fistula. The patient's clinical course immediately reversed; she had a complete recovery over the course of a year, and she remains asymptomatic at the 2-year follow-up. This report adds to a growing body of evidence that describes the diverse and unpredictable nature of Type V dAVFs and highlights the need to obtain a cranial angiogram in pediatric patients with unexplained myelopathy and cervical cord T2 signal change on MRI.

  20. Endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula with pure cortical venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Miyake, Kosuke; Kunieda, Takenobu; Murao, Kenichi

    2014-07-01

    Curative endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) with pure cortical venous drainage is challenging because of its rarity, lack of accessible dural sinus for transvenous embolization (TVE), and proximity of skull base vital regions. Direct surgery to disconnect venous reflux has been favored. We report the curative endovascular treatment of two sphenoid wing dAVFs with pure cortical venous drainage. One patient revealed complete obliteration of dAVF by a single session of transarterial embolization (TAE). As part of strategic TAE for this complex dAVF, we used a novel approach to create a complete flow-arrest condition in which coils and an occlusion balloon were combined. A liquid agent was then injected across the pathological fistula and into the parent venous apparatus, thereby occluding the lesion. The other patient was treated with percutaneous TVE after TAE was unsuccessful. With a specific strategy and appropriate devices, the microcatheter was successfully introduced through sigmoid sinus, transverse sinus, superior sagittal sinus, and refluxing cortical vein by puncture of the jugular vein. Coils were deployed at the venous side of the fistula, resulting in successful obliteration of the dAVF. Sphenoid wing dAVF with pure cortical venous drainage could be curable by endovascular treatment with proper strategy and instruments when anatomical condition permits.

  1. [A tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting progressive myelopathy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tomonori; Toyoda, Keisuke; So, Gohei; Morofuji, Yoichi; Horie, Nobutaka; Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2011-06-01

    Abstract We report a case of a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the tentorium cerebelli, which presented progressive myelopathy. A 68-year-old man with neurological deterioration of the cervical myelopathy visited our hospital. T2 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed high signal area and edema from the medulla to the upper thoracic spinal cord with flow voids on the dorsal surface of the cord. Angiography showed right tentorial DAVF, which was supplied by the right meningohypophyseal trunk, the middle meningeal artery, the accessory meningeal artery, and was drained into the posterior spinal veins. The patient underwent right retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy, then disruption of the fistula was performed by using micro Doppler sonography following endovascular obliteration of the main feeders. Postoperative angiography showed complete obliteration of the fistula. His daily functioning gradually improved up to 6 months after the surgery. Tentorial DAVFs with clinical manifestation of myelopathy are rare. Considering its aggressive nature, early surgical treatment could be necessary. (Received: November 17, 2010, Accepted: December 18, 2010).

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of upper arm transposed arteriovenous fistulae and upper arm prosthetic grafts.

    PubMed

    Woo, Karen; Doros, Gheorghe; Ng, Tina; Farber, Alik

    2009-12-01

    Direct comparison of transposed arteriovenous fistulas (tAVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVG) has been hampered by inherent differences in patient characteristics between tAVF and AVG groups. In this study, using matching to control patient variables, we evaluated our outcomes with upper arm tAVF and upper arm prosthetic AVG. A retrospective review of all newly created upper arm tAVF and AVG was performed. One hundred ninety upper arm tAVF were group matched for age, gender, race, diabetes, and history of previous failed access with 168 AVG chosen from a pool of 476 concurrently performed AVG procedures. Complication, patency, and intervention rates were compared using multivariate analysis. Mean follow up for our cohort was 29.1 months. Transposed fistulae consisted of 119 basilic vein and 71 cephalic vein transpositions, which were found to have similar demographic parameters, complication rates, and patency rates. There were no differences in 30 day mortality, 24 hour thrombosis, bleeding requiring exploration, or ischemic steal requiring intervention between the tAVF and AVG groups. More AVG developed infection requiring operative exploration than tAVF (7.9% vs 1.6%, respectively. P = .004). Primary patency for tAVF was higher than for AVG: 48% vs 14% at five years (P < .0001). Secondary patency rate for tAVF was also higher than for AVG: 57% vs 19% at five years (P < .0001). Nine percent of tAVF compared with 53% of AVG required one or more surgical and/or percutaneous revisions to maintain secondary patency (P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that utilization of a tAVF was associated with a reduced risk of primary (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.35-0.64, P < .0001) and secondary failure (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42-0.81, P = .0001). Transposed arteriovenous fistulas have significantly higher primary and secondary patency rates, require fewer revisions, and are less likely to develop a significant infection than AVG. This study supports

  3. The effect of in-plane arterial curvature on blood flow and oxygen transport in arterio-venous fistulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, F.; Grechy, L.; Corbett, R. W.; Gedroyc, W.; Duncan, N.; Caro, C. G.; Vincent, P. E.

    2015-03-01

    Arterio-Venous Fistulae (AVF) are the preferred method of vascular access for patients with end stage renal disease who need hemodialysis. In this study, simulations of blood flow and oxygen transport were undertaken in various idealized AVF configurations. The objective of the study was to understand how arterial curvature affects blood flow and oxygen transport patterns within AVF, with a focus on how curvature alters metrics known to correlate with vascular pathology such as Intimal Hyperplasia (IH). If one subscribes to the hypothesis that unsteady flow causes IH within AVF, then the results suggest that in order to avoid IH, AVF should be formed via a vein graft onto the outer-curvature of a curved artery. However, if one subscribes to the hypothesis that low wall shear stress and/or low lumen-to-wall oxygen flux (leading to wall hypoxia) cause IH within AVF, then the results suggest that in order to avoid IH, AVF should be formed via a vein graft onto a straight artery, or the inner-curvature of a curved artery. We note that the recommendations are incompatible—highlighting the importance of ascertaining the exact mechanisms underlying development of IH in AVF. Nonetheless, the results clearly illustrate the important role played by arterial curvature in determining AVF hemodynamics, which to our knowledge has been overlooked in all previous studies.

  4. Ipsilateral jugular access to treat an otherwise inaccessible puncture-related arteriovenous fistula pseudoaneurysm: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Rabellino, Martin; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Peralta, Oscar; Shinzato, Sergio; Crucelegui, Maria Soledad; Serra, Diego; Garcia-Monaco, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The standard approach for the endovascular treatment of a dysfunctional or occluded hemodialysis access in the upper limbs includes a direct intervention through the access itself or alternatively, when not feasible, through the brachial or radial artery access. Nonetheless, there are certain circumstances in which these approaches are not easily achieved. An 89-year-old male with end-stage renal disease developed a pseudoaneurysm after an hemorrhagic complication of a recently transposed native basilic arteriovenous fistula secondary to a needle puncture. Dehiscence of the injured access with spontaneous arterial bleeding evolved as a consequence of the upper limb swelling, rendering therapeutic intervention of the access through a conventional route impossible. A fistulogram through puncture of the common femoral artery was performed to obtain an accurate diagnosis. However, this approach was insufficient to advance the covered stent with the intention of excluding the pseudoaneurysm, as the stent delivery system could not reach the desired site. Given that the covered stent insertion required a 9 Fr introducer, the radial artery approach was ruled out. Therefore, we chose a venous access via the ipsilateral internal jugular vein, which was punctured under ultrasound guidance. This strategy was useful to advance the stent and exclude the pseudoaneurysm successfully. This technique should be considered for those individuals in whom conventional routes of approach for repairing dialysis accesses are not feasible or are extremely risky.

  5. Assessment of effects of upper extremity exercise with arm tourniquet on maturity of arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Majd Nassiri, Gilda; Moradi, Maryam; Keshavarzian, Amir; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Saleki, Mohammad; Nikpoor, Azimeh; Ghane, Massoomeh

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of hand exercise using a tourniquet on arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturity in patients with end stage renal disease.
 Fifty patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups with 25 patients. After creating an AVF, in the control group, patients were asked to start doing simple hand exercise- opening and closing the fingers. In the second groups, patients underwent a structured isometric exercise program. The pre exercise and post exercise ultrasound examination were performed in the first 24 hours and 2 weeks after the operation respectively. Patients were also clinically evaluated at the end of the study.
 Post exercise ultrasound showed significant difference in the draining vein diameter, vein wall thickness, vein area and blood flow rate (BFR) (p-value: 0.009, 0.04, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively). The number of patients who had clinically mature AVFs in the case group was significantly more than the control group (13 vs. 5; p-value: 0.008).
 We conclude that hand exercise using arm tourniquet affects most sonographic parameters which are associated with AVF maturity, and could be beneficial for acceleration of AVF clinical maturation.

  6. Surgical treatment for ruptured dural arteriovenous fistula with large intracranial hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xianwang; Wang, Haifeng; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Shengjun; Gao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The rupture of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a serious complication endangering the lives of patients. It is difficult to treat such ruptured DAVF with large intracranial hematoma since lacking of early diagnostic methods. Meanwhile, there was no consensus of how to surgically treat these patients in early stage. In this study, we tried to use 4D-CTA to diagnose DAVF and guide surgical treatment. Based on the result of 4D-CTA, we attempted to eliminate DAVF at the same time we removed hematoma. The result was encouraging. 7 patients with ruptured DAVF presented as large spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were included in this research between May, 2010 and August, 2012 in our hospital. 4D-CTA was performed in all cases. All results of 4D-CTA inspections were studied by both neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist. The therapeutic options were evaluated based on the clinical and angiographic results. All fistulas of seven patients were eliminated at the same time the hematoma being evacuated. 4D-CTA was sufficient for detecting and recognizing basic vessel angioarchitecture of DAVF to guide surgical treatment. Main arterial supplies, fistula location and CVDs found during surgery are consistent with the results 4D-CTA. All seven cases achieved completely fistula occlusion in operation without new neurological complication. We favor one stage surgical treatment for ruptured DAVF with large intracranial hemorrhage. 4D-CTA plays an important role in preoperative emergent inspection for its safety, rapidity and accuracy. However, it still needs further and larger investigations to optimize such treatment methods and to find out other potential risks. PMID:25664027

  7. Endovascular Creation of an Arteriovenous Fistula (endoAVF) for Hemodialysis Access: First Results.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Christoph Georg; Radosa, Julia Caroline; Weiss, Norbert; Schmidt, Christine; Werth, Sebastian; Hofmockel, Thomas; Plodeck, Verena; Gatzweiler, Christian; Laniado, Michael; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    2017-08-07

    Surgical creation of a radiocephalic fistula is the gold standard of vascular access for hemodialysis. Recently, an endovascular approach for upper arm fistula creation (endoAVF) has been developed, which may be an alternative to open surgery. We describe a case series of eight cases showing feasibility, early complications and outcome of this novel treatment option. Between July 2015 and February 2016, we created an endoAVF in eight patients. Indications for endoAVF were confirmed by a multidisciplinary vascular board upon the exclusion for Cimino fistula candidates. Patients were suitable for the procedure after a pre-therapeutic ultrasound showed adequate brachial and ulnar vessels and no ipsilateral central venous stenosis. Patient characteristics, technical success, total patient radiation dose, complication rates, time to maturation of endoAVF and clinical effectiveness at six months were assessed retrospectively. Creation of endoAVF using the everlinQ endoAVF system (TVA Medical Inc., Austin, TX, USA) was successful in all eight cases. There were one minor intraprocedural complication and no postoperative complications. Median time to endoAVF maturation was 63 days (range 26-137 days). One patient was lost to follow-up after the first monitoring visit. In the remaining seven patients, hemodialysis was started without problems. Patency after 6 months was 100%. The endoAVF demonstrated to be feasible and safe for the creation of arteriovenous fistula suitable for hemodialysis access. Further studies with more patients and longer follow-up periods are needed to assess long-term outcomes and comparability to surgical dialysis access creation.

  8. Onyx extrusion through the scalp after embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Amit; Fargen, Kyle Michael; Hoh, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A man in his sixties referred with symptoms of episodic left lip numbness and left arm weakness was diagnosed with a Borden type 3 dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) on DSA. Successful Onyx embolization of the DAVF was performed via the distal left occipital artery using an ev3 Apollo detachable tip microcatheter. He underwent surgical obliteration for the residual DAVF 3 days later. Three months later during a routine postoperative clinic visit, the patient produced a plastic bag containing multiple small pieces of Onyx cast and the detached tip of the Apollo microcatheter that had extruded out from his scalp through small spontaneous holes about 5 weeks after the embolization procedure. This spontaneous extrusion of Onyx can be alarming to the patient not expecting it; however, prior knowledge and discussion can lessen the anxiety of both the treating physician and the patient dealing with such a situation. PMID:26220981

  9. Refractory Spontaneous Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Rare Presentation of an Intracranial Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The author has encountered a 67-year-old man with dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) presenting as a non-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). This previously healthy patient was hospitalized due to progressive headache with subacute onset. He underwent burr-hole surgery twice for evacuating the left CSDH that was thickest at the posterior temporal area. The operative procedure and finding was not extraordinary, but subdural hematoma slowly progressed for days following the revision surgery. After investigation by super-selective external carotid angiography, a dural AVF found near the transverse-sigmoid sinus was diagnosed. Dural AVF was completely occluded with trans-arterial injecting polyvinyl alchol particles into the petrosquamosal branch of the middle meningeal artery. The patient showed a good neurological outcome with no additional intervention. Brain surgeons have to consider the possibility of dural AVF and perform cerebral angiogram if necessary when they manage the cases that have a spontaneously occurred and repeatedly recurring CSDH. PMID:28184348

  10. [A case of multiple arteriovenous fistulae in a postphlebitic syndrome of longterm evolution].

    PubMed

    Delgado Daza, R; Moga Donadeu, L; Mañosa Bonamich, J; Muncunill Gil, J; Vidal Conde, V

    1992-01-01

    Authors report a case of a 77-years-old man who, after an accident of traffic on 1968, presented a left ileo-femoral deep venous thrombosis. Consequently, the patient suffered and important postphlebitic syndrome, with several varicose packs which were treated by surgical procedure in other centre. During several years, patient presented severe trophic diseases. Seventeen years after the beginning of his pathology, and during an angiologic examination, multiple arteriovenous fistulas at the left ileofemoral area have been shown. An skeletalization was impossible because of the severe ulcerations of the leg; so a left iliac arterial ligature and a Dacron Banding in primitive iliac artery, reducing a 50% the diameter, were made. The postoperative result was excellent, with an spectacular reduction of the fistulous communications and a complete remission of the cutaneous ulcerations.

  11. Endovascular management of sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistula associated with sinus stenosis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Benifla, Moni; Itshayek, Eyal; Moscovici, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    A 4-month-old female presented with a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which was successfully managed using endovascular techniques. There are very few case series reporting DAVF in infants younger than 12 months and, to our knowledge, only 60 pediatric patients with DAVF have been reported to date. Although most DAVF have a benign course, they can result in life-threatening hemorrhage. Endovascular therapies are usually indicated in the management of these neurosurgical vascular malformations. Endovascular therapy of DAVF in neonatal patients presents some major issues. Gaining arterial access may be problematic in femoral arteries too small for the introduction of a sizeable guiding catheter. The volumes of contrast and infused fluids must be carefully monitored to prevent fluid overload. Radiation exposure should be restricted as far as possible. This report contributes to the limited body of evidence on neonatal DAVF and its endovascular management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Liposomal prednisolone inhibits vascular inflammation and enhances venous outward remodeling in a murine arteriovenous fistula model.

    PubMed

    Wong, ChunYu; Bezhaeva, Taisiya; Rothuizen, Tonia C; Metselaar, Josbert M; de Vries, Margreet R; Verbeek, Floris P R; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Wezel, Anouk; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Rabelink, Ton J; Quax, Paul H A; Rotmans, Joris I

    2016-07-27

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) for hemodialysis access have a 1-year primary patency rate of only 60%, mainly as a result of maturation failure that is caused by insufficient outward remodeling and intimal hyperplasia. The exact pathophysiology remains unknown, but the inflammatory vascular response is thought to play an important role. In the present study we demonstrate that targeted liposomal delivery of prednisolone increases outward remodeling of the AVF in a murine model. Liposomes accumulate in the post-anastomotic area of the venous outflow tract in which the vascular pathology is most prominent in failed AVFs. On a histological level, we observed a reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the vascular wall. In addition, a strong anti-inflammatory effect of liposomal prednisolone on macrophages was demonstrated in vitro. Therefore, treatment with liposomal prednisolone might be a valuable strategy to improve AVF maturation.

  13. Liposomal prednisolone inhibits vascular inflammation and enhances venous outward remodeling in a murine arteriovenous fistula model

    PubMed Central

    Wong, ChunYu; Bezhaeva, Taisiya; Rothuizen, Tonia C.; Metselaar, Josbert M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Verbeek, Floris P. R.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Wezel, Anouk; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Rabelink, Ton J.; Quax, Paul H. A.; Rotmans, Joris I.

    2016-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) for hemodialysis access have a 1-year primary patency rate of only 60%, mainly as a result of maturation failure that is caused by insufficient outward remodeling and intimal hyperplasia. The exact pathophysiology remains unknown, but the inflammatory vascular response is thought to play an important role. In the present study we demonstrate that targeted liposomal delivery of prednisolone increases outward remodeling of the AVF in a murine model. Liposomes accumulate in the post-anastomotic area of the venous outflow tract in which the vascular pathology is most prominent in failed AVFs. On a histological level, we observed a reduction of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the vascular wall. In addition, a strong anti-inflammatory effect of liposomal prednisolone on macrophages was demonstrated in vitro. Therefore, treatment with liposomal prednisolone might be a valuable strategy to improve AVF maturation. PMID:27460883

  14. Acute Paraplegia After Lumbar Steroid Injection in Patients With Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformations. However, SDAVFs are still underdiagnosed entities because their clinical symptoms are usually non-specific, as they include low back pain or radiating pain to the limb. There have been several reports of acute paraplegia after lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with SDAVFs. We present 4 patients with SDAVFs who received lumbar steroid injection. Among the 4 cases, acute paraplegia developed in 2 cases that received a larger volume of injectate than the other cases. Thus, we are suggesting that the volume of injectate may be a contributing factor for acute paraplegia after lumbar steroid injection in patients with SDAVFs. PMID:27847727

  15. Pantaloon vein graft technique in tibial revascularization with arteriovenous fistula for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Sogaro, F; Galeazzi, E; Amroch, D; Ganassin, L

    1996-06-01

    Graft patency and limb salvage in 91 successive patients operated upon between April 1989 and April 1994 with a human umbilical vein graft combined with an adjunctive arteriovenous fistula at the distal anastomosis of the prosthetic graft in a single limb were evaluated. All the patients operated on were in the 'limb salvage' category. On discharge from hospital 91% of the revascularized limbs were salvaged. Secondary cumulative patency at 57 months was 57.3% with a 61.5% limb salvage rate. This technique, which has anatomical and haemodynamic advantages, results in improved graft patency and foot salvage rates in patients with critical leg ischaemia and poor distal run-off when autologous saphenous vein is absent or cannot be used.

  16. Treatment of an Unusual Complication of Endovenous Laser Therapy: Multiple Small Arteriovenous Fistulas Causing Complete Recanalization

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Erkan; Saba, Tonguc Ozulku, Mehmet; Harman, Ali Aytekin, Cuneyt Boyvat, Fatih

    2009-01-15

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our institution with pain, night cramping, and visible varicose veins on her left leg. Doppler ultrasonography revealed continuous reflux in the great saphenous vein when the patient did the Valsalva maneuver. Endovenous laser therapy was applied to the great saphenous vein. Doppler ultrasonography 7 days later showed recanalization of, and arterialized flow in, the great saphenous vein. There also were small arterial vessels adjunct to the recanalized side. A left femoral angiography via a right femoral approach showed multiple small arteriovenous fistulas between superficial femoral artery muscle branches and the great saphenous vein. A second endovenous laser treatment was done at 80 J/cm, but the recanalization persisted. We offered to treat this endovascularly, but the patient preferred a surgical option. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the demonstration of such a complication with endovenous laser therapy.

  17. [A case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Ito, Ai; Ii, Yuichiro; Higashigawa, Takatoshi; Murashima, Shuichi; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of spectacular shrinking deficit caused by paradoxical cerebral embolism through pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF). A 79-year-old female suddenly developed right hemiplegia, paresthesia, and speech disturbance symptoms that were improved within 20 min, indicating a diagnosis of spectacular shrinking deficit. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute cerebral infarcts in the left parietal cortex of the left middle cerebral arterial territory. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan revealed a pulmonary AVF in the middle lobe of the right lung. The patient had deep venous thrombosis in her left lower leg. She had no clinical signs of telangiectasia, did not exhibit recurrent epistaxis, and had no family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Therefore, she was diagnosed with paradoxical cerebral embolism secondary to the pulmonary AVF without HHT. Pulmonary AVF should be considered in patients with cerebral embolism, even when presenting with spectacular shrinking deficit.

  18. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type I Misdiagnosed as a Giant Aneurysm *

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, G.; Assmann, U.; Bender, A.; Lehmann, T. N.; Lanksch, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    Summary A 59-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented with bruits and neck pain due to a space occupying lesion in the right neck tissue. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the right extracranial vertebral artery (VA) with a giant venous pouch and an intracranial berry aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). First, the MCA aneurysm was surgically clipped, then the patient was treated by embolisation with coils. The coils were placed transarterially from the left VA resulting in a partial thrombosis of the venous pouch. Complete closure was achieved secondarily by retrograde transvenous catheterization. Etiology and treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:20667184

  19. Focal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting with progressive cognitive impairment including amnesia and alexia.

    PubMed

    Hasumi, Takashi; Fukushima, Takeshi; Haisa, Toshihiko; Yonemitsu, Tsutomu; Waragai, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presented with progressive cognitive impairment including amnesia and alexia. Neuroradiological studies showed a relatively confined DAVF lesion in the left temporal lobe. The patient did not have a history of trauma and did not complain of headache or tinnitus. Amnesia and alexia dramatically improved upon treatment of the DAVF, and this was associated with attenuation of an abnormal MRI signal in the left temporal lobe. The results suggest that gradually impaired cerebral circulation due to focal venous hypertensive encephalopathy localized to the left temporal lobe and resulting from a DAVF could be involved in slowly progressive amnesia and alexia. The case also shows that an intracranial DAVF may present as a variety of neurological symptoms, depending on its localization, size and clinical stage.

  20. Pre-existing arterial pathologic changes affecting arteriovenous fistula patency and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Young Ok

    2017-09-01

    The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) provides optimal vascular access for hemodialysis; it has a higher long-term patency rate and fewer complications than other vascular access methods. However, the AVF has a high primary failure rate. The presence of small-diameter vessels at anastomosis sites is an important risk factor for AVF failure. However, in a recent study, despite selecting an adequate artery and vein for creating an AVF by routine preoperative vascular mapping, AVF maturation and primary failure occurred. Thus, pre-existing arteriosclerosis at AVF anastomosis sites likely contributes to AVF failure. In this review, we discuss the relationship between pathologic changes and AVF patency in hemodialysis patients. Because arteriosclerosis of the major arteries such as the coronary and carotid arteries is associated with cardiovascular mortality, we also review the impact of arteriosclerosis of upper arm arteries at AVF anastomosis sites on cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

  1. Onyx extrusion through the scalp after embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Singla, Amit; Fargen, Kyle Michael; Hoh, Brian

    2015-07-28

    A man in his sixties referred with symptoms of episodic left lip numbness and left arm weakness was diagnosed with a Borden type 3 dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) on DSA. Successful Onyx embolization of the DAVF was performed via the distal left occipital artery using an ev3 Apollo detachable tip microcatheter. He underwent surgical obliteration for the residual DAVF 3 days later. Three months later during a routine postoperative clinic visit, the patient produced a plastic bag containing multiple small pieces of Onyx cast and the detached tip of the Apollo microcatheter that had extruded out from his scalp through small spontaneous holes about 5 weeks after the embolization procedure. This spontaneous extrusion of Onyx can be alarming to the patient not expecting it; however, prior knowledge and discussion can lessen the anxiety of both the treating physician and the patient dealing with such a situation.

  2. Comparison of Time-Resolved and First-Pass Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography in Pretherapeutic Evaluation of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Bharatha, A; Huynh, T J; Aviv, R I; Symons, S P

    2017-01-01

    Different MRA techniques used to evaluate spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas offer unique advantages and limitations with regards to temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and interobserver agreement of 2 commonly used contrast-enhanced spinal MRA techniques, multiphase time-resolved MRA and single-phase first-pass MRA, in assessment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Retrospective review of 15 time-resolved and 31 first-pass MRA studies in patients with clinical suspicion of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula was performed by 2 independent, blinded observers. DSA was used as the reference standard to compare the diagnostic performance of the 2 techniques. There were 10 cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula in the time-resolved MRA group and 20 in the first-pass MRA group. Time-resolved MRA detected spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 80%, respectively, with 100% correct-level localization rate. First-pass MRA detected spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 82%, respectively, with 87% correct-level localization rate. Interobserver agreement for localization was excellent for both techniques; however, it was higher for time-resolved MRA. In 5 cases, the site of fistula was not included in the FOV, but a prominent intradural radicular vein was observed at the edge of the FOV. Multiphase time-resolved MRA and single-phase first-pass MRA were comparable in diagnosis and localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and demonstrated excellent interobserver agreement, though there were more instances of ambiguity in fistula localization on first-pass MRA. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Communicating Fistula Between Colocutan and Nephrocutan With Renal Stones and Renal Replacement Lipomatosis. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soeprijanto, Bambang; Djatisoesanto, Wahjoe; Sandhika, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Colocutaneous fistula with nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare condition. Renal replacement lipomatosis is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma. We report a 60-year-old male with intermittent drainage mucus and fluid from ulcer of his right lumbar region. Renal ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray revealed a chronic parenchymal disease with stone of the right kidney. Fistulography showed a fistula tract connecting the skin and the right pelvicalyceal system and the colon. Computerized tomography demonstrated a renal calculus with a massive fatty proliferation. The patient was planned for right nephrectomy and excision of the sinus tract.

  4. Sulodexide may alleviate neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting angiopoietin‑2 in an arteriovenous fistula model.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yan; Zheng, Zhihua; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yuyun; Liu, Rongjun; Xu, Qingdong; Yu, Xueqing

    2013-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to confirm whether sulodexide aleviates neointimal hyperplasia by regulating angiopoietin/Tie in a rat femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) model. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, model, treatment and treatment control. An arteriovenous shunt model was created in the model and treatment groups. Sulodexide was subcutaneously administered (10 mg/kg/day) 6 times per week for 8 weeks in the treatment and treatment control groups. Histology and immunofluorescence were analyzed and the protein expression of angiopoietin‑1, angiopoietin‑2, Tie‑2, p‑ERK and total‑ERK were tested by ELISA and/or western blotting after 8 weeks. HE staining revealed that sulodexide was able to partially alleviate intimal hyperplasia of remodeled veins in the AVF model. Additionally, sulodexide was able to decrease angiopoietin‑2 and Tie‑2 expression while increasing angiopoietin‑1 expression in AVF tissue. Sulodexide was also able to decrease ERK phosphorylation which was increased in the model. Serum levels of soluble Tie-2 (sTie‑2) were also significantly decreased by sulodexide compared with the model. Immunofluorescent analysis also confirmed that sulodexide was able to decrease angiopoietin‑2 expression, possibly partially by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Sulodexide may alleviate venous intimal hyperplasia by regulating the angiopoietin/Tie system, which may play a significant role in assisting remodeled veins to cope with their new biomechanical environment, but whether the angiopoietin/Tie system is beneficial or not requires further study.

  5. Three-dimensional Computational Simulation and In-vitro Experiments for Assessing Radiocephalic Wrist Arteriovenous Fistulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ryungeun; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Jinkee

    2016-11-01

    A radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) is the best choice for achieving vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis, but this AVF has high rates of early failure depending on the vessel condition. The high wall shear stress (WSS) contributes to VA failures due to plaque rupture, thrombosis, etc. Thus, we have used a low-Re k- ɛ turbulence based CFD model combined with an in-vitro experimental approach to evaluate the WSS distribution and to minimize its effects under several conditions. The properties considered in this study were non-Newtonian flow characteristics, complete cardiac pulse cycle, and distention of blood vessels. The computational domain was designed for arteriovenous end-to-side anastomosis based on anastomosis angles of 45°, 90°, and 135°. For experiment the digital domains were converted into 3D artificial RC-AVF via poly(dimethylsiloxame) (PDMS) and 3D printing technology. The micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) was used to measure the velocity field within the artificial blood vessel. The results showed that the largest anastomosis angle (135°) resulted in lower WSS, which would help reduce AVF failures. This research would provide the future possibility of using the proposed method to reduce in-vivo AVF failure for various conditions in each patient.

  6. New concept in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: correlation with presenting symptom and venous drainage patterns.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Sang Joon; Chung, Sun Ju; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Chang Jin; Kook, Michael; Ahn, Hyo-Sook; Kwon, Sun Uck; Kim, Jong Sung

    2005-06-01

    An extradurally located cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) exhibits different clinical behavior from other dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) located between 2 dural leaves. The aim of this study is to define angiographic types of CSDAVF associated with presenting symptom (Sx) and venous drainage patterns. CSDAVFs during a mean of 23-month follow-up period of 58 patients (17 to 73 years, male:female ratio=8:50) were retrospectively analyzed. The 3 types of CSDAF, ie, proliferative (PT), restrictive (RT), and late restrictive (LRT) types, were categorized by the degrees and patterns of prominent arteriovenous shunt as well as venous flow. The status of the venous connection with CS and the presenting Sx patterns classified as orbital (OrbSxP), ocular (OcuSxP), cavernous (CavSxP), and cerebral (CerSxP) were associated with angiographic types as well as symptom onset, age, and gender. Correlations of discrete and categorical variables were statistically analyzed using the chi2 or Fisher exact test. PT (n=23) and RT (n=23) of CSDAVF were more common than LRT (n=12) (P=0.016) in patients with younger than 65 years and were related to OrbSxP (P=0.015) and CavSxP (P=0.038) in contrast to LRT to OcuSxP (P=0.004). Early onset of Sxs was related to the OrbSxP (P=0.08) and CavSxP (P<0.001). CerSxP (5%) was noted in RT or LRT. OrbSxP was related to the superior ophthalmic venous drainage (P=0.026) and CavSxP to the inferior petrosal sinus (P=0.046) and posterior fossa venous drainages (P=0.014). Seven patients revealed chronological progression of CSDAVF from PT to LRT and even to complete healing. CSDAVF presents as 3 distinctive angiographic types and is associated with presenting Sxs and venous drainage patterns.

  7. Is Brachial Artery Blood Flow Measured by Sonography During Early Postoperative Periods Predictive of Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Hemodialysis Patients?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Li; Ding, Hong; Fan, Pei-Li; Gu, Qi-Lan; Teng, Jie; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our study was to determine a brachial artery blood flow level measured by sonography during early postoperative periods that is predictive of arteriovenous fistula failure in hemodialysis patients. Doppler sonography was used to estimate the blood flow in the brachial artery of 103 patients at 1 and 14 days after arteriovenous fistula creation. The performance of brachial artery blood flow during early postoperative periods for predicting fistula failure was evaluated, and optimal cutoff values were determined. During a 6-month follow-up, 85 fistulas were classified as mature, and 18 were classified as failures. The reproducibility of blood flow measurements in the brachial artery was good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.912). The blood flow in the failure group was significantly lower than that in the mature group at both 1 and 14 days after fistula creation (P < .05). During the first 2 postoperative weeks, the blood flow increased by 40.7% in the failure group versus 78.3% in the mature group. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of brachial artery blood flow for predicting failure were 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.87; optimal cutoff value, 310 mL/min)at 1 day and 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.99; 413 mL/min) at 14 days after fistula creation. Brachial artery blood flow measured by sonography during early postoperative periods may be predictive of forearm fistula failure. Blood flow of less than 310 mL/min at 1 day and 413 mL/min at 14 days after fistula creation may indicate a risk of failure to mature.

  8. Endovascular Coil Embolization in a Postnephrostomy Renal Vein to Renal Pelvis Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Anil, Gopinathan Taneja, Manish

    2011-02-15

    We report the case of a 74-year-old man with post-percutaneous-nephrostomy venous hemorrhage from an iatrogenic fistula between the renal pelvis and a large tributary of the renal vein. Conservative management failed to contain the hemorrhage. Hence the fistula was occluded by coil embolization through the renal vein. This endovascular approach enabled rapid and effective stoppage of the venous bleed.There was no recurrence of the bleed or any pertinent complication at 3-month follow-up.

  9. Effect of cryotherapy on arteriovenous fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    P. B., Sabitha; Khakha, D. C.; Mahajan, S.; Gupta, S.; Agarwal, M.; Yadav, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Pain during areteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation remains a common problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of cryotherapy on pain due to arteriovenous fistula puncture in hemodialysis patients. A convenience sample of 60 patients (30 each in experimental and control groups) who were undergoing hemodialysis by using AVF, was assessed in a randomized control trial. Hemodialysis patients who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups using a randomization table. Objective and subjective pain scoring was done on two consecutive days of HD treatment (with cryotherapy for the experimental and without cryotherapy for the control group). The tools used were a questionnaire examining demographic and clinical characteristics, an observation checklist for assessing objective pain behavior, and a numerical rating scale for subjective pain assessment. Descriptive statistics were used as deemed appropriate. Chi square, two-sample and paired t-tests, the Mann Whitney test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test, the Kruskal Wallis test, and Spearman's and Pearson's correlations were used for inferential statistics. We found that the objective and subjective pain scores were found to be significantly (P = 0.001) reduced within the experimental group with the application of cryotherapy. This study highlights the need for adopting alternative therapies such as cryotherapy for effective pain management in hospital settings. PMID:20142927

  10. Transarterial treatment with Onyx of Cognard type IV anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanhui; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; He, Hongwei

    2014-03-01

    Cognard type IV anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare lesions with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We present our experience with the use of Onyx via the arterial route in these aggressive lesions. Between October 2009 and October 2011, six consecutive patients diagnosed with Cognard type IV anterior cranial fossa DAVFs were treated transarterially with Onyx in our department. All patients were male; mean age was 55 years (range 38-68). Four patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage as the initial manifestation; one patient presented with seizures at the time of diagnosis and experienced intracranial hemorrhage during the antiepileptic therapy; and the other patient was asymptomatic. In five patients, complete obliteration was achieved with transarterial Onyx injection in a single treatment session; in the remaining patient, subtotal occlusion was achieved and gamma knife treatment was followed. The average time of injection was 19 min (range 5-28) for every pedicle catheterized and the average amount of Onyx was 3.2 ml (range 0.4-6.3) for each lesion. All patients recovered uneventfully after embolization. No mortality or permanent morbidity was observed in this series. Follow-up digital subtraction or MR angiography confirmed durable obliteration of the fistulas in five cured cases. No patients suffered intracranial hemorrhage during the follow-up period. In this small series, our experience with the use of Onyx for arterial embolization of Cognard type IV DAVFs is encouraging, with durable complete cure in most lesions without severe complications.

  11. Radiculo-pial spinal arteriovenous fistulas treated with coils: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Batista, André Lima; Romero, Diego Gutierrez; Gentric, Jean-Christophe; Weill, Alain; Raymond, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Spinal pial arteriovenous fistulas (SPAVFs) are rare lesions that present more frequently in young patients. Lesions located on radiculo-pial arteries without involvement of the anterior spinal artery are even rarer. SPAVFs may present with mass effect, venous congestion or hemorrhage. Most often, treatment is performed either by surgery or endovascularly with fluid embolic material. Use of microcoils has not been reported for this condition. We present two cases of radiculo-pial high-flow SPAVFs in two patients in their early 30 s. One patient presented with abrupt headache without proof of hemorrhage and the other one with trigeminal neuralgia resulting from dilated posterior fossa draining veins remote from the fistula. Both patients were successfully treated with endovascular shunt closure using microcoils with resolution of symptoms and disappearance of the dilated veins at follow-up. With recent advances in microcatheter technology, distal navigation and microcoil embolization offers another option for these cases that may be safer than fluid embolic material. PMID:26111984

  12. Iliac arteriovenous fistula due to spinal disk surgery. Causes severe hemodynamic repercussion with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Atías, I; Fornés, O; González-Bello, R; Machado-Hernández, I

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of a 46-year-old man with a pulsatile mass in the left inferior abdominal quadrant that irradiated a continuous murmur extending to the left lumbar region. Despite an 8-year history of cardiomegaly, he appeared to be asymptomatic except for the mass and could recollect no traumatic injury or surgery that might have caused it. Near the vertebral column, we found a small scar, the result of spinal disk surgery 11 years before. Following chest radiography and electrocardiography, we located the suspected arteriovenous fistula by selective angiography of the aorta and its branches: a communication of the left iliac artery with the left iliac vein had resulted in a very large left-to-right shunt and a severely dilated inferior vena cava. We then divided and isolated the arterial segment containing the fistula, but left this segment in continuity with the left iliac vein by over-sewing both ends. To avoid injury to surrounding structures, dissection was limited to the area of maximal thrill. Hemodynamic improvement was immediate, and the postoperative course was uneventful. At the present time, almost 3 years postoperatively, the patient is asymptomatic. Images PMID:8508067

  13. Neurologic Decline After Spinal Angiography for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula and Improvement with Emergent Surgical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Hartman, Cory; Hooten, Kristopher; Cutler, Andrew; Blackburn, Spiros

    2016-08-01

    Although angiography does not generally lead to increased clinically significant neurologic deficits, it has been reported that angiography for spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) can lead to acute neurologic decline. This has been rarely reported, and outcome after decline and the subsequent intervention performed have not been clarified. We describe a patient with SDAVF who experienced acute neurologic decline shortly after spinal angiography. Acute surgical treatment resulted in improvement of symptoms. A 70-year-old woman presented following 5 months of progressive numbness and weakness in her lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed thoracic spinal cord edema. Spinal angiography revealed a type 1 SDAVF. Several hours after spinal angiography, the patient's lower extremity motor strength declined significantly. This neurologic change led to emergent surgical intervention and ligation of the SDAVF. The patient's neurologic decline subsequently improved and ultimately resolved completely. Although acute worsening of neurologic deficits is a rare complication following angiography of SDAVFs, the reversibility of these deficits by emergent intervention argues for careful surveillance after angiography with protocols in place to rapidly intervene if needed. Warming and diluting the contrast agent should be considered to reduce contrast viscosity, a potential aggravating factor to the venous congestion of spinal fistulas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [A Case of Traumatic Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Treated by Internal Trapping of the Vertebral Artery].

    PubMed

    Nishihiro, Shingo; Sugiu, Kenji; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Hiramatsu, Masafumi; Haruma, Jun; Shinji, Yukei; Takasugi, Yuji; Date, Isao

    2016-02-01

    Traumatic vertebral arteriovenous fistula (TVAVF) is an uncommon disease that occurs after traumatic injury. Here we report a case of TVAVF presenting with cervical bruit successfully treated by internal trapping using coils. A 66-year-old man was transferred to our hospital after falling into a ditch. Initial CT revealed a C2 fracture into the right transverse foramen, and the patient had been treated with conservative management. A vascular abnormality was suspected because the patient exhibited cervical bruit on admission. CT angiography revealed right TVAVF at the V2 segment of the right vertebral artery (VA) near the C2 fracture. Digital subtraction angiography also revealed right TVAVF between the V2 segment of the right VA and the vertebral venous plexus, draining into the right internal jugular vein and the deep cervical vein as well as the intracranial venous system. The fistula was also opacified by retrograde flow from the contralateral VA through the union, while the flow in the basilar artery was antegrade. The patient was diagnosed with TVAVF with large transection of the right VA, and underwent endovascular treatment with internal trapping of the right VA using coils starting distal to the transection and proceeding in a proximal direction. After treatment, the right VAVF and right VA were completely occluded. The patient achieved clinical symptom resolution with no neurological deficits. Endovascular treatment with internal trapping of the VA using coils is safe and effective against TVAVF.

  15. Dialysis Arteriovenous Fistula Failure and Angioplasty: Intimal Hyperplasia and Other Causes of Access Failure.

    PubMed

    Duque, Juan C; Tabbara, Marwan; Martinez, Laisel; Cardona, Jose; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Salman, Loay H

    2017-01-01

    The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred hemodialysis access type because it has better patency rates and fewer complications than other access types. However, primary failure remains a common problem impeding AVF maturation and adding to patients' morbidity and mortality. Juxta-anastomotic (or inflow) stenosis is the most common reason leading to primary failure, and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty continues to be the gold-standard treatment with excellent success rates. Intimal hyperplasia (IH) has been traditionally blamed as the main pathophysiologic culprit, but new evidence raises doubts regarding the contribution of IH alone to primary failure. We report a 64-year-old man with a 2-stage brachiobasilic AVF that was complicated by failure 4 months after creation. An angiogram showed multiple juxta-anastomotic and midfistula stenotic lesions. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was successful in assisting maturation and subsequently cannulating the AVF for hemodialysis treatment. We failed to identify the underlying cause of stenosis because biopsy specimens from fistula tissue obtained at the time of transposition revealed no occlusive IH. This case emphasizes the need for additional research on factors contributing to AVF failure besides IH and highlights the need for more therapeutic options to reduce AVF failure rate. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical treatment of tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae located around the tentorial incisura.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Taketo; Bozinov, Oliver; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2013-07-01

    Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are relatively uncommon and are the most dangerous type of DAVF. Because of a high incidence of hemorrhage and subsequent neurological deficits, treatment is mandatory. A consecutive series of nine surgically treated patients with symptomatic tentorial DAVF were analyzed in this study. All lesions were located around the tentorial incisura and were treated microsurgically using a subtemporal approach in eight cases and a supracerebellar approach in one case. The dural bases of the lesions were located adjacent to the tentorial edge in six patients and the tentorial apex in three patients. Complete obliteration was achieved in all treated tentorial DAVF. In one patient, the torcular fistula remained untreated without cortical venous reflux. Postoperative asymptomatic temporal lobe hemorrhage was diagnosed in one patient with a tentorial apex DAVF; however, no new neurological symptoms were present after surgical treatment. The subtemporal approach for unilateral tentorial DAVF is a favorable and direct approach for the highly skilled surgeon. Perimesencephalic venous dilatation or varix is an important finding on MRI to help localize tentorial DAVF in the tentorial edge or apex.

  17. Dural arteriovenous fistula masquerading as pulsatile tinnitus: radiologic assessment and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    An, Yong-Hwi; Han, Sungjun; Lee, Minhyung; Rhee, Jihye; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; An, Gwang Seok; Lee, Kyogu; Koo, Ja-Won; Song, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus (PT) is often an initial presenting symptom of dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF), but it may be overlooked or diagnosed late if not suspected on initial diagnostic work-up. Here, we assess anatomical features, treatment outcomes, and clinical implications of patients with PT due to dAVF. Of 220 patients who were diagnosed with dAVF between 2003 and 2014, 30 (13.6%) presented with only PT as their initial symptom. The transverse-sigmoid sinus (70.0%) was the most common site, followed by the hypoglossal canal (10.0%) and the middle cranial fossa (6.7%) on radiologic evaluation. Regarding venous drainage patterns, sinus or meningeal venous drainage pattern was the most common type (73.3%), followed by sinus drainage with a cortical venous reflux (26.7%). PT disappeared completely in 21 (80.8%) of 26 patients who underwent therapeutic intervention with transarterial embolization of the fistula, improved markedly in 3 (11.5%), and remained the same in 2 (7.7%). In conclusion, considering that PT may be the only initial symptom in more than 10% of dAVF, not only otolaryngologists but also neurologists and neurosurgeons should meticulously evaluate patients with PT. In most cases, PT originating from dAVF can be cured with transarterial embolization regardless of location and venous drainage pattern. PMID:27812001

  18. Endosurgical repair of an iatrogenic facial arteriovenous fistula due to percutaneous trigeminal balloon rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Lesley, W S

    2007-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia (TN), who underwent technically uneventful percutaneous balloon rhizotomy, developed significant bilateral pulsatile tinnitus on the first post-operative day. Although the patient reported significantly improved neuralgia, auscultation revealed a right facial bruit. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the face and brain demonstrated prominent right facial and jugular venous vascularity. Catheter angiography confirmed the suspected facial arteriovenous fistula (AVF). A transarterial approach was used to explore the AVF which arose from a laceration of the right internal maxillary artery and which fistulized directly with the pterygoid venous plexus. Endosurgical repair utilizing three non-fibered platinum coils was done under conscious sedation at the same setting as the diagnostic angiogram. Angiographically, the fistula was obliterated, and the patient's bruit and tinnitus immediately resolved. Follow-up MRA at 3.5 months was normal, and, the patient had no clinical symptoms of recurrent AVF. In conclusion facial AVF can complicate percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. Iatrogenic facial AVF can be repaired via an endovascular approach.

  19. Effect of upper arm brachial basilic and prosthetic forearm arteriovenous fistula on left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Keuter, X H A; Kooman, J P; Habets, J; Van Der Sande, F M; Kessels, A G H; Cheriex, E C; Tordoir, J H M

    2007-01-01

    Creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) may increase left ventricular hypertrophy in the hemodialysis population. Aim of this study was to compare the effects of a brachial-basilic (BB) AVF and the prosthetic brachial-antecubital forearm loop access (PTFE) on cardiac performance. Patients were randomized to receive BB-AVF or prosthetic brachial-antecubital forearm loop access. Before and three months after AVF creation patients underwent an echocardiographic examination. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare relative increase between the measured cardiac parameters for the two groups. Twenty-seven patients participated in the study. The relative increase in left ventricular parameters was not significantly different between the two groups. Only left ventricular end-diastolic diameter tended to be of significance. Mean blood flow through the brachial artery was 1680+/-156 and 1450+/-221 mL/min three months after surgery for the PTFE and the BB-AVF group, respectively. After three months of follow-up, changes in cardiac structure were comparable between patients with BB and PTFE AVFs. Also access flow was comparable at this time. In general, the effects of creation of a fistula on LV structure were limited. Longer follow up time may be needed to explore the long term effects of different vascular accesses on cardiac function.

  20. Transarterial Onyx Embolization for Patients with Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Who Have Failed Transvenous Embolization.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Duan, Chuan-Zhi; Huang, Li-Jing; Zhang, Xin; He, Xu-Ying; Li, Xi-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Transvenous embolization is the treatment of choice for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (csDAVFs) despite occasional difficulty in transvenous catheterization. We reported our experience in the treatment of csDAVFs by transarterial Onyx embolization in patients who had failed transvenous catheterization. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of csDAVFs patients receiving transarterial Onyx embolization after failed transvenous Onyx embolization at our institution over a period of 31 months. Success was defined as complete or near complete occlusion upon angiographic examination. In seven cases, the microcatheter failed to reach the cavernous sinus; in the remaining case, the internal jugular vein was occlusive. Eight sessions of the embolization and catheterization procedures via the arterial routes were conducted. Among them, five cases via the middle meningeal artery and the other three via the accessory meningeal artery. Angiography, immediately after embolization, revealed complete occlusion in seven cases (87.5 %) and partial occlusion in the remaining case. Angiographic follow-up (range, 6-10 months) showed that all patients achieved complete embolization. In cases where transvenous embolization of the cavernous sinus is difficult, transarterial embolization of the fistulas offers a safe and effective alternative.

  1. Spontaneous extrusion of staghorn renal calculus with nephrocutaneous fistula in a child.

    PubMed

    Purkait, Bimalesh; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Bansal, Ankur; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2016-04-11

    Renal stone disease may present as nephrocutaneous fistula. Spontaneous extrusion of renal stone with nephrocutaneous fistula is rare. Most of the cases have been reported in adults. We present a case of nephrocutaneous fistula with spontaneous extrusion of staghorn renal calculus in a paediatric patient.

  2. The Potentiality for Development of Multiple Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas after Ligation of the Internal Jugular Vein: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fudaba, Hirotaka; Kubo, Takeshi; Goda, Makoto; Sugita, Kenji; Morishige, Masaki; Onishi, Kouhei; Ishii, Keisuke; Anan, Mitsuhiro; Nagai, Yasuyuki; Fujiki, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    A 74-year-old male presented with an intracranial hemorrhage caused by multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the left transverse sinus and right sigmoid sinus. Four months previously, the patient underwent tongue cancer removal with lymph node dissection and ligation of the right internal jugular vein. Endovascular embolization (transvenous and transarterial embolization) resulted in the complete disappearance of the fistulas. Follow-up angiography revealed new arteriovenous shunts at the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse sinus, and we treated the patient with staged transarterial embolization. Finally, venous congestion almost completely resolved and the DAVFs disappeared without any sign of recurrence. This case speculates the concept of DAVF as an acquired lesion caused by intravenous hypertension and alerts clinicians to take precautions against ligation of the internal jugular vein during a cervical operation. PMID:28840082

  3. Flow control techniques for Onyx embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Loh, Yince; Gonzalez, Nestor; Tateshima, Satoshi; Feng, Lei; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary; Viñuela, Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Experience of flow control techniques during endovascular treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) using the Onyx liquid embolic system is reported, with an emphasis on high flow shunts. Data were evaluated in patients with DAVFs treated endovascularly with Onyx. Adjunctive techniques with coils, acrylics and balloon assistance were utilized to reduce the rate of flow with transarterial and transvenous approaches. The following types of adjunctive techniques were used in 58 patients who underwent a total of 84 embolization sessions with Onyx: transvenous coiling with transvenous or transarterial Onyx embolization in 36 patients, transarterial coiling with transarterial Onyx embolization in eight patients, arterial or venous balloon assisted technique with transarterial or transvenous Onyx embolization in 11 patients, transarterial high concentration acrylics with transarterial Onyx embolization in one patient and staged transarterial or transvenous coiling and Onyx embolization in two patients. Complete obliteration of the fistulae was achieved in 41 patients (70.7%) and 27 patients (65.9%) with high flow fistulae after endovascular treatment alone. Periprocedural complications were encountered in 16 patients, and 13 complications were associated with the adjunctive techniques. There were four neurologic and two non-neurologic clinical sequelae. Distal Onyx migration occurred in four, microcatheter retention in three and cranial neuropathy in three patients. There was one instance each of cerebellar hemorrhage, thromboembolism, coil stretching and retention, and dissection. 56 survivors experienced complete resolution or significant improvement of their symptoms on follow-up. Flow control techniques are safe and effective adjunctive methods in primary endovascular Onyx embolization of high flow DAVFs.

  4. High cervical spinal subdural hemorrhage as a harbinger of craniocervical arteriovenous fistula: an unusual clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Moftakhar, Roham; O'Toole, John E; Lopes, Demetrius K

    2015-05-01

    Craniocervical dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is rare as compared with the typical thoracolumbar dAVFs of the spine and usually presents with hemorrhagic manifestation, predominantly intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe the first case of craniocervical dAVF with initial presentation as neck pain and spinal subdural hemorrhage. Case report. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with sudden onset of neck pain at an outside institution emergency department (ED) and was discharged after negative cervical spine radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine performed because of persistent pain demonstrated presence of high cervical spinal subdural hematoma and she was managed conservatively. She subsequently presented to our ED a week later with headache and was found to have an intraventricular hemorrhage on computed tomography scan of the head, which on subsequent workup with an angiography revealed the presence of a craniocervical dAVF. Surgical obliteration of the fistula was performed with use of intraoperative angiography as an adjunct to confirm complete fistula obliteration. She had an excellent clinical outcome with no deficits at her last follow-up at 9 months. Even though hemorrhagic presentation is fairly common in craniocervical dAVFs, there is no report of a craniocervical dAVF presenting with spinal subdural hemorrhage. The present case further highlights the propensity of these vascular lesions to bleed and emphasizes the clinical importance of including these lesions in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhage in the vicinity of foramen magnum region, whether subarachnoid or subdural in location. Physicians treating spinal pathologies should be aware of this entity and clinical presentation, as an angiography needs to be considered in these cases to direct appropriate referral and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Volumetric myelographic magnetic resonance imaging to localize difficult-to-find spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan M; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Campeau, Norbert G; Cloft, Harry J; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Although more prevalent in males in the 6th and 7th decade of life, spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are an uncommon cause of progressive myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and more recently Gd bolus MR angiography have been used to diagnose, radiographically define, and preprocedurally localize the contributing lumbar artery. Three-dimensional myelographic MR imaging sequences have recently been developed for anatomical evaluation of the spinal canal. The authors describe 3 recent cases in which volumetric myelographic MR imaging with a 3D phase-cycled fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (PC-FIESTA) and a 3D constructive interference steady state (CISS) technique were particularly useful not only for documenting an SDAVF, but also for providing localization when CT angiography, MR imaging, MR angiography, and spinal angiography failed to localize the fistula. In a patient harboring an SDAVF at T-4, surgical exploration was performed based on the constellation of findings on the PC-FIESTA images as well as the fact that the spinal segments leading to T-4 were the only ones that the authors were unable to catheterize. In a second patient, who harbored an SDAVF at T-6, after 2 separate angiograms failed to demonstrate the fistula, careful assessment of the CISS images led the authors to focus a third angiogram on the left T-6 intercostal artery and to perform superselective microcatheterization. In a third patient with an SDAVF originating from the lateral sacral branch, the PC-FIESTA sequence demonstrated the arterialized vein extending into the S-1 foramen, leading to a second angiogram and superselective internal iliac injections. The authors concluded that myelographic MR imaging sequences can be useful not only as an aid to diagnosis but also for localization of an SDAVF in complex cases.

  6. Therapeutic clues in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas - a 30 year experience of 156 cases.

    PubMed

    Hessler, C; Regelsberger, J; Grzyska, U; Illies, T; Zeumer, H; Westphal, M

    2010-02-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVF) are rare but remain the most common type of spinal vascular malformations. Treatment options for SDAVF include endovascular embolization, microsurgical dissection or a combination of both. But the optimal treatment paradigm has yet to be defined and may well be an individualized interdisciplinary combinatorial approach. From 1980 to 2008, 156 patients with the diagnosis of SDAVF were treated by neuroradiological and neurosurgical means. Based on the procedure-related complications we retrospectively analyzed our data to elucidate the reasons for endovascular failure and the evolution of the surgical technique. 156 patients were included in this study. There were 31 (19.9%) female and 125 (80.1%) male patients. Average age at the time of diagnosis was 60.8 years. 102 out of 156 (65.4%) underwent endovascular obliteration, 54 (34.6%) patients were treated primarily by surgery. 134 (85.9%) underwent follow-up examination. A total of 29 (18.6%) out of 156 patients could not be treated successfully by endovascular (9.4%) or surgical (4.1%) means. Microsurgery can be recommended as the first choice treatment when the fistula's point is unmistakably identified intradurally. Endovascular obliteration may be justifiable in cases with an easy access to a monoradicular feeding artery during diagnostic angiography. Surgery is a definitive treatment with stable long-term results in which procedure-related morbidity is low. During evolution of the combined approach, endovascular coil placement for correct localization of the fistula and the use of intraoperative micro-Doppler was found to be very helpful in increasing the safety of the surgical procedure and minimizing surgical exposure. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  7. No-touch technique for radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula--surgical technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Hörer, Tal M; Skoog, Per; Quell, Robin; Nilsson, Kristofer F; Larzon, Thomas; Souza, Domingos R

    2016-01-01

    The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) has significant failure rates due to occlusions and failure to mature. The size and quality of the veins are considerable limiting factors for the procedure. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the No-Touch technique (NTT) to create RC-AVF and present the results up to 1 year of follow-up. Thirty-one consecutive patients who were referred for surgery for a RC-AVF were included (17 men, mean age 63 years, range 35-84) and operated by NTT where the vein and artery were dissected with a tissue cushion around it. Twenty-two patients had small veins or arteries (≤2 mm), 12 patients had a small cephalic vein (≤2 mm), and the mean distal cephalic vein diameter was 2.4 mm (range 1.0-4.1 mm). Technical surgical success and immediate patency were obtained in all patients. Clinical success was achieved in 23 of the 27 (85%) patients who required hemodialysis. The proportion of primary patency at 30 days and 6 months was 84% and 64%, respectively. Secondary patency at 30 days and 6 months was 97% and 83%, respectively. At 1-year follow-up, primary patency was 54% and secondary patency was 80%. There was no major difference in patency due to preoperative vein diameter. The results of this study indicate that NTT can be used for primary radio-cephalic fistula surgery with very good results. This method offers the potential to create a RC-AVF in patients who are not usually considered appropriate for a distal arm fistula due to a small cephalic vein.

  8. Type of arteriovenous fistula, NYHA class and apelin in hemodialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Kozminski, Piotr; Malyszko, Jacek; Mysliwiec, Michal

    2011-03-01

    Apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine, is produced by white adipose tissue and also expressed in kidney and heart. Increasing evidence suggests a role for apelin in the pathology of the cardiovascular system. It was demonstrated that apelin may contribute to the pathophysiology of human chronic heart failure. Apelin locates at the endothelium-a site of key functional importance in the kidney, and apelin has been shown to increase cardiac output. Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of patients with chronic renal failure. We previously found that apelin was significantly lower in dialyzed patients with coronary artery disease and its level was predicted by cardiac function. Creation of a-v fistula might contribute to the development or worsening of chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess associations between apelin, other adipocytokines, NYHA class and location of a-v fistula in hemodialyzed patients. This cross-sectional study was performed on a cohort of one hundred, clinically stable hemodialyzed patients. We investigated plasma apelin as well other adipocytokines: resistin, visfatin and von Willebrand factor (vWF)-a marker of endothelial cell injury. In patients with a-v fistula on the forearm (n = 77), apelin was significantly higher than in patients with a-v fistula on the arm (n = 23) (56.79 ± 23.56 vs. 43.12 ± 23.19 pg/ml). Patients with forearm a-v fistula had lower left ventricular internal end-diastolic dimension (LVIDd) (P < 0.05), left ventricular internal end-systolic dimension (LVISd) (P < 0.05), NYHA class (P < 0.05), hsCRP (P < 0.01), plasma vWF (P < 0.01), and plasma resistin (P < 0.05), whereas the ejection fraction was higher than in patients with arm a-v fistula (P < 0.05), as well as hemoglobin (P < 0.05), hematocrit (P < 0.01), prevalence of diabetes (n < 0.05), prevalence of coronary heart disease (P < 0.05), serum pH (P < 0.05), serum bicarbonate

  9. Effects of wall shear stress in venous neointimal hyperplasia of arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lan; Wang, Lihua; Wei, Fang; Yu, Haibo; Dong, Hongye; Wang, Bo; Lu, Zhi; Sun, Guijiang; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Jia; Li, Bo; Zhang, Ruining; Bi, Xueqing; Wang, Zhe; Pang, Haiyan; Jiang, Aili

    2015-05-01

    An arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for maintenance haemodialysis patients. Its dysfunction is often due to venous stenosis, which is mainly caused by neointimal hyperplasia. Additionally, haemodynamic forces, especially wall shear stress (WSS), as a mechanical stimuli to venous wall have a significant role in neointimal hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between WSS and neointimal hyperplasia. An 'end-to-side' AVF was created between the right femoral artery and vein of canines. Canines were killed at 7 and 28 days post-surgery. The velocity and WSS in the three-dimensional computational model of AVF were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFDs). The four typical sites of the vein evaluated in this study, chosen according to the haemodynamic analysis, included the arteriovenous anastomosis (A-V), the juxta-anastomotic segment (J-V), the juxta-ligation segment (L-V) and the proximal vein (P-V). The specimens were haematoxylin-eosin stained and the intima-media thickening was then measured. Neointimal hyperplasia was more obvious in the inner wall of the J-V and L-V (low-and-disturbed WSS) sites compared with the P-V and A-V sites, and the outer wall of the L-V and J-V segments (high or laminar WSS) (P < 0.01). In this study, we described the haemodynamic condition in the AVF and found that neointimal hyperplasia predisposed to occur in the inner wall of venous segment near the anastomosis. We also found that not only the neointimal hyperplasia has a strong inverse correlation with WSS levels, but also is related to flow patterns. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Assessing radiocephalic wrist arteriovenous fistulas of obtuse anastomosis using computational fluid dynamics and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkee; Kim, Sunho; Kim, Sung-Min; Song, Ryungeun; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Park, Jang Sang; Park, Sun Cheol

    2016-11-02

    A radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the best choice for achieving vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis, but this AVF has high rates of early failure due to juxta-anastomotic stenosis, making it impossible to use for dialysis. Low hemodynamic shear stress contributes to the pathophysiology of VA failure due to secondary thrombosis, stenosis, and re-occlusion after percutaneous intervention. We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) approach to evaluate the shear stress distribution and minimize its effects under various conditions including changes in the anastomosis angle. A three-dimensional computational domain was designed for arteriovenous end-to-side anastomosis based on anastomosis angles of 45°, 90° and including 135° angle of an obtuse anastomosis using three-dimensional design software. COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation software was used to identify the hemodynamic factors influencing wall shear stress at the anastomosis site using a low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model that included non-Newtonian blood flow characteristics, the complete cardiac pulse cycle, and distention of blood vessels. In preliminary clinical study, all 201 patients who received a radiocephalic wrist AVF from January 2009 to February 2014 were divided into classic and obtuse angle groups. The CFD results showed that the largest anastomosis angle (135°) resulted in lower shear stress, which would help reduce AVF failures. This obtuse angle was preferred, as it minimized the development of anastomotic stenosis and tended to favor primary and primary-assisted patency in clinical study. An obtuse radiocephalic wrist AVF shows more favorable patency compared to a classic radiocephalic AVF. Surgeons establishing a radiocephalic wrist AVF would be better to consider an AVF with an obtuse anastomosis.

  11. Pediatric intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: age-related differences in clinical features, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hetts, Steven W; Moftakhar, Parham; Maluste, Neil; Fullerton, Heather J; Cooke, Daniel L; Amans, Matthew R; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; Halbach, Van V

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare in children. This study sought to better characterize DAVF presentation, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes. METHODS Children with intracranial DAVFs between 1986 and 2013 were retrospectively identified from the neurointerventional database at the authors' institution. Demographics, clinical presentation, lesion angioarchitecture, treatment approaches, angiographic outcomes, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS DAVFs constituted 5.7% (22/423) of pediatric intracranial arteriovenous shunting lesions. Twelve boys and 10 girls presented between 1 day and 18 years of age; boys presented at a median of 1.3 years and girls presented at a median of 4.9 years. Four of 8 patients ≤ 1 year of age presented with congestive heart failure compared with 0/14 patients > 1 year of age (p = 0.01). Five of 8 patients ≤ 1 year old presented with respiratory distress compared with 0/14 patients > 1 year old (p = 0.0021). Ten of 14 patients > 1 year old presented with focal neurological deficits compared with 0/8 patients ≤ 1 year old (p = 0.0017). At initial angiography, 16 patients harbored a single intracranial DAVF and 6 patients had 2-6 DAVFs. Eight patients (38%) experienced DAVF obliteration by the end of treatment. Good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was documented in 77% of patients > 1 year old at presentation compared with 57% of patients ≤ 1 year old at presentation. Six patients (27%) died. CONCLUSIONS Young children with DAVFs presented predominantly with cardiopulmonary symptoms, while older children presented with focal neurological deficits. Compared with other pediatric vascular shunts, DAVFs had lower rates of angiographic obliteration and poorer clinical outcomes.

  12. Endovascular Recanalization of a Thrombosed Native Arteriovenous Fistula Complicated with an Aneurysm: Technical Aspects and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Su Yeon; Choi, Young Ho; Jung, In Mok; Chung, Jung Kee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technical aspects and outcomes of endovascular recanalization of a thrombosed native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) complicated with an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients who had a thrombosed AVF complicated with an aneurysm (two radiocephalic and 14 brachiocephalic) were included in this study. Recanalization procedures were performed by mechanical thrombectomy using the Arrow-Trerotola percutaneous thrombectomy device and adjunctive treatments. We evaluated dose of thrombolytic agent, underlying stenosis, procedure time, technical and clinical success, and complications. The primary and secondary patency rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The thrombolytic agents used were 100000 U urokinase mixed with 500 IU heparin (n = 10) or a double dose of the mixture (n = 6). The thrombi in aneurysms were removed in all but two patients with non-flow limiting residual thrombi. One recanalization failure occurred due to a device failure. Aspiration thrombectomy was performed in 87.5% of cases (n = 14). Underlying stenoses were found in the outflow draining vein (n = 16), arteriovenous anastomosis or juxtaanastomosis area (n = 5), and the central vein (n = 3). Balloon angioplasty was performed for all stenoses in 15 patients. Two patients with a symptomatic central vein stenosis underwent insertion of a stent after balloon angioplasty. Mean procedure time was 116.3 minutes. Minor extravasation (n = 1) was resolved by manual compression. Both technical and clinical success rates were 93.8% (n = 15). The primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%, 54.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. The secondary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%, 70.5%, and 47.0%, respectively. Conclusion Thrombosed AVF complicated with an aneurysm can be successfully recanalized, and secondary patency can be prolonged with endovascular treatment. PMID:25741197

  13. Impact of a preoperative evaluation on the outcomes of an arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Min; Han, Youngjin; Kwon, Hyunwook; Hong, Hee Sun; Choi, Ji Yoon; Park, Hojong; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the possible predictors of primary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure and examine the impact of a preoperative evaluation on AVF outcomes. Methods A total of 539 patients who underwent assessment for a suitable site for AVF creation by physical examination alone or additional duplex ultrasound were included in this study. Demographics, patient characteristics, and AVF outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results AVF creation was proposed in 469 patients (87.0%) according to physical examination alone (351 patients) or additional duplex ultrasound (118 patients); a prosthetic arteriovenous graft was initially placed in the remaining 70 patients (13.0%). Although the primary failure rate was significantly higher in patients assessed by duplex ultrasound (P = 0.001), ultrasound information changed the clinical plan, increasing AVF use for dialysis, in 92 of the 188 patients (48.9%) with an insufficient physical examination. Female sex and diabetes mellitus were risk factors significantly associated with primary AVF failure. Because of different inclusion criteria and a lack of adjustment for baseline differences, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed better AVF outcomes in patients assessed by physical examination alone; an insufficient physical examination was the only risk factor significantly associated with AVF outcomes. Conclusion Routine use of duplex ultrasound is not necessary in chronic kidney disease patients with a satisfactory physical examination. Given that female gender and diabetes mellitus are significantly associated with primary AVF failure, duplex ultrasound could be of particular benefit in these subtypes of patients without a sufficient physical examination. PMID:27073794

  14. Computational fluid dynamic evaluation of the side-to-side anastomosis for arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeffrey E; Balakin, Boris V; Kellerman, Brad M; Wrolstad, David K

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this research was to compare side-to-side (STS) and end-to-side (ETS) anastomoses in a computer model of the arteriovenous fistula with computational fluid dynamic analysis. A matrix of 17 computer arteriovenous fistula models (SolidWorks, Dassault Systèmes, France) of artery-vein pairs (3-mm-diameter artery + 3-mm-diameter vein and 4-mm-diameter artery +6-mm-diameter vein elliptical anastomoses) in STS, 45° ETS, and 90° ETS configurations with cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of 3.5 to 18.8 mm(2) were evaluated with computational fluid dynamic software (STAR-CCM+; CD-adapco, Melville, NY) in simulations at defined flow rates from 600 to 1200 mL/min and mean arterial pressures of 50 to 140 mm Hg. Models and configurations were evaluated for pressure drop across the anastomosis, arterial inflow, venous outflow, arterial outflow, velocity vector, and wall shear stress (WSS) profile. Pressure drop across the anastomosis was inversely proportional to anastomotic CSA and to venous outflow and was proportional to arterial inflow. Pressure drop was greater in 3 + 3 models than in 4 + 6 STS models; 90° ETS configurations had the lowest pressure drops and were nearly identical, whereas 45° ETS configurations had the highest pressure drops. Venous outflow in the 4 + 6 model in STS configurations, evaluated at 100 mm Hg arterial inflow pressure, was 390, 592, 610, and 886 mL/min in anastomotic CSAs of 3.5, 5.3, 7.1, and 18.8 mm(2), respectively, and was similar in 90° ETS (609 and 908 mL/min) and lower in 45° ETS (534 and 562 mL/min) configurations at CSAs of 5.3 and 18.8 mm(2). The mean increase in venous outflow was 69 mL/min (range, -59 to 134) between 3 + 3 and 4 + 6 models at 100 mm Hg arterial inflow. The most uniform WSS profile occurs in STS anastomoses followed by 45° ETS and then 90° ETS anastomoses. The STS and 90° ETS anastomoses have high venous outflow and a tendency toward reversed arterial outflow. The 45° ETS anastomosis has reduced venous

  15. Pediatric high-flow, cervical spinal, macro-arteriovenous fistula, treated with the endovascular cotton candy glue injection technique.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yuo; Kohda, Ehiichi; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Morota, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Konishi, Yoshifumi

    2010-11-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented to our hospital with progressive neurological deficits. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a perimedullary macro-arteriovenous fistula (PMAVF) resulting in a large venous pouch within the parenchyma of the lower cervical spinal cord. Transarterial varix embolization of the fistula from the venous side was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate with tantalum powder. Postembolization angiography confirmed obliteration of the fistula, and MRI revealed thrombosis and reduction in size of the venous component. The patient's clinical symptoms were reduced dramatically following the intervention, and no neurological complications occurred due to the treatment. The prognosis of spinal PMAVF depends primarily on the presence of medullar signs and symptoms and on time to treatment. The volume of the venous pouch after the intervention was markedly reduced, and complete clinical recovery was obtained. Urgent endovascular intervention, as seen in this case, is considered first-line therapy and aims to decrease the risk of neurological sequela.

  16. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula: analysis of factors adversely affecting long-term patency.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Koji; Higashino, Takanori; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2003-07-01

    Our objective was to identify the factors adversely affecting long-term patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for hemodialysis Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas. Between November 1995 and March 2000, 91 PTA procedures were performed on 50 patients with 57 Brescia-Cimino fistulas. A retrospective study based on the chart review was performed. The initial technical success rate for all procedures and the primary and secondary patency rates for all fistulas were calculated. Regarding fistulas successfully maintained by the primary PTA, the primary and secondary patency rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method between two patient groups. They were classified on the basis of several factors, including age (older, over 70 years, and younger group), age of the fistulas (older, over 6 months, and younger group), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM), solitary or multiple lesions, long or short segment lesion, stenosis or occlusion, and with or without arterial and/or anastomotic lesions. Initial technical success rates for all procedures and fistulas were 91.2 and 89.5%, respectively. Cumulative primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 47.3 and 67.3%, respectively. In the comparative study, the secondary patency rate for the older group was lower than that of the younger group with statistical significance ( p=0.029). The higher age is the only factor that reduces the long-term patency rate after PTA.

  17. Occlusion of Arteriovenous Fistulas of In-Situ Saphenous Vein Bypass Grafts Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Libicher, Martin; Reichert, V.; Schwabe, H.; Matoussevitch, V.; Gawenda, M.

    2011-06-15

    We examined the safety and efficacy of vessel occlusion of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 (AVP-4) in patients with arteriovenous fistulas after in-situ saphenous vein bypass grafts. We treated 18 fistulas of seven patients (four women, mean {+-} standard deviation age 76 {+-} 7 years, range 63-88 years). All fistulas were detected within 14 days after surgery. Initial diagnosis and follow-up was established by sonography. We measured the diameter of the feeding vessel and the time of vessel occlusion after plug deployment. Additionally, we recorded procedure time and the dose area product. Additional interventional procedures were necessary in three patients. We successfully used 19 AVP-4 for occlusion of all fistulas without thromboembolic complications. There was no need for recapturing the device, and we did not observe dislocation. Mean occlusion time was 9.6 min (range 5-22 min). Mean diameter of the feeding vessels was 3.5 mm (range 2.6-5.1 mm). Plug sizes ranged from 4-8 mm (mean 5.5 mm) resulting in an oversizing of 33-88%. Mean procedure time for patients with and without additional intervention was 91 {+-} 38 min and 35 {+-} 18 min, respectively. Mean dose area product was 11,790 cGy/cm{sup 2} (range 1,850-23,500 cGy/cm{sup 2}). Permanent occlusion of the fistulas was confirmed by ultrasound after a mean follow-up of 4 months (1-6 months). Occlusion of arteriovenous fistulas with an AVP-4 seems to be effective and safe in patients with in-situ saphenous vein bypass grafts. The AVP-4 is well suited for this purpose because of the appropriate diameter of the feeding vessels.

  18. Efficacy and Limitations of Transarterial Acrylic Glue Embolization for Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    MIYAMOTO, Naoko; NAITO, Isao; SHIMIZU, Tatsuya; YOSHIMOTO, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and limitations of transarterial acrylic glue embolization for the treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) were investigated. Thirty-four DAVFs treated by transarterial embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate were retrospectively reviewed. The locations of DAVFs were the transverse-sigmoid sinus in 11, tentorium in 10, cranial vault in 9, and superior sagittal sinus, jugular bulb, foramen magnum, and middle cranial fossa in 1 each. Borden classification was type I in 7, type II in 3, and type III in 24. Eight patients had undergone prior transvenous coil embolization. Complete obliteration rate was 56% immediately after embolization, 71% at follow-up angiography, and 85% after additional treatments (1 transvenous embolization and 4 direct surgery). Complications occurred in three patients, consisting of asymptomatic vessel perforations during cannulation in two patients and leakage of contrast medium resulting in medullary infarction in one patient. Transarterial glue embolization is highly effective for Borden type III DAVF with direct cortical venous drainage, but has limitations for Borden type I and II DAVFs in which the affected sinus is part of the normal venous circulation. Onyx is a new liquid embolic material and is becoming the treatment of choice for DAVF. The benefits of glue embolization compared to Onyx embolization are high thrombogenicity, and relatively low risks of cranial nerve palsies and of excessive migration into the draining veins of high flow fistula. Transarterial glue embolization continues to be useful for selected patients, and complete cure can be expected in most patients with fewer complications if combined with transvenous embolization or direct surgery. PMID:25746311

  19. Endovascular treatment for traumatic scalp arteriovenous fistulas: results with Onyx embolization.

    PubMed

    Dabus, Guilherme; Pizzolato, Raffaella; Lin, Eugene; Kreusch, Andreas; Linfante, Italo

    2014-06-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas of the scalp (S-AVFs) are rare lesions and may occur spontaneously or secondary to trauma. The use of Onyx for the treatment of S-AVFs is not well established at this time. We discuss three cases of traumatic S-AVFs treated successfully with Onyx embolization alone or in association with coils. The database of patients treated at the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, Florida, was reviewed. All patients with traumatic S-AVFs treated with Onyx were included. Two men and one woman with progressive enlarging pulsatile mass with bruit or tinnitus had angiographic evidence of S-AVF and were treated. In two patients the S-AVFs were secondary to hair transplantation. They were treated with Onyx-18 embolization as the single treatment modality. One patient with S-AVF resulting from temporomandibular joint arthroscopy was treated with coils and subsequent Onyx-34 embolization. In one patient, transarterial microcatheterization and injection of Onyx-18 was performed. In another patient, the intra-arterial approach was prevented by arterial vessel tortuosity. Therefore, access to the fistula was obtained through direct puncture of a large frontal vein; contrast injection confirmed the positioning of the needle within the draining vein of the AVF and Onyx-18 was then injected while the outflow vein was compressed. In the third patient in this series, coils were deployed to allow safer and more controlled injection of Onyx-34. No procedure related complications were noted. Post-embolization angiography demonstrated successful and complete occlusion of the AVF immediately after treatment. Follow-up revealed complete resolution of the symptoms. Our experience in this small series indicates that endovascular treatment of S-AVFs with Onyx is rapid, safe, and highly effective.

  20. Transarterial Onyx embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Chang, Feng-Chi; Mu-Huo Teng, Michael; Lin, Chung-Jung; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Transarterial embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) is usually associated with inadequate embolization. The purpose of this study was to report our experience of transarterial Onyx embolization of intracranial DAVFs with an emphasis on treatment outcome with this new embolic agent in different types of DAVFs. In the past 3 years, a total of 14 intracranial DAVFs have been treated by transarterial Onyx embolization. Among these, there were nine males and five females, aged from 30 years to 82 years (mean = 62 years). We retrospectively analyzed the injection volume and time of Onyx embolization as well as outcomes in different types of DAVFs. The locations of the DAVFs were sigmoid sinus (n = 6), tentorium (n = 3), sinus confluence (n = 2), transverse-sigmoid sinus (n = 1), sigmoid sinus-jugular bulb (n = 1) and the superior petrous sinus (n = 1). The mean volume and time of Onyx injection were 3.4 mL and 28 minutes, respectively (Cognard type I: 4.9 mL, 40 minutes; type II: 4.5 mL, 34 minutes; type III: 2.2 mL, 21 minutes; type IV: 2 mL, 22 minutes). Total fistula occlusion was achieved in six out of seven patients of type III and type IV DAVFs, and in four out of seven patients of type I and type II DAVFs. Nine patients had total resolution of their symptoms, whereas partial regression occurred in five patients. No significant periprocedural complication was found. Mean clinical follow-up period was 16 months. Transarterial Onyx embolization of intracranial DAVFs is safe and effective. This technique is particularly useful in type III and type IV DAVFs with a high cure rate, and lower volume of Onyx as well as a short injection time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Onyx Migration in the Endovascular Management of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Wu, Z.; Xu, K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Onyx migration in the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dural AVFs) is uncommon. We describe five cases of Onyx migration to the heart and draining vein and its avoidance. Between February 2007 and August 2008, Onyx migration was encountered in five patients with dural AVFs treated endovascularly at our institute. Procedures performed under general anesthesia consisted of two arterial approaches and three venous approaches. Two patients with dural AVFs involving the transverse-sigmoid sinus were treated by tran- sarterial embolization using Onyx-18 via the occipital artery and the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, respectively. A piece of Onyx was found in the right ventricle on post- embolization chest X-ray film in both patients, one developed tricuspid valve dysfunction requiring thoracic surgery and one was asymptomatic. The other three patients were treated with a combination of Onyx (34 or 18) and coils transvenously with venous Onyx migration leading to draining vein occlusion, one with dur- al AVF involving the tentorium died from venous rupture, two patients with bilateral dural AVFs of the cavernous sinus (one with deterioration of ocular symptoms and one without symptoms). Postoperative digital subtraction an- giography confirmed the elimination of dural AVF in one patient, and residual fistulae in three patients. The follow-up study ranging from two to nine months (average, 4.5 months). Three patients recovered to their full activities, while one had visual disturbance. Although Onyx has been considered a controllable embolic agent, its migration to other locations causing clinical deterioration can occur. This problem should be noted and prevented. PMID:20465913

  2. The Transcription Factor E26 Transformation–Specific Sequence-1 Mediates Neointima Formation in Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wenguang; Chumley, Phillip; Allon, Michael; George, James; Scott, David W.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Litovsky, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred type of vascular access for hemodialysis but has high rates of dysfunction, in part because of excessive neointima formation. The transcription factor E26 transformation–specific sequence-1 (ETS-1) is a mediator of proinflammatory responses in hypertension and endovascular injury. We examined the role of ETS-1 in the formation of neointima in AVF. Right carotid artery to internal jugular vein fistulas were created in C57BL/6 mice and assigned to treatment with an ETS-1–dominant negative peptide (ETS-DN), an inactive mutant peptide (ETS-MU), or vehicle (n=6 per group). After 7 and 21 days, AVFs or contralateral internal jugular veins were processed for PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry. In AVFs, ETS-1 mRNA increased 2.5-fold at 7 days and 4-fold at 21 days. By immunofluorescence, we confirmed increased expression of ETS-1 predominantly in the neointima and overlying endothelium. Similarly, ETS-1 expression increased in human AVFs compared with normal veins. In mice, ETS-DN, but not ETS-MU, reduced neointima formation at days 7 and 21 and reduced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, NOX4, E-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Shear stress increased ETS-1 phosphorylation in human umbilical vein cells in a NOX-dependent manner, demonstrating a role for reactive oxygen species in ETS-1 activation. These results unveil the role of ETS-1 as a mediator of neointima formation in AVF and may result in the development of novel strategies for the treatment of AVF dysfunction. PMID:24203999

  3. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula due to an old gunshot injury: a victim from the Afghanistan War.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Ali; Mar'ashi, Ali S; Malek, Bahman

    2007-10-01

    A 75-year-old man referred to the outpatient vascular surgery clinic of Taleghani Hospital (Shaheed Beheshti University of Medicine, Tehran, Iran) due to a local nontender mass in his groin. In his history, it was discovered that the mass had appeared a few months after a gunshot injury. He had a history of shortness of breath with a New York Heart Association functional class fluctuating between II and III, but no history of smoking or addiction. In the physical examination, a 5-cm by 5-cm nonpulsatile mass with engorged vessels was found in the anterior portion of the left groin, which was not tender. An elective arterial angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula joining the femoral artery to the femoral vein at the left groin. The cardiac assessments revealed cor pulmonale (with a restrictive pattern and diastolic dysfunction) and pulmonary hypertension due to primary pulmonary dysfunction. The patient was anesthetized with a balanced general anesthesia method, considering all relevant cardiac and respiratory monitoring methods and specially withholding drugs increasing pulmonary vascular bed pressure, suppressing the myocardium, or increasing the regurgitant flow across the mitral and, especially, the tricuspid valve. The moment the fistula was closed, a rapid fall in the patient's heart rate was noted, from approximately 60 beats per minute to above 40 beats per minute; this decreased heart rate continued up to a few hours after the surgery and did not accompany any significant hemodynamic derangement including the patient's blood pressure. The patient received his postoperative care in the ordinary surgical ward and was discharged a few days later.

  4. An arteriovenous fistula model of intimal hyperplasia for evaluation of a nitinol U-Clip anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, R L; Teo, A B P; Pelletier, M H; Yu, Y; Yang, J-L; Crowe, P J; Walsh, W R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to create an ovine arteriovenous fistula (AVF) model which would closely replicate a human forearm fistula and use this to quantify the degree of intimal hyperplasia in those created with the U-Clip compared to a conventional sutured anastomosis. Twenty AVFs were created in 10 Border Leicester-Merino sheep between the superficial femoral artery and vein of each hind limb. On one side the U-Clip and on the other a continuous polypropylene suture was used to perform the anastomosis. The animals were sacrificed at 2 (n = 3), 4 (n = 4), 6 (n = 3) weeks and histological slices were taken of each AVF in cross section to determine the intimal media area per unit length (IMA/L). Intimal hyperplasia (IH) was observed at all time points with one AVF found occluded with thrombus at the time of harvest. The IMA/L was significantly lower in the U-Clip groups by 24% at 2 weeks, 32% at 4 weeks and 23% at 6 weeks (Two-way ANOVA, p = 0.019, observed power = 0.825, time or side p ≥ 0.766, type p = 0.001; Paired t-test, p < 0.001 between matched anastomotic types). Time taken to perform the anastomosis was similar between the two anastomotic techniques (Polypropylene 14(8-18) vs. U-Clip 15.3(11-23) min; p = 0.47). This ovine AVF model results in IH similar to that seen in a human AVF. The IH that occurs with the U-Clip is less than that of continuous polypropylene suture. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early use of autogenous arteriovenous fistula in patients with urgent hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wanjun; Jiang, Huili; Du, Yuejuan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Dongmei

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the long-term patency rate and complications associated with early use of the autogenous forearm arteriovenous fistula (AFAVF) in patients needing urgent hemodialysis. The clinical data of all patients undergoing AFAVFs for hemodialysis access between June 1996 and June 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. The primary and secondary patencies were estimated using the life table method. A total of 104 AFAVFs were created for 102 patients. All patients had entered hemodialysis when fistulas were constructed. The mean time to the first cannulation of the AFAVF was 17.33 ± 4.60 (5-27 days). Four AFAVFs (3.8%) became occluded within 30 days of creation of the access, and five AFAVFs (4.8%) had hematomas after cannulation. There were no cases of infection of the wound or steal syndrome or prolonged arm edema. The primary patency rate was 77.81% at 1 year, 73.05% at 2 years, 64.64% at 3 years, 60.75% at 5 years and 47.48% at 10 years. The secondary patency rate was 96.78% at 1 year, 95.18% at 5 years and 85.81% at 10 years. In this study, the patency rates following the early use of the AFAVFs were not inferior to the previously reported patency rates in the literature. For patients entering hemodialysis with an inserted central catheter, the early use of the AFAVFs decreases the complications associated with catheters.

  6. Middle meningeal artery: Gateway for effective transarterial Onyx embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; He, Lucy; Salem, Mohamed; Chua, Michelle H; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2016-09-01

    Curative transarterial embolization of noncavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) is challenging. We sought to evaluate the role of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) in endovascular treatment of these lesions. We performed a retrospective cohort study on patients who underwent transarterial Onyx embolization of a noncavernous sinus dAVFs with contribution from the MMA at a major academic institution in the United States from January 2009 to January 2015. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent transarterial Onyx embolization of a noncavernous sinus dAVF were identified. One patient was excluded as there was no MMA contribution to the dAVF. All of the remaining 19 patients (61.3 ± 13.8 years of age) underwent transarterial embolization through the MMA. Six patients (31.6%) presented with intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage from the dAVF. The overall angiographic cure rate was 73.7% upon last follow up. In 71.4% of successfully treated patients transarterial embolization of the MMA alone was sufficient to achieve angiographic cure. When robust MMA supply was present, MMA embolization resulted in angiographic cure even after embolization of other arterial feeders had failed in 92.9% of patients. A robust contribution of the MMA to the fistula was the single most important predictor for successful embolization (P = 0.00129). We attribute our findings to the fairly straight, non-tortuous course of the MMA that facilitates microcatheter access, navigation, and Onyx penetration. Noncavernous sinus dAVF can be successfully embolized with transarterial Onyx through the MMA, as long as supply is robust. A transvenous approach is rarely necessary. Clin. Anat. 29:718-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Coagulation, thrombophilia and patency of arteriovenous fistula in children undergoing haemodialysis compared with healthy volunteers: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Fatina I; Elshamaa, Manal F; Abdel-Rahman, Safaa M; Thabet, Eman H; Kamel, Solaf; Kandil, Dina; Ibrahim, Mona H; El-Ahmady, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess whether markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis or thrombophilia are increased in children on haemodialysis compared with controls and whether measurement of any of these factors could help to identify patients at an increased risk of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) occlusion. Blood samples were taken from 55 children immediately before a session of haemodialysis and from 20 healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) and anticardiolipin immunoglobulin G (ACA-Ig G) were measured by ELISA. Factor V Leiden mutation (G1691A) was determined by gene polymorphism [restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)]. Determination of the patency of the AVF was prospectively followed up for a minimum of 4 years or until the AVF was nonfunctioning. Fifty-five patients were studied with a median follow-up of 659 days (range 30-1670 days). A significant increase was found in the levels of D-dimer, PAP and ACA-Ig G in haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVFs vs. There was a significant difference between both chronic haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVF with regard to ACA-IgG levels. At 1 year follow-up, primary patency was 61.4% (27 patients). In multivariate analysis, D-dimer was inversely associated with secondary patency.Thrombophilia may predispose children with end stage renal disease to access failure. The promising finding is that in children on haemodialysis, D-dimer levels were increased and inversely correlated with secondary patency. Further evaluation is required into the possible role of D-dimer as a biomarker of AVF occlusion.

  8. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling of Upper Extremity Arteriovenous Fistula Creation: Its Feasibility to Support Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Bosboom, E. Marielle H.; Kroon, Wilco; van der Linden, Wim P. M.; Planken, R. Nils; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Tordoir, Jan H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate flow enhancement on the one hand, and excessive flow enhancement on the other hand, remain frequent complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation, and hamper hemodialysis therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. In an effort to reduce these, a patient-specific computational model, capable of predicting postoperative flow, has been developed. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the patient-specific model and to investigate its feasibility to support decision-making in AVF surgery. Methods Patient-specific pulse wave propagation models were created for 25 patients awaiting AVF creation. Model input parameters were obtained from clinical measurements and literature. For every patient, a radiocephalic AVF, a brachiocephalic AVF, and a brachiobasilic AVF configuration were simulated and analyzed for their postoperative flow. The most distal configuration with a predicted flow between 400 and 1500 ml/min was considered the preferred location for AVF surgery. The suggestion of the model was compared to the choice of an experienced vascular surgeon. Furthermore, predicted flows were compared to measured postoperative flows. Results Taken into account the confidence interval (25th and 75th percentile interval), overlap between predicted and measured postoperative flows was observed in 70% of the patients. Differentiation between upper and lower arm configuration was similar in 76% of the patients, whereas discrimination between two upper arm AVF configurations was more difficult. In 3 patients the surgeon created an upper arm AVF, while model based predictions allowed for lower arm AVF creation, thereby preserving proximal vessels. In one patient early thrombosis in a radiocephalic AVF was observed which might have been indicated by the low predicted postoperative flow. Conclusions Postoperative flow can be predicted relatively accurately for multiple AVF configurations by using computational modeling. This

  9. The Effect of Arterial Curvature on Blood Flow in Arterio-Venous Fistulae: Realistic Geometries and Pulsatile Flow.

    PubMed

    Grechy, L; Iori, F; Corbett, R W; Gedroyc, W; Duncan, N; Caro, C G; Vincent, P E

    2017-07-26

    Arterio-Venous Fistulae (AVF) are regarded as the "gold standard" method of vascular access for patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) who require haemodialysis. However, up to 60% of AVF do not mature, and hence fail, as a result of Intimal Hyperplasia (IH). Unphysiological flow and oxygen transport patterns, associated with the unnatural and often complex geometries of AVF, are believed to be implicated in the development of IH. Previous studies have investigated the effect of arterial curvature on blood flow in AVF using idealized planar AVF configurations and non-pulsatile inflow conditions. The present study takes an important step forwards by extending this work to more realistic non-planar brachiocephalic AVF configurations with pulsatile inflow conditions. Results show that forming an AVF by connecting a vein onto the outer curvature of an arterial bend does not, necessarily, suppress unsteady flow in the artery. This finding is converse to results from a previous more idealized study. However, results also show that forming an AVF by connecting a vein onto the inner curvature of an arterial bend can suppress exposure to regions of low wall shear stress and hypoxia in the artery. This finding is in agreement with results from a previous more idealized study. Finally, results show that forming an AVF by connecting a vein onto the inner curvature of an arterial bend can significantly reduce exposure to high WSS in the vein. The results are important, as they demonstrate that in realistic scenarios arterial curvature can be leveraged to reduce exposure to excessively low/high levels of WSS and regions of hypoxia in AVF. This may in turn reduce rates of IH and hence AVF failure.

  10. Extra-anatomical veno-venous surgical bypass for central vein occlusion in patients with ipsilateral arterio-venous fistula (AVF) for haemodialysis - A single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Saravana, K S; Zainal, A A

    2017-02-01

    Central vein occlusion is a common complication related to central vein catheter insertion for haemodialysis which can be unmasked by an ipsilateral fistula creation, leading to a dysfunctional arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We describe an extra-anatomical venous bypass surgical procedure performed to maintain vascular access and reduce the symptoms of swelling of the ipsilateral upper limb, neck and face. We report 20 consecutive patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) who had central vein occlusion and were not amenable to endovascular intervention. They underwent extra-anatomical vein to vein surgical bypass. The axillary and iliac or femoral veins were approached via infraclavicular and extraperitoneal groin incisions respectively. In all the patients, an externally supported 6 or 8 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft was used as a conduit and was tunnelled extra-anatomical. All patients had double antiplatelet (Aspirin and Clopidogrel) therapy post-operatively. Substantial improvement in the facial, neck and upper limb swelling was noticed following this diversion surgery. The vein to vein bypass was patent at 12 months in 10 out of 20 patients. Graft infection occurred in two (10%) cases. Re-thrombectomy or assisted patency procedure (stent/plasty) was done in four (20%) cases. The patients with preoperative fistula flow rate of more than 1500 ml/min and post-operative graft flow rate of more than a 1000 ml/min were patent at 12 months (P=0.025 and p=0.034 respectively). Axillary to iliac/femoral vein bypass can salvage functioning ipsilateral fistula threatened by occluded upper central vein.

  11. In vitro hemodynamic model of the arm arteriovenous circulation to study hemodynamics of native arteriovenous fistula and the distal revascularization and interval ligation procedure.

    PubMed

    Varble, Nicole; Day, Steven; Phillips, Daniel; Mix, Doran; Schwarz, Karl; Illig, Karl A; Chandra, Ankur

    2014-05-01

    Experimental modeling of arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula (AVF) hemodynamics is challenging. Mathematical modeling struggles to accurately represent the capillary bed and venous circulation. In vivo animal models are expensive and labor intensive. We hypothesized that an in vitro, physiologic model of the extremity arteriovenous circulation with provisions for AVF and distal revascularization and interval ligation (DRIL) configurations could be created as a platform for hemodynamic modeling and testing. An anatomic, upper extremity arteriovenous model was constructed of tubing focusing on the circulation from the subclavian artery to subclavian vein. Tubing material, length, diameter, and wall thickness were selected to match vessel compliance and morphology. All branch points were constructed at physiologic angles. The venous system and capillary bed were modeled using tubing and one-way valves and compliance chambers. A glycerin/water solution was created to match blood viscosity. The system was connected to a heart simulator. Pressure waveforms and flows were recorded at multiple sites along the model for the native circulation, brachiocephalic AVF configuration, and the AVF with DR without and with IL (DR no IL and DRIL). A preset mean cardiac output of 4.2 L/min from the heart simulator yielded a subclavian artery pressure of 125/55 mm Hg and a brachial artery pressure of 121/54 mm Hg with physiologic arterial waveforms. Mean capillary bed perfusion pressure was 41 mm Hg, and mean venous pressure in the distal brachial vein was 17 mm Hg with physiologic waveforms. AVF configuration resulted in a 15% decrease in distal pressure and a 65% decrease in distal flow to the hand. DR no IL had no change in distal pressure with a 27% increase in distal flow. DRIL resulted in a 3% increase in distal pressure and a 15% increase in distal flow to the hand above that of DR no IL. Flow through the DR bypass decreased from 329 mL/min to 55 mL/min with the addition of IL

  12. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3T MR and 64-row multidetector CT angiography for the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Oda, S; Utsunomiya, D; Hirai, T; Kai, Y; Ohmori, Y; Shigematsu, Y; Iryo, Y; Uetani, H; Azuma, M; Yamashita, Y

    2014-02-01

    For the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, it is not determined whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA is more reliable than multidetector CTA. The aim of this study was to compare the agreement between intra-arterial DSA, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA at 3T, and 64-row multidetector CTA for the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. We enrolled 12 consecutive patients (11 men, 1 woman; age range, 46-83 years; mean, 65 years) who underwent preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA at 3T and 64-row multidetector CTA. The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula location was confirmed by intra-arterial DSA as the reference standard. Two reviewers independently evaluated the level of the artery feeding the spinal dural arteriovenous fistula on the basis of continuity between the feeder and abnormal spinal vessels on 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA and 64-row multidetector CTA images. Interobserver and intermodality agreement was determined by calculation of the κ coefficient. On DSA, the vessel feeding the spinal dural arteriovenous fistula was the intercostal artery (7 cases), the lumbar artery (3 cases), and the internal iliac artery or the ascending pharyngeal artery (1 case each). For the fistula level, interobserver agreement was excellent for 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA (κ = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.92-1.00) and very good for 64-row multidetector CTA (κ = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.96). Intermodality agreement with DSA was good for 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA (κ = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49-1.00) and moderate for 64-row multidetector CTA (κ = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.020-0.84). For the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA may be more reliable than 64-row multidetector CTA.

  13. Acute Traumatic Renal Artery to Inferior Vena Cava Fistula Treated with a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, J.; Kossman, T.; Lyon, S.

    2006-12-15

    A 34-year-old man presented within hours of suffering a penetrating stab wound and was diagnosed with a right renal artery to inferior vena cava fistula. Initial attempts at excluding the fistula with a balloon were unsuccessful. He was subsequently treated with a covered stent inserted into the right renal artery which successfully excluded the fistula.

  14. Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas and Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome: Evaluation of Functional Scores with Review of Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K; Chitale, Rohan V; Yang, Isaac

    2017-06-30

    To evaluate the use of functional scores as predictors of symptom outcomes in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) and Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. The literature was systematically surveyed to identify patients. Aminoff-Logue Scale (ALS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were ascertained and combined to form a novel functional score, the Aminoff-Rankin Composite (ARC) score. Subgroup analyses were performed for the comparison of surgery versus embolization and for patients with symptom duration less than 6 months. Finally, a review of dAVF pathogenesis is presented. A total of 18 patients were included in the quantitative synthesis. Surgery alone was performed in 11 patients (61.11%). Seven patients underwent embolization alone (38.89%). There were no significant differences in ARC scores or symptom outcomes when comparing surgery to embolization. The average duration of symptoms was 22.46 + 49.35 months. In patients who had symptoms for less than 6 months, mRS and ARC scores were strongly correlated with symptom improvement after surgery (Rpb = 0.96, P < 0.001). Our results suggest that mRS and ARC scores could be useful as predictors of outcomes in patients with Foix-Alajouanine syndrome who present with symptoms for less than 6 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Onyx removal after embolization of a superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula involving scalp artery

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi; Ito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in superior sagittal sinus (SSS) requires multimodal treatment. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Case Description: A 59-year-old male presented with involuntary movements of both legs and progressive dementia. Cerebral angiography demonstrated the DAVF in the SSS fed by bilateral superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningeal arteries. The posterior SSS was thrombosed, and the main drainers were cortical veins. Combined treatment with transarterial embolization using Onyx and transvenous embolization using coils was performed. Although symptoms were improved, a small DAVF remained. Two months later, Onyx cast extrusion through the scalp was observed, requiring removal and debridement because of infection at the extrusion sites. Surgery for the residual DAVF would be difficult because of scalp condition; therefore, an additional endovascular treatment was conducted, completely occluding DAVF. Conclusion: Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Therefore, scalp infection should be considered because it may preclude additional surgical procedures. PMID:27313969

  16. Onyx removal after embolization of a superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula involving scalp artery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi; Ito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Most dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in superior sagittal sinus (SSS) requires multimodal treatment. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. A 59-year-old male presented with involuntary movements of both legs and progressive dementia. Cerebral angiography demonstrated the DAVF in the SSS fed by bilateral superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningeal arteries. The posterior SSS was thrombosed, and the main drainers were cortical veins. Combined treatment with transarterial embolization using Onyx and transvenous embolization using coils was performed. Although symptoms were improved, a small DAVF remained. Two months later, Onyx cast extrusion through the scalp was observed, requiring removal and debridement because of infection at the extrusion sites. Surgery for the residual DAVF would be difficult because of scalp condition; therefore, an additional endovascular treatment was conducted, completely occluding DAVF. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Therefore, scalp infection should be considered because it may preclude additional surgical procedures.

  17. [Onyx embolization for treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula: comparison of long- distance versus routine injection method].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Zhou; Wang, Gang; Liu, Dan; Qi, Song-Tao; Li, Wei-Guang; Feng, Wen-Feng

    2016-03-01

    To compare the efficacy, clinical characteristics, safety, injection time and radiation exposure of Onyx embolization using a long-distance injection method and routine injection method for management of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed in 59 patients with DAVF treated with Onyx embolization using long-distance injection method (28 patients) and routine injection method (31 patients). The efficacy, safety, injection time and radiation exposure during Onyx embolization were compared between the two injections methods. The average radiation dose exposure to the surgeon per procedure was significantly lower in the long-distance injection group than in the routine group. The injection time (P=0.53), injection volume (P=0.78), number of supply arteries (P=0.80), Cognard types (P=0.67), and effect of embolization (P=0.88) were all similar between the two groups. Endovaseular treatment of intracranial DAVF with Onyx embolization using the long-distance injection method is feasible, safe and effective and can reduce the radiation exposure to the surgeon.

  18. Transvenous endovascular treatment for scalp arteriovenous fistulas: results with combined use of Onyx and coils.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Tian, Yanlong; Gu, Yuxiang; Mao, Ying

    2017-08-21

    Scalp arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare lesions and may occur spontaneously or secondary to head trauma. The standard treating strategy for these lesions has not been established to date. We present three cases of successful treatment of scalp AVFs using a combination of Onyx-18 and coils via a transvenous approach. The database of patients at Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China was reviewed. The patients with scalp AVFs treated with Onyx-18 and coils via a transvenous approach were included. Between 2014 and 2016, three consecutive patients with scalp AVFs were treated transvenously with Onyx embolization in combination with coil placement at our institution. No procedure-related complications were noted. Post-embolization angiography demonstrated successful and complete occlusion of the AVFs immediately after treatment. Clinical follow-up showed resolution of the symptoms. The technique of transvenous "armored concrete" embolization using a combination of coils and Onyx is an effective treatment modality in the treatment of scalp AVFs, particularly in type C cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development of an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula after venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Buell, Thomas J; Raper, Daniel M; Ding, Dale; Chen, Ching-Jen; Liu, Kenneth C

    2017-09-26

    We report a case in which an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) developed after endovascular treatment of a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with venous sinus stenting (VSS). The pathogenesis may involve hemodynamic alterations secondary to increased poststenting venous sinus pressure, which may cause new arterial ingrowth into the fistulous sinus wall without capillary interposition. Despite administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, there may also be subclinical cortical vein thrombosis that contributed to DAVF formation. In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms, increased inflammation induced by VSS may upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expression and also promote DAVF pathogenesis. Since VSS has been used to obliterate DAVFs, DAVF formation after VSS may seem counterintuitive. Previous stents have generally been closed cell, stainless steel designs used to maximize radial compression of the fistulous sinus wall. In contrast, our patient's stent was an open cell, self-expandable nitinol design (Protégé Everflex). Neurointerventionalists should be aware of this potential, although rare complication of DAVF formation after VSS. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Serial angiography of dynamic changes of traumatic middle meningeal arteriovenous fistula: case report.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Mino, Masaki; Hori, Emiko; Fujita, Tomoaki; Midorikawa, Hiroshi; Kaimori, Mitsuomi; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2009-10-01

    A 48-year-old woman suffered head trauma and presented with an acute epidural hematoma with a linear fracture of the right temporal bone across the middle meningeal groove. Initial angiography demonstrated no vascular abnormalities. Eight months later, she again suffered head trauma and computed tomography demonstrated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Right external carotid angiography revealed a middle meningeal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) which drained into the superficial sylvian veins via the sphenoparietal sinus. Serial angiography showed progressive dilation of the draining veins, but she refused surgical intervention and dropped out of our outpatient clinic. Fifteen years after the first head trauma, she presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography demonstrated formation of venous aneurysms on the drainer of the AVF. The dilated superficial sylvian vein was removed together with the ruptured venous aneurysm. Histological examination of the drainer revealed an arterialized vein. The serial angiographic evaluations revealed dynamic changes of the traumatic middle meningeal AVF, including progressive dilation of the drainers, simplification of the drainage routes, and the formation of venous aneurysms, which presumably represents the entire natural course of traumatic middle meningeal AVF manifesting as hemorrhage. The present case of traumatic middle meningeal AVF with a deteriorating course suggests that surgical removal or embolization of the AVF is strongly indicated if follow-up angiography shows dilation of the drainers, which implies increased shunt flow.

  1. Effect of anastomosis angle on hemodynamic of side-to-end radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Wan Anuar Wan; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara; Ngali, Mohd Zamani

    2012-06-01

    Radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) at wrist is the chosen access for hemodialysis. Most studies describe access complications without considering the effect of the anastomosis angle. In the present investigation, eighteen three-dimensional, simplified models of RCAVF were used to analyze the hemodynamic effect of anastomosis angle under fixed flow rate of 900 ml/min, corresponding to Reynolds number 950. EFD. Lab software was used in the flow simulation with steady flow conditions. The results show that high pressure drop was observed for RCAVF with smaller anastomosis angle. However, for cases with anastomosis angle larger than 45°, pressure drop became relatively constant. The results also show that large vortices appeared in cases with angle smaller than 30°. For cases with angle larger than 60°, low flow zone appeared at the inner wall that may lead to promotion of intimal thickening and formation of stenosis. Overall, for average flowrate, it is recommended that anastomosis angle should be maintained between 45° and 60° to minimize adverse effects.

  2. The advantages of balloon assistance in endovascular embolization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular embolization is accepted as an alternative to surgical management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) in most patients; however, when the feeder vessel arises from the trunk vessel with an acutely angled origin, microcatheter navigation may be difficult, hazardous, and sometimes impossible. We propose a technique that eases microguidewire engagement and microcatheterization of arteries that arise at very acute angles with the assistance of a parallel compliant balloon that acts as supporter, guider, and protector. This technique was successfully applied in three consecutive patients with spinal DAVF with unfavorable vascular anatomy that limited selective microcatheterization. The balloon supports and guides the microguidewire along the feeder (supportive role). The balloon can then be placed at the origin of the feeder vessel and inflated during embolization to prevent liquid agent reflux (protective role). Use of this technique as a first option reduces procedure time and radiation exposure. A limiting factor is the need for a relatively large working channel to allow the combined use of a balloon and a microcatheter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective evaluation of ischemia in brachial-basilic and forearm prosthetic arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Keuter, X H A; Kessels, A G H; de Haan, M H; van der Sande, F M; Tordoir, J H M

    2008-05-01

    Ischemia is a devastating complication after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. When not timely corrected, it may lead to amputation. Symptomatic ischemia occurs in 3.7-5% of the hemodialysis population. Upper arm AVFs have a higher incidence of ischemia compared to forearm AVFs. As more patients may need upper arm AVFs in the growing and older hemodialysis population, occurrence of symptomatic ischemia may increase. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors for occurrence of ischemia. A prospective evaluation of ischemia was performed in patients randomised for either a brachial-basilic (BB-) AVF or a prosthetic forearm loop AVF. Clinical parameters, preoperative vessel diameters, access flows, digital blood pressures, digit-to-brachial indices (DBI) and interventions for ischemia were recorded. Sixty-one patients (BB-AVF 28) were studied. Seventeen patients (BB-AVF 8) developed ischemic symptoms. Six patients (BB-AVF 3) needed interventions for severe symptoms. Age, history of peripheral arterial reconstruction and radial artery volume flow were significant predictors for the occurrence of ischemia. Symptomatic ischemia occurred in 28% of patients with brachial-basilic and prosthetic forearm AVFs. Age, history of peripheral arterial reconstruction and radial artery volume flow might be important for prediction of ischemia.

  4. [Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare but serious complication in hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Mancini, Andrea; Castriotta, Giuseppe; Angelini, Pernina; Bozzi, Michele; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; La Raia, Elvira; Nisi, Maria Teresa; Proscia, Anna Rita; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Vitale, Ottavia; Cuzzola, Cristoforo

    2017-06-01

    A pseudoaneurysm or false aneurysm of the brachial artery is an uncommon occurrence in patients receiving hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman presenting with a large, tender, pulsatile mass in the right antecubital region 10 cm from the AVF. B-mode ultrasound examination revealed a saccular hematoma. Color doppler showed a recirculation movement of blood, creating a two colors image called "Korean flag". The patient was transferred to the surgical unit where she first underwent ultrasound-guided compression and then surgical repair of the pseudoaneurysm. Two weeks after surgery the AVF was used again as an access for hemodialysis. Differentiating between a false and a true aneurysm based on ultrasound is not always straightforward. Doppler ultrasound findings can be decisive for the early diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm to ensure proper treatment planning given the dangerous complications of ruptures. Treatment options include: compression, percutaneous thrombin injection, endovascular exclusion with covered stents, aneurysmectomy and surgical repair. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  5. Acute Clinical Worsening after Steroid Administration in Cervical Myelitis May Reveal a Subdural Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Rain, Silvia; Udding, Jan; Broere, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Subdural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare condition characterized by clinical manifestations ranging from mild bilateral sensory deficits to quadriplegia. The diagnosis is often delayed due to unspecific neurological symptoms, initially diagnosed as polyneuropathy or myelopathy. The diagnosis can be delayed for as long as 1–15 years. The following report describes a cervical SDAVF case initially misdiagnosed as myelitis transversa and treated with intravenous steroids. A 56-year-old male presented with sensory deficits and mild leg and right arm weakness. Cervical MRI showed a central medullary hyperintense lesion with contrast enhancement. After metabolic, infectious, and malignant causes were excluded, myelitis transversa was presumed and the patient was treated intravenously with methylprednisolone. Shortly after that, he developed quadriplegia. Cervical MRI imaging showed engorged cervical perimedullary vessels, which were not visible on the initial MRI. The diagnosis was revised and a SDAVF identified. Prompt surgical treatment led to a complete recovery. The effect of intravenous steroids in SDAVF is controversial. Acute clinical worsening after steroid administration is previously reported in several publications; however, due to the paucity of clinical studies on SDAVF, this effect remains mostly overlooked or unknown. The findings in this patient support the causative relation between SDAVF clinical worsening and steroid administration. We propose that acute clinical worsening under steroids in patients initially diagnosed with myelitis should raise suspicion of an SDAVF. PMID:27920716

  6. Arteriovenous fistula maturation in patients with permanent access created prior to or after hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Duque, Juan C; Martinez, Laisel; Tabbara, Marwan; Dvorquez, Denise; Mehandru, Sushil K; Asif, Arif; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Salman, Loay H

    2017-05-15

    Multiple factors and comorbidities have been implicated in the ability of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) to mature, including vessel anatomy, advanced age, and the presence of coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease. However, little is known about the role of uremia on AVF primary failure. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the effect of uremia on AVF maturation by comparing AVF outcomes between pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage five patients and those who had their AVF created after hemodialysis (HD) initiation. We included 612 patients who underwent AVF creation between 2003 and 2015 at the University of Miami Hospital and Jackson Memorial Hospital. Effects of uremia on primary failure were evaluated using univariate statistical comparisons and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Primary failure occurred in 28.1% and 26.3% of patients with an AVF created prior to or after HD initiation, respectively (p = 0.73). The time of HD initiation was not associated with AVF maturation in multivariate logistic regression analysis (p = 0.57). In addition, pre-operative blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.78), estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.66), and serum creatinine levels (p = 0.14) were not associated with AVF primary failure in pre-dialysis patients. Our results show that clearance of uremia with regular HD treatments prior to AVF creation does not improve the frequency of vascular access maturation.

  7. Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Assessment of Post-treatment Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    ZOGOPOULOS, Panagiotis; NAKAMURA, Hajime; OZAKI, Tomohiko; ASAI, Katsunori; IMA, Hiroyuki; KIDANI, Tomoki; KADONO, Yoshinori; MURAKAMI, Tomoaki; FUJINAKA, Toshiyuki; YOSHIMINE, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are the most commonly encountered vascular malformation of the spinal cord and a treatable cause of progressive para- or tetraplegia. It is an elusive pathology that tends to be under-diagnosed, due to lack of awareness among clinicians, and affects males more commonly than females, typically between the fifth and eighth decades. Early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve outcome and prevent permanent disability and even mortality. The purpose of our retrospective, single-center study was to determine the long-term clinical and radiographic outcome of patients who have received endovascular or surgical treatment of a spinal DAVF. In particular, during a 6-year period (2009–2014) 14 patients with a spinal DAVF were treated at our department either surgically (n = 4) or endovascularly (n = 10) with detachable coils and/or glue. There was no recurrence in the follow-up period (mean: 36 months, range 3–60 months) after complete occlusion with the endovascular treatment (n = 9; 90%), while only one patient (10%) had residual flow both post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. All four surgically treated patients (100%) had no signs of residual DAVF on follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and/or angiography (mean follow-up period of 9 months). Since improvement or stabilization of symptoms may be seen even in patients with delayed diagnosis and substantial neurological deficits, either endovascular or surgical treatment is always justified. PMID:26466887

  8. Surgical management of dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse-sigmoid sinus in 42 patients.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study was performed to analyse a prospectively collected database from a single surgeon (M.K.M.) of transverse-sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) between 1991 and August 2011. During the study period, 144 patients with 160 DAVF were managed. Sixty-five of the DAVF were located in the transverse-sigmoid sinus and 42 were treated with surgery, or embolisation and surgery. All patients who underwent surgery were symptomatic with retrograde cortical venous drainage. The average follow-up period was 18months (range, 2-82months). Total elimination of the DAVF was achieved in all instances, including two patients (5%) who required further surgery after postoperative cerebral angiography showed that some venous drainage had persisted after the first operation. There was no new permanent neurological deficit or mortality attributable to surgery. Our institutional experience shows that in selected patients with transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVF, the involved sinus can be surgically resected with a high success rate and it is as safe as many alternative options. We suggest that this definitive treatment option should be offered to patients, and the outcome should be compared to other treatment modalities.

  9. The Incidence of Trigeminocardiac Reflex in Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with Onyx

    PubMed Central

    Lv, X.; Li, Y.; Jiang, C.; Wu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This paper reports the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) in endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with Onyx. The consecutive case histories of 45 patients with DAVFs, treated with Onyx transarterially and transvenously, from February 2005 to February 2008 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, China, were retrospectively reviewed. The time period was limited as the anesthetic and intravascular procedure was performed under the same standardized anesthetic protocol and by the same team. The TCR rate was subsequently calculated. Of the 45 patients, five showed evidence of TCR during transarterial Onyx injection and transvenous DMSO injection. Their HR fell 50% during intravascular procedures compared with levels immediately before the stimulus. However, blood pressure values were stable in all cases. The TCR rate for all patients was 11.1% (95% CI, 4 to 24%), 7.7% (95% CI, 2 to 21%) in patients treated intraarterially and 33.3% (4 to 78%) in patients treated intravenously. Once HR has fallen, intravenous atropine is indicated to block the depressor response and prevention further TCR episodes. TCR may occur due to chemical stimulus of DMSO and Onyx cast formation under a standardized anesthetic protocol and should be blunted by atropine. PMID:20377980

  10. Long-term blood access by catheters implanted into arteriovenous fistulas of sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M B; Cole, J J; Jensen, W M; Scribner, B H

    1984-08-01

    Reliable long-term blood access in sheep was provided by implanting one or two catheters into the high velocity blood flow in the vein draining an arteriovenous fistula created in the neck. Thrombosis of the catheterized vein occurred in only one of 31 cases in which a catheter with rounded intravascular tip was used, as compared with seven in 10 cases using a sharp-tipped catheter. The mean duration of placement for all rounded-tip catheters was 228.6 days. Extrusion from the vessel occurred with 3 of 8 short catheters (2 cm intravascular length), but only after a period of more than seven months of implantation. Using a program of trice-weekly disinfection of the skin exit site, exterior portion of the catheter, and catheter lumen resulted in failure of only two catheters due to infection. Rounded-tip catheters with 5 cm intravascular length had 75% life table functional rate at 15 months. Implantation of two catheters permitted extracorporeal circulation at flows of up to 300 ml/min using a blood pump to withdraw blood from one catheter while simultaneously returning it through the second.

  11. Performance of physical examination versus ultrasonography to detect stenosis in haemodialysis arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Cárceles, Ana B; García-Medina, José; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2017-01-18

    The overall purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of physical examination (PE) versus ultrasonography (US) in people with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This is a cross-sectional study with a total of 99 patients attended by the vascular radiology unit for AVF evaluation during January - March 2015. PE and ultrasonography were blinded performed by different radiologists. For complete and individual signs of PE, sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive (PPV) and negative (PNV) value, likelihood ratios (LR) and Cohen's κ value were measured. According to ultrasonography, the presence of stenosis was identified in 57 (58%) patients, and 61 (62%) by PE. The accuracy of PE for the diagnosis of AVF was sensitivity 82%, specificity 67%, PPV 77%, NPV 74%, LR 2.74 and 0.26. There was a moderate agreement beyond chance between PE and ultrasonography (κ = 0.5). PE has shown a moderate accuracy to detect stenosis. With non-ultrasonography availability Haemodialysis Units can get benefit to optimize VA survival and professionals should improve its basic skills.

  12. Numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions in a compliant patient-specific arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Decorato, Iolanda; Kharboutly, Zaher; Vassallo, Tommaso; Penrose, Justin; Legallais, Cécile; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate numerically the fluid-structure interactions (FSI) in a patient-specific arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and analyze the degree of complexity that such a numerical simulation requires to provide clinically relevant information. The reference FSI simulation takes into account the non-Newtonian behavior of blood, as well as the variation in mechanical properties of the vascular walls along the AVF. We have explored whether less comprehensive versions of the simulation could still provide relevant results. The non-Newtonian blood model is necessary to predict the hemodynamics in the AVF because of the predominance of low shear rates in the vein. An uncoupled fluid simulation provides informative qualitative maps of the hemodynamic conditions in the AVF; quantitatively, the hemodynamic parameters are accurate within 20% maximum. Conversely, an uncoupled structural simulation with non-uniform wall properties along the vasculature provides the accurate distribution of internal wall stresses, but only at one instant of time within the cardiac cycle. The FSI simulation advantageously provides the time-evolution of both the hemodynamic and structural stresses. However, the higher computational cost renders a clinical use still difficult in routine. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quadruple coaxial catheter system on transvenous embolization for dural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Horie, Nobutaka; Morofuji, Yoichi; Fukuda, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Morikawa, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    Although transvenous embolization (TVE) is an effective method for treating dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), directing the catheter to the lesion site is difficult. We report on the utility of a quadruple coaxial catheter system for TVE. The quadruple catheter system comprised a 6 Fr guiding sheath, 6 Fr guiding catheter, 4 Fr intermediate catheter, and a regular microcatheter. The system was utilized in 27 consecutive dural AVF cases treated with TVE. In this study, we reviewed our experience with this system, including the theory, method of use, and complications. Stenosis or obstruction of the vascular access was identified in 12 cases. The catheter could not reach to the lesion in three cases of cavernous sinus (7·4%); therefore, transarterial embolization was employed. Angiographic results revealed that the cases consist of total occlusion (n  =  16, 59·5%), subtotal (n  =  10, 37·0%), and partial occlusion (n  =  1, 3·7%). Complete resolution or improvement of symptoms was observed in 23 patients (85·2%), no improvement of symptoms was observed in three patients (7·4%), and deterioration of symptoms was observed in one patient (3·7%). Venous perforation occurred in one patient without any neurological deficit. The catheter system provided access to the lesion and provided stability during the mechanically demanding process navigating the catheter and placing the coils. We determined that the quadruple coaxial system was safe and efficient for TVE for dural AVF.

  14. Brachial-brachial autogenous arteriovenous fistula in a dialysis patient with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Miyamoto, Masahito; Yazawa, Masahiko; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sasaki, Hideo; Miyano, Satetsu; Tsutsumi, Hisashi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2010-04-01

    As the number of patients on hemodialysis increases, there will also be an increase in the number of patients with inadequate superficial veins for the creation of an autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF). In those patients, medical devices such as vascular prostheses or tunneled-cuffed catheters are necessary to maintain dialysis access. However, these devices are frequently associated with bacterial infection. We recently encountered a dialysis patient who underwent tunneled-cuffed catheter insertion because of the lack of usable superficial veins for autogenous access, and this patient subsequently developed catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with multiple metastatic infections. Despite immediate removal of the catheter, the infection persisted over an extended period, which was a condition precluding the further use of catheters or other prosthetic materials. To handle this situation, we utilized the deep brachial vein to construct an autogenous AVF. After ligating numerous branches, the vein was anastomosed to the brachial artery and then transposed to the subcutaneous space. The newly constructed autogenous AVF, which successfully kept the patient free from foreign materials, greatly contributed to the relief of persistent infection. Although the brachial vein is rarely used for AVF creation, we suggest that it can serve as an option to create an alternative AVF in a patient with inadequate superficial veins.

  15. Acute Clinical Worsening after Steroid Administration in Cervical Myelitis May Reveal a Subdural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Rain, Silvia; Udding, Jan; Broere, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Subdural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare condition characterized by clinical manifestations ranging from mild bilateral sensory deficits to quadriplegia. The diagnosis is often delayed due to unspecific neurological symptoms, initially diagnosed as polyneuropathy or myelopathy. The diagnosis can be delayed for as long as 1-15 years. The following report describes a cervical SDAVF case initially misdiagnosed as myelitis transversa and treated with intravenous steroids. A 56-year-old male presented with sensory deficits and mild leg and right arm weakness. Cervical MRI showed a central medullary hyperintense lesion with contrast enhancement. After metabolic, infectious, and malignant causes were excluded, myelitis transversa was presumed and the patient was treated intravenously with methylprednisolone. Shortly after that, he developed quadriplegia. Cervical MRI imaging showed engorged cervical perimedullary vessels, which were not visible on the initial MRI. The diagnosis was revised and a SDAVF identified. Prompt surgical treatment led to a complete recovery. The effect of intravenous steroids in SDAVF is controversial. Acute clinical worsening after steroid administration is previously reported in several publications; however, due to the paucity of clinical studies on SDAVF, this effect remains mostly overlooked or unknown. The findings in this patient support the causative relation between SDAVF clinical worsening and steroid administration. We propose that acute clinical worsening under steroids in patients initially diagnosed with myelitis should raise suspicion of an SDAVF.

  16. Physical examination of arteriovenous fistula: The influence of professional experience in the detection of complications.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Teles, Paulo; Dias, Vanessa Filipa Ferreira; Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta Jesus Silva; Martins, Maria Manuela

    2014-07-01

    Vascular access is one of the leading causes of mobilization of financial resources in health systems for people with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications. We decided to evaluate the influence of nurses' professional experience in the detection of complications of the AVF (venous stenosis and steal syndrome). The study took place in eight hemodialysis centers between May and September of 2011 in the north of Portugal. Sample was constituted by registered nurses. The nurses involved in the experiment were divided in two groups: those who had more than 5 years of experience and those who had less than 5 years of experience. Ninety-two nurses participated in the study: 34 nurses had less than 5 years of professional experience and 58 had more than 5 years of professional experience. In the practices considered by nurses in the detection of venous stenosis, there were no differences observed between the groups (P > 0.05). In steal syndrome, there were no differences observed between the groups in the practices of the nurses in the detection of this complication of the AVF (P > 0.05). We concluded that professional experience does not influence the detection of venous stenosis and steal syndrome. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  17. Flow reduction in high-flow arteriovenous fistulas improve cardiovascular parameters and decreases need for hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Jalandhara, Nishant; Subramanian, Anand; Mohanaselvan, Arvindselvan

    2016-07-01

    High output heart failure (HF) and pulmonary hypertension have been demonstrated in patients with prevalent arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. Fistulas with flow >2000 mL/minutes are more likely to induce changes in cardiac geometry and pulmonary artery pressure. The effects of reducing flow in AV access and its implications on HF decompensation and hospitalizations have not been studied. Retrospective analysis of 12 patients who needed hospitalization for acute Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) decompensation with AV access flow of 2 L/minutes (as defined by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI)) or more were included in the study. All the patients underwent banding of their inflow at the anastomosis with perioperative access flow measurement. Follow-up period was 6 months. 2D echo was done at 6 months postbanding in addition to access flow and clinical evaluation. Complete data was available for all the 12 patients. Study data was collected on all the 12 patients. Mean age was 64.7 years. The mean access flow pre and postbanding were 3784 mL/minutes and 1178 mL/minutes, respectively (P < 0.001). Eighty percent of the patients had diabetes and 41% had coronary artery disease. There was a statistically significant decrease in cardiac output (pre = 7.06 L/minutes, post = 6.47 L/minutes P = 0.03), pulmonary systolic pressure (pre = 54 mmHg, post = 44 mmHg P = 0.02), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (pre = 130 g/m(2) , post = 125 g/m(2) P = 0.006) and need for rehospitalization for CHF decompensation. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) staging improved by 1 stage postbanding (P = 0.002). The hospitalization rate was 3.75 ± 1.2 in the 6 months before banding and was decreased to 1.08 ± 1.2 (P = 0.002) postbanding. The hemoglobin level, predialysis systolic blood pressure, calcium phosphorous product and the use of Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) blockade agents and calcium channel blockers

  18. Ethnic differences in arm vein diameter and arteriovenous fistula creation rates in men undergoing hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Ishaque, Brandon; Zayed, Mohamed A; Miller, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Kaji, Amy H; Lee, Jason T; O'Connell, Jessica; de Virgilio, Christian

    2012-08-01

    The National Kidney Foundation recommends that arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) be placed in at least 65% of hemodialysis patients. Some studies suggest that African American patients are less likely to receive a first-time AVF than patients of other ethnicities, although the reason for this disparity is unclear. The purpose of our study is to determine (1) whether there are ethnic differences in AVF creation, (2) whether this may be related to differences in vein diameters, and (3) whether AVF patency rates are similar between African American and non-African American male patients. Consecutive male patients undergoing first-time hemodialysis access from 2006 to 2010 at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included age, ethnicity, weight, height, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, smoking history, intravenous drug abuse, need for temporary access placement, and preoperative venous ultrasound measurements. Categoric variables were compared using χ(2) analysis, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare continuous variables. Of 249 male patients identified, 95 were African American. Median age in African American and non-African American patients was 63 years. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia were statistically significantly greater in African American patients. The need for temporary access before hemoaccess was similar between the cohorts. African American patients demonstrated significantly smaller median basilic and cephalic vein diameters at most measured sites. Overall, 221 of 249 (88.8%) underwent AVF first. An AV graft was created in 17.9% of African American patients vs in only 7.1% of non-African Americans (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.4; P = .009). The difference between median vein diameters used for autologous fistula creation in African American and non-African American patients was not significant. There was no significant difference in the primary patency (80.8% vs 76

  19. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis by membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) via arteriovenous fistula performed in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Gülle, Saniye; Bak, Mustafa; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Can, Demet; Karabay, Ozalp

    2010-02-01

    Membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) is an apheresis technique by which atherogenic lipoproteins can be eliminated from plasma on the basis of particle size. In this study, we aim to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed by providing alternative vascular routes in two siblings with familial hypercholesterolemia who did not respond to medical treatment and diet. Of the two siblings, one was nine years old and the other one was three-and-a-half years old. Of the total of 78 apheresis processes performed, 24 were done via a permanent subclavian catheter, 36 were done via a subsequently provided arteriovenous fistula, and 18 were done via an arteriovenous graft. We observed a mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (61.6%), LDL cholesterol (65.5%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (38.6%). We noted that cascade filtration apheresis was effective in decreasing the LDL cholesterol in plasma, and no serious complications were noted. The success of the apheresis program depends on well-functioning blood access. An arteriovenous fistula may be the best route for the long-term treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, which requires complication-free apheresis treatments.

  20. De novo formation of a large cavernoma associated with a congenital torcular dural arteriovenous fistula: case report.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Flemming, Kelly D; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    The authors report a case of a developmentally normal child with a congenital complex torcular dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) who later, in his teenage years, developed several vermian cavernomas within a large cerebellar developmental venous anomaly (DVA). The patient had initially presented with an abnormally large head circumference but no neurological deficits. He underwent several partial embolization procedures in an attempt to decrease the blood supply of the fistula over the course of 8 years. Nine years following initial presentation, he presented with a fourth ventricular hemorrhage, due to development of a new vermian cavernoma adjacent to a previously known vermian DVA and suffered subsequent mild left-sided hemiataxia from which he later recovered. CT angiographic images demonstrated that the vermian DVA drained into the left transverse sinus, which also drained the torcular arteriovenous fistula. A routine follow-up MRI examination 10 years following initial presentation demonstrated interval development of several large cavernomas in the cerebellum, all within the DVA. The patient had no new symptoms at that time and was neurologically intact. This case report highlights the de novo development of multiple cavernous malformations potentially secondary to DAVF-induced venous congestion in a preexisting DVA.

  1. [Long-term efficacies of sinus skeletonization plus abnormal venous reflux interruption in the treatment of parasinus dural arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Huang, Xiang; Gu, Yu-xiang; Xu, Bin; Song, Dong-lei; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2013-03-05

    To retrospectively explore the long-term efficacies of sinus skeletonization plus abnormal venous reflux interruption in the treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula interfering major dural sinus. Among 15 consecutively treated patients, the lesions were located in superior sagittal sinus (n = 7), medial segment of transverse sinus (n = 3) and lateral transverse and sigmoid sinus (n = 5). And 40% of them clinically presented with intracranial hypertension and 13.3% with hemorrhage. Preoperatively, Gamma knife therapy and transarterial occlusion were used in 1 case each. All underwent sinus skeletonization plus abnormal venous reflux interruption if any. Interfered sinus was preserved in 12 cases. In another 3 cases, completely occluded segment of sinus was resected after skeletonization. Surgical mortality was none. At discharge, the symptoms were relieved or disappeared in 12 cases. Follow-up study was available in 11 cases over a mean period of 6 years. A Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of 90 or more was achieved in 8 cases and a KPS score of 80, 60 or 40 was found in 1 case each. Digital subtract angiography was performed in 9 cases and computed tomographic angiography in 1 case after operation. Cure was achieved in 7 cases and 3 cases had minimal residue without recurrence. Sinus skeletonization may stably block most blood supply to fistula so as to offer cure or long-term control of dural arteriovenous fistula.

  2. [Dural arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction fed by bilateral vertebral arteries with intracranial drainage: a case report].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tomonori; Hayashi, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2009-12-01

    We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) at the craniocervical junction, which are supplied by the radicular arteries from bilateral vertebral arteries separately, and drainaged into intracranial sinuses. A 58-year-old man with intermittent neck pain visited our hospital. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed flow voids on the dorsal surface of the medulla and upper cervical cord without any signal changes suggesting ischemia. Postcontrast MR digital subtraction angiography (MRDSA) showed early venous filling at the craniocervical junction. Angiography demonstrated bilateral fistulas near each vertebral artery penetration point of the dura matter, which were drainaged into the superior and inferior petrosal sinuses. The patient underwent suboccipital craniotomy and laminectomy of the C1, then disruption of the bilateral fistulas was performed by using micro Doppler sonography after intradural exposure of the shunt points. His symptom subsided post operatively, and MRDSA showed no abnormal vessels. Angiography performed 1 week after surgery confirmed complete obliteration of the fistulas. DAVFs at the craniocervical junction fed by bilateral vertebral arteries is extremely rare. Even in such a case, direct interruption of the fistulas using micro Doppler sonography is the most effective treatment. In addition. MRDSA could be useful for screening and perioperative studies.

  3. Superior Sagittal Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treated by Stent Placement for an Occluded Sinus and Transarterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N.; Toyota, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakayama, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) involving the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) successfully treated with stent placement for an occluded sinus and transarterial embolization. A 61-year-old man who had been treated with anticoagulation for a known SSS thrombosis presented with a sudden onset of headache. CT scan revealed an intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebral angiography revealed DAVFs involving the SSS which had severe venous congestion and sinus occlusion. We treated this case with a staged endovascular approach which consisted of stent placement for the occluded sinus and transarterial intravenous embolization resulting in complete eradication of DAVFs. Recanalization of an occluded sinus by stent placement can reduce venous congestion and transarterial intravenous embolization can obliterate dural arteriovenous shunts. This staged strategy is feasible and should be considered a first option of treatment, especially for DAVFs which presented with intracranial hemorrhage and aggressive venous hypertension. PMID:22958774

  4. Arterio venous fistula experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    nawaz, Shah; Ali, Shahzad; Shahzad, Iqbal; Baloch, M.Umar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the two year patency rate of functioning arteriovenous fistula. Methodology: This prospective case series study was conducted at Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1st January 2009 to 31st December, 2010. Patients were chosen for CBRC arteriovenous fistula at wrist and patients undergoing other types of vascular access or secondary fistula formation were excluded. Results:One hundred and eighty two patients underwent arteriovenous fistula formation. The mean ± SD age was 63 ± 13 years and there were 102 (56%) males and 80 (44%) females. 12.6% fistulae failed within first month without dialysis. The primary patency rate was 66.5% at three months and 57.7% at six months. Failing arteriovenous fistula was managed by new arteriovenous fistula in our series. 28.6% patients had redo arteriovenous fistula. This study demonstrated a poor outcome for fistulas in diabetic patients. Fifteen out of 23 (65.2%) who failed primarily were diabetics and out of these diabetics 13 (86.7%) failed in first three months. Infection and burst fistulae were found in nine (4.9%), pseudo aneurysm in 3.2%, fever 4.9%, peri-operative failure 0.55% and burst fistulae 3.2%. Conclusions: One-third of radiocephalic fistulas fail within two years. The outcome is worse for women and diabetic patients. This information may be useful in assessing and counseling patients with end-stage renal failure. Arteriovenous fistula is the better and ideal choice for haemodialysis. A Radiocephalic fistula in forearm seems to have better results as comparison to cubital fossa arteriovenous fistula. End to side anastomosis results are better than side to side anastomosis. PMID:24353531

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of the forearm basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Son, Hae-Jung; Min, Seung-Kee; Min, Sang-Il; Park, Yang Jin; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon

    2010-03-01

    Since the publication of Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (DOQI) guidelines, the use of native veins for the construction of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) for hemodialysis has been highly recommended rather than prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVG). Upper arm basilic vein transposition (BVT) has been accepted widely, with superior patency compared with AVG, but only a few studies have reported outcomes of forearm BVT (FBVT). This study evaluated the efficacy of FBVT compared with direct AVF (DAVF) and AVG in a tertiary referral center. From January 2005 to December 2007, 461 patients underwent AV access for hemodialysis in Seoul National University Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and dialysis sheets and evaluated the current AVF function in the outpatient clinic or by telephone interviews. Patients were grouped by the operation type: DAVF, FBVT, and AVG. The outcomes compared were primary, assisted-primary and secondary patency rates, maturation failure, and complications. The mean age was 59 years (range, 14-92 years), and 280 patients (60.7%) were male. By operation type, the 461 accesses were 389 DAVF (84.4%), 34 FBVT (7.4%), and 38 AVG (8.2%). Mean follow-up duration was 21 months (range, 1-51 months). The primary patency rates for DAVF, FBVT, and AVG were 67.6%, 41.5%, 35% at 12 months and 53.9%, 30.2%, 10.3% at 24 months, respectively. The secondary patency rates were 89.2%, 79.1%, 78.3% at 12 months and 83.8%, 74.4%, 64.9% at 24 months, respectively. Maturation failure occurred in five DAVF patients and in one FBVT patient. The infection rate was 0.3% in DAVF and 12.5% in AVG, but no infection occurred in patients with FBVT. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and history of previous access were associated with lower primary patency. Forearm BVT showed an acceptable, high 2-year patency rate and fewer thromboses and infectious complications than AVG. Forearm BVT could be considered before forming an upper arm AVF or forearm

  6. Effect of clinical examination and anatomical location on native arteriovenous fistula maturation rate in high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Verest, S; Logghe, P; Claes, K; Kuypers, D; Fourneau, I

    2014-01-01

    Maximal use of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for patients on hemodialysis therapy remains a clinical challenge. Primary failure rates remain high with risk factors such as female gender, diabetes mellitus, lower arm AVF and higher age. We wondered if a strategy of careful clinical examination prior to AVF creation and a preference towards an upper arm AVF in case of doubt about the quality of the vein in patients with any of the above mentioned risk factors, would lead to better maturation rates. The records of all patients who received an AVF between January 2005 and December 2009 at our University Hospitals Leuven were studied retrospectively. Demographic data, comorbidity, fistula characteristics, fistula maturation and fistula complications were recorded and analyzed. Of 344 patients enrolled, 156 (45.3%) received a lower arm AVF and 188 (54.7%) an upper arm AVF. Two hundred and seventy-six (80.2%) fistulas had a normal maturation. Lower arm AVF was a significant risk factor for non-maturation in this series (73.1% versus 86.2% ; p = 0,0024). Female gender, diabetes and high age were not, but female gender showed a significant difference in distribution in upper arm versus lower arm fistulas (62.40% versus 37.6% ; p = 0,0218). Careful clinical examination prior to upper or lower arm AVF creation together with the integration of risk assessment in the planning of AVF is worthwhile. A preference towards upper arm fistulas if major risk factors are -present can improve overall maturation rates and lead to the same maturation rates as in the overall dialysis population. Therefore, the presence of risk factors for non-maturation should not lead to the underuse of native AVFs. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  7. Serum sclerostin levels, arteriovenous fistula calcification and 2-years all-cause mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kirkpantur, Alper; Balci, Mustafa; Turkvatan, Aysel; Afsar, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Bone and mineral abnormalities, and cardiovascular calcification are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies have implicated Wnt signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of bone metabolism and vascular calcification. Sclerostin is a soluble inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway and has been shown to be associated with decreased bone turnover and vascular calcification in CKD patients. The aim was to investigate whether the circulating levels of sclerostin are associated with all-cause mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients. Data are prospectively collected for 24 months for survival analysis in 350 prevalent hemodialysis patients. At baseline, serum sclerostin levels were measured and arteriovenous fistula calcification was detected by using a 64-detector computerized tomographic scanner. During the follow-up, 84 (24%) patients died. Patients who died had higher serum sclerostin levels. Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that patients with increasing tertiles of serum sclerostin levels at baseline, had a worse survival. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis age, albumin, and presence of arteriovenous fistula calcification, but not sclerostin levels, were found to be independent predictors of survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Further clinical studies with longer follow-up are needed to clarify the impact of serum sclerostin levels on morbidity and mortality of maintenance hemodialysis patients. The study was performed as a post hoc survival analysis of the patients involved in a single-center prospective trial investigating the association between serum sclerostin levels and arteriovenous fistula calcification and patency [Balcı M, et al. Herz 2015;40:289-97] with a Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01382966. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. An update of the effect of far infrared therapy on arteriovenous access in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Fan; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2016-07-12

    The life qualities of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients rely largely on adequate dialysis, and a well-functioning vascular access is indispensable for high quality hemodialysis. Despite the advancement of surgical skills and the optimal maintenance of arteriovenous fistula (AVF), malfunction of AVF is still frequently encountered and has great impact on the life of ESRD patients. Several medical, mechanical and genetic prognostic factors are documented to affect the patency of AVF and arteriovenous graft (AVG). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is one of the genetic factors reported to play a role in cardiovascular disease and the patency of vascular access. Far infrared (FIR), a novel therapeutic modality, can not only conduct heat energy to AVF but also stimulate the non-thermal reactions mediated by HO-1. The use of FIR therapy significantly enhances the primary patency rate and maturation of AVF with fewer unfavorable adverse effects, and also achieves higher post-angioplasty patency rate for AVG. The only limitation in proving the effectiveness of FIR therapy in enhancing patency of AVF is that all the studies were conducted in Chinese people in Taiwan and thus, there is a lack of evidence and experience in people of other ethnicities.

  9. Retrievable stent technique and coil embolization of high-flow iatrogenic cervical vertebral arteriovenous fistula: technical note.

    PubMed

    Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erdogan, Cuneyt

    2013-11-01

    Cervical vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAFs) are rare clinical entities between the vertebral artery and veins of the neighborhood. We report the first approach in the literature experience in the treatment of high-flow VAF caused by percutaneous catheterization of the internal jugular vein, which was successfully occluded with coils and Solitaire AB neurovascular remodeling device system that can be fully retrieved even when fully deployed for procedural control. Complete angiographic and clinical cure was achieved, and no complications related to the new embolization procedure occurred.

  10. Adrift in the world of therapeutic apheresis: One center's experience in using arterio-venous fistulas during apheresis procedures.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is often an isolated specialty with very little research, especially in regard to the mode of access. This lack of information drove this attempt at reviewing the use of arterio-venous fistulas (AVF) in TPE, and specifically the issue of monitoring the accesses patency. Using a Transonic®, we attempted to obtain a reading, using the Spectra Optia™ on a patient's access. Unfortunately, due to the limitations of the equipment, we were unable to get a reading. Our conclusion is that we will have to monitor using other approaches, such as physical assessment and ultrasound.

  11. Myocardial ischemia in a patient with peripheral vascular disease, an arteriovenous fistula, and patent coronary artery bypass grafts.

    PubMed

    Moza, Ankush; Moukarbel, George V; Cooper, Christopher J; Bhat, Pradeep K

    2015-07-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease often have concurrent peripheral vascular disease. The presence of concurrent vascular pathologies can pose unique challenges among patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting utilizing the left internal mammary artery. We describe a patient with peripheral vascular disease and prior history of coronary artery bypass grafting, who presented with recurrent anginal symptoms and an abnormal stress test despite the absence of significant residual unrevascularized coronary artery disease. Additional evaluation led to the identification of an ipsilateral severe subclavian stenosis with a concomitant ipsilateral upper extremity arteriovenous fistula. Patient's symptoms resolved with the treatment of the underlying vascular lesions.

  12. Endovascular treatment of a traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula of the superior sagittal sinus using dual lumen balloon microcatheter

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yihao; Niu, Yin; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVFs) induced by trauma in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) are rare and difficult to treat because of their unique midline location, multiplicity of arterial feeders, and critical venous drainage. We report a case of an endovascular treatment using dual lumen balloon microcatheter on a patient with post-traumatic SSS DAVF. By the use of dual lumen Scepter balloon microcatheter, proximal Onyx reflux was prevented. In this case, complete embolization of the DAVFs was achieved and the outcome of the patient was fairly good. PMID:27094527

  13. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection of a Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Simultaneous Venous Balloon Occlusion of a Communicating Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Mittleider, Derek Cicuto, Kenneth; Dykes, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    An 82-year-old woman developed acute occlusion of her right coronary artery. She underwent percutaneous coronary stent placement and aortic balloon pump installation. In the postprocedural period, she developed a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (PSA) that communicated with the common femoral vein via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). After unsuccessful ultrasound-guided compression, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of the PSA was performed, with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the common femoral vein at the level of the AVF. There was complete thrombosis of the PSA and AVF.

  14. Multimodality evaluation of dural arteriovenous fistula with CT angiography, MR with arterial spin labeling, and digital subtraction angiography: case report.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew; McTaggart, Ryan; Santarelli, Justin; Fischbein, Nancy; Marks, Michael; Zaharchuk, Greg; Do, Huy

    2014-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are cerebrovascular lesions with pathologic shunting into the venous system from arterial feeders. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but advances in noninvasive imaging techniques now play a role in the diagnosis of these complex lesions. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with right-side pulsatile tinnitus and DAVF diagnosed using computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance with arterial spin labeling, and DSA. Implications for imaging analysis of DAVFs and further research are discussed.

  15. Outcomes of three types of native arteriovenous fistula in a single center.

    PubMed

    Chisci, Emiliano; Harris, Linda M; Menici, Francesco; Frosini, Pierfrancesco; Romano, Eugenio; Troisi, Nicola; Ercolini, Leonardo; Michelagnoli, Stefano

    2017-09-11

    To study the outcomes of three different types of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), the distal (D: radial-cephalic), middle-arm (MA: radial-cephalic) and proximal (P: brachial-cephalic) AVF access creation for hemodialysis patients in a single center. An 8-year retrospective review, from 2006 to 2014, was conducted at a single institution in which the surgical outcomes for three different types of native AVF creation were reviewed. Preoperative duplex vein mapping was obtained in all patients to choose the best vein and site for access. There were 317 patients identified with 41 D-AVFs, 120 MA-AVFs and 156 P-AVFs. Younger patients with a lower Charlson's Index were more frequent in the D-AVF group (p = 0.02). Mean operating room time was 15 minutes longer for the MA-AVF group than the two others (p = 0.018). Early failure (thrombosis at 30-day), one-year patency, one-year primary AVF functional patency for the D-AVF, MA-AVF, and P-AVF groups were 2.4% (n = 1), 8% (n = 1), 3.8% (n = 6), (p = 0.14); 97.6% (n = 39), 99% (n = 117), 89% (n = 129), (p<0.001); 80.5% (n = 33), 75.8% (n = 91), and 61.5% (n = 96) (p<0.001), respectively. Reintervention for fistula maturation was required in 17% (n = 7), 23% (n = 28), and 24% (n = 38) (p<0.01). The one-year venipuncture hematoma and steal syndrome occurrences were 9.7% (n = 4), 6.7% (n = 8), 3.8% (n = 6) (p = 0.06); and 0%, 0% and 3.8% (n = 6) (p = 0.04), respectively. In case of failure of either MA-AVF or D-AVF, a P-AVF was always feasible as a second native AVF hemodialysis access. D-AVF is still the gold-standard access for hemodialysis. If D-AVF is not possible, MA-AVF should be always investigated before committing to a P-AVF.

  16. Sphenopalatine arteriovenous fistula complicating transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A rare cause of delayed epistaxis treatable by endovascular embolization

    PubMed Central

    Eneling, Johanna; Karlsson, Per M.; Rossitti, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular injuries in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas are uncommon but can result in serious disability or death. Case Description: A 46-year-old man, who underwent resection of a pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension via a transsphenoidal approach, presented with massive epistaxis five days postoperatively. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the right sphenopalatine artery and a deep vein draining to the right internal jugular vein, as well as contrast agent extravasation at the fistula point. The AVF was catheterized and successfully occluded with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusions: Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery can be complicated by massive epistaxis from a lesion of a small branch of the external carotid artery. Airway protection through intubation and investigation with conventional digital subtraction angiography is recommended. The treatment of choice is endovascular embolization because it can be done immediately at the angiography suite. PMID:28144482

  17. Infantile Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Transverse Sinus Presenting with Ocular Symptoms, Case Reports and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Tamer

    2016-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the transverse sinus with ophthalmic manifestations in young children are rare. We reviewed two cases of direct AVF of the transverse sinus with ocular manifestations managed at our institution. The first, a 2.5 years old male child presented with left exophthalmos. Angiography revealed AVF between the occipital artery and the transverse sinus. The second, a 2 years old female child, complained of left exophthalmos. Imaging studies showed bilateral direct AVFs of the transverse sinus with bilateral dysmaturation of the sigmoid sinus. Transarterial embolization was done in both cases. Clinical and radiological follow up revealed complete cure.This report suggests that DAVF of the transverse sinus supplied by the external carotid branches can present with ophthalmic manifestations especially if there is distal venous stenosis or obliteration involving sigmoid sinus. Transarterial embolization using coils and liquid embolic agents could be safe and feasible to obliterate the fistula. PMID:27226864

  18. Prosthetic Grafting and Arteriovenous Fistula for the Surgical Management of a Common Femoral Vein Injury Using a Staged Approach

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kuk Hui; Lee, So Young; Kang, Jin Mo; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Park, Chul Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A 27-year-old female patient was referred due to an edematous left lower extremity. Both saphenous veins had been ablated with an endovenous laser procedure used to treat varicose veins. Venography revealed that the left common femoral vein had been divided and that thrombosis was present at the site of division. No veins were available around the thighs. The patient was treated using a staged procedure. During the first stage, a ringed polytetrafluoroethylene graft was used to repair the common femoral vein, and an arteriovenous fistula was constructed from the femoral artery to the graft using a short segment of cephalic vein to increase graft patency. The edema was relieved postoperatively and the graft was patent. During the second stage, which was performed 6 months later, the fistula was occluded by coil embolization. The staged procedure described herein provides an alternative for venous reconstruction when autologous vein is unavailable. PMID:28382276

  19. Prosthetic Grafting and Arteriovenous Fistula for the Surgical Management of a Common Femoral Vein Injury Using a Staged Approach.

    PubMed

    Son, Kuk Hui; Lee, So Young; Kang, Jin Mo; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Park, Chul Hyun

    2017-04-01

    A 27-year-old female patient was referred due to an edematous left lower extremity. Both saphenous veins had been ablated with an endovenous laser procedure used to treat varicose veins. Venography revealed that the left common femoral vein had been divided and that thrombosis was present at the site of division. No veins were available around the thighs. The patient was treated using a staged procedure. During the first stage, a ringed polytetrafluoroethylene graft was used to repair the common femoral vein, and an arteriovenous fistula was constructed from the femoral artery to the graft using a short segment of cephalic vein to increase graft patency. The edema was relieved postoperatively and the graft was patent. During the second stage, which was performed 6 months later, the fistula was occluded by coil embolization. The staged procedure described herein provides an alternative for venous reconstruction when autologous vein is unavailable.

  20. A New Device for Vascular Embolization: Report on Case of Two Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulas Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Michele; Rebonato, Alberto Greco, Laura; Stefanini, Giulio; Citone, Michele; Speranza, Annnarita; David, Vincenzo

    2006-10-15

    A pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) is a rare vascular malformation commonly treated by embolization with coils or balloons to prevent the risk of several serious complications such as cerebral embolism and brain abscess. A 32-year-old female with two PAVFs and neurological ischemic manifestations has been successfully treated by transcatheter embolization of both fistulas using a new device (Amplatzer Vascular Plug). This self-expanding cylindrical nitinol mesh cage with high radial strength allows a chance of relocation until properly positioned. It is preferred to coils or balloons because a large caliber of feeding artery implied high risk of uncontrollable distal embolization. There appear to be no reports in the literature concerning use of this device, which could represent a useful innovative tool in embolotherapies, especially in large vascular areas.

  1. Onyx versus nBCA and coils in the treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Choo, Douglas M; Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with cortical venous drainage have significant morbidity and mortality. Complete closure of these lesions is necessary to reduce these risks. The purpose of our study was to compare the outcome of DAVFs treated with Onyx versus those treated with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (nBCA) and coil embolization in a case-control study. Compared with nBCA and coil embolization, we hypothesized that Onyx embolization for DAVF is safer and has a higher chance of complete obliteration, with no need for post-embolization surgery for the DAVF. From 1998 to 2015, 29 patients who had DAVFs were treated with endovascular embolization. Of these, 24 patients had imaging available for analysis. Successful closure rates, complications, and procedure time were compared between the embolization techniques. The chance of not requiring post-embolization surgery with Onyx (81.8%) was significantly higher (p = 0.005) than with nBCA (22.22%). The complication rate with Onyx (9.1%) tended to be lower compared with that of nBCA (22.22%; p = 0.37). Procedural time was not significantly different between Onyx (mean 267 minutes) and nBCA (mean 288 minutes) (p = 0.59). The odds ratio of a DAVF being treated with Onyx and then requiring no follow-up surgery was 17.5 (95% CI 1.97-155.4). Our case-control study suggests that Onyx embolization is superior to nBCA and coil embolization in completely obliterating DAVFs, with higher odds of no post-embolization surgery. We also found that Onyx is safe for embolization of DAVFs, with no associated neurological mortality and morbidity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian

    2015-10-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx. Forty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND. Of the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days-6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3-25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days-1 month and the remaining case significantly improved. Both the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx.

  3. Onyx versus nBCA and coils in the treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Douglas M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with cortical venous drainage have significant morbidity and mortality. Complete closure of these lesions is necessary to reduce these risks. The purpose of our study was to compare the outcome of DAVFs treated with Onyx versus those treated with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (nBCA) and coil embolization in a case-control study. Compared with nBCA and coil embolization, we hypothesized that Onyx embolization for DAVF is safer and has a higher chance of complete obliteration, with no need for post-embolization surgery for the DAVF. Materials and methods From 1998 to 2015, 29 patients who had DAVFs were treated with endovascular embolization. Of these, 24 patients had imaging available for analysis. Successful closure rates, complications, and procedure time were compared between the embolization techniques. Results The chance of not requiring post-embolization surgery with Onyx (81.8%) was significantly higher (p = 0.005) than with nBCA (22.22%). The complication rate with Onyx (9.1%) tended to be lower compared with that of nBCA (22.22%; p = 0.37). Procedural time was not significantly different between Onyx (mean 267 minutes) and nBCA (mean 288 minutes) (p = 0.59). The odds ratio of a DAVF being treated with Onyx and then requiring no follow-up surgery was 17.5 (95% CI 1.97–155.4). Conclusion Our case-control study suggests that Onyx embolization is superior to nBCA and coil embolization in completely obliterating DAVFs, with higher odds of no post-embolization surgery. We also found that Onyx is safe for embolization of DAVFs, with no associated neurological mortality and morbidity. PMID:26748082

  4. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian

    2015-10-15

    PurposeCranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsForty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND.ResultsOf the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days–6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3–25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days–1 month and the remaining case significantly improved.ConclusionBoth the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx.

  5. Onyx Embolization for Isolated Type Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Using a Dual-Lumen Balloon Catheter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Byung Moon; Park, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Dong Ik

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of a dual-lumen balloon may improve Onyx penetration into isolated dural arteriovenous fistulas (i-DAVFs). To compare the results of Onyx embolization using a dual-lumen balloon with those using a non-balloon catheter for i-DAVFs. Twenty-nine patients underwent Onyx embolization for i-DAVFs using a non-balloon (n = 14) or a dual-lumen balloon catheter (n = 15). Since its introduction, a dual-lumen balloon catheter has been preferred. We compared the dual-lumen balloon group with the non-balloon catheter group regarding angiographic outcome, treatment-related complications, total procedural time, Onyx injection time, and the number of feeders requiring embolization. The dual-lumen balloon group showed complete occlusion of i-DAVFs in 13 and near-complete in 2 patients, while the non-balloon group showed complete occlusion in 5, near-complete in 5, and incomplete in 4 patients (P < .05). Treatment-related complications occurred in 2 patients: 1 in the non-balloon group and 1 in the dual-lumen balloon group. The mean total procedural time was 62 ± 32 minutes in the dual-lumen balloon and 171 ± 88 minutes in the non-balloon group (P < .05). The mean Onyx injection time was 10 ± 6 minutes in the dual-lumen balloon and 49 ± 32 minutes in the non-balloon group (P < .05). The median number of feeders requiring embolization was 1 (range, 1-3) in the dual-lumen balloon and 2 (range, 1-4) in the non-balloon group (P < .05). Utilization of a dual-lumen balloon catheter for Onyx embolization of i-DAVF seemed to significantly increase the immediate complete occlusion rate and decrease total procedural time, Onyx injection time, and number of feeders requiring embolization.

  6. ONYX versus n-BCA for embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Rabinov, James David; Yoo, Albert J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Carter, Bob S; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Trufill n-BCA) versus ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (ONYX) for the embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF). Fifty-three consecutive patients with cranial dural AVF were treated with liquid embolic agents from November, 2003 to November, 2008. These 53 patients had 56 lesions treated with arterial embolization. Patients embolized to completion underwent follow-up angiography at 3 months to assess for durable occlusion. Twenty-one lesions were treated with n-BCA. Seven patients treated with n-BCA had initial angiographic occlusion of their DAVF, which were durable at 3 months. Six patients had adjunctive treatment with coils and/or polyvinyl alcohol particles, but none of these were occluded by endovascular treatment alone. Eleven patients underwent post-embolization surgery for closure of their DAVF. There was one death related to intractable status epilepticus at presentation. One patient developed a major stroke from venous sinus thrombosis after embolization. Thirty-five lesions were treated with ONYX in 34 patients. Twenty-nine patients treated with ONYX had initial angiographic occlusion of their DAVF by embolization alone. One patient had recurrence at 3 months and was re-treated out of 27 total follow-ups. Four patients underwent post-embolization surgical obliteration of their lesions. No deaths or major strokes occurred in this cohort. Initial angiographic occlusion (p=0.0004) and durable angiographic occlusion (p=0.0018) rates for embolization of cranial DAVF show a statistically significant higher efficacy with ONYX compared with n-BCA. Patients embolized with ONYX underwent surgery less frequently compared with those treated with n-BCA (p=0.0015).

  7. Gamma Knife surgery for clival epidural-osseous dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Ching-Jen; Chen, Shao-Ching; Yang, Huai-Che; Lin, Chung Jung; Wu, Chih-Chun; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Hung-Chi Pan, David; Shiau, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Hsiu-Mei

    2017-06-16

    OBJECTIVE Clival epidural-osseous dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is often associated with a large nidus, multiple arterial feeders, and complex venous drainage. In this study the authors report the outcomes of clival epidural-osseous DAVFs treated using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). METHODS Thirteen patients with 13 clival epidural-osseous DAVFs were treated with GKS at the authors' institution between 1993 and 2015. Patient age at the time of GKS ranged from 38 to 76 years (median 55 years). Eight DAVFs were classified as Cognard Type I, 4 as Type IIa, and 1 as Type IIa+b. The median treatment volume was 17.6 cm(3) (range 6.2-40.3 cm(3)). The median prescribed margin dose was 16.5 Gy (range 15-18 Gy). Clinical and radiological follow-ups were performed at 6-month intervals. Patient outcomes after GKS were categorized as 1) complete improvement, 2) partial improvement, 3) stationary, and 4) progression. RESULTS All 13 patients demonstrated symptomatic improvement, and on catheter angiography 12 of the 13 patients had complete obliteration and 1 patient had partial obliteration. The median follow-up period was 26 months (range 14-186 months). The median latency period from GKS to obliteration was 21 months (range 8-186 months). There was no intracranial hemorrhage during the follow-up period, and no deaths occurred. Two adverse events were observed following treatment, and 2 patients required repeat GKS treatment with eventual complete obliteration. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife surgery offers a safe and effective primary or adjuvant treatment modality for complex clival epidural-osseous DAVFs. All patients in this case series demonstrated symptomatic improvement, and almost all patients attained complete obliteration.

  8. Patency rates of the arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Oliver, Matthew J; Thomas, Sonia M; Lok, Charmaine E; Zhang, Joyce C; Garg, Amit X; Kosa, Sarah D; Quinn, Robert R; Moist, Louise M

    2014-03-01

    Advantages of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF), including long patency and few complications, were ascertained more than 2 decades ago and may not apply to the contemporary dialysis population. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Estimates were pooled using a random-effects model and sources of heterogeneity were explored using metaregression. Patients treated with long-term hemodialysis using an AVF. English-language studies indexed in MEDLINE between 2000 and 2012 using prospectively collected data on 100 or more AVFs. Age, AVF location, and study location. Outcomes of interest were primary AVF failure and primary and secondary patency at 1 and 2 years. 7,011 citations were screened and 46 articles met eligibility criteria (62 unique cohorts; n = 12,383). The rate of primary failure was 23% (95% CI, 18%-28%; 37 cohorts; 7,393 AVFs). When primary failures were included, the primary patency rate was 60% (95% CI, 56%-64%; 13 studies; 21 cohorts; 4,111 AVFs) at 1 year and 51% (95% CI, 44%-58%; 7 studies; 12 cohorts; 2,694 AVFs) at 2 years. The secondary patency rate was 71% (95% CI, 64%-78%; 10 studies; 11 cohorts; 3,558 AVFs) at 1 year and 64% (95% CI, 56%-73%; 6 studies; 11 cohorts; 1,939 AVFs) at 2 years. In metaregression, there was a significant decrease in primary patency rate in studies that started recruitment in more recent years. Low quality of studies, variable clinical settings, and variable definitions of primary AVF failure. In recent years, AVFs had a high rate of primary failure and low to moderate primary and secondary patency rates. Consideration of these outcomes is required when choosing a patient's preferred access type. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health-related quality of life in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Sasamori, Toru; Hida, Kazutoshi; Osanai, Toshiya; Yano, Shunsuke; Seki, Toshitaka; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2017-01-01

    Neurological improvement in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVF) is often partial even after adequate treatment. While treatment outcomes have been evaluated primarily on the basis of the postoperative changes in neurological deficits, outcome measures should also reflect the patient-reported outcome (PRO). We conducted a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) survey in 52 SDAVF patients; 33 (63.5%) completed the short-form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. They were 25 males and 8 females ranging in age from 47 to 85 years (mean age 70.0 years). The mean follow-up period was 95.6 months. We analyzed the completed questionnaires and examined the clinical factors associated with their HRQOL. After treatment, gait- and micturition disturbances persisted in 31 (93.9%) and 31 (93.9%) of our patients; 26 (78.8%) reported chronic leg pain. The SF-36 scores of treated SDAVF patients were significantly lower than the national average of 50 for all 8 sub-items in the questionnaire. The scores for physical functioning (PF) and role-physical (RP) were particularly low. With the exception of bodily pain (BP), there was a significant negative correlation between the Aminoff-Logue scale (ALS) scores for gait- and micturition and the sub-item scores. The score for BP showed a significant positive correlation with the scores for the 7 other SF-36 sub-items. The HRQOL of treated SDAVF patients was lower than the national average with respect to both physical and mental aspects. Persistent post-treatment pain and gait- and micturition disturbances were responsible for their lower HRQOL.

  10. Minimally invasive approach for the treatment of lumbar epidural arteriovenous fistulas with intradural venous reflux.

    PubMed

    Najjar, A; Zairi, F; Sunna, T; Weil, A; Estrade, L; Weill, A; Shedid, D

    2016-10-01

    Vascular lesions of the spinal cord are increasingly recognized. The most common types of these lesions are dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) whereas, extradural AVFs are a very rare type of spinal AVF and can be associated with either extradural or intradural venous reflux. This results in neurological deficits through congestive or compressive myeloradiculopathy. These lesions must be treated to allow stabilization or improvement of neurologic status, either by endovascular therapy or microsurgical interruption. However, because some patients are not amenable to endovascular treatment, surgery is often warranted, which usually involves hemi- or bilateral laminectomy following a midline approach with bilateral muscle stripping. The main drawback of this procedure is directly related to the morbidity of the approach. Although, minimally invasive approaches are likely to overcome this drawback, there is a lack of reported experience supporting their use for treating spinal dural AVFs. Two patients, aged 62 and 79 years old, presented with rapidly progressive myelopathy characterized by paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord oedema with perimedullary flow voids in both cases. Digital subtraction angiography revealed extradural AVFs associated with perimedullary venous reflux. Endovascular therapy was not feasible. Both patients were treated with microsurgical interruption of the intradural vein through a non-expendable retractor. Complete exclusion was confirmed on postoperative angiography, resulting in resolution of spinal cord edema and improved neurological functional status at 2-year follow-up. The minimally invasive surgical treatment of spinal AVFs with epidural venous reflux is safe and effective. This approach is a valuable alternative to endovascular therapy and the standard open microsurgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Experience after 81 cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    Paredes, Igor; Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-Leon, Ana María; Campollo, Jorge; Alén, Jose F; Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the clinical, radiological and therapeutic variables of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) treated at our institution, and to assess the validity of the Borden and Cognard classifications and their correlation with the presenting symptoms. The DAVF identified were retrospectively analysed. They were classified according to their location, drainage pattern and the Borden and Cognard classifications. We recorded the different treatments, their complications and efficacy. There were 81DAVF identified between 1975 and 2012. The cavernous sinus (CS) location was the most frequent one. The Borden and Cognard classifications showed an interobserver Kappa index of 0.72 and 0.76 respectively. The odds ratio of aggressive presentation in the presence of cortical venous drainage (CVD) was 19.3 (2.8-132.4). No location, once adjusted by venous drainage pattern, showed significant association with an aggressive presentation. Endovascular transarterial treatment of cavernous sinus DAVF achieved symptomatic improvement of 78%, with a complication rate of 5%. The DAVF of non-CS locations, with CVD, treated surgically were angiographically shown cured in 100% of the cases, with no treatment-related complications. The presence of CVD was significantly associated with aggressive presentations. The Borden and Cognard classifications showed little interobserver variability. Endovascular treatment for CS DAVF is safe and relatively effective. Surgical treatment of non-CS DAVF with CVD is safe, effective and the first choice treatment in our environment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical characteristics and management based on location and hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Tae; Chung, Seung Young; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Park, Ki Seok; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Han Kyu

    2012-09-01

    A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) generally refers to a vascular malformation of the wall of a major venous sinus. These lesions have diverse symptoms according to the location and venous drainage, and require multidisciplinary treatment. We report on our experience and analyze the treatment outcome of intracranial DAVFs for a nine-year period. Between January 2000 and December 2008, 95 patients with intracranial DAVFs were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of clinical records and imaging studies of all patients was conducted. Endovascular embolization, surgical interruption, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKS), or combinations of these treatments were performed based on clinical symptoms, lesion location, and venous drainage pattern. Borden type I, II, and III were 34, 48, and 13 patients, respectively. Aggressive presentation was reported in 6% of Borden type I, 31% of Borden type II, and 77% of Borden type III DAVFs, respectively, and DAVFs involving transverse, sigmoid, and superior sagittal sinus. Overall, the rate of complete obliteration was 68%. The complete occlusion rates with a combination treatment of endovascular embolization and surgery, surgery alone, and endovascular embolization were 89%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. When GKS was used with embolization, the obliteration rate was 83%, although it was only 54% in GKS alone. Spontaneous obliteration of the DAVF occurred in three patients. There were a few complications, including hemiparesis (in microsurgery), intracranial hemorrhage (in endovascular embolization), and facial palsy (in GKS). The hemorrhagic risk of DAVFs is dependent on the location and hemodynamics of the lesions. Strategies for treatment of intracranial DAVFs should be decided according to the characteristic of the DAVFs, based on the location and drainage pattern. GKS can be used as an optional treatment for intracranial DAVFs.

  13. Physical examination of dysfunctional arteriovenous fistulae by non-interventionalists: a skill worth teaching.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Faria, Bernardo; Pestana, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    Physical examination (PE) of arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) has recently emerged as an important element in the detection of stenotic lesions. This study examines the accuracy of PE in the assessment of AVF dysfunction by non-interventionalists in comparison with angiography. A total of 177 consecutive patients who had AVF dysfunction and were referred to our centre by general nephrologists for angioplasty between November 2009 and July 2010 were included in this analysis. Eleven referring general nephrologists completed a form reporting the PE findings regarding their patients' AVFs. Before angiography examination was carried out, a trained nephrology resident performed a PE in all the cases. Angiography of the AVFs was then performed by an interventionalist. Cohen's κ value was used as the measurement of the level of agreement beyond chance between the diagnosis made on PE and angiography. There was a moderate agreement beyond chance between the general nephrologists' PE and angiography in the detection of AVF inflow stenosis (κ = 0.49), outflow stenosis (κ = 0.58) and thrombosis (κ = 0.52). On the other hand, PE performed by the trained nephrology resident strongly agreed with angiography in the detection of AVF inflow stenosis (κ = 0.84), outflow stenosis (κ = 0.92) and thrombosis (κ = 0.98). The agreement between PE and angiography in the detection of co-existing AVF inflow-outflow stenosis was poor for the general nephrologists and moderate for the trained nephrology resident (κ = 0.14 versus κ = 0.55, respectively). PE may provide an accurate means of diagnosis of AVF dysfunction. Theoretical and hands-on training in PE of dysfunctional AVFs should be provided for nephrologists in-training and for the dialysis staff.

  14. Increased production of superoxide anion contributes to dysfunction of the arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Tsapenko, Mykola V.; d'Uscio, Livius V.; Grande, Joseph P.; Croatt, Anthony J.; Hernandez, Melissa C.; Ackerman, Allan W.; Katusic, Zvonimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction causes morbidity in hemodialysis patients. This study examined the generation and pathobiological significance of superoxide anion in a rat femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF). One week after AVF creation, there was increased production of superoxide anion accompanied by decreased total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and induction of the redox-sensitive gene heme oxygenase-1. Immunohistochemical studies of nitrotyrosine formation demonstrated that peroxynitrite, a product of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, was present in increased amounts in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the AVF. Because uncoupled NOS isoforms generate superoxide anion, and NOS coupling requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor, we assessed NOS uncoupling by determining the ratio of BH4 to dihydrobiopterin (BH2); the BH4-to-BH2 ratio was markedly attenuated in the AVF. Because Src is a vasculopathic signaling species upstream and downstream of superoxide anion, such expression was evaluated; expression of Src and phosphorylated Src was both markedly increased in the AVF. Expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1, NOX2, NOX4, cyclooxygenase (COX) 1, COX2, p47phox, and p67phox was all unchanged, as assessed by Western analyses, thereby suggesting that these proteins may not be involved in increased production of superoxide anion. Finally, administration of tempol, a superoxide anion scavenger, decreased neointima formation in the juxta-anastomotic venous segment and improved AVF blood flow. We conclude that the AVF exhibits increased superoxide anion generation that may reflect the combined effects of decreased scavenging by SOD and increased generation by uncoupled NOS, and that enhanced superoxide anion production promotes juxta-anastomotic stenosis and impairs AVF function. PMID:22993073

  15. Outcomes for forearm and upper arm arteriovenous fistula creation with the transposition technique.

    PubMed

    Korepta, Lindsey M; Watson, Jennifer J; Elder, Erin A; Davis, Alan T; Mansour, M Ashraf; Chambers, Christopher M; Cuff, Robert F; Wong, Peter Y

    2016-03-01

    To study the outcomes of three different types of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) transpositions (forearm cephalic vein transposition [FACVT], upper arm cephalic vein transposition [UACVT], and upper arm basilic vein transposition [UABVT]) for dialysis patients in a single center. A 6-year retrospective review, from 2006 to 2012, was conducted at a single institution in which the surgical outcomes for three different types of AVF transposition were reviewed. Preoperative duplex vein mapping was obtained in all patients to choose the best vein for access. There were 165 patients identified with 77 FACVTs, 52 UACVTs, and 36 UABVTs. Primary access maturation rates for the FACVT, UACVT, and UABVT groups were 86%, 90%, and 97%, respectively (P = .19). All transposed, matured primary AVFs were used after a mean of 9.9 weeks, without additional intervention. Primary 1-year patency for the FACVT, UACVT, and UABVT groups were 63%, 61%, and 70%, respectively (P = .71). Primary assisted 1-year patency for the FACVT, UACVT, and UABVT groups were 93%, 93%, and 100%, respectively (P > .999). Mean operating room times and time to intervention were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative hematoma rate was 2% and wound infection rate was 2%. Multivariate analysis indicated no significant predictors of time to failure (P > .05). With low primary failure rates, reduced need for secondary interventions before maturation, and 1-year primary assisted patency rates in excess of 93%, our study showed that the transposition technique, in our experience, is superior to previously published literature in hemodialysis access creation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Balloon-assisted maturation for arteriovenous fistula maturation failure: an early period experience

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Cheol; Ko, Seung Yeon; Kim, Ji Il; Moon, In Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) is emerging as a salvage management for arteriovenous fistula maturation failure (AVF MF). However, BAM is a relatively new, yet controversial technique for AVF maturation. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of BAM for AVF MF. Methods Between January 2012 and December 2014, 249 AVFs were created. The total MF rate was 24.8%. But, only 110 AVFs were enrolled, including 74 brachiocephalic (BC) AVFs and 36 radiocephalic (RC) AVFs. The follow-up period was 12 months. Among those, there were 42 MFs (22 BC AVFs and 20 RC AVFs) and 68 maturation successes (MS) (52 BC AVFs and 16 RC AVFs). BAM was involved in MF group. We compared the clinical characteristics, AVF flows, and AVF flow ratios of MF and MS groups. Also, we evaluated the etiology, management, and result of MF. Results There was no difference in clinical characteristics between MF and MS groups. In MF group, 39 balloon angioplasties (BAs) for 42 AVF MFs were performed. Number of BA was 1.45 ± 0.57 and duration of BA was 21.30 ± 21.24 weeks. BAM rate was 46.2%. For 1 year after AVF creation, AVF flows of MS group were significantly larger than those of MF group (P < 0.05) but there was no difference in AVF flow ratio between MF and MS groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion BA for AVF MF is a relatively applicable and effective modality. Although a large volume study is necessary, we suggest BAM is an effective salvage management for AVF MF. PMID:27186572

  17. Investigating clinical predictors of arteriovenous fistula functional patency in a European cohort.

    PubMed

    Masengu, Agnes; Maxwell, Alexander P; Hanko, Jennifer B

    2016-02-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure to mature (FTM) rates contribute to excessive dependence on central venous catheters for haemodialysis. Choosing the most appropriate vascular access site for an individual patient is guided largely by their age, co-morbidities and clinical examination. We investigated the clinical predictors of AVF FTM in a European cohort of patients and applied an existing clinical risk prediction model for AVF FTM to this population. A prospective cohort study was designed that included all patients undergoing AVF creation between January 2009 and December 2014 in a single centre (Belfast City Hospital) who had a functional AVF outcome observed by March 2015. A total of 525 patients had a functional AVF outcome recorded and were included in the FTM analysis. In this cohort, 309 (59%) patients achieved functional AVF patency and 216 (41%) patients had FTM. Female gender [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 2.03 (CI 1.37-3.02)] and lower-arm AVF [P < 0.001, OR 4.07 (CI 2.77-5.92)] were associated with AVF FTM. The Lok model did not predict FTM outcomes based on the associated risk stratification in our population. In this European study, female gender was associated with twice the risk of AVF FTM and a lower-arm AVF with four times the risk of FTM. The FTM risk prediction model was not found to be discriminative in this population. Clinical risk factors for AVF FTM vary between populations; we would recommend that units investigate their own clinical predictors of FTM to maximize AVF functional patency and ultimately survival in dialysis patients. Clinical predictors of AVF FTM may not be sufficient on their own to improve vascular access functional patency rates.

  18. Management of venous hypertension following arteriovenous fistula creation for hemodialysis access

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Varun; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kapoor, Rakesh; Lal, Hira; Javali, Tarun; Sureka, Sanjoy; Patidar, Nitesh; Arora, Sohrab; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Venous hypertension (VH) is a distressing complication following the creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The aim of management is to relieve edema with preservation of AVF. Extensive edema increases surgical morbidity with the loss of hemodialysis access. We present our experience in management of VH. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 37 patients with VH managed between July 2005 to May 2014. Patient demographics, evaluation, and procedures performed were noted. A successful outcome of management with surgical ligation (SL), angioembolization (AE), balloon dilatation (BD) or endovascular stent (EVS) was defined by immediate disappearance of thrill and murmur with resolution of edema in the next 48–72 h, no demonstrable flow during check angiogram and resolution of edema with preservation of AVF respectively. Results: All 8 distal AVF had peripheral venous stenosis and were managed with SL in 7 and BD in one patient. In 29 proximal AVF, central and peripheral venous stenosis was present in 16 and 13 patients respectively. SL, AE, BD, and BD with EVS were done in 18, 5, 4, and 3 patients, respectively. All patients had a successful outcome. SL was associated with wound related complications in 11 (29.73 %) patients. A total of 7 AVF were salvaged. One had restenosis after BD and was managed with AE. BD, EVS, and AE had no associated morbidity. Conclusions: Management of central and peripheral venous stenosis with VH should be individualized and in selected cases it seems preferable to secure a new access in another limb and close the native AVF in edematous limb for better overall outcome. PMID:27127358

  19. Combined use of heparin and anisodamine reduces the risk of early thrombosis in native arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Ling, Yi-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hua; Guan, Tian-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The greatest threat of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is early thrombosis. There remains limited evidence for the use of agents for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. A total of 180 patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease were enrolled in the present study. They were expected to have hemodialysis (HD) within the next six months and a planned lower arm AVF is expected to be the primary HD access. They were randomly divided into a control group with 60 patients, a heparin (H) treatment group with 60 patients and a heparin/anisodamine (H/A)-treatment group with 60 patients. The H/A-treatment group was given 50 IU/kg of heparin and 10 mg of anisodamine for seven days after the AVF was generated. The H-treatment group was given 50 IU/kg of heparin for seven days whereas the control group was given no treatment. The diameter and blood flow rate of the AVF were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound at the fourth week after the operation. Patency rates of AVF were 96.7% in the H/A-treatment group, 86.7% in the H-treatment group (P < 0.05) and 83.3% in the control group (P < 0.05). The present research indicates that combined application of heparin and anisodamine can effectively relieve the vessel spasm that often occurs after establishment of an AVF and reduce the risk of early thrombosis. However, further evidence is required to validate the maintenance of long-term patency of AVF.

  20. Congestive myelopathy (Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome) due to intradural arteriovenous fistula of the filum terminale fed by anterior spinal artery: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prasad; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Saha, Manash

    2013-07-01

    Spinal arteriovenous fistulas are rare entities. They often present with congestive myelopathy but are infrequently diagnosed as the cause of the patients' symptoms. Only one such case has been described previously in Indian literature. We describe one such case who presented to us after a gap of 3 years since symptom onset and following a failed laminectomy where the cause was later diagnosed to be an intradural fistula in the filum terminale fed by the anterior spinal artery and review the available literature.

  1. The Combination of Sonography and Physical Examination Improves the Patency and Suitability of Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula in Vascular Access.

    PubMed

    Mat Said, Normawati; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mohamed Daud, Mohamed Ashraf; Haron, Juhara

    2016-07-01

    We compared the patency and the suitability of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) created for vascular access by two approaches: (a) physical examination with preoperative vascular mapping and (b) physical examination alone. We compared the patency and the suitability of AVF created in patients for dialysis. There were two cohorts of patients of 79 patients each: (a) patients with AVF created based on the combination of physical examination and preoperative vascular mapping (PE+VM) and (b) patients with AVF created based on physical examination (PE) alone. Fistula patency is defined as clinical detection of thrill (or auscultation) of murmur over the fistula and coded as having thrills (patent) versus not having thrills (not patent). Suitability of fistula is defined as functioning AVF (AVF can be adequately used via 2-needle cannulation for dialysis) and coded as suitable versus not suitable. AVF created after the preoperative vascular mapping (PE+VM) has 5.70 (at six weeks) and 3.76 (at three months) times higher chance for patency, and 3.08 times higher chance for suitable AVF for dialysis than AVF created after the physical examination (PE) alone. Physical examination with preoperative ultrasound mapping (PE+VM) significantly improves the short term patency and the suitability of AVF for dialysis.

  2. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Sinus of the Lesser Sphenoid Wing Presenting with Pontine Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideki; Ishiguro, Tomoya; Terada, Aiko; Komiyama, Masaki

    2017-02-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the sinus of the lesser sphenoid wing (SLSW) with leptomeningeal drainage are rare. We report a patient with a DAVF of the SLSW draining into the basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR) presenting with pontine hemorrhage. A 71-year-old man presented with sudden right hemisensory disturbance of the arm and leg. Brain computed tomography scan showed left pontine hemorrhage, and cerebral angiography revealed a DAVF of the left SLSW. The fistula drained solely into the left BVR, which had an anastomosis to the left lateral mesencephalic vein, which had a varix invaginated into the left pons. The diagnosis was a DAVF of the left SLSW drained into the lateral mesencephalic vein via the bridging vein of the left SLSW, the deep middle cerebral vein, and the BVR, and a varix of the lateral mesencephalic vein caused pontine hemorrhage. The fistula was occluded by clipping through frontotemporal craniotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative cerebral angiography confirmed disappearance of the fistula. A DAVF of the SLSW presenting with pontine hemorrhage is extremely rare, and DAVFs with deep leptomeningeal drainage should be included among a variety of etiologies of pontine hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of arteriovenous fistula closure due to high-output cardiac failure in kidney-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Schier, Tabea; Göbel, Georg; Bösmüller, Claudia; Gruber, Ingrid; Tiefenthaler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some hemodialysis patients develop arteriovenous (AV) fistulas with high flows. This volume overload can result in high-output cardiac failure. To date, predisposing access flow rates are unknown. A retrospective study of all kidney-transplant recipients at the Medical University of Innsbruck (MUI) from 2005 to 2010 included 797 patients with the following criteria: previous hemodialysis with a native AV fistula or a graft, sufficient function of the kidney transplant up to the time of the data analysis, and follow-up care at the MUI. Twenty-nine of the 113 patients (25.7%) needed an AV fistula closure, mostly because of symptoms of cardiac failure. The mean shunt flow in the intervention group was 2197.2 mL/min, whereas the mean shunt flow in the non-intervention group was only 850.9 mL/min. Shunt closures were most frequently made in patients with upper-arm shunts (41.7%). The necessity of shunt closure is not a rarity. Patients who underwent an AV fistula ligature had high access flows with about 2200 mL/min. As the symptoms of cardiac failure greatly improved after shunt closure, patients with high access flow may benefit from such an intervention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Surgical Management of Combined Intramedullary Arteriovenous Malformation and Perimedullary Arteriovenous Fistula within the Hybrid Operating Room after Five Years of Performing Focus Fractionated Radiotherapy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    GEKKA, Masayuki; SEKI, Toshitaka; HIDA, Kazutoshi; OSANAI, Toshiya; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery. PMID:25367581

  5. Comprehensive Comparison of the Performance of Autogenous Brachial-Basilic Transposition Arteriovenous Fistula and Prosthetic Forearm Loop Arteriovenous Graft in a Multiethnic Asian Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Chue, Koy Min; Thant, Kyi Zin; Luo, Hai Dong; Soh, Yu Hang Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Aim. For patients who have exhausted cephalic vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF) options, controversy exists on whether brachial-basilic AVF with transposition (BBTAVF) or a forearm arteriovenous graft (AVG) should be the next vascular access of choice. This study compared the outcomes of these two modalities. Methods. A retrospective study of 122 Asian multiethnic patients who underwent either a BBTAVF (81) or an AVG (41). Maturation time and intervention rates were analyzed. Functional primary, secondary, and overall patency rates were evaluated. Results. The maturation time for BBTAVFs was significantly longer than AVGs. There was also a longer deliberation time before surgeons abandon a failing BBTAVF compared to an AVG. Both functional primary and secondary patency rates were significantly higher in the BBTAVF group at 1-year follow-up: 73.2% versus 34.1% (p < 0.001) and 71.8% versus 54.3% (p = 0.022), respectively. AVGs also required more interventions to maintain patency. When maturation rates were considered, the overall patency of AVGs was initially superior in the first 25 weeks after creation and then became inferior afterwards. Conclusion. BBTAVFs had superior primary and functional patency and required less salvage interventions. The forearm AVG might have a role in patients who require early vascular access due to complications from central venous catheters or with limited life expectancy. PMID:27840832

  6. Effects of starting hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula or central venous catheter compared with peritoneal dialysis: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although several studies have demonstrated early survival advantages with peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), the reason for the excess mortality observed among incident HD patients remains to be established, to our knowledge. This study explores the relationship between mortality and dialysis modality, focusing on the role of HD vascular access type at the time of dialysis initiation. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed among local adult chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated PD and HD with a tunneled cuffed venous catheter (HD-TCC) or a functional arteriovenous fistula (HD-AVF) in our institution in the year 2008. A total of 152 patients were included in the final analysis (HD-AVF, n = 59; HD-TCC, n = 51; PD, n = 42). All cause and dialysis access-related morbidity/mortality were evaluated at one year. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to compare the survival of PD patients with those who initiated HD with an AVF or with a TCC. Results Compared with PD patients, both HD-AVF and HD-TCC patients were more likely to be older (p<0.001) and to have a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.017) and cardiovascular disease (p = 0.020). Overall, HD-TCC patients were more likely to have clinical visits (p = 0.069), emergency room visits (p<0.001) and hospital admissions (p<0.001). At the end of follow-up, HD-TCC patients had a higher rate of dialysis access-related complications (1.53 vs. 0.93 vs. 0.64, per patient-year; p<0.001) and hospitalizations (0.47 vs. 0.07 vs. 0.14, per patient-year; p = 0.034) than HD-AVF and PD patients, respectively. The survival rates at one year were 96.6%, 74.5% and 97.6% for HD-AVF, HD-TCC and PD groups, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, HD-TCC use at the time of dialysis initiation was the important factor associated with death (HR 16.128, 95%CI [1.431-181.778], p = 0.024). Conclusion Our results suggest that HD

  7. The Role of Iex-1 in the Pathogenesis of Venous Neointimal Hyperplasia Associated with Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; NievesTorres, Evelyn; Yang, Binxia; Edwards, William D.; Roy Chaudhury, Prabir; Lee, Min Kyun; Kong, Hyunjoon; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Kumar, Rajiv; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) used for hemodialysis fail because of venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH). There are 1,500,000 patients that have end stage renal disease worldwide and the majority requires hemodialysis. In the present study, the role of the intermediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1), also known as IER-3 in the pathogenesis of VNH was evaluated. In human samples removed from failed AVF, there was a significant increase in IEX-1 expression localized to the adventitia. In Iex-1−/− mice and wild type (WT) controls, chronic kidney disease was induced and an AVF placed 28 days later by connecting the carotid artery to jugular vein. The outflow vein was removed three days following the creation of the AVF and gene expression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1) gene expression in Iex-1−/− mice when compared to WT mice (P<0.05). At 28 days after AVF placement, histomorphometric and immune-histochemical analyses of the outflow vein demonstrated a significant decrease in neointimal hyperplasia with an increase in average lumen vessel area associated with a decrease in fibroblast, myofibroblast, and Ly6C staining. There was a decrease in proliferation (Ki-67) and an increase in the TUNEL staining in Iex-1 KO mice compared to WT. In addition, there was a decrease in Vegf-A, Mcp-1, and matrix metalloproteiniase-9 (Mmp-9) staining. Iex-1 expression was reduced in vivo and in vitro using nanoparticles coated with calcitriol, an inhibitor of Iex-1 that demonstrated that Iex-1 reduction results in decrease in Vegf-A. In aggregate, these results indicate that the absence of IEX-1 gene results in reduced VNH accompanied with a decrease in proliferation, reduced fibroblast, myofibroblast, and Ly6C staining accompanied with increased apoptosis mediated through a reduction in Vegf-A/Mcp-1 axis and Mmp-9. Adventitial delivery of nanoparticles coated with

  8. Effects of starting hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula or central venous catheter compared with peritoneal dialysis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luis; Santos-Araújo, Carla; Dias, Claudia; Neto, Ricardo; Pestana, Manuel

    2012-08-23

    Although several studies have demonstrated early survival advantages with peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), the reason for the excess mortality observed among incident HD patients remains to be established, to our knowledge. This study explores the relationship between mortality and dialysis modality, focusing on the role of HD vascular access type at the time of dialysis initiation. A retrospective cohort study was performed among local adult chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated PD and HD with a tunneled cuffed venous catheter (HD-TCC) or a functional arteriovenous fistula (HD-AVF) in our institution in the year 2008. A total of 152 patients were included in the final analysis (HD-AVF, n = 59; HD-TCC, n = 51; PD, n = 42). All cause and dialysis access-related morbidity/mortality were evaluated at one year. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to compare the survival of PD patients with those who initiated HD with an AVF or with a TCC. Compared with PD patients, both HD-AVF and HD-TCC patients were more likely to be older (p<0.001) and to have a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.017) and cardiovascular disease (p = 0.020). Overall, HD-TCC patients were more likely to have clinical visits (p = 0.069), emergency room visits (p<0.001) and hospital admissions (p<0.001). At the end of follow-up, HD-TCC patients had a higher rate of dialysis access-related complications (1.53 vs. 0.93 vs. 0.64, per patient-year; p<0.001) and hospitalizations (0.47 vs. 0.07 vs. 0.14, per patient-year; p = 0.034) than HD-AVF and PD patients, respectively. The survival rates at one year were 96.6%, 74.5% and 97.6% for HD-AVF, HD-TCC and PD groups, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, HD-TCC use at the time of dialysis initiation was the important factor associated with death (HR 16.128, 95%CI [1.431-181.778], p = 0.024). Our results suggest that HD vascular access type at the time of renal replacement therapy initiation

  9. Traumatic coronary arteriovenous fistula communicating the left main coronary artery to pulmonary artery, associated with pulmonary valvular insufficiency and endocarditis: case report.

    PubMed

    Rangel, A; Badui, E; Verduzco, C; Valdespino, A; Enciso, R

    1990-02-01

    The authors present a case of a seventeen-year-old white male who suffered from a knife chest wound and secondarily developed a traumatic coronary arteriovenous fistula communicating the left main coronary artery to the pulmonary artery, associated with pulmonary valvular insufficiency and endocarditis.

  10. Detachable-Tip Microcatheters for Liquid Embolization of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas: A United States Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Herial, Nabeel A; Khan, Asif A; Sherr, Gregory T; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Suri, M Fareed K; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2015-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved a detachable-tip microcatheter, the Apollo microcatheter (eV3, Inc, Irvine, California), to prevent catheter entrapment during embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using liquid embolic systems. To report technical aspects and clinical results of cerebral embolizations with the Apollo microcatheter in 7 embolizations in 3 adult patients. A 62-year-old man presented with an AVM in the parieto-occipital region measuring 3.6 × 1.6 cm with major cortical feeders from the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and minor contribution from the distal right anterior cerebral artery. Two pedicles originating from the MCA were embolized. A 48-year-old woman presented with a left frontal AVM measuring 3.3 × 1.8 cm with arterial feeders from the left MCA, left middle meningeal artery, and contralateral anterior cerebral artery. Three pedicles originating from the left MCA were embolized. A 76-year-old man presented with an arteriovenous fistula with multiple fistulous connections and feeders from both vertebral and occipital arteries and the left posterior cerebral artery draining into the left transverse, torcula, and left sigmoid sinus. Two major occipital artery feeders were embolized. Seven Apollo microcatheters were used with the Onyx 18 liquid embolic system. The length of the detachable tip was 15 mm in 2 and 30 mm in 5 embolizations. The mean microcatheter in-position time within the pedicle was 20 minutes. Detachment of tip occurred in 3 instances. No limitations in accessing target arterial feeders and safe tip disengagement were noted despite prolonged injection times. Our initial experience supports the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of detachable-tip microcatheters in treating brain AVMs and arteriovenous fistulas.

  11. Embolization of a Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with Onyx via Direct Puncture of the Cavernous Sinus through the Superior Orbital Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Amiridze, N.; Zoarski, G.; Darwish, R.; Obuchowski, A.; Soloveychic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Treatment of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) may be challenging. We describe a patient who had presented with progressive ocular symptoms due to CSDAVF requiring urgent interventional therapy. Initial attempts to embolize the fistula utilizing a transvenous approach through the inferior petrosal sinus failed because of difficult anatomy. Successful occlusion of the fistula was subsequently achieved with injection of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx (EV3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA, USA), via direct percutaneous puncture of the cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure. A brief period of asystole during the initial injection of Onyx may be the result of the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:20465896

  12. Arteriovenous fistula complicating iliac artery pseudo aneurysm: diagnosis by CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Huawei, L; Bei, D; Huan, Z; Zilai, P; Aorong, T; Kemin, C

    2002-01-01

    Fistula formation to the inferior vena cava is a rare complication of aortic aneurysm which is often misdiagnosed clinically. In one hundred of reported arteriocaval fistulae, none was originating from the right common iliac artery. We report a case of ileo-caval fistula due to a iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm. High resolution 3D imaging using breath-hold CT angiography is highly specific in identifying the location, extent of the aortocaval fistula as well as the neighbouring anatomic structures.

  13. Timing of arteriovenous fistula creation in patients With CKD: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Steven M; Skandari, M Reza; Zalunardo, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The optimal time for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) referral is uncertain. Improving the timeliness of referral may reduce central venous catheter (CVC) use. Monte Carlo simulation model. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) followed up in a multidisciplinary clinic, overall and stratified by age. Decision analysis, patient, patient's lifetime. AVF referral, using 1 of 2 strategies: refer when hemodialysis is anticipated to begin within a certain time frame or refer when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) drops below a certain threshold. A range of values for each strategy are compared to each other with respect to incident vascular access type (AVF or CVC), percentage of patients with an unnecessary AVF creation, and life expectancy after dialysis therapy initiation. A 15-month referral time frame gave 34% with incident CVCs, 14% with unnecessary AVFs, and a life expectancy of 1,751 days. Time frames of 12-18 months performed similarly. Referral at eGFR of 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2) gave 38% with incident CVCs, 20% with unnecessary AVFs, and life expectancy of 1,742 days. Using an eGFR threshold of 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 10% had an unnecessary AVF. Policy performance was affected by CKD progression rate and age. For fast progressors (ΔeGFR = -7mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year), referral at eGFR of 25 mL/min/1.73 m(2) achieved a similar incident CVC percentage (~40%) as referral at 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in slower progressors (ΔeGFR = -2.78 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year). For patients aged 70-80 and 80-90 years, time frames of 15-18 months yielded 16%-22% with unnecessary AVFs (vs 9%-11% in 50- to 60-year-olds); an eGFR threshold strategy of 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yielded 24% unnecessary AVFs in 80- to 90-year-olds versus 16% in 50- to 60-year-olds. Our model does not consider patients with nonlinear CKD progression or acute kidney injury. We did not include arteriovenous grafts or consider cost or quality of life. In general, AVF referral within about 12 months of the

  14. Predictive Factors for Response of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas to Transarterial Onyx Embolization: Angiographic Subgroup Analysis of Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungjun; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keonha; Kim, Sungtae; Kim, Hyungjin; Byun, Hong Sik; Jo, Kyung-Il

    2016-04-01

    Endovascular treatment using Onyx has been increasingly used to treat intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). This study evaluated predictive factors for favorable treatment outcome in patients with intracranial noncavernous DAVFs treated by transarterial Onyx embolization. Between August 2008 and August 2014, 55 patients who underwent transarterial Onyx embolization for noncavernous DAVFs were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' demographic, clinical, and procedural data were analyzed to find statistically significant predictive factors for favorable treatment outcomes after Onyx embolization. Fistulas were classified angiographically according to the relationship between fistulas and dural venous sinuses and the presence of leptomeningeal venous reflux. Sixty-eight Onyx embolizations were performed in 55 patients. Immediate angiographic cure was achieved in 28 patients, and 14 of 27 patients with residual shunts showed progressive occlusion at follow-up imaging studies. Therefore, the overall favorable treatment outcome was 76.4% (42/55). The remaining 13 patients (23.6%) showed persistent residual shunts, and 3 (5.5%) of them showed aggravation of residual lesion on follow-up studies. Of 25 patients with non-sinus fistulas, 23 patients (92%) showed favorable treatment outcomes, and 19 of 30 patients (63.3%) with sinus fistulas showed favorable outcomes. Among the evaluated variables, non-sinus DAVFs was a statistically significant predictive factor for favorable response to transarterial Onyx embolization (P < 0.05). Transarterial Onyx embolization is a highly effective treatment method for non-sinus DAVFs. Careful consideration of angiographic features and multimodal embolization strategies are required for treatment of sinus DAVFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved method to create the common ostium variant of the distal arteriovenous fistula for enhancing crural prosthetic graft patency.

    PubMed

    Dardik, H; Silvestri, F; Alasio, T; Berry, S; Kahn, M; Ibrahim, I M; Sussman, B; Wolodiger, F

    1996-08-01

    Successful use of the distal adjunctive arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) for the enhancement of prosthetic graft patency rates in the crural position is critically dependent on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the arterial and venous runoff. Precise technical performance of the fistula is equally vital to secure optimal results. The purpose of this study was to determine current prosthetic graft patency and limb salvage rates using a modified version of the common ostium dAVF. The standard method to create the common ostium variant of dAVF has been modified to improve apposition of the "otomy" sites of the artery and vein, avoid twisting and stenosis by terminating the fistula suture line at the artery-vein junctures, reshaping the ovoid ostium to a rectangular shape, and finally, use of multiple interrupted heel-toe sutures. Since 1979 we have created 290 fistulas in 281 patients who required leg revascularization procedures. In different time periods we have documented improving graft patency and limb salvage rates. Fistula patency, reflected by annual attrition rates of 13% to 26% per year, continues as a challenge for long-term results. Current 3-year secondary cumulative graft patency and limb salvage rates by life table analysis are 61% and 74%, respectively. The conduit material may play a role with regard to steal phenomena and the need for banding techniques. Configuration of the adjunctive dAVF may impact on prosthetic graft patency in the crural position. In addition, the type of graft material used for bypass may be instrumental in preventing or precipitating the steal phenomenon. These issues require further study to better understand flow dynamics, patterns of intimal hyperplasia, and blood distribution as a function of conduit material and impedance of the arterial and venous runoff.

  16. The relationship between the flow of arteriovenous fistula and cardiac output in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Lomonte, Carlo; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Antonelli, Maurizio; Losurdo, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Satisfactory haemodialysis (HD) vascular access flow (Qa) is necessary for dialysis adequacy. High Qa is postulated to increase cardiac output (CO) and cause high-output cardiac failure. Aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between Qa of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and CO in order to have a closer insight into this scarcely explored aspect of HD pathophysiology. Ninety-six patients bearing an AVF entered the study. All were evaluated a priori for the existence of cardiac failure according to the functional classification of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force. Qa and CO were measured by means of the ultrasound dilution Transonic Hemodialysis Monitor HD02. The mean Qa of the 65 lower arm AVFs was 0.948+/-0.428 SD l/min, whereas that of the 31 upper arm AVFs was 1.58+/-0.553 l/min. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Ten patients were classified as having high-output cardiac failure; seven of them bore an upper arm AVF. Thus, upper arm AVFs were associated with an increased risk of high-output cardiac failure (P<0.04, chi(2) test). A third-order polynomial regression model best fitted the relationship between Qa and CO. The analysis of the regression equation identified 0.95 and 2.2 l/min as Qa cut-off points. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that Qa values >or= 2.0 l/min predicted the occurrence of high-output cardiac failure more accurately than two other Qa values (sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%, curve area 0.99) and three Qa/CO ratio values (cardio-pulmonary recirculation-CPR). The better performance among the latter was that of CPR values >or= 20% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 74.7%, curve area 0.92). Our prospective study shows that the relationship between Qa of AVFs and CO is complex and a third-order polynomial regression model best fits this relationship. Furthermore, it is the first study to clearly show the high predictive power for

  17. Wall shear stresses remain elevated in mature arteriovenous fistulas: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G T; McGloughlin, T M; Burke, P E; Egan, M; Wallis, F; Walsh, M T

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining vascular access (VA) patency continues to be the greatest challenge for dialysis patients. VA dysfunction, primarily due to venous neointimal hyperplasia development and stenotic lesion formation, is mainly attributed to complex hemodynamics within the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The effect of VA creation and the subsequent geometrical remodeling on the hemodynamics and shear forces within a mature patient-specific AVF is investigated. A 3D reconstructed geometry of a healthy vein and a fully mature patient-specific AVF was developed from a series of 2D magnetic resonance image scans. A previously validated thresholding technique for region segmentation and lumen cross section contour creation was conducted in MIMICS 10.01, allowing for the creation of a 3D reconstructed geometry. The healthy vein and AVF computational models were built, subdivided, and meshed in GAMBIT 2.3. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT 6.3.2 (Fluent Inc., Lebanon, NH) was employed as the finite volume solver to determine the hemodynamics and shear forces within the healthy vein and patient-specific AVF. Geometrical alterations were evaluated and a CFD analysis was conducted. Substantial geometrical remodeling was observed, following VA creation with an increase in cross-sectional area, out of plane curvature (maximum angle of curvature in AVF=30 deg), and angle of blood flow entry. The mean flow velocity entering the vein of the AVF is dramatically increased. These factors result in complex three-dimensional hemodynamics within VA junction (VAJ) and efferent vein of the AVF. Complex flow patterns were observed and the maximum and mean wall shear stress (WSS) magnitudes are significantly elevated. Flow reversal was found within the VAJ and efferent vein. Extensive geometrical remodeling during AVF maturation does not restore physiological hemodynamics to the VAJ and venous conduit of the AVF, and high WSS and WSS gradients, and flow reversal persist. It is

  18. Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Following Creation of Arteriovenous Access in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roan, Jun-Neng; Luo, Chwan-Yau; Tsai, Mang-Da; Wu, I-Shuan; Chang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Chien-Chi; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Lam, Chen-Fuh

    2015-01-01

    Background A patent arteriovenous (AV) fistula induces activation of regional vascular endothelium and vascular shear force. Shear stress is an important physiological force in mobilizing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). This study aimed to explore the perioperative changes of circulating EPC levels for patients who require hemodialysis and underwent radiocephalic fistula operation. Methods This prospective cohort study included patients who received a radiocephalic fistula surgery when they were between 25 and 65 years of age. The subjects were followed for 90 days postoperatively for any stenotic events or immaturity of the fistula. Blood samples were obtained on the day before surgery and at postoperation day (POD) 3 and 30. CD133+/KDR+ cells, defined as EPCs, were analyzed using flow cytometry. Blood flow of the fistula was followed on POD 3 and 30. Results A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the study from July 2009 to December 2011. One patient dropped out of the study and seven patients developed a stenotic (or immature) AV fistula (7/29, 24.1%). There were positive linear relationships between EPC numbers and shear rate postoperatively, which were more significant on POD 30. In addition, postoperative mobilization of EPCs was significantly higher in patients who developed a stenotic fistula than those without. Conclusions The mobilization of circulating EPCs correlated with a compromised arteriovenous fistula. The biological significance of increased EPC numbers need to be determined in future studies. PMID:27122843

  19. Creation of an arteriovenous fistula is associated with significant acute local and systemic changes in microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Korsheed, S; Crowley, L E; Fluck, R J; McIntyre, C W

    2013-01-01

    Native arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are the vascular access of choice for haemodialysis. The consequences of AVF formation on microvascular function, locally or systemically, are unknown. We recruited 43 predialysis patients undergoing AVF formation. Patients were studied 2 weeks prior to the planned AVF operation and 2 weeks postoperatively. Thirteen patients with failed AVF were subsequently utilised as sham controls. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging was used to measure subcutaneous microvascular blood flow. Microvascular function was assessed as an increase in perfusion in response to iontophoretic administration of vasodilatory stimuli assessing endothelial-dependent (ED) and non-endothelial-dependent (NED) vasodilatation. Patients with successful AVF formation had a significantly reduced ED vasodilatation in the fistula arm (-36 ± 46%, p < 0.001). Only NED vasodilatation was significantly reduced in the non-fistula arm (23 ± 40%, p = 0.01). Patients who had an unsuccessful AVF operation exhibited no recordable changes. Formation of an AVF was associated with local and remote changes in microcirculation. Further assessments are underway to examine the contributions of local shear stress, vasoreactive substances and the autonomic responses. Although the clinical significance of these findings is not yet clear, it is intriguing that AVF formation is associated with such widespread and profound changes in microperfusion. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Renoduodenal Fistula After Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, Rahul A.; Feldman, Adam S.; Walker, T. Gregory

    2015-02-15

    Transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas is a routinely performed, nephron-sparing procedure with a favorable safety profile. Complications from this procedure are typically minor in severity, with postembolization syndrome the most common minor complication. Abscess formation is a recognized but uncommon major complication of this procedure and is presumably due to superinfection of the infarcted tissue after arterial embolization. In this case report, we describe the formation of a renoduodenal fistula after embolization of an angiomyolipoma, complicated by intracranial abscess formation and requiring multiple percutaneous drainage procedures and eventual partial nephrectomy.

  1. Fistulas

    MedlinePlus

    A fistula is an abnormal connection between two parts inside of the body. Fistulas may develop between different organs, such as between ... two arteries. Some people are born with a fistula. Other common causes of fistulas include Complications from ...

  2. Disturbed flow in a patient-specific arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: Multidirectional and reciprocating near-wall flow patterns.