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Sample records for renal disease diagnosis

  1. Early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure in dogs and cats is to enable timely application of therapeutic interventions that may slow or halt disease progression. Strategies for early diagnosis of renal disease use urine tests that detect proteinuria that is a manifestation of altered glomerular permselectivity or impaired urine-concentrating ability as well blood tests to evaluate plasma creatinine concentration. Animals with progressive renal disease should be carefully investigated and treated appropriately. Animals with mild, possibly nonprogressive, renal disease should be monitored adequately to detect any worsening trends,which should lead to further investigation and treatment even if the increments of change are small. PMID:15223206

  2. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease diagnosis update].

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery disease represents a cause of which little is known but not a cause to be neglected for hypertension and renal insufficiency. Even though its occurrence remains badly defined, atherosclerotic renal artery disease is constantly on the rise due to the aging population, the never prevailing hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review aims to give a clinical profile of patients presenting with atherosclerotic renal artery disease and to discuss, in the light of study results, which diagnostic evaluation should be used considering the sequence and the benefit and risk of each in order to initiate a personalized treatment. Patients affected by atherosclerotic renal artery disease are likely to have more complications and more extensive target-organ damage than patients without renal artery stenosis. The evolution of the atherosclerotic renal artery disease is in general slow and progressive. Nevertheless, certain clinical cases manifest themselves with the onset of acute renal failure bought upon by the administration of blockers of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or by some other causes responsible for a sudden drop in renal plasma flow (e.g., thrombosis of the renal artery). The relationship between atherosclerotic renal artery disease and atherosclerosis is complex, and mediators implicated in the pathophysiology of renovascular disease may also contribute to the progression of cardiovascular damage. An early assumption of the atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is warranted to determine the adapted treatment (i.e., medical treatment, revascularisation...) just as the assumption and the correction of the more general cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18809367

  3. Homocysteine as a predictive biomarker in early diagnosis of renal failure susceptibility and prognostic diagnosis for end stages renal disease.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hatem K; El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb; Leheta, Ola F

    2016-09-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and/or creatinine are not accurate methods for renal failure prediction. This study tested homocysteine (Hcy) as a predictive and prognostic marker for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In total, 176 subjects were recruited and divided into: healthy normal group (108 subjects); mild-to-moderate impaired renal function group (21 patients); severe impaired renal function group (7 patients); and chronic renal failure group (40 patients) who were on regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were collected, and serum was separated for analysis of total Hcy, creatinine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, and calcium. Data showed that Hcy level was significantly increased from normal-to-mild impairment then significantly decreases from mild impairment until the patient reaches severe impairment while showing significant elevation in the last stage of chronic renal disease. Creatinine level was increased in all stages of kidney impairment in comparison with control. CRP level was showing significant elevation in the last stage. A significant decrease in both albumin and calcium was occurred in all stages of renal impairment. We conclude Hcy in combination with CRP, creatinine, albumin, and calcium can be used as a prognostic marker for ESRD and an early diagnostic marker for the risk of renal failure.

  4. Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Giorgio; Calabria, Santo; Lai, Silvia; Moscaritolo, Eleonora; Nofroni, Italo; Ronga, Giuseppe; Rossi, Michele; Ventroni, Guido; Sardella, Daniela; Ferrannini, Michele; Zaccaria, Alvaro; Cianci, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease. Methods All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238) or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224), and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS), were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and/or Selective Angiography (SA). An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA). Results Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above. Conclusions A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis. PMID:12622875

  5. Diagnosis of cardiac disease in pediatric end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Chavers, Blanche M.; Solid, Craig A.; Sinaiko, Alan; Daniels, Frank X.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Collins, Allan J.; Frankenfield, Diane L.; Herzog, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiac disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to report the frequency of cardiac disease diagnostic methods used in US pediatric maintenance hemodialysis patients. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of all US pediatric (ages 0.7–18 years, n = 656) maintenance hemodialysis patients was performed using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Project. Clinical and laboratory information was collected in 2001. Results were analysed by age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, dialysis duration, body mass index (BMI), primary ESRD cause and laboratory data. Results. Ninety-two percent of the patients had a cardiovascular risk factor (63% hypertension, 38% anemia, 11% BMI > 94th percentile, 63% serum phosphorus > 5.5 mg/dL and 55% calcium–phosphorus product ≥ 55 mg2/dL2). A diagnosis of cardiac disease was reported in 24% (n = 155) of all patients: left ventricular hypertrophy/enlargement 17%, congestive heart failure/pulmonary edema 8%, cardiomyopathy 2% and decreased left ventricular function 2%. Thirty-one percent of patients were not tested. Of those tested, the diagnostic methods used were chest X-rays in 60%, echocardiograms in 35% and electrocardiograms in 33%; left ventricular hypertrophy/enlargement was diagnosed using echocardiogram (72%), chest X-ray (20%) and electrocardiogram (15%). Conclusions. Although 92% of patients had cardiovascular risk factors, an echocardiography was performed in only one-third of the patients. Our study raises the question of why echocardiography, considered the gold standard for cardiac disease diagnosis, has been infrequently used in pediatric maintenance dialysis patients, a high-risk patient population. PMID:20861193

  6. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  7. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is.

  8. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  9. Point of care creatinine measurement for diagnosis of renal disease using a disposable microchip.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mónica; Floris, Arjan; Staal, Steven; Ríos, Ángel; Eijkel, Jan; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-11-01

    A point-of-care device for the determination of elevated creatinine levels in blood is reported. This device potentially offers a new and simple clinical regime for the determination of creatinine that will give huge time savings and removal of several steps of determination. The test employs a disposable prefilled microchip and the handheld Medimate Multireader®. By optimizing the analytical conditions it was found that the LOD of the proposed method was 87 μM creatinine, close to the normal human serum levels that are in the range of 60 to 100 μM. A statistical analysis of the residual shows a normal distribution, indicating the absence of systematic errors in the proposed method. The test can be used to distinguish patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine levels >100 μM) from healthy persons. Long-term monitoring could furthermore distinguish between acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease by the rate of creatinine concentration rise.

  10. Late diagnosis of chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sesso, R; Belasco, A G; Ajzen, H

    1996-11-01

    A comparison was made between patients with a late diagnosis of chronic renal failure (1 month or less before starting dialysis, N = 96) and those with an early diagnosis (6 months or more, N = 45) in terms of the following aspects: referral characteristics during the pre-dialysis phase, demographic details and patient biochemistry prior to maintenance dialysis. Information was obtained by surveying consecutive patients with primary renal disease admitted to a university dialysis unit in São Paulo. Fifty-three percent of all patients surveyed had a late diagnosis. These patients had a lower median duration of symptoms (2 vs 6 months, P < 0.01) and were less likely to be referred for dialysis by a nephrologist (9% vs 51%, P < 0.001) than early diagnosis patients. In the early diagnosis group, 7 patients (16%) had follow-up care for less than 6 months and 11 (24%) did not receive any follow-up; 21 patients (47%) did not follow a low-protein diet. At the start of dialysis, patients with a late diagnosis had higher blood pressure and a higher rate of pulmonary infections (19% vs 4%, P = 0.03). Mean concentrations of BUN, serum creatinine and potassium were significantly higher and mean blood hematocrit was lower for the late diagnosis group. After 3 months of dialysis, the mortality rate was higher in the late than in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs 6.7%, P = 0.02). Late diagnosis of chronic renal failure and lack of adequate follow-up care, prior to the start of dialysis, are common. Interventions to promote early diagnosis of chronic renal failure and to improve compliance with regular nephrological follow-up can be important to reduce the morbidity and the mortality of patients with chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:9196548

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Testosterone among Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yeran; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of low testosterone level is particularly high among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and has been associated with mortality. In populations without ESRD, low testosterone level has also been associated with a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, low muscle mass, low bone mass, low physical performance, and frailty. However, there is controversy regarding what constitutes low testosterone level in the aging population and at what level replacement therapy with testosterone is indicated. There are no randomized controlled trials investigating long-term outcomes of testosterone replacement therapy in populations with or without ESRD. Available trial results suggest equivocal improvements in sexual function. Muscle mass and bone mineral density appear to improve, but results in physical function and performance are mixed and there are no data on fracture prevention. Some recent data suggest harm when testosterone was given to men with limited mobility. Finally, there is little evidence that testosterone adds to existing erythropoietin agents in the treatment of anemia in ESRD. Due to lack of evidence supporting long-term use of testosterone, the authors recommend against the routine use of testosterone in ESRD patients with low testosterone levels. Testosterone treatment can be considered in those with low bone mass and total testosterone level <200 ng/dl, or in younger patients with sexual complaints with total testosterone level lower than the reference range. It is important to engage patients in discussion of risks and benefits before initiating testosterone therapy; testosterone therapy should be discontinued if the intended treatment effect is not observed after short-term use. PMID:25376701

  12. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of renal stone disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masselli, G; Weston, M; Spencer, J

    2015-12-01

    The distinction of pain in pregnancy due to urolithiasis from that related to physiological dilation of the renal tract is a common conundrum as renal colic is one of the commonest causes for non-obstetric pain in pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging test but although it may demonstrate renal dilation, it may not show the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to make the distinction. Physiological dilation will show smooth tapering of the ureter in the middle third as it is compressed between the gravid uterus and the retroperitoneum. Obstruction due to calculi causes renal enlargement and perinephric oedema. When a stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter will be seen below the physiological constriction. The stone itself may be shown. Computed tomography (CT) is an acceptable alternative if there is a contraindication to MRI, but even low-dose regimes involve some ionising radiation. This paper serves to highlight the role of MRI compared to US and CT in the imaging of renal colic in pregnancy. Multidisciplinary collaboration between obstetricians, urologists, and radiologists is required for effective management. PMID:26454345

  13. Renal involvement in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Abensur, Hugo; Reis, Marlene Antônia Dos

    2016-06-01

    Every cell in the human body has globotriaosylceramide accumulation (Gb3) in Fabry disease due to the mutation in gene of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. It is a disease linked to sex. The main clinical features are: cutaneous angiokeratomas; acroparestesias and early strokes; decreased sweating and heat intolerance; ocular changes; myocardial hypertrophy, arrhythmias; gastrointestinal disorders and renal involvement. Renal involvement occurs due to Gb3 accumulation in all types of renal cells. Therefore, patients may present glomerular and tubular function disorders. Podocytes are particularly affected, with pedicels effacement and development of proteinuria. The diagnosis is made by detection of reduced plasma or leukocyte α-galactosidase activity and genetic study for detecting the α-galactosidase gene mutation. Treatment with enzyme replacement contributes to delay the progression of kidney disease, especially if initiated early. PMID:27438980

  14. [Renal angiomyolipoma: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Arima, K; Kise, H; Yamashita, A; Yanagawa, M; Tochigi, H; Kawamura, J; Horiuchi, E; Sugimura, Y

    1995-09-01

    In 10 years the diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma (RAML) was made in 14 patients (male-to female ratio 1:3.7) at our institution; 1 case was associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS) and 1 case had regional lymph node involvement. A statistical study was done on data taken from 739 cases of RAML in the Japanese literature, including our cases. The male to female ratio was 1 to 3. Twenty eight percent of the cases were associated with TS. The ratio of bilateral cases to the unilateral one was 1 to 3. The main clinical signs were flank pain, abdominal mass, hematuria and fever elevation. Recently the ratio of nephrectomy has decreased to 30%. The percentage of detecting the fat component by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging were 88.1%, 86.5% and 80.8% respectively. The percentages of visualizing hypervascularity, aneurysms, absence of arterio-venous shunt and onion peel appearance by selective renal angiography were 77.3%, 71.4%, 48.1% and 4.9% respectively. Small (less than 3 cm), asymptomatic, simple lesions with adipose component may be observed annually by CT and US until more experiences is gained with surveillance of these patients. Embolization was useful for emergency cases or pre-treatment of nephron sparing surgery, but insufficient by itself. As there still remain problems in the diagnosis of RAML, especially in the case of very small tumors, in the case with almost no adipose component and in the case associated with renal cell carcinoma, the diagnosis of RAML should be made synthetically including angiography. PMID:7484542

  15. Diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Grech, P.; Martin, T.J.; Barrington, N.A.; Ell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a reference on the radiologic evaluation, features, and differential diagnosis of metabolic diseases involving the whole skeleton, calcium deficiencies resulting from pharmacologic agents, and bone changes related to endocrine disturbances. It also stresses how radiology, nuclear medicine, and biochemistry - either alone or in concert - contribute to clinical diagnosis. It covers renal bone disease, Paget's disease, hyperphosphatasia, extraskeletal mineralization, metabolic bone disorders related to malnutrition, tumors, plus radionuclide studies including materials and methods.

  16. Nox and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Holterman, Chet E; Read, Naomi C; Kennedy, Chris R J

    2015-04-01

    Since the first demonstration of Nox enzyme expression in the kidney in the early 1990s and the subsequent identification of Nox4, or RENOX, a decade later, it has become apparent that the Nox family of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes plays an integral role in the normal physiological function of the kidney. As our knowledge of Nox expression patterns and functions in various structures and specialized cell types within the kidney grows, so does the realization that Nox-derived oxidative stress contributes significantly to a wide variety of renal pathologies through their ability to modify lipids and proteins, damage DNA and activate transcriptional programmes. Diverse studies demonstrate key roles for Nox-derived ROS in kidney fibrosis, particularly in settings of chronic renal disease such as diabetic nephropathy. As the most abundant Nox family member in the kidney, much emphasis has been placed on the role of Nox4 in this setting. However, an ever growing body of work continues to uncover key roles for other Nox family members, not only in diabetic kidney disease, but in a diverse array of renal pathological conditions. The objective of the present review is to highlight the latest novel developments in renal Nox biology with an emphasis not only on diabetic nephropathy but many of the other renal disease contexts where oxidative stress is implicated.

  17. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease. PMID:17162422

  18. [Ultrasound diagnosis in patients with renal colic].

    PubMed

    Belyĭ, L E

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract with reference to ultrasound semiotics of its acute obstruction, detection of hydronephrotic transformation of the kidneys, and methods for optimization of ultrasound diagnosis of urodynamics. Merits and demerits of ultrasound technique for the diagnosis of renal colic are discussed. Major difficulties encountered in dopplerographic diagnosis of disturbed urine passage and renal hemodynamics are described.

  19. Renal calculus disease.

    PubMed

    Schulsinger, D A; Sosa, R E

    1998-03-01

    We have seen an explosion in technical innovations for the management of urolithiasis. Today, the endourologist possesses an assortment of minimally invasive tools to treat renal stones. Most patients receive fast, safe and effective treatment in the outpatient setting. Despite the many technical advances, however, anatomical malformations and complex stones still provide significant challenges in diagnosis, access to a targeted stone, fragmentation, and clearance of the resulting fragments. This review examines a variety of urinary stone presentations and treatment strategies for cost-effective management.

  20. Currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology for the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Go; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-07-01

    Renal allograft dysfunction may be induced by various causes, including alloimmune rejection, viral infection, urinary tract obstruction, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity and/or recurrent renal disease. In order to determine the underlying cause, a renal biopsy is performed and the renal transplant pathology is diagnosed using the internationally consensus Banff classification. Although a progressive understanding of allograft rejection has provided numerous immunohistochemical markers, only the C4d is regarded to be a sufficiently useful marker for antibody-mediated allograft rejection according to the Banff classification. This review summarizes currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal transplant pathology, including C4d, with diagnostic implications for human renal allograft rejection. In particular, we discuss immunohistochemical markers in the following three categories: immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology used to (i) analyze the mechanisms of alloimmune rejection, (ii) monitor cell injury and/or inflammation associated with rejection and (iii) identify renal components in order to improve the diagnosis of rejection. In addition, recent progress in the field of renal transplant pathology includes the development of a new method for assessing molecular pathology using OMICS analyses. As the recent findings of various studies in patients undergoing renal transplantation are very encouraging, novel immunohistochemical markers must be also developed and combined with new technologies for the diagnosis of human renal allograft rejection.

  1. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  2. Acute Small Bowel Hemorrhage in Three Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Diagnosis and Management by Angiographic Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Heoung Kil; Han, Young Min; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2002-03-15

    Three patients who had undergone hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease, presented with acute small bowel hemorrhage,and were treated with superselective transcatheter arterial embolization via coaxial microcatheters. In all patients pre-procedure upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and colonoscopy had failed to demonstrate the source of the hemorrhage. Selective diagnostic angiography revealed frank extravasations of contrast from the small bowel arteries (one jejunal artery and two ileal arteries). After superselection of feeding arteries with a microcatheter, transcatheter embolization using Gelfoam and microcoils was performed in all three patients. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in all patients and the patients were discharged free from symptoms 3-5 days after embolization. No evidence of intestinal ischemia or infarction was noted, with the time from procedure to last follow-up ranging from 4 to 12 months. We conclude that superselective angiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and treating acute small bowel hemorrhage inpatients with end-stage renal disease when endoscopic evaluation has failed.

  3. [Acquired cystic renal disease. Association with hypernephroma].

    PubMed

    Comesaña, E; Pesqueira, D; Tardáguila, F; De la Fuente, A; Antón, I; Vidal, L; Zungri, E

    1992-02-01

    Emergence of multiple bilateral renal cysts observed in patients undergoing periodic haemodialysis is 40%. The pathology, known as Acquired Cystic Renal Disease (A.C.R.D.) presents a high association to renal cancer. Two cases of A.C.R.D. and their association with hypernephroma, one resulting in secondary retroperitoneal haemorrhage and the other in intracystic haemorrhage, are presented. Forms and diagnosis are analyzed, insisting upon the need of monitoring the patients in haemodialysis from the point of view of tumour emergence.

  4. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  5. Celiac Disease: Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Greg; Feighery, Conleth F

    2015-01-01

    Historically the diagnosis of celiac disease has relied upon clinical, serological, and histological evidence. In recent years the use of sensitive serological methods has meant an increase in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The heterogeneous nature of the disorder presents a challenge in the study and diagnosis of the disease with patients varying from subclinical or latent disease to patients with overt symptoms. Furthermore the related gluten-sensitive disease dermatitis herpetiformis, while distinct in some respects, shares clinical and serological features with celiac disease. Here we summarize current best practice for the diagnosis of celiac disease and briefly discuss newer approaches. The advent of next-generation assays for diagnosis and newer clinical protocols may result in more sensitive screening and ultimately the possible replacement of the intestinal biopsy as the gold standard for celiac disease diagnosis.

  6. Anti-GBM disease and renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phillippa; Sarfraz, Farook; Ravanan, Rommel

    2011-11-15

    A 23-year-old female who presented with advanced renal failure was subsequently diagnosed with renal vein thrombosis and antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease. A previous case of renal vein thrombosis has been reported in association with anti-GBM disease, but to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which the presentation of anti-GBM disease and renal vein thrombosis was concurrent. Further study is essential to understand if the association of anti-GBM disease and renal vein thrombosis as seen in our case was pure coincidence or is in fact occurs more frequently. It may be that the dual diagnosis is not made as establishing one sufficient diagnosis for renal failure may halt further investigations for additional diagnoses.

  7. Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Classification of Renal Dysfunction in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal dysfunction is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis with high morbidity and mortality. Summary In subjects with cirrhosis, renal dysfunction can present either as a direct consequence of cirrhosis (e.g. hepatorenal syndrome Type I and Type II) or secondary to etiologies other than cirrhosis (chronic kidney disease due to diabetic nephropathy, prerenal azotemia). Or, patients with cirrhosis may have renal dysfunction resulting directly from cirrhosis; and an underlying chronic kidney disease. Key Messages Given the challenges in the differential diagnosis of renal dysfunction and insufficient accuracy of serum creatinine and creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate estimating equations in cirrhosis, there is an urgent need for more accurate biomarkers of renal dysfunction in this population. This review will discuss novel concepts for the diagnosis and classification of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis to overcome at least some of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Additionally, a new classification will be proposed for renal dysfunction in cirrhosis. PMID:24107793

  8. Imaging-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Kentrup, Dominik; Pawelski, Helga; Reuter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite the introduction of effective immunosuppressant drugs, episodes of acute allograft rejection still endanger graft survival. Since efficient treatment of acute rejection is available, rapid diagnosis of this reversible graft injury is essential. For diagnosis of rejection, invasive core needle biopsy of the graft is the “gold-standard”. However, biopsy carries the risk of significant graft injury and is not immediately feasible in patients taking anticoagulants. Therefore, a non-invasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review current imaging-based state of the art approaches for non-invasive diagnostics of acute renal transplant rejection. We especially focus on new positron emission tomography-based as well as targeted ultrasound-based methods. PMID:27011915

  9. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397

  10. [The renal pathology in light chain deposition disease].

    PubMed

    Giannakakis, K N; Faraggiana, T

    2005-01-01

    Light Chain Deposition Disease (LCDD) is a relatively frequent renal disease associated with dysproteinemia. Although the light chain deposits can be widespread, the kidney is the most frequently involved organ, and renal involvement can dominate the clinical condition. The morphological features of LCDD can be recognized by light microscopy; however, the diagnosis can be made certain only by immunofluorescence microscopy, using antisera to kappa and lambda chains, and by electron microscopy.

  11. Bone biopsy in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce B

    2004-01-01

    When renal disease develops, mineral and vitamin D homeostasis is disrupted, resulting in diverse manifestations in bone cells and structure as well as the rate of bone turnover. In ESRF when patients require chronic maintenance dialysis, nearly all of them have abnormal bone histology named renal osteodystrophy (ROD). On the other hand, survival rates of patients on dialysis have increased with improved dialytic therapy and the resultant increased duration of dialysis has led to a rise in renal osteodystrophy. Because this metabolic bone disease can produce fractures, bone pain, and deformities late in the course of the disease, prevention and early treatment are essential. Serum PTH levels are commonly used to assess bone turnover in dialyzed patients. However, it is found that serum PTH levels between 65 and 450 pg/ml seen in the majority of dialysis patients are not predictive of the underlying bone disease. To date, bone biopsy is the most powerful and informative diagnostic tool to provide important information on precisely the type of renal osteodystrophy affecting patients, the degree of severity of the lesions, and the presence and amount of aluminum and strontium deposition in bone. Bone biopsy is not only useful in clinical settings but also in research to assess the effects of therapies on bone. Although considered as an invasive procedure, bone biopsy has been proven as safe and free from major complications besides pain, haematoma or wound infections, but the operator's experience and skill is important in minimizing morbidity. Alternatives to bone biopsy continue to be pursued, but the non-invasive bone markers have not been proven to hold sufficient diagnostic performance related to the bone turnover, mineralization process and bone cell abnormality. At present however, the transiliac bone biopsy remains the golden standard in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. PMID:15735537

  12. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  13. Nephrolithiasis-induced end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Ounissi, M; Gargueh, T; Mahfoudhi, M; Boubaker, K; Hedri, H; Goucha, R; Abderrahim, E; Ben Hamida, F; Ben Abdallah, T; El Younsi, F; Ben Maiz, H; Kheder, A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis still remains a too frequent and underappreciated cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods and patients: Of the entire cohort of 7128 consecutive patients who started maintenance dialysis in our nephrology department between January 1992 and December 2006, a total of 45 patients (26 women, 19 men) had renal stone disease as the cause of ESRD. The type of nephrolithiasis was determined in 45 cases and etiology in 42. The treatment and evolution of stone disease and patient’s survival were studied. Results: The overall proportion of nephrolithiasis related ESRD was 0.63%. The mean age was 48.4 years. Infection stones (struvite) accounted for 40%, calcium stones, 26.67% (primary hyperparathyroidism:15.56%; familial hypercalciuria: 4.44%, unknown etiology: 6.66%), primary hyperoxaluria type 1, 17.78% and uric acid lithiasis in 15.56% of cases. The mean delay of the evolution of the stone renal disease to chronic renal failure was 85.8 months. The feminine gender, obesity and elevated alkaline phosphatases >128 IU/L were significantly correlated with fast evolution of ESRD. The median evolution to ESRD was 12 months. The normal body mass index (BMI), medical treatment of stone and primary hyperoxaluria type 1 were correlated with fast evolution to ESRD. All patients were treated by hemodialysis during a mean evolution of 60 months. Sixteen patients died. The patient's survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 97.6, 92.8 and 69% respectively. Hypocalcemia, cardiopathy and normal calcium-phosphate product were significantly correlated with lower survival rate. Conclusion: Severe forms of nephrolithiasis remain an underestimated cause of ESRD. These findings highlight the crucial importance of accurate stone analysis and metabolic evaluation to provide early diagnosis and efficient treatment for conditions leading to ESRD. PMID:21694924

  14. Recent advances in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Moorthi, Ranjani N; Moe, Sharon M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is the term used to describe a constellation of biochemical abnormalities, bone disturbances that may lead to fractures, and extraskeletal calcification in soft tissues and arteries seen in CKD. This review focuses on the noninvasive diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy, the term used exclusively to define the bone pathology associated with CKD. Transiliac bone biopsy and histomorphometry with double-labeled tetracycline or its derivatives remains the gold standard for diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. However, histomorphometry provides a 'window' into bone only at a single point in time, and is not clinically practical for studying continuous changes in bone morphology. Furthermore, the etiology of fractures in CKD is multifactorial and not fully explained by histomorphometry findings alone. The propensity of a bone to fracture is determined by bone strength, which is affected by bone mass and bone quality; the latter is a term used to describe the structure and composition of bone. Bone quantity is traditionally assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and CT-based methods. Bone quality is more difficult to assess noninvasively, but newer techniques are emerging and are described in this review. Ultimately, the optimal diagnostic strategy for renal osteodystrophy may be a combination of multiple imaging techniques and biomarkers that are specific to each gender and race in CKD, with a goal of predicting fracture risk and optimizing therapy. PMID:23802194

  15. Diagnosis and management of renal angioma.

    PubMed Central

    Abercrombie, J F; Holmes, S A; Ball, A J

    1992-01-01

    Five patients with symptomatic renal angiomata are described. All presented with heavy haematuria and unilateral ureteric obstruction without evidence of a mass distorting the renal architecture. Renal angiomata are most easily diagnosed by selective renal angiography. They may be treated by intraarterial embolization, avoiding the need for major ablative surgery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:1433042

  16. Imaging Manifestations of Hematologic Diseases with Renal and Perinephric Involvement.

    PubMed

    Purysko, Andrei S; Westphalen, Antonio C; Remer, Erick M; Coppa, Christopher P; Leão Filho, Hilton M; Herts, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    The kidneys and perinephric tissues can be affected by a variety of hematologic disorders, which usually occur in the setting of multisystem involvement. In many of these disorders, imaging is used to evaluate the extent of disease, guide biopsy, and/or monitor disease activity and patient response to therapy. Lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma commonly manifest as multiple parenchymal or perinephric lesions. Erdheim-Chester disease and Rosai-Dorfman disease, rare forms of multisystemic histiocytosis, are often identified as perinephric and periureteral masses. Renal abnormalities depicted at imaging in patients with sickle cell disease include renal enlargement, papillary necrosis, and renal medullary carcinoma. Sickle cell disease, along with other causes of intravascular hemolysis, can also lead to hemosiderosis of the renal cortex. Thrombosis of renal veins is sometimes seen in patients with coagulation disorders but more often occurs in association with certain malignancies and nephrotic syndrome. Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease is another multisystem process that often produces focal renal lesions, seen along with involvement of more characteristic organs such as the pancreas. Perinephric lesions with calcifications should raise the possibility of secondary amyloidosis, especially in patients with a history of lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Although the imaging patterns of renal and perinephric involvement are usually not specific for a single entity, and the same entity can manifest with different or overlapping patterns, familiarity with these patterns and key clinical and histopathologic features may help to narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the next step of care. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27257766

  17. BK polyoma virus infection and renal disease in non-renal solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kuppachi, Sarat; Kaur, Deepkamal; Holanda, Danniele G.; Thomas, Christie P.

    2016-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family that causes an interstitial nephritis in immunosuppressed patients. BKV nephropathy is now a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and early allograft failure following kidney transplantation. It is also known to cause renal disease with a progressive decline in kidney function in non-renal solid organ transplant (NRSOT) recipients, although the disease may not be recognized nor its impact appreciated in this patient population. In this report, we review the existing literature to highlight our current understanding of its incidence in NRSOT populations, the approaches to diagnosis and the potential treatment options. PMID:26985385

  18. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  19. [Biological diagnosis of Legionnaire's disease].

    PubMed

    Edelstein, P H

    1984-01-01

    Specific laboratory diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease is possible using sputum and other respiratory tract samples. Culture diagnosis, overlooked in the past, should now be the major means of laboratory diagnosis. Detection of bacterial antigen in respiratory secretions and urine by immunologic means has the advantage of speed of diagnosis (hours vs. days for culture diagnosis), but the disadvantage of the need for use of many different antibody types. Serological diagnosis, by detection of antibody changes, probably has the lowest specificity of any of the specific tests, and often takes weeks rather than days or hours to make a diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease.

  20. [Diagnostic strategies in kidney disease with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Pasquali, S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects large numbers of individuals in countries across the world. Recent reports from the United States indicate that 30% of the adult population has a mild or moderate degree of chronic renal failure and more than 600,000 patients are projected to have end-stage renal disease by the year 2010. Similar elevated rates have been reported in Europe, Asia and Australia. Optimal management of chronic renal failure is mandatory. It requires a correct diagnosis of the underlying nephropathy and specific strategies to slow the progression of renal damage and to prevent cardiovascular events. The differential diagnostic approach to chronic renal failure consists of serologic studies, renal biopsy, and urinary tract imaging, which, however, may exacerbate the pre-existing nephropathy or have severe adverse effects. The challenge for the nephrologist is to balance the need to correctly identify chronic nephropathy against the risks related to aggressive diagnostic procedures. In order to optimize the diagnostic strategies in patients with chronic renal disease, consensus guidelines will be needed. PMID:19048581

  1. Sickle cell disease: renal manifestations and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Karl A.; Hebbel, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) substantially alters renal structure and function, and causes various renal syndromes and diseases. Such diverse renal outcomes reflect the uniquely complex vascular pathobiology of SCD and the propensity of red blood cells to sickle in the renal medulla because of its hypoxic, acidotic, and hyperosmolar conditions. Renal complications and involvement in sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) include altered haemodynamics, hypertrophy, assorted glomerulopathies, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, impaired urinary concentrating ability, distal nephron dysfunction, haematuria, and increased risks of urinary tract infections and renal medullary carcinoma. SCN largely reflects an underlying vasculopathy characterized by cortical hyperperfusion, medullary hypoperfusion, and an increased, stress-induced vasoconstrictive response. Renal involvement is usually more severe in homozygous disease (sickle cell anaemia, HbSS) than in compound heterozygous types of SCD (for example HbSC and HbSβ+-thalassaemia), and is typically mild, albeit prevalent, in the heterozygous state (sickle cell trait, HbAS). Renal involvement contributes substantially to the diminished life expectancy of patients with SCD, accounting for 16–18% of mortality. As improved clinical care promotes survival into adulthood, SCN imposes a growing burden on both individual health and health system costs. This Review addresses the renal manifestations of SCD and focuses on their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25668001

  2. Pathology of renal diseases in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Boonpucknavig, Vijitr; Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh

    2003-01-01

    Renal diseases unique to the tropics are those that occur in association with infectious diseases including dengue hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, shigellosis, leptospirosis, lepromatous leprosy, malaria, opisthorchiasis, and schistosomiasis. These renal complications can be classified on the basis of their clinical and pathologic characteristics into acute transient reversible glomerulonephritis, chronic progressive irreversible glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, and acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from acute tubular necrosis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, and thrombotic microangiopathy. Certain primary glomerular diseases including immunoglobulin (Ig) M nephropathy and focal segmental and global glomerulosclerosis are prevalent in some tropical countries. Renal complications of venomous snakebites also are common in the tropics. This article discusses and summarizes important works in the literature in respect to the clinical syndromes, pathologic features, and pathogenesis of tropical renal diseases both in humans and experimental animal models.

  3. Multiple Renal and Splenic Lesions in Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Manaka; Kodama, Yuichi; Miyazono, Akinori; Seki, Shunji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-09-21

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Atypical clinical presentations of CSD include prolonged fever and multiple hepatosplenic lesions. Furthermore, multiple renal lesions are extremely rare in CSD. An 11-year-old Japanese girl presented at our hospital with a prolonged fever of unknown cause after being scratched and bitten by a kitten. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small, round hypodense lesions in both kidneys and the spleen. Based on her history and the CT results, her diagnosis was CSD. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological tests, which indicated antibodies against B. henselae. After treatment with azithromycin, her fever immediately improved. Careful history taking and imaging are essential for the diagnosis of atypical CSD. In CT images, not only hepatosplenic lesions but also renal lesions are important features indicative of a diagnosis of atypical CSD. Subsequently, a diagnosis of CSD can be confirmed by specific serological tests. This is the first reported Japanese case of multiple renal and splenic lesions in a patient with CSD. Although difficult to diagnose, an early diagnosis atypical CSD and appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications and the need for invasive examinations.

  4. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD) are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephropathological changes are commonly observed in the non-tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy (RN). In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy (PN) or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with RN. Despite emerging evidence that PN provides equivalent local tumor control to RN while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer. PMID:22649783

  5. Ultrasound diagnosis of renal infarction: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dell'Atti, Lucio; Galeotti, Roberto; Russo, Gian Rosario

    2012-12-01

    Renal infarction secondary to thromboembolism is usually a sequela of cardiac disease, the heart being the source of systemic arterial emboli in up to 94% of cases; the three major causes are: atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction and rheumatic mitral stenosis. Renal infarction is often confused with other conditions due to similar presenting symptoms. This leads to delay in initiating treatment and significantly decreases the chances of renal salvage. We report a sonographic diagnosis in 39-year-old man, with risk factors for thrombosis, without a prior history of thromboembolism.

  6. CT findings in complications of acquired renal cystic disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, O; Miller, L R; Lichtman, J B

    1987-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with end-stage renal disease developed acquired renal cystic disease. The left kidney underwent tumorous degeneration necessitating nephrectomy. Eight months later acute hemorrhagic renal cyst rupture culminated in right nephrectomy.

  7. Early origin of adult renal disease.

    PubMed

    Maringhini, Silvio; Corrado, Ciro; Maringhini, Guido; Cusumano, Rosa; Azzolina, Vitalba; Leone, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animals have clearly shown that renal failure may start early in life. 'Fetal programming' is regulated by adaptations occurring in uterus including maternal nutrition, placental blood supply, and epigenetic changes. Low birth weight predisposes to hypertension and renal insufficiency. Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, adverse postnatal events, wrong nutritional habits may produce renal damage that will become clinically relevant in adulthood. Prevention should start early in children at risk of renal disease. PMID:20822331

  8. [Present day radiation diagnosis of renal tumors and cysts].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, P V; Kotliarov, P M

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the present-day radiation diagnosis of renal bulky formations: tumors and cysts. Based on the study of a great body of clinical data on 708 patients, the authors showed the potentialities of routine X-ray and currently available radiation techniques in the diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors and cysts of the kidney. Based on the data available in the literature and their own findings, the authors concluded that at the earliest stages of their preclinical development, tumors can be today diagnosed by a complete package of up-to-date diagnostic tools. Ultrasonic and computerized tomographies are of the highest informative value in diagnosing tumors and cystic formations. However, in some cases, a diagnosis is made via a routine excretory urography, angiography and needle biopsy. Excretory urography is of limited value for the diagnosis of renal bulky formations and it is used as an auxiliary mainly when a pathological process takes place in the renal hilus area. Angiography retains its significance as a supplementary technique. In the vast majority of cases, an accurate nosological diagnosis can be made on the basis of evaluation of the pattern of blood supply (the presence of abnormal vessels and their topographic features). The paper details the semiotics of a wide range of renal bulky processes by applying all currently available techniques of radiation diagnosis.

  9. Complement activation in progressive renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Fearn, Amy; Sheerin, Neil Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The replacement of functioning nephrons by fibrosis is characteristic of progressive disease. The pathways that lead to fibrosis are not fully understood, although chronic non-resolving inflammation in the kidney is likely to drive the fibrotic response that occurs. In patients with progressive CKD there is histological evidence of inflammation in the interstitium and strategies that reduce inflammation reduce renal injury in pre-clinical models of CKD. The complement system is an integral part of the innate immune system but also augments adaptive immune responses. Complement activation is known to occur in many diverse renal diseases, including glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathies and transplant rejection. In this review we discuss current evidence that complement activation contributes to progression of CKD, how complement could cause renal inflammation and whether complement inhibition would slow progression of renal disease. PMID:25664245

  10. Chronic granulomatous disease with renal stones.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, S H; Vyas, H

    1992-01-01

    A case of chronic granulomatous disease with hydronephrosis and renal calculi is presented. This is to our knowledge the first such case to be reported. The calculi were successfully ablated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

  11. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  12. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  13. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  14. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  15. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  16. Spectrum of pediatric renal diseases in dubai.

    PubMed

    Abou-Chaaban, M; Al Murbatty, B; Majid, M A

    1997-01-01

    A total of 712 patients with renal problems, aged 13 years or below (mean age 4.12 years) were seen in the Department of Health and Medical Services Hospitals in Dubai in the period from 1991 to 1996. The male to female ratio was 1:1.1. UAE citizens constituted 32% of the total, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Nephrotic syndrome (26.3%) had the highest prevalence among the renal diseases seen, followed by urinary tract infection (19.1%), glomerulonephritis (GN) (9.7%), congenital renal anomalies (9.7%), and chronic renal failure (CRF) (7%). Congenital renal anomalies were the main cause of CRF in our patients followed by GN. Acute renal failure (ARF) occurred in 1.4% of the patients and was not an alarming problem; it had an uncomplicated course and good prognosis. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was the mode of replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. Eight patients underwent renal transplantation; one cadaver donor, four living non-related donor (abroad) and three living related donor.

  17. Thrombosis in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Casserly, Liam F; Dember, Laura M

    2003-01-01

    Although renal failure has classically been associated with a bleeding tendency, thrombotic events are common among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A variety of thrombosis-favoring hematologic alterations have been demonstrated in these patients. In addition, "nontraditional" risk factors for thrombosis, such as hyperhomocysteinemia, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition, are present in a significant proportion of chronic dialysis patients. Hemodialysis (HD) vascular access thrombosis, ischemic heart disease, and renal allograft thrombosis are well-recognized complications in these patients. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are viewed as rare in chronic dialysis patients, but recent studies suggest that this perception should be reconsidered. Several ESRD treatment factors such as recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) administration, dialyzer bioincompatibility, and calcineurin inhibitor administration may have prothrombotic effects. In this article we review the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombosis in ESRD and evaluate the evidence that chronic renal failure or its management predisposes to thrombotic events.

  18. Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease is one of the most prevalent autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders but as the case of Ms. J illustrates, diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Based on serology studies, the prevalence of celiac disease in many populations is estimated to be approximately 1% and has been increasing steadily over the last 50 years. Evaluation for celiac disease is generally straightforward, and uses commonly available serologic tests, however the signs and symptoms of celiac disease are nonspecific and highly heterogeneous making diagnosis difficult. While celiac disease is often considered a mild disorder treatable with simple dietary changes, in reality celiac disease imparts considerable risks including reduced bone mineral density, impaired quality of life, and increased overall mortality. In addition, the gluten free diet is highly burdensome and can profoundly affect patients and their families. For these reasons, care of individuals with celiac disease requires prompt diagnosis and ongoing multidisciplinary management. PMID:21990301

  19. [Diagnosis of functional bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Kruis, W

    2007-02-28

    Functional bowel disorders cause frequent doctor visits. The term comprises various disease entities. Most frequent are the irritable bowel syndrome, functional constipation and functional diarrhea. An exact history plays an outstanding role for the diagnosis of all these entities. History either confirms a positive diagnosis or initiates some complementary investigations. Redundant and dangerous technical procedures should be avoided in the diagnostic work up.

  20. Radiological diagnosis of gallbladder disease

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, R.N.; Ferrucci, J.T.; Fordtran, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    Changes in the radiological diagnosis of gallbladder disease are occurring at a remarkable rate. In this symposium, several recognized authorities place the various diagnostic modalities and their interrelation in modern perspective. The present and future roles of oral cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography, the radiological diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystits, and the use of ultrasonography and cholescintigraphy are analyzed.

  1. Renal histology before and after effective enzyme replacement therapy in a patient with classical Fabry's disease.

    PubMed

    Hirashio, S; Taguchi, T; Naito, T; Maki, K; Ogata, S; Taniyama, K; Taniguchi, Y; Yorioka, N

    2009-05-01

    A 38-year-old man underwent renal biopsy because of proteinuria. It revealed swelling and vacuolation of glomerular epithelial cells, as well as myelin-like structures characteristic of Fabry's disease. Detection of decreased plasma activity of alpha-galactosidase A confirmed the diagnosis. Enzyme replacement therapy was provided with recombinant agalsidase-beta, resulting in improvement of his symptoms. When renal biopsy was repeated, specific staining for globotriaosylceramide showed that renal deposits were decreased by enzyme therapy.

  2. [Radiation diagnosis of spleen diseases].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, P V; Kotliarov, P M

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the diagnosis of splenic diseases by using the currently available techniques. Based on the examination of a large group including 391 patients with various benign and malignant splenic diseases, the authors showed that despite the fact that primary diseases of the spleen are comparatively rarely encountered, nevertheless, early diagnosis of its lesions is of great importance for the diagnosis of various systemic diseases and abnormalities of primary organ processes. Based on the data available in the literature and their own findings, the authors concluded that at the earliest stages of their preclinical development, splenic tumors can be now diagnosed by a complete package of up-to-date diagnostic tools. Ultrasonic and computerized tomographies are of the highest informative value. However, diagnostic puncture is required in some cases. The paper details the semiotics of a wide range of splenic pathological processes by applying all currently available techniques of radiation diagnosis.

  3. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease management update].

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    In the case of atherosclerotic renal artery disease, the best conclusive results lie principally not in the degree of the stenosis but rather in the degree the renal parenchymal disease beyond the stenosis itself. These determining factors involve the controlling of the patients blood pressure, the improvement in the renal function and the beneficial results to the cardiovascular system. Besides the indispensable medical treatment, a revascularisation by angioplasty may be indicated. This procedure with or without vascular stent often allows satisfactory angiographic results. A treatment by surgical revascularisation is only recommended in the case of extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, complex lesions of the latter or an abdominal aortic aneurism. Although the frequency of restenosis of angioplasty with stent remains extremely low, the risk of cholesterol emboli due to the diffuse atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta, must be considered at the time of each aortic catheterization. The therapeutic approach of atherosclerotic renal artery disease must be dictated by the whole cardiovascular risk factors and by the threat of target organs. The control of the blood pressure and the maintenance of the renal function must be integrated in the decisional algorithm as well as the possible risks in carrying out an eventual revascularisation procedure. Finally, the renal angioplasty should in numerous situations be integrated in the overall assumption of responsibility of the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, and should be part of the medical treatment. Several questions still do exist; at what moment an atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis should and e considered critical, and which procedure should be considered for which patient? The purpose of this review is to propose a decisional tool for individualized treatments in the light of results from randomized and controlled studies. PMID:18815087

  4. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease management update].

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    In the case of atherosclerotic renal artery disease, the best conclusive results lie principally not in the degree of the stenosis but rather in the degree the renal parenchymal disease beyond the stenosis itself. These determining factors involve the controlling of the patients blood pressure, the improvement in the renal function and the beneficial results to the cardiovascular system. Besides the indispensable medical treatment, a revascularisation by angioplasty may be indicated. This procedure with or without vascular stent often allows satisfactory angiographic results. A treatment by surgical revascularisation is only recommended in the case of extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, complex lesions of the latter or an abdominal aortic aneurism. Although the frequency of restenosis of angioplasty with stent remains extremely low, the risk of cholesterol emboli due to the diffuse atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta, must be considered at the time of each aortic catheterization. The therapeutic approach of atherosclerotic renal artery disease must be dictated by the whole cardiovascular risk factors and by the threat of target organs. The control of the blood pressure and the maintenance of the renal function must be integrated in the decisional algorithm as well as the possible risks in carrying out an eventual revascularisation procedure. Finally, the renal angioplasty should in numerous situations be integrated in the overall assumption of responsibility of the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, and should be part of the medical treatment. Several questions still do exist; at what moment an atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis should and e considered critical, and which procedure should be considered for which patient? The purpose of this review is to propose a decisional tool for individualized treatments in the light of results from randomized and controlled studies.

  5. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

    1987-05-01

    The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

  6. Renal Relevant Radiology: Radiologic Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Mittal, Pardeep

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder and the most common hereditary renal disease, which is characterized by cyst growth, progressive renal enlargement, and development of renal failure. The cystic nature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and its renal and extrarenal complications (kidney stones, cyst hemorrhage, intracerebral aneurysm, liver cysts, cardiac valve abnormalities, etc.) give radiologic imaging studies a central role in the management of these patients. This article reviews the indications, comparative use, and limitation of various imaging modalities (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scan, Positron emission tomography scan, and renal scintigraphy) for the diagnosis and management of complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, this work provides evidence for the value of total kidney volume to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:24370765

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Wall, Barry M; Gosmanova, Elvira O

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the United States. In the last several years, there have been several new developments in the field of the DKD. In 2007, the National Kidney Foundation and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative released clinical practice guidelines that included new definitions and summarized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for DKD. The results of several recent randomized controlled trials provided novel insights regarding effects of glycemic and lipid control on vascular and renal outcomes in patients with diabetes. Additionally, the findings of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Blood Pressure trial played a critical role in the revision of blood pressure target guidelines in patients with diabetes. The goal of this review article is to summarize recent updates and recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of DKD. PMID:24553399

  8. Defining Kidney Biology to Understand Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa H.; Brown, Dennis; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Sands, Jeff M.; Weisz, Ora A.; Mullins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Kidney Research National Dialogue represents a novel effort by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to solicit and prioritize research objectives from the renal research and clinical communities. The present commentary highlights selected scientific opportunities specific to the study of renal development, physiology, and cell biology. Describing such fundamental kidney biology serves as a necessary foundation for translational and clinical studies that will advance disease care and prevention. It is intended that these objectives foster and focus scientific efforts in these areas in the coming decade and beyond. PMID:24370769

  9. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study. PMID:21532133

  10. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  11. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  12. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  13. Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Clubb, Fred J

    2011-08-01

    Presence of suspected primary glomerular disease is the most common and compelling reason to consider renal biopsy. Pathologic findings in samples from animals with nephritic or nephrotic glomerulopathies, as well as from animals with persistent subclinical glomerular proteinuria that is not associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, frequently guide treatment decisions and inform prognosis when suitable specimens are obtained and examined appropriately. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy techniques generally are satisfactory; however, other methods of locating or approaching the kidney, such as manual palpation (e.g., in cats), laparoscopy, or open surgery, also can be used. Visual assessment of the tissue content of needle biopsy samples to verify that they are renal cortex (i.e., contain glomeruli) as they are obtained is a key step that minimizes the submission of uninformative samples for examination. Adequate planning for a renal biopsy also requires prior procurement of the fixatives and preservatives needed to process and submit samples that will be suitable for electron microscopic examination and immunostaining, as well as for light microscopic evaluation. Finally, to be optimally informative, renal biopsy specimens must be processed by laboratories that routinely perform the required specialized examinations and then be evaluated by experienced veterinary nephropathologists. The pathologic findings must be carefully integrated with one another and with information derived from the clinical investigation of the patient's illness to formulate the correct diagnosis and most informative guidance for therapeutic management of the animal's glomerular disease. PMID:21782145

  14. Mitochondrial Sirtuin 3 and Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Perico, Luca; Morigi, Marina; Benigni, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose functions are tightly regulated at multiple levels to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), which belongs to an evolutionary conserved family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, is a key regulator of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP production, and fatty acid β-oxidation, and it exerts an antioxidant activity. Changes in SIRT3 expression are critical in the pathophysiology of several diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, and aging. In experimental acute kidney injury (AKI), impairment of renal function and development of tubular injury are associated with SIRT3 reduction and mitochondrial dysfunction in proximal tubuli. SIRT3-deficient mice are more susceptible to AKI and die. Pharmacological manipulations able to increase SIRT3 preserve mitochondrial integrity, markedly limit renal injury, and accelerate functional recovery. This review highlights all the selective rescue mechanisms that point to the key role of SIRT3 as a new therapeutic target for curing renal diseases. PMID:27362524

  15. Transplant renal artery stenosis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Kayler, Liise K.; Zand, Martin S.; Muttana, Renu; Chernyak, Victoria; DeBoccardo, Graciela O.

    2015-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well-recognized vascular complication after kidney transplant. It occurs most frequently in the first 6 months after kidney transplant, and is one of the major causes of graft loss and premature death in transplant recipients. Renal hypoperfusion occurring in TRAS results in activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; patients usually present with worsening or refractory hypertension, fluid retention and often allograft dysfunction. Flash pulmonary edema can develop in patients with critical bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, and this unique clinical entity has been named Pickering Syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of TRAS can prevent allograft damage and systemic sequelae. Duplex sonography is the most commonly used screening tool, whereas angiography provides the definitive diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement can be performed during angiography if a lesion is identified, and it is generally the first-line therapy for TRAS. However, there is no randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty compared with medical therapy alone or surgical intervention. PMID:25713713

  16. Interactions between chronic renal disease and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Craig, R G

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing and patients receiving renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation will comprise an enlarging segment of the dental patient population. Renal replacement therapy can affect periodontal tissues including gingival hyperplasia in immune suppressed renal transplantation patients and increased levels of plaque, calculus and gingival inflammation and possible increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal diseases in ESRD patients on dialysis maintenance therapy. Also, the presence of undiagnosed periodontitis may have significant effects on the medical management of the ESRD patient. Periodontitis has been found to contribute to systemic inflammatory burden including the elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the general population. Atherosclerotic complications including myocardial infarction and stroke are the primary causes of mortality in the ESRD population and, in contrast to that of the general population, the best predictor of all cause and cardiac death in this population is CRP. Consequently, periodontitis may be a covert but treatable source of systemic inflammation in the ESRD population. The objective of this review was to explore the interaction between chronic renal disease, renal replacement therapy and periodontal diseases based upon the results of studies published within the last decade.

  17. Disease, diagnosis or syndrome?

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2011-04-01

    The advance of medical semantics is, in general, towards causation. As knowledge increases, the common consequence is the re-definition of disease. This starts with symptoms then a disorder of structure or function, abnormalities of images, genetics or biochemistry, the ultimate aim being a specific aetiological mechanism which replaces broader descriptions. But medical terminology of diseases, diagnoses and syndromes is inherently imprecise. Careless nomenclature causes confused dialogue and communication. Symptoms of uncertain cause are commonly lumped together and given a new 'diagnostic' label which also may confuse and produce false concepts that stultify further thought and research. Such medicalisation of non-specific aggregations of symptoms should be avoided. The defining characteristics of diseases and diagnoses should be validated and agreed. The pragmatic diagnoses of 'symptom of unknown cause' or 'non-disease' are preferable to falsely labelling patients with obscure or non-existent diseases. "I tried to unveil the stillness of existence through a counteracting murmur of words, and, above all, I confused things with their names: that is belief." Jean-Paul Sartre (The Words, 1964).

  18. Hypertension in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Appleby, C; Foley, R N

    2002-03-01

    Chronic renal failure is common. Recent estimates from the United States suggest that one in 10 adults has an elevated serum creatinine. Hypertension and renal disease are intimately connected at many levels, and clearly accelerate each other s course. Hypertension is an almost universal feature of end-stage renal disease, a state of frightening cardiovascular risk. Surprisingly, most recent observational studies have shown an association between low blood pressure and increased mortality, a result that may engender therapeutic nihilism in the absence of large randomised trials. This observation may be due to reverse causality, as the age and cardiovascular comorbidity of patients reaching end-stage renal disease is considerable. When outcomes other than death are considered, especially progressive left ventricular hypertrophy, but also ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure, more predictable and expected associations are seen, with rising blood pressure appearing to be a deleterious parameter. Uraemia appears to be a state of premature senescence, and arterial rigidity, whose clinical corollary is wide pulse pressure, is a characteristic feature. Recent observational studies have focused on pulse pressure, rather than the traditional approach of analysing its components, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in isolation. High pulse pressure appears to be a marker of short survival in dialysis patients, but disentangling this association from old age and pre-existing cardiovascular conditions is challenging. Remarkably, and regrettably, no large scale randomised controlled studies examining strategies that tackle the issue of hypertension in dialysis patients have yet to be initiated.

  19. Pregnancy outcomes in a patient with Sjögren's disease with renal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Abhishek; O'Donoghue, Keelin; Mahmood, Uzma; Banerjee, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancy with renal failure is unpredictable, where each condition can adversely affect the other. We present a case of steroid sensitive Sjögren's nephritis worsened by pregnancy, demonstrated over the course of multiple pregnancies and investigated the aetiology. Case: A 28-year-old nullipara with a diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome presented with a deterioration of renal function. A diagnosis of secondary tubulo-interstitial nephritis was made on renal biopsy. Her first pregnancy ended in the second trimester with a decision to deliver a female infant at 27 weeks due to worsening maternal renal function. Renal function improved immediately. A second pregnancy ended in a first trimester miscarriage. The third and fourth pregnancies delivered male infants at 35 and 34 weeks, with worsening renal function in each pregnancy, reaching end stage. Repeat biopsy showed extensive glomerulosclerosis and male cells were identified. Conclusions: This case of Sjögren's syndrome with renal disease demonstrated the increased risk of fetal and maternal adverse pregnancy outcomes. Renal function worsened in each pregnancy and progressed to end-stage renal disease. Fetal microchimerism offers an interesting mechanism for our patient's renal failure and its apparent relationship to her pregnancies.

  20. Slowing progression along the renal disease continuum.

    PubMed

    Kopyt, Nelson P

    2005-04-01

    Patients in whom nephropathy develops as a result of hypertension or diabetes mellitus are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than of kidney disease. An early sign of impending nephropathy is microalbuminuria, defined as urinary excretion of albumin at a rate of 28.8 mg/24 h to 288 mg/24 h. Microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial dysfunction, vascular injury, and renal disease and CVD, and it is associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are unifying factors mediated by the renin-angiotensin system in renal disease and CVD. Clinical trials show reduced cardiovascular risk and a reversal of microalbuminuria with the use of agents that affect the renin-angiotensin system: angiotensin-receptor blockers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Protein intake in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S; Zhu, F Y; Warnant, M; Caterson, R J; Waugh, D A; Mahony, J F

    1997-05-01

    The dietary protein intake (DPI) of 766 patients (aged 7 to 88 yr) was determined from 24-h urinary urea and protein excretion by urea kinetic modelling. Five hundred sixty-five patients had a normal serum creatinine concentration, and of these 565, 385 patients had no dietary modification advised and 180 were advised to follow a low-protein diet. The remaining 201 patients had an increased serum creatinine concentration; 148 of these 201 patients had been advised to restrict their DPI. Patients with a normal serum creatinine concentration who had no dietary restriction had a significantly higher DPI than those advised to restrict their protein intake (1.08 +/- 0.01 versus 0.96 +/- 0.02 g/kg per day (mean +/- SEM), P < 0.01). Similarly, patients with abnormal renal function who were advised to follow a low-protein diet had a reduced DPI (0.93 +/- 0.01 versus 0.87 +/- 0.02 g/kg per day; P < 0.05). A lower DPI correlated with level of renal dysfunction, independent of dietary advice (P < 0.0001). In the overall population, DPI correlated with body mass index (BMI; P < 0.0001) and serum albumin (P < 0.0001), and inverse correlations were evident between age (P < 0.0001), blood glucose level (P < 0.01), serum cholesterol level (P < 0.0001), and triglyceride levels (P < 0.0001) independently of renal function. Fifty-two patients were assessed within the 3 months before the commencement of dialysis, and 47 were reassessed within 3 months after the commencement of dialysis. Despite advice regarding an increase in dietary protein after the commencement of dialysis, this increase failed to occur within the 3 months of commencement of dialytic therapy (0.79 +/- 0.04 versus 0.82 +/- 0.03 g/kg per day); P = 0.64). However, 6 to 9 months after the commencement of dialysis, a significant increase in protein intake was evident (1.04 +/- 0.04 g/kg per day; P < 0.005 versus both prior measurements). Hence a low DPI in renal impairment occurs independently of dietary advice, but

  2. [Comparative analysis of modern combined methods in diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Teodorovich, O V; Ternovoĭ, S K; Vlasova, I S; Zabrodina, N B; Fominykh, E V; Kesov, Ia E

    2006-01-01

    To ascertain the role of multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) in diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to propose optimal diagnostic policy in RCC patients, we examined 63 patients with suspected renal tumor: 37 (59%) males and 26 (41%) females, age 47-77 ages, mean age 54.2+/-1.5 years, duration of the disease from 1 month to 7 years. The following diagnostic methods were imployed: ultrasonography of the kidneys, plain and excretory urography, spiral computed tomography, angiography, MSCT, MRT, thin-needle aspiration biopsy. By the results of a combined examination and operation on the kidney lesion, the diagnosis of RCC was made in 45 (80.3%) patients including stage I in 21 (46.7%), stage II in 9 (20%), stage III in 13 (28.9%), stage IV in 2 (4.5%) patients. Benign renal tumors were detected in 8 (14.2%) patients, giant cysts of the kidneys--in 5 cases, benign renal tumors--in 3 cases, adenoma--in 2 cases, angiomyolipoma--in 1 case. Detected were also renal malformations in 3 cases, a distant retroperitoneal metastasis of RCC in 1 case, adrenal tumors in 6 (9.5%) cases. We suppose that MSCT enables multiplanar and 3-dimentional reconstruction of the images, staging of RCC, planning of surgical treatment. MSCT should be conducted after standard ultrasound examination.

  3. Antioxidants in the prevention of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Wardle, E N

    1999-11-01

    In view of the role of oxidative processes in inflicting damage that leads to glomerulosclerosis and renal medullary interstitial fibrosis, more attention could be paid to the use of antioxidant food constituents and the usage of drugs with recognized antioxidant potential. In any case atherosclerosis is an important component of chronic renal diseases. There is a wide choice of foods and drugs that could confer benefit. Supplementation with vitamins E and C, use of soy protein diets and drinking green tea could be sufficient to confer remarkable improvements.

  4. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  5. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  6. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  7. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  8. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  9. Isolated localization of Rosai Dorfman disease as renal mass: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    El Majdoub, Aziz; El Houari, Aziza; Chbani, Laila; El Fatemi, Hinde; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of an elderly woman presented with right renal mass with invasion of renal vein and several small lymphadenopathy in the hilar area. The diagnosis of kidney cancer is suspected and the patient underwent open radical nephrectomy, surrenalectomy and lymphadenectomy dissection. The pathologic examinations find a rosai dorfman disease. This unusual benign entity is uncommon in the kidney, but in medical imaging, it may simulate an infiltrative renal neoplasm, especially a lymphoma or leukemia or even renal cell carcinoma. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to summarize the clinical and pathologic features of this disorder. PMID:27642405

  10. Crossed fused renal ectopia: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun K.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Crossed fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital malformation, which is reported to be usually asymptomatic but may have varied presentations. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and the challenges posed in the management of this entity. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 6 patients diagnosed to have crossed fused renal ectopia during 1997-2010. The diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in one patient. In one patient it was detected on antenatal ultrasonography and in the other 4 patients it was detected during investigations for abdominal pain, abdominal mass, anorectal malformation and urinary tract infection. Results: The left moiety was crossed and fused with the right moiety in 4 cases. Ultrasonography was found to be a good screening investigation with useful diagnostic contributions from CT scans, radionuclide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance urography. Micturating cystourethrography revealed presence of VUR in 4 cases, 3 of whom have undergone ureteric reimplantation. Two patients required pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction; in one of these patients the upper ureter was entrapped in the isthmus. In one patient, a non-functioning moiety resulted in nephrectomy. All children were asymptomatic at last follow-up with stable renal functions. Conclusions: Crossed fused renal ectopia was detected in most patients during investigation for other problems. It was found more commonly in boys. The left moiety was crossed to the right in the majority of cases. Associated urological problems were found in most cases and required the appropriate surgical management. PMID:23599575

  11. Oxidant Mechanisms in Renal Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Brian B.; Abdulmahdi, Wasan; Pawar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A common link between all forms of acute and chronic kidney injuries, regardless of species, is enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) during injury/disease progression. While low levels of ROS and RNS are required for prosurvival signaling, cell proliferation and growth, and vasoreactivity regulation, an imbalance of ROS and RNS generation and elimination leads to inflammation, cell death, tissue damage, and disease/injury progression. Recent Advances: Many aspects of renal oxidative stress still require investigation, including clarification of the mechanisms which prompt ROS/RNS generation and subsequent renal damage. However, we currently have a basic understanding of the major features of oxidative stress pathology and its link to kidney injury/disease, which this review summarizes. Critical Issues: The review summarizes the critical sources of oxidative stress in the kidney during injury/disease, including generation of ROS and RNS from mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The review next summarizes the renal antioxidant systems that protect against oxidative stress, including superoxide dismutase and catalase, the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, and others. Next, we describe how oxidative stress affects kidney function and promotes damage in every nephron segment, including the renal vessels, glomeruli, and tubules. Future Directions: Despite the limited success associated with the application of antioxidants for treatment of kidney injury/disease thus far, preventing the generation and accumulation of ROS and RNS provides an ideal target for potential therapeutic treatments. The review discusses the shortcomings of antioxidant treatments previously used and the potential promise of new ones. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 119–146. PMID:26906267

  12. Risk factors for lung diseases after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045

  13. Molecular diagnosis in lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Fiorella; Lunardi, Francesca; Popper, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The development of different molecular biology techniques in the past decade has led to an explosion of new research in molecular pathology with consequent important applications to diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics, as well as a clearer concept of the disease pathogenesis. Many methods used in molecular pathology are now validated and used in several areas of pathological diagnosis, particularly on infectious and neoplastic diseases. The spectrum of infectious diseases, especially lung infective diseases, is now broadening and modifying, thus the pathologist is increasingly involved in the diagnosis of these pathologies. The precise tissue characterization of lung infections has an important impact on specific therapeutic treatment. Increased knowledge of significant alterations in lung cancer has led today to a better understanding of the pathogenic substrate underlying the development, progression and metastasis of neoplastic processes. Molecular tests are now routinely performed in different lung tumors allowing a more precise patient stratification in terms of prognosis and therapy. This review focuses on molecular pathology of the principal infective lung diseases and tumors.

  14. [Clinical diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Magistroni, Riccardo; Izzi, Claudia; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder related to kidney. ADPKD is usually easy to diagnose in people who have a family history of ADPKDs developing typical symptoms, including flank, abdominal pain or macroscopic hematuria. In this setting, diagnosis in adults at risk for ADPKD is commonly performed by ultrasonography, which reveals two enlarged kidneys with multiple bilateral cysts. ADPKD may be more difficult to diagnose in the absence of family history or in subjects with atypical presentation, including asymmetric or focal renal imaging findings, discordant disease within family, early onset of ADPKD and development of ESRD before 30 yr of age. The presence of a total of three or more renal cysts for at-risk subjects aged 15-39 years and two cysts or more in each kidney for at-risk subjects aged 40-59 years are sufficient for the diagnosis of ADPKD. The absence of any renal cyst is sufficient for disease exclusion only for at-risk subjects aged 40 years or older. If the family history is negative, the diagnosis of ADPKD can be made in a patient with enlarged kidneys, numerous cysts, presence of liver cysts and absence of findings suggesting a different cystic disease. If the imaging diagnosis is not clear or showing atypical manifestations in subjects, molecular genetic testing should be performed. PMID:27067212

  15. Glomerulonephritis and managing the risks of chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet R

    2009-12-01

    The rising global burden of chronic renal disease, the high cost of providing renal replacement therapies, and renal disease also being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is increasing focus on renal disease prevention. This article focuses on the aspects of renal disease (specifically poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis [PSGN] and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in Indigenous populations in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States that diverge from those typically seen in the general population of those countries. The spectrum of renal and many other diseases seen in Indigenous people in developed countries is similar to that seen in developing countries. Diseases like PSGN that have largely disappeared in developed countries still occur frequently in Indigenous people. CKD during the childhood years is due to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in up to 70% of cases and occurs later in polycystic kidney disease and childhood-onset diabetes. Several risk factors for CKD in adulthood are already present in childhood.

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease As a Potential Indication for Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Margreet F.; Blankestijn, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation is being used as a blood pressure lowering therapy for patients with apparent treatment resistant hypertension. However, this population does not represent a distinct disease condition in which benefit is predictable. In fact, the wide range in effectiveness of renal denervation could be a consequence of this heterogeneous pathogenesis of hypertension. Since renal denervation aims at disrupting sympathetic nerves surrounding the renal arteries, it seems obvious to focus on patients with increased afferent and/or efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity. In this review will be argued, from both a pathophysiological and a clinical point of view, that chronic kidney disease is particularly suited to renal denervation. PMID:27375498

  17. Renal Autoregulation in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Mattias; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2015-01-01

    . Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are modulators of myogenic and MD-TGF mechanisms. Attenuated renal autoregulation contributes to renal damage in many, but not all, models of renal, diabetic, and hypertensive diseases. This review provides a summary of our current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms enabling renal autoregulation in health and disease and methods used for its study. PMID:25834230

  18. Renal autoregulation in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Carlström, Mattias; Wilcox, Christopher S; Arendshorst, William J

    2015-04-01

    -GF) mechanism. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are modulators of myogenic and MD-TGF mechanisms. Attenuated renal autoregulation contributes to renal damage in many, but not all, models of renal, diabetic, and hypertensive diseases. This review provides a summary of our current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms enabling renal autoregulation in health and disease and methods used for its study. PMID:25834230

  19. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

  20. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

  1. Renal artery stenosis: Up-date on diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Thomas; Macharzina, Roland; Rastan, Aljoscha; Beschorner, Ulrich; Noory, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) can cause or result in deterioration of arterial hypertension and may promote the development of renal insufficiency. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system results in structural heart disease and may impact patient survival. Technical improvements of diagnostic and interventional endovascular tools have led to a more widespread use of endoluminal renal artery revascularization and extension of the indications for this type of therapy during the past two decades. Whereas balloon angioplasty is still the method of choice for the treatment of fibromuscular dysplasia, stent implantation is indicated in ostial atherosclerotic RAS. However, none of the so far published or presented randomized controlled trials could prove a beneficial outcome of RAS revascularization compared to medical management. As a result of these negative trials including the largest published trial to date, the ASTRAL trial, referrals to endovascular renal artery revascularization have declined and, moreover, reimbursement of these procedures has become a matter of debate. Crucial for a clinical benefit following revascularization of RAS is proper patient selection, revascularization being only indicated after proof of hemodynamic relevance of RAS. This article summarizes the appropriate diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected RAS, discusses the limitations of the results published so far and their impact on the indication for RAS revascularization.

  2. The Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease after Parathyroidectomy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The changes of the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with end-stage renal disease after parathyroidectomy are scant. Methods We used a nationwide health insurance claims database to select all dialysis-dependent patients with end-stage renal disease aged 18 years and older for the study population in 2000 to 2006. Of the patients with end-stage renal disease, we selected 947 patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy as the parathyroidectomy group and frequency matched 3746 patients with end-stage renal disease by sex, age, years since the disease diagnosis, and the year of index date as the non-parathyroidectomy group. We used a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with the use of a robust sandwich covariance matrix estimate, accounting for the intra-cluster dependence of hospitals or clinics, to measure the risk of peripheral arterial disease for the parathyroidectomy group compared with the non-parathyroidectomy group after adjusting for sex, age, premium-based income, urbanization, and comorbidity. Results The mean post-op follow-up periods were 5.08 and 4.52 years for the parathyroidectomy and non-parathyroidectomy groups, respectively; the incidence density rate of PAD in the PTX group was 12.26 per 1000 person-years, significantly lower than the data in the non-PTX group (24.09 per 1000 person-years, adjusted HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). Conclusion Parathyroidectomy is associated with reduced risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with end-stage renal disease complicated with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27284924

  3. Genetic link between renal birth defects and congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A.; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W.; Pazour, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD. PMID:27002738

  4. Genetic link between renal birth defects and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    San Agustin, Jovenal T; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W; Pazour, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD. PMID:27002738

  5. Non-diabetic renal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Study of renal - retinal relationship.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Gupta, T; Prakash, S; Bhushan, P; Usha; Sivasankar, M; Singh, S P

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), is known to occur in diabetic patients. The renal and retinal relationship in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nephropathy is not uniform. This study was carried to study the histological spectrum of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria and its relationship with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Total 31 (males - 26; females - 5) proteinuric type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Average age of patients was 50.7 years. Nephrotic syndrome was noted in 21 (67.7%) patients. Overall, isolated DN, NDRD and NDRD superimposed on DN (mixed lesion) were observed in 12 (38.7%), 13 (41.9%) and 6 (19.4%) cases, respectively. DR was absent in 21/31 (67.7%) cases. The spectrum of nephropathy in patients without DR included: DN in 6 (28.57%), NDRD in 12 (57.14%) and mixed lesion in 3 (14.29%). Kidney histology in patients with DR (n-10) revealed DN in 6 (60%), NDRD in 1 (10%) and mixed lesion in 3 (30%) patients. Thus, absence of DR favors NDRD but does not exclude DN because isolated DN was noted in 28.57% cases in absence of DR. Similarly biopsy proven NDRD (pure NDRD; 10% and mixed lesion; 30%) was noted in 40% of cases in presence of DR. In summary, patients with T2DM had higher incidence of NDRD. DR is less frequent (32.3%) in type 2 diabetes and is a poor predictor of type of nephropathy. Hence, renal biopsy is essential for precise diagnosis of nephropathy in patients with T2DM.

  6. Non-diabetic renal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Study of renal - retinal relationship

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Gupta, T.; Prakash, S.; Bhushan, P.; Usha; Sivasankar, M.; Singh, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), is known to occur in diabetic patients. The renal and retinal relationship in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nephropathy is not uniform. This study was carried to study the histological spectrum of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria and its relationship with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Total 31 (males - 26; females - 5) proteinuric type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Average age of patients was 50.7 years. Nephrotic syndrome was noted in 21 (67.7%) patients. Overall, isolated DN, NDRD and NDRD superimposed on DN (mixed lesion) were observed in 12 (38.7%), 13 (41.9%) and 6 (19.4%) cases, respectively. DR was absent in 21/31 (67.7%) cases. The spectrum of nephropathy in patients without DR included: DN in 6 (28.57%), NDRD in 12 (57.14%) and mixed lesion in 3 (14.29%). Kidney histology in patients with DR (n-10) revealed DN in 6 (60%), NDRD in 1 (10%) and mixed lesion in 3 (30%) patients. Thus, absence of DR favors NDRD but does not exclude DN because isolated DN was noted in 28.57% cases in absence of DR. Similarly biopsy proven NDRD (pure NDRD; 10% and mixed lesion; 30%) was noted in 40% of cases in presence of DR. In summary, patients with T2DM had higher incidence of NDRD. DR is less frequent (32.3%) in type 2 diabetes and is a poor predictor of type of nephropathy. Hence, renal biopsy is essential for precise diagnosis of nephropathy in patients with T2DM. PMID:26199473

  7. Value of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym Louzir; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Moussa, Fatma Ben; Zekri, Semy; Maiz, Hédi Ben

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the contribution of electron microscopy to the final diagnosis of glomerulopathies, the authors established a prospective study during the first semester of 2006. A total of 52 kidney biopsies were performed with 3 samples for light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Among these renal biopsies, only 20 were examined with electron microscopy because the diagnosis made on the basis of conventional methods had remained unclear or doubtful. In 18 cases, electron microscopy was undertaken for the investigation of primary kidney disease. The 2 remaining cases were transplant biopsies. In this series of 20 patients, there were 3 children with an average age of 9 years and 17 adults with an average age of 35.5 years. Fifteen patients (75%) were nephrotic. The study revealed that electron microscopy was essential for diagnosis in 8 cases (40%) and was helpful in 12 cases (60%). In conclusion, the results showed that the ultrastructural study provides essential or helpful information in many cases of glomerular diseases, and therefore electron microscopy should be considered an important tool of diagnostic renal pathology. As was recommended, it is important to reserve renal tissue for ultrastructural study unless electron microscopy can be routinely used in all biopsies. Thus, this technique could be performed wherever a renal biopsy has to be ultrastructurally evaluated.

  8. Awareness of Kidney Disease and Relationship to End-Stage Renal Disease and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Shlipak, Micheal G; Inker, Lesley A; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Bomback, Andrew S; Saab, Georges; Szpunar, Susanna M.; McFarlane, Samy I.; Li, Suying; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Norris, Keith; Bakris, George L.; McCullough, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease are often reported to be unaware. We prospectively evaluated the association between awareness of kidney disease to end-stage renal disease and mortality. Methods We utilized 2000–2009 data from the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP™). Mortality was determined by cross reference to the Social Security Administration Death Master File, and development of end-stage by cross reference with the United States Renal Data System. Results Of 109,285 participants, 28,244 (26%) had chronic kidney disease defined by albuminuria or eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2. Only 9% (n=2660) reported being aware of kidney disease. Compared to those who were not aware, participants aware of chronic kidney disease had lower eGFR (49 vs 62ml/min/1.73m2) and a higher prevalence of albuminuria (52 vs 46%), diabetes (47 vs 42%), cardiovascular disease (43 vs 28%) and cancer (23 vs 14%). Over 8.5 years of follow-up, aware participants compared to those unaware had a lower rate of survival for end-stage (83% and 96%) and mortality (78 vs 81%), p<0.001 respectively. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, and severity of kidney disease, aware participants continued to demonstrate an increased risk for end-stage renal disease [hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.37(1.07–1.75); p<0.0123] and mortality [1.27(1.07–1.52); p<0.0077] relative to unaware participants with chronic kidney disease. Conclusions Among persons identified as having chronic kidney disease at a health screening, only a small proportion had been made aware of their diagnosis previously by clinicians. This subgroup was at a disproportionately high risk for mortality and end-stage renal disease. PMID:22626510

  9. In vivo bone aluminum measurements in patients with renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Contamination of the dialysis solution with trace amounts of aluminum and long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders have led to increased body burden of aluminum in patients with end-stage renal disease. A significant clinical problem associated with aluminum-overload is the early diagnosis of aluminum-induced dialysis dementia and osteomalacic osteodystrophy. There are few, if any, blood or urine indices that provide an early monitor of this bone disease, especially in the asymptomatic patient. Although a bone biopsy is usually the basis for the final clinical diagnosis, this procedure is not recommended for routine monitoring of patients. The present technique demonstrates the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum levels in patients with renal failure. The interference normally present from activation of bone phosphorus is eliminated by using a thermal/epithermal neutron beam. For the clinical management of the patients, the Al/Ca ratio for the hand may be more useful than an absolute measurement of the total body or skeletal aluminum burden. The relationship between the increased serum Al levels following disferrioxamine infusion and the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum using the Al/Ca ratio are currently under investigation. The neutron activation procedure presented in this pilot study is a promising new technique with an immediate clinical application. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The many faces of Merlin: IgG4-associated pulmonary-renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Ben; Lioen, Pieter; Meijers, Björn; Lerut, Evelyne; Meersschaert, Joke; Blockmans, Daniel; Claes, Kathleen

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary-renal syndrome is a common and serious disorder with a broad differential diagnosis. We describe a case of a middle-aged man presenting with interstitial pulmonary disease and severe renal impairment caused by a hypocomplementemic immune-complex-mediated interstitial nephritis. Serum levels of IgG4 were elevated, and renal biopsy specimens revealed the presence of interstitial IgG4(+) plasma cells. There was a rapid improvement of both pulmonary and renal abnormalities after the initiation of corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show interstitial pulmonary disease in association with interstitial kidney disease as the predominant and presenting symptoms of IgG4-related disease. PMID:21896524

  11. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Yes or no?

    PubMed Central

    Edipidis, K

    2011-01-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue pregnancy, are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Although advances in antenatal and neonatal care continue to improve these outcomes, the risks remain proportionate to the degree of underlying renal dysfunction. The aim of this article, is to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome, in women with chronic renal disease and to provide if possible, useful conclusions whether and when, a woman with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), should decide to get pregnant. This article, reviews briefly the normal physiological changes of renal function during pregnancy, and make an attempt to clarify the nature and severity of the risks, in the settings of chronic renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease, including dialysis patients and transplant recipients. PMID:21897751

  12. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  13. Renal co-morbidity in patients with rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Renal co-morbidity is common in patients with rheumatic disease based on regular assessment of serum and urine parameters of renal function. When patients present with both arthritis and renal abnormalities the following questions have to be addressed. Is kidney disease a complication of rheumatic disease or its management, or are they both manifestations of a single systemic autoimmune disease? Is rheumatic disease a complication of kidney disease and its management? How do rheumatic disease and kidney disease affect each other even when they are unrelated? The present review provides an overview of how to address these questions in daily practice. PMID:21722341

  14. The prenatal diagnosis of the cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger.

    PubMed

    Solish, G I; Moser, H W; Ringer, L D; Moser, A E; Tiffany, C; Schutta, E

    1985-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of the cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger (CHRS) was made by assaying the levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in amniotic fluid cell cultures, obtained by amniocentesis at 16 1/2 weeks of pregnancy. The family-at-risk, because they had previously borne a child with CHRS, accepted these results as indications of an affected fetus, and chose to terminate the pregnancy at 20 1/2 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis was confirmed by the phenotype of the aborted fetus and the presence of markedly elevated levels of VLCFAs in fetal liver homogenates. The prenatal diagnosis of CHRS, which can now readily be determined from amniotic fluid cell cultures, is an important step in genetic counselling of families-at-risk for this disease.

  15. Analysis of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Noninvasive Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis of Renal Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Flavio Antonio de Oliveira; Pinto, Ibraim M. F.; Amodeo, Celso; Smanio, Paola E. P.; Kambara, Antonio M.; Petisco, Ana Claudia G.; Moreira, Samuel M.; Paiva, Ricardo Calil; Lopes, Hugo Belotti; Sousa, Amanda G. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging and atherosclerosis are related to renovascular hypertension in elderly individuals. Regardless of comorbidities, renal artery stenosis is itself an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective To define the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of noninvasive imaging tests used in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. Methods In a group of 61 patients recruited, 122 arteries were analized, thus permitting the definition of sensitivity, specificity, and the relative contribution of each imaging study performed (Doppler, scintigraphy and computed tomographic angiography in comparison to renal arteriography). Results The mean age was 65.43 years (standard deviation: 8.7). Of the variables related to the study population that were compared to arteriography, two correlated with renal artery stenosis, renal dysfunction and triglycerides. The median glomerular filtration rate was 52.8 mL/min/m2. Doppler showed sensitivity of 82.90%, specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 66.70%. For tomography, sensitivity was 66.70%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 87.50% and negative predictive value 55.20%. With these findings, we could identify the imaging tests that best detected stenosis. Conclusion Tomography and Doppler showed good quality and efficacy in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, with Doppler having the advantage of not requiring the use of contrast medium for the assessment of a disease that is common in diabetics and is associated with renal dysfunction and severe left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:24061685

  16. The Renal History of Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaggl, Martina; El-Hadi, Sarah; Aigner, Christof; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2016-02-01

    In 1898 William Anderson and Johannes Fabry described the red-purple maculopapular skin lesions characteristic for Fabry disease and also mentioned the presence of proteinuria. Four decades later Maximiliaan Ruiter concluded that angiokeratoma corporis diffusum is the cutaneous manifestation of an inherited systemic internal disease. In 1947 autopsy findings of two cases who died from uraemia revealed sclerosis of glomeruli. At this time the presence of a thesaurismosis was also considered. The first renal needle biopsy in 1958 showed vacuolation and distension of the cells of the glomerular tufts and distal tubules suggestive of a storage disorder. The ability to concentrate the urine was also impaired in these patients. Sweely und Klionsky in 1963 demonstrated that the major storage component is a trihexoside. As of 1967 Roscoe Brady finally described the deficiency of the enzyme ceramidetrihexosidase/-galactosidase A characteristic in patients with Fabry disease. PMID:26913882

  17. Clinical and molecular insights into tuberous sclerosis complex renal disease.

    PubMed

    Siroky, Brian J; Yin, Hong; Bissler, John J

    2011-06-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are at great risk of developing renal lesions as part of their disease. These lesions include renal cysts and tumors. Significant advances in understanding the cell biology of these renal lesions has already led to clinical trials demonstrating that pharmacological interventions are likely possible. This review focuses on the pathology of these renal lesions, their underlying cell biology, and the possible therapeutic strategies that may prove to significantly improve care for these patients.

  18. Hypertensive Retinopathy as the First Manifestation of Advanced Renal Disease in a Young Patient: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Arriozola-Rodríguez, Karen Janeth; Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Virginia Alejandra; Rodríguez-Loaiza, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report the case of a 23-year-old patient suffering from bilateral acute visual loss who received the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy. After systemic evaluation, he was diagnosed with bilateral renal disease and chronic renal failure, requiring a kidney transplantation to manage the systemic illness, followed by gradual improvement of his visual acuity. PMID:26955342

  19. Proteomics and mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of renal amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Picken, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The amyloidoses are a ‘group’ of disorders, all of which are associated with deposits that display similar staining and ultrastructural features and are toxic to tissues. Many proteins—currently 31 protein types and many more variants—have been shown to undergo such transformations. Among the various currently known amyloidoses, there are marked differences with regard to their pathogenesis and incidence, while the associated clinical picture is frequently overlapping. However, the therapies that are currently available are amyloid-type specific. The diagnosis of amyloidosis thus involves two steps: (i) a generic diagnosis, followed by (ii) an amyloid type-specific diagnosis or ‘amyloid typing’. Immunofluorescence in frozen sections or immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin sections has traditionally been used in the typing of amyloid. However, IHC of amyloid differs significantly from IHC in other areas of surgical pathology; both caution and experience are necessary for its interpretation. The rationale for the application of proteomic methods to amyloid typing lies in the relative abundance of amyloid proteins in tissue where, frequently, it is the ‘dominant’ protein. Proteomic techniques include the following steps: sample preparation, protein extraction and digestion into peptide fragments, followed by their subsequent separation and measurement by mass spectrometry (MS) and protein identification by informatics. The advantages as well as the limitations of both methods—immunohistochemistry and MS-based proteomics—are discussed. The current recommendations for the application of proteomics in renal amyloidosis are summarized. PMID:26613021

  20. Anti-GBM Disease in Pregnancy: Acute Renal Failure Resolved After Plasma Exchange, Hemodialysis, and Steroids.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Morton, Jordan; Hashmi, Syed; Abdul Mujeeb, Sufyan; Kern, William; Cowley, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease presenting during pregnancy is uncommon. We present a case of a pregnant female who presented with acute renal failure requiring dialysis due to anti-GBM disease. She responded well to plasma exchange, high-dose steroids, and hemodialysis. Cyclophosphamide was discussed but not given at the patient's request due to concerns for the well-being of the fetus. Unfortunately, she suffered a spontaneous abortion in her eighth week of pregnancy. Subsequently, she had progressive improvement in her renal function and became hemodialysis independent at 2 weeks after diagnosis. Her renal function returned to baseline 3 months after diagnosis. We present this case in detail and review the literature regarding anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. PMID:26788531

  1. Spectrum of gallium-67 renal activity in patients with no evidence of renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.E.; Van Nostrand, D.; Howard, W.H. III; Kyle, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Thirty-seven gallium-67 images were reviewed retrospectively to determine relative renal gallium activity (RGA) in patients with no evidence of renal disease. Twenty-four patients were classified as having no evidence of renal disease (NRD). RGA was identified in 50.0% (12/24) of patients in the NRD group. The authors conclude that the presence of RGA neither suggests nor rules out renal disease. Altered nonrenal biological factors (such as saturation of iron-binding capacity) may decrease soft-tissue gallium accumulation while activity in the kidney remains unchanged. The latter provides renal images with better signal-to-noise ratio. Current imaging equipment may allow renal visualization in these patients.

  2. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Cystic Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Cysts are frequently found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and they have a different prognostic significance depending on the clinical context. Simple solitary parenchymal cysts and peripelvic cysts are very common and they have no clinical significance. At US, simple cyst appears as a round anechoic pouch with regular and thin profiles. On the other hand, hereditary polycystic disease is a frequent cause of CKD in children and adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) are the best known cystic hereditary diseases. ADPKD and ARPKD show a diffused cystic degeneration with cysts of different diameters derived from tubular epithelium. Medullary cystic disease may be associated with tubular defects, acidosis and lithiasis and can lead to CKD. Acquired cystic kidney disease, finally, is secondary to progressive structural end-stage kidney remodelling and may be associated with renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27169740

  3. Renal infarction after aerobics.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J H; Moinuddin, M; Buchignani, J S; Rockett, J F; Callison, M K

    1984-11-01

    Renal infarction is most frequently due to emboli from the heart or aorta. Other causes include atheromatous disease, renal artery aneurysm, vasculitis, hypotension, hypercoagulable states, aortic dissection, and major trauma. Most renal infarctions are segmental. The extent of disease is dependent upon the size and number of renal vessels involved, coexistent renal disease, and collateral circulation. Flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, hematuria, renal failure, or hypertension may suggest the diagnosis, but these findings are nonspecific and diagnosis will depend not only on history and physical examination, but also on the appropriate imaging tests. The type of treatment is dictated by the etiology of the infarction.

  4. Novel approaches to assessing renal function in cirrhotic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Portal, Andrew J; Austin, Mark; Heneghan, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in patients with end-stage liver disease. Etiological factors include conditions as diverse as acute tubular necrosis, immunoglobulin A nephropathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Current standard tests of renal function, such as measurement of serum urea and creatinine levels, are inaccurate as the synthesis of these markers is affected by the native liver pathology. This article reviews novel markers of renal function and their potential use in patients with liver disease.

  5. De Novo Glomerular Diseases after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Gabriella; Glassock, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Glomerular diseases developing in the kidney allograft are more often recurrences of the original disease affecting the native kidneys. However, in an undefined number of cases de novo, glomerular diseases unrelated to the original disease in the native kidneys can develop in the transplanted kidney. The clinical presentation and histologic features of de novo diseases are often similar to those features observed in patients with primary or secondary GN in the native kidneys. However, in transplanted kidneys, the glomerular, vascular, and tubulointerstitial changes are often intertwined with structural abnormalities already present at the time of transplant or caused by antibody- or cell-mediated allograft rejection, immunosuppressive drugs, or superimposed infection (most often of a viral nature). The pathophysiology of de novo glomerular diseases is quite variable. In rare cases of de novo minimal change disease, circulating factors increasing the glomerular permeability likely participate. Maladaptive hemodynamic changes and tissue fibrosis caused by calcineurin inhibitors or other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of de novo FSGS. The exposure of cryptic podocyte antigens may favor the development of de novo membranous nephropathy. Many cases of de novo membranoproliferative GN are related to hepatitis C virus infection. Patients with Alport syndrome lacking antigenic epitopes in their glomerular basement membrane may develop antibodies against these glomerular basement membrane antigens expressed in the transplanted kidney. Infection may cause acute GN to have a heterogeneous clinical presentation and outcome. De novo pauci-immune GN in renal transplant is rare. Preexisting or acquired intolerance to glucose may, in the long term, cause diabetic nephropathy. The prognosis of de novo diseases depends on the type of GN, the severity of lesions caused by the alloimmune response, or the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy. In most cases, the management

  6. Late diagnosis of chronic renal failure and the quality of life during dialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sesso, R; Yoshihiro, M M; Ajzen, H

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated the quality of life of 101 hemodialysis patients who had a late < or = 3 months before starting dialysis, N = 47) or early (> or = 6 months, N = 54) diagnosis of chronic renal failure. At the time of the survey patients had been stable on dialysis for at least 3 months and for less than 24 months; median duration of dialysis was 9.1 months. Quality of life was measured by the kidney disease questionnaire (including the intensity and duration of physical symptoms, fatigue, depression, relationship with others and frustration), the health and life satisfaction indices, functional status (Karnofsky scale), and the time trade-off method. Scores for the several indicators of quality of life were closely similar for the late and early diagnosis groups. Health satisfaction compared to one year prior to dialysis was slightly better for the early diagnosis group. For both groups, functional status was a little worse during the first year of dialysis than one year before its start. In the late diagnosis group, elderly patients and diabetics had more impairment in several dimensions assessed. In addition, in this group greater income was significantly correlated with better physical performance (r = 0.52, P < 0.001) and with health satisfaction (r = 0.36, P = 0.027). These findings suggest that after a median duration of 9 months on a dialysis program, patients with a late and early diagnosis of chronic renal failure have a similar performance in terms of quality of life parameters. Age, diabetes and income are associated with the quality of life of patients with a late diagnosis. PMID:9181098

  7. Diagnosis and management of childhood polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, William E; Avner, Ellis D

    2011-05-01

    A number of syndromic disorders have renal cysts as a component of their phenotypes. These disorders can generally be distinguished from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) by imaging studies of their characteristic, predominantly non-renal associated abnormalities. Therefore, a major distinction in the differential diagnosis of enlarge echogenic kidneys is delineating ARPKD from ADPKD. ADPKD and ARPKD can be diagnosed by imaging the kidney with ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although ultrasound is still the method of choice for diagnosis in utero and in young children due to ease of use, cost, and safety. Differences in ultrasound characteristics, the presence or absence of associated extrarenal abnormalities, and the screening of the parents >40 years of age usually allow the clinician to make an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of ADPKD and ARPKD affords the opportunity for maximal anticipatory care (i.e. blood pressure control) and in the not-too-distant future, the opportunity to benefit from new therapies currently being developed. If results are equivocal, genetic testing is available for both ARPKD and ADPKD. Specialized centers are now offering preimplantation genetic diagnosis and in vitro fertilization for parents who have previously had a child with ARPKD. For ADPKD patients, a number of therapeutic interventions are currently in clinical trial and may soon be available.

  8. Small Renal Masses: Incidental Diagnosis, Clinical Symptoms, and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martín, F. M.; Millán-Rodríguez, F.; Urdaneta-Pignalosa, G.; Rubio-Briones, J.; Villavicencio-Mavrich, H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. The small renal masses (SRMs) have increased over the past two decades due to more liberal use of imaging techniques. SRMs have allowed discussions regarding their prognostic, diagnosis, and therapeutic approach. Materials and methods. Clinical presentation, incidental diagnosis, and prognosis factors of SRMs are discussed in this review. Results. SRMs are defined as lesions less than 4 cm in diameter. SRM could be benign, and most malignant SMRs are low stage and low grade. Clinical symptoms like hematuria are very rare, being diagnosed by chance (incidental) in most cases. Size, stage, and grade are still the most consistent prognosis factors in (RCC). An enhanced contrast SRM that grows during active surveillance is clearly malignant, and its aggressive potential increases in those greater than 3 cm. Clear cell carcinoma is the most frequent cellular type of malign SRM. Conclusions. Only some SRMs are benign. The great majority of malign SRMs have good prognosis (low stage and grade, no metastasis) with open or laparoscopic surgical treatment (nephron sparing techniques). Active surveillance is an accepted attitude in selected cases. PMID:19165347

  9. End stage renal disease serum contains a specific renal cell growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, L.H.; Kulkarni, C.; Mills, G. )

    1991-01-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) kidneys display abnormal growth characterized by a continuum of cystic disease, adenoma and carcinoma. This study evaluates the hypothesis that serum of patients with ESRD contains increased amounts of a growth factor which specifically induces proliferation of renal cells. ESRD sera compared to sera from normal controls induced a two to three-fold increase in the proliferative rate of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and normal kidney explants compared to cell lines from other sites. The increased proliferative activity of ESRD sera on renal cells was paralleled by an increase in cytosolic free calcium. The growth factor activity was encoded by a polypeptide of between 15 and 30 kd. The activity of ESRD sera on renal cells was not mimicked or inhibited by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet derived growth factor indicating that the renal cell specific growth factor activity in ESRD is different from these factors.

  10. Endothelin-a receptor antagonism after renal angioplasty enhances renal recovery in renovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chade, Alejandro R; Tullos, Nathan; Stewart, Nicholas J; Surles, Bret

    2015-05-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty/stenting (PTRAS) is frequently used to treat renal artery stenosis and renovascular disease (RVD); however, renal function is restored in less than one half of the cases. This study was designed to test a novel intervention that could refine PTRAS and enhance renal recovery in RVD. Renal function was quantified in pigs after 6 weeks of chronic RVD (induced by unilateral renal artery stenosis), established renal damage, and hypertension. Pigs with RVD then underwent PTRAS and were randomized into three groups: placebo (RVD+PTRAS), chronic endothelin-A receptor (ET-A) blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A), and chronic dual ET-A/B blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A/B) for 4 weeks. Renal function was again evaluated after treatments, and then, ex vivo studies were performed on the stented kidney. PTRAS resolved renal stenosis, attenuated hypertension, and improved renal function but did not resolve renal microvascular rarefaction, remodeling, or renal fibrosis. ET-A blocker therapy after PTRAS significantly improved hypertension, microvascular rarefaction, and renal injury and led to greater recovery of renal function. Conversely, combined ET-A/B blockade therapy blunted the therapeutic effects of PTRAS alone or PTRAS followed by ET-A blockade. These data suggest that ET-A receptor blockade therapy could serve as a coadjuvant intervention to enhance the outcomes of PTRAS in RVD. These results also suggest that ET-B receptors are important for renal function in RVD and may contribute to recovery after PTRAS. Using clinically available compounds and techniques, our results could contribute to both refinement and design of new therapeutic strategies in chronic RVD.

  11. Hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Indridason, Olafur S; Quarles, L Darryl

    2002-07-01

    Hyperphosphatemia occurs universally in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) unless efforts are made to prevent positive phosphate balance. Positive phosphate balance results from the loss of renal elimination of phosphate and continued obligatory intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate. Increased efflux of phosphate from bone because of excess parathyroid hormone-mediated bone resorption can also contribute to increased serum phosphate concentrations in the setting of severe hyperparathyroidism. It is important to treat hyperphosphatemia because it contributes to the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcifications, and increased cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients. Attaining a neutral phosphate balance, which is the key to the management of hyperphosphatemia in ESRD, is a challenge. Control of phosphorus depends on its removal during dialysis and the limitation of gastrointestinal absorption by dietary phosphate restriction and chelation of phosphate. Knowledge of the quantitative aspects of phosphate balance is useful in optimizing our use of phosphate binders, dialysis frequency, and vitamin D sterols. The development of new phosphate binders and efforts to find new ways to inhibit gastrointestinal absorption of phosphate will lead to improvements in the control of serum phosphate levels in ESRD. PMID:12203200

  12. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-04-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation ( r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease ( r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients.

  13. Renal histology in polycystic kidney disease with incipient and advanced renal failure.

    PubMed

    Zeier, M; Fehrenbach, P; Geberth, S; Möhring, K; Waldherr, R; Ritz, E

    1992-11-01

    Renal specimens were obtained at surgery or postmortem from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Patients had either serum creatinine (SCr) below 350 mumol/liter (N = 12) or terminal renal failure (N = 50). Specimens were examined by two independent observers using a carefully validated score system. Mean glomerular diameters were similar in ADPKD patients with early renal failure (176 +/- 38 microns) and in victims of traffic accidents (177 +/- 23 microns), while they were significantly greater in diabetics with comparable renal function (205 +/- 16 microns). Glomerular diameters in ADPKD patients with terminal renal failure (191 +/- 45 microns) and with early renal failure were not significantly different. On average, 29% of glomeruli (17 to 62) were globally sclerosed in early renal failure, and 49% (19 to 93) in terminal renal failure. The proportion of glomeruli with segmental sclerosis was less than 4% in both groups. Marked vascular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy were present in early renal failure, and even more so in terminal renal failure. Interstitial infiltrates were scarce and consisted mainly of CD4 positive lymphocytes and CD68 positive macrophages. Immunestaining with monoclonal renin antibodies showed an increased juxtaglomerular index and expression of renin by arterioles adjacent to cysts, as well as by cyst wall epithelia. The data show more severe vascular and interstitial, but not glomerular, changes in ADPKD with advanced as compared to early renal failure.

  14. Massive renal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage in a case of acquired renal cystic disease with atypical epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Verani, R; Wagner, E; Thompson, C

    1988-07-01

    We present a case of acquired renal cystic disease in a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus who was dialysis dependent for 5 years. Renal hemorrhage and neoplastic transformation of the cyst epithelium are the two major complications of acquired renal cystic disease, and were present in this patient. The full clinical significance of the acquired renal cystic lesion is still unclear, although the possibility of renal tumors and massive renal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage should be considered in the long-term dialysis population.

  15. Adaptive diagnosis of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Korponay-Szabó, Ilma R; Troncone, Riccardo; Discepolo, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Coeliac disease has for a long time simply been regarded as a gluten-dependent enteropathy and a duodenal biopsy was required in all patients for the diagnosis. It is now accepted that autoimmunity against transglutaminase 2 is an earlier, more universal and more specific feature of coeliac disease than histologic lesions. Moreover, high serum levels of combined anti-transglutaminase 2 and anti-endomysium antibody positivity have excellent predictive value for the presence of enteropathy with villous atrophy. This makes the histology evaluation of the gut no longer necessary in well defined symptomatic paediatric patients with compatible HLA-DQ2 and/or DQ8 background. The biopsy-sparing diagnostic route is not yet recommended by gastroenterologists for adults, and certain clinical circumstances (immunodeficiency conditions, extraintestinal manifestations, type-1 diabetes mellitus, age less than 2 years) may require modified diagnostic approaches. Coeliac patients with preserved duodenal villous structure do exist and these need a more extended evaluation by immunologic and molecular biology tools.

  16. The Genetics of Ultra-Rare Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Muff-Luett, Melissa; Nester, Carla M

    2016-03-01

    The complement-mediated renal diseases are a group of ultra-rare renal diseases that disproportionately affect children and young adults and frequently lead to irreversible renal failure. Genetic mutations in alternate pathway of complement genes are pathomechanistically involved in a significant number of these unique diseases. Here, we review our current understanding of the role of genetics in the primary complement-mediated renal diseases affecting children, with a focus on atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathy. Also, included is a brief discussion of the related diseases whose relationship to complement abnormality has been suspected but not yet confirmed. Advances in genetics have transformed both treatment and outcomes in these historically difficult to treat, highly morbid diseases. PMID:27617140

  17. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-04-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients.

  18. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-04-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients.

  19. Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Subclinical Renal Disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin and to define the mechanisms which predispose to nephrotoxicity in subclinical renal disease. Subtotally nephrectomized beagle dogs were used as a model for human beings with compromised renal function secondary to a reduced number of functional nephrons. Using ultrastructural morphometry, light microscopy and clinical chemistry data, the model was defined and the nephrotoxic responses of intact dogs administered recommended doses of drug were compared to the response of subtotally nephrectomized dogs administered reduced doses based on each animal's clearance of drug. Lysosomal and mitochondrial morphometric changes suggested mechanisms for increased sensitivity. To determine if increased sensitivity in this model was dependent on altered serum concentrations, variable rate infusions based on individual pharmacokinetic disposition of drug were administered using computer-driven infusion pumps. Identical serum concentration-time profiles were achieved in normal dogs and subtotally nephrectomized dogs, however, toxicity was significantly greater in nephrectomized dogs. The difference in the nephrotoxic response was characterized by administering supratherapeutic doses of drug to dogs. Nephrectomized dogs given a recommended dose of gentamicin became oliguric during the second week of treatment and increasingly uremic after withdrawal of drug. In contrast, intact dogs administered 2 times the recommended dose of gentamicin become only slightly polyuric during week 4 of treatment. The need to individualize dosage regimens based on drug clearance and not serum creatinine nor creatinine clearance alone was substantiated by describing the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin in spontaneously occurring disease states. Four individualized dosage regimens with differing predicted efficacy were then administered to nephrectomized dogs to determine their relative nephrotoxic

  20. Diseases and histological normality of the renal glomerulus: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, W; Tarpey, P; Williams, G; Acheson, E J; Mallick, N P

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-seven percutaneous renal biopsies showing no significant abnormalities on light microscopy were studied electron optically and by immunofluorescence when available. Assessment of the pathological material was followed by analysis of the patients' clinical notes, and a clinicopathological correlation was carried out. Twenty-three patients fulfilled the clinical criteria of minimal change disease; 10 did not behave clinically as minimal change and showed immune complex deposition; two had benign recurrent haematuria; and two had myelomatosis. Our study shows that if diagnosis is based solely on the light microscope appearances of renal biopsy, diseases other than minimal change are likely to be overlooked. Accuracy of diagnosis in structural terms requires additional immunofluorescence and electron microscopic study; final clinical diagnosis also requires careful follow-up, and repeat biopsy may be necessary. Images PMID:132460

  1. Epigenetics in Kidney Development and Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Gregory R.; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R.

    2014-01-01

    The study of Epigenetics is intimately linked and inseparable from developmental biology. Many of the genes that imprint epigenetic information on chromatin, function during the specification of cell lineages in the developing embryo. These include the histone methyltransferases and their co-factors of the Polycomb and Trithorax gene families. How histone methylation is established and what regulates the tissue and locus specificity of histone methylation is an emerging area of research. The embryonic kidney is used as a model to understand how DNA binding proteins can specify cell lineages and how such proteins interact directly with the histone methylation machinery to generate a unique epigenome for particular tissues and cell types. In adult tissues, histone methylation marks must be maintained for normal gene expression patterns. In chronic and acute renal disease, epigenetic marks are being characterized and correlated with the establishment of metabolic memory, in part to explain the persistence of pathologies even when optimal treatment modalities are utilized. Thus, the state of the epigenome in adult cells must be considered when attempting to alleviate or alter gene expression patterns in disease. PMID:24958601

  2. A new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9 helps to establish diagnosis of renal oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Hudacko, Rachel; May, Michael; Aviv, Hana

    2011-08-01

    Renal oncocytomas are benign epithelial tumors of the kidney. Histologically, they resemble certain malignant renal tumors, such as chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and the eosinophilic or granular form of clear cell renal carcinoma. It is, therefore, important to be able to differentiate among these tumors. Cytogenetic analysis is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of renal tumors, as the various subtypes have specific acquired chromosome abnormalities. Oncocytomas present either with loss of chromosome 1 and a sex chromosome, or with recurring translocations involving chromosome 11. We describe 2 patients with renal oncocytoma and a new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9. The tumors in both patients were histologically virtually identical. The t(6;9)(p21;p23) may be a new translocation associated with renal oncocytomas.

  3. [Basic program for the diagnosis and therapy of inflammatory diseases of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Precht, K

    1990-08-15

    The specialist for general medicine and for internal medicine, respectively, in the primary consultation must express the suspicion of the occurrence of a renal disease on the basis of the anamnesis and the findings of the clinical examination and confirm or exclude it by simple diagnostic tests. It is entered into the individual test component in diagnostics. The securing of the diagnosis, the judgement of the renal function as well as differential-therapeutic considerations for the further care are to be performed by the results of the diagnostic steps II (basic diagnostics, in special questionings by step III). About 100,000 patients with renal diseases are country-wide cared for at present, in whom 11% already suffer from a renal insufficiency. It is referred to the most important recommendations for therapy in bacterial and glomerular renal diseases.

  4. Potential Use of Autologous Renal Cells from Diseased Kidneys for the Treatment of Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    George, Sunil K.; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D.; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Diukman, R; Goldberg, J D

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the prenatal diagnosis of inherited metabolic disease have provided new reproductive options to at-risk couples. These advances have occurred in both sampling techniques and methods of analysis. In this review we present an overview of the currently available prenatal diagnostic approaches for the diagnosis of metabolic disease in a fetus. Images PMID:8236980

  6. Ureteritis Cystica: Important Consideration in the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernández, B.; Díaz-Alférez, FJ.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Martín-Izquierdo, M.; Silva-Abuín, JM.; Lorenzo-Gómez, MF.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteritis cystica is an uncommon cause of acute renal pain. The aetiology remains unclear and the diagnosis may be difficult to establish. We report the case of a 29 year old woman with a history of repeated urinary tract infections presenting with acute renal colic in the absence of lithiasis. We review the diagnostic tools available to make the diagnosis and the recent pertinent literature. PMID:22474406

  7. Renal graft biopsy assists diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft dysfunction after kidney transplantation: a report of 106 cases.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Guo, Hui; Cai, Ming; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Haiyan; Shi, Bingyi

    2015-01-01

    Acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) is one of the most important complications after kidney transplantation. Renal graft biopsy is safe and reliable without adverse effects on the patients and transplanted kidneys, which was of great instructive significance in diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft dysfunction after renal transplantation. This paper reported a case series of 106 patients underwent renal allograft biopsies. All biopsies were evaluated according to the Banff 2007 schema. 52 examples were obtained within 1 month after transplantation, and there were another 20 examples in one to two months and other 34 examples in two to three months. Appropriate therapy was applied and clinical outcomes were observed. All patients received renal biopsies and anti-inflammatory and hemostasis treatment without complications. There were 2 cases of hyperacute rejection, and 15 cases of acute AMR. All Paraffin-embedded samples were stained by HE, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Masson, and immunohistochemistry (C4d, cd20, cd45RO, SV40). All samples were found C4d immunohistochemical staining positive. Patients with acute AMR were managed by steroid intravenous pulse therapy, Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin intravenous pulse therapy, anti CD20 monoclonal antibody intravenous therapy and so on. Two cases of hyperacute rejection had renal failure, and received kidney excision; 12 cases in 15 cases of AMR recovered, another 2 cases did not recover with high-level creatine, and other 2 cases of renal allograft received excision.

  8. Renal cystic disease: new insights for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Avner, Ellis D; Sweeney, William E

    2006-10-01

    This article cannot comprehensively cover the enormous strides made in defining the molecular and cellular basis of renal cystic diseases over the last decade. Therefore, it provides a brief overview and categorization of inherited, developmental, and acquired renal cystic diseases, providing a relevant, up-to-date bibliography as well as a useful list of informative Internet Web sites. Its major focus is the translational biology of polycystic kidney disease. It demonstrates how emerging molecular and cellular knowledge of the pathophysiology of particular diseases such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) can translate into innovative therapeutic insights.

  9. Molecular diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torra Balcells, R; Ars Criach, E

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder. Its estimated prevalence is 1 per 800 individuals. ADPKD patients constitute 8% of the population on dialysis or kidney transplantation. The disease can be diagnosed using radiological or genetic procedures. Direct genetic diagnosis of the disease can now be performed in Spain; however, it is not an easy or cheap test. This is why every case should be considered individually to determine whether genetic testing is appropriate, and to determine which genetic test is most adequate. Genetic testing in ADPKD is of special interest for living donors and neonatal and sporadic cases. Genetic testing offers the chance of performing prenatal or pre-implantation testing of embryos in families with severe cases of the disease. Also, this will enable the disease to be treated, when specific treatment becomes available, in cases that would not be candidates for treatment without genetic confirmation.

  10. Assessment of renal vascular resistance and blood pressure in dogs and cats with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Novellas, R; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Espada, Y

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the possible relationships between renal resistive index (RI) or pulsatility index (PI) and systolic blood pressure and biochemical and haematological parameters in dogs and cats with renal disease. The study included 50 dogs and 20 cats with renal disease. RI and PI were significantly higher in both dogs and cats with renal disease than in 27 healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. In dogs, a significant negative correlation was found between RI and red blood cell count, and a positive correlation was found between PI and serum creatinine. In cats, a positive correlation was found between RI and serum urea, between PI and serum creatinine, and between PI and serum urea. No relationship could be found between either RI or PI and systolic blood pressure.

  11. Surgical management of renal cystic disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Hemal, Ashok K

    2011-02-01

    The kidney is one of the most common sites for cyst in the body (prevalence about 5%). Symptomatic or incidental cyst needs to be characterized further based on Bosniak classification as simple (Bosniak type I & II) or complex (Bosniak type III & IV) cysts with respect to risk of malignancy or other effects on the kidney. The management of simple cysts is entirely for its symptoms or complications (eg, hemorrhage, infection, hydronephrosis, and hypertension). Percutaneous aspiration alone or with sclerotherapy often is the first-line treatment. Surgical decortication generally is reserved for recurrent or very large symptomatic cysts. Laparoscopic surgery is highly efficacious and is associated with high satisfaction rates with minimal morbidity. Retroperitoneal approach is generally preferred, especially in infected or hydatid renal cyst to avoid spillage or contamination of virgin peritoneal cavity. Cyst decortication seems to be an appropriate indication for newer-emerging single-port laparoscopic approaches such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, or laparoendoscopic single-site surgery. Where available, robot-assisted surgical management can supplant pure laparoscopic management for complex cysts, hydatid cyst, peripelvic cyst, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease without any outstanding benefits, but with added cost, when robot is used.

  12. Utility of renal biopsy in the clinical management of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Dhaun, Neeraj; Bellamy, Christopher O; Cattran, Daniel C; Kluth, David C

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing chronic kidney disease (CKD) at all stages is an essential part of rational management and the renal biopsy plays a key role in defining the processes involved. There remain no global guidelines available to the renal community on indications for this important diagnostic, prognostic, and relatively safe test. Although most nephrologists recognize several clear indications for a renal biopsy, it is still underutilized. It not only helps the clinician to manage the patient with CKD, but it can also help clarify the epidemiology of CKD, and aid research into the pathobiology of disease with the aim of discovering new therapies. It may be useful for instance in elderly patients with CKD, those with diabetes and presumed 'hypertensive nephropathy', and in some patients with advanced CKD as part of the pretransplant work-up. In some populations (for example, immunoglobulin A nephropathy and ANCA vasculitis), renal biopsy allows disease classification that may predict CKD progression and response to therapy. For the individual, interval renal biopsy may be of use in providing ongoing therapeutic and prognostic information. Molecular advances will change the landscape of renal pathology and add a new dimension to the diagnostic precision of kidney biopsy. Organizing the multiplicity of information available in a renal biopsy to maximize benefits to the patient, as well as to the epidemiologist and researcher, is one of the challenges that face the nephrology community.

  13. Effect of alfacalcidol on natural course of renal bone disease in mild to moderate renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, N. A.; Kanis, J. A.; Beneton, M. N.; Brown, C. B.; Juttmann, J. R.; Jordans, J. G.; Josse, S.; Meyrier, A.; Lins, R. L.; Fairey, I. T.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether alfacalcidol--used in management of overt renal bone disease--may safely prevent renal bone disease when used earlier in course of renal failure. DESIGN--Double blind, prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. SETTING--17 nephrology centres from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--176 patients aged 18-81 with mild to moderate chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance 15-50 ml/min) and with no clinical, biochemical, or radiographic evidence of bone disease. INTERVENTIONS--Alfacalcidol 0.25 micrograms (titrated according to serum calcium concentration) or placebo given for two years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Quantitative histology of bone to assess efficacy of treatment and renal function to assess safety. RESULTS--132 patients had histological evidence of bone disease at start of study. Biochemical, radiographic, and histological indices of bone metabolism were similar for the 89 patients given alfacalcidol and the 87 controls given placebo. After treatment, mean serum alkaline phosphatase activity and intact parathyroid hormone concentration had increased by 13% and 126% respectively in controls but had not changed in patients given alfacalcidol (P < 0.001). Hypercalcaemic episodes occurred in 10 patients given alfacalcidol (but responded to decreases in drug dose) and in three controls. Histological indices of bone turnover significantly improved in patients given alfacalcidol and significantly deteriorated in controls: among patients with abnormal bone histology before treatment, bone disease resolved in 23 (42%) of those given alfacalcidol compared with two (4%) of the controls (P < 0.001). There was no difference in rate of progression of renal failure between the two groups. CONCLUSION--Early administration of alfacalcidol can safely and beneficially alter the natural course of renal bone disease in patients with mild to moderate renal failure. PMID:7677827

  14. Study on Assessment of Renal Function in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nupur; Paria, Baishakhi; Sarkar, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Renal dysfunction is common in chronic liver disease. The cause of this renal dysfunction is either multi-organ involvement in acute conditions or secondary to advanced liver disease. Objectives: The study was undertaken to assess the renal function in chronic liver diseases and find out the association of alteration of renal function with gradation of liver disease. (assessed by child-pugh criteria) and to find out the association of alteration of renal function among the cases of chronic liver disease of different aetiology. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken in Department of General Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata during March 2012 to July 2013 with 50 admitted patients of chronic liver disease after considering the exclusion criteria. The patients were interviewed with a pre-designed and pre-tested schedule, examined clinically, followed by some laboratory investigations relevant to diagnose the aetiology of chronic liver disease, and to assess the severity of liver and renal dysfunction. Data was analysed by standard statistical method. Results: Eighty six percent of the patients were male and the mean age of study population was 43.58 y, 68% patients suffered from alcoholic liver disease, followed by 14% patients had chronic Hepatitis-B, 10% patients developed acute kidney injury, 20% had hepato renal syndrome and 14% had IgA deposition. The distribution of serum urea and creatinine across the categories of Child Pugh classification tested by Mann-Whitney test and the distribution was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study has found significant association between severity of liver dysfunction and certain parameters of renal dysfunction. PMID:25954647

  15. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Pramod; Ahmad, Shiraz

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical intervention. The patient was mobilised on wheel chair one year after the fractures. The cause of the fracture and the literature review of the bilateral femoral neck fracture in renal disease are discussed.

  16. Renal histology of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, J R; Greenberg, L; Kapur, S

    1988-01-01

    Renal involvement is well described in patients with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MCLNS), or Kawasaki disease and is manifested by mild azotemia, hematuria, pyuria or cylinduria, and more often, proteinuria. Renal morphology during the acute stages of the illness has never been reported. In this paper we describe the renal histopathologic changes in a child with MCLNS. The glomerular histopathologic findings suggest immune complex damage to the kidney as a possible mechanism of nephrotoxicity in MCLNS. Presence of kidney lesions, which speak in favor of the injurious role of immune complexes in MLCNS may be relevant to the understanding of the pathogenesis of the vascular lesions that are characteristic of this disease.

  17. End-Stage Renal Disease in an Infant With Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battelino, Nina; Writzl, Karin; Bratanič, Nevenka; Irving, Melita D; Novljan, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the NOTCH2 signaling pathway for which genetic testing has recently become available. Renal abnormalities are associated in at least 10% of cases. We present an 8-year-old Caucasian boy, born with multiple dysmorphic features consistent with HJCYS. Imaging of the urinary tract revealed bilateral cystic dysplastic kidneys with associated vesicoureteral reflux. Renal function has been impaired since birth and deteriorated progressively to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by the age of two and a half years, when peritoneal dialysis was initiated and only recently renal transplantation was performed. Additional congenital abnormalities and multisystem involvement in HJCYS further complicated management, and he developed refractory anemia. Molecular diagnosis was confirmed by identification of a truncating mutation in exon 34 of NOTCH2. Although, renal abnormalities are considered an integral part of the HJCYS, published reports on ESRD are scarce. In those few published cases, where ESRD was recognized, renal failure developed either in late adolescence or adulthood. This is the first report of early ESRD occurring in a child. Patients with HJCYS may need chronic renal replacement therapy even in early childhood. The management of these children can be challenging given the multisystemic manifestations of HJCYS. PMID:27312922

  18. Renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus - Not just HIV-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Vali, P S; Ismal, K; Gowrishankar, S; Sahay, M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the various histopathological lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with renal dysfunction and to establish clinicopathological correlation. Over a period of two years from January 2008 to March 2010, 27 HIV positive patients with renal dysfunction were subjected to renal biopsy. Of the 27 patients, 23 were males and four were females (85.2% males, 14.8% females). Mean age was 38.2 ± 10.36 (range 20 - 60) years. The probable mode of acquisition of HIV infection was sexual in 22 patients (81.5%). Thirteen patients (48%) had nephrotic proteinuria. The CD4 count ranged from 77 to 633/microliter. The kidneys were of normal size in 19 (70.4%) and bulky in eight (29.6%) patients. Thirteen patients required renal replacement therapy. Eleven patients had acute tubule-interstitial lesions (40.7%) while 15 (55.5%) had glomerular lesions. The various glomerular lesions were, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in five, amyloidosis in three, diffuse proliferative GN in two, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN), membranous GN, minimal change disease, diabetic nephropathy, crescentic GN, and thrombotic microangiopathy were seen in one each. None of the clinical or laboratory variables, except hypertension, was found to predict glomerular versus non-glomerular lesions on biopsy. In conclusion we show that a variety of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions can be seen on renal histology. Hence, renal biopsy is indicated in renal dysfunction associated with HIV for making proper diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Renal erythropoietin-producing cells in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Souma, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is an indispensable erythropoietic hormone primarily produced from renal Epo-producing cells (REPs). Epo production in REPs is tightly regulated in a hypoxia-inducible manner to maintain tissue oxygen homeostasis. Insufficient Epo production by REPs causes renal anemia and anemia associated with chronic disorders. Recent studies have broadened our understanding of REPs from prototypic hypoxia-responsive cells to dynamic fibrogenic cells. In chronic kidney disease, REPs are the major source of scar-forming myofibroblasts and actively produce fibrogenic molecules, including inflammatory cytokines. Notably, myofibroblast-transformed REPs (MF-REPs) recover their original physiological properties after resolution of the disease insults, suggesting that renal anemia and fibrosis could be reversible to some extent. Therefore, understanding the plasticity of REPs will lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutics for both renal fibrosis and anemia. This review summarizes the regulatory mechanisms how hypoxia-inducible Epo gene expression is attained in health and disease conditions. PMID:26089800

  20. [Truth telling of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Fuentes R, Paola; Prato, Juan Andrés

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is becoming an increasingly common problem due to population aging. Most of the research on truth telling in relation to diagnosis has been done in oncology. However, although growing, there has a lack of interest about attitudes held among physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Physicians, family caregivers and patients have different views about it. The reasons most often given for communicating the diagnosis are the right to know, relief of anxiety to know the cause of memory problems, early access to treatment and ability to plan ahead. On the contrary, the reasons for concealing the diagnosis are based on the right not to know, the anxiety associated to knowing the diagnosis and the absence of curative therapies for the disease. The aim of this paper is to report the current state of literature on diagnostic truth telling in dementia, review the ethical principles involved, and finally give a strategy to address the issue.

  1. Spectrum of Renal and Urinary Tract Diseases in Kashmiri Children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Virender; Bano, Rifat Ara; Wani, Khursheed Ahmed; Ahmed, Javed; Ahmed, Kaisar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Definite paucity of data pertaining to spectrum of renal and urinary tract diseases in our state and in various parts of India forms the basis of this study. Available data has emphasized more on specific clinical syndromes and chronic renal diseases rather than over all spectrums of renal and urinary tract diseases, that too in adult population. Aim The present study a retrospective analysis, forms one of the basic data of paediatric nephrology and urology related disorders in our state. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of the case records of all the hospitalized patients with renal and urinary tract diseases between 2012 and 2013 were performed. Case records were analysed and categorized into various groups like; Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN), Nephrotic Syndrome (NS), haematuria, Polycystic Kidney Disease (PCKD), Posterior Urethral Valve (PUV), Vesicoureteric Reflux (VUR), Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Congenital Anomalies of Kidney and Urinary Iract (CAKUT) and others. These groups were divided into subgroups to get more insight about the pattern of these diseases. Results Out of 28114 patients hospitalized between 2012 and 2013 years, 447 (232 males and 215 females) patients were diagnosed of renal and urinary tract diseases which forms 1.58% the total admitted patients. Among these patients 32.9% (147/447) were diagnosed Acute Kidney Injury (AKI); 24.1% (108/447): Urinary Tract Infection (UTI); 9.6% (43/447): Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN); 5.6% (25/447): bilateral hydronephrosis with UTI; 4.47% (20/447): nephrotic syndrome (NS); 3.5% (16/447): haematuria; and 4% (18/447) were having CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies Of Kidney And Urinary Tract). In addition to this there were 17 cases of Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA), 3 cases of Barter syndrome and one case of Liddle syndrome. Conclusion A substantial number of children are hospitalized with renal and urinary tract diseases with

  2. Pharmacokinetics of iothalamate in endstage renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.R.; Cutler, R.E.; Forland, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    Some nephrologists make alterations in routine peritoneal and hemodialysis schedules after diagnostic studies that use radiographic contrast agents. A study to determine the pharmacokinetics of one contrast agent, iothalamate, is reported. The plasma (total body) clearance of iothalamate was measured in seven patients who had endstage renal disease (ESRD) and who received maintenance hemodialysis. During an interdialytic period, plasma clearance of iothalamate varied from 0.7 to 5.2 mL/min (3.1 +/- 1.8 mL/min, mean +/- SD) with an elimination rate constant (beta) of 0.0164 +/- 0.01 hr-1, a terminal half-life of 61 +/- 42 hours, and an estimated distribution volume of 11 +/- 3.9 L. Hemodialysis clearance of iothalamate was 104 +/- 54 mL/min. With the assumption that iothalamate is mainly distributed in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment, the theoretical fluid shift from the intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment to the ECF compartment was 323 mL after administration of the largest dose (2.1 mL/kg or 1.6 mmol/kg of body weight) of 60% meglumine iothalamate solution. The average maximum serum osmolarity change was less than expected, suggesting some type of internal buffering of meglumine iothalamate. In the first few hours after radiocontrast administration in four patients, the average change in serum osmolarity was 5 mmol/L; the average change in serum sodium concentration during this same time was a decrease of 0.5 mmol/L. The minor increase in ECF volume induced by hyperosmolar contrast agents does not require immediate dialysis in most patients. When needed, however, for contrast-related adverse effects, hemodialysis is efficient in rapidly removing iothalamate.

  3. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously.

  4. Inherited antithrombin deficiency and end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomohiko; Naito, Katsusuke

    2005-11-01

    Antithrombin is a potent inhibitor of the coagulant effect of thrombin. In the latter half of 20th century, many families have been described in which an autosomaly dominant inherited antithrombin deficiency has caused severe venous thromboembolic disease in successive generations. The important complication is severe venoocclusive disease by deep venous thrombus. Some inherited antithrombin deficient patients developed renal failure because of fibrin deposition in the kidney glomeruli or renal vein thrombus, and therefore the need for replacement therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although an inherited antithrombin deficiency with renal failure is rare, prevention against renal failure in such patients, and their renal replacement therapy for ESRD are important. Proteinuria decreases plasma antithrombin level leading to more severe hyper-coagulation state. Therefore early in renal disease, it may be prudent for adaptation of anti-coagulation therapy even if recurrent thrombosis has not occurred. All replacement therapy (hemodialysis, transplantation or peritoneal dialysis) for ESRD are available for such thrombophilic disorders. Anticoagulation agents working without aggravation of antithrombin effects (Argatroban, Nafamostat mesilate etc.) are useful for hemodialysis. The renal allograft recipients with thrombophilia seem to be at risk of developing an acute rejection or other vascular event. Peritoneal dialysis is potentially a good adaptation for such thrombophilic disorders. However which therapy has the best mortality and morbidity outcomes is not clear. Physicians and Surgeons must pay attention to the coagulation state and thrombophilia in ESRD patients, give strong consideration for adequate anti-coagulation therapy and review the best renal replacement modality for each patient.

  5. Survival of childhood polycystic kidney disease following renal transplantation: the impact of advanced hepatobiliary disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ira D; Ho, Martin; Hupertz, Vera; Avner, Ellis D

    2003-10-01

    Childhood PKD encompasses the diagnoses of AR and ADPKD, glomerulocystic disease, and syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis or Jeune's syndrome. Given the fact that a majority of PKD children with ESRD carry the diagnosis of ARPKD, natural history studies assessing the long-term prognosis of PKD patients following renal transplantation must focus on morbidity and mortality issues related to complications from congenital hepatic fibrosis. Using the NAPRTCS registry, we analyzed the patient and graft survival rates of 203 PKD patients and 7044 non-PKD patients undergoing renal transplantation between 1987 and 2001. Deceased PKD patients, all with a diagnosis of ARPKD, were further identified and characterized using a special questionnaire submitted to the principal investigators. Overall graft and patient survival rates were not significantly different between PKD and non-PKD patients. No differences in rates of acute rejection or time to first rejection were noted between PKD and non-PKD patients. The relative risk of living longer than 3 yr in the PKD patients was not significantly different from non-PKD patients (RR = 0.70, p = 0.28). Sepsis was identified as a likely factor in the cause of death in nine (64%) ARPKD patients and was comfirmed with a positive blood culture in four patients. Despite similar graft and patient survival rates among PKD and non-PKD children following renal transplantation, our results suggest that ARPKD transplant recipients appear to be at increased risk for sepsis that may be related to hepatic fibrosis and ascending cholangitis. The utility of early liver transplantation in ARPKD patients with significant hepatobiliary disease is discussed.

  6. Transforming Growth Factor Beta and Excess Burden of Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    August, Phyllis; Sharma, Vijay; Ding, Ruchuang; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2009-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is more frequent in African Americans (blacks) compared to whites. Because renal fibrosis is a correlate of progressive renal failure and a dominant feature of ESRD, and because transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) can induce fibrosis and renal insufficiency, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 hyperexpression is more frequent in blacks compared to whites. We measured circulating levels of TGF-β1 in black and white patients with ESRD, hypertension, and in normal patients. We demonstrated that circulating levels of TGF-β1 are higher in black ESRD patients, hypertensive patients, and normal control patients compared to their white counterparts. Our preliminary genetic analyses suggest that TGF-β1 DNA polymorphisms are different in blacks and whites. Our observations of hyperexpression of TGF-β1 in blacks suggest a mechanism for the increased prevalence of renal failure and hypertensive target organ damage in this population. PMID:19768163

  7. Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

    1987-06-01

    An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

  8. [Diagnosis and management of chronic renal failure in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Segalen, Isabelle; Le Meur, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of chronic renal failure in the elderly is rising due to the ageing of the general population. Its management, and notably nephroprotective therapies, must be adapted to the elderly person who is often frail and with multiple pathologies. The decision to start extra-renal purification does not depend on the patient's chronological age but on their physiological age and requires dialogue between the patient and their family, the geriatrician and the nephrologist. PMID:26805640

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  10. Multiple facets of HIV-associated renal disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, D.R.; Gluz, I.C.; Kurz, J.; Thomé, G.G.; Zancan, R.; Bringhenti, R.N.; Schaefer, P.G.; dos Santos, M.; Barros, E.J.G.; Veronese, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model. The outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD or death were evaluated by baseline CD4 cell count. The percent distribution at initial clinical presentation was non-nephrotic proteinuria (54%), acute kidney injury (28%), nephrotic syndrome (23%), and chronic kidney disease (22%). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28%), mainly the collapsing form (HIVAN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (26%), and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) (25%) were the predominant renal histology. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 was a protective factor against CKD (hazard ratio=0.997; 95%CI=0.994-0.999; P=0.012). At last follow-up, 64% of patients with baseline CD4 ≥200 cells/mm3 had eGFR >60 mL·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1 compared to the other 35% of patients who presented with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (log rank=9.043, P=0.003). In conclusion, the main histological lesion of HIV-associated renal disease was HIVAN, followed by AIN and ICGN. These findings reinforce the need to biopsy HIV patients with kidney impairment and/or proteinuria. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 was associated with better renal function after 2 years of follow-up. PMID:27007656

  11. Multiple facets of HIV-associated renal disease.

    PubMed

    da Silva, D R; Gluz, I C; Kurz, J; Thomé, G G; Zancan, R; Bringhenti, R N; Schaefer, P G; Dos Santos, M; Barros, E J G; Veronese, F V

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model. The outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD or death were evaluated by baseline CD4 cell count. The percent distribution at initial clinical presentation was non-nephrotic proteinuria (54%), acute kidney injury (28%), nephrotic syndrome (23%), and chronic kidney disease (22%). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28%), mainly the collapsing form (HIVAN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (26%), and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) (25%) were the predominant renal histology. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 was a protective factor against CKD (hazard ratio=0.997; 95%CI=0.994-0.999; P=0.012). At last follow-up, 64% of patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm3 had eGFR >60 mL·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1 compared to the other 35% of patients who presented with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (log rank=9.043, P=0.003). In conclusion, the main histological lesion of HIV-associated renal disease was HIVAN, followed by AIN and ICGN. These findings reinforce the need to biopsy HIV patients with kidney impairment and/or proteinuria. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 was associated with better renal function after 2 years of follow-up.

  12. Genetic spectrum of Saudi Arabian patients with antenatal cystic kidney disease and ciliopathy phenotypes using a targeted renal gene panel

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamed, Mohamed H; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsahan, Nada; Alabdullah, Zainab; Abudraz, Rania; Tulbah, Maha; Alnemer, Maha; Khan, Rubina; Al-Jurayb, Haya; Alahmed, Ahmed; Tahir, Asma I; Khalil, Dania; Edwards, Noel; Al Abdulaziz, Basma; Binhumaid, Faisal S; Majid, Salma; Faquih, Tariq; El-Kalioby, Mohamed; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Altassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Meyer, Brian; Sayer, John A; Albaqumi, Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    Background Inherited cystic kidney disorders are a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Over 50 ciliopathy genes, which encode proteins that influence the structure and function of the primary cilia, are implicated in cystic kidney disease. Methods To define the phenotype and genotype of cystic kidney disease in fetuses and neonates, we correlated antenatal ultrasound examination and postnatal renal ultrasound examination with targeted exon sequencing, using a renal gene panel. A cohort of 44 families in whom antenatal renal ultrasound scanning findings in affected cases included bilateral cystic kidney disease, echogenic kidneys or enlarged kidneys was investigated. Results In this cohort, disease phenotypes were severe with 36 cases of stillbirth or perinatal death. Extra renal malformations, including encephalocele, polydactyly and heart malformations, consistent with ciliopathy phenotypes, were frequently detected. Renal gene panel testing identified causative mutations in 21 out of 34 families (62%), where patient and parental DNA was available. In the remaining 10 families, where only parental DNA was available, 7 inferred causative mutations were found. Together, mutations were found in 12 different genes with a total of 13 novel pathogenic variants, including an inferred novel variant in NEK8. Mutations in CC2D2A were the most common cause of an antenatal cystic kidney disease and a suspected ciliopathy in our cohort. Conclusions In families with ciliopathy phenotypes, mutational analysis using a targeted renal gene panel allows a rapid molecular diagnosis and provides important information for patients, parents and their physicians. PMID:26862157

  13. Molecular Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus.

    PubMed

    Lagerqvist, Nina; Hagström, Åsa; Lundahl, Malin; Nilsson, Elin; Juremalm, Mikael; Larsson, Inger; Alm, Erik; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-05-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two severe acute diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS; also called hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome [HCPS]) in the Americas. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe. Current routine diagnostic methods are based on serological analyses and can yield inconclusive results. Hantavirus-infected patients are viremic during the early phase of disease; therefore, detection of viral RNA genomes can be a valuable complement to existing serological methods. However, the high genomic sequence diversity of PUUV has hampered the development of molecular diagnostics, and currently no real-time reverse transcription-quantitative (RT)-PCR assay is available for routine diagnosis of HFRS. Here, we present a novel PUUV RT-PCR assay. The assay was validated for routine diagnosis of HFRS on samples collected in Sweden during the winter season from 2013 to 2014. The assay allowed detection of PUUV RNA in 98.7% of confirmed clinical HFRS samples collected within 8 days after symptomatic onset. In summary, this study shows that real-time RT-PCR can be a reliable alternative to serological tests during the early phase of HFRS. PMID:26962084

  14. Molecular Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lagerqvist, Nina; Hagström, Åsa; Lundahl, Malin; Nilsson, Elin; Juremalm, Mikael; Larsson, Inger; Alm, Erik; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two severe acute diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS; also called hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome [HCPS]) in the Americas. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe. Current routine diagnostic methods are based on serological analyses and can yield inconclusive results. Hantavirus-infected patients are viremic during the early phase of disease; therefore, detection of viral RNA genomes can be a valuable complement to existing serological methods. However, the high genomic sequence diversity of PUUV has hampered the development of molecular diagnostics, and currently no real-time reverse transcription-quantitative (RT)-PCR assay is available for routine diagnosis of HFRS. Here, we present a novel PUUV RT-PCR assay. The assay was validated for routine diagnosis of HFRS on samples collected in Sweden during the winter season from 2013 to 2014. The assay allowed detection of PUUV RNA in 98.7% of confirmed clinical HFRS samples collected within 8 days after symptomatic onset. In summary, this study shows that real-time RT-PCR can be a reliable alternative to serological tests during the early phase of HFRS. PMID:26962084

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus.

    PubMed

    Lagerqvist, Nina; Hagström, Åsa; Lundahl, Malin; Nilsson, Elin; Juremalm, Mikael; Larsson, Inger; Alm, Erik; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-05-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two severe acute diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS; also called hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome [HCPS]) in the Americas. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe. Current routine diagnostic methods are based on serological analyses and can yield inconclusive results. Hantavirus-infected patients are viremic during the early phase of disease; therefore, detection of viral RNA genomes can be a valuable complement to existing serological methods. However, the high genomic sequence diversity of PUUV has hampered the development of molecular diagnostics, and currently no real-time reverse transcription-quantitative (RT)-PCR assay is available for routine diagnosis of HFRS. Here, we present a novel PUUV RT-PCR assay. The assay was validated for routine diagnosis of HFRS on samples collected in Sweden during the winter season from 2013 to 2014. The assay allowed detection of PUUV RNA in 98.7% of confirmed clinical HFRS samples collected within 8 days after symptomatic onset. In summary, this study shows that real-time RT-PCR can be a reliable alternative to serological tests during the early phase of HFRS.

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Small Renal Tumors: Trends in Renal Cancer Diagnosis and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, David J. Railton, Nicholas J.

    2010-10-15

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common malignancy causing significant mortality. In recent years abdominal imaging, often for alternate symptomatology, has led the trend toward the detection and confirmation of smaller renal tumors. This has permitted the greater use of localized and nephron-sparing techniques including partial nephrectomy and image-guided ablation. This article aims to review the current role of image-guided biopsy and ablation in the management of small renal tumors. The natural history of renal cell carcinoma, the role of renal biopsy, the principles and procedural considerations of thermal energy ablation, and the oncological outcomes of these minimally invasive treatments are discussed and illustrated with cases from the authors' institution. Image-guided ablation, in particular, has changed the treatment paradigm and, by virtue of its increasingly evident efficacy and low morbidity, now favors the treatment of smaller tumors in patients previously unfit for surgery.

  17. Reversible renal impairment caused by thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Chakera, Aron; Paul, Hans-Joerg; O'Callaghan, Chris A

    2010-04-01

    Renal impairment is a common finding in clinical practice and is increasingly recognized with the routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rates. Clinical assessment is essential to determine which of the many possible investigations are appropriate. Thyroid hormones regulate many cellular functions, and abnormalities of the active thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), can influence serum creatinine levels. Evaluation of thyroid function is easily overlooked, but important in this context, as hypothyroidism is common and can cause renal impairment, which is typically reversible. Renal dysfunction may also be more frequent in hyperthyroidism than is recognized. This report describe how a dramatic elevation in serum creatinine paralleled the development of hyperthyroidism, with a return of the creatinine to normal following treatment of the hyperthyroid state. PMID:20199343

  18. Down syndrome with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Thakkar, Umang G; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2013-10-01

    Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic causes of learning disabilities in children. Although the incidence of renal and urological involvement in Down syndrome is not very common, monitoring of patients with Down syndrome for renal diseases should be done regularly as patient's age into the second and third decades. With increased survival, it appears that a growing number of these patients present with chronic renal failure. Down syndrome patients are apparently not suited for peritoneal dialysis because of lacking cooperation. This procedure can be prone to failure, mainly because of an increased risk of peritonitis. Handling such patients especially those on peritoneal dialysis is challenging. Here we report a case of Down syndrome with end-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis for 6 months. To the best of our knowledge and current literature review this is the first case report of a patient with Down syndrome undergoing hemodialysis.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide in renal physiology, disease and transplantation--the smell of renal protection.

    PubMed

    Koning, Anne M; Frenay, Anne-Roos S; Leuvenink, Henri G D; van Goor, Harry

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter, next to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, is a key mediator in physiology and disease. It is involved in homeostatic functions, such as blood pressure control, electrolyte balance and apoptosis, and regulates pathological mechanisms, including oxidative stress and inflammation. Besides, it is believed to serve as an oxygen sensor under ischemic conditions. The kidney plays a decisive role in many of these processes, indicating an interplay between H2S and renal (patho)physiology. In this review we focus on the (protective) functions of H2S in the kidney. We first discuss endogenous renal H2S production and signaling and elaborate on its regulatory functions in renal physiology. Next, we present data on the role of aberrant H2S levels in the onset and progression of renal disease and suggest the use of H2S metabolites as biomarkers. Finally, we describe that exogenous H2S can protect the kidney against various forms of injury and conclude that modulation of renal H2S levels holds promise for renal patients in the future.

  20. Deaths from occlusive arterial disease in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Ibels, L S; Stewart, J H; Mahony, J F; Sheil, A G

    1974-08-31

    In a series of 325 recipients of cadaveric renal transplants sudden occlusive arterial disease was found to be responsible for 12% of deaths. Acute myocardial infarction (9%) occurred 25 times more than expected in the normal population and cerebral thrombosis (3%) 300 times more. The greatest loss was in the initial three-month period after transplantation. Patients with renal failure due to essential hypertension were especially at risk, accounting for six of the 12 deaths.

  1. [Usefulness of Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis in hypertensive children. Two case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Favilli, Silvia; Capuzzo, Leila; Pollini, Iva; Calabri, Giovanni; De Simone, Luciano; Pela, Ivana; Seracini, Daniela; Bini, Roberta M

    2004-06-01

    Renal artery stenosis, mainly due to fibromuscular dysplasia, is the second more common cause of arterial hypertension in children, after aortic coarctation. Two children sent to our Center of Pediatric Cardiology, one for arterial hypertension and the other for renal failure (associated with severe hypertension not previously recognized) are reported. In both of them the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis was established at Doppler ultrasonography, performed at the time of Doppler echocardiography. Both children were submitted to successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; short- and medium-term results are evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Renovascular disease is a potentially curable cause of renal artery stenosis in children. Renal artery evaluation by Doppler ultrasound is recommended in all hypertensive children who undergo Doppler echocardiography. PMID:15471155

  2. Controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Nelson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The two most common HIV-associated renal diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV-immune-complex kidney disease, share the common pathologic finding of hyperplasia within the glomerulus. Podocyte injury is central to the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, the source of the proliferating glomerular epithelial cell remains a topic of debate. Parenchymal injury has been linked to direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV-1, although the mechanism of viral entry into this non-lymphoid compartment is unclear. Although transgenic rodent models have provided insight into viral proteins responsible for inducing renal disease, such models have important limitations. Rodent HIV-1 models, for instance, cannot replicate all aspects of immune activation, a process that could have an important role in the pathogenesis PMID:19776779

  3. The glycocalyx--linking albuminuria with renal and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rabelink, Ton J; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-11-01

    Albuminuria is commonly used as a marker of kidney disease progression, but some evidence suggests that albuminuria also contributes to disease progression by inducing renal injury in specific disease conditions. Studies have confirmed that in patients with cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension, endothelial damage drives progression of kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. A key mechanism that contributes to this process is the loss of the glycocalyx--a polysaccharide gel that lines the luminal endothelial surface and that normally acts as a barrier against albumin filtration. Degradation of the glycocalyx in response to endothelial activation can lead to albuminuria and subsequent renal and vascular inflammation, thus providing a pathophysiological framework for the clinical association of albuminuria with renal and cardiovascular disease progression. In this Review, we examine the likely mechanisms by which glycocalyx dysfunction contributes to kidney injury and explains the link between cardiovascular disease and albuminuria. Evidence suggests that glycocalyx dysfunction is reversible, suggesting that these mechanisms could be considered as therapeutic targets to prevent the progression of renal and cardiovascular disease. This possibility enables the use of existing drugs in new ways, provides an opportunity to develop novel therapies, and indicates that albuminuria should be reconsidered as an end point in clinical trials.

  4. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Martins, Daniel Malisani; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast (IC) is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hyperglycemia (CH) are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH); Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance) were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI. PMID:27034930

  5. Pattern of renal diseases in children: A developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shankar Prasad; Shah, Gauri Shankar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-03-01

    Spectrum of renal disease varies in different ethnic population, geographical location, and by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to find out the clinical spectrum and occurrence of different pediatric renal diseases at a teaching hospital in the Eastern part of Nepal. All cases of renal diseases from one month to 15 years of age, attending the pediatric renal outpatient department and/or were admitted to the wards during the period of February 2012 to January 2013, were included in the study. Detailed clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on all patients. Diseases were categorized as per standard definitions and managed with hospital protocols. Renal diseases accounted to be 206 cases (6.9%) of total annual pediatric admissions, of which (58%) were male and (42%) female. Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) was the most common disorder (37.7%) followed by nephrotic syndrome (26.1%), urinary tract infection (21.3%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (17.9%), obstructive uropathy (1.9%), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1.2%), and others. In AGN group, the most common cause was post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) (32.9%) followed by lupus nephritis (4%) and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (0.8%). Urine culture was positive in (9.22%) and the most common organism was Escherichia coli (57.9%). The causes of AKI were urosepsis, septicemia, and AGN (18.9%) each, followed by dehydration (13.5%). Mortality was found in 5% of cases and the etiologies were AKI in (72.7%), PIGN (18.1%), and CKD (9%). Renal diseases are a significant problem among children and are one of the common causes of hospital admission. These patients need comprehensive services for early identification and management. PMID:26997393

  6. Pattern of renal diseases in children: A developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shankar Prasad; Shah, Gauri Shankar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-03-01

    Spectrum of renal disease varies in different ethnic population, geographical location, and by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to find out the clinical spectrum and occurrence of different pediatric renal diseases at a teaching hospital in the Eastern part of Nepal. All cases of renal diseases from one month to 15 years of age, attending the pediatric renal outpatient department and/or were admitted to the wards during the period of February 2012 to January 2013, were included in the study. Detailed clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on all patients. Diseases were categorized as per standard definitions and managed with hospital protocols. Renal diseases accounted to be 206 cases (6.9%) of total annual pediatric admissions, of which (58%) were male and (42%) female. Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) was the most common disorder (37.7%) followed by nephrotic syndrome (26.1%), urinary tract infection (21.3%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (17.9%), obstructive uropathy (1.9%), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1.2%), and others. In AGN group, the most common cause was post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) (32.9%) followed by lupus nephritis (4%) and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (0.8%). Urine culture was positive in (9.22%) and the most common organism was Escherichia coli (57.9%). The causes of AKI were urosepsis, septicemia, and AGN (18.9%) each, followed by dehydration (13.5%). Mortality was found in 5% of cases and the etiologies were AKI in (72.7%), PIGN (18.1%), and CKD (9%). Renal diseases are a significant problem among children and are one of the common causes of hospital admission. These patients need comprehensive services for early identification and management.

  7. Cerebral Whipple's disease. Diagnosis by brain biopsy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Diamond, I

    1980-10-01

    Whipple's disease, a multisystem chronic granulomatous disease treatable by antibiotics, usually presents clinically with gastrointestinal or joint symptoms. Usually, the diagnosis is substantiated by small intestinal biopsy. This shows diastase-resistant periodic-acid-Schiff-(PAS)-positive inclusions in the cytoplasm of macrophages within the lamina propria. By electron microscopy, this PAS-positive material consists of 1.5 X 0.2-mum bacilli and fine fibrillar material within macrophage phagolysosomes. Rarely, Whipple's disease presents clinically as a primary neurologic disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. Because untreated cerebral Whipple's disease usually progresses rapidly to death, it is imperative to establish the diagnosis promptly. This report describes a case of cerebral Whipple's disease without gastrointestinal symptoms that was diagnosed early by light-and electron-microscopic study of brain biopsy material. PMID:6158859

  8. Hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and renal pathology in a child with hermansky-pudlak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Roberto; Del Rio, Marcela; Thomas, David B; Flynn, Joseph T; Woroniecki, Robert P

    2011-01-01

    We report a child with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) and chronic kidney disease (stage II) with histological diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). A 15-year-old male of Puerto Rico ancestry with history of HPS, hypertension (HTN), asthma, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage II presented with new-onset proteinuria without edema. His blood pressure had been controlled, serum creatinine had been 0.9-1.4 mg/dL, and first morning urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC) ranged from 0.2 to 0.38. Due to persistent nonorthostatic proteinuria with CKD, renal biopsy was performed and FSGS (not otherwise specified) with chronic diffuse tubulopathy (tubular cytoplasmic droplets) and acute tubular injury was reported. Ceroid-like material is known to infiltrate tissues (i.e., lungs, colon, and kidney) in HPS, but the reason for the renal insufficiency is unknown. Nonspecific kidney disease and in one adult case IgA nephropathy with ANCA-positive glomerulonephritis have previously been reported in patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. To our knowledge, we report the first pediatric renal pathology case of HPS associated with CKD. This paper discusses presentation and management of renal disease in HPS.

  9. Social networks and social support: living with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rounds, K A; Israel, B A

    1985-09-01

    Individuals with chronic renal disease who receive dialysis treatment are continually faced with major adjustments. These may include dealing with changes in work and economic status, social roles, activity levels, self-image, health status, and normal routines, as well as learning to live with uncertainty and loss. The individual's social network plays a key role as the individual experiences and moves through various stages of adjustment. Networks with certain characteristics (e.g. provision of affective support, reciprocal ties) may be more effective than others lacking these characteristics in meeting the individual's changing needs during the process of adjusting to chronic renal disease. This paper examines this relationship between the characteristics of an individual's social network and adjustment to chronic renal illness. The discussion focuses on the impact of chronic renal disease on the individual, the composition and characteristics of the social network, and on the relationships between network members. How the social network affects a person's adjustment to stages of adaptation to chronic renal disease is also addressed. Finally, suggestions are presented for how health care professionals can intervene at the individual, network, and organizational level to strengthen and enlarge social networks in order to enhance social support.

  10. Renal Primordia Activate Kidney Regenerative Events in a Rat Model of Progressive Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imberti, Barbara; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Abbate, Mauro; Longaretti, Lorena; Cassis, Paola; Benedetti, Valentina; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration. PMID:25811887

  11. Renal primordia activate kidney regenerative events in a rat model of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Imberti, Barbara; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Abbate, Mauro; Longaretti, Lorena; Cassis, Paola; Benedetti, Valentina; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration.

  12. Lithium-induced renal disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jorkasky, D K; Amsterdam, J D; Oler, J; Braden, G; Alvis, R; Geheb, M; Cox, M

    1988-12-01

    Considerable controversy exists as to whether lithium maintenance therapy is associated with the development of renal insufficiency. In 1980 we initiated a prospective study of renal function in manic-depressive patients beginning lithium therapy. None of the patients had evidence of pre-existing renal disease. Sixty-five patients were entered, and 51 and 18 patients completed 1 and 3 years of follow-up, respectively. Lithium doses were titrated to the lowest level consistent with control of psychiatric symptoms; there were no episodes of overt lithium intoxication. Serum creatinine levels in all patients, and endogenous creatinine clearance in women, remained stable over the course of the study. In contrast, creatinine clearances (mean +/- SEM, ml/min/1.73 m2) in men significantly decreased over both 1 year (110 +/- 4 to 95 +/- 5, n = 21, p = 0.0126) and 3 years (107 +/- 4 to 80 +/- 11, n = 8, p = 0.0385) of evaluation. Although all patients demonstrated a mild reduction in renal concentrating ability after initiation of lithium, the decrease was not progressive over the course of the study. Quantitative urinary protein excretion did not change, and repeated urinalyses did not reveal any evidence of renal disease. Thus, lithium therapy appears to result in modestly reduced rates of glomerular filtration, as measured by endogenous creatinine clearance, in men receiving lithium maintenance therapy for manic-depressive illness. Whether this reduction is progressive and leads to clinically significant renal insufficiency requires further investigation. PMID:3243040

  13. A novel LMX1B mutation in a family with end-stage renal disease of ‘unknown cause’

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Noel; Rice, Sarah J.; Raman, Shreya; Hynes, Ann Marie; Srivastava, Shalabh; Moore, Iain; Al-Hamed, Mohamed; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Thwaites, David T.; Gale, Daniel P.; Sayer, John A.

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) presenting in a familial autosomal dominant pattern points to an underlying monogenic cause. Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that may lead to ESRD caused by mutations in the transcription factor LMX1B. Renal-limited forms of this disease, termed nail-patella-like renal disease (NPLRD), and LMX1B nephropathy have recently been described. We report a large family, from the North East of England, with seven affected members with varying phenotypes of renal disease, ranging from ESRD at 28 years of age to microscopic haematuria and proteinuria and relatively preserved renal function. In this family, there were no extra-renal manifestations to suggest NPS. Genome-wide linkage studies and inheritance by descent (IBD) suggested disease loci on Chromosome 1 and 9. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis identified a novel sequence variant (p.R249Q) in the LMX1B gene in each of the three samples submitted, which was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. The variant segregated with the disease in all affected individuals. In silico modelling revealed that R249 is putatively located in close proximity to the DNA phosphoskeleton, supporting a role for this residue in the interaction between the LMX1B homeodomain and its target DNA. WES and analysis of potential target genes, including CD2AP, NPHS2, COL4A3, COL4A4 and COL4A5, did not reveal any co-inherited pathogenic variants. In conclusion, we confirm a novel LMX1B mutation in a large family with an autosomal dominant pattern of nephropathy. This report confirms that LMX1B mutations may cause a glomerulopathy without extra-renal manifestations. A molecular genetic diagnosis of LMX1B nephropathy thus provides a definitive diagnosis, prevents the need for renal biopsies and allows at risk family members to be screened. PMID:25713721

  14. The Renal Histopathology Spectrum of Elderly Patients with Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Fu-de; Zhao, Ming-hui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The elderly population has significantly increased in China. However, data regarding renal histopathology in this population is lacking. The present study retrospectively analyzed renal disease spectrum of 430 elderly patients who had received renal biopsy at Peking University First Hospital between January 2003 and December 2012. Among 6049 patients receiving renal biopsies during the same period, 430 (7.10%) were elderly (≥65 years). The ratio of male (263 patients) to female (167 patients) was 1.57:1, with an age of 70.29 ± 3.99 (range 65–82) years at the time of biopsy. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (59.53%), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI, 19.53%) and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN, 16.05%). The most common renal histopathology in primary glomerular disease was idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN, 61.02%), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.22%), minimal change disease (MCD, 9.32%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (6.78%). ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, 43.95%) was the leading secondary glomerular disease, followed by HBV-related glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN, 24.2%), and amyloidosis (14.01%). In patients with nephrotic syndrome, iMN (50%) was the leading cause, followed by HBV-GN (16.02%), MCD (7.81%), and amyloidosis (7.81%). In patients with iMN, 89.5% presented as nephrotic syndrome, 8.39% as CGN. In patients with AKI, the leading cause was AAV (48.12%), followed by acute interstitial nephritis (20.48%) and acute tubular necrosis (8.43%). In conclusion, in elderly Chinese patients, the most common renal histopathology pattern was iMN in patients with nephrotic syndrome, and AAV in patients with AKI. PMID:25526441

  15. Sulodexide and glycosaminoglycans in the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Masola, Valentina; Zaza, Gianluigi; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Experimental data in cell cultures and animal models suggest that sulodexide and glycosaminoglycans are potentially effective drugs to treat chronic kidney diseases and prevent progression to renal failure. However, no conclusive evidence support the use of them in human renal disease. In acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, only few studies have been performed. Sulodexide has been more intensely investigated in diabetic nephropathy (DN) where the body of data supports its effectiveness as an antialbuminuric agent in early stages. Unfortunately, there is no study in DN patients on the effect of sulodexide on clinical end points.

  16. The left renal entrapment syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkun; Li, Ming; Jin, Wei; San, Ping; Xu, Ping; Pan, Songlin

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to review 20 patients with left renal vein (LRV) entrapment syndrome. All cases were diagnosed based on ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and renal venography. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Transposition of superior mesenteric artery was performed in three cases, transposition of LRV in two, and stent implantation in the LRV in 15. Stent migration occurred in one case, and stent reimplantation was performed. One case suffered from hematoma after transposition of the superior mesenteric artery, and reoperation was performed. Follow-up was made from 6 months to 6 years after the operation. Abnormalities were not found in the urine test of 18 patients and their symptoms disappeared. Two cases still had microscopic hematuria after exercise. All surgical operations are effective for nutcracker syndrome except excessive invasiveness. Stent may be one of the mainstream therapies because of its minimal invasiveness.

  17. [RARE DISEASES DTC: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE].

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Joseph; Barash, Hila; Yardeni, Hadar; Banet-Levi, Yonit; Yonath, Hagith; Raas-Rothschild, Annick

    2016-04-01

    Rare diseases are chronic, progressive genetic disorders, which affect around 6-8% of the general population, mainly children. Therefore, in Israel approximately 500,000 people are probably affected by a rare disease. In this article, we review some of the issues pertaining to rare diseases, such as the need for accurate diagnosis which is necessary not only for specific care and treatment but also for informed family planning. In addition, we review the impact of the activities of patients' organizations on the awareness of rare diseases and their involvement in the creation of the Orphan Drug Act, which was the leading point on the way to drug development worldwide. During the last few years networks for reaching leading specialists' opinions on the way to proper diagnosis were created. Thereafter, the next generation genetic technologies, such as exome sequencing, have been a revolution in terms of options and hope for patients with rare undiagnosed diseases. Patients with rare diseases and their families are a challenge to the health care system, not only in terms of diagnosis and therapy, but also in terms of special needs. In addition, deciphering molecular pathways of rare diseases might be the key for understanding molecular events involved in common disorders. We emphasize the duty to ensure appropriate capacity and equal access to follow-up and clinical management of patients with rare diseases in Israel.

  18. [RARE DISEASES DTC: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE].

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Joseph; Barash, Hila; Yardeni, Hadar; Banet-Levi, Yonit; Yonath, Hagith; Raas-Rothschild, Annick

    2016-04-01

    Rare diseases are chronic, progressive genetic disorders, which affect around 6-8% of the general population, mainly children. Therefore, in Israel approximately 500,000 people are probably affected by a rare disease. In this article, we review some of the issues pertaining to rare diseases, such as the need for accurate diagnosis which is necessary not only for specific care and treatment but also for informed family planning. In addition, we review the impact of the activities of patients' organizations on the awareness of rare diseases and their involvement in the creation of the Orphan Drug Act, which was the leading point on the way to drug development worldwide. During the last few years networks for reaching leading specialists' opinions on the way to proper diagnosis were created. Thereafter, the next generation genetic technologies, such as exome sequencing, have been a revolution in terms of options and hope for patients with rare undiagnosed diseases. Patients with rare diseases and their families are a challenge to the health care system, not only in terms of diagnosis and therapy, but also in terms of special needs. In addition, deciphering molecular pathways of rare diseases might be the key for understanding molecular events involved in common disorders. We emphasize the duty to ensure appropriate capacity and equal access to follow-up and clinical management of patients with rare diseases in Israel. PMID:27323543

  19. Independent Role of Underlying Kidney Disease on Renal Prognosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease under Nephrology Care

    PubMed Central

    De Nicola, Luca; Provenzano, Michele; Chiodini, Paolo; Borrelli, Silvio; Garofalo, Carlo; Pacilio, Mario; Liberti, Maria Elena; Sagliocca, Adelia; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Primary kidney disease is suggested to affect renal prognosis of CKD patients; however, whether nephrology care modifies this association is unknown. We studied patients with CKD stage I-IV treated in a renal clinic and with established diagnosis of CKD cause to evaluate whether the risk of renal event (composite of end-stage renal disease and eGFR decline ≥40%) linked to the specific diagnosis is modified by the achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of therapeutic goals for hypertension (BP ≤130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria ≥150 mg/24h and/or diabetes and ≤140/90 in those with proteinuria <150 mg/24h and without diabetes) anemia (hemoglobin, Hb ≥11 g/dL), and proteinuria (≤0.5 g/24h). Survival analysis started after first year of nephrology care. We studied 729 patients (age 64±15 y; males 59.1%; diabetes 34.7%; cardiovascular disease (CVD) 44.9%; hypertensive nephropathy, HTN 53.8%; glomerulonephritis, GN 17.3%; diabetic nephropathy, DN 15.9%; tubule-interstitial nephropathy, TIN 9.5%; polycystic kidney disease, PKD 3.6%). During first year of Nephrology care, therapy was overall intensified in most patients and prevalence of main therapeutic goals generally improved. During subsequent follow up (median 3.3 years, IQR 1.9-5.1), 163 renal events occurred. Cox analysis disclosed a higher risk for PKD (Hazard Ratio 5.46, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.28–10.6) and DN (1.28,2.99–3.05), versus HTN (reference), independently of age, gender, CVD, BMI, eGFR or CKD stage, use of RAS inhibitors and achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of each of the three main therapeutic goals. No interaction was found on the risk of CKD progression between diagnostic categories and month-12 eGFR (P=0.737), as with control of BP (P=0.374), Hb (P=0.248) or proteinuria (P=0.590). Therefore, in CKD patients under nephrology care, diagnosis of kidney disease should be considered in conjunction with the main risk factors

  20. Urinary fibrinogen and renal tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition: Discriminating between primary FSGS and minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Chunxia; Xu, Feng; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-09-23

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD) are common types of primary glomerular disease; they share numerous clinical and pathological similarities but have different treatment regimens and prognoses. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between them and to explore the mechanism underlying their differences. Fibrinogen is reportedly involved in podocyte damage and in renal fibrosis in vitro and in animal models of kidney disease. We thus tested urinary fibrinogen, serum fibrinogen, and renal fibrinogen deposition levels in a cohort comprising 50 patients with FSGS and 40 patients with MCD. Our results suggested that urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition levels were significantly higher in the FSGS patients than in the MCD patients, while serum fibrinogen levels did not differ between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an excellent diagnostic ability for urinary fibrinogen and a fair diagnostic ability for tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition in differentiating FSGS from MCD. Additionally, we found that urinary fibrinogen levels were positively correlated with the 24-h urine protein levels in patients with FSGS but not in patients with MCD. In conclusion, urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition is elevated in primary FSGS compared to MCD, which may be relevant to both diagnosis and pathogenesis.

  1. IgG4-related renal disease: clinical and pathological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Nao, Tomoya; Fukuhara, Hideo; Karashima, Takashi; Inoue, Keiji; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Mai; Zen, Yoh; Sato, Yasuharu; Notohara, Kenji; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently established systemic condition. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common renal manifestation. Glomerular lesions, particularly membranous glomerulonephritis, can develop simultaneously. Some patients present with serological renal dysfunction associated with elevated IgG or IgE levels and hypocomplementemia, while others are incidentally found to have abnormalities in kidneys on imaging. A majority of patients with IgG4-related kidney disease have similar lesions at other anatomical sites, which help us to suspect this condition. Serum IgG4 elevation (>135 mg/dL) is the most, although not entirely, specific marker for the diagnosis. Imaging findings varies from small nodules to bilateral diffuse abnormalities. In addition to the renal parenchyma, the renal pelvis and perirenal adipose tissue can be affected. Histological features include dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, storiform or "bird's eye" fibrosis (highlighted by PAM stain), and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration (>10 cells/high-power field and IgG4/IgG-positive cell ratio >40%). Immune complex deposition is detectable in the tubular basement membrane by immunofluorescence and/or electron microscopy. Patients usually respond well to corticosteroids, but highly active diseases may require other immunosuppressive therapies. Further investigations will be required to fully understand pathophysiology underlying this emerging condition. PMID:25337295

  2. [Postmortal diagnosis of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Sandmann-Keil, D; Braak, H

    2005-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a continuously progressive degenerative disorder of the central, peripheral and enteric human nervous systems. Not only the substantia nigra, but also a number of other components of the motor and limbic systems, as well as the autonomic regulation, suffer heavy damages. Only a few of the many types of nerve cells in the human central nervous system develop the characteristic Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. They are composed primarily of aggregated alpha-synuclein and lead to the premature destruction of the affected neurons. Due to the selective neuronal vulnerability, a distinctive distribution of changes occurs within the central nervous system, leading to a corresponding loss of functionality in many systems. The changes occur in an ordered timely fashion. The ascending pathological process begins within the brain at the glossopharyngeal and vagal areas, nearly destroys the substantia nigra, and reaches the mesocortex of the gray matter. From here it expands to further areas of the neocortex, thereby marking the end phase of the disease.

  3. Laparoscopic renal surgery for benign disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Joseph C; Breda, Alberto; Schulam, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years after the first report, laparoscopic nephrectomy has demonstrated proven efficacy and safety comparable with an open approach, with a significant advantage of a faster recovery. Wide dissemination of these surgical techniques and continued improvement in instrumentation has made laparoscopy the preferred approach for treating benign pathologic conditions of the kidney. In this review, the expanding indications of laparoscopic simple nephrectomy and the outcomes of the larger clinical series are examined. We discuss the technical aspects of both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. Finally, laparoscopic cyst decortication and some of the novel applications of laparoscopic renal surgery are highlighted.

  4. [Predementia Alzheimer's disease. Benefits of early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Viloria, Aurora

    2011-10-01

    Given population aging and the rise in the number of persons with Alzheimer's disease, measures that aim not only to delay but also to prevent the development of this disease are increasingly required. Advances in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease support the need for a review of current clinical standards for mild cognitive impairment and provide new goals in the early treatment of this disease. The current diagnostic process should be refocussed toward the pathological substrate of this disease rather than symptoms in order to initiate therapeutic measures as soon as possible without waiting for clinical manifestations to appear. Such an approach is essential in patients with greater cognitive reserve, in whom the lesions are usually more severe at diagnosis and treatment is less effective. To identify disease-modifying therapies to delay the onset of the clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in cognitively intact persons at high risk, biomarkers for this disease must be validated. A single biomarker is unlikely to provide the required diagnostic accuracy and therefore a multimodal approach, incorporating biochemical, neuropathological and anatomical and metabolic neuroimaging methods, should be employed. To optimize the results of drugs under investigation, a combination of biomarkers should be used to select appropriate participants in the earliest phases of the disease, and disease progression should be followed-up. Early diagnosis might clarify essential questions in the care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, such as the possibility of distinguishing among various subtypes, thus encouraging the development of optimal treatments for each. The ultimate goal is to develop disease-modifying treatments that could be initiated early, while patients are asymptomatic or only minimally symptomatic, to maintain their quality of life.

  5. Organising care for people with diabetes and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Dean, John

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two of the commonest long-term conditions. One-fifth of patients with diabetes will have CKD, and diabetes is the commonest cause of advanced kidney disease. For most patients these comorbidities will be managed in primary care with the focus on cardiovascular prevention. Many patients with more advanced disease and complications require joint care from multidisciplinary specialist teams in diabetes and renal disease to ensure that care is consistent and coordinated. Models of joint speciality care, include joint registry management, parallel clinics, shared consulting and case discussion, but require more evaluation than has currently been performed. These underpin more informal interactions between the specialist teams. A local model of care for diabetes and renal disease that incorporates the roles of primary care, members of multidisciplinary teams and speciality care should be agreed, resourced appropriately and its effectiveness monitored.

  6. Renal structure and hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gabow, P A; Chapman, A B; Johnson, A M; Tangel, D J; Duley, I T; Kaehny, W D; Manco-Johnson, M; Schrier, R W

    1990-12-01

    Hypertension has been reported to occur in 50 to 75 percent of subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) prior to the onset of marked renal insufficiency but concurrent with cystic deformation of the renal parenchyma. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the renal structural abnormalities are greater in hypertensive (HBP) versus normotensive (NBP) male and female patients with ADPKD who were matched within gender groups for age, body surface area, serum creatinine concentration (males HBP 1.2 +/- 0.02 vs. NBP 1.1 +/- 0.03 mg/dl. NS: females HBP 0.9 +/- 0.03 vs. NBP 0.9 +/- 0.02 mg/dl, NS) and creatinine clearance (males HBP 100 +/- 3 vs. NBP 108 +/- 3 ml/min/1.73 m2, NS: females HBP 97 +/- 3 vs. NBP 96 +/- 2 ml/min/1.73 m2, NS). Renal volume was significantly greater in the HBP compared to the NBP group (males HBP 624 +/- 47 vs. NBP 390 +/- 43 cm3, P less than 0.0005; females HBP 446 +/- 32 vs. NBP 338 +/- 24 cm3, P less than 0.002). Since increased renal volume is due to increased cysts, the results indicate that the early high incidence of hypertension in ADPKD correlates with the renal structural abnormalities in this disorder.

  7. Chronic renal disease in renal transplant patients: management of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Gómez-Alamillo, C; Ruiz, J C; de Francisco, A L M; Arias, M

    2009-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Despite improvements in short-term patient and graft outcomes, there has been no major improvement in long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and obesity, and the impact of their control among 526 stable renal transplant recipients according to the guidelines in the general population. Mean blood pressure was 133 +/- 16/81 +/- 9 mm Hg. The proportion of patients on antihypertensive therapy was 75%, and on ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, 26%. The mean cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides were 195 +/- 41, 115 +/- 32, 51 +/- 17, and 137 +/- 75 mg/dL, respectively. The proportion of patients on statin treatment was 49.7%, and those with body mass indices between 25 and 30, 30 and 35, and >35 kg/m(2) were 35%, 15%, and 4%. We observed a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity among renal transplant patients. Suboptimal control was frequent and control of some of these complications was far below targets established for nontransplant patients despite progressive intensification of therapy with functional graft decline. The findings of this study may have an impact on the management of renal transplant recipients.

  8. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    PubMed Central

    ZENGIN, KURSAD; TANIK, SERHAT; SENER, NEVZAT CAN; ALBAYRAK, SEBAHATTIN; EKICI, MUSA; BOZKURT, IBRAHIM HALIL; BAKIRTAS, HASAN; GURDAL, MESUT; IMAMOGLU, MUHAMMED ABDURRAHIM

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast visualization in the collecting duct system on intravenous urography and having a split renal function of <10% on nuclear renal function studies. Following pathological evaluation, 9 patients were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, 9 with malignant tumors and 79 with chronic pyelonephritis. Of the patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 2 also had renal adenomas. The malignant tumors included 3 transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 3 renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (1 sarcomatoid, 1 papillary and 1 clear cell RCC), whereas 1 patient had concurrent RCC and TCC. In conclusion, non-functioning kidneys, particularly those with kidney stones, should be managed as possible malignancies, due to the higher incidence of malignant tumors in such patients compared with the normal population. PMID:26171211

  9. Polymylagia rheumatica: common disease, elusive diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease with little known about its etiology or incidence. Frequently found in older adult women, this disease can be debilitating, painful, and dangerous. Diagnosing PMR can be elusive due to lack of specific laboratory tests, and treatment with use of long-term glucocorticoids can be difficult due to side effects. The following article describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and treatment of PMR, as well as implications for home healthcare.

  10. End State Renal Disease among Native Americans, 1983-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Determines the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among Native Americans and Whites in the United States from 1983-86. Findings indicate 1,075 Native American cases represented an annual incidence 2.8 times the rate for Whites. Fifty-six percent of Native American cases and 27 percent of White cases were attributed to diabetes. (JS)

  11. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.57 Proof of chronic...

  12. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.57 Proof of chronic...

  13. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57 Section 79.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.57 Proof of chronic...

  14. Cystic renal cell carcinoma and acquired renal cystic disease associated with consumption of chaparral tea: a case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Y; Feddersen, R M; Gardner, K D; Davis, C J

    1994-12-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid is an antioxidant used experimentally to induce cystic renal disease in rats. It may be extracted from the leaves of the creosote bush, which are consumed as chaparral tea in the southwestern United States. We report a case of cystic renal disease and cystic adenocarcinoma of the kidney associated with a history of protracted consumption of chaparral tea.

  15. The Fuzzy Model for Diagnosis of Animal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianhua, Xiao; Luyi, Shi; Yu, Zhang; Li, Gao; Honggang, Fan; Haikun, Ma; Hongbin, Wang

    The knowledge of animal disease diagnosis was fuzzy; the fuzzy model can imitate the character of clinical diagnosis for veterinary. The fuzzy model of disease, the methods for class the disease group of differential diagnosis and the fuzzy diagnosis model were discussed in this paper.

  16. Use of antiepileptic drugs in hepatic and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Asconapé, Jorge J

    2014-01-01

    The use of antiepileptic drugs in patients with renal or hepatic disease is common in clinical practice. Since the liver and kidney are the main organs involved in the elimination of most drugs, their dysfunction can have important effects on the disposition of antiepileptic drugs. Renal or hepatic disease can prolong the elimination of the parent drug or an active metabolite leading to accumulation and clinical toxicity. It can also affect the protein binding, distribution, and metabolism of a drug. The protein binding of anionic acidic drugs, such as phenytoin and valproate, can be reduced significantly by renal failure, causing difficulties in the interpretation of total serum concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Dialysis can further modify the pharmacokinetic parameters or result in significant removal of the antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs that are eliminated unchanged by the kidneys or undergo minimal metabolism include gabapentin, pregabalin, vigabatrin, and topiramate when used as monotherapy. Drugs eliminated predominantly by biotransformation include phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine, tiagabine, and rufinamide. Drugs eliminated by a combination of renal excretion and biotransformation include levetiracetam, lacosamide, zonisamide, primidone, phenobarbital, ezogabine/retigabine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, ethosuximide, and felbamate. Drugs in the latter group can be used cautiously in patients with either renal or liver failure. Antiepileptic drugs that are at high risk of being extracted by hemodialysis include ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, pregabalin and topiramate. The use of antiepileptic drugs in the presence of hepatic or renal disease is complex and requires great familiarity with the pharmacokinetics of these agents. Closer follow-up of the patients and more frequent monitoring of serum concentrations are required to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:24365310

  17. Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

    2012-04-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

  18. Legionnaire's disease and acute renal failure: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boucree, M C

    1988-10-01

    A case report is presented of a young man admitted to a general hospital with leukocytosis, elevated temperature, right lower lobe infiltrate, and confusion. A diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and Legionnaire's disease was made. The patient subsequently had a respiratory arrest and died on the 29th hospital day. This triad is currently an enigma in the field of internal medicine. The diagnosis of each entity is elusive, and in many cases must be made by the astute clinician. Diagnostic features along with early intervention measures and their expected outcomes are discussed. Recognition of the interrelationship of these diseases, risk factors, and vague clinical presentations might allow further prospective intervention methods and diagnostic procedures to be undertaken to avoid the fatal consequences seen in this disease triad.

  19. Renal disease in adults with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, Guido; Bonetti, Franco; Pea, Maurizio; Tardanico, Regina; Brunelli, Matteo; Eble, John N

    2002-02-01

    The most common renal lesions of tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal-dominant syndrome resulting from losses of TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3), are renal cysts and angiomyolipomas. Epithelial neoplasms are less common. The TSC2 gene lies adjacent to PKD1, the major gene responsible for autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Recently, a deletion mutation disrupting both TSC2 and PKD1 has been described in young children with tuberous sclerosis complex with severe renal cystic disease. This disease has been termed the TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. We describe the lesions in the resected kidneys of two adults with TSC2/PDK1 contiguous gene syndrome, at the time of the nephrectomies: a 31-year-old man and his 44-year-old mother. The four kidneys were enlarged reniform masses composed of cysts lined by flattened, cuboidal, or, infrequently, large deeply eosinophilic epithelial cells. The kidneys also contained numerous classic angiomyolipomas and rare intraglomerular microlesions. In the son the largest tumor was a monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma. In the wall of his left renal pelvis there was a plaque-shaped, HMB-45-positive localized lesion of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. This is the first description of the renal lesions in adults with genetically confirmed TSC2/PDK1 contiguous gene syndrome. The pathologic findings highlight the importance of thorough sampling for histology in polycystic kidney diseases and indicate that the observation of an angiomyolipoma in biopsy material from patients with enlarged cystic kidneys should suggest the diagnosis of TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, even in cases without ultrasonographic and macroscopic evidence of angiomyolipoma.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Roos, D; de Boer, M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella species. CGD is a rare (∼1:250 000 births) disease caused by mutations in any one of the five components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. This enzyme generates superoxide and is essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytes. Molecular diagnosis of CGD involves measuring NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes, measuring protein expression of NADPH oxidase components and mutation analysis of genes encoding these components. Residual oxidase activity is important to know for estimation of the clinical course and the chance of survival of the patient. Mutation analysis is mandatory for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes the different assays available for the diagnosis of CGD, the precautions to be taken for correct measurements, the flow diagram to be followed, the assays for confirmation of the diagnosis and the determinations for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24016250

  1. Renal angiomyolipoma: diagnosis with B-ultrasonography, CT scanning, DSA and its interventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C; Feng, G; Yang, J; Liang, H; Tian, Z

    1996-01-01

    From 1989, 15 cases of renal angiomyolipoma (AML) have been diagnosed by ultrasonography. CT scanning and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at our hospital. In 8 patients with uneven hyperechoes on B-mode ultrasonography (B-US) (8/15) and 7 with low density of fat on CT scanning (7/12) accurate diagnosis was established preoperatively. DSA revealed the "berry-like" pseudoaneurysms in the arterial phase (14 cases), the defined lucent area in the nephrogram phase (10 cases) and the "onion-peel appearances" during venous phases (8 cases), correct diagnosis was achieved in all patients. 8 cases were surgically treated and 7 treated by subselective embolization of renal artery. Effects in all cases were good. The diagnostic value of B-US, CT scanning, DSA and interventional treatment of AML was discussed. It was believed that the diagnosis with DSA was a technique with high specificity, and embolization therapy was simple and effective for AML. PMID:9389091

  2. Molecular diagnosis of orbital inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, James T; Choi, Dongseok; Wilson, David J; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Sibley, Cailin H; Harrington, Christina A; Planck, Stephen R

    2015-04-01

    Orbital inflammatory diseases include thyroid eye disease (TED), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), sarcoidosis, and nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI). Histopathological diagnosis usually relies on the clinical context and is not always definitive. Gene expression profiling provides diagnostic and therapeutic information in several malignancies, but its role in evaluating nonmalignant disease is relatively untested. We hypothesized that gene expression profiling could provide diagnostic information for NSOI. We collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded orbital biopsies from 10 institutions and 83 subjects including 25 with thyroid eye disease, 25 nonspecific orbital inflammation, 20 healthy controls, 6 with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and 7 with sarcoidosis. Tissues were divided into discovery and validation sets. Gene expression was quantified using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. A random forest statistical algorithm based on data from 39 probe sets identified controls, GPA, or TED with an average accuracy of 76% (p=0.02). Random forest analysis indicated that 52% of tissues from patients with nonspecific inflammation were consistent with a diagnosis of GPA. Molecular diagnosis by gene expression profiling will augment clinical data and histopathology in differentiating forms of orbital inflammatory disease.

  3. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  4. [Renal response to exercise in healthy and diseased patients].

    PubMed

    Poortmans, J R

    1995-01-01

    Exercise induces profound changes in the renal hemodynamics and protein excretion. Strenuous exercise provokes a major fall of the renal plasma flow and a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate. Despite these changes, the filtration fraction doubles at maximal exercise preserving the transfer of metabolites or substances through the glomerulus. A higher production of vasopressin and aldosterone enhances the tubular processes of water and electrolyte reabsorption, stabilising therefore the homeostasis during exercise. Urea, uric acid and lactate reabsorption are also increased. Postexercise proteinuria is directly related to the intensity of exercise rather than to its duration. This transient state may be explained by an increased glomerular membrane permeability and a partial inhibition of tubular reabsorption of plasma proteins. Postexercise proteinuria appears to be age-dependent. Exercise has an additional effect on protein excretion in patients with nephropathies (diabetes, renal diseases, kidney transplants). PMID:7630470

  5. Exploring Symmetry to Assist Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illán, I. A.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; López, M.; Padilla, P.; Chaves, R.; Segovia, F.; Puntonet, C. G.

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder first affecting memory functions and then gradually affecting all cognitive functions with behavioral impairments and eventually causing death. Functional brain imaging as Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is commonly used to guide the clinician's diagnosis. The essential left-right symmetry of human brains is shown to play a key role in coding and recognition. In the present work we explore the implications of this symmetry in AD diagnosis, showing that recognition may be enhanced when considering this latent symmetry.

  6. Differential diagnosis of acute rejection and chronic cyclosporine nephropathy after rat renal transplantation by detection of endothelial microparticles (EMP).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiewei; Yang, Jing; Cao, Weike; Sun, Yi

    2010-12-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are small vesicles smaller than 1.0μm, released from endothelial cells (EC) during their activation and (or) apoptosis. The assay of the level of elevated EMP is a new approach to evaluate the dysfunction of endothelial cell. EMP can be classified into several types according to their membrane molecular, and the levels of various types of EMP may be different. As the most cost-effective immunodepressant, cyclosporine A (CsA) has been used widely in organ transplantation. But its dose is hard to control, under-medication may cause the acute rejection (AR) and overdose may cause chronic cyclosporine nephropathy (CCN). The cyclosporine A (CsA) caused CCN and the AR caused renal injury after renal transplantation are both vascular diseases related with endothelial dysfunction, and up to now, there is still no effective method to distinguish the two kinds of diseases. Owing to distinct pathogenesis of the two kinds of vascular diseases, the level of each type of EMP originated from vascular endothelial cells may be different. We hypothesize that maybe we can distinguish them by detecting the different levels of some types of EMP which is also related with vascular disease, and we propose to prove our hypothesis through animal experiment. If our hypothesis is proved, it will be more helpful for clinicians to adjust the dose of CsA promptly according to the differential diagnosis of the two kinds of diseases.

  7. Diagnosis and management of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, William F; Riedel, David J; Talwani, Rohit; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2012-06-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Transmission occurs primarily through the bite of an infected deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). Identification of an erythema migrans rash following a tick bite is the only clinical manifestation sufficient to make the diagnosis of Lyme disease in the absence of laboratory confirmation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tier serologic testing protocol using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay initially, followed by the more specific Western blot to confirm the diagnosis when the assay samples are positive or equivocal. The treatment of Lyme disease is determined mainly by the clinical manifestations of the disease. Doxycycline is often the preferred agent for oral treatment because of its activity against other tick-borne illnesses. Preventive measures include avoiding areas with high tick burdens, wearing protective clothing, using tick repellants (e.g., diethyltoluamide [DEET]), performing frequent body checks and bathing following outdoor activities, and instituting environmental landscape modifications (e.g., grass mowing, deer exclusion fencing) to reduce the tick burden. Although there is controversy regarding treatment of post-Lyme disease syndrome and chronic Lyme disease, there is no biologic or clinical trial evidence indicating that prolonged antibiotic therapy is of benefit. PMID:22962880

  8. Diagnosis and management of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, William F; Riedel, David J; Talwani, Rohit; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2012-06-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Transmission occurs primarily through the bite of an infected deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). Identification of an erythema migrans rash following a tick bite is the only clinical manifestation sufficient to make the diagnosis of Lyme disease in the absence of laboratory confirmation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tier serologic testing protocol using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay initially, followed by the more specific Western blot to confirm the diagnosis when the assay samples are positive or equivocal. The treatment of Lyme disease is determined mainly by the clinical manifestations of the disease. Doxycycline is often the preferred agent for oral treatment because of its activity against other tick-borne illnesses. Preventive measures include avoiding areas with high tick burdens, wearing protective clothing, using tick repellants (e.g., diethyltoluamide [DEET]), performing frequent body checks and bathing following outdoor activities, and instituting environmental landscape modifications (e.g., grass mowing, deer exclusion fencing) to reduce the tick burden. Although there is controversy regarding treatment of post-Lyme disease syndrome and chronic Lyme disease, there is no biologic or clinical trial evidence indicating that prolonged antibiotic therapy is of benefit.

  9. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  10. Advances in the Urinary Exosomes in Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Pei; Qin, Yan; Li, Xue-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Cells secrete around 30-100 nm membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released into the extracellular spaceis termed exosomes(EXs). EXs widely present in body fluids and incorporated proteins,nucleic acids that reflect the physiological state of their cells of origin and they may play an important role in cell-to-cell communication in various physiological and disease processes. In this article we review the recent basic and clinical studies in urinary EXs in renal diseases,focusing on their biological characteristics and potential roles as new biological markers,intervention treatment goals,and targeted therapy vectors in renal diseases.However,some issues still exist;in particular,the clinical application of EXs as a liquid biopsy technique warrants further investigations. PMID:27594162

  11. Prognostic Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, Cara M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the annual mortality rate for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is decreasing, likely due to an increase in kidney transplantation rate, the survival probability for ESRD patients from day one of dialysis has not changed, and is still poor with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 34%. This is contributed to by a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in ESRD patients. In order to improve survival outcomes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular related mortality need to be identified. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreceptor sensitivity, and baroreceptor reflex effectiveness index can be used to assess heart rate control and may predict cardiovascular mortality. This paper will discuss how HRV, baroreceptor sensitivity, and baroreceptor reflex effectiveness index are altered in renal disease and the utility of these indices as markers of cardiac risk in this patient population. PMID:22294981

  12. The glomerulo-tubular junction: a target in renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Lindop, G B M; Gibson, I W; Downie, T T; Vass, D; Cohen, E P

    2002-05-01

    Both global and segmental glomerulopathies may damage specific areas of the renal glomerulus. Diseases associated with glomerular hyperperfusion cause lesions at the vascular pole, while diseases associated with proteinuria often damage the tubular pole. Atubular glomeruli are now known to be plentiful in a variety of common renal diseases. These glomeruli are disconnected from their tubule at the tubular pole and therefore cannot participate in the production of urine. It is widely believed that the disconnection is a result of external compression by periglomerular fibrosis. However, the variable anatomy and cell populations within both the glomerulus and the beginning of the proximal tubule at the glomerulo-tubular junction may also have important roles to play in the response to damage at this sensitive site of the nephron.

  13. [Computed serial densitometry of the tissue components of renal angiomyolipoma. A new radiohistologic method of in vivo pathologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Winkler, E A

    1990-12-01

    Computerised serial densitometry (CSD) of renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and its three tissue components was done in order to find out whether this procedure could help in differential diagnosis and provide better data for the understanding of AML presentation in CT imaging. It was found that AML detection in plain scan tomography requires a fat fraction of more than 50%. Angiomyolipomas with a fat fraction of less than 50% need computerised serial densitometry to enable differentiation from other unidentified tumours. The criteria to be used in these cases are 1) the low curve level and 2) the presence and slim shape of the initial circulatory peak. The principle of using standard densitometric curves of single tissue components and cells in in vivo tissue analysis might gain significance in the noninvasive, computerised qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of tumours and organs thus creating new possibilities for the diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of diseases. PMID:2287881

  14. Lipoprotein X Causes Renal Disease in LCAT Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Neufeld, Edward B; Thacker, Seth G; Vaisman, Boris; Pryor, Milton; Freeman, Lita A; Brantner, Christine A; Baranova, Irina; Francone, Nicolás O; Demosky, Stephen J; Vitali, Cecilia; Locatelli, Monica; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carlamaria; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-01-01

    Human familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD) is characterized by low HDL, accumulation of an abnormal cholesterol-rich multilamellar particle called lipoprotein-X (LpX) in plasma, and renal disease. The aim of our study was to determine if LpX is nephrotoxic and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of FLD renal disease. We administered a synthetic LpX, nearly identical to endogenous LpX in its physical, chemical and biologic characteristics, to wild-type and Lcat-/- mice. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an apoA-I and LCAT-dependent pathway for LpX conversion to HDL-like particles, which likely mediates normal plasma clearance of LpX. Plasma clearance of exogenous LpX was markedly delayed in Lcat-/- mice, which have low HDL, but only minimal amounts of endogenous LpX and do not spontaneously develop renal disease. Chronically administered exogenous LpX deposited in all renal glomerular cellular and matrical compartments of Lcat-/- mice, and induced proteinuria and nephrotoxic gene changes, as well as all of the hallmarks of FLD renal disease as assessed by histological, TEM, and SEM analyses. Extensive in vivo EM studies revealed LpX uptake by macropinocytosis into mouse glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells and delivery to lysosomes where it was degraded. Endocytosed LpX appeared to be degraded by both human podocyte and mesangial cell lysosomal PLA2 and induced podocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in vitro and renal Cxl10 expression in Lcat-/- mice. In conclusion, LpX is a nephrotoxic particle that in the absence of Lcat induces all of the histological and functional hallmarks of FLD and hence may serve as a biomarker for monitoring recombinant LCAT therapy. In addition, our studies suggest that LpX-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and release of cytokines by renal glomerular cells likely plays a role in the initiation and progression of FLD nephrosis. PMID:26919698

  15. Lipoprotein X Causes Renal Disease in LCAT Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Vaisman, Boris; Pryor, Milton; Freeman, Lita A.; Brantner, Christine A.; Baranova, Irina; Francone, Nicolás O.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Vitali, Cecilia; Locatelli, Monica; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carlamaria; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Human familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD) is characterized by low HDL, accumulation of an abnormal cholesterol-rich multilamellar particle called lipoprotein-X (LpX) in plasma, and renal disease. The aim of our study was to determine if LpX is nephrotoxic and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of FLD renal disease. We administered a synthetic LpX, nearly identical to endogenous LpX in its physical, chemical and biologic characteristics, to wild-type and Lcat-/- mice. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an apoA-I and LCAT-dependent pathway for LpX conversion to HDL-like particles, which likely mediates normal plasma clearance of LpX. Plasma clearance of exogenous LpX was markedly delayed in Lcat-/- mice, which have low HDL, but only minimal amounts of endogenous LpX and do not spontaneously develop renal disease. Chronically administered exogenous LpX deposited in all renal glomerular cellular and matrical compartments of Lcat-/- mice, and induced proteinuria and nephrotoxic gene changes, as well as all of the hallmarks of FLD renal disease as assessed by histological, TEM, and SEM analyses. Extensive in vivo EM studies revealed LpX uptake by macropinocytosis into mouse glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells and delivery to lysosomes where it was degraded. Endocytosed LpX appeared to be degraded by both human podocyte and mesangial cell lysosomal PLA2 and induced podocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in vitro and renal Cxl10 expression in Lcat-/- mice. In conclusion, LpX is a nephrotoxic particle that in the absence of Lcat induces all of the histological and functional hallmarks of FLD and hence may serve as a biomarker for monitoring recombinant LCAT therapy. In addition, our studies suggest that LpX-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and release of cytokines by renal glomerular cells likely plays a role in the initiation and progression of FLD nephrosis. PMID:26919698

  16. Some epidemiological aspects of patients with end stage renal diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Gaafary, M; Abou El-Fetouh, A; Zaki, M; Abdel-Kerim, A; Hafez, A S

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to describe End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) among Egyptian patients and to identify the possible risk factors of their disease. A case-control study was conducted with 2 control groups (patient or hospital control group and normal community control group) compared with ESRD cases on haemodialysis. The study revealed that hypertension, followed by obstructive uropathy, are the leading causes of ESRD. Conducting the multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to act independently as risk factors for ESRD, in that order of importance: past history of hypertension, family history of renal failure, past history of renal pain, smoking, urban origin of birth, past history of renal or urinary stones, past history of schistosomiasis, the presence of a near-by residential factory and past history of frequent hospitalization. A quality of life score has been invented. Women experienced a bad quality of life in relation to men and the score correlated positively with age. A number of recommendations have been generated.

  17. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, M; Martin, W; Metz, A; Deveaugh-Geiss, J

    1995-09-01

    1. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of psychosis in Parkinson's disease. 2. Psychosis in Parkinson's disease has been associated with all antiparkinsonian medications. The most common symptoms are vivid disturbing dreams, visual hallucinations and paranoid delusions. 3. The emergence of psychosis reduces the patient's functional capacity and increases caregiver burden. It also poses a therapeutic dilemma because effective treatment of psychotic symptoms may result in worsening of motor symptoms and vice versa. 4. Increased physician awareness is essential for proper diagnosis and management. Withdrawal of anticholinergic medications and amantadine followed by levodopa dose adjustment is effective in many patients. 5. Atypical neuroleptics, in low doses, may be successful when other measures have failed. However, these agents are not approved for treating Parkinsonian psychosis and must be considered as investigational therapies.

  18. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gigarel, N; Frydman, N; Burlet, P; Kerbrat, V; Tachdjian, G; Fanchin, R; Antignac, C; Frydman, R; Munnich, A; Steffann, J

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is one of the most common hereditary renal cystic diseases, and is caused by mutations in the PKHD1 gene. Due to the poor prognosis, there is a strong demand for prenatal diagnosis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) represents an alternative because it avoids the physical and emotional trauma of a pregnancy termination in the case of an affected fetus. A standardized single-cell diagnostic procedure was developed, based on haplotype analysis, enabling PGD to be offered to couples at risk of transmitting ARPKD. Six linked markers within (D6S1714 and D6S243), or in close proximity to (D6S272, D6S436, KIAA0057, D6S1662) the PKHD1 gene were tested by multiplex nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using a Qiagen multiplex PCR kit. PCR analyses were carried out on 50 single lymphocytes. The amplification rate was excellent (100%), with an allele drop-out (ADO) rate ranging from 0 to 8%. Five PGD cycles were performed and 23 embryos were biopsied and analysed using this test. Transferable embryos were obtained in 4 cycles, resulting in two pregnancies and the birth of a healthy boy. This standardized diagnostic procedure allowed the detection of recombination, contamination, and ADO events, providing high assay accuracy with wide applicability.

  19. Inflammatory Cutaneous Diseases in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Paola; Cavaliere, Giovanni; Zavattaro, Elisa; Veronese, Federica; Fava, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Although our study shows a relatively low incidence of these pathologies in transplanted patients—in agreement with the general action of immunosuppressant therapies in reducing inflammation—we scored a different efficacy of the various immunosuppressive regimens on inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. This information can be key for designing immunosuppressive regimens and devising accurate follow-up protocols. PMID:27548160

  20. Systemic and renal lipids in kidney disease development and progression.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patricia; Ducasa, Gloria Michelle; Fornoni, Alessia

    2016-03-15

    Altered lipid metabolism characterizes proteinuria and chronic kidney diseases. While it is thought that dyslipidemia is a consequence of kidney disease, a large body of clinical and experimental studies support that altered lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. In fact, accumulation of renal lipids has been observed in several conditions of genetic and nongenetic origins, linking local fat to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Statins, which target cholesterol synthesis, have not been proven beneficial to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. Therefore, other therapeutic strategies to reduce cholesterol accumulation in peripheral organs, such as the kidney, warrant further investigation. Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have revealed that functional HDL, rather than total HDL per se, may protect from both cardiovascular and kidney diseases, strongly supporting a role for altered cholesterol efflux in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lipid-induced renal damage have yet to be uncovered, several studies suggest novel mechanisms by which cholesterol, free fatty acids, and sphingolipids may affect glomerular and tubular cell function. This review will focus on the clinical and experimental evidence supporting a causative role of lipids in the pathogenesis of proteinuria and kidney disease, with a primary focus on podocytes.

  1. System for renal movement elimination and renal diagnosis supported by vague knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jens; Hiltner, Jens; Fathi, Madjid; Reusch, Bernd; Stattaus, Joerg; Hacklaender, Thomas

    2000-06-01

    For the analysis of renal function, sequences of 90 magnet resonance images of the abdominal region showing both kidneys are taken in intervals of two seconds after a contrast medium was applied. Respiration of the patients during the acquisition of the images leads to organ movements throughout the series. These displacements are corrected by using an extended cepstral technique. To minimize registration errors caused by inhomogeneous movements of organs and tissues during respiration, the cepstrum-relevant part of the images is limited to small regions of interest around both kidneys. Even organ movements of sub-pixel range can be detected. After correction, the kidneys are the same position throughout the sequence. The regions of interest marked in one image are projected to all other images. To archive diagnostic results, dynamic contrast medium evaluations for different tissues of the kidneys are computed with signal-intensity-time graphs. Using a-priori knowledge about parameters of the SIT-graph for a whole kidney and about organ shape and structure, pixels of the kidney-segment are divided into the three classes renal cortex, medulla and pelvis. As a result, precise graphs can be computed for each tissue. The evaluation of the system is in progress, time save is more than one hour per patient.

  2. The diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Bair, G O

    1992-09-01

    Lyme disease has probably been reported for at least 80 years, with the cause unknown until the discovery of the Ixodes ricinus complex tick-borne spirochete B. burgdorferi. The incidence of diagnosed cases appears to be increasing in Kansas and elsewhere. A negative laboratory test does not exclude the possibility of the disease. At present, no accurate laboratory screen for the illness is available. The diagnosis must be considered when acute or chronic clinical manifestations reviewed in this paper appear in patients. Additional clinical criteria and modified CDC guidelines are proposed to help clinicians determine who should be treated. Current treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:1447864

  3. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shlomo, Y; Sieradzan, K

    1995-01-01

    Since the introduction of levodopa therapy for idiopathic Parkinson's disease over 20 years ago, there has been an awakening of research interest in this chronic neuro-degenerative disorder. This paper describes current understanding of the role of genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and problems associated with both diagnosis and management. It briefly outlines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological options for treatment. Despite an increasing armoury of available treatments, the optimum management for this condition remains controversial. PMID:7619574

  4. Early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jianling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Liu, Songhao

    2002-04-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in evaluating the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its uses are growing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show the presence of cerebral infarcts and white matter disease. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which visualize such cerebral functions as glucose metabolism and blood flow, may provide positive evidence to support the diagnosis of AD. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed technique which enables the internal impedance of an object to be imaged noninvasively.

  5. Diagnosis and management of polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Tom J G; Drenth, Joost P H

    2013-02-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as a liver that contains >20 cysts. The condition is associated with two genetically distinct diseases: as a primary phenotype in isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and as an extrarenal manifestation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Processes involved in hepatic cystogenesis include ductal plate malformation with concomitant abnormal fluid secretion, altered cell-matrix interaction and cholangiocyte hyperproliferation. PLD is usually a benign disease, but can cause debilitating abdominal symptoms in some patients. The main risk factors for growth of liver cysts are female sex, exogenous oestrogen use and multiple pregnancies. Ultrasonography is very useful for achieving a correct diagnosis of a polycystic liver and to differentiate between ADPKD and PCLD. Current radiological and surgical therapies for symptomatic patients include aspiration-sclerotherapy, fenestration, segmental hepatic resection and liver transplantation. Medical therapies that interact with regulatory mechanisms controlling expansion and growth of liver cysts are under investigation. Somatostatin analogues are promising; several clinical trials have shown that these drugs can reduce the volume of polycystic livers. The purpose of this Review is to provide an update on the diagnosis and management of PLD with a focus on literature published in the past 4 years.

  6. VEGF-121 preserves renal microvessel structure and ameliorates secondary renal disease following acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Ellen C.; Friedrich, Jessica L.; Basile, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Acute kidney injury induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) compromises microvascular density and predisposes to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sodium-dependent hypertension. VEGF-121 was administered to rats fed a standard (0.4%) sodium diet at various times following recovery from I/R injury for up to 35 days. VEGF-121 had no effect on the initial loss of renal function, as indicated by serum creatinine levels measured 24 h after injury. Serum creatinine levels declined thereafter, indicative of renal repair. Rats were then switched to an elevated (4.0%) sodium diet for an additional 28 days to induce CKD. The 4.0% sodium diet enhanced renal hypertrophy, interstitial volume, albuminuria, and cardiac hypertrophy relative to postischemic animals maintained on the 0.4% sodium diet. Administration of VEGF-121 from day 0 to 14, day 0 to 35, or day 3 to 35 after I/R suppressed the effects of sodium diet on CKD development, while delayed administration of VEGF-121 from day 21 to 35 had no effect. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein levels were upregulated in postischemic animals, and this effect was significantly increased by the 4.0% sodium diet but was not influenced by prior treatment with VEGF. Conversely, microvascular density was preserved in postischemic animals treated with VEGF-121 relative to vehicle-treated postischemic animals. These data suggest that early, but not delayed, treatment with VEGF-121 can preserve vascular structure after ischemia and influence chronic renal function in response to elevated sodium intake. PMID:18799550

  7. Epidemiology and Predictors of End-stage Renal Disease in Taiwanese Children With Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jei-Wen; Tsai, Hsin-Lin; Yang, Ling-Yu; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) varies among countries, with Asia reporting a higher incidence in comparison with Western countries. We investigated the epidemiologic features of INS and attempted to identify factors that predispose individuals to develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods Claims data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program from 1996 to 2008 were used to investigate the epidemiologic features and clinical variables of INS (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code, 581) in children younger than 18 years. Results We enrolled 4083 children (male-female ratio, 1.91:1). During the 13 years of observation, annual incidence decreased from 9.91 to 3.36 per 100 000 children. Annual number of hospital admissions progressively decreased during the first 3 years after diagnosis. At 3.14 ± 2.77 years after INS onset, ESRD had developed in 145 (3.6%) children. Independent predictors of ESRD included older age at onset, acute renal failure (ARF), hypertensive encephalopathy, and a histologic subtype with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Conclusions Pediatric INS in Taiwan was more frequent in boys. Unlike India, the current incidence of pediatric INS in Taiwan is very similar to that reported in Western studies. Older age at disease onset, ARF, hypertensive encephalopathy, and FSGS on biopsy are important predictors of poor renal outcome. PMID:22971550

  8. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mcinnes, Andrew D.; DeGroote, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease. PMID:25371840

  9. Improvement of Erdheim-Chester disease-related renal failure after treatment with anakinra

    PubMed Central

    Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Graziani, Giorgio; Reggiani, Francesco; Buemi, Michele; Badalamenti, Salvatore; Ponticelli, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by infiltrates of lipid-laden CD68+/CD1a− histiocytes, affecting heart, lungs, central nervous system, and bones. Kidney and adjacent structures can also be affected, leading to renal failure in about 30% of cases. The diagnosis is challenging, and treatment is generally based on administration of interferon-alpha (IFNα), but preliminary results also showed the therapeutic efficacy of anakinra, an antagonist of the receptor of interleukin-1 (IL-1). We report the case of an elderly patient with ECD and severe involvement of the heart and kidneys who was successfully treated with anakinra. PMID:26877969

  10. Improvement of Erdheim-Chester disease-related renal failure after treatment with anakinra.

    PubMed

    Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Graziani, Giorgio; Reggiani, Francesco; Buemi, Michele; Badalamenti, Salvatore; Ponticelli, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by infiltrates of lipid-laden CD68(+)/CD1a(-) histiocytes, affecting heart, lungs, central nervous system, and bones. Kidney and adjacent structures can also be affected, leading to renal failure in about 30% of cases. The diagnosis is challenging, and treatment is generally based on administration of interferon-alpha (IFNα), but preliminary results also showed the therapeutic efficacy of anakinra, an antagonist of the receptor of interleukin-1 (IL-1). We report the case of an elderly patient with ECD and severe involvement of the heart and kidneys who was successfully treated with anakinra.

  11. Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases by Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Mami; Bando, Mika; Hiroshima, Yuka

    Many middle aged and old persons take periodontal diseases that mainly cause teeth loss and result in some systemic diseases. The prevention of periodontal diseases is very important for oral and systemic health, but the present diagnostic examination is not fully objective and suitable. To diagnose periodontal diseases exactly, some biomarkers shown inflammation, tissue degradation and bone resorption, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva are known. We demonstrated that GCF levels of calprotectin, inflammation-related protein, and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, bone metabolism-related protein, were associated with clinical condition of periodontal diseases, and suggested that these proteins may be useful biomarkers for periodontal diseases. Recently, determinations of genes and proteins by using microdevices are studied for diagnosis of some diseases. We detected calprotectin protein by chemiluminescent immunoassay on a microchip and showed the possibility of specific and quantitative detection of calprotectin in a very small amount of GCF. To determine plural markers in GCF by using microdevices contributes to develop accurate, objective diagnostic system of periodontal diseases.

  12. Renal Resistive Index and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D.; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L.; Nally, Joseph V.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.

    2015-01-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in CKD patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1,962 patients with an eGFR 15-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005 - October 2011) from an existing CKD registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure and use of beta blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI ≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI ≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.29, 95% CI, 1.02- 1.65, P< 0.05). This association was more pronounced among younger patients and those with stage 3 CKD. Non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy related deaths were higher in those with RRI ≥0.70. RRI ≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive CKD patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes. PMID:26077569

  13. Graves' disease in a dialysis dependent chronic renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538

  14. A pedigree study of perinatally lethal renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bankier, A; de Campo, M; Newell, R; Rogers, J G; Danks, D M

    1985-01-01

    A family study of perinatally lethal renal disease (PLRD) was undertaken in the State of Victoria, Australia, for the years 1961 to 1980. A total of 221 cases was ascertained through hospital and necropsy records and confirmed by necropsy findings. There were 134 cases of bilateral renal agenesis (BRA), 34 cases of unilateral agenesis with dysplasia of the other kidney (URA/RD), 42 cases of bilateral renal dysplasia (BRD), and 11 cases of renal aplasia. Parents of 131 babies were interviewed and 153 parents from 82 families had a renal ultrasound examination. In the period of best ascertainment (1975 to 1980) the frequency of PLRD was 0.27 per 1000 and of BRA 0.16 per 1000. There were 10 cases of sirenomelia, a frequency of 0.008 per 1000. For all families of PLRD, 15 of 423 (3.6%) sibs and three of 1579 (0.2%) first cousins were affected. One family had three sibs with BRA and four had two sibs with BRA. One pair of sibs and two first cousins had BRA in one and URA/RD in the other affected. One baby had BRD with an affected first cousin. The nature of the renal lesion was not established. When the index case had BRA, 14 in 283 (5.6%) sibs had PLRD. Where the index case had BRA and urogenital defects, but no birth defects in other organs, 12 of 148 sibs (8%) were affected. None of the sibs had BRA when the index case had BRA as part of a multiple malformation complex. In the multiple malformation group, however, five of 40 (12.5%) sibs had similar patterns of malformations. Renal ultrasound abnormalities were no more frequent in parents of two affected babies (one of 18) than in the other parents (nine of 135). Our findings confirm that BRA and URA are genetically related. There are a number of conclusions which are important for genetic counselling. There is a high likelihood of recurrence (8%) in sibs when the index case has BRA and urogenital abnormalities alone. When BRA is part of a multiple malformation complex, the risk of recurrence of multiple

  15. Bilateral renal lymphoangiomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Raed, Alqahtani; Sultan, Alkhateeb; Bader, Al-Mutairi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal lymphangiomatosis is a rare congenital benign disease of renal lymphatic system, here we are presenting a very rare form of disease which is bilateral form. Presentation of the case A young adult presented to our clinic after being referred from primary care clinic with intermittent bilateral flank pain and no other symptoms after extensive radiological investigations diagnosis has been made and confirmed by radiological finding of disease. Active treatment usually preserved for complex cases and for the complications of the disease but in our patient as needed analgesia worked well in controlling his intermittent pain and his wish not to pursue any intervention. The vague presentation with initial imaging rising suspicion of renal tumor or complex renal cyst might cause psychological street on the patient, which our patient had, but reassurance after extensive radiological work up relive that's stress. Discussion Although it is very rare disease to be bilateral but wide variety of other differential diagnoses make importance of disease recognition and accurate diagnosis is the key. Conclusion Renal lymphangiomatosis is a rare benign disease of renal lymphatic, which usually affect one side, but bilateral form is very rare form, which may raise the suspicions of genetic form of renal malignancy. Accurate diagnosis requires work up to role out malignant and other renal tumor, which require active surgical management. PMID:26719997

  16. End-stage renal disease in Indonesia: treatment development.

    PubMed

    Prodjosudjadi, Wiguno; Suhardjono, A

    2009-01-01

    The number of cases of chronic kidney disease is growing rapidly, especially in the developing world. At a certain level of renal function, progression of chronic kidney disease to endstage renal disease (ESRD) is inevitable. ESRD has become a major health problem because it is a devastating medical condition, and the cost of treatment is a huge economic burden. This article presents data collected from 13 nephrology centers in response to specifically designed questionnaires. These centers were divided into 7 groups on the basis of geographic location. Previous data had given the impression that the incidence and prevalence of ESRD had increased, and the results of this study support these previous data. Since a national registry of ESRD has just been developed for Indonesia and we can present only limited data in this study, the numbers in this article underestimate the true incidence and prevalence rates. Although hemodialysis facilities have been developed rapidly, further development is still required. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis as an alternative renal replacement therapy (RRT) is only now being introduced. Kidney transplantation programs expand very slowly. RRT still imposes a high cost of treatment for ESRD; therefore, these treatments are unaffordable for most patients. Recently, government health insurance has covered financially strained families requiring RRT. Since the cost of RRT for ESRD has significantly increased over time, the management approach should be shifted from treatment to prevention. PMID:19484872

  17. Lipotoxicity as a trigger factor of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Adriana; Martínez-García, Cristina; Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, rapid changes in lifestyle have led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and kidney disease. The surplus of calories is normally stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue. However, excess lipids can also accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, contributing to their damage through toxic processes named lipotoxicity. The kidney is negatively affected by dyslipidemia, lipid accumulation and changes in circulating adipokines that bring about alterations in renal lipid metabolism and promote insulin resistance, generation of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress, ultimately leading to alterations in the glomerular filtration barrier and renal failure. This review focuses on the pathogenic molecular mechanisms associated with renal lipotoxicity, and presents new insights about potential new therapeutic targets and biomarkers such as microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, of relevance for the early detection of lipid-associated kidney disease. PMID:26956132

  18. Renal diseases in haemophilic patients: pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Pasquale; Rampino, Teresa; Gregorini, Marilena; Fasoli, Gianluca; Gamba, Gabriella; Dal Canton, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Haemophilia A and B are genetic X-linked bleeding disorders, caused by mutations in genes encoding factors VIII and IX, respectively. Clinical manifestations of haemophilia are spontaneous haemorrhage or acute bleeding caused by minor trauma, resulting in severe functional consequences that can culminate in a debilitating arthropathy. Life expectancy and quality of life of patients with haemophilia have dramatically improved over the last years, mainly for new therapeutic options and the awareness to the risk of HCV and HIV infections. Different clinical problems arise from this important change in history of patients with haemophilia. In particular, ageing-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, and chronic viral infections are emerging as new challenges in this patient population. Among the different types of chronic illnesses, renal diseases are of special interest as they involve some difficult management issues. In fact, decisions regarding adequate preventive strategies and viral infection treatment, the choice of the dialytic modality, placement of vascular access and prescription of dialytic treatments are particularly complicated, because only few data are available. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of renal damage in patients with haemophilia, especially in those with blood-transmitted viral infections, and the major issues about the management of renal diseases, including problems related to dialytic treatment and kidney transplantation, providing practical algorithms to guide the clinical decision-making process.

  19. [The application of sonography in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying renal lesions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frommhold, H; Doischwitz, D; Brühl, P

    1976-11-01

    Two dimensional ultrasound echography is a reliable method for demonstrating the topography of retroperitoneal space-occupoing lesions which causes little inconvenience to the patient. This is particularly the case in the upper abdomen, where the differentiation between renal, suprarenal, pancreatic and splenic lesions has been difficult. The criteria for the differential diagnosis of sonographic findings are described and discussed. Echography should be used before invasive methods, particularly angiography, are employed.

  20. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Renal Pathology Initiative: Classification of Glomerular Diseases in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Mohr, F C; Aresu, L; Brown, C A; James, C; Jansen, J H; Spangler, W L; van der Lugt, J J; Kass, P H; Brovida, C; Cowgill, L D; Heiene, R; Polzin, D J; Syme, H; Vaden, S L; van Dongen, A M; Lees, G E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of canine renal biopsy tissue has generally relied on light microscopic (LM) evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections ranging in thickness from 3 to 5 µm. Advanced modalities, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (IF), have been used sporadically or retrospectively. Diagnostic algorithms of glomerular diseases have been extrapolated from the World Health Organization classification scheme for human glomerular disease. With the recent establishment of 2 veterinary nephropathology services that evaluate 3-µm sections with a panel of histochemical stains and routinely perform TEM and IF, a standardized objective species-specific approach for the diagnosis of canine glomerular disease was needed. Eight veterinary pathologists evaluated 114 parameters (lesions) in renal biopsy specimens from 89 dogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed 2 large categories of glomerular disease based on the presence or absence of immune complex deposition: The immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) category included cases with histologic lesions of membranoproliferative or membranous patterns. The second category included control dogs and dogs with non-ICGN (glomerular amyloidosis or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). Cluster analysis performed on only the LM parameters led to misdiagnosis of 22 of the 89 cases-that is, ICGN cases moved to the non-ICGN branch of the dendrogram or vice versa, thereby emphasizing the importance of advanced diagnostic modalities in the evaluation of canine glomerular disease. Salient LM, TEM, and IF features for each pattern of disease were identified, and a preliminary investigation of related clinicopathologic data was performed. PMID:25957358

  1. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Renal Pathology Initiative: Classification of Glomerular Diseases in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Mohr, F C; Aresu, L; Brown, C A; James, C; Jansen, J H; Spangler, W L; van der Lugt, J J; Kass, P H; Brovida, C; Cowgill, L D; Heiene, R; Polzin, D J; Syme, H; Vaden, S L; van Dongen, A M; Lees, G E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of canine renal biopsy tissue has generally relied on light microscopic (LM) evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections ranging in thickness from 3 to 5 µm. Advanced modalities, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (IF), have been used sporadically or retrospectively. Diagnostic algorithms of glomerular diseases have been extrapolated from the World Health Organization classification scheme for human glomerular disease. With the recent establishment of 2 veterinary nephropathology services that evaluate 3-µm sections with a panel of histochemical stains and routinely perform TEM and IF, a standardized objective species-specific approach for the diagnosis of canine glomerular disease was needed. Eight veterinary pathologists evaluated 114 parameters (lesions) in renal biopsy specimens from 89 dogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed 2 large categories of glomerular disease based on the presence or absence of immune complex deposition: The immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) category included cases with histologic lesions of membranoproliferative or membranous patterns. The second category included control dogs and dogs with non-ICGN (glomerular amyloidosis or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). Cluster analysis performed on only the LM parameters led to misdiagnosis of 22 of the 89 cases-that is, ICGN cases moved to the non-ICGN branch of the dendrogram or vice versa, thereby emphasizing the importance of advanced diagnostic modalities in the evaluation of canine glomerular disease. Salient LM, TEM, and IF features for each pattern of disease were identified, and a preliminary investigation of related clinicopathologic data was performed.

  2. Drosophila provides rapid modeling of renal development, function, and disease.

    PubMed

    Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of specialized excretory cells is a cornerstone of the metazoan radiation, and the basic tasks performed by Drosophila and human renal systems are similar. The development of the Drosophila renal (Malpighian) tubule is a classic example of branched tubular morphogenesis, allowing study of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions, stem cell-mediated regeneration, and the evolution of a glomerular kidney. Tubule function employs conserved transport proteins, such as the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and V-ATPase, aquaporins, inward rectifier K(+) channels, and organic solute transporters, regulated by cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide, and calcium. In addition to generation and selective reabsorption of primary urine, the tubule plays roles in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, and in innate immunity. The gene expression resource FlyAtlas.org shows that the tubule is an ideal tissue for the modeling of renal diseases, such as nephrolithiasis and Bartter syndrome, or for inborn errors of metabolism. Studies are assisted by uniquely powerful genetic and transgenic resources, the widespread availability of mutant stocks, and low-cost, rapid deployment of new transgenics to allow manipulation of renal function in an organotypic context.

  3. [Molecular diagnosis of Gaucher disease in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Cherif, W; Ben Turkia, H; Ben Rhouma, F; Riahi, I; Chemli, J; Amaral, O; Sá Miranda, M C; Caillaud, C; Kaabachi, N; Tebib, N; Abdelhak, S; Ben Dridi, M F

    2013-04-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid β-glucosidase. In order to determine the mutation spectrum in Tunisia, we performed recurrent mutation screening in 30 Tunisian patients with Gaucher disease. Screening of recurrent mutation by PCR/RFLP and direct sequencing had shown that N370S was the most frequent mutation (22/50 mutant alleles, 44%), followed by L444P mutation, which is found in 16% (8/50 mutant alleles). The recombinant allele (RecNciI) represented 14%. Our findings revealed that the genotype N370S/RecNciI was mosst frequent in patients with childhood onset and it was associated with severe visceral involvement. The screening of these three mutations provided a simple tool for molecular diagnosis of Gaucher disease in Tunisian patients and allowed also genetic counselling for their family members.

  4. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  5. Survival Analysis of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Gayo, W. S.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a survival analysis of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) under Kaplan-Meier Estimates and Weibull Distribution. The data were obtained from the records of V. L. MakabaliMemorial Hospital with respect to time t (patient's age), covariates such as developed secondary disease (Pulmonary Congestion and Cardiovascular Disease), gender, and the event of interest: the death of ESRD patients. Survival and hazard rates were estimated using NCSS for Weibull Distribution and SPSS for Kaplan-Meier Estimates. These lead to the same conclusion that hazard rate increases and survival rate decreases of ESRD patient diagnosed with Pulmonary Congestion, Cardiovascular Disease and both diseases with respect to time. It also shows that female patients have a greater risk of death compared to males. The probability risk was given the equation R = 1 — e-H(t) where e-H(t) is the survival function, H(t) the cumulative hazard function which was created using Cox-Regression.

  6. Renal disease: environment, race, or genes?

    PubMed

    Adler, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is over-represented in people of color. This reflects both environmental and genetic factors. Numerous studies assess the effects of access to care and patient adherence in the development of kidney diseases. After correcting for these factors, genetic influences remain. Genetic approaches to discerning genes that predispose to diabetic nephropathy include candidate gene approaches, linkage analysis, mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium, and transmission disequilibrium testing. Numerous candidate genes have been identified, although few have been confirmed apart from those representing genes in the renin-angiotensin system. The results of linkage analysis studies have similarly resulted in genomic regions purported to show linkage in a variety of ethnic groups that have most often not been confirmed in other ethnic groups, and sometimes in other groups of similar ethnicity but different phenotype definitions. The chromosomal regions determining glomerular filtration rate do not appear to be localized to the same chromosome as those related to proteinuria. Large cohorts of subjects have now been amassed by numerous research groups, and genome-wide scanning results involving much larger cohorts are anticipated to be published in the next few years. It is hoped that these strategies will ultimately identify chromosomsal regions and/ or genes that confer risk for diabetic nephropathy, and in so doing, provide clues to new therapies.

  7. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is probably one of the most prevalent diseases in the world that also compromises the quality of life of the affected significantly. Its incidence in Brazil is 12%, corresponding to 20 million individuals. Objective To update the GERD management and the new trends on diagnosis and treatment, reviewing the international and Brazilian experience on it. Method The literature review was based on papers published on Medline/Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs, Embase and Cochrane crossing the following headings: gastroesophageal reflux disease, diagnosis, clinical treatment, surgery, fundoplication. Results Various factors are involved on GERD physiopathology, the most important being the transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Clinical manifestations are heartburn, regurgitation (typical symptoms), cough, chest pain, asthma, hoarseness and throat clearing (atypical symptoms), which may be followed or not by typical symptoms. GERD patients may present complications such as peptic stenosis, hemorrhage, and Barrett's esophagus, which is the most important predisposing factor to adenocarcinoma. The GERD diagnosis must be based on the anamnesis and the symptoms must be evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, frequency, triggering and relief factors, pattern of evolution and impact on the patient's quality of life. The diagnosis requires confirmation with different exams. The goal of the clinical treatment is to relieve the symptoms and surgical treatment is indicated for patients who require continued drug use, with intolerance to prolonged clinical treatment and with GERD complications. Conclusion GERD is a major digestive health problem and affect 12% of Brazilian people. The anamnesis is fundamental for the diagnosis of GERD, with special analysis of the typical and atypical symptoms (duration, intensity, frequency, triggering and relief factors, evolution and impact on the life quality). High digestive endoscopy and

  8. Huntington's disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Purdon, S E; Mohr, E; Ilivitsky, V; Jones, B D

    1994-01-01

    This review of the clinical features of Huntington's disease incorporates recent developments in pathophysiology, preclinical diagnosis and treatment. Although the mechanism initiating and guiding the cell destruction in this illness is currently unknown, the excitatory neurotoxin and the energy metabolism models may provide a valuable direction for future research. Similarly, although the precise relation between the neuroanatomical damage in Huntington's disease and the functional disability is not clear, applications of recently developed neural connection models have implicated a number of important brain-behavior associations. Preclinical diagnostic procedures have evolved through successive iterations that have each contributed to increased reliability. New functional brain imaging techniques are sure to add to this promising domain in the future. Preclinical diagnosis has been stimulated by the recent isolation of the Huntington's gene which has also rekindled awareness of the importance of informed genetic counselling and the inherent ethical dilemmas in genetic testing. Treatment approaches to Huntington's disease have been confined to palliative care with secondary symptom management and psychotherapeutic support. Experimental therapeutic strategies for the illness itself have had a rather disappointing record to date. Further developments in NMDA antagonism and neural cell grafting may provide some hope for the future. PMID:7528535

  9. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  10. Amylase to creatine clearance ratio in renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Andriulli, A; Bergia, R; Masoero, G; Baiardi, P; Pellegrino, S; Tondolo, M

    1979-07-01

    In order to assess to what extent glomerular or tubular function is involved in the renal handling of amylase and the lysozyme to creatine clearance ratios (CAm/CCr and CLys/CCr) were evaluated in 22 healthy volunteers and in 71 patients with different renal diseases. In normal controls, the mean CAm/CCr was 2.55 +/-1.54 SD, with an upper normal limit of 5.56. A normal ratio was found in patients with glomerulonephritis, with or without a nephrotic syndrome, and in patients with pyelonephritis. A significantly elevated ratio (P less than 0.001) was instead found in patients with uremia and in patients with uremia and in patients with either chronic or acute tubular damage. The CLus/CCr ratio was elevated in all the groups, except in patients with glomerulonephritis and minimal proteinuria. These results show that in humans, as in animals, the amylase filtered load undergoes partial tubular reabsorption. In renal diseases, an increase of the CAm/CCr is caused by either a marked reduction of functioning nephrons or a severe tubular damage, while the glomerular permeability does not seem to be involved. Some other mechanism is probably involved in the elevation of the CAm/CCr during acute pancreatitis.

  11. Renal impairment in different phenotypes of Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghao; Zhou, Zhihua; Hu, Jiyuan; Han, Yongzhu; Wang, Xun; Cheng, Nan; Wu, Yunfan; Yang, Renmin

    2015-11-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease resulting in the chronic deposition of copper in both liver and brain. This can lead to hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations. Renal impairment can occur in any period of WD, but the mechanism is not yet known. In this study, we analyzed the clinical data of 691 newly diagnosed WD patients to investigate the blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and uric acid (UA) levels in different subtypes of WD. This study included 691 newly diagnosed WD patients, 34 asymptomatic cases, and 127 healthy controls. The entire sample was assessed for serum levels of BUN, Cr, and UA. We found that the levels of BUN and Cr in WD patients who had neurological manifestations were higher (p < 0.001). In contrast, those patients presenting with a combined neurological and hepatic condition showed the lowest serum levels of UA (p = 0.026). There are differences in renal impairment between the endo-phenotypes of WD. Renal impairment can reflect differential copper deposition in organs other than the liver.

  12. Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry: Committee Report for 2009 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Takao; Kohda, Yukimasa; Nishi, Shinichi; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Iida, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Tamaki; Higuchi, Makoto; Hattori, Motoshi; Oka, Kazumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tetsuro; Hataya, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Morozumi, Kunio; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Shimizu, Akira; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Joh, Kensuke; Nagata, Michio; Taguchi, Takashi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-04-01

    The Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) was started in 2007 and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (J-KDR) was then started in 2009 by the Committee for Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Committee for the Kidney Disease Registry of the Japanese Society of Nephrology. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the registered data from 2009 and 2010. For the J-KDR, data were collected from 4,016 cases, including 3,336 (83.1 %) by the J-RBR and 680 (16.9 %) other cases from 59 centers in 2009, and from 4,681 cases including 4,106 J-RBR cases (87.7 %) and 575 other cases (12.3 %) from 94 centers in 2010, including the affiliate hospitals. In the J-RBR, 3,165 native kidneys (94.9 %) and 171 renal grafts (5.1 %) and 3,869 native kidneys (94.2 %) and 237 renal grafts (5.8 %) were registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Patients younger than 20 years of age comprised 12.1 % of the registered cases, and those 65 years and over comprised 24.5 % of the cases with native kidneys in 2009 and 2010. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic nephritic syndrome (55.4 % and 50.0 % in 2009 and 2010, respectively), followed by nephrotic syndrome (22.4 % and 27.0 %); the most frequent pathological diagnosis as classified by the pathogenesis was IgA nephropathy (31.6 % and 30.4 %), followed by primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) (27.2 % and 28.1 %). Among the primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) in the patients with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the most common histopathology in 2009 (40.3 %) and minor glomerular abnormalities (50.0 %) were the most common in 2010 in native kidneys in the J-RBR. Five new secondary and longitudinal research studies by the J-KDR were started in 2009 and one was started in 2010.

  13. Meaningful rehabilitation of the end-stage renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Thornton, T A; Hakim, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this highly technological age, health care providers are called to attend to the patient as a whole person, with dreams and goals and a desire for purpose and meaning in life. In this article, we propose a broadened definition of rehabilitation and a rehabilitation program designed to effect an improvement in the quality of life of each renal patient by aiming to restore meaningful existence in each of their lives. An individualized plan for rehabilitation can be constructed and implemented with far-reaching success when the focus is on the life goals of the patient, whether physical, social, psychological, or intellectual. These programs not only enhance the quality of life of the patient with end-stage renal disease, but are cost-effective, both at the societal level and at the level of the dialysis clinic. PMID:9165654

  14. [Modern diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, N H; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has significantly improved in recent years by the application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). In addition to detection of infectious agents, molecular methods were also used for characterization of pathogens (typing, genotypic resistance testing). In contrast to conventional Sanger sequencing of amplicons, new sequencing technologies (next generation sequencing) are able to identify resistant variants that represent only small minorities in a heterogeneous population. NAATs are also available as fully automated closed systems that can be run independently of centralized laboratories and will become increasingly important for point-of-care testing. PMID:26646440

  15. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Parenchymal Chronic Renal Diseases - Part 2.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Meola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Secondary nephropathies can be associated with disreactive immunological disorders or with a non-inflammatory glomerular damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis as in other connective tissue diseases, kidney volume and cortex echogenicity are the parameters that best correlate with clinical severity of the disease, even if the morphological aspect is generally non-specific. Doppler studies in SLE document the correlation between resistance indexes (RIs) values and renal function. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) causes different types of renal damage. At ultrasound (US), kidneys have almost a normal volume, while during superinfection they enlarge (coronal diameter >13 cm) and become globular, loosing their normal aspect. Cortex appears highly hyperechoic, uniform or patchy. Microcalcifications of renal cortex and medulla are a US sign that can suggest HIV. In amyloidosis, kidneys appear normal or increased in volume in the early stages of disease. Renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic and pyramids can show normal size and morphology, but more often they appear poorly defined and hyperechoic. RIs are very high since the early stages of the disease. Nephromegaly with normal kidney shape is the first sign of lymphoma or multiple myeloma. In systemic vasculitis, renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic, while pyramids appear hypoechoic and globular due to interstitial edema. When vasculitis determines advanced chronic kidney disease stages, kidneys show no specific signs. Microcirculation damage is highlighted by increased RIs values >0.70 in the chronic phase. PMID:27169551

  16. Batten disease: features to facilitate early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J; Holder, G E; Herbert, H; Adams, G G W

    2006-01-01

    Aims To ascertain the clinical and electrophysiological features in patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (jNCL/Batten disease) and to identify those features that facilitate early diagnosis. Methods Nine patients with jNCL were identified retrospectively and their case notes reviewed. All had undergone an extensive clinical examination, including electrophysiology. Blood and molecular genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis. Results Age at onset ranged from 4–8 years. At presentation, two of nine patients had normal fundi; only two of nine patients had a bull's eye maculopathy. The electroretinogram (ERG) findings in this series included undetectable rod specific ERGs, an electronegative maximal response, reduced and delayed cone flicker ERGs, reduction in the b:a ratio in the photopic single flash ERG, and an undetectable pattern ERG. Vacuolated lymphocytes on peripheral blood film testing were present in eight of nine patients. Five of eight patients were homozygous for the 1.02 kb deletion on the CLN3 gene on molecular genetic testing; two of eight patients were heterozygous for that deletion. Conclusion jNCL should be considered in children of 10 years and under presenting with visual loss and fundal changes ranging from normal through to pigmentary/atrophic changes or a bull's eye maculopathy. Electrophysiology may suggest jNCL. Although currently untreatable, early diagnosis is important to institute appropriate counselling and support. PMID:16754648

  17. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  18. Automated system for periodontal disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Salvador E.; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of periodontal disease is one of the most important data for the clinicians in order to achieve correct planning and treatment. Clinical measure of the periodontal sulcus depth is the most important datum to know the exact state of periodontal disease. These measures must be done periodically study bone resorption evolution around teeth. Time factor of resorption indicates aggressiveness of periodontitis. Manual probes are commonly used with direct reading. Mechanical probes give automatic signal but this method uses complicated and heavy probes that are only limited for University researchers. Probe position must be the same to have right diagnosis. Digital image analysis of periodontal probing provides practical, accurate and easy tool. Gum and plaque index could also be digitally measured with this method.

  19. The diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease by counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, M G

    1980-01-01

    Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) was found to be a rapid, specific method for detecting circulating antibodies to Legionella pneumophila, the aetiologic agent of Legionnaires' disease in human sera. Optimum conditions for performing the test are given. Better precipitin lines are observed when the gel support is neutral, and a result may be obtained in 90 to 180 minutes. Comparison of results of CIE and indirect fluorescent antibody tests on 22 sera from patients with Legionnaires' disease and on 27 sera from healthy control subjects showed 100% correlation, and 75 paired sera from patients with pneumonia of unknown aetiology showed 96.7% correlation. Laboratory diagnosis may be made quickly and accurately by CIE. The method is simple and easily performed in the routine laboratory. The antigen is stable at 4 degrees C for at least six months. Images p1177-a PMID:7005268

  20. Diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Banchs, Isabel; Casasnovas, Carlos; Albertí, Antonia; De Jorge, Laura; Povedano, Mónica; Montero, Jordi; Martínez-Matos, Juan Antonio; Volpini, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) is a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions that affect the peripheral nervous system. The disease is characterized by degeneration or abnormal development of peripheral nerves and exhibits a range of patterns of genetic transmission. In the majority of cases, CMT first appears in infancy, and its manifestations include clumsiness of gait, predominantly distal muscular atrophy of the limbs, and deformity of the feet in the form of foot drop. It can be classified according to the pattern of transmission (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X linked), according to electrophysiological findings (demyelinating or axonal), or according to the causative mutant gene. The classification of CMT is complex and undergoes constant revision as new genes and mutations are discovered. In this paper, we review the most efficient diagnostic algorithms for the molecular diagnosis of CMT, which are based on clinical and electrophysiological data. PMID:19826499

  1. Renal stone disease in spinal-cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John

    2012-08-01

    Renal stone disease is common among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They frequently have recurrent stones, staghorn calculi, and bilateral stone disease. The potential risk factors for stones in the SCI population are lesion level, bladder management strategy, specific metabolic changes, and frequent urinary tract infections. There has been a reduction in struvite stones among these patients, likely as a result of advances in their urologic care. The clinical presentation of stone disease in patients with SCI may involve frequent urinary infections or urosepsis, and at the time of presentation patients may need emergency renal drainage. The proportion of patients who have their stones treated with different modalities is largely unknown. Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is commonly used to manage stones in patients with SCI, and there have been reports of stone-free rates of 50% to 70%. The literature suggests that the morbidity associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy in these patients is considerable. Ureteroscopy is a common modality used in the general population to treat patients with upper tract stone disease. Traditional limitations of this procedure in patients with SCI have likely been overcome with new flexible scopes; however, the medical literature has not specifically reported on its use among patients with SCI.

  2. Inflammation in end-stage renal disease: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter

    2006-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. As traditional risk factors cannot alone explain the unacceptable high prevalence and incidence of CVD in this high-risk population, inflammation (interrelated to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, wasting and endothelial dysfunction) has been suggested to be a significant contributor. Indeed, several different inflammatory biomarkers, such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), have been shown to independently predict mortality in ESRD patients. As CRP is so strongly associated with vascular disease it has been suggested that this hepatic-derived protein is not only a marker, but also a mediator, of vascular disease. Although in vitro data from studies on endothelial cells, monocytes-macrophages and smooth muscle cells support a direct role for CRP in atherogenesis, data from studies performed in vivo have been controversial. The causes of the highly prevalent state of inflammation in ESRD are multiple, including inflammatory signals associated with the dialysis procedure, decreased renal function, volume overload, comorbidity and intercurrent clinical events. As the prevalence of inflammation varies considerably between continents and races, dietary and/or genetic factors may have an impact on inflammation in ESRD. Elevated CRP in dialysis patients could be evaluated at three different levels: (i) national/regional level; (ii) dialysis unit level; and (iii) individual patient level.

  3. [A Case of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) with Metastases from Bilateral Small Renal Cell Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nezu, Kunihisa; Sakai, Takanari; Kuromoto, Akito; Kanno, Hidenori; Sato, Masahiko; Numahata, Kenji; Hoshi, Senji

    2016-06-01

    The patient was a 47 year-old female who had autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) with bilateral small renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed bilateral partial nephrectomy and radiofrequency ablation to the residual tumor. Pathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma,Fuhrman grade 3. Sunitinib therapy was started nine months after the operation because multiple liver metastases occurred. Twenty-six months after the operation,she died from rapid progression of liver metastasis. PMID:27452494

  4. Symmetric Dimethylarginine: Improving the Diagnosis and Staging of Chronic Kidney Disease in Small Animals.

    PubMed

    Relford, Roberta; Robertson, Jane; Clements, Celeste

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition in cats and dogs, traditionally diagnosed after substantial loss of kidney function when serum creatinine concentrations increase. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a sensitive circulating kidney biomarker whose concentrations increase earlier than creatinine as glomerular filtration rate decreases. Unlike creatinine SDMA is unaffected by lean body mass. The IDEXX SDMA test introduces a clinically relevant and reliable tool for the diagnosis and management of kidney disease. SDMA has been provisionally incorporated into the International Renal Interest Society guidelines for CKD to aid staging and targeted treatment of early and advanced disease. PMID:27499007

  5. Symmetric Dimethylarginine: Improving the Diagnosis and Staging of Chronic Kidney Disease in Small Animals.

    PubMed

    Relford, Roberta; Robertson, Jane; Clements, Celeste

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition in cats and dogs, traditionally diagnosed after substantial loss of kidney function when serum creatinine concentrations increase. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a sensitive circulating kidney biomarker whose concentrations increase earlier than creatinine as glomerular filtration rate decreases. Unlike creatinine SDMA is unaffected by lean body mass. The IDEXX SDMA test introduces a clinically relevant and reliable tool for the diagnosis and management of kidney disease. SDMA has been provisionally incorporated into the International Renal Interest Society guidelines for CKD to aid staging and targeted treatment of early and advanced disease.

  6. Alport syndrome: significance of gingival biopsy in the initial diagnosis and periodontal evaluation after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Toygar, Hilal Uslu; Toygar, Okan; Guzeldemir, Esra; Cilasun, Ulkem; Nacar, Ahmet; Bal, Nebil

    2009-01-01

    Alport Syndrome (AS) is an important hereditary disorder affecting the glomerular basement membrane. Diagnosis of AS is based on the presence of hematuric nephropathy, renal failure, hearing loss, ocular abnormalities and changes in the glomerular basement membrane of the lamina densa. The aims of this case report were to show the changes in the gingival tissues in a patient with AS under therapy with cyclosporin-A after renal transplantation and to discuss the possible role of type IV collagen in gingival basal lamina as an alternative approach for the diagnosis of AS. A 20-year-old male patient with AS underwent periodontal therapy including a series of gingivectomy surgeries. Gingival samples obtained during the second surgery were examined histopathologically and by transmission electron microscopy for further pathological examination. Gingivectomy procedures have been performed every 6 months over the last 4 years. The excessive and fibrous gingival enlargements resulted in migration of the anterior teeth, but no alveolar bone loss occurred. This is the first report to demonstrate the possible changes in the gingival tissues caused by AS. It is suggested that gingival biopsy can be an initial diagnostic tool instead of renal or skin biopsies. Proper dental and periodontal care and regular visits to the dentist could provide limited gingival hyperplasia to patients with AS.

  7. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan B R

    2012-11-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either "typical" or "atypical". In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  8. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  9. CUBN as a novel locus for end-stage renal disease: insights from renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reznichenko, Anna; Snieder, Harold; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H; Damman, Jeffrey; van Dijk, Marcory C R F; van Goor, Harry; Hepkema, Bouke G; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Niesing, Jan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Seelen, Marc; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder. As genome-wide association studies identified cubilin gene CUBN as a locus for albuminuria, and urinary protein loss is a risk factor for progressive CKD, we tested the hypothesis that common genetic variants in CUBN are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proteinuria. First, a total of 1142 patients with ESRD, admitted for renal transplantation, and 1186 donors were genotyped for SNPs rs7918972 and rs1801239 (case-control study). The rs7918972 minor allele frequency (MAF) was higher in ESRD patients comparing to kidney donors, implicating an increased risk for ESRD (OR 1.39, p = 0.0004) in native kidneys. Second, after transplantation recipients were followed for 5.8 [3.8-9.2] years (longitudinal study) documenting ESRD in transplanted kidneys--graft failure (GF). During post-transplant follow-up 92 (9.6%) cases of death-censored GF occurred. Donor rs7918972 MAF, representing genotype of the transplanted kidney, was 16.3% in GF vs 10.7% in cases with functioning graft. Consistently, a multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that donor rs7918972 is a predictor of GF, although statistical significance was not reached (HR 1.53, p = 0.055). There was no association of recipient rs7918972 with GF. Rs1801239 was not associated with ESRD or GF. In line with an association with the outcome, donor rs7918972 was associated with elevated proteinuria levels cross-sectionally at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, we identified CUBN rs7918972 as a novel risk variant for renal function loss in two independent settings: ESRD in native kidneys and GF in transplanted kidneys. PMID:22574174

  10. Nephrology Update: End-Stage Renal Disease and Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Desai, Niraj; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-05-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, and increased health care use. Optimal management of patients with ESRD requires close collaboration among primary care physicians, nephrology subspecialists, and other subspecialists. Critical issues for the family physician include helping patients transition from chronic kidney disease to ESRD, recognizing and managing common issues in patients receiving dialysis or after kidney transplantation, and understanding palliative care for patients with ESRD. Dialysis typically is initiated for patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2) if they are symptomatic due to uremia or if medical management of metabolic conditions is unsuccessful. Kidney transplantation is the optimal form of renal replacement therapy in suitable patients. The choice between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis often is based on patient preference and coexisting conditions. Meticulous monitoring of volume status is necessary to achieve and maintain control of blood pressure. Sleep disorders and pruritus are common and can be managed by optimization of metabolic parameters, adequacy of dialysis, and drugs. PMID:27163762

  11. Treatment of HCV infected patients and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kershenobich, David

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C signifies a highly prevalent infection in patients with end stage renal disease. Most frequently it is associated to glomerulonephritis, patients on hemodialysis and renal transplants. The prevalence of HCV antibodies in hemodialysis patients varies between 5-70% depending on the geographical location of the patients. Factors associated with the prevalence of anti HCV in patients with hemodialysis include: age, blood transfusions, tattoos, use of illegal drugs, time in hemodialysis, more than two hospitalizations, treatment in multiple hemodialysis units or a kidney transplant. In some of the reported outbreaks of hepatitis in hemodialysis units, the phylogenetic analysis indicate that the transmission of HCV could relate to failures or breaches in general precautions in the management of these type of patients resulting in nosocomial transmission owed to sharing equipment or instruments employed in the hemodialysis or by transmission from professional members of the hemodialysis units. Antiviral treatment may be affected by a number of co-factors and co-morbidities, it consist mainly of non pegylated interferon or pegylated interferon. The treatment with interferon after a renal transplant is associated with an increase in the number of rejections; reason enough to recommended that treatment should be administered before the transplant.

  12. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  13. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  14. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  15. Role of the primary care physician in diagnosis and treatment of early renal damage.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R

    2009-01-01

    In spite of all the technical advances and resources dedicated to the treatment of endstage renal disease (ESRD), it is still a growing problem all over the world. To address this issue adequately, it is crucial to detect chronic kidney disease patients early and optimize their care. However, a lack of awareness and appropriate management of potential underlying kidney disease, even in high-risk patients, seems to be common in many parts of the world, even though many of the measures recognized to decrease the risk and slow the progression of kidney disease are most effective when initiated early. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (a high-risk population) with early nephropathy treated by nephrologists have better preservation of their renal function than do patients treated only by family physicians. However, referral of patients to the nephrologist at earlier stages of disease than is recommended is not always feasible. A more plausible alternative may be that general practitioners learn to diagnose and treat these patients. We have demonstrated that an educational intervention increased family practitioners' clinical competence, which resulted in preserved renal function in diabetic patients with early renal disease. Variables not well controlled either by the nephrologist or the primary care physicians are those related to lifestyle and diet. These unhealthy habits are common in Westernized societies, and primary care physicians may be the most suitably positioned to promote health. Even so, counseling by physicians is not always effective in reducing risky habits, particularly when the health team is overworked; strategies such as community resources (including support groups) may also play a role. Preliminary results of an ongoing study based on a self-help and support group strategy that is coordinated by a multidisciplinary team (family practitioner, social worker, dietician, and physical trainer) show improvements in the lifestyle and dietary habits of

  16. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  17. Psychiatric disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Camila; e Silva, Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira; Neto, José Pedro Simões; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2012-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease are associated with poor prognosis and quality of life. The goal of this study is to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and renal disease in patients undergoing dialysis treatment, compared with other chronic diseases, appreciating the demographic status of these patients. Sixty-nine patients participated in a diagnostic interview and gave socio-demographic data. The population was composed of 55% men aged 19-77 years with an average age of 50 years (95% CI = 47-54 years). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders found in this study (46.6%) was compared with that found in patients with asthma, polycystic ovary syndrome and HIV-positive. Moreover, the prevalence of the four most common psychiatric disorders which were identified among patients on dialysis were also the subject of comparison between them and others. These results demonstrate the relationship between the various psychiatric disorders and are compatible with other research studies.

  18. Association between renal iron accumulation and renal interstitial fibrosis in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiro; Fujii, Aya; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Hirotani, Shinichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Iron accumulation is associated with the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal fibrosis is a final common feature that contributes to the progression of CKD; however, little is known about the association between renal iron accumulation and renal interstitial fibrosis in CKD. Here we investigate the effects of iron chelation on renal interstitial fibrosis in a rat model of CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 8 weeks after operation, 5/6 nephrectomized rats were administered an oral iron chelator, deferasirox (DFX), in chow for 8 weeks. Other CKD rats were given a normal diet. Sham-operative rats given a normal diet served as a control. CKD rats exhibited hypertension, glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis. Iron chelation with DFX did not change hypertension and glomerulosclerosis; however, renal interstitial fibrosis was attenuated in CKD rats. Consistent with these findings, renal gene expression of collagen type III and transforming growth factor-β was increased in CKD rats compared with the controls, while iron chelation suppressed these increments. In addition, a decrease in vimentin along an increase in E-cadherin in renal gene expression was observed in CKD rats with iron chelation. CKD rats also showed increased CD68-positive cells in the kidney, whereas its increase was attenuated by iron deprivation. Similarly, increased renal gene expression of CD68, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was suppressed in CKD rats with iron chelation. Renal iron accumulation seems to be associated with renal interstitial fibrosis in a rat model of CKD.

  19. New imaging applications in the evaluation of pediatric renal disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Karen I

    2003-04-01

    Continued improvements in imaging technology have changed many of the traditional diagnostic algorithms for evaluating pediatric renal disease. Newer imaging modalities offer more accurate, specific, and early diagnoses, but can be time consuming and costly. Less invasive modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have widespread applications in pediatric practice. The risks of radiation exposure, contrast toxicity, and sedation or anesthesia versus the potential benefits of obtaining precise diagnostic information should always be considerations before electing any imaging procedure in children.

  20. Renovascular heart failure: heart failure in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.

  1. UAB HRFD Core Center: Core A: The Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Translational Resource

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Disease; Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease; Joubert Syndrome; Bardet Biedl Syndrome; Meckel-Gruber Syndrome; Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis; Caroli Syndrome; Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I; Nephronophthisis; Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

  2. 78 FR 8535 - Medicare Program: Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model Announcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Disease Care Model Announcement AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... the testing of the Comprehensive End- Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Care Model, a new initiative from the... populations. One population is beneficiaries with end- stage renal disease (ESRD). This population has...

  3. Biophysical properties of normal and diseased renal glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Hans M.; Henderson, Joel M.; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Ding, Yaxian; Huang, Chunfa; Suh, Jung Hee; Franke, Thomas; Mele, Elisa; Pollak, Martin R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Janmey, Paul A.; Weitz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of tissues and cells including renal glomeruli are important determinants of their differentiated state, function, and responses to injury but are not well characterized or understood. Understanding glomerular mechanics is important for understanding renal diseases attributable to abnormal expression or assembly of structural proteins and abnormal hemodynamics. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a new technique, capillary micromechanics, to measure the elastic properties of rat glomeruli. The Young's modulus of glomeruli was 2,500 Pa, and it was reduced to 1,100 Pa by cytochalasin and latunculin, and to 1,400 Pa by blebbistatin. Cytochalasin or latrunculin reduced the F/G actin ratios of glomeruli but did not disrupt their architecture. To assess glomerular biomechanics in disease, we measured the Young's moduli of glomeruli from two mouse models of primary glomerular disease, Col4a3−/− mice (Alport model) and Tg26HIV/nl mice (HIV-associated nephropathy model), at stages where glomerular injury was minimal by histopathology. Col4a3−/− mice express abnormal glomerular basement membrane proteins, and Tg26HIV/nl mouse podocytes have multiple abnormalities in morphology, adhesion, and cytoskeletal structure. In both models, the Young's modulus of the glomeruli was reduced by 30%. We find that glomeruli have specific and quantifiable biomechanical properties that are dependent on the state of the actin cytoskeleton and nonmuscle myosins. These properties may be altered early in disease and represent an important early component of disease. This increased deformability of glomeruli could directly contribute to disease by permitting increased distension with hemodynamic force or represent a mechanically inhospitable environment for glomerular cells. PMID:21123730

  4. Relevance of chronic kidney disease classification (K/DOQI) in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fresnedo, G; de Francisco, A; Ruiz, J C; Cotorruelo, J G; Alamillo, C G; Valero, R; Castañeda, O; Zalduendo, B; Izquierdo, M J; Arias, M

    2006-10-01

    The National Kidney Foundation has developed guidelines for diagnosis and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) but it is not known whether they are applicable to renal transplant patients. This study analyzed the prevalence, the complications, and the influence of the CKD stage on the presence of complications in 506 stable transplant recipients. The mean age of the patients was 52.9 +/- 12 years, 34% were men, and the mean time after transplantation was 9.56 +/- 6.18 years. CKD was present in 90.3% with 9.9% were in CKD stages 4 or 5 with glomerular filtration rates lower than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). The prevalence of anemia, phospho-calcium metabolism disorders, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension increased with the stage of CKD. We concluded that CKD and the complications of CKD were highly prevalent in renal transplant recipients. The classification of renal transplant patients by CKD stage may help clinicians to identify patients at increased risk and to target appropriate therapy to improve outcomes.

  5. Oral Manifestations of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that significant associations exist between oral disease and diseases involving non-oral tissues. Occasionally, the roles may be reversed and the oral cavity can be severely affected by systemic disease originating in another part of the body. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrinopathy that occurs as a consequence of chronic azotemic kidney disease. Renal osteodystrophy, the most dramatic clinical consequence of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is uncommon, but can result in demineralization of maxillofacial bones, loosening of teeth, and pathological jaw fractures. The purpose of this report is to update the current understanding of the pathophysiology of this endocrine disease and to compare the oral manifestations of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in humans and companion animals. A 50-year review of the veterinary literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation of renal osteodystrophy in dogs, and to determine what clinical consequences of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism have been reported in domestic cats. PMID:26415385

  6. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD. PMID:26091475

  7. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  8. Rheumatic diseases of the spine: imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Narváez, J A; Hernández-Gañán, J; Isern, J; Sánchez-Fernández, J J

    2016-04-01

    Spinal involvement is common both in the spondyloarthritides and in rheumatoid arthritis, in which the cervical segment is selectively affected. Rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine has characteristic radiologic manifestations, fundamentally different patterns of atlantoaxial instability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for evaluating the possible repercussions of atlantoaxial instability on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as for evaluating parameters indicative of active inflammation, such as bone edema and synovitis. Axial involvement is characteristic in the spondyloarthritides and has distinctive manifestations on plain-film X-rays, which reflect destructive and reparative phenomena. The use of MRI has changed the conception of spondyloarthritis because it is able to directly detect the inflammatory changes that form part of the disease, making it possible to establish the diagnosis early in the disease process, when plain-film X-ray findings are normal (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to contribute to treatment planning.

  9. 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning and excretory urography in diagnosis of renal scars in children

    SciTech Connect

    McLorie, G.A.; Aliabadi, H.; Churchill, B.M.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L. )

    1989-09-01

    We compared the ability of excretory urography (without tomography) and 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning to detect renal scars in 32 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. These children did not have hydronephrosis, renal failure or urinary tract obstruction. In all cases both studies were conducted within a 10-month period. The findings from both modalities were in agreement for 51 of the 64 renal units evaluated (80%). Evaluation of the excretory urogram indicated 6 cases of diffuse and 2 of focal scarring that were not detected by evaluation of the renal scan. The sensitivity of excretory urography to detect renal scars was 84% and the specificity was 83%. The 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan showed 5 cases of focal renal scarring not detected by excretory urography. The sensitivity of the renal scan to detect renal scars was 77% and the specificity was 75%. We conclude that neither study alone could effectively replace the other for the detection of renal scars, and recommend that both be included in the initial evaluation and followup of patients with renal scars.

  10. Neocytolysis contributes to the anemia of renal disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T.; Whitley, C. E.; Hachey, D. L.; Suki, W.

    1999-01-01

    Neocytolysis is a recently described physiological process affecting the selective hemolysis of young red blood cells in circumstances of plethora. Erythropoietin (EPO) depression appears to initiate the process, providing the rationale to investigate its contributions to the anemia of renal disease. When EPO therapy was withheld, four of five stable hemodialysis patients showed chromium 51 (51Cr)-red cell survival patterns indicative of neocytolysis; red cell survival was short in the first 9 days, then normalized. Two of these four patients received oral 13C-glycine and 15N-glycine, and there was a suggestion of pathological isotope enrichment of stool porphyrins when EPO therapy was held, again supporting selective hemolysis of newly released red cells that take up the isotope (one patient had chronic hemolysis indicated by isotope studies of blood and stool). Thus, neocytolysis can contribute to the anemia of renal disease and explain some unresolved issues about such anemia. One implication is the prediction that intravenous bolus EPO therapy is metabolically and economically inefficient compared with lower doses administered more frequently subcutaneously.

  11. Neocytolysis Contributes to the Anemia of Renal Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Lawrence; Alfrey, Clarence P.; Driscoll, Theda; Whitley, Carl E.; Hachey, David; Suki, Wadi

    1997-01-01

    Neocytolysis is a recently described physiologic process effecting selective hemolysis of young red blood cells in circumstances of plethora. Erythropoietin depression appears to initiate the process, providing rationale to investigate its contributions to the anemia of renal disease. When erythropoietin therapy was withheld, four of five stable hemodialysis patients demonstrated Cr-51 red cell survival patterns indicative of neocytolysis; red cell survival was short in the first 9 days, then normalized. Two of these patients received oral (13)C-glycine and (15)N-glycine and showed pathologic enrichment of stool porphyrins by the most recently ingested isotope when EPO therapy was held. This confirms selective hemolysis of newly-released red cells. (One patient had chronic hemolysis by isotope studies of blood and stool.) Thus, neocytolysis can contribute to the anemia of renal disease and explains some unresolved issues about such anemia. One implication is the prediction that intravenous bolus erythropoietin therapy is metabolically and economically inefficient compared to lower doses given more frequently subcutaneously.

  12. End-stage renal disease prevention strategies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel

    2005-09-01

    Latin America (LA), defined here as the countries in the Western hemisphere located south of the United States, is a region with a total population of nearly 520,000,000 that increases 1.5% annually and has a human development index of 0.77. The countries that form this region present extreme contrasts. These contrasts are first and foremost within the countries themselves, because extremes of wealth and poverty are present in their social and economic fabric. In addition, in LA a vast variety of government modalities and political systems are represented. Therefore, in order for prevention strategies to be effective, they need to be tailored to the specific characteristics and idiosyncrasies of individual nations. This article will address the following aspects: first, a broad outline of the basic health statistics in LA, with focus on treatment of end-stage renal disease and its derived economic burden. Data from LA countries will be contrasted with 95% confidence interval of corresponding data from 10 industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland). Second, we will discuss the prevalence of some risk factors for end-stage renal disease in the nations of the region. For this reason, we will focus on data that provide reliable information. Finally, we will consider general guidelines for the implementation of prevention strategies that may have common applicability in LA countries.

  13. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-08-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r(2) 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r(2) 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r(2) 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  14. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  15. Should Peripheral Vascular Disease- or Diabetes-related Amputation Contraindicate Renal Transplant?

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Nalani L

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with amputation secondary to peripheral vascular disease (PVD) or diabetes mellitus (DM) are appropriate candidates for renal transplant. Limb- or digit- amputees with ESRD on the renal transplant list from 1993–2008 were included. Comorbidities, amputation type, duration on the waitlist, and current transplant status were analyzed. Additionally, US renal transplant centers were surveyed regarding their views about amputees' transplant candidacy. Thirty-eight ESRD patients with amputations were identified; 3 patients underwent renal transplant, 14 expired on the waitlist, and 14 were removed for medical reasons. The survey indicated that centers generally don't consider amputation a contraindication to transplant listing. Few ESRD patients with amputations who are placed on the transplant list undergo renal transplant; most die or are removed for medical reasons. Amputation should be considered an indicator of severe PVD and possibly a relative contraindication to listing for renal transplant. PMID:22787569

  16. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world’s population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs. PMID:27648403

  17. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world's population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs. PMID:27648403

  18. [Urine osmotic pressure and deficiency-excess syndrome of renal disease: analysis of 428 cases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S

    1990-05-01

    By means of TCM differentiation of symptom-complexes, the authors tested and analysed the urine osmotic pressure (UOP) and the urine and plasma osmotic ratio (UPOR) for 428 cases of renal disease, with the conclusion that the UOP and the UPOR were within the normal value range for not only the 36 cases lack of clinical symptoms so as to be unable to have TCM classification identified, but also for 24 cases of Wind edema excess syndrome mainly caused by pathogenic Wind's invasion to the Lung. But for 74 cases of damp-heat Kidney impairment and 294 cases with the main symptom being Kidney deficiency [including weakness of Qi of Kidney, Yang deficiency of Spleen and Kidney, Yin deficiency of Liver and Kidney], the value of their UOP and the UPOR had the tendency of reduction (P less than 0.01), among which the value of the patients of Kidney Yang deficiency reduced most obviously. The further observation showed that, for the nocturia patients caused by renal disease, the value of UOP and the UPOR reduced more obviously than usual. Therefore the authors assert that the test on UOP and UPOR will offer an objective index to patients' nocturia and Kidney-Qi weakness. 60 cases with renal disease of Kidney deficiency syndrome and 27 cases of damp-heat Kidney impairment syndrome under the diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of symptoms and signs leads to the following conclusion: With the elimination of pathogenic factors and recovery of kidney, the damp-heat Kidney impairment patients' UOP will be increased. The low UOP of patients caused simply by Kidney deficiency, however, will recover slower.

  19. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world's population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs.

  20. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world’s population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs.

  1. Obesity end stage renal disease and survival in an elderly cohort with cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is highly prevalent in African-Americans and is associated with increased risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and death. It is not known if the effect of obesity is similar among Blacks and whites. The aim of this study is to examine racial differences in the association of obesity with E...

  2. Novel α-Galactosidase A Mutation (K391E) in a Young Woman With Severe Cardiac and Renal Manifestations of Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakakuri, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Shunichi; Utsumi, Kouichi; Shimizu, Wataru; Yasutake, Masahiro

    2016-09-28

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder due to α-galactosidase A deficiency, is associated with dysfunction of various cell types and results in a systemic vasculopathy. We describe a 29-year-old woman with Fabry disease presenting with severe cardiac and renal manifestations. Gene analysis demonstrated a novel mutation (K391E) in the GLA gene. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was started with agalsidase-β after confirming the diagnosis of Fabry disease, resulting in normalization of LV systolic function and improvement of renal function. As early therapy is crucial for preventing life-threatening sequelae, clinicians should consider Fabry disease in young patients presenting with cardiac and renal disease without any likely causes. PMID:27593536

  3. Novel α-Galactosidase A Mutation (K391E) in a Young Woman With Severe Cardiac and Renal Manifestations of Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakakuri, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Shunichi; Utsumi, Kouichi; Shimizu, Wataru; Yasutake, Masahiro

    2016-09-28

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder due to α-galactosidase A deficiency, is associated with dysfunction of various cell types and results in a systemic vasculopathy. We describe a 29-year-old woman with Fabry disease presenting with severe cardiac and renal manifestations. Gene analysis demonstrated a novel mutation (K391E) in the GLA gene. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was started with agalsidase-β after confirming the diagnosis of Fabry disease, resulting in normalization of LV systolic function and improvement of renal function. As early therapy is crucial for preventing life-threatening sequelae, clinicians should consider Fabry disease in young patients presenting with cardiac and renal disease without any likely causes.

  4. End-stage renal disease associated with prophylactic lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Aiff, Harald; Attman, Per-Ola; Aurell, Mattias; Bendz, Hans; Schön, Staffan; Svedlund, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lithium associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to compare the relative risk of ESRD in lithium users versus non-lithium users. Second, the role of lithium in the pathogenesis of ESRD was evaluated. We used the Swedish Renal Registry to search for lithium-treated patients with ESRD among 2644 patients with chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT)-either dialysis or transplantation, within two defined geographical areas in Sweden with 2.8 million inhabitants. The prevalence date was December 31, 2010. We found 30 ESRD patients with a history of lithium treatment. ESRD with RRT was significantly more prevalent among lithium users than among non-lithium users (p<0.001). The prevalence of ESRD with RRT in the lithium user population was 15.0‰ (95% CI 9.7-20.3), and close to two percent of the RRT population were lithium users. The relative risk of ESRD with RRT in the lithium user population compared with the general population was 7.8 (95% CI 5.4-11.1). Out of those 30 patients, lithium use was classified, based on chart reviews, as being the sole (n=14) or main (n=10) cause of ESRD in 24 cases. Their mean age at the start of RRT was 66 years (46-82), their mean time on lithium 27 years (12-39), and 22 of them had been on lithium for 15 years or more. We conclude that lithium-associated ESRD is an uncommon but not rare complication of lithium treatment.

  5. The resistive index is a marker of renal function, pathology, prognosis, and responsiveness to steroid therapy in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Kikuno; Tojo, Akihiro; Kinugasa, Satoshi; Asaba, Kensuke; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of the renal resistive index (RI) as a noninvasive marker of renal histological damage and a prognostic indicator, we examined RI by Doppler ultrasonography in 202 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who underwent renal biopsy. RI increased as the CKD stage progressed and correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and renal histological changes, including glomerulosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage. Prognostic evaluation with a median follow-up period of 38.5 months revealed that patients with RI ≥ 0.7 (high RI group, n = 39) had significantly poorer renal survival than those with RI < 0.65 (normal RI group, n = 120) and 0.65 ≤ RI < 0.7 (high-normal RI group, n = 43). The patients in the high-normal RI group showed good response to steroids. However, in the high RI group, steroid therapy did not significantly improve renal survival. Of the clinical indices studied, RI ≥ 0.7, hypertension, proteinuria, and low eGFR at diagnosis were independent risk factors for worsening renal dysfunction. In conclusion, RI in CKD patients was considered as a marker of renal function, histological damage, and renal prognosis, and a possible determinant of indication for steroids.

  6. Reversible dialysis-dependent renal failure due to undiagnosed renovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, R.; Gude, D.; Narayan, G.; Mandal, S. N.; Gupta, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Renovascular disease (RVD) can present with resistant hypertension, acute or rapidly progressive renal failure and occasionally nephrotic proteinuria. Revascularization plays an important role in controlling blood pressure and preserving renal function. It is widely believed that delay in revascularization would result in irreversible loss of renal function. However, we report a favorable outcome despite delayed revascularization in two patients of RVD- one presenting with recurrent flash pulmonary edema and other with progressive renal failure. The former's serum creatinine returned to normal despite 3 months of anuria and the latter became dialysis-independent despite 2 months of progressive decline in renal function. Both remain dialysis-free 3 years after surgery. PMID:23162281

  7. Clinical potential of TCF21 methylation in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jun; Xu, Rong; Lin, Shaokun; Xin, Minghua; Cai, Wenjie; Zhou, Jin; Fu, Changde; Zhen, Guangfu; Lai, Jinjin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Pengfeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical potential of transcription factor (TCF) 21 methylation in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). TCF21 methylation levels were quantified in renal tissues (55 cases of RCC tissue and 22 cases of normal tissue) and urine samples (33 cases of urine samples with RCC and 15 cases of normal urine samples) using pyrosequencing. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between TCF21 methylation levels and clinical parameters (gender, age, smoking history, Fuhrman grade and clinical stage). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was utilized to evaluate the accuracy of predictive diagnosis of RCC. TCF21 methylation levels were significantly increased in RCC samples compared with normal renal tissues and urine samples. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that the TCF21 methylation level was positively associated with age (P=0.002), smoking (P=0.017) and Fuhrman grade (P=0.045) in RCC tissues and was positively associated with tumor size (P<0.001), Fuhrman grade (P=0.017) and clinical stage (P=0.017) in urine samples. ROC curves revealed that the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity were 23.61, 89.00 and 61.90%, respectively in tissue samples, and 26.84, 79 and 100%, respectively in urine samples. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the area under the curve between the tissue and urine samples (P=0.004). The results of the present study indicate that TCF21 may be used as a biomarker for diagnosing RCC, and TCF21 methylation levels in urine samples may be a useful means of diagnosing RCC. PMID:27446425

  8. Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

  9. Care of the Patient with Renal Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis and Transplants, Nursing 321A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulburd, Kimberly

    A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first sections of…

  10. Renal disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Jaryal, Ajay; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in hepatic diseases which may include an asymptomatic non-replicative carrier state, immunotolerant phase characterized by high DNA levels without significant hepatic injury, immune-reactive phase characterized by occurrence of chronic hepatitis and fibrosis in the liver, or complications like cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Extrahepatic manifestations may also accompany HBV infection. These may include serum sickness syndrome, polyarthralgia, polyarthritis, dermatologic manifestations like pitted keratolysis, urticaria, purpura, oral lichen planus or Gianotti-Crosti syndrome-a childhood papular eruption. Renal involvement may occur with HBV infection and usually involves glomerular or vascular injury. Various morphologic forms of renal injury have been reported with HBV infection, the commonest being membranous glomerulonephritis. The manifestations may include swelling over face and body, pedal edema, and urinary abnormalities. Evaluation may detect proteinuria, hematuria and reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The management options include use of antiviral drugs targeting HBV infection with or without concomitant immunosuppressive medication. With availability of newer drugs like entecavir and tenofovir, these have become the first line agents as they have a high barrier to resistance. Sole use of immunosuppression is not recommended for lack of clear benefit and the possible risk of HBV reactivation or flare. PMID:27509699

  11. Agalsidase benefits renal histology in young patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Tøndel, Camilla; Bostad, Leif; Larsen, Kristin Kampevold; Hirth, Asle; Vikse, Bjørn Egil; Houge, Gunnar; Svarstad, Einar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of early-onset enzyme replacement therapy on renal morphologic features in Fabry disease is largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the effect of 5 years of treatment with agalsidase alfa or agalsidase beta in 12 consecutive patients age 7-33 years (median age, 16.5 years). We performed renal biopsies at baseline and after 5 years of enzyme replacement therapy; 7 patients had additional biopsies after 1 and 3 years. After a median of 65 months, biopsy findings from all patients showed total clearance of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cell inclusions, and findings from 2 patients showed complete clearance of inclusions from epithelial cells of the distal tubule. The 4 patients who received the highest dose of agalsidase exhibited substantial clearance of podocyte inclusions, and the youngest patient had nearly complete clearance of these inclusions. Linear regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between podocyte globotriaocylceramide clearance and cumulative agalsidase dose (r=0.804; P=0.002). Microalbuminuria normalized in five patients. In summary, long-term enzyme replacement therapy in young patients can result in complete globotriaocylceramide clearance of mesangial and glomerular endothelial cells across all dosage regimens, and clearance of podocyte inclusions is dose-dependent.

  12. Renal papillary necrosis in haemophilia and christmas disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G M; Evans, K T; Bloom, A L; Al-Gailani, F

    1983-03-01

    Haematuria is common in haemophilia and Christmas disease. A variety of radiological abnormalities in the urinary tract has been described in the literature, the commonest being hydronephrosis and obstructive uropathy. The findings in 26 cases seen in this centre were reported by Beck and Evans in 1972; although urinary-tract obstruction was relatively common, it was noted that signs suggestive of renal papillary necrosis (RPN) were present in some cases. In the present study, 20 of these patients were reinvestigated up to 10 years after the original radiological studies; a total number of 46 past and present intravenous urograms were examined. There was evidence of RPN in 11 of the 20 patients, and in five of these the signs had changed over the intervening period. The relevance of these findings is discussed; none of the patients showed evidence of renal failure. It is suggested that episodes of urinary-tract obstruction could be related to papillary sloughing, in some cases, rather than clot obstruction or obstruction due to retroperitoneal bleeding.

  13. Microvascular disease precedes the decline in renal function in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Flynn, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive and generalized vasculopathic condition associated with abnormal angiogenesis. We aim to determine whether changes in renal microvascular (MV) density correlate with and play a role in the progressive deterioration of renal function in diabetes. We hypothesize that MV changes represent the early steps of renal injury that worsen as diabetes progresses, initiating a vicious circle that leads to irreversible renal injury. Male nondiabetic (ND) or streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) Sprague-Dawley rats were followed for 4 or 12 wk. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured by PAH and 125I-[iothalamate], respectively. Renal MV density was quantified ex vivo using three-dimensional micro computed tomography and JG-12 immunoreactivity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels (ELISA) and expression of VEGF receptors and factors involved in MV remodeling were quantified in renal tissue by Western blotting. Finally, renal morphology was investigated by histology. Four weeks of diabetes was associated with increased GFR, accompanied by a 34% reduction in renal MV density and augmented renal VEGF levels. However, at 12 wk, while GFR remained similarly elevated, reduction of MV density was more pronounced (75%) and associated with increased MV remodeling, renal fibrosis, but unchanged renal VEGF compared with ND at 12 wk. The damage, loss, and subsequent remodeling of the renal MV architecture in the diabetic kidney may represent the initiating events of progressive renal injury. This study suggests a novel concept of MV disease as an early instigator of diabetic kidney disease that may precede and likely promote the decline in renal function. PMID:22031855

  14. Baseline predictors of renal disease progression in the African American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Norris, Keith C; Greene, Tom; Kopple, Joel; Lea, Janice; Lewis, Julia; Lipkowitz, Mike; Miller, Pete; Richardson, Annie; Rostand, Stephen; Wang, Xuelei; Appel, Lawrence J

    2006-10-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased risk for progression to ESRD. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that predict increased risk for adverse renal outcomes. Cox regression was performed to assess the potential of 38 baseline risk factors to predict the clinical renal composite outcome of 50% or 25-ml/min per 1.73 m(2) GFR decline or ESRD among 1094 black patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis (GFR 20 to 65 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Patients were trial participants who had been randomly assigned to one of two BP goals and to one of three antihypertensive regimens and followed for a range of 3 to 6.4 yr. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, baseline proteinuria was consistently associated with an increased risk for adverse renal outcomes, even at low levels of proteinuria. The relationship of proteinuria with adverse renal outcomes also was evident in analyses that were stratified by level of GFR, which itself was associated with adverse renal outcomes but only at levels <40 ml/min. Other factors that were significantly associated with increased renal events after adjustment for baseline GFR, age, and gender, both with and without adjustment for baseline proteinuria, included serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and phosphorus. In black patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis, increased proteinuria, reduced GFR, and elevated levels of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and phosphorus were directly associated with adverse clinical renal events. These findings identify a subset of this high-risk population that might benefit from even more aggressive treatment.

  15. Developments in renal pharmacogenomics and applications in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Padullés, Ariadna; Rama, Inés; Llaudó, Inés; Lloberas, Núria

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shown an increasing prevalence in the last century. CKD encompasses a poor prognosis related to a remarkable number of comorbidities, and many patients suffer from this disease progression. Once the factors linked with CKD evolution are distinguished, it will be possible to provide and enhance a more intensive treatment to high-risk patients. In this review, we focus on the emerging markers that might be predictive or related to CKD progression physiopathology as well as those related to a different pattern of response to treatment, such as inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers; the vitamin D receptor agonist; salt sensitivity hypertension; and progressive kidney-disease markers with identified genetic polymorphisms). Candidate-gene association studies and genome-wide association studies have analyzed the genetic basis for common renal diseases, including CKD and related factors such as diabetes and hypertension. This review will, in brief, consider genotype-based pharmacotherapy, risk prediction, drug target recognition, and personalized treatments, and will mainly focus on findings in CKD patients. An improved understanding will smooth the progress of switching from classical clinical medicine to gene-based medicine. PMID:25206311

  16. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters.

  17. Rare diseases with renal involvement in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Tasic, V; Lozanovski, V J; Danilovski, D; Laban, N; Pop-Jordanova, N; Polenakovic, M; Gucev, Z S

    2011-01-01

    Rare diseases (RDs) pose a significant set of problems for patients, since their disease and general social and health situation are often not recognized by the medical community and shunned by health insurance. The sheer number of RDs (5000-8000) and the number of patients (6-8% of the population) are challenging for every society. We wanted to get a better understanding of the rare diseases affecting the kidneys and urinary tract (RDAKUT) in the Republic of Macedonia and we investigated principally the PubMed Central articles of Macedonian medical professionals dealing with RDAKUT, but we also used information on RDAKUT from local sources. A significant number of RDs have been published, demonstrating the awareness and skill of Macedonian medical professionals despite pretty limited diagnostic facilities. We still feel that RDAKUT are underdiagnosed (e.g. Fabry's disease has not yet been reported), and that many patients with RDs have a long way to go before an accurate diagnosis. Increased awareness and ameliorated education are needed by the physicians; while health insurance must include RDAKUT covering their diagnosis and treatment costs. Neonatal screening for ~30 diseases (instead of just hypothyroidism) is also required. Patients' organizations exist and they are active in promoting their interests before of the health authorities. PMID:21822178

  18. Renal scintigraphy following angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension (captopril scintigraphy)

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.N. )

    1989-09-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology and primary causes of renovascular hypertension (RVH). No historical or physical finding is specific in the diagnosis of RVH, although onset of hypertension before the age of 30 years may suggest the possible presence of RVH. The physiology of the kidney is described along with the biochemistry of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The main thrust of the article is nuclear medicine techniques useful in the diagnosis of this disease. Several diagnositic methods are described but captopril scintigraphy is presented as a method that may give more optimal results in the diagnosis of RVH.

  19. Developmental abnormalities, blood pressure variability and renal disease in Riley Day syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, L; Axelrod, F B; Kaufmann, H

    2013-01-01

    Riley Day syndrome, commonly referred to as familial dysautonomia (FD), is a genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure owing to baroreflex deafferenation. Chronic renal disease is very frequent in these patients and was attributed to recurrent arterial hypotension and renal hypoperfusion. Aggressive treatment of hypotension, however, has not reduced its prevalence. We evaluated the frequency of kidney malformations as well as the impact of hypertension, hypotension and blood pressure variability on the severity of renal impairment. We also investigated the effect of fludrocortisone treatment on the progression of renal disease. Patients with FD appeared to have an increased incidence of hydronephrosis/reflux and patterning defects. Patients <4 years old had hypertension and normal estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Patients with more severe hypertension and greater variability in their blood pressure had worse renal function (both, P<0.01). In contrast, there was no relationship between eGFR and the lowest blood pressure recorded during upright tilt. The progression of renal disease was faster in patients receiving fludrocortisone (P<0.02). Hypertension precedes kidney disease in these patients. Moreover, increased blood pressure variability as well as mineralocorticoid treatment accelerate the progression of renal disease. No association was found between hypotension and renal disease in patients with FD.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  1. The Risk of Septicemia in End-Stage Renal Disease With and Without Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Wang, I-Kuan; Wei, Chang-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tsai, Chia-Ta; Hsia, Te-Chun; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a well-known risk factor for septicemia. Renal transplantation (RTx) is the treatment of choice for ESRD. However, RTx recipients should undergo long-term immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of septicemia in ESRD patients with and without RTx. This cohort study used the National Health Insurance (NHI) data of Taiwan from 2000 to 2010. The RTx group consisted of 3286 RTx recipients. The non-RTx comparison group also consisted of 3286 subjects with ESRD matched by propensity scores for age, sex, index date, comorbidities, and medications. The subjects were followed until the end of 2011 to evaluate the septicemia risk. The risk of septicemia was lower in the RTx group than the non-RTx group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64–0.84, P < 0.001]. In addition, we observed insignificantly lower intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate (35.8% vs. 39.8%) and lower 30-day all-cause mortality rate (17.2% vs. 18.5%) in the RTx group than the non-RTx group. However, the mean cost for septicemia in the RTx group was insignificantly higher than the non-RTx group (7175 vs. 6421 USD, P = 0.39). RTx recipients had a significantly reduced risk of developing septicemia compared to the propensity-matched non-RTx ESRD patients. The ICU admission and 30-day all-cause mortality rates also slightly decreased in RTx recipients but without statistical significance. PMID:26313801

  2. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Kidneys' Structural Changes in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most important manifestations of end-stage kidneys' structural changes. ACKD is caused by kidney damage or scarring and it is characterized by the presence of small, multiple cortical and medullary cysts filled with a fluid similar to preurine. ACKD prevalence varies according to predialysis and dialysis age and its pathogenesis is unknown, although it is stated that progressive destruction of renal tissue induces hypertrophy/compensatory hyperplasia of residual nephrons and may trigger the degenerative process. ACKD is almost asymptomatic, but it can lead to several complications (bleeding, rupture, infections, RCC). Ultrasound (US) is the first level imaging technique in ACKD, because of its sensitivity and reliability. The most serious complication of ACKD is RCC, which is stimulated by the same growth factors and proto-oncogenes that lead to the genesis of cysts. Two different histological types of RCC have been identified: (1) RCC associated with ACKD and (2) papillary renal clear cell carcinoma. Tumors in end-stage kidneys are mainly small, multifocal and bilateral, with a papillary structure and a low degree of malignancy. At US, RCC appears as a small inhomogeneous nodule (<3 cm), clearly outlined from the renal profile and hypoechoic if compared with sclerotic parenchyma. In some cases, tumor appears as a homogeneous and hyperechoic multifocal mass. The most specific US sign of a small tumor in end-stage kidney is the important arterial vascularization, in contrast with renal parenchymal vascular sclerosis. PMID:27169876

  3. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Kidneys' Structural Changes in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most important manifestations of end-stage kidneys' structural changes. ACKD is caused by kidney damage or scarring and it is characterized by the presence of small, multiple cortical and medullary cysts filled with a fluid similar to preurine. ACKD prevalence varies according to predialysis and dialysis age and its pathogenesis is unknown, although it is stated that progressive destruction of renal tissue induces hypertrophy/compensatory hyperplasia of residual nephrons and may trigger the degenerative process. ACKD is almost asymptomatic, but it can lead to several complications (bleeding, rupture, infections, RCC). Ultrasound (US) is the first level imaging technique in ACKD, because of its sensitivity and reliability. The most serious complication of ACKD is RCC, which is stimulated by the same growth factors and proto-oncogenes that lead to the genesis of cysts. Two different histological types of RCC have been identified: (1) RCC associated with ACKD and (2) papillary renal clear cell carcinoma. Tumors in end-stage kidneys are mainly small, multifocal and bilateral, with a papillary structure and a low degree of malignancy. At US, RCC appears as a small inhomogeneous nodule (<3 cm), clearly outlined from the renal profile and hypoechoic if compared with sclerotic parenchyma. In some cases, tumor appears as a homogeneous and hyperechoic multifocal mass. The most specific US sign of a small tumor in end-stage kidney is the important arterial vascularization, in contrast with renal parenchymal vascular sclerosis.

  4. Renal disease in scleroderma: an update on evaluation, risk stratification, pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Steen, Virginia D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Renal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in scleroderma. The spectrum of renal complications in systemic sclerosis includes scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), normotensive renal crisis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated glomerulonephritis, penacillamine-associated renal disease, and reduced renal functional reserves manifested by proteinuria, microalbuminuria, or isolated reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise and up-to-date review of the evaluation, risk stratification, pathogenesis, and management of scleroderma-associated renal disease. Recent findings Although SRC survival has significantly improved, mortality of this complication remains high outside of specialized centers. Recent data demonstrate strong associations between anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies and SRC. Subclinical renal impairment affects approximately 50% of scleroderma patients and may be associated with other vascular manifestations. Subclinical renal involvement rarely progresses to end-stage renal failure; however, recent studies suggest it may predict mortality in patients with other vasculopathic manifestations. Summary Testing for anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies should be incorporated into clinical care to identify patients at high risk for SRC. Recommendations from European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research, and the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium confirm angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as first-line therapy for SRC, and give recommendations for second-line agents. PMID:22955019

  5. CT appearance of acute inflammatory disease of the renal interstitium

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.P.; McClennan, B.L.; Rottenberg, R.R.

    1983-08-01

    Today, infection remains the most common disease of the urinary tract and constitutes almost 75% of patient problems requiring urologic evaluation. There have been several major factors responsible for our better understanding of the nature and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection. One has been quantitated urine bacteriology and another, the discovery that a significant part of the apparently healthy adult female population has asymptomatic bacteriuria. Abnormal conditions such as neurogenic bladder, bladder malignancy, prolonged catheter drainage and reflux, altered host resistance, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract obstruction, as well as pregnancy, may either predispose to or be implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. There is a wide range of conditions that result in acute renal inflammation and those under discussion affect primarily the interstitium. This term refers to the connective tissue elements separating the tubules in the cortex and medulla. Hence, the interstitial nephritides are to be distinguished from the glomerulonephritides and fall into two general etiologic categories: infectious and noninfectious.

  6. Pax genes in renal development, disease and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Bouchard, Maxime

    2015-08-01

    The execution of developmental programs entails specific spatio-temporal expression of transcriptional regulators that ultimately control tissue morphogenesis and embryo patterning. Pax transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins exerting such regulatory activity in several tissues. In the urogenital system, Pax2 and Pax8 have emerged as crucial players at multiple steps of kidney and urinary tract development. They are involved in important processes such as cell survival, cell lineage decisions and tissue interactions through the regulation of sophisticated gene regulatory networks. Pax2/8 have additionally been directly associated with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) and renal cancers in human. In this review, we provide an overview of landmark contributions to the understanding of Pax gene function in urinary tract development and disease with an emphasis on recent advances in the field. PMID:26410163

  7. Primary hyperaldosteronism, a mediator of progressive renal disease in cats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, S; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Kooistra, H S; van Dongen, A M; Voorhout, G; van Sluijs, F J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Boer, W H; Rijnberk, A

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in primary hyperaldosteronism, particularly because of its possible role in the progression of kidney disease. While most studies have concerned humans and experimental animal models, we here report on the occurrence of a spontaneous form of (non-tumorous) primary hyperaldosteronism in cats. At presentation, the main physical features of 11 elderly cats were hypokalemic paroxysmal flaccid paresis and loss of vision due to retinal detachment with hemorrhages. Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed on the basis of plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA), and the calculation of the PAC:PRA ratio. In all animals, PACs were at the upper end or higher than the reference range. The PRAs were at the lower end of the reference range, and the PAC:PRA ratios exceeded the reference range. Diagnostic imaging by ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no or only very minor changes in the adrenals compatible with nodular hyperplasia. Adrenal gland histopathology revealed extensive micronodular hyperplasia extending from zona glomerulosa into the zona fasciculata and reticularis. In three cats, plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were normal when hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed but thereafter increased to above the upper limit of the respective reference range. In the other eight cats, urea and creatinine concentrations were raised at first examination and gradually further increased. Even in end-stage renal insufficiency, there was a tendency to hypophosphatemia rather than to hyperphosphatemia. The histopathological changes in the kidneys mimicked those of humans with hyperaldosteronism: hyaline arteriolar sclerosis, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The non-tumorous form of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats has many similarities with "idiopathic" primary hyperaldosteronism in humans. The condition is associated with progressive renal disease

  8. TWEAK and the progression of renal disease: clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana B; Izquierdo, M Concepcion; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Ucero, Alvaro C; Egido, Jesus; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ramos, Adrián Mario; Putterman, Chaim; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) activates the fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14) receptor. TWEAK has actions on intrinsic kidney cells and on inflammatory cells of potential pathophysiological relevance. The effects of TWEAK in tubular cells have been explored in most detail. In cultured murine tubular cells TWEAK induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, downregulates the expression of Klotho, is mitogenic, and in the presence of sensitizing agents promotes apoptosis. Similar actions were observed on glomerular mesangial cells. In vivo TWEAK actions on healthy kidneys mimic cell culture observations. Increased expression of TWEAK and Fn14 was reported in human and experimental acute and chronic kidney injury. The role of TWEAK/Fn14 in kidney injury has been demonstrated in non-inflammatory compensatory renal growth, acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease of immune and non-immune origin, including hyperlipidaemic nephropathy, lupus nephritis (LN) and anti-GBM nephritis. The nephroprotective effect of TWEAK or Fn14 targeting in immune-mediated kidney injury is the result of protection from TWEAK-induced injury of renal intrinsic cells, not from interference with the immune response. A phase I dose-ranging clinical trial demonstrated the safety of anti-TWEAK antibodies in humans. A phase II randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial exploring the efficacy, safety and tolerability of neutralizing anti-TWEAK antibodies as a tissue protection strategy in LN is ongoing. The eventual success of this trial may expand the range of kidney diseases in which TWEAK targeting should be explored.

  9. Sevelamer therapy for pediatric end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Storms, Lara E; Chicella, Michael F; Dice, James E

    2006-03-01

    Sevelamer, a non-calcium-containing, non-aluminum-containing phosphate binder, is frequently prescribed for treatment in adults with hyperphosphatemia secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, published information regarding sevelamer use in children younger than 11 years is lacking. We report the use of sevelamer as a phosphate binder in a 19-month-old girl with ESRD who was receiving calcium carbonate 1250 mg 3 times/day for hyperphosphatemia. The patient's initial serum phosphorus concentration was 8.6 mg/dl, and the calcium-phosphorus product was 75 mg(2)/dl(2). This was well above the level that places patients at risk for complications such as joint, vessel, and soft-tissue calcification. An aluminum-containing phosphate binder was not an option given the patient's renal disease and the concern for neurotoxicity. Sevelamer was considered, but a MEDLINE search revealed no pediatric dosing information. An initial dosage of 100 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours was administered, as extrapolated from adult data, and then titrated to 130 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours based on the patient's response. The child's dietary phosphorus intake remained constant throughout her hospital stay. During sevelamer therapy, her serum phosphorus concentration dropped as low as 5.2 mg/dl; at discharge it was 6.5 mg/dl, with a corresponding calcium-phosphorus product in the upper 50s. No adverse effects associated with sevelamer were observed. In the dosages we used, sevelamer resulted in an acceptable calcium-phosphorus product and returned the patient's serum phosphorus concentration to near normal. Sevelamer appears to be a viable option as a phosphate binder in children with ESRD.

  10. The Urine Urokinase Concentration in End Stage Renal Disease with Acquired Renal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sae Yong; Yang, Dong Ho; Lee, Byoung Ho; Ki, Eun Kyong; Chung, Kwang Hoe

    1991-01-01

    To see whether there was any difference in the urine urokinase concentration between acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) group and control (non cyst) group in end stage renal disease patients (ESRD), we evaluated fifty ESRD patients who had been maintained on chronic hemodialysis for various period. The urine urokinase concentration was higher in the ACKD group (17.5±14.7 unit/ml, range 13.5–47.0 unit/ml, n=9) than the control group (4.1±3.4 unit/ml, range 0.5–12.0 unit/ml, n=36) (p<0.001), and polycyst group (2.6±1.8 unit/ml, range 1.0–5.1 unit/ml, n=5) (p<0.01). But there was no difference between the control group and polycyst group. In the control group and the ACKD group, there was a direct relation between the dialysis duration and the urokinase concentration and the longer the dialysis duration, the higher the urine urokinase concentration (r squared=0.424, p=0.0001). The hemodialysis duration was longer in the ACKD group (42±17.0 months) than the control group (20.0±12.5 months) (p<0.005). These findings suggest that urokinase may be responsible for cystogenic degeneration in ESRD. PMID:1807367

  11. Comparative study on the National Renal Disease Registry in America, England and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Askarianzadeh, Mahdi; Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Ehteshami, Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Context: A disease registry is a database that includes information about people diagnosed with specific types of diseases. The registry collects information that can be used for capturing, managing, and organizing specific information for patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the National Renal Disease Registry (NRDR) in selected countries including the United States, United Kingdom, and Iran. Settings and Design: Retrieval of data of the NRDR performed through scholars responsible in related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and Renal Disease charity, and data registries in the United States, United Kingdom, and Iran. Materials and Methods: This research was an applied and descriptive, comparative study. The study population consisted of the National Renal Disease Registry of the selected countries including the United States, United Kingdom, and Iran, from which data were collected using forms that were designed according to the study objectives. Sources of data were researchers, scholars responsible in related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and Renal Disease charity, data registries, articles, books, journals, databases, websites, and related documents. Data were gathered through phone, e-mail, study, observation, and interview. Statistical Analysis Used: The researchers collected data for each country based on the study objectives and then put them in comparative tables. Data were analyzed by descriptive, comparative, and theoretical methods. Results: There is no NRDR in Iran to report the short- and long-term results of renal disease. Most of the renal transplant teams report their own results as single-center experiences. America and Britain have pre-eminent national registry of renal disease, compared to other countries. Conclusions: The Iranian Society of Nephrology should be actively involved to create a National Renal Registry in Iran. The registry should have

  12. Chronic renal failure in an English bull terrier with polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Turner, S

    2004-11-01

    An entire female English bull terrier, aged five years and one month, was diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease by renal ultrasonography. It had thickening and abnormal motion of the mitral valve on 2D and M mode echocardiography, and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, characterised by turbulence in the left ventricular outflow tract and elevated aortic blood flow velocity, detected by colour flow and spectral Doppler echocardiography, respectively. Two years later, haematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis data suggested the presence of compensated renal failure. The dog was euthanased at 10 years and eight months of age, with haematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis data Indicating decompensated chronic renal failure. Postmortem examination confirmed polycystic kidney disease, chronic renal disease, mitral and aortic valvular myxomatous degeneration, and mixed mammary neoplasia. This case demonstrates that bull terriers with polycystic kidney disease may develop associated chronic renal failure.

  13. Nutrition in the critical care settings of renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Moore, L W; Acchiardo, S R; Smith, S O; Gaber, A O

    1996-07-01

    Acute catabolic events during the course of renal dysfunction lead to exacerbation of nutritional abnormalities often present in these patients. Whether the renal failure is acute or chronic, the nutritional management of these patients is extremely challenging. Traditional methods of nutritional assessment must be extrapolated to include the effects of the renal dysfunction and renal replacement therapy being used. Cases of patients with acute renal failure, chronic renal failure with an acute insult, pancreas-kidney transplant recipient with delayed graft function, and a liver transplant recipient who developed renal failure are reviewed with emphasis on the nutritional management during the course of illness. Monitoring techniques are reviewed, and comparisons are made to other nutrition support protocols. PMID:8827206

  14. The knowledge, awareness, and acceptability of renal transplantation among patients with end-stage renal disease in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Takure, A O; Jinadu, Y O; Adebayo, S A; Shittu, O B; Salako, B L; Kadiri, S

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is well established in the USA, Europe, India, and South Africa. However, it is still in its infancy in Nigeria. The objective of our study is to determine the knowledge, awareness, and acceptability of renal transplant among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the factors which are responsible for the low level of transplantation in Ibadan, Nigeria. A 15-item pilot-tested questionnaire was administered to willing patients with ESRD seen at the medical outpatient clinic of the University Teaching Hospital, from January to December 2011. There was 81% participation rate of the respondents. Exactly 90.1% had formal education and 44% earned <50,000 naira per month. Seventy-nine percent of respondents was aware of renal transplantation, 70.4% would recommend it to others, and 66.7% accepted renal transplantation; 77.8% would maintain a close relationship with their donors. About 61.7% considered it very expensive, while 33.3% did not know the cost for transplantation. Of the reason for the low level of kidney transplantation in Nigeria, 39.5% had no idea and in 27.2% of the respondents, the fear of death by potential donors may be responsible. Eleven percent of responded that recipients had no money for kidney transplantation and another 11% thought the potential donors would like to be paid for donating their kidneys. Most of the respondents with ESRD were knowledgeable, aware of, and accepted renal transplantation as the next step to treat chronic renal failure. However, majority of these patients could not afford the cost for renal transplantation. PMID:27424696

  15. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  16. Acute renal infarction secondary to atrial fibrillation - mimicking renal stone picture.

    PubMed

    Salih, Salih Bin; Al Durihim, Huda; Al Jizeeri, Ahmed; Al Maziad, Ghassan

    2006-06-01

    Acute renal infarction presents in a similar clinical picture to that of a renal stone. We report a 55-year-old Saudi female, known to have atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease. She presented with a two day history of right flank pain that was treated initially as a renal stone. Further investigations confirmed her as a case of renal infarction. Renal infarction is under-diagnosed because the similarity of its presentation to renal stone. Renal infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of loin pain, particularly in a patient with atrial fibrillation.

  17. Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Key Foundations and New Developments.

    PubMed

    Childers, Ryan E; Ahn, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a spectrum of conditions that include alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic alcoholic liver disease. The diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease remains founded in an accurate patient history and detailed physical examination. Concurrent with the physical examination, objective data from laboratory, imaging, and histologic studies are helpful to confirm a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Novel biomarkers, scoring systems, and imaging modalities are improving the ability to diagnose and manage alcoholic liver disease, but for most practicing clinicians, these have not been adopted widely because of their cost, but also because of limitations and uncertainty in their performance characteristics. PMID:27373609

  18. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  19. Spectroscopy techniques for human disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas-Moreno, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Modern medicine would benefit from the pursuit of new, more specific and easier to implement diagnosis tools. In recent years, Raman scattering, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy have proven to be successful diagnostic techniques for a wide range of diseases including atherosclerosis, kidney stones, bone diseases, diabetes, and a wide collection of neoplasms. Optical spectroscopy has several advantages over more traditional diagnostic methods (i.e., histopathology, quantitative PCR, etc.) such as faster data analysis, nonspecific sample preparation, nonspecific labels/reagents/antibodies usage requirements, and immediate on-site implementation. In the present work, label-free in vitro fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been used to differentiate between blood cells of patients affected with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and those of healthy subjects. The SERS technique has also been applied to hemoglobin variants as well as to serum obtained from patients affected with chronic heart failure who positively or negatively responded to the seasonal influenza vaccine. We found that spectral ratios of the background fluorescence intensity that accompanies the SERS spectra of granulocytes serve as excellent markers for the presence of MPNs. In addition, we also found expression dysregulation of two hypoxia induced factor regulated genes, which correlates with our results obtained by SERS spectroscopy assay in MPN patients and supports the presence of the Warburg effect in MPNs. We hypothesize that SERS measures metabolic change in granulocytes through two possible mechanisms: (i) Changes in dielectric properties of the environment surrounding the silver-cell interface; and (ii) changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, which in turn changes the relative contribution of the autofluorescence to the emission spectrum. These hypotheses are supported by SERS measurement of 2-deoxy

  20. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  1. The risk of cardiovascular disease associated with proteinuria in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Escallada, Rafael; Rodrigo, Emilio; De Francisco, Angel L M; Cotorruelo, Julio G; Sanz De Castro, Saturnino; Zubimendi, Jose A; Ruiz, J C; Arias, Manuel

    2002-04-27

    Proteinuria in the general population has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the main cause of death in renal transplantation. We investigated the effect of proteinuria on cardiovascular disease after renal transplantation in 532 renal transplant patients with functioning grafts for more than 1 year. Patients were classified into two groups depending on the presence of persistent proteinuria. We analyzed graft and patient survival, posttransplantation cardiovascular disease, and main causes of graft loss and death. Five- and 10-year graft and patient survival rates were lower in the group with proteinuria. The main cause of death was vascular disease in both groups. The presence of posttransplantation cardiovascular disease was higher in the group with proteinuria. Persistent proteinuria was associated with graft loss (RR=4.18), patient death (RR=1.92), and cardiovascular disease (RR=2.45). In conclusion, persistent proteinuria was an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal transplant patients.

  2. Economic evaluation of end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Suja, A.; Anju, R.; Anju, V.; Neethu, J.; Peeyush, P.; Saraswathy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In India the incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing day by day and the option for the treatment of ESRD is dialysis or transplantation. In the present scenario, due to the cost of treatment normal people can afford only hemodialysis rather than transplantation. Since the cost of hemodialysis differs across the country, research is needed to evaluate its exact cost. Aim: This study is to analyze the healthcare cost of hemodialysis in a private hospital of South India. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Patients who are undergoing routine hemodialysis in this hospital were selected for the study. Patient data as well as cost details were collected for a period of six months. Thirty patients were selected for the study and a total of 2160 dialysis sessions were studied. Patient perspective was taken for the analysis of cost. Both direct and indirect costs were analyzed. This includes cost of dialysis, investigations, erythropoietin, food, transportation, lost wages etc. Socioeconomic status of the patient was also studied. Result: The total cost per session was found to be around Rs. 4500. Fifty six percent contributes direct medical cost whereas 20% contributes direct non medical cost. Twenty four percent cost was due to indirect costs. Since the patients are paying from their own pocket, only the upper or upper middle class patient can undergo hemodialysis regularly. Conclusion: These findings are important to find out the impact of cost of hemodialysis on patients suffering from ESRD. Further studies related to costs and outcome, otherwise known as pharmacoeconomic studies, are needed to analyze the pros and cons of renal replacement therapy and to improve the quality of life of ESRD patients. Thus pharmacoeconomical studies are needed to realize that government has to take initiative to provide insurance or reimbursement for the common people. PMID:22557920

  3. Proteomics for rejection diagnosis in renal transplant patients: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Gwinner, Wilfried; Metzger, Jochen; Husi, Holger; Marx, David

    2016-01-01

    Rejection is one of the key factors that determine the long-term allograft function and survival in renal transplant patients. Reliable and timely diagnosis is important to treat rejection as early as possible. Allograft biopsies are not suitable for continuous monitoring of rejection. Thus, there is an unmet need for non-invasive methods to diagnose acute and chronic rejection. Proteomics in urine and blood samples has been explored for this purpose in 29 studies conducted since 2003. This review describes the different proteomic approaches and summarizes the results from the studies that examined proteomics for the rejection diagnoses. The potential limitations and open questions in establishing proteomic markers for rejection are discussed, including ongoing trials and future challenges to this topic. PMID:27011903

  4. Ramadan fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Emami-Naini, Afsoon; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Baradaran, Azar; Abedini, Amin; Abtahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. During this month, adult Muslims are obligated to refrain from eating and drinking from dawn to dusk. Although based on Islamic principles patients are exempted from fasting, each year, many Muslim patients express their willingness to observe the fast in Ramadan month to respect the cultural customs. There are concerns about the impact of fluid restriction and dehydration during Ramadan fasting for patients with renal diseases. In this study, we reviewed the PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, SCIRUS, Embase, and DOAJ data sources to identify the published studies on the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with renal diseases. Our review on published reports on renal transplant recipients revealed no injurious effect of Ramadan fasting for the renal graft function. Nearly all studies on this topic suggest that Ramadan fasting is safe when the function of the renal graft is acceptable and stable. Regarding the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with chronic kidney disease, there is concern about the role of renal hypoperfusion in developing tubular cell injury. Finally, there is controversy between studies about the risk of dehydration in Ramadan in developing renal stones. There are uncertainties about the change in the incidence of renal colic in Ramadan month compared with the other periods of the year. Despite such discrepancies, nearly all studies are in agreement on consuming adequate amounts of water from dusk to dawn to reduce the risk of renal stone formation. PMID:24379850

  5. Ramadan fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Emami-Naini, Afsoon; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Baradaran, Azar; Abedini, Amin; Abtahi, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. During this month, adult Muslims are obligated to refrain from eating and drinking from dawn to dusk. Although based on Islamic principles patients are exempted from fasting, each year, many Muslim patients express their willingness to observe the fast in Ramadan month to respect the cultural customs. There are concerns about the impact of fluid restriction and dehydration during Ramadan fasting for patients with renal diseases. In this study, we reviewed the PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, SCIRUS, Embase, and DOAJ data sources to identify the published studies on the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with renal diseases. Our review on published reports on renal transplant recipients revealed no injurious effect of Ramadan fasting for the renal graft function. Nearly all studies on this topic suggest that Ramadan fasting is safe when the function of the renal graft is acceptable and stable. Regarding the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with chronic kidney disease, there is concern about the role of renal hypoperfusion in developing tubular cell injury. Finally, there is controversy between studies about the risk of dehydration in Ramadan in developing renal stones. There are uncertainties about the change in the incidence of renal colic in Ramadan month compared with the other periods of the year. Despite such discrepancies, nearly all studies are in agreement on consuming adequate amounts of water from dusk to dawn to reduce the risk of renal stone formation. PMID:24379850

  6. Antemortem laboratory diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Robitaille, Y; Quirion, R; Leblanc, R

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnosis for AD by conventional clinical and laboratory means is in the order of 80%. Neurophysiological techniques (EEG, evoked potentials) show abnormalities in AD that could prove to be useful for diagnosis after pharmacological challenges. CSF analysis show a reduction of the concentration of various neuropeptides, reduction shared by other types of dementias. Among the existing imaging techniques PET using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is the most diagnostic in AD because of the early and often asymmetrical decrease in parietotemporal metabolic activity. Cortical biopsy with histological and biochemical analysis can provide an accurate in vivo diagnosis of AD.

  7. [Role of immunity and tolerance in renal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ranieri, E

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been recognized as the most efficient antigen presenting cells that have the capacity to initiate naive T-cell response in vitro and in vivo. During their differentiation and maturation pathways, DC can efficiently capture, process and present antigens for T-cell activation. These characteristics make DC an attractive choice as the cellular adjuvant for can-cer vaccines. In humans, two DC subsets, myeloid DC (mDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC), have been characterized and have distinct origins and functions: mDC are involved in the induction of the Th1 response, while pDC regulate immunity and initiate adaptive antiviral immune responses. Advances in DC generation, loading and maturation methodologies have made it possible to generate clinical grade vaccines for various human trials. Several studies have shown that tumor antigen-loaded DC vaccination is safe and promising for the treatment of cancer. We are investigating the use of autologous tumor lysate-pulsed mature DC in renal cancer patients with metastasis. DC can play a central role in the development of T-cell tolerance, and its maintenance in the periphery is critical for the prevention of autoimmunity. DC are likely to have a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and are, to date, the only APC capable of provoking autoimmune disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a systemic autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement with autoreactive T and B cells, could be due to DC alterations, and pDC have a potential role in this disease. Given their pivotal role in controlling immunity, DC are logical targets for treating both cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  8. Trace elements in sera from patients with renal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Sera, Kouichiro; Sato, Michirou

    1999-04-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, an accumulation of trace elements such as aluminum, copper, silicon and vanadium has been reported. Aluminum-caused encephalopathy and aluminum-related bone diseases are important trace element-related complications. Using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) we determined concentrations of aluminum, silicon, copper, zinc, selenium and bromine in sera of 29 patients with HD, 14 nondialysis patients with renal disease (RD) and 27 normal controls. The concentration of serum silicon of the patients with HD was 107.4 ± 61.3 μmol/l, which is markedly higher than that of normal controls (48.3 ± 25.8 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The serum concentrations of zinc and bromine in patients with HD were 11.9 ± 1.7 and 21.3 ± 3.0 μmol/l, respectively. Both were markedly lower than those of normal controls (15.6 ± 2.6, 69.2 ± 8.3 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The concentrations of aluminium and bromine in the serum of patients with RD were 171.9 ± 64.3 and 81.9 ± 11.6 μmol/l, which were markedly higher than those of normal controls ( p < 0.0001, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the concentration of copper and selenium among three groups.

  9. C-reactive protein and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Eduardo; Levin, Nathan W

    2004-01-01

    The significance of CRP and inflammation has increased over time, especially in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. From a simple marker it now appears that CRP is an active participant in pro-atherosclerotic phenomenon including local pro-inflammatory and thrombotic events. Studies in the general population indicate the usefulness of CRP in prognostication and in monitoring response to therapy. The clinical usefulness of CRP monitoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and especially in ESRD deserves closer study. In the meantime, the utility of CRP measurements for monitoring and treatment is on a case-by-case basis. Management of traditional cardiovascular risk factors should be considered. In the interest of optimizing therapy it is prudent to use biocompatible membranes and ultrapure water. A careful search for infectious processes in dialysis patients is recommended, with special attention to vascular access sites, periodontitis, gastritis, and other potentially chronic or covert infections. ACE-inhibitor use should be maximized in all eligible CKD patients. The data on the use of statins in ESRD have been generally positive but await further validation. Individualized use for selected patients is probably beneficial.

  10. Aspects of Immune Dysfunction in End-stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Sawako; Chmielewski, Michal; Honda, Hirokazu; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Matsuo, Seiichi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Tranaeus, Anders; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2008-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and infections, accounting for 50% and 20%, respectively, of the total mortality in ESRD patients. It is possible that these two complications are linked to alterations in the immune system in ESRD, as uremia is associated with a state of immune dysfunction characterized by immunodepression that contributes to the high prevalence of infections among these patients, as well as by immunoactivation resulting in inflammation that may contribute to CVD. This review describes disorders of the innate and adaptive immune systems in ESRD, underlining the specific role of ESRD-associated disturbances of Toll-like receptors. Finally, based on the emerging links between the alterations of immune system, CVD, and infections in ESRD patients, it emphasizes the potential role of the immune dysfunction in ESRD as an underlying cause for the high mortality in this patient population and the need for more studies in this area. PMID:18701615

  11. Management of renal stone disease in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Aleksandra; Keoghane, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Obesity represents an increasing burden to health care resources. Nephrolithiasis is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes and the consumption of diets rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates; this article addresses some of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with stone formation in these patients. Management of stone disease can be more difficult in obese patients; even diagnosis can be problematic because imaging techniques are less sensitive in these patients. Treatment with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and surgery in obese patients can be challenging, and outcome data for the different treatments are discussed in this Review.

  12. Encephalopathy and Hypotonia due to Baclofen Toxicity in a Patient with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Tariq, Hassan; Kashif, Muhammad; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Baclofen toxicity Symptoms: Encephalopathy • hypotonia Medication: Baclofen Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis Specialty: Critical Care Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Baclofen is a centrally acting gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used for the symptomatic relief of skeletal muscle spasm and spasticity in traumatic spinal cord lesions, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and stroke. It is also used in the treatment of chronic hiccups and cocaine abuse. Baclofen-induced central nervous system depression is rare at the usual therapeutic doses. However, patients with impaired renal function are at a higher risk of developing baclofen toxicity, even at a lower dose. Case Report: A 57-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis was admitted to our emergency department with progressive confusion and a generalized decrease in muscular tone. There was no obvious metabolic or infectious etiology that could have explained her condition. A comprehensive laboratory and imaging workup was negative. A review of her medication showed that she had recently been prescribed baclofen for muscular spasm. She was diagnosed with baclofen toxicity and was treated with emergent hemodialysis, which improved her mental status and her decreased muscle tone. Repeated sessions of hemodialysis administered on her second and third days of admission ultimately produced sustained clinical improvement and a complete return to her baseline mental status. She was subsequently discharged home with instructions to stay off baclofen. Conclusions: Baclofen toxicity is an under-diagnosed condition, especially in patients with renal dysfunction. Physicians should consider baclofen toxicity in patients with suboptimal kidney function on baclofen who present with altered mental status. Emergent hemodialysis and intensive care unit monitoring is recommended. PMID:25895118

  13. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or stomach. Diagnosis Key heart tests include: Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) —This records the electrical activity of the heart as it contracts and relaxes. The ECG can detect abnormal heartbeats, some areas of damage, ...

  14. Genetics and cardiovascular disease: the impact of molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vengoechea, Jaime; McKelvey, Kent D

    2013-04-01

    Information technology is exponentially reducing the cost of genetic testing while multiple clinical applications emerge. Genetic diagnosis increasingly impacts prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. In cardiovascular medicine, the establishment of a specific genetic diagnosis may affect management of cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, connective tissue and metabolic disease. Econometric studies have determined that genetic testing is cost-effective in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and disease-specific interventions are now available for specific conditions. Identification of a specific genetic disorder now allows for more precise medicine in the affected individual and more accurate preventive care for asymptomatic family members.

  15. Distal, intermediate, and proximal mediators of racial disparities in renal disease mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kidney failure and associated mortality is one of the major components of racial disparities in the United States. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the role of distal (socioeconomic status, SES), intermediate (chronic medical diseases), and proximal (health behaviors) factors that may explain Black-White disparities in mortality due to renal diseases. Patients and Methods: This is a nationally representative prospective cohort with 25 years of follow up. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study, 1986 to 2011. The study included 3361 Black (n = 1156) or White (n = 2205) adults who were followed for up to 25 years. Race was the main predictor and death due to renal disease was the outcome. SES, chronic medical disease (diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) at baseline were potential mediators. We used Cox proportional hazards models for data analysis. Results: In age and gender adjusted models, Blacks had higher risk of death due to renal disease over the follow up period. Separate models suggested that SES, health behaviors and chronic medical disease fully explained the effect of race on renal disease mortality. Conclusions: Black-White disparities in rate of death due to renal diseases in the United States are not genuine but secondary to racial differences in income, health behaviors, hypertension, and diabetes. As distal, intermediate, and proximal factors contribute to racial disparities in renal disease mortality, elimination of such disparities requires a wide range of policies and programs that target income, medical conditions, and health behaviors. PMID:27047811

  16. Medical imaging of renal diseases-suggested indication for different modalities.

    PubMed

    Bell, E G; McAfee, J G; Makhuli, Z N

    1981-04-01

    The diagnostic work-up of the urologic patient must be tailored to the presenting symptom complex, carefully selecting from the many modilities available, those most likely to establish the diagnosis and extent of the suspected lesions. Intravenous urography is the most rewarding initial procedure for many presenting symptoms, including suspected masses, pyuria, hematuria, and flank pain. Nuclear imaging is particularly effective in differentiating renal lobulations from true masses, in demonstrating parenchymal scarring in chronic pyelonephritis when the IVP is equivocal, and in assessing the decrease in perfusion and function in obstructive nephropathy when the IVP is indeterminate. It is the preferred procedure for acute renal infarction and acute tubular necrosis and has a greater sensitivity of detection for renal trauma than the IVP. Gallium-67 renal imaging appear helpful in the detection of occult pyelonephritis or interstitial nephritis. However, it cannot differentiate focal acute pyelonephritis from abscess or abscess from neoplasm. Ultrasoneography is the initial procedure of choice in the differentiation of cystic from solid renal masses and in anuria or oliguria. When a kidney fails to visualize by IVP or nuclear imaging, it can confirm or rule out obstruction. In upper tract infections, it may demonstrate renal or perirenal abscess. Although retrograde pyelography is performed less frequently in recent years, it remains extremely useful in confirming and relieving obstructive uropathy and in delineating tumors of the collecting system. Computed tomography effectively demonstrates hydronephrosis, renal abscess, tumors, and cysts and retroperitoneal involvement. More experience is needed to judge the efficiency of "dynamic" CT for the quantification of renal function. Renal angiography remains invaluable as a secondary procedure (as opposed to initial screening) in renal trauma, vascular anomalies, and in renal tumors to delineate the anatomy of the

  17. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  18. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  19. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  20. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  1. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  2. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  3. Associations between proteinuria, systemic hypertension and glomerular filtration rate in dogs with renal and non-renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wehner, A; Hartmann, K; Hirschberger, J

    2008-02-01

    Proteinuria and systemic hypertension are well recognised risk factors in chronic renal failure (CRF). They are consequences of renal disease but also lead to a further loss of functional kidney tissue. The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between proteinuria, systemic hypertension and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs with naturally occurring renal and non-renal diseases, and to determine whether proteinuria and hypertension were associated with shorter survival times in dogs with CRF. Measurements of exogenous creatinine plasma clearance (ECPC), urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC), and Doppler sonographic measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) were made in 60 dogs with various diseases. There was a weak but significant inverse correlation between UPC and ECPC, a significant inverse correlation between SBP and ECPC and a weak but significant positive correlation between UPC and SBP. Some of the dogs with CRF were proteinuric and almost all were hypertensive. Neoplasia was commonly associated with proteinuria in the dogs with a normal ECPC. CRF was the most common cause leading to hypertension. In the dogs with CRF, hypertension and marked proteinuria were associated with significantly shorter survival times.

  4. Celiac Disease and Cystic Fibrosis: Challenges to Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alessandra Teixeira Pessoa; Figueirêdo, Manuella Machado; Aguiar, Ana Paula de B; Almeida, Carolina de Godoy; Mendes, Patrícia S A; Souza, Edna Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis and celiac disease were considered a single clinical entity for many years. Differentiation between the diseases occurred some time in the 1930s of the 20th Century. Both diseases may present the intestinal malabsorption syndrome and similar clinical manifestations that contribute to difficulties with clinical distinction. We describe a report of two patients with initial diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, who were subsequently diagnosed with celiac disease. These case reports emphasize the possibility of false positivity being shown in the sweat test in CD, which may result in delayed diagnosis and inadequate management of this disease. PMID:27552792

  5. Distribution of primary renal diseases leading to end-stage renal failure in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand: results from an international comparative study.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, P; Agodoa, L; Gellert, R; Stewart, J H; Buccianti, G; Lowenfels, A B; Wolfe, R A; Jones, E; Disney, A P; Briggs, D; McCredie, M; Boyle, P

    2000-01-01

    This report notes the differences in the classification of the primary renal disease (PRD) used in different renal dialysis and transplant registries worldwide. The heterogeneity of coding systems complicates the comparative analysis of end-stage renal disease from different regions. Using data collected over two decades in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand, we present a method for reorganization of the classes of PRD that allows a straightforward comparison of retrospective data from these registries.

  6. Renal artery stenosis and hypertension after abdominal irradiation for Hodgkin disease. Successful treatment with nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Salvi, S.; Green, D.M.; Brecher, M.L.; Magoos, I.; Gamboa, L.N.; Fisher, J.E.; Baliah, T.; Afshani, E.

    1983-06-01

    Hypertension secondary to stenosis of the left renal artery developed in a thirteen-year-old male six years after completion of inverted Y irradiation (3,600 rad) for abdominal Hodgkin disease. Surgical treatment with nephrectomy resulted in control of the hypertension without the use of antihypertensive agents. We review the literature for this unusual complication of abdominal irradiation, and recommend that a 99mTc-DMSA renal scan, selective renal vein sampling for renin determinations, and renal arteriography be performed on any patient in whom hypertension develops following abdominal irradiation in childhood.

  7. [Hirschsprung's disease: the immunohistochemistry as ancillary method for the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Menchaca-Cervantes, Celestina; Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Ramón-García, Guillermo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Background: the confirmatory diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease is made by histopathological study. However, this procedure is limited with only hematoxylin and eosin staining, especially in biopsies of premature babies or when non-expert pathologists make the evaluation. The immunohistochemistry from ganglia cell calretinin has been used to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis. Our objective was to show the benefits of this antibody in diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease in biopsy specimens. Methods: we evaluated patients with histopathological diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease made by hematoxylin and eosin staining. We determined if there was enough paraffin block for immunohistochemistry with two markers: calretinin and neurofilaments. Three controls of autopsy of children under 3 years of age with other diagnosis were included. Results: of a total of 48 cases with histopathological diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease only 13 had adequate tissue for immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis in nine cases. In the other four cases there were initial misdiagnosis due to evidence of calretinin (ganglion cells) and, thus, Hirschsprung's disease was discarded. Conclusions: the use of immunohistochemistry allows confirming the diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease and reduce the risk of a false-positive result with only hematoxylin and eosin staining.

  8. Hints to the diagnosis of uromodulin kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Onoe, Tamehito; Yamada, Kazunori; Mizushima, Ichiro; Ito, Kiyoaki; Kawakami, Takahiro; Daimon, Shoichiro; Muramoto, Hiroaki; Konoshita, Tadashi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Uromodulin kidney disease (UKD) is an inherited kidney disease caused by a uromodulin (UMOD) gene mutation. The UMOD gene encodes the Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP), which is the most abundant protein in healthy human urine. Because of its rarity, the incidence of UKD has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the frequency of UKD among patients who underwent renal biopsy. Methods Immunostaining for THP was performed for patients <50 years of age with renal insufficiency and hyperuricemia without overt urinalysis abnormality from renal biopsy databases. Serum and urinary THP concentrations were evaluated in available individuals. Results Fifteen patients were selected for immunostaining from a total of 3787 patients. In three independent patients, abnormal THP accumulation in renal tubular cells was observed. A novel missense A247P UMOD mutation was detected in two of the three patients, including one having a typical family history of familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy. Serum and urinary THP concentrations of all available patients with UMOD A247P mutation were significantly lower than those of controls. Conclusions In the present study, UKD was detected in <1 in 1000 subjects who underwent renal biopsies. However, in subjects meeting all of the above criteria, abnormal THP accumulation was detected in 20% (3/15), suggesting that renal biopsy with immunostaining for THP is a good tool for diagnosing UKD. Also, low serum THP concentration detected in the present subjects might be a good diagnostic marker or important in understanding the pathogenesis of UKD. PMID:26798464

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in fine needle aspiration specimens.

    PubMed

    Kos, Zuzana; Williams, Phillip A; Belanger, Eric C; Mai, Kien T

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the role of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the diagnosis of primary renal neoplasms and lesions suspicious for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Consecutive fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of 39 renal masses and 41 metastatic tumours suspicious for renal cell origin were assessed with an immunohistochemical panel for CK7, RCC antigen, CD10, AMACR, PAX8, vimentin, and CD117. In addition, FISH was performed using probes for chromosomes 1p, 3p, 7, 17, X, and Y. A total of 31 of 39 primary renal masses and 33 of 41 metastatic tumors suspicious for renal origin demonstrated typical cytological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of subtypes of renal neoplasms (40 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 20 papillary RCC, and 4 renal oncocytomas). FISH analysis of 15 randomly selected cases each of primary and metastatic lesions revealed chromosomal abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis in 73% of these cases. Of 8 primary renal masses demonstrating atypical microscopic features and noncontributory IHC profiles, FISH was helpful in subtyping 5 (62%) of these lesions (2 clear cell RCC, 1 solid variant of oncocytic papillary RCC, 1 mixed clear cell and papillary RCC, and 1 chromophobe RCC with papillary architecture). Of 8 metastatic tumors clinically suspicious for renal cell origin and supportive, but nondiagnostic IHC, FISH revealed supportive chromosomal changes in 6 (75%) cases. In conclusion FISH analysis on FNAB material, even with limited tissue, may be contributory to the diagnosis and subtyping of RCC in diagnostically challenging biopsies. PMID:24692327

  10. CT of acquired cystic kidney disease and renal tumors in long-term dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.; Slusher, S.L.; Greathouse, J.L.; Krohn, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kidneys of long term dialysis patients frequently demonstrate multiple small acquired cysts and renal cell tumors on pathologic examination. The original kidneys of 30 long-term dialysis patients and six renal transplant patients were evaluated by computed tomography to determine the incidence of these abnormalities. Among dialysis patients, 43.3% had diffuse bilateral cysts, while 16.7% had occasional cysts (fewer than five per kidney), and 40% showed no renal cysts. Seven solid renal tumors were detected in four dialysis patients with renal cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease tends to result in renal enlargement, is more common in patients who have been maintained on dialysis for prolonged periods, and may lead to spontaneous renal hemorrhage. The six transplant patients showed no evidence of renal cysts, and all had markedly shrunken kidneys. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell tumors in the original kidneys of dialysis patients may be due to biologically active substances that are not cleared effectively by dialysis but that are removed by normally functioning transplant kidneys.

  11. Diabetes, Renal and Cardiovascular Disease in p47phox−/− Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Zerbe, Christa S.; DeRavin, Suk See; Malech, Harry L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare immunodeficiency due to defects in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The X-linked form (gp91phox deficiency) accounts for about 70 % of cases; autosomal recessive p47phox deficiency accounts for about 25 % of cases. We identified a 10 % incidence of diabetes in p47phox deficient CGD, but none in X-linked CGD. Renal and cardiovascular diseases were also higher in p47phox deficiency. p47phox deficient CGD has noninfectious morbidities distinct from those in X-linked CGD. PMID:23386289

  12. Diagnosis of sickle cell disease in chronically transfused patients.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, D R; Ober, C L; Horwitz, A L

    1992-01-01

    Standard electrophoretic methods for the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies are confounded in individuals chronically transfused. We present the accurate diagnosis of sickle cell disease in two such transfused patients by the application of polymerase chain reaction technology to analyze patient's hemoglobin beta-chain genes directly.

  13. The radiological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. An imaging symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, R.N.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Fordtran, J.S.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in the radiological diagnosis of gallbladder disease are occurring at a remarkable rate. In this symposium, several recognized authorities place the various diagnostic modalities and their interrelation in modern perspective. The present and future roles of oral cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography, the radiological diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis, and the use of ultrasonography and cholescintigraphy are analyzed.

  14. Increased renal versican expression is associated with progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Michael; Perco, Paul; Neuwirt, Hannes; Noppert, Susie-Jane; Leierer, Johannes; Sunzenauer, Judith; Eder, Susanne; Zoja, Carlamaria; Eller, Kathrin; Rosenkranz, Alexander R; Müller, Gerhard A; Mayer, Bernd; Mayer, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Novel prognostic markers for progression of kidney disease are needed to distinguish patients who might benefit from a more aggressive nephroprotective therapy. Expression of the proteoglycan versican was evaluated in renal transcriptomics profiles and in an independent set of 74 renal biopsies. Versican levels were correlated to histologic damage scores and to renal outcome, and versican expression and regulation was evaluated in vitro. In transcriptomics profiles of renal tissue versican was positively correlated with (i) histological parameters in kidney biopsies, (ii) progressive decline of renal function in proteinuric kidney diseases, and (iii) impaired renal function and histology scores in diabetic nephropathy. In an independent cohort of 74 biopsies of glomerular diseases renal RNA levels of versican isoforms V0 and V1, but not V2 and V3 correlated significantly with creatinine after a mean follow up time of 53 months. Versican isoforms V0 and V1 together with serum creatinine at time of biopsy and the degree of glomerulosclerosis predicted 20% and 24% of the variability of creatinine at follow up, which was significantly more than serum creatinine and histological parameters alone (16%). However, when patients with acute kidney failure at time of biopsy (n = 5) were excluded, the additive predictive value of versican V1 was only marginally higher (35%) than creatinine and glomerulosclerosis alone (34%). Versican isoforms V0 and V1 were primarily expressed in vitro in proximal tubule cells and in fibroblasts. The results in humans were confirmed in three rodent models of kidney disease, in which renal versican expression was significantly upregulated as compared to corresponding controls. These data show for the first time an association of renal versican isoform V0 and V1 expression with progressive renal disease.

  15. Acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock caused by spontaneous rupture of renal cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yaman, İsmail; Sağlam, İsmet; Kurt, Kamile

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an important cause of end stage renal failure. Rarely, these patients may present with hemorrhagic shock caused by rupture of the renal cyst. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of a patient who arrived at the emergency department with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. A 58-year-old male with chronic renal failure was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. The patient was admitted to the Department of Surgery with diagnosis of acute abdomen and perirenal hematoma. Although the patient was on conservative treatment, his symptoms did not improve and the patient was operated emergently. During exploration, there was bleeding from the right polycystic kidney, which was 30×20 cm in dimension. The patient underwent nephrectomy and drainage of the hematoma, and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day without any problems. Bleeding due to rupture of a cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs rarely but it may be life threatening. Although conservative methods are often preferable in treatment, surgery can be life saving for patients in whom the clinical situation does not improve.

  16. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  17. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  18. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient’s symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers. PMID:27547534

  19. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rui; Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient's symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers. PMID:27547534

  20. In vivo vascular wall shear rate and circumferential strain of renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Woo; Kruger, Grant H; Rubin, Jonathan M; Hamilton, James; Gottschalk, Paul; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J; Weitzel, William F

    2013-02-01

    This study measures the vascular wall shear rate at the vessel edge using decorrelation based ultrasound speckle tracking. Results for nine healthy and eight renal disease subjects are presented. Additionally, the vascular wall shear rate and circumferential strain during physiologic pressure, pressure equalization and hyperemia are compared for five healthy and three renal disease subjects. The mean and maximum wall shear rates were measured during the cardiac cycle at the top and bottom wall edges. The healthy subjects had significantly higher mean and maximum vascular wall shear rate than the renal disease subjects. The key findings of this research were that the mean vascular wall shear rates and circumferential strain changes between physiologic pressure and hyperemia that was significantly different between healthy and renal disease subjects.

  1. Preeclampsia from a renal point of view: Insides into disease models, biomarkers and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Deile, Janina; Schiffer, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Proteinuria is a frequently detected symptom, found in 20% of pregnancies. A common reason for proteinuria in pregnancy is preeclampsia. To diagnose preeclampsia clinically and to get new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease it is at first essential to be familiar with conditions in normal pregnancy. Animal models and biomarkers can help to learn more about disease conditions and to find new treatment strategies. In this article we review the changes in kidney function during normal pregnancy and the differential diagnosis of proteinuria in pregnancy. We summarize different pathophysiological theories of preeclampsia with a special focus on the renal facets of the disease. We describe the current animal models and give a broad overview of different biomarkers that were reported to predict preeclampsia or have a prognostic value in preeclampsia cases. We end with a summary of treatment options for preeclampsia related symptoms including the use of plasmapheresis as a rescue therapy for so far refractory preeclampsia. Most of these novel biomarkers for preeclampsia are not yet implemented in clinical use. Therefore, we recommend using proteinuria (measured by UPC ratio) as a screening parameter for preeclampsia. Delivery is the only curative treatment for preeclampsia. In early preeclampsia the primary therapy goal is to prolong pregnancy until a state were the child has an acceptable chance of survival after delivery. PMID:25374810

  2. Wilson's disease: acute and presymptomatic laboratory diagnosis and monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, D; Fell, G; O'Reilly, D

    2000-01-01

    Wilson's disease, the most common inherited disorder of copper metabolism, is a recessive genetic condition. The clinical presentation of Wilson's disease is very variable. It is characterised by low serum copper and caeruloplasmin concentrations coupled with the pathological accumulation of copper in the tissues. However, there are diagnostic difficulties and these are discussed. The current value of DNA diagnosis, both in gene tracking in families or as applied to de novo cases, is examined. Wilson's disease can be treated successfully but treatment must be life long. Patients are best treated by specialist centres with experience and expertise in the condition. Key Words: Wilson's disease • copper • diagnosis PMID:11127261

  3. Progression to calcific mitral stenosis in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, I A; Madu, E C

    1995-12-01

    A 59-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and on hemodialysis had neither mitral stenosis nor mitral calcification on echo-Doppler examination in 1989, but had extensive mitral calcification and definite mitral stenosis on conventional and transesophageal echocardiography in 1994. The left ventricle had marked concentric hypertrophy. To our knowledge this is the first documentation of the development of calcific mitral stenosis in end-stage renal disease revealed by serial echo-Doppler studies.

  4. Alternatives to Serologic Testing for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Capraro, Gerald A

    2015-12-01

    Although serologic testing remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, the antibody response may take several weeks to increase greater than the limit of detection. Because of this extended time frame, it is necessary to identify new diagnostic methods for earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Lyme disease. Alternative diagnostic modalities, such as Borrelia culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, may be beneficial in specific clinical scenarios. In early phases of acute infection, before the development of an immune response, detection of Borrelia DNA from clinical specimens may help establish the diagnosis sooner than serologic methods.

  5. Pregnancy in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: how to achieve a successful delivery

    PubMed Central

    Manisco, Gianfranco; Potì’, Marcello; Maggiulli, Giuseppe; Di Tullio, Massimo; Losappio, Vincenzo; Vernaglione, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with chronic kidney disease has always been considered as a challenging event both for the mother and the fetus. Over the years, several improvements have been achieved in the outcome of pregnant chronic renal patients with increasing rates of successful deliveries. To date, evidence suggests that the stage of renal failure is the main predictive factor of worsening residual kidney function and complications in pregnant women. Moreover, the possibility of success of the pregnancy depends on adequate depurative and pharmacological strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease. In this paper, we propose a review of the current literature about this topic presenting our experience as well. PMID:26034591

  6. Clostridium difficile: clinical disease and diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Knoop, F C; Owens, M; Crocker, I C

    1993-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a spectrum of disease ranging from antibiotic-associated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. Although the disease was first described in 1893, the etiologic agent was not isolated and identified until 1978. Since clinical and pathological features of C. difficile-associated disease are not easily distinguished from those of other gastrointestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and Crohn's disease, diagnostic methods have relied on either isolation and identification of the microorganism or direct detection of bacterial antigens or toxins in stool specimens. The current review focuses on the sensitivity, specificity, and practical use of several diagnostic tests, including methods for culture of the etiologic agent, cellular cytotoxicity assays, latex agglutination tests, enzyme immunoassay systems, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, fluorescent-antibody assays, and polymerase chain reactions. PMID:8358706

  7. Case for diagnosis. Metastatic Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, João Renato Vianna; Leidenz, Franciele Antonieta Bianchi; Sousa, Maria Silvia Laborne Alves de

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease is a rare skin manifestation, defined by granulomatous skin lesions that are discontinuous to the affected gastrointestinal tract and histopathologically resembling inflammatory bowel lesions. Up to 44% of patients with Crohn's disease have cutaneous manifestations, of which metastatic lesions are the least common. We present a case of an adolescent with refractory Crohn's disease and persistent papules and plaques on the skin. PMID:27579756

  8. Case for diagnosis. Metastatic Crohn's disease*

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, João Renato Vianna; Leidenz, Franciele Antonieta Bianchi; de Sousa, Maria Silvia Laborne Alves

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease is a rare skin manifestation, defined by granulomatous skin lesions that are discontinuous to the affected gastrointestinal tract and histopathologically resembling inflammatory bowel lesions. Up to 44% of patients with Crohn's disease have cutaneous manifestations, of which metastatic lesions are the least common. We present a case of an adolescent with refractory Crohn's disease and persistent papules and plaques on the skin. PMID:27579756

  9. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Jennum, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. Objective To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3 years before a hospital contact leading to a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Methods Retrospective morbidity data from Danish National Patient Registry records (1997–2007) of 10,490 adult patients with a secondary care diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were compared with 42,505 control cases. Results Parkinson's disease was associated with significantly higher morbidity rates associated with conditions in the following categories: mental and psychiatric, nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, genitourinary, abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, injury, poisoning and certain other external causes, and other factors influencing health status and contact with health services. It was negatively associated with neoplasm, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. Conclusions Patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease present significant differences in morbidities early on, following, and prior to, their diagnosis, compared with healthy controls. PMID:24944873

  10. Acceptance and effects of a therapeutic renal food in pet cats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Dale A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal foods are used to manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats, but their effectiveness may be limited by the ability to transition animals to them. Material and Methods In a prospective study, pet cats with previously undiagnosed kidney disease (20 International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) 1, 61 IRIS 2, 14 IRIS 3/4, 33 at risk for CKD) were transitioned to a renal food. Markers of renal function were measured and owners answered questionnaires about their pet over one year. Results All but eight cats (120/128; 94 per cent) successfully transitioned to the renal food. Most of the time, cats moderately or extremely liked the food (89 per cent), ate at least half (73 per cent) and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating (68 per cent). Cats rarely disliked the food (2 per cent) or refused to eat it (1 per cent). Markers of renal function were unchanged in IRIS 1 and 2 cats and changed little in IRIS 3/4 cats. In all groups, owner-assessed quality of life improved initially and then remained stable. Mean bodyweight did not change in cats with CKD. Conclusions Most cats with CKD successfully transitioned to the renal food. The results also support previous studies that the renal food can help stabilise cats with CKD. PMID:26587240

  11. End Stage Renal Disease as a Potential Risk Factor for Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Ni; Yang, Te-Cheng; Lin, Jian-Teng; Lian, Ie-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract End stage renal disease (ESRD) has been reported to be an important risk factor for systemic vascular disease. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is closely related with cardiovascular diseases; however, its association with ESRD had not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate whether ESRD is a risk factor for RVO, including central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). This population-based study is based on the longitudinal data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5344 patients with diagnosis of ESRD on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis during the period from January 1996 to December 2011. For each ESRD patient, we selected 20 non-ESRD patients matched on age and sex. Each ESRD patient and his/her controls were followed from the initiation of renal dialysis until either the diagnosis of RVO or censorship. Kaplan–Meier method was used to compare the hazard of RVO between cohorts. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) adjusted by the comorbidities of RVO including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and hypertriglyceridemia. After stratifying by DM status, the statistics were applied again to examine the associations among the DM cohort and non-DM cohort. The 16-year RVO cumulative incidence for ESRD cohort was 2-fold to the non-ESRD (1.01% vs 0.46%). After matching with age, sex, hypertension, and hypercholesteremia, the adjusted HR was 1.46 (95% confidence interval = 1.07–2.01, P value = 0.018). By further excluding patients with DM, the adjusted HR escalated to 2.43 (95% confidence interval = 1.54–3.83, P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no significant risk of ESRD on RVO in the DM patients (HR = 1.03). We conclude that among the non-DM patients, ESRD cases had significantly higher RVO rate than the non-ESRD, which indicates that ESRD maybe a potential risk factor

  12. End Stage Renal Disease as a Potential Risk Factor for Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Ni; Yang, Te-Cheng; Lin, Jian-Teng; Lian, Ie-Bin

    2015-11-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) has been reported to be an important risk factor for systemic vascular disease. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is closely related with cardiovascular diseases; however, its association with ESRD had not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate whether ESRD is a risk factor for RVO, including central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). This population-based study is based on the longitudinal data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5344 patients with diagnosis of ESRD on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis during the period from January 1996 to December 2011. For each ESRD patient, we selected 20 non-ESRD patients matched on age and sex. Each ESRD patient and his/her controls were followed from the initiation of renal dialysis until either the diagnosis of RVO or censorship. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the hazard of RVO between cohorts. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) adjusted by the comorbidities of RVO including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and hypertriglyceridemia. After stratifying by DM status, the statistics were applied again to examine the associations among the DM cohort and non-DM cohort.The 16-year RVO cumulative incidence for ESRD cohort was 2-fold to the non-ESRD (1.01% vs 0.46%). After matching with age, sex, hypertension, and hypercholesteremia, the adjusted HR was 1.46 (95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.01, P value = 0.018). By further excluding patients with DM, the adjusted HR escalated to 2.43 (95% confidence interval = 1.54-3.83, P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no significant risk of ESRD on RVO in the DM patients (HR = 1.03). We conclude that among the non-DM patients, ESRD cases had significantly higher RVO rate than the non-ESRD, which indicates that ESRD maybe a potential risk factor for the development of RVO in

  13. Diagnosis and management of bullous disease.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Maria Yadira; Mattox, Adam R

    2013-05-01

    As the population ages, the prevalence of bullous skin diseases will escalate. Efficient management depends on timely recognition by the physician and reduces the morbidity associated with the disease course. This article outlines the common bullous dermatoses affecting older adults and provides tips for a streamlined approach to workup and treatment.

  14. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Fazylov, A A; Baĭmatova, B A

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic tomography was applied to diagnose salivary gland diseases in 201 patients. Malignant disorders were found in 53 cases, benign in 127, and inflammation in 21. The investigation yielded some echographic diagnostic criteria for tumors and non-tumorous salivary gland diseases.

  15. [Gallstone disease: basic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Casper, M; Lammert, F

    2011-11-16

    Gallstone disease is one of the most common gastroenterological diseases and represents a major burden for our heath care systems. Cholesterol gallstones, responsible for about 90% of stones, represent a multifactorial disease with an important genetic component. Most gallstone-carriers remain asymptomatic and hence in general, they not need any therapy. In contrast those with symptomatic (biliary colic) or complicated gallstone disease (cholecystitis, obstructive cholangitis, biliary pancreatitis) have to be treated interdisciplinary by surgeons and endoscopists. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents the causal therapy to avoid recurrent symptoms as well as the therapy of choice for cholecystitis as the most common complication of gallstone disease. Bile duct stones and the associated complications (cholangitis, biliary pancreatitis) are primarily treated endoscopically. PMID:22086379

  16. [The nephropathy in the Anderson-Fabry disease: new recommendations for the diagnosis, the follow-up and the therapy].

    PubMed

    Mignani, Renzo; Gallieni, Maurizio; Feriozzi, Sandro; Pisani, Antonio; Marziliano, Nicola; Morrone, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations of the GLA gene that encodes alpha-galactosidase A. It is a characterized by the involvement of several systems: renal, neurological, hearth, cochleovestibular and cutaneous systems are the most involved. Despite recent studies have provided new insights in the this disease, there are still lacks and discrepancies among all insiders regarding the diagnosis, clinical and therapeutic management. Enzyme replacement have been demonstrated to improve the course of the disease, especially when the diagnosis is early. There are still some debates on diagnosis and management of patients, in particular in the heterozygote female and the start of enzyme replacement. Thus, an Italian board, composed by nephrologists, cardiologists, genetics, pediatricians and neurologists has been established in order to approve through a consensus a diagnostic and therapeutic Italian management. Authors report the renal clinical and therapeutic management, a useful tool either for expert physicians or for those with a few experience in the diagnosis and management of this disease.

  17. Carcinoid heart disease: Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Luis, Sushil A; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Hedinger syndrome refers to carcinoid valvular heart disease. The disease is believed to be triggered by vasoactive substances that result in valvular fibrosis. It classically occurs in patients with metastatic carcinoid and preferentially involves the right sided cardiac valves. Affected valves become thickened and retracted, exhibiting regurgitation and sometimes, stenosis. Echocardiography is recommended in patients with carcinoid syndrome and a follow up study is advisable in those who develop a murmur or other symptoms or signs of valvular heart disease. For appropriately selected patients, valve replacement surgery appears to improve outcomes.

  18. [X-ray diagnosis of retropatellar diseases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wahlers, B

    1979-08-01

    The article reports on a comprehensive, stepwise diagnosis in diseases of the knee joints. This includes a description of the indication, the technique of taking x-ray films, and x-ray findings, as well as arthrography of the femoropatellar joint in retropatellar diseases such as chondropathia patellae, osteochondrosis dissecans, traumas of the knee joints and arthrosis deformans.

  19. Renal infarction: CT diagnosis and correlation between CT findings and etiologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Moss, A.A.; Federle, M.P.; Cochran, S.T.; London, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The CT scans and the clinical records of 12 patients who had renal infarction were reviewed. The renal infarcts were classified as either focal or global. The CT findings were correlated with the etiologies of renal infarction. Embolism was the most common cause of renal infarcts that were multifocal with involvement of both kidneys. Trauma caused a unilateral global type of infract. A case of sickle cell anemia presented with multiple ''slit-like'' focal infarcts and enlarged kidneys. Forty-seven per cent of infarcts demonstrated the cortical rim sign, 11% were acapsular fluid collection, and 6% had an abnormally thickened renal fascia.

  20. How to differentiate renal senescence from chronic kidney disease in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Jauregui, Jose R

    2016-09-01

    Renal aging is frequently confused with chronic nephropathy in clinical practice, since there are some similarities between them, particularly regarding reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, there are many differences between these two entities which can help any practitioner to distinguish between them, such as: GFR deterioration rate, hematocrit, renal handling of urea, creatinine and some electrolytes, tubular acidification, urinalysis, and renal imaging. Differentiation between renal aging and chronic renal disease is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary medicalization of what is a physiological change associated with the healthy aging process, and the potential harmful consequences of such overdiagnosis. A recently described equation (HUGE), as well as an adequate nephrological evaluation and follow up can help physicians to distinguish both entities. PMID:27383288

  1. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies.

  2. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update.

    PubMed

    Wan, Cheng; Su, Hua; Zhang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  3. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  4. Protective effects of genetic inhibition of Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 in experimental renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerroch, Monique; Alfieri, Carlo; Dorison, Aude; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Dussaule, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a progressive incurable pathology affecting millions of people. Intensive investigations aim to identify targets for therapy. We have previously demonstrated that abnormal expression of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) is a key factor of renal disease by promoting inflammation and fibrosis. The present study investigates whether blocking the expression of DDR1 after the initiation of renal disease can delay or arrest the progression of this pathology. Severe renal disease was induced by either injecting nephrotoxic serum (NTS) or performing unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice, and the expression of DDR1 was inhibited by administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotides either at 4 or 8 days after NTS (corresponding to early or more established phases of disease, respectively), or at day 2 after ligation. DDR1 antisense administration at day 4 stopped the increase of proteinuria and protected animals against the progression of glomeruloneprhitis, as evidenced by functional, structural and cellular indexes. Antisense administration at day 8 delayed progression –but to a smaller degree- of renal disease. Similar beneficial effects on renal structure and inflammation were observed with the antisense administration of DDR1 after ureteral ligation. Thus, targeting DDR1 can be a promising strategy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26880216

  5. Measures of renal function in patients with cisplatin-related chronic renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, E.; Jacob, J.; Brawley, O.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with advanced stage refractory ovarian cancer were studied to determine if chronic stable cisplatin-related renal dysfunction was present. Medical histories were examined to determine the types of therapy previously received as well as the total previous platinum doses received that ranged from 200 to 2,100 mg/m2. Standard assessments of renal function were made prior to administering current chemotherapy or immunotherapy to the patient, which included 24-hour creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). For patients with a 24-hour creatinine clearance of less than 60 mL/minute, serum creatinine was highly variable (range: 0.9 to 2.0 mg/dL) and was not related to the degree of diminution in the 24-hour creatinine clearance value. Conversely, for patients with a serum creatinine of less than 1.5, the 24-hour creatinine clearance values varied by almost three-fold, ranging between 46 and 120 mL/minute. Two patients with serum creatinines of less than 1 had creatinine clearances of less than 50 mL per minute. Similarly, BUN measurements did not correlate with 24-hour creatinine clearance values, and the 24-hour creatinine clearance value was not related to the total cumulative platinum dose. We conclude that patients who receive substantive doses of cisplatin may experience chronic stable cisplatin-related renal dysfunction and that serum creatinine cannot be relied on to assess the degree of renal compromise. In such patients, we recommended that the 24-hour creatinine clearance value should be used when medical management is influenced by renal function. PMID:1865503

  6. Contested Boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public. PMID:26657686

  7. Contested boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  8. PAX8 expression in sporadic hemangioblastoma of the kidney supports a primary renal cell lineage: implications for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Williamson, Sean R; Yu, Jingjing; Xia, Wenping; Li, Changshui; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Zhu, Yin; Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhaoming; Cheng, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Hemangioblastoma is a benign, morphologically distinctive neoplasm of disputed histogenesis that typically occurs in the central nervous system either in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau disease or more often sporadically. Extraneural hemangioblastoma is exceptional and raises a challenging differential diagnosis. Herein, we report a primary renal hemangioblastoma occurring in 51-year-old woman without stigmata of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Histologically, the tumor was composed of sheets of polygonal epithelioid stromal cells with ample pale or eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm in an arborizing capillary network. Tumor cells showed variable nuclear pleomorphism, intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations, scattered hyaline globules, and psammoma-like calcifications. Some areas showed branching hemangiopericytoma-like vessels with tumor cells radiating from the wall, while other areas were edematous and hyalinized with sparse stromal cells and abundant reticular vessels. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted strongly and diffusely with antibodies to PAX8, CD10, α-inhibin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and vimentin, and they showed focal positivity with antibodies to epithelial membrane antigen and AE1/AE3. Tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK8/18, RCC antigen, synaptophysin, chromogranin, c-kit, D2-40, HMB45, melan-A, cathepsin K, SMA, desmin, CD31, CD34, and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Positive immunoreactivity for PAX8 is unexpected and contrasts to central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas, which are essentially always negative for PAX8. This novel finding adds support to the hypothesis that the immunoprofile of extraneural hemangioblastoma varies with site of origin, perhaps as a result of tumor cell lineage and retention of organ-specific markers or acquisition of site-specific antigens due to local factors. PMID:23849894

  9. Diagnosis of muscle diseases presenting with early respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Gerald; Povitz, Marcus; Gibson, G John; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2015-05-01

    Here we describe a clinical approach and differential diagnosis for chronic muscle diseases which include early respiratory failure as a prominent feature in their presentation (i.e. respiratory failure whilst still ambulant). These patients typically present to neurology or respiratory medicine out-patient clinics and a distinct differential diagnosis of neuromuscular aetiologies should be considered. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis are the important non-muscle diseases to consider, but once these have been excluded there remains a challenging differential diagnosis of muscle conditions, which will be the focus of this review. The key points in the diagnosis of these disorders are being aware of relevant symptoms, which are initially caused by nocturnal hypoventilation or diaphragmatic weakness; and identifying other features which direct further investigation. Important muscle diseases to identify, because their diagnosis has disease-specific management implications, include adult-onset Pompe disease, inflammatory myopathy, and sporadic adult-onset nemaline myopathy. Cases which are due to metabolic myopathy or muscular dystrophy are important to diagnose because of their implications for genetic counselling. Myopathy from sarcoidosis and colchicine each has a single reported case with this presentation, but should be considered because they are treatable. Disorders which have recently had their genetic aetiologies identified include hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (due to TTN mutations), the FHL1-related syndromes, and myofibrillar myopathy due to BAG3 mutation. Recently described syndromes include oculopharyngodistal muscular dystrophy that awaits genetic characterisation. PMID:25377282

  10. [Paget's disease of bone: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Winter, E M; Hamdy, N A T; de Jongh, R T; Eekhoff, E M W; Zillikens, M C; Appelman-Dijkstra, N M

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of bone is a focal disorder of bone remodelling that leads to changes in the shape and size of affected bones, and is associated with articular and vascular complications. The disorder is characterised by a localised increase in osteoclast number and activity in one or more affected sites while the rest of the skeleton remains unaffected. The excessive bone resorption leads to recruitment of osteoblasts to the remodelling sites, resulting in increased bone formation. This accelerated bone turnover causes deposition of bone with disorganised architecture and structural weakness. The precise aetiology is unknown. It is thought that the disease is caused by interactions between environmental and genetic factors; the nature of this interaction still has to be determined. The disease is progressive, but can be treated with a single infusion of zoledronic acid. In this manuscript three cases are described, along with a review of the current diagnostic tools and treatment. PMID:27650015

  11. [IgG4-related kidney disease. Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Saeki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues like sarcoidosis. The kidney is one of the most frequently affected organs. While tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with characteristic imaging findings is the representative lesion of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD), a variety of glomerular lesions, particularly membranous nephropathy, sometimes overlap on TIN. Clinically, either decreased renal function and/or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography are typical presenting features. Histologically, plasma cell (PC)-rich TIN accompanied by characteristic fibrosis called storiform fibrosis with dense IgG4-positive PC infiltration is a typical finding. Although a swift response to corticosteroid is a very important feature of IgG4-RKD, in cases with moderately to severely decreased renal function before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. This review provides a comprehensive overview of IgG4-RKD from the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histological aspects and also addresses some of the therapeutic issues concerning it.

  12. END STAGE RENAL DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH WILMS TUMOR: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL WILMS TUMOR STUDY GROUP AND THE U.S. RENAL DATA SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Norman E.; Grigoriev, Yevgeny A.; Peterson, Susan M.; Collins, Allan J.; Ritchey, Michael L.; Green, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the full spectrum of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in Wilms tumor survivors by combining the unique resources of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) and the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS), and to confirm preliminary reports of an increased incidence of ESRD in those with the Wilms tumor-aniridia (WAGR) syndrome. Material and Methods: ESRD was ascertained for 5,910 patients enrolled on NWTSG studies during 1969-1994 both by record linkage to USRDS and by direct follow-up. Cumulative ESRD incidence was estimated accounting for inter-current mortality. Results: Ten of 115 cases of ESRD (9%) were ascertained by NWTSG alone, 13 (11%) by USRDS alone and 92 (80%) by both. Cumulative incidence of ESRD at 20 years from diagnosis of unilateral Wilms tumor (WT) was 74% for 17 patients with Deny-Drash syndrome (DDS), 36% for 37 patients with WAGR syndrome, 7% for 125 male patients with hypospadias or cryptorchism (GU anomalies) and 0.6% for 5,347 patients with none of these conditions. The incidence for bilateral Wilms tumor was 50% for DDS (n=6), 90% for WAGR (n=10), 25% for GU anomaly (n=25) and 12% for other patients (n=409). ESRD for patients with WAGR syndrome or GU anomalies tended to occur relatively late, often during or after adolescence. Conclusions: The risk of ESRD is remarkably low for the majority of WT patients. Those with WAGR syndrome or associated GU anomalies, however, are at higher risk and should be screened indefinitely to facilitate prospective management of impaired renal function. PMID:16217371

  13. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-04-19

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26942460

  14. Roles of mTOR complexes in the kidney: implications for renal disease and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fantus, Daniel; Rogers, Natasha M; Grahammer, Florian; Huber, Tobias B; Thomson, Angus W

    2016-10-01

    The mTOR pathway has a central role in the regulation of cell metabolism, growth and proliferation. Studies involving selective gene targeting of mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) in renal cell populations and/or pharmacologic mTOR inhibition have revealed important roles of mTOR in podocyte homeostasis and tubular transport. Important advances have also been made in understanding the role of mTOR in renal injury, polycystic kidney disease and glomerular diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Novel insights into the roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in the regulation of immune cell homeostasis and function are helping to improve understanding of the complex effects of mTOR targeting on immune responses, including those that impact both de novo renal disease and renal allograft outcomes. Extensive experience in clinical renal transplantation has resulted in successful conversion of patients from calcineurin inhibitors to mTOR inhibitors at various times post-transplantation, with excellent long-term graft function. Widespread use of this practice has, however, been limited owing to mTOR-inhibitor- related toxicities. Unique attributes of mTOR inhibitors include reduced rates of squamous cell carcinoma and cytomegalovirus infection compared to other regimens. As understanding of the mechanisms by which mTORC1 and mTORC2 drive the pathogenesis of renal disease progresses, clinical studies of mTOR pathway targeting will enable testing of evolving hypotheses. PMID:27477490

  15. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-04-19

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease.

  16. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26942460

  17. Pattern of biopsy proven renal diseases at PNS SHIFA, Karachi: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sohail; Mubarak, Muhammed; Ul-Haq, Irfan; Bibi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous renal biopsy (RB) is an invaluable diagnostic procedure in patients with medical renal diseases.Objectives: To determine the pattern of biopsy proven renal disease (BPRD) from a tertiary care naval hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods and Materials: All the renal biopsies in adult patients (≥18 years) performed at our hospital from 2008 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The biopsies were evaluated by light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Results: A total 60 cases were analyzed. The mean age was 33.3±12.9 years (range: 18 to 72 years).The male to female ratio was 3:1. The most common indication of renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (43.3%), followed by renal failure (26.6%) and non-nephrotic proteinuria (23.3%). Primary glomerulonephritides (PGN) were predominant overall lesions, found in 46 (76.6%) of the total biopsies. Among PGN, the most common lesion was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and chronic sclerosing glomerulonephritis (CSGN) and a variety of rare lesions. Secondary glomerulonephritides (SGN) were found in only three (5%) cases. There were two cases of amyloidosis and one of lupus nephritis (LN). Tubulointerstitial disease (TID) and vascular disease were rare. Conclusion: This study provides information about the epidemiology of BPRD in a large tertiary care naval center in Southern Pakistan. PMID:25340152

  18. Cognitive approaches to early Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John

    2013-05-01

    In this article, cognitive measures in the screening of individuals at risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) are reviewed. Use of cognitive tasks in identifying clinical cases of AD is considered, as well as methods for detecting those in the prodromal stages of the disease, including cognitive screening instruments. Traditional assessments, such as the mini-mental state examination, as well as contemporary computerized screening instruments, are examined. Areas of cognition for investigation in the detection of prodromal AD are recommended. The prospects for general cognitive screening are reviewed, and more engaging technologies to tests individuals at risk for developing AD are recommended.

  19. [The use of nails to diagnosis diseases].

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2014-11-01

    For those interested in nails, a fairly good knowledge of the anatomy of the nail unit is indispensable. But nothing will replace a careful, clinical examination of the nail apparatus. The shape of the nail, surface abnormalities and coloration, with or without a magnifying glass, may well provide a medical diagnosis not only in dermatology but also for medicine in general. Pits on the surface of the nail plate may be enough to diagnose psoriasis on a limited area of scalp dandruff. Even partial detachment of the nail apparatus might lead to the suspicion of psoriatic arthritis. A triangular lunula is associated with the absence of patellas. Finally, no pulmonary examination of a smoker is complete without looking for clubbing. It is high time to pay tribute to the nail. PMID:25443634

  20. [The use of nails to diagnosis diseases].

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2014-11-01

    For those interested in nails, a fairly good knowledge of the anatomy of the nail unit is indispensable. But nothing will replace a careful, clinical examination of the nail apparatus. The shape of the nail, surface abnormalities and coloration, with or without a magnifying glass, may well provide a medical diagnosis not only in dermatology but also for medicine in general. Pits on the surface of the nail plate may be enough to diagnose psoriasis on a limited area of scalp dandruff. Even partial detachment of the nail apparatus might lead to the suspicion of psoriatic arthritis. A triangular lunula is associated with the absence of patellas. Finally, no pulmonary examination of a smoker is complete without looking for clubbing. It is high time to pay tribute to the nail.

  1. Network analysis of genes regulated in renal diseases: implications for a molecular-based classification

    PubMed Central

    Bhavnani, Suresh K; Eichinger, Felix; Martini, Sebastian; Saxman, Paul; Jagadish, HV; Kretzler, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic renal diseases are currently classified based on morphological similarities such as whether they produce predominantly inflammatory or non-inflammatory responses. However, such classifications do not reliably predict the course of the disease and its response to therapy. In contrast, recent studies in diseases such as breast cancer suggest that a classification which includes molecular information could lead to more accurate diagnoses and prediction of treatment response. This article describes how we extracted gene expression profiles from biopsies of patients with chronic renal diseases, and used network visualizations and associated quantitative measures to rapidly analyze similarities and differences between the diseases. Results The analysis revealed three main regularities: (1) Many genes associated with a single disease, and fewer genes associated with many diseases. (2) Unexpected combinations of renal diseases that share relatively large numbers of genes. (3) Uniform concordance in the regulation of all genes in the network. Conclusion The overall results suggest the need to define a molecular-based classification of renal diseases, in addition to hypotheses for the unexpected patterns of shared genes and the uniformity in gene concordance. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the utility of network analyses to rapidly understand complex relationships between diseases and regulated genes. PMID:19761573

  2. Histopathological retrospective study of canine renal disease in Korea, 2003~2008

    PubMed Central

    Yhee, Ji-Young; Yu, Chi-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Keum-Soon; Chon, Seung-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Renal disease includes conditions affecting the glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, pelvis, and vasculature. Diseases of the kidney include glomerular diseases, diseases of the tubules and interstitium, diseases of renal pelvis, and developmental abnormalities. Renal tissue samples (n = 70) submitted to the Department of Veterinary Pathology of Konkuk University from 2003 to 2008 were included in this study. Tissue histopathology was performed using light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stains. Masson's trichrome, Congo Red, and Warthin starry silver staining were applied in several individual cases. Glomerular diseases (22.9%), tubulointerstitial diseases (8.6%), neoplastic diseases (8.6%), conditions secondary to urinary obstruction (24.3%), and other diseases (35.7%) were identified. Glomerulonephritis (GN) cases were classified as acute proliferative GN (5.7%), membranous GN (4.3%), membranoproliferative GN (4.3%), focal segmental GN (2.9%), and other GN (4.2%). The proportion of canine GN cases presently identified was not as high as the proportions identified in human studies. Conversely, urinary obstruction and end-stage renal disease cases were relatively higher in dogs than in human populations. PMID:21113095

  3. Renal Impairment with Sublethal Tubular Cell Injury in a Chronic Liver Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Tokiko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Kawai, Chihiro; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal impairment in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) has been primarily studied in the advanced stages of hepatic injury. Meanwhile, the pathology of renal impairment in the early phase of CLDs is poorly understood, and animal models to elucidate its mechanisms are needed. Thus, we investigated whether an existing mouse model of CLD induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) shows renal impairment in the early phase. Renal injury markers, renal histology (including immunohistochemistry for tubular injury markers and transmission electron microscopy), autophagy, and oxidative stress were studied longitudinally in DDC- and standard diet–fed BALB/c mice. Slight but significant renal dysfunction was evident in DDC-fed mice from the early phase. Meanwhile, histological examinations of the kidneys with routine light microscopy did not show definitive morphological findings, and electron microscopic analyses were required to detect limited injuries such as loss of brush border microvilli and mitochondrial deformities. Limited injuries have been recently designated as sublethal tubular cell injury. As humans with renal impairment, either with or without CLD, often show almost normal tubules, sublethal injury has been of particular interest. In this study, the injuries were associated with mitochondrial aberrations and oxidative stress, a possible mechanism for sublethal injury. Intriguingly, two defense mechanisms were associated with this injury that prevent it from progressing to apparent cell death: autophagy and single-cell extrusion with regeneration. Furthermore, the renal impairment of this model progressed to chronic kidney disease with interstitial fibrosis after long-term DDC feeding. These findings indicated that DDC induces renal impairment with sublethal tubular cell injury from the early phase, leading to chronic kidney disease. Importantly, this CLD mouse model could be useful for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms

  4. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  5. Diagnosis of Restless Leg Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease).

    PubMed

    Becker, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom disease, is a neurosensorimotor disorder with significant impact that is diagnosed through 5 clinical criteria. Adherence to 5 criteria and a thorough physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosis. Associated features prove helpful in young children or the cognitively impaired. Polysomnography is not routinely required unless the patient has other sleep-related symptoms. The finding of periodic leg movements in sleep only suggests, instead of confirms, the diagnosis. It is important to arrive at appropriate diagnosis because the prevalence is in the millions and treatment significantly improves sleep quality and daytime function.

  6. Crossed Renal Ectopia and Aorto-Occlusive Disease: A Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Eugene; Campbell, Ian; Choong, Andrew MTL; Dunglison, Nigel; Aziz, Maged

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with aortoiliac occlusive disease on the background of type A crossed renal ectopia, for whom open surgical intervention was required. Aortic exposure in patients with concomitant crossed renal ectopia can present technical challenges to the vascular surgeon. The knowledge of variations in the ectopic renal blood supply is of paramount importance when performing surgery to treat this condition and affects the choice of surgical exposure. We present and discuss the operative details of our patient and outline an approach to this subset of patients. PMID:26509134

  7. Diagnosis, disease stage, and distress of Chinese cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Boyan; Chen, Huiping; Deng, Yaotiao; Yi, Tingwu; Wang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective is to assess how cancer patients know about their diagnosis what they know about their real stage, and the relationship between cancer stage and psychological distress. Methods A questionnaire including the Distress Thermometer was delivered to 422 cancer inpatients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Most of patients (68.7%) knew the bad news immediately after diagnosis. Half of patients knew their diagnosis directly from medical reports. Nearly one third of patients were informed by doctors. Cancer stages, which patients believed, differed significantly from their real disease stages (P<0.001). Over half of patients did not know their real disease stages. Patients with stage I–III cancer were more likely to know their real disease stage than patients with stage IV cancer (P<0.001). Distress scores of cancer patients were determined by the real cancer stage (P=0.012), not the stage which patients believed. Conclusions Although most of participants knew the bad news immediately after diagnosis, less than half of them knew their real disease stage. Patient with stage I–III cancer was more likely to know the real disease stage and had a DT score <4 than patient with stage IV disease. PMID:27004220

  8. Renal vein entrapment syndrome: frequency and diagnosis. A lesson in conservatism.

    PubMed

    Wolfish, N M; McLaine, P N; Martin, D

    1986-08-01

    Two boys investigated for gross hematuria and left loin pain were found on ultrasound (US) to have left renal vein (LRV) entrapment associated with isomorphic urinary red blood cells, but normal renal venograms. Over the next 18 months ten children with gross hematuria were investigated and two more boys were discovered with the LRV entrapment syndrome, i.e., isomorphic red cells and a diagnostic US. Venography has a low yield in detecting renal venous compression, and since urinary red cell morphology may localize the origin of renal bleeding, we strongly recommend simple procedures, i.e., phase microscopy and renal US to evaluate all cases of hematuria before employing invasive or radiation dependent investigations. Since there is a range of LRV compression and associated dilatation in asymptomatic patients, strict criteria must be applied to diagnose renal vein entrapment.

  9. [Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of rheumatic diseases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harter, F

    1977-06-01

    The methods for laboratory diagnosis of rheumatic diseases are subdivided into 10 groups according to their informative value. The following aspects are taken into consideration: general diagnosis of inflammation, infective processes with hemolytic streptococci and staphylococci, streptococcal agglutinations, rheumatoid factor tests in the strictest sense, detection of autoantibodies, the HLA-system, investigations in metabolic diseases and generalized skeletal diseases, bacteriological and serological investigations in joint infections and tests in symptomatic diseases of joints and muscles. In the evaluation of the individual methods and the discussion of their application in various types of disease, the following provisional diagnoses are gone into: streptococcal rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, monarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome and psoriatic arthritis, myositis and polymyositis.

  10. New strategies for diagnosis and management of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Dyanne P; Gill, James M; Dave, Bhavin; DiPrinzio, Marie J; Quisel, Anna; Foy, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Celiac disease is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by inflammation, leading to injury to the mucosal lining of the small intestine. The inflammation occurs when gliadin, a protein found in such gluten-containing foods as wheat, rye, and barley, is ingested by genetically susceptible individuals. The mucosal damage and subsequent malabsorption of nutrients leads to various complications. Researchers estimate that more than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease-a prevalence that is greater than was previously believed. Approximately 60,000 Americans are diagnosed annually with celiac disease. Until recently, diagnosis has been complicated by the fact that the indicators of celiac disease are nonspecific. However, because of the development of new, easy-to-administer serology tests, diagnosis has become much less complicated. After conducting a review of the literature, the authors recommend a serologic testing sequence for diagnosis of celiac disease and urge that adults and children with an assortment of symptoms be tested for this disease. Common signs and symptoms of celiac disease include anemia, arthralgia, fatigue, infertility, neuropathy, and weight loss, in addition to such gastrointestinal symptomatology as abdominal pain, anorexia, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. The only treatment for patients with celiac disease remains a gluten-free diet.

  11. Diagnosis and screening of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David

    2005-12-01

    Diagnostic testing for CAD is aided by the calculation of the pretest probability using either the Diamond-Forrester score or the Morise score. Patients who have a low risk of CAD should not undergo testing. Exercise ECG testing should be reserved for patients who have pretest probabilities lower than 20%, because a negative test does not adequately reduce the posttest probability of significant CAD. For patients who are at intermediate risk, either nuclear perfusion imaging or stress echocardiography is an acceptable choice depending on local availability and practice. Due to its low specificity, CAC scoring is currently limited in its usefulness for the diagnosis of CAD in symptomatic patients. Currently, screening for CAD among patients at low risk should not extend beyond screening for traditional risk factors. Physicians should use the Framingham Risk Score to stratify patients into levels of 10-year risk for cardiac events. Due to its high rate of false positive tests and low sensitivity, exercise ECG is of limited value in screening. Among patients with higher levels of risk, in whom further risk stratification would be of use in making decisions about risk factor management, measurement of CAC either with EBCT or multidetector row CT scanning is a promising option, but more research is required before its use should become widespread. Measures of endothelial function are in development but lack data to support their widespread use currently. PMID:16326220

  12. The effects of liver and renal disease on stereoselective serum binding of flurbiprofen.

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, R; Chaudhary, I; Nishihara, K; Cox, S

    1993-01-01

    Stereoselectivity in the serum binding of flurbiprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is highly bound to albumin, was studied in patients with liver and renal disease. Subjects with renal disease or liver disease with ascites had significantly lower serum albumin concentrations than normals, resulting in higher free fractions of both the R(-) and S(+) enantiomers of flurbiprofen as determined by equilibrium dialysis. The ratio (+/- s.d.) of R/S-flurbiprofen free fractions was lower in the subjects with ascites (0.714 +/- 0.298) than in those without ascites (0.796 +/- 0.090) (P < 0.05). PMID:8448071

  13. Impact of feline AIM on the susceptibility of cats to renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients’ health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives. PMID:27731392

  14. Amyloid imaging with PET in early Alzheimer disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2013-05-01

    In vivo imaging of amyloid-β (Aβ) with positron emission tomography has moved from the research arena into clinical practice. Clinicians working with cognitive decline and dementia must become familiar with its benefits and limitations. Amyloid imaging allows earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and better differential diagnosis of dementia and provides prognostic information for mild cognitive impairment. It also has an increasingly important role in therapeutic trial recruitment and for evaluation of anti-Aβ treatments. Longitudinal observations are required to elucidate the role of Aβ deposition in the course of Alzheimer disease and provide information needed to fully use the prognostic power of this investigation.

  15. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  16. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  17. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  18. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  19. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  20. Natural progression of renal function in the elderly: analysis of poor prognosis factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; García-Cosmes, Pedro; Fernández-Reyes, María J; Sánchez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function and the rate at which renal disease progresses in the elderly. In this review we analysed, on the basis of the results of the study Ancianos con enfermedad renal crónica del Hospital General de Segovia (Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital General de Segovia), the poor prognosis factors associated with this disease: proteinuria, episodes of acute renal failure and heart failure, and the role of uric acid. Elderly people with chronic kidney disease who present these poor prognosis factors may benefit from follow-up by Nephrology. PMID:23897177

  1. Chip-Based Sensors for Disease Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhichao

    Nucleic acid analysis is one of the most important disease diagnostic approaches in medical practice, and has been commonly used in cancer biomarker detection, bacterial speciation and many other fields in laboratory. Currently, the application of powerful research methods for genetic analysis, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene expression profiling using fluorescence microarrays, are not widely used in hospitals and extended-care units due to high-cost, long detection times, and extensive sample preparation. Bioassays, especially chip-based electrochemical sensors, may be suitable for the next generation of rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection tools. Herein, we report three different microelectrode platforms with capabilities enabled by nano- and microtechnology: nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), nanostructured microelectrodes (NMEs), and hierarchical nanostructured microelectrodes (HNMEs), all of which are able to directly detect unpurified RNA in clinical samples without enzymatic amplification. Biomarkers that are cancer and infectious disease relevant to clinical medicine were chosen to be the targets. Markers were successfully detected with clinically-relevant sensitivity. Using peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as probes and an electrocatalytic reporter system, NEEs were able to detect prostate cancer-related gene fusions in tumor tissue samples with 100 ng of RNA. The development of NMEs improved the sensitivity of the assay further to 10 aM of DNA target, and multiplexed detection of RNA sequences of different prostate cancer-related gene fusion types was achieved on the chip-based NMEs platform. An HNMEs chip integrated with a bacterial lysis device was able to detect as few as 25 cfu bacteria in 30 minutes and monitor the detection in real time. Bacterial detection could also be performed in neat urine samples. The development of these versatile clinical diagnostic tools could be extended to the detection of various

  2. [HYPERURICEMIA AND POTENTIAL RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Schils, R; Krzesinski, J M

    2016-05-01

    Besides the well accepted need to treat hyperuricemia associated with gout, some large observational studies and small prospective therapeutic trials have suggested that treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia, especially by xanthine oxidase inhibition, the enzyme producing uric acid, could be beneficial for cardiovascular and renal risk prevention. This article discusses the literature about this promising approach, which, however, requests prospective validation.

  3. [HYPERURICEMIA AND POTENTIAL RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Schils, R; Krzesinski, J M

    2016-05-01

    Besides the well accepted need to treat hyperuricemia associated with gout, some large observational studies and small prospective therapeutic trials have suggested that treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia, especially by xanthine oxidase inhibition, the enzyme producing uric acid, could be beneficial for cardiovascular and renal risk prevention. This article discusses the literature about this promising approach, which, however, requests prospective validation. PMID:27337847

  4. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 as a novel biomarker for disease activity and renal pathology changes in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Kharboutli, M; Saxena, R; Wu, T

    2016-04-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Invasive renal biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis and management of LN. The objective of this study is to validate serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) as a novel biomarker for clinical disease and renal pathology in LN. Eighty-five biopsy-proven lupus nephritis patients, 18 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 20 healthy controls were recruited for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of serum IGFBP-2 levels. Compared to CKD patients of origins other than lupus or healthy controls, serum IGFBP-2 levels were elevated significantly in LN patients. Serum IGFBP-2 was able to discriminate LN patients from the other two groups of patients [area under the curve (AUC) = 0·65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0·52-0·78; P = 0·043 for LN versus CKD; 0·97, 95% CI = 0·93-1·00; P < 0·0001 for LN versus healthy controls]. Serum IGFBP-2 was a potential indicator of both global disease activity and renal disease activity in LN patients, correlated with serum creatinine levels (r = 0·658, P < 0·001, n = 85) and urine protein-to-creatinine levels (r = 0·397, P < 0·001, n = 85). More importantly, in 19 concurrent patient samples, serum IGFBP-2 correlated with the chronicity index of renal pathology (r = 0·576, P = 0·01, n = 19) but not renal pathological classification. In conclusion, serum IGFBP-2 is a promising biomarker for lupus nephritis, reflective of disease activity and chronicity changes in renal pathology.

  5. Hypertension, End-Stage Renal Disease and Rehabilitation: A Look at Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Ackah, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the important relationship between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and hypertension for African Americans; and considers issues associated with ESRD and the subsequent need for kidney transplants, including organ availability. Individual and societal implications of these diseases are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Marriage and End-Stage Renal Disease: Implications for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortridge, Emily F.; James, Cara V.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD is managed with a strict routine that might include regular dialysis as well as dietary, fluid intake, and other lifestyle changes. In a disease such as this, with such disruptive treatment modalities, marriage, specifically, and its ties…

  7. Moyamoya Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong S.

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Although its etiology remains unknown, recent genetic studies identified RNF213 in the 17q25-ter region as an important susceptibility gene of MMD among East Asian populations. Possibly because of genetic differences, MMD is relatively common in people living in East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, compared to those in the Western Hemisphere. The prevalence of MMD appears to be slightly lower among Chinese, compared to Koreans or Japanese. There are two peaks of incidence with different clinical presentations, at around 10 years and 30-40 years. The peak appears to occur later in women than men. In children, ischemic symptoms, especially transient ischemic attacks, are predominant. Intellectual decline, seizures, and involuntary movements are also more common in this age group. In contrast, adult patients present with intracranial hemorrhage more often than pediatric patients. In patients with MMD, intracerebral hemorrhage is more often accompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage than in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. These different age peaks and different clinical presentations in each age group are also observed in MMD patients in the USA. Catheter angiography is the diagnostic method of choice. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and computed tomographic angiography are noninvasive diagnostic methods. High-resolution vessel wall MR imaging also helps diagnose MMD by revealing concentric vessel wall narrowing with basal collaterals. PMID:26846755

  8. Optical diagnosis of a metabolic disease: cystinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinotti, Elisa; Perrot, Jean Luc; Labeille, Bruno; Espinasse, Marine; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe; Campolmi, Nelly; Douchet, Catherine; Cambazard, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis (NC) is a rare autosomal recessive storage disease characterized by the lysosomal accumulation of cystine crystals throughout the body, particularly in blood cells, the cornea, skin, kidneys, the central nervous system, and the muscles. The skin and the cornea are the most accessible sites to explore, and in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (IVCM) helps identify crystals in both but does not provide any information to help define their composition. Raman spectroscopy (RS) allows cystine to be easily recognized thanks to its characteristic signature with a band at 499 cm-1. Two dermatology confocal microscopes were used to visualize crystals in both the skin and the ocular surface of a cystinosis patient, and an ex vivo Raman examination of a skin biopsy and of the cornea was performed and removed during a corneal graft to confirm the cystine composition of the crystals. Recently, RS has been performed in vivo and coupled with IVCM. In the future, it is suggested that crystals in NC and other deposits in storage diseases could be identified with this noninvasive in vivo technique that combines IVCM to recognize the deposits and RS to confirm their chemical nature.

  9. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  10. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  11. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

  12. Diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Diana L; Russell, Michelle A

    2010-06-01

    Thyroid disease is common, affecting 1% to 2% of pregnant women. Pregnancy may modify the course of thyroid disease, and pregnancy outcomes can depend on optimal management of thyroid disorders. Consequently, obstetric providers must be familiar with thyroid physiology and management of thyroid diseases in pregnancy. Following a brief overview of physiology, this article provides an in-depth review of diagnosis and management of the spectrum of thyroid disease occurring in pregnancy. Recommendations for screening and treatment of hypo- and hyperthyroidism are summarized. Specific attention is given to the limitations of current research and the status of ongoing work.

  13. Depression in Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Flavio Henrique de Rezende; Rosso, Ana Lucia Zuma; Maultasch, Henryk; Nicaretta, Denise Hack; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is high. Depression varies from 20 to 50% of the PD patients, and is associated with increasing disability. The key characteristics of depression are anhedonia and low mood. The recommended scales for screening purposes are: HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS and GDS. As for measurement of severity: HAM-D, MADRS, BDI and SDS. In cases with mild depression, non-pharmacological intervention is the treatment of choice. In moderate depression, antidepressants are required. The choice of an antidepressant should be based mainly on the comorbidities and unique features of the patient. Evidence for antidepressant effectiveness is seen mostly with amitriptyline and nortriptyline, but one should be cautious in elderly patients. Other antidepressants that can be prescribed are: citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, bupropion, trazodone, venlafaxine, mirtazapine and duloxetin. The dopaminergic agonist pramipexole is a treatment option.

  14. Association-rule-based tuberculosis disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asha, T.; Natarajan, S.; Murthy, K. N. B.

    2010-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually spreads through the air and attacks low immune bodies such as patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This work focuses on finding close association rules, a promising technique in Data Mining, within TB data. The proposed method first normalizes of raw data from medical records which includes categorical, nominal and continuous attributes and then determines Association Rules from the normalized data with different support and confidence. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with TB obtained from a state hospital. The rules determined describes close association between one symptom to another; as an example, likelihood that an occurrence of sputum is closely associated with blood cough and HIV.

  15. Iniquities in the access to renal transplant for patients with end-stage chronic renal disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Elaine Leandro; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; César, Cibele Comini; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this present study is to analyze individual and contextual factors associated with access to renal transplant in Brazil. An observational, prospective and non-concurrent study was carried out, based on data from the National Database on renal replacement therapies in Brazil. Patients undergoing dialysis between 01/Jan/2000 and 31/Dec/2000 were included and monitored up to the point of transplant, death or until the end of the study period. Variables that were analyzed included: individual variables (age, sex, region of residence, primary renal disease, hospitalizations); and context variables concerning both the dialysis unit (level of complexity, juridical nature, hemodialysis machines and location) and the city (geographic region, location and HDI). Proportional hazard models were adjusted with hierarchical entry to identify factors associated with the risk of transplant. The results point to differentials in access according to socio-demographic, clinical, geographic and social factors, indicating that the organ allocation system has not eliminated avoidable disparities for those who compete for an organ in the nationwide waiting list.

  16. Cemento-ossifying fibroma in a patient with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Divya; Beena, V T; Sugirtharaj, G; Vidhyadharan, K; Salmanul Faris, K; Kumar, Sajai J

    2013-01-01

    The presence of chronic renal disease (CRD) is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of soft and hard tissue lesions in the oral cavity. The cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign fibroosseous lesion composed of fibrocellular component and calcified materials like cementum and woven bone. A 37-year-old female patient undergoing chronic haemodialysis reported to our institution with a complaint of slow growing, nontender swelling of mandible of 6-month duration. Computed tomography disclosed an ill-defined lesion showing thinning and expansion of buccal as well as lingual cortical plate with flecks of radiopacity in centre. Incision biopsy revealed histological characteristics consistent with cemento-ossifying fibroma. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histopathological examination revealed irregularly shaped bone and cementum-like hard tissue calcifications contained within hypercellular fibrous tissue stroma, leading to a confirmation of the diagnosis of cemento-ossifying fibroma. This paper aims to provide light to the fact that the soft and hard tissues of the oral region may become susceptible to the development of pathological growths in case of some particular systemic conditions. PMID:23819070

  17. Cemento-ossifying fibroma in a patient with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Divya; Beena, V T; Sugirtharaj, G; Vidhyadharan, K; Salmanul Faris, K; Kumar, Sajai J

    2013-01-01

    The presence of chronic renal disease (CRD) is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of soft and hard tissue lesions in the oral cavity. The cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign fibroosseous lesion composed of fibrocellular component and calcified materials like cementum and woven bone. A 37-year-old female patient undergoing chronic haemodialysis reported to our institution with a complaint of slow growing, nontender swelling of mandible of 6-month duration. Computed tomography disclosed an ill-defined lesion showing thinning and expansion of buccal as well as lingual cortical plate with flecks of radiopacity in centre. Incision biopsy revealed histological characteristics consistent with cemento-ossifying fibroma. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histopathological examination revealed irregularly shaped bone and cementum-like hard tissue calcifications contained within hypercellular fibrous tissue stroma, leading to a confirmation of the diagnosis of cemento-ossifying fibroma. This paper aims to provide light to the fact that the soft and hard tissues of the oral region may become susceptible to the development of pathological growths in case of some particular systemic conditions.

  18. Vitamin-K-Dependent Protection of the Renal Microvasculature: Histopathological Studies in Normal and Diseased Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jacobs, Lotte; Herfs, Marjolein; van't Hoofd, Cynthia; Vermeer, Cees; Staessen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin-K-dependent carboxylation of matrix Gla protein (MGP) protects the macrocirculation against calcification. We recently reported in a multiethnic population study that the estimated glomerular filtration rate, a microvascular trait, decreased and the risk of chronic kidney disease increased with higher circulating levels of inactive dephospho-uncarboxylated MGP, a marker of vitamin K deficiency. These findings highlighted the possibility that vitamin K might have a beneficial effect on the renal microcirculation. To substantiate these epidemiological findings, we undertook a pilot study, in which we stained renal tissue samples obtained by biopsy from 2 healthy kidney donors and 4 patients with nephropathy for carboxylated and uncarboxylated MGP and calcium deposits. Three patients had renal calcifications, which were consistently associated with carboxylated and uncarboxylated MGP. Normal renal tissue was devoid of microcalcifications and staining for carboxylated and uncarboxylated MGP. Pending confirmation in a larger study covering a wider range of renal pathologies, these histopathological findings suggest that MGP might inhibit calcification not only in large arteries, as was known before, but in renal tissue as well, thereby highlighting potentially new avenues for promoting renal health, for instance by vitamin K supplementation. PMID:27752480

  19. Alzheimer’s Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Across the Spectrum of Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Neugroschl, Judith; Wang, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease exists along a spectrum, from early memory changes to functional dependence and death. Using a case illustration, we review the evaluation and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease at each stage, including the management of both cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric aspects of the disease and end-stage and end-of-life care. PMID:21748748

  20. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Differentiation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon

    2016-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have significantly increased in recent decades in Korea. Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and intestinal Behcet's disease (BD), which should be differentiated from Crohn's disease (CD), are more frequent in Korea than in the West. Thus, the accurate diagnosis of these inflammatory diseases is problematic in Korea and clinicians should fully understand their clinical and endoscopic characteristics. Ulcerative colitis mostly presents with rectal inflammation and continuous lesions, while CD presents with discontinuous inflammatory lesions and frequently involves the ileocecal area. Involvement of fewer than four segments, a patulous ileocecal valve, transverse ulcers, and scars or pseudopolyps are more frequently seen in ITB than in CD. A few ulcers with discrete margins are a typical endoscopic finding of intestinal BD. However, the differential diagnosis is difficult in many clinical situations because typical endoscopic findings are not always observed. Therefore, clinicians should also consider symptoms and laboratory, pathological, and radiological findings, in addition to endoscopic findings. PMID:27484813

  1. Diagnosis of Whipple's disease using molecular biology techniques.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Ángel; Ojeda, Evelia; Muñagorri, Ana I; Gaminde, Eduardo; Bujanda, Luis; Larzabal, Mikel; Gil, Inés

    2011-04-01

    The diagnosis of Whipple's disease (WD) is based on the existence of clinical signs and symptoms compatible with the disease and in the presence of PAS-positive diastase-resistant granules in the macrophages of the small intestine. If there is suspicion of the disease but no histological findings or only isolated extraintestinal manifestations, species-specific PCR using different sequences of the T. whippleii genome from different tissue types and biological fluids is recommended.This study reports two cases: the first patient had diarrhea and the disease was suspected after an endoscopic examination of the ileum, while the second patient had multi-systemic manifestations,particularly abdominal, thoracic, and peripheral lymphadenopathies. In both cases, the diagnosis was confirmed using molecular biology techniques to samples from the small intestine or from a retroperineal lymph node, respectively. PMID:21526877

  2. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Differentiation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have significantly increased in recent decades in Korea. Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and intestinal Behcet’s disease (BD), which should be differentiated from Crohn’s disease (CD), are more frequent in Korea than in the West. Thus, the accurate diagnosis of these inflammatory diseases is problematic in Korea and clinicians should fully understand their clinical and endoscopic characteristics. Ulcerative colitis mostly presents with rectal inflammation and continuous lesions, while CD presents with discontinuous inflammatory lesions and frequently involves the ileocecal area. Involvement of fewer than four segments, a patulous ileocecal valve, transverse ulcers, and scars or pseudopolyps are more frequently seen in ITB than in CD. A few ulcers with discrete margins are a typical endoscopic finding of intestinal BD. However, the differential diagnosis is difficult in many clinical situations because typical endoscopic findings are not always observed. Therefore, clinicians should also consider symptoms and laboratory, pathological, and radiological findings, in addition to endoscopic findings. PMID:27484813

  3. Better survival of renal cell carcinoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Derikx, Lauranne A.A.P.; Nissen, Loes H.C.; Drenth, Joost P.H.; van Herpen, Carla M.; Kievit, Wietske; Verhoeven, Rob H.A.; Mulders, Peter F.A.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Boers-Sonderen, Marye J.; van den Heuvel, Tim R.A.; Pierik, Marieke; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Hoentjen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunosuppressive therapy may impact cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cancer specific data regarding risk and outcome are scarce and data for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are lacking. We aimed(1) to identify risk factors for RCC development in IBD patients (2) to compare RCC characteristics, outcome and survival between IBD patients and the general population. Methods A PALGA (Dutch Pathology Registry) search was performed to establish a case group consisting of all IBD patients with incident RCC in The Netherlands (1991–2013). Cases were compared with two separate control groups: (A) with a population-based IBD cohort for identification of risk factors (B) with a RCC cohort from the general population to compare RCC characteristics and outcomes. Results 180 IBD patients with RCC were identified. Pancolitis (OR 1.8–2.5), penetrating Crohn's disease (OR 2.8), IBD related surgery (OR 3.7–4.5), male gender (OR 3.2–5.0) and older age at IBD onset (OR 1.0–1.1) were identified as independent risk factors for RCC development. IBD patients had a significantly lower age at RCC diagnosis (p < 0.001), lower N-stage (p = 0.025), lower M-stage (p = 0.020) and underwent more frequently surgical treatment for RCC (p < 0.001) compared to the general population. This translated into a better survival (p = 0.026; HR 0.7) independent of immunosuppression. Conclusions IBD patients with a complex phenotype are at increased risk to develop RCC. They are diagnosed with RCC at a younger age and at an earlier disease stage compared to the general population. This translates into a better survival independent of immunosuppressive or anti-TNFα therapy. PMID:26447542

  4. The role of bone biopsy for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy: a short overview and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Catarina; Alves, Catarina Moniz; Frazão, João Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present specific bone and mineral metabolism disturbances, which account for important morbidity and mortality. The term renal osteodystrophy, classically used for the nomination of CKD-associated bone disorder, has been limited to the histologic description of bone lesions, requiring the use of bone biopsy. Biochemical markers and imaging tools do not adequately predict the complex bone changes that are observed in renal osteodystrophy. Parathyroid hormone, which is a universally used biomarker of bone turnover in clinical practice, lacks specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, tetracycline double-labelled transiliac bone biopsy, with bone histology and histomorphometric evaluation, remains the best clinical tool to discriminate bone turnover and to evaluate the other dimensions of renal osteodystrophy. This review will focus on the value of classic bone histomorphometric analysis of trabecular bone in CKD patients and unfold new perspectives of this diagnostic tool, including cortical bone evaluation and bone tissue immunohistochemistry. PMID:27473148

  5. [Diagnosis, therapy and follow up of diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Stur, Michael; Egger, Stefan; Haas, Anton; Kieselbach, Gerhard; Mennel, Stefan; Michl, Reinhard; Roden, Michael; Stolba, Ulrike; Wedrich, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus causes diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, optic neuropathy, cataract or dysfunction of the eye muscles. The incidence of these defects correlates with disease duration and quality of the metabolic control. The recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the diagnosis, the therapeutic procedures and requirements for adequate follow up depending on the stages of the different forms of diabetic eye disease are summarized.

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Skin Disease Diagnosis Expert System

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Arabkermany, Zahra; Gilasi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluation is a necessary measure to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of all systems, including expert systems. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of expert system for diagnosis of complex skin diseases. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2015 to determine the diagnostic value of an expert system. The study population included patients who were referred to Razi Specialized Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from patients without the selected skin diseases. Data collection tool was a checklist of clinical signs of diseases including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and scabies. The sample size formula estimated 400 patients with skin diseases selected by experts and 200 patients without the selected skin diseases. Patient selection was undertaken with randomized stratified sampling and their sign and symptoms were logged into the system. Physician’s diagnosis was determined as the gold standard and was compared with the diagnosis of expert system by SPSS software version 16 and STATA. Kappa statistics, indicators of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and confidence intervals were calculated for each disease. An accuracy of 90% was considered appropriate. Results: Comparing the results of expert system and physician’s diagnosis at the evaluation stage showed an accuracy of 97.1%, sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 96.5% The Kappa test indicated a high agreement of 93.6%. Conclusion: The expert system can diagnose complex skin diseases. Development of such systems is recommended to identify all skin diseases. PMID:27046943

  7. Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Alexander, José Luis; Balsalobre Aznar, Jerónimo; Magro-Checa, César

    2014-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) is an inflammatory arthritis produced by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in the synovium and periarticular soft tissues. It is the third most common inflammatory arthritis. Diagnosis is suspected on the basis of the clinical picture and radiographic/laboratory findings. The reference standard for the diagnosis of CPPD is based on the identification of CPP crystals in synovial fluid by light microscopy, compensated polarized light microscopy, or phase contrast microscopy. Most treatment approaches for CPPD are based upon clinical experience and not upon controlled trials. They range – depending on the subtype and the characteristics of symptoms – from no treatment to interleukin-1 blockade antibodies or specific therapy for an underlying disease. This review summarizes all we know so far about the diagnosis and management of CPPD.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinichiro; Kido, Jun; Matsumoto, Shirou; Momosaki, Ken; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Keishin; Endo, Fumio; Nakamura, Kimitoshi

    2016-09-01

    In the prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD), glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity is measured with fetal cells, and gene analysis is performed when pathogenic mutations in GBA are identified in advance. Herein is described prenatal diagnosis in a family in which two children had GD. Although prior genetic information for this GD family was not obtained, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out for this family because immediate prenatal diagnosis was necessary. Three mutations were identified in this GD family. The father had one mutation in intron 3 (IVS2 + 1), the mother had two mutations in exons 3 (I[-20]V) and 5 (M85T), and child 1 had all three of these mutations; child 3 had none of these mutations. On NGS the present fetus (child 3) was not a carrier of GD-related mutations. NGS may facilitate early detection and treatment before disease onset. PMID:27682613

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinichiro; Kido, Jun; Matsumoto, Shirou; Momosaki, Ken; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Keishin; Endo, Fumio; Nakamura, Kimitoshi

    2016-09-01

    In the prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD), glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity is measured with fetal cells, and gene analysis is performed when pathogenic mutations in GBA are identified in advance. Herein is described prenatal diagnosis in a family in which two children had GD. Although prior genetic information for this GD family was not obtained, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out for this family because immediate prenatal diagnosis was necessary. Three mutations were identified in this GD family. The father had one mutation in intron 3 (IVS2 + 1), the mother had two mutations in exons 3 (I[-20]V) and 5 (M85T), and child 1 had all three of these mutations; child 3 had none of these mutations. On NGS the present fetus (child 3) was not a carrier of GD-related mutations. NGS may facilitate early detection and treatment before disease onset.

  10. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Stoessl, A Jon

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting. Radionuclide imaging has been used to assess characteristic functional changes. Presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in PD can be revealed through the imaging of different steps in the process of dopamine synthesis and storage: L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter type 2 (VMAT2) binding or its reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). Postsynaptic dopamine dysfunction can also be studied with a variety of different tracers that primarily assess D2-like dopamine receptor availability. The function of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine can be imaged as well, giving important information about the underlying pathophysiologic process of PD and its complications. The imaging of metabolic activity and pathologic changes has also provided great advances in the field. Together, these techniques have allowed for a better understanding of PD, may be of aid for differentiating PD from other forms of parkinsonism and will undoubtedly be useful for the establishment of new therapeutic targets.

  11. Survival of patients treated for end-stage renal disease by dialysis and transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, M. R.; Grace, M.; Dossetor, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The results of treatment in 213 patients with end-stage renal disease who underwent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or transplantation, or a combination, between 1962 and 1975 were analysed. Comparison by censored survival analysis showed significantly better (P less than 0.01) patient survival with the integrated therapy of dialysis and transplantation than with either form of dialysis alone. There was no significant difference in survival of males and females but survival at the extremes of age was poorer. Analysis of survival by major cause of renal failure indicated best survival in patients with congenital renal disease. Graft and patient survival rates at 1 year after the first transplantation were 42% and 69%. The major cause of death in this series was vascular disease but infection was responsible for 50% of deaths after transplantation. While integration of dialysis with transplantation produces best patient survival, this course is possible only when sufficient cadaver kidneys are available. PMID:334354

  12. Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment: lessons from the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Stricker, R B; Johnson, L

    2010-12-01

    Lyme disease is a controversial tick-borne illness that is estimated to be four times more common than AIDS in the United States. This paper outlines the challenges overcome in the healthcare response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the development of sensitive laboratory tests for the AIDS virus, and the promotion of long-term combination antimicrobial regimens to effectively treat HIV disease. We suggest that similar challenges need to be overcome before the chronic form of Lyme disease can be successfully treated. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease is hindered by the lack of a uniform case definition that adequately reflects the clinical presentation of the disease, poor laboratory test sensitivity, and high treatment failure rates using short-term monotherapy. Consequently the optimal treatment for patients with persistent symptoms of Lyme disease remains undefined. Although antibiotic monotherapy has been successful in treating early Lyme disease, the use of combination antibiotic therapy modelled on HIV treatment appears to be more effective for patients with persistent symptoms of tick-borne infection. Resolution of the controversy surrounding Lyme disease should lead to improved diagnosis and treatment modelled on the approach to HIV disease.

  13. Parkinson's Disease: New Research Offers Hope for Better Diagnosis and Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease New Research Offers Hope for Better Diagnosis and Treatments ... to rule out other diseases. Read More "Parkinson's Disease" Articles New Research Offers Hope for Better Diagnosis and Treatments / ...

  14. Simulation of Skin Diseases for Teaching Dermatological Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, John M.; Hess, Alan C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for simulating the papulosquamous skin diseases, using a computer, has been developed and tested with medical students and dermatologists to determine whether this type of simulation is suitable for training students in dermatological diagnosis. The results indicate that it appears to be feasible for training students in differential…

  15. The Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnosis of Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Seth D.; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Ishak, Gisele; Gropman, Andrea L.; Saneto, Russell P.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA impacting mitochondrial function result in disease manifestations ranging from early death to abnormalities in all major organ systems and to symptoms that can be largely confined to muscle fatigue. The definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder can be difficult to establish. When the constellation…

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease: Clinicians' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yon Ju; Koh, Won-Jung; Daley, Charles L

    2016-04-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens that affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide and rapidly becoming a major public health problem. For the diagnosis of NTM lung disease, patients suspected to have NTM lung disease are required to meet all clinical and microbiologic criteria. The development of molecular methods allows the characterization of new species and NTM identification at a subspecies level. Even after the identification of NTM species from respiratory specimens, clinicians should consider the clinical significance of such findings. Besides the limited options, treatment is lengthy and varies by species, and therefore a challenge. Treatment may be complicated by potential toxicity with discouraging outcomes. The decision to start treatment for NTM lung disease is not easy and requires careful individualized analysis of risks and benefits. Clinicians should be alert to those unique aspects of NTM lung disease concerning diagnosis with advanced molecular methods and treatment with limited options. Current recommendations and recent advances for diagnosis and treatment of NTM lung disease are summarized in this article. PMID:27066084

  17. Cell biomechanics and its applications in human disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2015-04-01

    Certain diseases are known to cause changes in the physical and biomechanical properties of cells. These include cancer, malaria, and sickle cell anemia among others. Typically, such physical property changes can result in several fold increases or decreases in cell stiffness, which are significant and can result in severe pathology and eventual catastrophic breakdown of the bodily functions. While there are developed biochemical and biological assays to detect the onset or presence of diseases, there is always a need to develop more rapid, precise, and sensitive methods to detect and diagnose diseases. Biomechanical property changes can play a significant role in this regard. As such, research into disease biomechanics can not only give us an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms underlying disease progression, but can also serve as a powerful tool for detection and diagnosis. This article provides some insights into opportunities for how significant changes in cellular mechanical properties during onset or progression of a disease can be utilized as useful means for detection and diagnosis. We will also showcase several technologies that have already been developed to perform such detection and diagnosis.

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease: Clinicians' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yon Ju; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens that affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide and rapidly becoming a major public health problem. For the diagnosis of NTM lung disease, patients suspected to have NTM lung disease are required to meet all clinical and microbiologic criteria. The development of molecular methods allows the characterization of new species and NTM identification at a subspecies level. Even after the identification of NTM species from respiratory specimens, clinicians should consider the clinical significance of such findings. Besides the limited options, treatment is lengthy and varies by species, and therefore a challenge. Treatment may be complicated by potential toxicity with discouraging outcomes. The decision to start treatment for NTM lung disease is not easy and requires careful individualized analysis of risks and benefits. Clinicians should be alert to those unique aspects of NTM lung disease concerning diagnosis with advanced molecular methods and treatment with limited options. Current recommendations and recent advances for diagnosis and treatment of NTM lung disease are summarized in this article. PMID:27066084

  19. Postmortem diagnosis of Fabry disease with acromegaly and a unique vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Takao, Masaki; Mori, Taisuke; Orikasa, Hideki; Oh, Haengphil; Suzuki, Kinuko; Koto, Atsuo; Yamazaki, Kazuto

    2007-09-01

    A 44-year-old Japanese man with elevated growth hormone levels and gradual deterioration of mental and renal function was admitted to the hospital. With his deteriorated general condition and renal failure, the patient developed pulmonary thromboembolism and died of respiratory failure. Autopsy examination was conducted, which revealed abnormal accumulation or intracytoplasmic storage of lipid-rich material in the small blood vessels, kidney, heart, and nervous system. After postmortem pathologic studies, including light-microscopic histochemistry, electron microscopy, and biochemical analysis of the stored lipid contents, a final diagnosis of Fabry disease was made. Histopathologic examination revealed a unique vasculopathy characterized by the presence of abnormal intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions and vascular remodeling. With regard to the clinical presentation of acromegaly, hyperplasia but not adenomatous transformation of the acidophils of the anterior pituitary gland with immunohistochemical detection of growth hormone within the cells was noted. In this case, the complication of acromegaly with hyperplasia of the acidophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland and the unique vasculopathy causing significant organ failure, mainly of the kidney, heart, and central nervous systems, possibly as a result of microcirculatory failure, are considered to be not incidental findings but to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of Farby disease.

  20. Advances in Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, Caroline D.; Archer, John K. J.; Black, Richard A.; Mann, David

    2006-02-01

    Within the next 50 years Alzheimer's disease is expected to affect 100 million people worldwide. The progressive decline in the mental health of the patient is caused by severe brain atrophy generated by the breakdown and aggregation of proteins, resulting in β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The greatest challenge to Alzheimer's disease lies in the pursuit of an early and definitive diagnosis, in order that suitable treatment can be administered. At the present time, definitive diagnosis is restricted to post-mortem examination. Alzheimer's disease also remains without a long-term cure. This research demonstrates the potential role of Raman spectroscopy, combined with principle components analysis (PCA), as a diagnostic method. Analyses of ethically approved ex vivo post-mortem brain tissues (originating from frontal and occipital lobes) from control (3 normal elderly subjects and 3 Huntingdon's disease subjects) and Alzheimer's disease (12 subjects) brain sections, and a further set of 12 blinded samples are presented. Spectra originating from these tissues are highly reproducible, and initial results indicate a vital difference in protein content and conformation, relating to the abnormally high levels of aggregated proteins in the diseased tissues. Further examination of these spectra using PCA allows for the separation of control from diseased tissues. The validation of the PCA models using blinded samples also displays promise for the identification of Alzheimer's disease, in conjunction with secondary information regarding other brain diseases and dementias. These results provide a route for Raman spectroscopy as a possible non-invasive, non-destructive tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.