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Sample records for renal effects evolution

  1. Therapeutic effects of renal denervation on renal failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is increased in both patients and experimental animals with renal failure. The kidney is a richly innervated organ and has both efferent and afferent nerves. Renal denervation shows protective effects against renal failure in both animals and humans. The underlying mechanisms include a decrease in blood pressure, a decrease in renal efferent SNA, a decrease in central SNA and sympathetic outflow, and downregulation of the reninangiotensin system. It has been demonstrated that re-innervation occurs within weeks after renal denervation in animals but that no functional re-innervation occurs in humans for over two years after denervation. Renal denervation might not be renal protective in some situations including bile duct ligation-induced renal failure and ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Catheter-based renal denervation has been applied to patients with both early and end stage renal failure and the published results so far suggest that this procedure is safe and effective at decreasing blood pressure. The effectiveness of renal denervation in improving renal function in patients with renal failure needs to be further investigated.

  2. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, (/sup 3/H)NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine.

  3. Metabolic effects of renal denervation.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Spanoudi, Filio; Kyriazis, Ioannis; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    In the present review article we address the issue of the potential effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on metabolic states associated with resistant hypertension. So far, there is an established pathophysiological background denoting that abnormalities in glucose metabolism especially in obese patients and in those with sleep apnea are constantly accompanied by increased sympathetic firing, as assessed by markers of sympathetic activity. Since resistant hypertension is also characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity, it seems logical and biologically plausible, that RSD might favorably influence impaired glucose metabolism, sleep disorders and increased body adiposity beyond BP lowering. Despite the limited evidence from clinical trials, there are promising data suggesting that RSD indeed ameliorates glucose metabolism-related measures in resistant hypertension. Well-designed randomized trials recruiting a larger number of patients with hypertension, and focused on metabolic parameters, may refine the role of RSD as a potential intervention to treat dysmetabolic states associated with hypertension.

  4. Renal vascular effects of calcium channel blockers in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Benstein, J A; Dworkin, L D

    1990-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that calcium channel blockers have specific effects on renal hemodynamics in patients with hypertension and may also slow the progression of chronic renal failure. When these agents are studied in vitro, their predominant effect is to reverse afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction induced by catecholamines or angiotensin II. Because efferent resistance may remain high, glomerular filtration rate rises while renal blood flow remains low. The effects in vivo are less consistent. In human hypertension, calcium channel blockers lower renal resistance and may raise both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. In experimental models of chronic renal disease, calcium channel blockers slow the progression of renal damage; however, variable effects on renal hemodynamics have been found. Other factors implicated in the progression of renal damage, including compensatory renal hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and calcium deposition, may also be favorably influenced by these agents. Recent studies suggest that calcium channel blockers may have similar protective effects in patients with hypertension and chronic renal disease.

  5. Environmental lead and renal effects in children.

    PubMed

    Verberk, M M; Willems, T E; Verplanke, A J; De Wolff, F A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of lead on five renal-effect parameters was studied in 151 children (i.e., 3-6-y-olds) who resided at different distances from a lead smelter in Baia Mare, Romania. A relationship was found between concentration of lead in blood (mean +/- standard deviation: 342 +/- 224 microgram/l) and the activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in urine, as demonstrated by a 14% increase of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase per 100 micrograms/l blood lead that was indicative of renal tubular damage. No relationship was found between blood lead level and the renal-effect parameters albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin, retinol binding protein, or alanine aminopeptidase in urine. Cadmium in blood was not elevated. It is well known that N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase is a sensitive parameter for renal effects, resulting from lead exposure in adults and from diabetes and nephrotoxic medicines in children. This study is the first to demonstrate an effect of environmental lead exposure on renal integrity in children.

  6. The renal effects of NSAIDs in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Amy L; Grauer, Gregory F

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life for dogs with osteoarthritis can often be improved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, the number of adverse drug events associated with NSAID use reported to the Federal Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine is higher than that for any other companion animal drug. Of those events, adverse renal reactions are the second most reported. NSAIDs produce pharmacologic effects via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), which decreases production of prostanoids. Prostaglandins are synthesized by both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in the healthy kidney and influence renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renin release, and Na excretion. There are important species differences in the renal expression of COX-1 and COX-2. For example, dogs have higher basal levels of COX-2 expression in the kidney compared with humans. In addition, in dogs with chronic kidney disease, an increase in COX-2 expression occurs and synthesis of prostaglandins shifts to the COX-2 pathway. For those reasons, NSAIDs that target COX-2 may be expected to adversely affect renal function in dogs, especially dogs with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature to report the renal effects of NSAIDs in dogs.

  7. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  8. Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Artery Function in Humans: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Doltra, Adelina; Hartmann, Arthur; Stawowy, Philipp; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kuehne, Titus; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Gebker, Rolf; Schneeweis, Christopher; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Esler, Murray; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the effects of RD on renal artery wall function non-invasively using magnetic resonance. Methods and Results 32 patients undergoing RD were included. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance of the renal arteries was performed before RD and after 6-month. We quantified the vessel sharpness of both renal arteries using a quantitative analysis tool (Soap-Bubble®). In 17 patients we assessed the maximal and minimal cross-sectional area of both arteries, peak velocity, mean flow, and renal artery distensibility. In a subset of patients wall shear stress was assessed with computational flow dynamics. Neither renal artery sharpness nor renal artery distensibility differed significantly. A significant increase in minimal and maximal areas (by 25.3%, p = 0.008, and 24.6%, p = 0.007, respectively), peak velocity (by 16.9%, p = 0.021), and mean flow (by 22.4%, p = 0.007) was observed after RD. Wall shear stress significantly decreased (by 25%, p = 0.029). These effects were observed in blood pressure responders and non-responders. Conclusions RD is not associated with adverse effects at renal artery level, and leads to an increase in cross-sectional areas, velocity and flow and a decrease in wall shear stress. PMID:27003912

  9. Effects of renal perfusion pressure on renal medullary hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Hu, Chunyan; Polichnowski, Aaron; Mori, Takefumi; Skelton, Meredith; Ito, Sadayoshi; Cowley, Allen W

    2009-06-01

    Studies were designed to determine the effects of increases of renal perfusion pressure on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) within the renal outer medulla. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied with either the renal capsule intact or removed to ascertain the contribution of changes of medullary blood flow and renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure on H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) production. Responses to three 30-minute step changes of renal perfusion pressure (from approximately 85 to approximately 115 to approximately 145 mm Hg) were studied using adjustable aortic occluders proximal and distal to the left renal artery. Medullary interstitial H(2)O(2) determined by microdialysis increased at each level of renal perfusion pressure from 640 to 874 to 1593 nmol/L, as did H(2)O(2) urinary excretion rates, and these responses were significantly attenuated by decapsulation. Medullary interstitial NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) increased from 9.2 to 13.8 to 16.1 mumol/L, with parallel changes in urine NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), but decapsulation did not significantly blunt these responses. Over the range of renal perfusion pressure, medullary blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) rose approximately 30% and renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure rose from 7.8 to 19.7 cm H(2)O. Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure and the natriuretic and diuretic responses were significantly attenuated with decapsulation, but medullary blood flow was not affected. The data indicate that pressure-induced increases of H(2)O(2) emanated largely from increased tubular flow rates to the medullary thick-ascending limbs of Henle and NO largely from increased medullary blood flow to the vasa recta. The parallel pressure-induced increases of H(2)O(2) and NO indicate a participation in shaping the "normal" pressure-natriuresis relationship and explain why an imbalance in either would affect the blood pressure salt sensitivity.

  10. Effect of tolazoline on renal function in newborn puppies.

    PubMed

    John, E G; Bhat, R; Assadi, F K; Vidyasagar, D; Fornell, L

    1986-01-01

    Tolazoline is used in pulmonary hypertension and hypoperfusion syndrome during the neonatal period. Some of the side effects of tolazoline are hypotension, bleeding disorders and renal dysfunction. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of hypoxia and tolazoline on renal function in newborn puppies. The data in normal animals administered tolazoline alone did not reveal any statistically significant changes in blood pressure or in renal function. In the hypoxia group changes in renal function were noticed in spite of normal blood pressure. When tolazoline was administered to the hypoxic animals, a marked decrease in blood pressure resulted. Indeed, changes in renal function were more profound in the hypoxic animals receiving tolazoline than in hypoxic animals not receiving tolazoline, even though some of the renal functional values did not reach statistical significance.

  11. [Surgical renal biopsies: technique, effectiveness and complications].

    PubMed

    Pinsach Elías, L; Blasco Casares, F J; Ibarz Servió, L; Valero Milián, J; Areal Calama, J; Bucar Terrades, S; Saladié Roig, J M

    1991-01-01

    Retrospective study made on 140 renal surgical biopsies (RSB) performed throughout the past 4 years in our Unit. The technique's effectiveness and morbidity are emphasized and the surgical technique and type of anaesthesia described. The sample obtained was enough to perform an essay in 100% cases, and a diagnosis was reached in 98.5%. Thirty-nine patients (27.8%) presented complications, 13 (9.2%) of which were directly related to the surgical technique. No case required blood transfusion and no deaths were reported. The type of anaesthesia used was: local plus sedation in 104 (74.2%) cases, rachianaesthesia in 10 (7.1%) and general in 26 (18.5%). The same approach was used in all patients: minimal subcostal lumbotomy, using Wilde's forceps to obtain the samples. It is believed that RSB is a highly effective, low mortality procedure, easy and quick to perform, and suitable for selected patients.

  12. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

  13. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A; Gambertoglio, J G

    1997-01-01

    Grepafloxacin is mainly (approximately 90%) excreted by nonrenal mechanisms. The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin was evaluated in an open-label study involving 20 adults, 15 of whom had some degree of renal impairment (creatinine clearance 7.5 to 64.0 ml/min). Of these 15, 3 had mild renal impairment, 6 had moderate renal impairment, and 6 had severe renal impairment. Grepafloxacin 400 mg was administered orally once daily for 7 days, and pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on days 1 and 7. The results show that both renal clearance and the amount of grepafloxacin excreted unchanged in urine, on day 1 and day 7, were significantly lower in individuals with severe renal impairment compared with those who were healthy. Renal clearance was 0.50 +/- 0.05 ml/min/kg in healthy individuals vs 0.15 +/- 0.05 ml/min/kg in patients with severe renal impairment on day 1, while the corresponding values on day 7 were 0.46 +/- 0.04 ml/min/kg vs 0.14 +/- 0.08 ml/min/kg, respectively. The percentage of grepafloxacin excreted unchanged in urine on day 1 was 5.1 +/- 3.0 in the healthy individuals and 1.5 +/- 0.7 in those with severe renal impairment. On day 7, the corresponding values were 7.9 +/- 1.9 and 2.9 +/- 2.2. No other significant pharmacokinetic differences occurred between the 2 groups. Accumulation during multiple dose administration did not vary with the degree of renal impairment. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin are not significantly different in individuals with varying degrees of renal impairment. Hence, dose adjustment is not necessary during treatment of patients with renal dysfunction.

  14. Effects of radiofrequency ablation on individual renal function: assessment by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takashi; Sato, Shuhei; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Mimura, Hidefumi; Yasui, Kotaro; Gobara, Hideo; Saika, Takashi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    We quantitatively evaluated total and individual renal function by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors. Eleven patients who underwent Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy 1 week before and after RFA were evaluated (7 men and 4 women; age range: 23-83 years; mean age: 60.6 years). Five patients had solitary kidneys, and five had normally or minimally functioning contralateral kidneys. One patient had a renal cell carcinoma in the contralateral kidney. One patient with a solitary kidney underwent RFA a second time for a residual tumor. In patients with a solitary kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 5 of 6 RFAs, and in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 4 of 5 RFAs, but no significant differences were observed between before and after treatments. In addition to the total MAG3 clearance, the split MAG3 clearance was evaluated in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney. MAG3 clearance decreased in 4 of 5 treated kidneys, while it adversely increased in the contralateral kidneys after 4 of 5 RFAs. No significant differences, however, were observed between before and after treatments. The results of our study revealed no significant differences in sCr, BUN, CCr, or MAG3 clearance between pre- and post-RFA values. These results support data regarding the functional impact and safety of renal RFA in published reports. We evaluated total and individual renal function quantitatively using Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy before and after treatment. This scintigraphy was very useful in assessing the effects of RFA on renal function.

  15. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  16. Renal effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Izzedine, Hassan; Mateus, Christine; Boutros, Céline; Robert, Caroline; Rouvier, Philippe; Amoura, Zahir; Mathian, Alexis

    2016-12-26

    Recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) development have led to major improvements in oncology patient outcomes. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are two essential immune checkpoint receptors. Ipilimumab and tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4-blocking antibodies) and pembrolizumab and nivolumab (antibodies targeting PD-1 receptors) have already been approved by US Food and Drug Administration in several malignancies. Two different forms of ICPI-induced renal damage have been identified, including acute (granulomatous) tubulointerstitial nephritis and immune complex glomerulonephritis. The observed acute renal damage can be reversed upon ICPI drug discontinuation and renal function can recover back to normal following the introduction of systemic corticosteroid treatment. Any delay in treating this complication could result in definitive and irreversible renal injury.

  17. Renal hemodynamic effects of relaxin in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marie; Davison, John; Conrad, Kirk; Danielson, Lee

    2005-05-01

    Rat studies have convincingly demonstrated the essential role of the ovarian hormone relaxin in mediating gestational renal hemodynamic and osmoregulatory changes in that species. We describe a model in nonpregnant volunteers using exogenous hCG to stimulate the production and release of ovarian relaxin in order to assess renal hemodynamic responses. Women (n = 10) were serially studied +/- hCG stimulation during menstrual cycles with measurement of inulin, PAH, and neutral dextran clearances (to determine glomerular filtration rate [GFR], renal plasma flow [RPF], and glomerular porosity, respectively). Controls were women without ovarian function (n = 6) and men (n = 10). GFR and RPF were increased in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase (15.3% increase in GFR, P < 0.005; 17.8% increase in RPF, P < 0.05). In controls, GFR and RPF were not significantly different between study occasions. Although exogenous hCG did not stimulate relaxin secretion in women without ovarian function or in men, it did so in normal women, but not into the pregnancy range. In no group were renal hemodynamics augmented by administered hCG. In naturally occurring cycles, increased serum relaxin is associated with augmented renal hemodynamics. As luteal stimulation with hCG failed to yield pregnancy relaxin levels, the use of exogenous relaxin for human administration is needed to further elucidate the renal vasodilatory properties of relaxin.

  18. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  19. Differential renal function in unilateral renal injury: possible effects of radiopharmaceutical choice. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Lallone, R.

    1985-01-01

    An abnormal filtration fraction or a significant divergence between a kidney's ability to extract Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and other function parameters, such as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, could lead to different estimates of relative or absolute renal function, depending on the radiopharmaceutical administered. To evaluate this possible divergence, the authors measured the relative GFR (I-125 iothalamate), ERPF (I-131 hippurate), and Tc-99m DMSA accumulation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction or unilateral ischemia at various times after renal injury. The relative ERPF of the obstructed kidney was significantly greater than the relative GFR at all time periods studied; significant but less dramatic differences were noted comparing DMSA with GFR in obstruction and DMSA and ERPF with GRF in ischemia.

  20. Renal effects of continuous negative pressure breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous negative pressure breathing (CNPB) was utilized to simulate the thoracic vascular distension of zero G in 11 anesthetized rats. The animals underwent renal clearance and micropuncture renal nephron studies before, during, and after CNPB. Four rats were pretreated with a high salt diet and I-M desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess. None of these rats diuresed with CNPB. In contrast, five of the seven remaining rats increased the fraction of the filtered sodium excreted and their urinary flow rate. Potassium excretion increased. End proximal tubular fluid specimen's TF/P inulin ratios were unchanged. Whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates fell 10%. CNPB, a mechanism for atrial distension, appears to cause in the rat a decrease in distal tubular sodium and water reabsorption. Exogenous mineral-corticoid prevents the diuresis, saluresis, and kaluresis. The adequacy of other nonatrial volume control mechanisms in regulating renal salt and water conservation in opposition to the studied atrial-renal (Henry-Gauer) reflex of thoracic vascular distension is confirmed.

  1. Occupational exposure to lead: effects on renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, C.D.; Hanenson, I.B.; Lerner, S.; Hammond, P.B.; Pesce, A.J.; Pollak, V.E.

    1980-10-01

    Although nephrotoxicity is common following exposure to lead, the dose-response relationship in adults with occupational exposure is not well understood because information is lacking on early nephrotoxic effects. By the time serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels are elevated, renal damage may be advanced and not fully reversible. Detailed investigations of renal glomerular and tubular function were performed in six adults with occupational exposure to lead. In all patients, the serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations were within the normal range. GFR was decreased in all but two. Glucose reabsorptive capacity (TmG) was decreased in all, and this decrease was disproportionately greater than expected from the reduced GFR in all but one. Normal values for renal plasma flow (RFP) were observed in four of the six, and for rho-aminohippurate (PAH) secretory capacity (TmPAh) in all but one. Bicarbonate reabsorptive capacity (TmHCO3) and urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin were normal in all. Routine clinical laboratory tests are insensitive for the detection of early renal effects of heavy metal exposure. Measurements of renal tubular reabsorptive capacity for glucose appears to be a sensitive method for the early detection of renal effect of lead.

  2. Effect of 2'-phosphophloretin on renal function in chronic renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Peerce, B E; Weaver, L; Clarke, R D

    2004-07-01

    Hyperhosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are common and severe complications of chronic renal failure. Therapies to reduce serum phosphate have been shown to reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and slow the progression of renal failure. The effect of the inhibitor of intestinal phosphate absorption, 2'-phosphophloretin (2'-PP), on serum and urine chemistry, renal histology, and cardiac structure in the uremic rat model of renal failure, 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NX), was examined. The effect of 2'-PP on serum phosphate, serum PTH, serum total Ca(2+), and ionized Ca(2+), Ca(2+) x P(i) product, urine protein, urine osmolality, and creatinine clearance in 5/6 NX rats was examined. Uremic rats in chronic renal failure were gavaged daily with 25 microM 2'-PP. Over the course of a 5-wk experiment, serum chemistry in untreated uremic rats, 2'-PP-treated uremic rats, and age-matched control rats with normal renal function was determined twice a week. Urine creatinine, urine osmolality, urine phosphate, and urine protein were determined once a week from 24-h collections. 2'-PP reduced serum phosphate 40 +/- 3% compared with a 17% increase in untreated uremic control rats. 2'-PP did not alter total serum Ca(2+). During 5-wk experiments, serum PTH increased 65 +/- 25% in untreated uremic rats and decreased 70 +/- 7% in uremic rats treated with 25 microM 2'-PP. Creatinine clearance decreased 20% in untreated uremic rats compared with a 100% increase in 2'-PP-treated uremic rats. Urine protein decreased and urine osmolality increased in uremic rats treated with 2'-PP. The mechanism of the effect of 2'-PP on serum phosphate was inhibition of intestinal phosphate absorption. 2-PP inhibited intestinal phosphate absorption 50% without altering dietary protein absorption or intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Over the course of the 5-wk treatment with 2'-PP, uremic animals treated with 2'-PP had a 2-4% weight gain/wk, similar to the weight gain seen in age-matched control rats

  3. Renal effects of continuous negative pressure breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous negative pressure breathing (CNPB) was utilized to simulate the thoracic vascular distension of zero g or space, in 11 anesthetized rats. The animals underwent renal clearance and micropuncture renal nephron studies before, during, and after CNPB. Rats were pretreated with a high salt diet and I-M desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess. None of these rats diuresed with CNPB. In contrast 5 of the 7 remaining rats increased the fraction of the filtered sodium excreted (C sub Na/GFR, p .05) and their urinary flow rate (V, p .05). Potassium excretion increased (U sub k V, p .05). End proximal tubular fluid specimen's TF/P inulin ratios were unchanged. Whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates fell 10%. CNPB, a mechanism for atrial distension, appears to cause, in rats, a decrease in distal tubular sodium, water and potassium reabsorption. Exogenous mineral-corticoid prevents the diuresis, saluresis, and kaluresis.

  4. Effects of chronic and acute protein administration on renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Schaap, G H; Blaak, E; Gans, R O; Oe, P L; Donker, A J

    1989-01-01

    In 6 volunteers with normal renal function, we investigated the effects of various kinds of protein (soy, lactoprotein and beef) and various amounts of an intravenously administered amino acid solution on glomerular filtration (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). As for the protein-induced changes in renal function, rises in GFR and ERPF were lowest with soy protein, and highest with beef (baseline GFR, 110 +/- 5; soy, 122 +/- 5; beef, 131 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2; mean +/- SEM). High doses of intravenous amino acids induced a rise in GFR comparable to that after beef (132 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2). In a combined test a liquid mixed meal together with intravenously administered amino acids induced a comparable increase of the GFR (baseline 114 +/- 5 versus 129 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2). When investigating 9 patients with chronic renal insufficiency after 4 weeks of low protein intake (LP) and after 4 weeks of high protein intake (HP), GFR and ERPF rose significantly under baseline conditions (GFR-LP41 +/- 9 versus GFR-HP 45 +/- 9 ml/min/1.73 m2, p less than 0.02; ERPF-LP 169 +/- 39 versus ERPF-HP 180 +/- 40 ml/min/1.73 m2, p less than 0.02; paired Wilcoxon). At the end of both dietary periods a comparable rise in renal function could be induced through acute stimulation (GFR-LP 20 +/- 5, GFR-HP 16 +/- 4; ERPF-LP 23 +/- 7, ERPF-HP 22 +/- 3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Genomic architecture and evolution of clear cell renal cell carcinomas defined by multiregion sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Ignacio; Fisher, Rosalie; McGranahan, Nicholas; Matthews, Nicholas; Santos, Claudio R; Martinez, Pierre; Phillimore, Benjamin; Begum, Sharmin; Rabinowitz, Adam; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Gulati, Sakshi; Bates, Paul A; Stamp, Gordon; Pickering, Lisa; Gore, Martin; Nicol, David L; Hazell, Steven; Futreal, P Andrew; Stewart, Aengus; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) can display intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). We applied multiregion exome sequencing (M-seq) to resolve the genetic architecture and evolutionary histories of ten ccRCCs. Ultra-deep sequencing identified ITH in all cases. We found that 73–75% of identified ccRCC driver aberrations were subclonal, confounding estimates of driver mutation prevalence. ITH increased with the number of biopsies analyzed, without evidence of saturation in most tumors. Chromosome 3p loss and VHL aberrations were the only ubiquitous events. The proportion of C>T transitions at CpG sites increased during tumor progression. M-seq permits the temporal resolution of ccRCC evolution and refines mutational signatures occurring during tumor development. PMID:24487277

  6. Renal dysfunction after total body irradiation: Dose-effect relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kal, Henk B. . E-mail: H.B.Kal@UMCUtrecht.nl; Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Late complications related to total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been increasingly noted. We reviewed and compared the results of treatments with various TBI regimens and tried to derive a dose-effect relationship for the endpoint of late renal dysfunction. The aim was to find the tolerance dose for the kidney when TBI is performed. Methods and Materials: A literature search was performed using PubMed for articles reporting late renal dysfunction. For intercomparison, the various TBI regimens were normalized using the linear-quadratic model, and biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. Results: Eleven reports were found describing the frequency of renal dysfunction after TBI. The frequency of renal dysfunction as a function of the BED was obtained. For BED >16 Gy an increase in the frequency of dysfunction was observed. Conclusions: The tolerance BED for kidney tissue undergoing TBI is about 16 Gy. This BED can be realized with highly fractionated TBI (e.g., 6 x 1.7 Gy or 9 x 1.2 Gy at dose rates >5 cGy/min). To prevent late renal dysfunction, the TBI regimens with BED values >16 Gy (almost all found in published reports) should be applied with appropriate shielding of the kidneys.

  7. The Effects of Heart Failure on Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L

    2010-01-01

    Summary Heart-kidney interactions have been increasingly recognized by clinicians and researchers involved in the study and treatment of heart failure and kidney disease. A classification system has been developed to categorize the different manifestations of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Recent work has highlighted the significant negative prognostic effect of worsening renal function on outcomes for individuals with heart failure. The etiology of the concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction remains unclear; however, increasing evidence supports alternatives to the established theory of underfilling, including effects of venous congestion and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. Conventional therapy focuses on blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with expanding use of direct renin and aldosterone antagonists. Novel therapeutic interventions using extracorporeal therapy and antagonists of the adenosine pathway show promise and require further investigation. PMID:20621250

  8. [Ibopamine--acute hemodynamic, renal and neurohumoral effects].

    PubMed

    Wehling, M; Theisen, K

    1991-01-01

    Ibopamine (IP) is a novel dopamine analogue for which beneficial effects have been shown in chronic heart failure. Hemodynamic effects of the substance include an increase in cardiac output and a decrease in the peripheral resistance. Aside from these hemodynamic effects, changes in renal (increased diuresis) and neurohumoral parameters (decreased plasma renin activity, aldosterone, norepinephrine, increased ANF and cGMP) have been found. The renal effects may originate from three independent mechanisms: 1) direct impact of improved hemodynamic parameters on the renal perfusion; 2) the improved cardiac performance results in a reduction of compensatory hormonal adaptations, such as the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-axis or the sympathetic system; 3) direct effects on the intrarenal hemodynamic and glomerular/tubular functions induced by stimulation of renal dopaminergic receptors. The continued decrease of the plasma renin activity by 35% results in a reduction of the plasma levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone. Additionally, an increase in plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and its second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was observed after ibopamine, which could contribute to the diuretic action of the drug. These findings underline the importance of extrarenal effects of a drug in the treatment of heart failure, this may essentially contribute to the improvement of cardiac performance, independent of positive inotropy.

  9. Recurrent chromosomal gains and heterogeneous driver mutations characterise papillary renal cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Michal; Navas, Carolina; Horswell, Stuart; Salm, Max; Bardella, Chiara; Rowan, Andrew; Stares, Mark; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Fisher, Rosalie; de Bruin, Elza C.; Kovacova, Monika; Gorman, Maggie; Makino, Seiko; Williams, Jennet; Jaeger, Emma; Jones, Angela; Howarth, Kimberley; Larkin, James; Pickering, Lisa; Gore, Martin; Nicol, David L.; Hazell, Steven; Stamp, Gordon; O’Brien, Tim; Challacombe, Ben; Matthews, Nik; Phillimore, Benjamin; Begum, Sharmin; Rabinowitz, Adam; Varela, Ignacio; Chandra, Ashish; Horsfield, Catherine; Polson, Alexander; Tran, Maxine; Bhatt, Rupesh; Terracciano, Luigi; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Protheroe, Andrew; Maher, Eamonn; El Bahrawy, Mona; Fleming, Stewart; Ratcliffe, Peter; Heinimann, Karl; Swanton, Charles; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is an important subtype of kidney cancer with a problematic pathological classification and highly variable clinical behaviour. Here we sequence the genomes or exomes of 31 pRCCs, and in four tumours, multi-region sequencing is undertaken. We identify BAP1, SETD2, ARID2 and Nrf2 pathway genes (KEAP1, NHE2L2 and CUL3) as probable drivers, together with at least eight other possible drivers. However, only ~10% of tumours harbour detectable pathogenic changes in any one driver gene, and where present, the mutations are often predicted to be present within cancer sub-clones. We specifically detect parallel evolution of multiple SETD2 mutations within different sub-regions of the same tumour. By contrast, large copy number gains of chromosomes 7, 12, 16 and 17 are usually early, monoclonal changes in pRCC evolution. The predominance of large copy number variants as the major drivers for pRCC highlights an unusual mode of tumorigenesis that may challenge precision medicine approaches. PMID:25790038

  10. Evolution of a ureteric stone from the renal pelvis to the ureter on skeletal scintigraphy with CT correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pushpender; Kota, Gopi; Mintz, Akiva

    2012-02-01

    Because bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are excreted into the urine by the kidneys, normal kidneys and bladder are well visualized on skeletal scintigrams leading to incidental detection of urinary tract abnormalities in up to 15% of bone scans. Although the findings pertaining to the urinary tract on skeletal scintigraphy are seldom suggestive of a definitive diagnosis, they are highly specific for renal disease, with fewer than 2% false-positive studies reported. In the presented case, we demonstrate the evolution of a ureteric stone from the renal pelvis into the ureter on sequential skeletal scintigraphy with CT correlation.

  11. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy by Tc-99m diethylenetiaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy--alteration of the renal fraction of blood flow, split-GFR, and renal mean transit time.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, M; Morita, S; Rabito, C A; Umezaki, N; Matsuoka, K; Noda, S; Eto, K; Ohtake, H

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy, the renal function of eleven patients with renal calculi was studied, pre- and post-intervention. Renal function was determined, by renal scintigraphy with the renal agent, Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In each renal scintigram the renogram curve was analyzed and the following were determined by deconvolution analysis; the renal fraction of blood flow (RFBF), DTPA-glomerular filtration ratio (GFR), and the renal mean transit time (MTT). The successful results in percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy (PNL) was proven using the radionuclide technique in most cases. From these results it can be concluded that renal scintigraphy is an effective procedure to evaluate the effect of PNL for treating renal calculi and secondary hydronephrosis.

  12. Effects of microgravity on renal stone risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y. C.; Cintron, N. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Physiologic changes induced during human exposure to the microgravity environment of space may contribute to an increased potential for renal stone formation. Renal stone risk factors obtained 10 days before flight and immediately after return to earth indicated that calcium oxalate and uric acid stone-forming potential was increased after space flights of 4-10 days. These data describe the need for examining renal stone risk during in-flight phases of space missions. Because of limited availability of space and refrigerated storage on spacecraft, effective methods must be developed for collecting urine samples in-flight and for preserving (or storing) them at temperatures and under conditions commensurate with mission constraints.

  13. [Renal side effects of long-term lithium therapy].

    PubMed

    Ibbeken, C; Becker, J U; Baumgärtel, M W

    2012-01-01

    Lithium is widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Long-term administration of lithium often leads to side effects concerning the subjects: nephrology, endocrinology and surgery. This review emphasizes nephrotoxicity.Lithium treatment may disturb responsiveness to antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Furthermore long-term lithium therapy may trigger hyperparathyreoidism with hypercalcemia and chronic interstitial nephritis with development of microcysts. Long-term patients have an increased risk to develop impaired renal function. Lithium-induced endstage renal disease is rare. Termination of lithium treatment may decrease the risk of progression.To ensure security of lithium treatment regular controls of urine osmolarity, lithium-, creatinine- , thyroid stimulating hormone- and calcium-levels are essential. Patients with decreased renal function should be referred to a specialist early.

  14. Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption for renal function.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in dietary protein intake have an important role in prevention and management of several forms of kidney disease. Using soy protein instead of animal protein reduces development of kidney disease in animals. Reducing protein intake preserves kidney function in persons with early diabetic kidney disease. Our clinical observations led us to the soy-protein hypothesis that "substitution of soy protein for animal protein results in less hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension with resulting protection from diabetic nephropathy." These components of soy protein may lead to the benefits: specific peptides, amino acids, and isoflavones. Substituting soy protein for animal protein usually decreases hyperfiltration in diabetic subjects and may reduce urine albumin excretion. Limited data are available on effects of soy peptides, isoflavones, and other soy components on renal function on renal function in diabetes. Further studies are required to discern the specific benefits of soy protein and its components on renal function in diabetic subjects.

  15. Effects of water immersion on renal hemodynamics in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Levinson, R.; Loutzenhiser, R.

    1976-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to delineate the effects of water immersion to the neck (NI) on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate as assessed by the clearance of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and inulin, respectively. Nine normal male subjects were studied on two occasions, control and NI. The conditions of seated posture and time of day were identical. Immersion did not alter either clearance at a time when sodium excretion was increasing markedly. The constancy of PAH clearance during NI suggests that renal blood flow is unaltered and that the natriuresis of NI is mediated independently of alterations in overall renal perfusion. The sluggish decline of a natriuresis during recovery is consistent with the presence of a humoral factor contributing to the encountered natriuresis.

  16. The Spanish Renal Registry: 2013 report and evolution from 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Martín Escobar, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the evolution of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Spain from 2007 to 2013. Aggregated data and individual patient records were used from participating regional renal disease registries and that National Transplant Organisation registry. The reference population was the official population on January 1st of each year studied. Data on incidence and prevalence were based on aggregated data, while the survival analysis was calculated from individual patient records. The study period was 2007 to 2013 for prevalence, incidence and transplantation, and survival was analysed for 2004-2012. The population covered by the registry was a minimum of 95.3% to 100% of the Spanish population for aggregated data. The EU27 age and gender distributions of the European population for 2005 were used to adjust incidence and prevalence for age and gender. Survival probabilities were calculated for incident patients between the years 2004 and 2013 using the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate unadjusted patient survival probability. The log rank test was applied to compare survival curves according to some risk factors. Cox proportional hazards model was created to study the potential predictors of survival. In 2013, the total number of patients in Spain that started RRT was 5,705 for 95.3% of the total Spanish population, with an unadjusted rate of 127.1pmp. The evolution from 2007 to 2013 showed a gradual decline from 127.4pmp in 2007 to 120.4pmp in 2012, with a small upturn to 127.1 in 2013. The adjusted incidence rate for the year 2013 was 121.5pmp for the total population, 158.7pmp for males and 83.1pmp for females. The most frequent cause of primary renal disease in incident was diabetes mellitus: 20.4% in 2007, which increased to 24.6% in 2013. The percentage of transplant as first RRT increased from 1.7% in 2007 to 4.2% in 2013. The total number of patients in RRT for 95.3% of the population in 2013 was 50,567, with an unadjusted prevalent rate

  17. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  18. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Anglina; Trasande, Leonardo; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of CKD. Consequently, modifiable risk factors that are associated with a progressive decline in kidney function need to be identified. Numerous reports have documented the adverse effects that occur in response to graded exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals. This Review summarizes the effects of such chemicals on four aspects of cardiorenal function: albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentration. We focus on compounds that individuals are likely to be exposed to as a consequence of normal consumer activities or medical treatment, namely phthalates, bisphenol A, polyfluorinated alkyl acids, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental exposure to these chemicals during everyday life could have adverse consequences on renal function and might contribute to progressive cumulative renal injury over a lifetime. Regulatory efforts should be made to limit individual exposure to environmental chemicals in an attempt to reduce the incidence of cardiorenal disease.

  19. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Anglina; Trasande, Leonardo; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of CKD. Consequently, modifiable risk factors that are associated with a progressive decline in kidney function need to be identified. Numerous reports have documented the adverse effects that occur in response to graded exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals. This Review summarizes the effects of such chemicals on four aspects of cardiorenal function: albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentration. We focus on compounds that individuals are likely to be exposed to as a consequence of normal consumer activities or medical treatment, namely phthalates, bisphenol A, polyfluorinated alkyl acids, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental exposure to these chemicals during everyday life could have adverse consequences on renal function and might contribute to progressive cumulative renal injury over a lifetime. Regulatory efforts should be made to limit individual exposure to environmental chemicals in an attempt to reduce the incidence of cardiorenal disease. PMID:26100504

  20. Evolution of diuretics and ACE inhibitors, their renal and antihypertensive actions—parallels and contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Lant, Ariel F.

    1987-01-01

    1 The emergence of diuretic drugs and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ranks amongst the major therapeutic advances of modern medicine. The discovery of these drug groups arose largely by chance, yet each has dramatically influenced the treatment of congestive cardiac failure and arterial hypertension. 2 The central role which diuretics have had in the management of both oedema and hypertension hinges on their ability to induce a net renal excretion of solute and water by selective interference with either active or passive ion transport processes in different segments of the nephron. Irrespective of sites of action, the continued antihypertensive action of diuretics is characterized by a reduction in plasma volume and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume that lasts for as long as the diuretic is given. The mechanism of this effect remains unclear but may involve autoregulatory reactions that leave cardiac output unaltered but maintain a sustained reduction in total peripheral resistance. 3 ACE inhibitors also lower blood pressure by decreasing total peripheral resistance, leaving cardiac output, plasma volume and ECF volume unchanged. The detailed way these haemodynamic changes are achieved remains unknown but inhibition of converting enzyme present not only in the kidney but also in many extrarenal tissue sites, appears important. In both hypertension and cardiac failure, however, the kidney acts as a key target organ for ACE inhibitors. The increased renal vascular resistance and inappropriate renal salt excretion are reversed with enhanced renal blood flow and saluresis. Both angiotensin II (AII) and vasopressin-mediated contraction of glomerular mesangial cells is inhibited, making glomerular filtration more efficient. Reduced aldosterone secondary to blockade of AII formation contributes to saluresis whilst encouraging positive potassium balance. ACE inhibition also impairs breakdown of kinins which may contribute to intrarenal and peripheral

  1. Uncommon side effect of MMF in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Balal, M; Demir, E; Paydas, Saime; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U

    2005-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation. Gastrointestinal and hematological side effects are commonly observed, but hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we assessed MMF-related hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. A total of 124 renal transplantation recipients (RTRs) were evaluated for elevated liver enzymes associated with MMF, and 79 patients were enrolled to the study. Patients used MMF 2 g/day. The patients who had progressive increase in liver enzymes after renal transplantation and their AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin levels, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), abdominal ultrasonography, duration of hepatotoxicity, and decreased dosage or withdrawal of MMF were recorded. Also, we evaluated their liver enzymes while the patients were on the waiting list. Of the 79 patients, 11 patients (13.9%) had a progressive increase in liver enzymes. The median (min-max) age of the patients with MMF-hepatotoxicity was 29 (19-54) and 72.7% of them were male. None of the patients had hepatitis B or C, CMV infection, or other possible causes for elevated liver enzymes and their abdominal ultrasonography were normal. High liver enzyme levels regressed after the withdrawal (n=6) or reduce dosage (n=5) of MMF. The median time of the increase in liver enzymes was 28 (4-70) days and after 50% reduction or withdrawal of MMF, returned to normal values in 16 (4-210) days. The median levels of ALT in waiting list (I), before (II), and after (III) reduction dosage or withdrawal of MMF were 22.0 (3-22), 222.0 (51-508), and 33.0 (21-64) U/L, respectively (p I-II=0.004,p I-II=0.013, andp II-III=0.005). There were no differences for ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels. Also, the correlation between recovery time of ALT and persistence time of ALT elevation before adjustment of MMF was significant (r=0.739, p=0.009). Consequently, after renal transplantation, hepatotoxicity can occur due to a

  2. Renal effects of atriopeptin (AP) II in conscious SHR

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, J.F.; Debets, J.M.; Struyker-Boudier, H.A.; Daemen, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    Diuresis and natriuresis following APs has been suggested to depend upon increased renal blood flow (RBF). In a previous study, they found that APII infusions in conscious SHR decrease RBF. In this study, they report effects of APII on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal excretory function in conscious SHR. Male SHR were equipped with arterial and venous catheters. Furthermore, a special catheter was implanted into the bladder to allow continuous urine sampling from conscious, freely moving rats. Animals were allowed at least 4 days to recover. In one group of SHR, APII (N=7) or saline (N=7) was infused to quantitate excretion of water, Na/sup +/, and K/sup +/. Two other groups of SHR (N=8 each) were infused with /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and /sup 125/I-PAH. GFR and renal plasma flow (ERPF) were calculated from urine and a mid-time plasma sample during APII or saline infusion. Following changes in infusion rates, urine from the first 5 min was discarded, after which a 10-min collection was made. APII (0.5-4 ..mu..g/kg/min) increased water, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ output maximally during 2 ..mu..g/kg/min. ERPF decreased from 10.7 +/- 1.1 ml/min to 7.9 +/- 0.5 ml/min. GFR did not change significantly. Filtration fraction increased from 24 +/- 1% to 33 +/- 2%. Fractional water excretion increased from 0.8 +/- 0.2% to 2.5 +/- 0.7%. Saline infusions did not affect renal function. The results indicate that in conscious SHR, APII causes diuresis and natriuresis which does not depend upon increased GFR, but, rather, upon a primary tubular effect.

  3. Visualization of serotonin effects on renal vessels of rats.

    PubMed

    Endlich, K; Kühn, R; Steinhausen, M

    1993-02-01

    We studied the effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on glomerular blood flow (GBF) and on renal vessel diameters in the hydronephrotic kidney and in vascular casts of normal kidneys of rats. 5-HT (60 min after local application of 10(-8) mol.liter-1) constricted the arcuate arteries (-10 +/- 2% to -14 +/- 2%, mean +/- SEM), dilated the interlobular arteries (+13 +/- 2%) and afferent arterioles (+17 +/- 3%), and decreased GBF (-44 +/- 5%). In contrast to normal autoregulation, reduction of renal perfusion pressure after local application of 5-HT from 118 +/- 3 mm Hg by 10 and 20 mm Hg reduced GBF by 12 +/- 2% and 23 +/- 3%, respectively. The 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin (60 min after local application of 10(-6) mol.liter-1), dilated all preglomerular vessels and increased GBF. In the presence of ritanserin, 5-HT lost nearly all vascular effects. During infusion of 5-HT (5 micrograms.min-1 i.v. for 20 min) vascular reactions were similar to those under local application. After cyclooxygenase inhibition with indomethacin, infusion of 5-HT failed to constrict the arcuate arteries whereas vasodilation of the small preglomerular vessels remained unaffected. Analyzing vascular casts of normal kidneys we observed considerable vascular spasms and an average vasoconstriction of the interlobar arteries of 19 +/- 9% after i.v. infusion of 5-HT. We believe that 5-HT decreases GBF by 5-HT2 receptor-mediated constriction of the large renal vessels which are modulated by the prostaglandin system, whereas 5-HT dilates the small preglomerular vessels, most likely via 5-HT1-like receptors. Furthermore, our data indicate that 5-HT impairs the myogenic component of renal autoregulation in the low pressure range.

  4. Renal handling and acute urinary electrolyte effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics: use of a solitary renal autotransplant in the conscious sheep.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W M; McDougall, J; Potocnik, S; Wright, R D; Whitworth, J A

    1983-01-17

    Renal handling of the aminoglycoside antibiotics gentamicin and tobramycin were studied before and after one hour of constant intravenous infusions adjusted to maintain a concentration of 15 micrograms/mL. A solitary renal autotransplant model in four conscious volume replete 40 Kg sheep was used. This unique surgical preparation allows sampling of renal arterial and renal venous blood as well as urine drained through an exteriorized parotid-ureteral fistula. This surgical preparation has considerable potential in renal pharmacology since it uses a conscious, large animal. Baseline studies in this preparation demonstrated normal, 51CrEDTA and 125 I PAH, clearances which were unaffected by the drugs. Aminoglycoside binding to pooled sheep sera was 11% at physiologic PH, calcium and magnesium concentrations. A-V difference was 1.3 +/- .3 micrograms/mL and extraction by the kidney was 9 +/- 3.2% with no differences between gentamicin and tobramycin. Clearance of gentamicin was 84% and tobramycin 86% of GFR. There was no evidence of tubular injury as evidenced by unchanged urinary beta-2 microglobulin excretion. Serum Na, K, Ca and Mg did not change over the course of the study. Both drugs caused a prompt decrease in absolute and fractional sodium excretion while only gentamicin produced a kaliuresis. Early aminoglycoside effects on electrolyte balance may be an eventual determinant of nephrotoxic potential rather than differences in renal drug handling.

  5. Mechanism of renal effects of intracerebroventricular histamine in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kook, Y J; Kim, K K; Yang, D K; Ahn, D S; Choi, B K

    1988-01-01

    Histamine, when given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), has been reported to produce antidiuresis in the rabbit. In this study it was attempted to elucidate the mechanism involved in the effect. Histamine (H), 100 micrograms/kg i.c.v., produced antidiuresis with decreases in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in urethane-anesthetized rabbits. With larger doses, a tendency towards increased electrolyte excretion was noted in spite of decreased filtration. In the denervated kidney, marked diuresis and natriuresis were observed following i.c.v. H, whereas the contralateral innervated kidney responded with typical antidiuresis. Reserpinized rabbits also responded with marked natriuresis to i.c.v. H. Diphenhydramine (D), 250 micrograms/kg i.c.v., increased urine flow rate, sodium and potassium excretion, along with increase in renal perfusion. With 750 micrograms/kg i.c.v., marked natriuresis was observed in spite of decreased filtration. When H was given after D (250 micrograms/kg) the antidiuresis was completely abolished, and diuresis became more prominent. Cimetidine, 250 micrograms/kg i.c.v., elicited antidiuresis with decreases in renal hemodynamics, the pretreatment with cimetidine did not influence the antidiuresis by H and no natriuresis was noted. The present study suggests that histamine, given i.c.v., influences renal function in dual ways, i.e., antidiuresis by increasing the sympathetic tone to the kidney and diuresis due to some humoral natriuretic factor, the latter becoming apparent only when the former influence has been removed, and further suggests that H1-receptors might be involved in the nerve-mediated antidiuresis, whereas H2-receptors might mediate the humorally induced natriuresis and diuresis.

  6. Renal Expression of FGF23 in Progressive Renal Disease of Diabetes and the Effect of Ace Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Benigni, Ariela; Corna, Daniela; Tomasoni, Susanna; Rottoli, Daniela; Gaspari, Flavio; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Zoja, Carlamaria

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics. PMID:23967103

  7. Renal Denervation Normalizes Arterial Pressure With No Effect on Glucose Metabolism or Renal Inflammation in Obese Hypertensive Mice.

    PubMed

    Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Ninitha; Fiege, Jessica K; Han, Ruijun; Foss, Jason; Banek, Christopher T; Burbach, Brandon J; Razzoli, Maria; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Shimizu, Yoji; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Osborn, John W

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension often occurs in concurrence with obesity and diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as metabolic syndrome. Renal denervation (RDNx) lowers arterial pressure (AP) and improves glucose metabolism in drug-resistant hypertensive patients with high body mass index. In addition, RDNx has been shown to reduce renal inflammation in the mouse model of angiotensin II hypertension. The present study tested the hypothesis that RDNx reduces AP and renal inflammation and improves glucose metabolism in obesity-induced hypertension. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low-fat diet (10 kcal%) or a high-fat diet (45 kcal%) for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance test) were measured. In a parallel study, radiotelemeters were implanted in mice for AP measurement. High fat-fed C57BL/6J mice exhibited an inflammatory and metabolic syndrome phenotype, including increased fat mass, increased AP, and hyperglycemia compared with low-fat diet mice. RDNx, but not Sham surgery, normalized AP in high-fat diet mice (115.8±1.5 mm Hg in sham versus 96.6±6.7 mm Hg in RDNx). RDNx had no significant effect on AP in low-fat diet mice. Also, RDNx had no significant effect on glucose metabolism or renal inflammation as measured by the number of CD8, CD4, and T helper cells or levels of inflammatory cytokines in the kidneys. These results indicate that although renal nerves play a role in obesity-induced hypertension, they do not contribute to impaired glucose metabolism or renal inflammation in this model.

  8. Effects of the antioxidant drug tempol on renal oxygenation in mice with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed

    Lai, En Yin; Luo, Zaiming; Onozato, Maristela L; Rudolph, Earl H; Solis, Glenn; Jose, Pedro A; Wellstein, Anton; Aslam, Shakil; Quinn, Mark T; Griendling, Kathy; Le, Thu; Li, Ping; Palm, Fredrik; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed to renal hypoxia in C57BL/6 mice with ⅚ surgical reduction of renal mass (RRM). ROS can activate the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and increase O(2) usage. However, UCP-2 can be inactivated by glutathionylation. Mice were fed normal (NS)- or high-salt (HS) diets, and HS mice received the antioxidant drug tempol or vehicle for 3 mo. Since salt intake did not affect the tubular Na(+) transport per O(2) consumed (T(Na/)Q(O2)), further studies were confined to HS mice. RRM mice had increased excretion of 8-isoprostane F(2α) and H(2)O(2), renal expression of UCP-2 and renal O(2) extraction, and reduced T(Na/)Q(O2) (sham: 20 ± 2 vs. RRM: 10 ± 1 μmol/μmol; P < 0.05) and cortical Po(2) (sham: 43 ± 2, RRM: 29 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.02). Tempol normalized all these parameters while further increasing compensatory renal growth and glomerular volume. RRM mice had preserved blood pressure, glomeruli, and patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The patterns of protein expression in the renal cortex suggested that RRM kidneys had increased ROS from upregulated p22(phox), NOX-2, and -4 and that ROS-dependent increases in UCP-2 led to hypoxia that activated transforming growth factor-β whereas erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), glutathione peroxidase-1, and glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 were upregulated independently of ROS. We conclude that RRM activated distinct processes: a ROS-dependent activation of UCP-2 leading to inefficient renal O(2) usage and cortical hypoxia that was offset by Nrf-2-dependent glutathionylation. Thus hypoxia in RRM may be the outcome of NADPH oxidase-initiated ROS generation, leading to mitochondrial uncoupling counteracted by defense pathways coordinated by Nrf-2.

  9. Mechanism of glucocorticoid effect on renal transport of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Turner, S T; Kiebzak, G M; Dousa, T P

    1982-11-01

    We explored whether glucocorticoid administration, a known stimulus of renal gluconeogenesis (GNG), could decrease avid inorganic phosphate (Pi) reabsorption in rats stabilized on low-phosphorus diet (LPD). Rats adapted to LPD were injected with the glucocorticoid (GCD) triamcinolone acetonide (1.25 or 2.5 mg.100 g body wt-1.day-1 ip) for 2 days; they showed a profound increase in urinary excretion of Pi during the injection period. In clearance studies GCD increased the clearance and fractional excretion of Pi but did not change the filtered load of Pi. Initial "uphill" Na+-gradient (Nao+ greater than Nai+)-dependent uptake of 32Pi by luminal brush-border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from renal cortex of rats treated with GCD was markedly (greater than 40%) decreased compared with control rats; Na+-gradient-dependent uptake of D-[3H]glucose was not diminished. At the "equilibrium" time interval, measured at 120 min, BBM vesicles from control and GCD-treated rats did not differ in the uptake of 32Pi or D-[3H]glucose. With kinetic analysis, BBM from GCD-treated rats showed a marked decrease (-40%) in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of initial Na+-dependent 32Pi uptake, but the apparent affinity of the BBM transport system for Pi (apparent Km = 0.078 mM Pi) was not different from that of controls. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity was much lower (-40%) in BBM from GCD-treated rats compared with controls, but the activities of three other BBM enzymes (maltase, leucine aminopeptidase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase) were not different. The addition of triamcinolone to BBM in vitro had no effect on either Na+-dependent uptake of 32Pi or alkaline phosphatase activity. The rate of GNG from alpha-ketoglutarate was significantly increased in cortical slices from GCD-treated rats adapted to LPD. Also, the NAD+-to-NADH ratio was higher in the renal cortex of GCD-treated rats, although the total content of NAD [NAD+ + NADH] was not different from controls. Renal excretory

  10. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M.; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A.; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity. PMID:25883748

  11. Effect of Shock Wave Lithotripsy on Renal Hemodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.

    2008-09-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) can injure tissue and decrease blood flow in the SWL-treated kidney, both tissue and functional effects being largely localized to the region targeted with shock waves (SWs). A novel method of limiting SWL-induced tissue injury is to employ the "protection" protocol, where the kidney is pretreated with low-energy SWs prior to the application of a standard clinical dose of high-energy SWs. Resistive index measurements of renal vascular resistance/impedance to blood flow during SWL treatment protocols revealed that a standard clinical dose of high-energy SWs did not alter RI during SW application. However, there was an interaction between low- and high-energy SWL treatment phases of the "protection" protocol such that an increase in RI (vasoconstriction) was observed during the later half of SW application, a time when tissue damage is occurring during the standard high-energy SWL protocol. We suggest that renal vasoconstriction may be responsible for reducing the degree of tissue damage that normally results from a standard clinical dose of high-energy SWs.

  12. In vitro effects of nanoparticles on renal cells

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Béatrice; Jorly, Joana; On, Dinhill; Sellier, Elisabeth; Moisan, Frédéric; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Cambar, Jean; Brochard, Patrick; Ohayon-Courtès, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability of nanoparticles to cross the lung-blood barrier suggests that they may translocate to blood and to targets distant from their portal of entry. Nevertheless, nanotoxicity in organs has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nanotoxicity in renal cells using in vitro models. Various carbon black (CB) (FW2–13 nm, Printex60-21 nm and LB101-95 nm) and titanium dioxide (TiO2-15 and TiO2-50 nm) nanoparticles were characterized on size by electron microscopy. We evaluated theirs effects on glomerular mesangial (IP15) and epithelial proximal tubular (LLC-PK1) renal cells, using light microscopy, WST-1 assay, immunofluorescence labeling and DCFH-DA for reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. Results Nanoparticles induced a variety of cell responses. On both IP15 and LLC-PK1 cells, the smallest FW2 NP was found to be the most cytotoxic with classic dose-behavior. For the other NPs tested, different cytotoxic profiles were found, with LLC-PK1 cells being more sensitive than IP15 cells. Exposure to FW2 NPs, evidenced in our experiments as the most cytotoxic particle type, significantly enhanced production of ROS in both IP15 and LLC-PK1 cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy using latex beads indicated that depending on their size, the cells internalized particles, which accumulated in the cell cytoplasm. Additionally using transmission electronic microscope micrographs show nanoparticles inside the cells and trapped in vesicles. Conclusion The present data constitute the first step towards determining in vitro dose effect of manufactured CB and TiO2 NPs in renal cells. Cytotoxicological assays using epithelial tubular and glomerular mesangial cell lines rapidly provide information and demonstrated that NP materials exhibit varying degrees of cytotoxicity. It seems clear that in vitro cellular systems will need to be further developed, standardized and validated (relative to in vivo effects) in order to provide useful screening

  13. Effect of chronic renal medullary nitric oxide inhibition on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Mattson, D L; Lu, S; Nakanishi, K; Papanek, P E; Cowley, A W

    1994-05-01

    The effects of chronic nitric oxide inhibition in the renal medulla on renal cortical and medullary blood flow, sodium balance, and blood pressure were evaluated in conscious uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. During a 5-day renal medullary interstitial infusion of the nitric oxide inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 120 micrograms/h) in saline (0.5 ml/min), renal medullary blood flow was selectively decreased by 30% after 2 h and was maintained at that level for the entire infusion. The decrease in medullary blood flow was associated with sodium retention and increased blood pressure. After the cessation of L-NAME infusion, medullary blood flow returned to control, and the sodium balance became negative as blood pressure returned to baseline. These data indicate that renal medullary nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of renal blood flow, sodium excretion, and blood pressure.

  14. Functional consequences of prenatal methylmercury exposure: effects on renal and hepatic responses to trophic stimuli and on renal excretory mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Kavlock, R.J.; Cowdery, T.; Orband, L.; Bartolome, M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on the functional development of renal and hepatic response systems was examined in the developing rat. Methylmercury produced an elevation of basal activity of renal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, an enzyme involved in regulation of cellular maturation) and an eventual relative hypertrophy; liver ODC was reduced and hypertrophy was not evident. In contrast, the reactivity of liver ODC to trophic stimulants (vasopressin, isoproterenol) was markedly enhanced by prenatal methylmercury exposure, whereas renal ODC responses were much less affected (vasopressin) or actually reduced (isoproterenol). Targeted actions of methylmercury on renal excretory function were also prominent, with increased fractional excretions urea and electrolytes and an eventual reduction in glomerular filtration as assessed by creatinine clearance. These studies show that doses of methylmercury ordinarily associated with selective actions on development of neurobehavioral patterns also influence the functional ontogeny of other organ systems; furthermore, the fact that the target tissues are different for prenatal vs postnatal methylmercury exposure, indicates that the functional teratology of methylmercury exhibits critical periods of sensitivity.

  15. Effect of a stable prostacyclin analogue on canine renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Tobimatsu, M; Ueda, Y; Toyoda, K; Saito, S; Konomi, K

    1987-01-01

    The effect of OP-41483 (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Osaka, Japan), a stable prostacyclin analogue, on canine renal allograft rejection was investigated. Administration for 4 days after transplantation significantly increased renal cortical blood flow and urine output when compared with untreated dogs with renal allografts. Serum creatinine levels remained relatively low during postoperative days 1-4. Mean animal survival time was prolonged. Vascular lesions and mononuclear cell infiltration were greatly diminished in biopsy specimens removed on day 4. This stable prostacyclin analogue provided a degree of protection against canine renal allograft rejection. Images Figs. 1A and B. PMID:3545109

  16. Effects of renal function on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lesinurad in adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Michael; Valdez, Shakti; Zhou, Dongmei; Kerr, Bradley; Lee, Caroline A; Shen, Zancong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for the treatment of gout in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid (sUA) levels with an XOI alone. Most people with gout have chronic kidney disease. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad were assessed in subjects with impaired renal function. Methods Two Phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-dose studies enrolled subjects with normal renal function (estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] >90 mL/min; N=12) or mild (eCrCl 60–89 mL/min; N=8), moderate (eCrCl 30–59 mL/min; N=16), or severe (eCrCl <30 mL/min; N=6) renal impairment. Subjects were given a single oral lesinurad dose of 200 mg (N=24) or 400 mg (N=18). Blood and urine samples were analyzed for plasma lesinurad concentrations and serum and urine uric acid concentrations. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory data. Results Mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment increased lesinurad plasma area under the plasma concentration–time curve by 34%, 54%–65%, and 102%, respectively. Lesinurad plasma Cmax was unaffected by renal function status. Lower renal clearance and urinary excretion of lesinurad were associated with the degree of renal impairment. The sUA-lowering effect of a single dose of lesinurad was similar between mild renal impairment and normal function, reduced in moderate impairment, and greatly diminished in severe impairment. Lesinurad increased urinary urate excretion in normal function and mild renal impairment; the increase was less with moderate or severe renal impairment. Lesinurad was well tolerated by all subjects. Conclusion Lesinurad exposure increased with decreasing renal function; however, the effects of lesinurad on sUA were attenuated in moderate to severe renal impairment. PMID:27843295

  17. Effects of a high protein intake on renal acid excretion in bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Remer, T; Decher-Spliethoff, E; Höhler, M; Kersting, M; Kunz, C; Lausen, B

    1995-03-01

    Bodybuilders often prefer a high protein diet to achieve maximum skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In this study the effect of a high protein diet on renal acid load and renal handling of proton excretion was studied comparing dietary intake and urinary ionograms in 37 male bodybuilders and 20 young male adults. Energy intake (+ 7%), protein intake (128 vs 88 g/d/1.73 m2), and renal net acid excretion (95 vs 64 mmol/d/1.73 m2) were higher in the bodybuilders than in the controls, however, urine-pH was only slightly lower (5.83 vs 6.12). In the bodybuilders renal ammonium excretion was higher at any given value of urine pH than in the controls. In a regression analysis protein intake proved to be an independent factor modulating the ratio between urine-pH and renal ammonium excretion. The concomitant increase of renal net acid excretion and maximum renal acid excretion capacity in periods of high protein intake appears to be a highly effective response of the kidney to a specific food intake leaving a large renal surplus capacity for an additional renal acid load.

  18. Maternal Effects in Molecular Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Claus O.

    2002-02-01

    We introduce a model of molecular evolution in which the fitness of an individual depends both on its own and on the parent's genotype. The model can be solved by means of a nonlinear mapping onto the standard quasispecies model. The dependency on the parental genotypes cancels from the mean fitness, but not from the individual sequence concentrations. For finite populations, the position of the error threshold is very sensitive to the influence from parent genotypes. In addition to biological applications, our model is important for understanding the dynamics of self-replicating computer programs.

  19. Renal Handling of Circulating and Renal-Synthesized Hepcidin and Its Protective Effects against Hemoglobin-Mediated Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    van Swelm, Rachel P L; Wetzels, Jack F M; Verweij, Vivienne G M; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Pertijs, Jeanne C L M; van der Wijst, Jenny; Thévenod, Frank; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-09-01

    Urinary hepcidin may have protective effects against AKI. However, renal handling and the potential protective mechanisms of hepcidin are not fully understood. By measuring hepcidin levels in plasma and urine using mass spectrometry and the kidney using immunohistochemistry after intraperitoneal administration of human hepcidin-25 (hhep25) in C57Bl/6N mice, we showed that circulating hepcidin is filtered by the glomerulus and degraded to smaller isoforms detected in urine but not plasma. Moreover, hepcidin colocalized with the endocytic receptor megalin in proximal tubules, and compared with wild-type mice, megalin-deficient mice showed higher urinary excretion of injected hhep25 and no hepcidin staining in proximal tubules that lack megalin. This indicates that hepcidin is reaborbed in the proximal tubules by megalin dependent endocytosis. Administration of hhep25 concomitant with or 4 hours after a single intravenous dose of hemoglobin abolished hemoglobin-induced upregulation of urinary kidney injury markers (NGAL and KIM-1) and renal Interleukin-6 and Ngal mRNA observed 24 hours after administration but did not affect renal ferroportin expression at this point. Notably, coadministration of hhep25 and hemoglobin but not administration of either alone greatly increased renal mRNA expression of hepcidin-encoding Hamp1 and hepcidin staining in distal tubules. These findings suggest a role for locally synthesized hepcidin in renal protection. Our observations did not support a role for ferroportin in hhep25-mediated protection against hemoglobin-induced early injury, but other mechanisms of cellular iron handling may be involved. In conclusion, our data suggest that both systemically delivered and locally produced hepcidin protect against hemoglobin-induced AKI.

  20. Effects of combined carotid chemoreceptor and atrial receptor stimulation on renal blood flow in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, C T; Karim, F; Mackay, D

    1983-01-01

    In dogs anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated, carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated by changing the perfusate of the vascularly isolated carotid bifurcations from arterial to venous blood. Left atrial receptors were stimulated by distending balloons in two pulmonary vein-left atrial junctions and in this left atrial appendage. The left renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flow meter at a constant systemic (renal) arterial pressure in preparations in which heart rate changes were prevented by administration of propranolol hydrochloride (0.5 mg kg-1) and atropine sulphate (0.4 mg kg-1). Muscular movement was prevented by gallamine triethiodide (0.2 mg kg-1). Stimulation of left atrial receptors resulted in a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in renal blood flow of 5.6 +/- 0.88 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass from a control of 223 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass. The responses were abolished by cooling the cervical vagus nerves to 6-8 degrees C. Stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors, by perfusion of the carotid bifurcations by venous blood, caused a decrease in renal blood flow of 20 +/- 6.9 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass from 224 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass. Stimulation of left atrial receptors during venous perfusion of carotid chemoreceptors resulted in an increase in renal blood flow of 10.9 +/- 1.82 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass from 208 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass. These results show that atrial receptors and chemoreceptors can interact in their effects on renal blood flow. PMID:6410054

  1. [Renoprotective effects of statins under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis].

    PubMed

    Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G

    2014-01-01

    The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.

  2. Effect of inhibition of converting enzyme on renal hemodynamics and sodium management in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, V E; Wilson, D M; Burnett, J C; Johnson, C M; Offord, K P

    1991-10-01

    We compared the tubular transport of sodium and the erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity in hypertensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and in normotensive control subjects. In addition, we assessed the effects of inhibition of converting enzyme on renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion in hypertensive patients with ADPKD to provide information on mechanisms responsible for the increased renal vascular resistance and filtration fraction and the adjustment of the pressure-natriuresis relationship during saline expansion, observed in patients with ADPKD, hypertension, and preserved renal function. In comparison with normotensive control subjects, the hypertensive patients with ADPKD had lower renal plasma flows, higher renal vascular resistances and filtration fractions, and similar proximal and distal fractional reabsorptions of sodium. The administration of enalapril resulted in significant increases in the renal plasma flow and significant reductions in mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance, and filtration fraction, but the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged. Despite the significant reduction in mean arterial pressure during inhibition of converting enzyme, the distal fractional reabsorption of sodium decreased while the total fractional excretion of sodium remained unchanged or increased slightly. No significant differences were detected between the normotensive control subjects and the hypertensive patients with ADPKD in erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration, or atrial natriuretic factor. These results suggest that the renal renin-angiotensin system plays a central role in the alterations in renal hemodynamics and sodium management associated with the development of hypertension in ADPKD.

  3. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  4. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  5. Protective Effects of Luteolin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shao-bin; Yan, Hao; Ma, Jing; Sun, Qiang; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Sepsis can cause serious acute kidney injury in bacterium-infected patients, especially in intensive care patients. Luteolin, a bioactive flavonoid, has renal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of luteolin in attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal injury. Material/Methods ICR mice were treated with LPS (25 mg/kg) with or without luteolin pre-treatment (40 mg/kg for three days). The renal function, histological changes, degree of oxidative stress, and tubular apoptosis in these mice were examined. The effects of luteolin on LPS-induced expression of renal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and cleaved caspase-3 were evaluated. Results LPS resulted in rapid renal damage of mice, increased level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr), tubular necrosis, and increased oxidative stress, whereas luteolin pre-treatment could attenuate this renal damage and improve the renal functions significantly. Treatment with LPS increased TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-1β, cleaved caspase-3, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 expression, while these disturbed expressions were reversed by luteolin pre-treatment. Conclusions These results indicate that luteolin ameliorates LPS-mediated nephrotoxicity via improving renal oxidant status, decreasing NF-κB activation and inflammatory and apoptosis factors, and then disturbing the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:28029146

  6. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  7. Comparison of the Protective Effects of Erythropoietin and Melatonin on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Banaei, Shokofeh; Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Alihemmati, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF). Oxygen free radicals are considered to be the principal components involved in the pathophysiological tissue alterations observed during renal IR. Objectives In this study, we compared the effects of melatonin (MEL) and erythropoietin (EPO), both known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, on IR-induced renal injury in rats. Materials and Methods Wistar albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and then subjected to 45 minutes of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. MEL (10 mg/kg, i.p) and EPO (5000 U/kg, i.p) were administered prior to the onset of ischemia. After 24 hours of reperfusion and following decapitation, blood samples were collected for the determination of the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels. Additionally, renal samples were taken for histological evaluation. Results Ischemia-reperfusion significantly decreased the observed Hb and Hct values. The histopathological findings in the IR group confirmed that there was an increase in the hyaline cast and thickening of the Bowman capsule basement membrane. Treatment with EPO or MEL significantly increased the Hb and Hct values. In the MEL + IR group, the histopathological changes were lower than those found in the EPO + IR group. Conclusions Treatment with EPO and MEL had a beneficial effect on renal IR injury. The results may also indicate that MEL protects against morphological damage better than EPO in renal IR injury. PMID:27921018

  8. Acute effects of ferumoxytol on regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Cantow, Kathleen; Pohlmann, Andreas; Flemming, Bert; Ferrara, Fabienne; Waiczies, Sonia; Grosenick, Dirk; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2016-01-01

    The superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle ferumoxytol is increasingly used as intravascular contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study details the impact of ferumoxytol on regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. In 10 anesthetized rats, a single intravenous injection of isotonic saline (used as volume control) was followed by three consecutive injections of ferumoxytol to achieve cumulative doses of 6, 10, and 41 mg Fe/kg body mass. Arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, renal cortical and medullary perfusion and oxygen tension were continuously measured. Regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was characterized by dedicated interventions: brief periods of suprarenal aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. None of the three doses of ferumoxytol resulted in significant changes in any of the measured parameters as compared to saline. Ferumoxytol did not significantly alter regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation as studied by aortic occlusion and hypoxia. The only significant effect of ferumoxytol at the highest dose was a blunting of the hyperoxia-induced increase in arterial pressure. Taken together, ferumoxytol has only marginal effects on the regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. This makes ferumoxytol a prime candidate as contrast agent for renal MRI including the assessment of renal blood volume fraction. PMID:27436132

  9. Protective effect of angiotensin II-induced increase in nitric oxide in the renal medullary circulation.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Wu, F; Cowley, A W

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effect of intravenous infusion of subpressor doses of angiotensin (Ang II) on renal medullary blood flow (MBF), medullary partial oxygen pressure (PO2), and nitric oxide (NO) concentration under normal conditions and during reduction of the medullary nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in anesthetized rats. With laser Doppler flowmetry and polarographic measurement of PO2 with microelectrodes, Ang II (5 ng/kg per minute) did not alter renal cortical and medullary blood flows or medullary PO2. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was infused into the renal medullary interstitial space at a dose of 1.4 microg/kg per minute, a dose that did not significantly alter basal levels of MBF or PO2. Intravenous infusion of Ang II at the same dose in the presence of L-NAME decreased MBF by 23% and medullary PO2 by 28%, but it had no effect on cortical blood flow or arterial blood pressure. An in vivo microdialysis-oxyhemoglobin NO trapping technique was used in other rats to determine tissue NO concentrations using the same protocol. Ang II infusion increased tissue NO concentrations by 85% in the renal cortex and 150% in the renal medulla. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of L-NAME (1.4 microg/kg per minute) reduced medullary NO concentrations and substantially blocked Ang II-induced increases in NO concentrations in the renal medulla, but not in the renal cortex. Tissue slices of the renal cortex and medulla were studied to determine the effects of Ang II and L-NAME on the nitrite/nitrate production. Ang II stimulated the nitrite/nitrate production predominately in the renal medulla, which was significantly attenuated by L-NAME. We conclude that small elevations of circulating Ang II levels increase medullary NO production and concentrations, which plays an important role in buffering the vasoconstrictor effects of this peptide and in maintaining a constancy of MBF.

  10. Antifibrotic effects of KS370G, a caffeamide derivative, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injured mice and renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Sung-Ting; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a main cause of end-stage renal disease. Clinically, there are no beneficial treatments that can effectively reverse the progressive loss of renal functions. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is a natural phenolic antifibrotic agent, but rapid decomposition by an esterase leads to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the effects of KS370G, a caffeic acid phenylethyl amide, on murine renal fibrosis induced by unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and in TGF-β1 stimulated renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK52E and HK-2). In the animal model, renal fibrosis was evaluated at 14 days post-operation. Immediately following the operation, KS370G (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once a day. Our results show that KS370G markedly attenuates collagen deposition and inhibits an IRI-induced increase of fibronectin, vimentin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression and plasma TGF-β1 levels in the mouse kidney. Furthermore, KS370G reverses TGF-β1-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of α-SMA and also decreases the expression of fibronectin, collagen I and PAI-1 and inhibits TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3. These findings show the beneficial effects of KS370G on renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro with the possible mechanism being the inhibition of the Smad2/3 signaling pathway. PMID:25056456

  11. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-04-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.

  12. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-04-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.

  13. Effect of Organophosphate Compounds on Renal Function and Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-15

    cholinomimetic- induced diuresis , they do demonstrate a direct action of these compounds on renal cell electrolyte balance. Carter’s group did not examine the...Carrier. J. Friborg and 3. P. Onay, Vasodilators, intrarenal blood flow, and natriuresis in the dog. Amer. 3. Physiol., 221 (1971) 92- 98. 11. U.K...tylchol insestaraso activity. Diochem. Pharmacol., 7 (1961) 88-94. 19. 3.P. Hayslett, U. Kashgarian and F.H. Epstein, The diuresis of renal 17

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin and Ischemic Preconditioning on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshiekh, Mohammed; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Seifi, Behjat; Ranjbaran, Mina; Ahghari, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the most common causes of renal dysfunction. There is increasing evidence about the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these injuries and endogenous antioxidants seem to have an important role in decreasing the renal tissue injury. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on renal IR injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were allocated into four experimental groups: sham-operated, IR, EPO + IR, and IPC + IR. Rats were underwent 50 minutes bilateral ischemia followed by 24 hours reperfusion. Erythropoietin (5000 IU/kg, i.p) was administered 30 minutes before onset of ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning was performed by three cycles of 3 minutes ischemia followed by 3 minutes reperfusion. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Kidney samples were taken for reactive oxidative species (ROS) measurement including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) contents, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: Compared to the sham group, IR led to renal dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher plasma urea and creatinine. Treatment with EPO or IPC decreased urea, creatinine, and renal MDA levels and increased SOD activity and GSH contents in the kidney. Conclusions: Pretreatment with EPO and application of IPC significantly ameliorated the renal injury induced by bilateral renal IR. However, both treatments attenuated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. There were no significant differences between pretreatment with EPO or application of IPC. PMID:26866008

  15. Effect of carotid occlusion and of perfusion pressure on renal function in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Kirchheim, H; Ruffmann, K

    1981-06-01

    We studied the effect of bilateral common carotid occlusion (implanted pneumatic cuffs) on renal blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter) and renal function (implanted ureteral catheter) in nine chronically instrumented, conscious dogs on a high sodium diet (14 mmol/kg body weight per day). By means of suprarenal aortic constriction (pneumatic cuff) the influence of renal perfusion pressure was investigated. There was no change in renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance) with either reflexly increasing (+49.6%) or constant renal perfusion pressure. Carotid occlusion caused an increase of urine output by 80.5% and of sodium excretion by 85.3% due to a fall in fractional sodium reabsorption (-0.9%) when renal perfusion pressure was allowed to rise. Neither an increase of diuresis or sodium excretion nor an antinatriuresis was observed when renal perfusion pressure was kept constant during carotid occlusion. We conclude that, in conscious dogs at rest, the moderate sympathetic activation associated with carotid occlusion is too small to induce renal sympathetic vasoconstriction or antinatriuresis. The "carotid sinus polyuria" is a pressure-diuresis.

  16. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥ 1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥ 1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β2-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β2-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children.

  17. Effects of a new dihydropyridine derivative, S12968 (pranedipine), and its stereoisomer, S12967, on renal effects of endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Montañés, I; Flores, O; Eleno, N; López-Novoa, J M

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess in rats the prevention by two enantiomers of a new dihydropyridine derivative (pranedipine) (called S12967 for the dextrogyre (+) and S12968 for the levogyre (-) molecules) of the renal and cardiovascular effects induced by endothelin-1. The injection of endothelin-1 (1 nmol/kg body weight) induced a sharp and transient decrease in urine flow, sodium and potassium excretion, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and renal blood flow, a significant increase in renal vascular resistance, and a small but significant increase in arterial pressure. Treatment with S12968 alone (0.3 mg/kg) induced a 2.5-fold increase in urine flow and potassium excretion and a 4.5-fold increase in sodium excretion. Pretreatment with S12968 completely blocked the endothelin-1 induced increase in arterial pressure, did not affect the acute effect of endothelin-1 on urine flow, sodium and potassium excretion, filtration rate, and renal blood flow, but blunted the effect on renal vascular resistance. Administration of S12967 alone (1 mg/kg) did not induce changes in either renal function or arterial pressure. In S12967-treated animals, endothelin-1 also induced a transient increase in arterial pressure nad renal vascular resistance but failed to change renal function in a significant manner. In summary, the above reported experiments show that at the higher, nonhypotensive doses, the levogyre enantiomer (S12968) of a new dihydropyridine derivative (pranedipine) completely prevented the hypertensive effect of endothelin 1, and partially prevented the effect of endothelin-1 on renal vascular resistance. The dextrogyre enantiomer (S12967) had almost no effect on either mean arterial pressure or renal vascular resistance but completely blocked the endothelin-1-induced decrease in urine flow and urinary sodium excretion.

  18. A re-appraisal of volume status and renal function impairment in chronic heart failure: combined effects of pre-renal failure and venous congestion on renal function.

    PubMed

    Sinkeler, Steef J; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-03-01

    The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal impairment in chronic heart failure is traditionally assumed to be mainly due to a decrease in cardiac output and a subsequent decrease in renal perfusion. This will lead to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and a compensatory increase in tubular sodium retention. The latter is a physiological renal response aimed at retaining fluids in order to increase cardiac filling pressure and thus renal perfusion. In heart failure, however, larger increases in cardiac filling pressure are needed to restore renal perfusion and thus more volume retention. In this concept, in chronic heart failure, an equilibrium exists where a certain degree of congestion is the price to be paid to maintain adequate renal perfusion and function. Recently, this hypothesis was challenged by new studies, wherein it was found that the association between right-sided cardiac filling pressures and renal function is bimodal, with worse renal function at the highest filling pressures, reflecting a severely congested state. Renal hemodynamic studies suggest that congestion negatively affects renal function in particular in patients in whom renal perfusion is also compromised. Thus, an interplay between cardiac forward failure and backward failure is involved in the renal function impairment in the congestive state, presumably along with other factors. Only few data are available on the impact of intervention in volume status on the cardio-renal interaction. Sparse data in cardiac patients as well as evidence from cohorts with primary renal disease suggest that specific targeting of volume overload may be beneficial for long-term outcome, in spite of a certain further decrease in renal function, at least

  19. Evolution of Technology for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Forty Years of Improvements.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance. These problems were solved by the introduction of continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration (CAVHDF) and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis (CAVHD) where uremic control could be by increasing countercurrent dialysate flow rates to 1.5 or 2 liters/h as necessary, or by venovenous techniques utilizing a double-lumen central venous catheter for vascular access. Thus, continuous venovenous hemofiltration replaced CAVH because of its improved performance and safety. From the initial adoptive technology, specific machines have been designed to permit safe and reliable performance of the therapy. These new machines have progressively undergone a series of technological steps that have resulted in the highly sophisticated equipment utilized today. A significant number of advances have taken place since the beginning of continuous renal replacement therapy. In particular, there have been successful experiments with high-volume hemofiltration and high-permeability hemofiltration. The additional and combined use of sorbent has also been tested successfully. Progress has been made in the technology as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury. Today, new biomaterials and new devices are available and new frontiers are on the horizon. Although improvements have been made, a lot remains to be done. Critical care nephrology is expected to further evolve in the near future, especially in the area of information and

  20. Effects of Renal Denervation Documented in the Austrian National Multicentre Renal Denervation Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Thomas; Steinwender, Clemens; Weber, Thomas; Suppan, Markus; Brussee, Helmut; Koppelstätter, Christian; Kerschbaum, Julia; Watschinger, Bruno; Hohenstein-Scheibenecker, Katharina; Reindl-Schwaighofer, Roman; Sturmberger, Thomas; Kindslehner, Claudia; Weiss, Thomas Werner; Rohla, Miklos; Gruener, Peter; Maister, Petra; Auer, Johann; Dechant, Cornelia; Sykora, Josef; Krismer, Christoph; Glaser, Stefan; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a new procedure for treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. In order to monitor all procedures undergone in Austria, the Austrian Society of Hypertension established the investigator-initiated Austrian Transcatheter Renal Denervation (TREND) Registry. From April 2011 to September 2014, 407 procedures in 14 Austrian centres were recorded. At baseline, office and mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were 171/94 and 151/89 mmHg, respectively, and patients were taking a median of 4 antihypertensive medications. Mean 24-h ABP changes after 2–6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months were -11/-6, -8/-4, -8/-5 and -10/-6 mmHg (p<0.05 at all measurements), respectively. The periprocedural complication rate was 2.5%. Incidence of long-term complications during follow-up (median 1 year) was 0.5%. Office BP and ABP responses showed only a weak correlation (Pearson coefficient 0.303). Based on the data from the TREND registry, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in addition to office BP should be used for patient selection as well as for monitoring response to RDN. Furthermore, criteria for optimal patient selection are suggested. PMID:27529426

  1. Renal Side Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Allegaert, Karel; de Hoon, Jan; Debeer, Anne; Gewillig, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or indomethacin are commonly prescribed drugs to induce pharmacologic closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. Based on a recently published Cochrane meta-analysis, both drugs are equally effective to induce closure. Drug choice can therefore be based on differences in side effects or pharmaco-economic arguments. The current review quantifies the negative impact of either ibuprofen or indomethacin on renal function, including diuresis, glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular function. Both ibuprofen and indomethacin have a quantifiable impact on renal function. However, compared to ibuprofen, the negative impact of indomethacin is more pronounced. PMID:27713258

  2. Effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Kentaro; Adachi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Chiba, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure. Female dogs received a lysine hydrochloride (lysine) of 4500 mg/kg/day (3.75 ml/kg/hr) for 3 consecutive days. The dogs were observed for clinical signs. Body weights were recorded, food consumption and water consumption calculated, and urinalysis and blood biochemistry were performed daily. Plasma samples for amino acid determinations were obtained from all dogs, which were necropsied on Day 3. Histopathological examinations were done on all test animals. Compound-related findings include the following. Blood biochemistry results showed increases in ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, and creatinine. Urinary changes consisted of increases in urine volume, total protein, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. In addition, macroscopic findings consisted of pale, congested capsule; microscopic findings consisted of hypertrophy of proximal convoluted tubule (mainly S1 segment), and degeneration/desquamation of urinary tubule (mainly S3 segment with hyaline casts) in the kidney. From these findings, it can be concluded that lysine is nephrotoxic in dogs. Nephrotoxicity of lysine may relate to direct tubular toxicity and to tubular obstruction.

  3. Effect of chronic antioxidant therapy with superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, tempol, on progression of renal disease in rats with renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in the progression of renal damage and antioxidants are potentially useful therapeutic options in chronic renal disease. We investigated if treatment with tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic that has beneficial effects in several experimental models of hypertension and acute kidney injury, ameliorates the chronic renal damage resulting in renal mass reduction. Rats with surgical 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (CRF group, n = 10) or tempol, 1 mmol/l in the drinking water (CRF-tempol group, n = 10). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) served as controls. All rats were followed for 12 weeks post-nephrectomy. Tempol treatment reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and halved the number of superoxide-positive cells in the remnant kidney; however, the number of hydrogen peroxide-positive cells increased and the overall renal oxidative stress (MDA and nitrotyrosine abundance) and inflammation (interstitial p65 NF-kappaB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration) were unchanged. Proteinuria, renal function and glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the remnant kidney were similar in the CRF and CRF-tempol groups. In conclusion, tempol administration, at the dose used in these studies, decreased plasma MDA and heightened superoxide dismutation in the kidney, but was incapable of reducing renal oxidative stress or improving renal function or structure in the remnant kidney model.

  4. Effectiveness of theophylline prophylaxis of renal impairment after coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Schipek, Chrysantha; Ilgmann, Kathrin; Page, Michael; Hennig, Michael; Wacker, Annette; Schweigart, Ursula; Lutilsky, Leopoldo; Valina, Christian; Seyfarth, Melchior; Schömig, Albert; Classen, Meinhard

    2003-05-15

    Contrast media can lead to renal impairment that results in longer hospitalization and increased mortality. Adenosine is a crucial mediator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN; an increase in serum creatinine of >or=0.5 mg/dl within 48 hours). Therefore, it was the purpose of our study to investigate whether the adenosine antagonist theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN after coronary angiography. We also characterized risk factors for CIN after coronary angiography. One hundred patients with serum creatinine concentrations of >or=1.3 mg/dl randomly received 200 mg IV theophylline or placebo 30 minutes before coronary angiography (amount of contrast medium >or=100 ml). Patients who received theophylline and the controls were comparable with regard to baseline creatinine levels (means +/- SD) (1.65 +/- 0.41 vs 1.72 +/- 0.69 mg/dl) and the amount of contrast medium received (235 +/- 89 vs 261 +/- 139 ml). Theophylline significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (4% vs 20%, p = 0.0138). With placebo, creatinine significantly increased at 12 (1.82 +/- 0.79 mg/dl, p = 0.0057), 24 (1.90 +/- 0.86 mg/dl, p = 0.0001), and 48 hours (1.90 +/- 0.89 mg/dl, p = 0.0007) after administration of contrast medium. With pretreatment with theophylline, mean creatinine only increased 24 hours after contrast medium administration (1.70 +/- 0.40 mg/dl, p = 0.029), but was stable 12 hours (1.65 +/- 0.43 mg/dl, p = 0.99) and 48 hours after contrast medium administration (1.65 +/- 0.41 mg/dl, p = 0.99). The following parameters were significantly associated with contrast-induced renal impairment: Cigarroa quotient >5 (contrast medium [milliters] x serum creatinine/body weight [kg]), elevated troponin T, >300 ml of contrast medium, and emergency angiography. In conclusion, theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography. It should be used especially in patients receiving large amounts of contrast medium, and in

  5. Renal effects of nabumetone, a COX-2 antagonist: impairment of function in isolated perfused rat kidneys contrasts with preserved renal function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Reichman, J; Cohen, S; Goldfarb, M; Shina, A; Rosen, S; Brezis, M; Karmeli, F; Heyman, S N

    2001-01-01

    The constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 enzyme has been considered the physiologically important isoform for prostaglandin synthesis in the normal kidney. It has, therefore, been suggested that selective inhibitors of the 'inducible' isoform (COX-2) may be free from renal adverse effects. We studied the renal effects of the predominantly COX-2 antagonist nabumetone in isolated perfused kidneys. As compared with controls, kidneys removed after in vivo administration of oral nabumetone (15 mg/kg) disclosed altered renal function with reduced glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction, and urine volume and enhanced hypoxic outer medullary tubular damage. By contrast, renal function and morphology were not affected in vivo by nabumetone or its active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid. The latter agent (10-20 mg/kg i.v.) did not significantly alter renal microcirculation, as opposed to a selective substantial reduction in medullary blood flow noted with the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.). In a rat model of acute renal failure, induced by concomitant administration of radiocontrast, nitric oxide synthase, and COX inhibitors, the decline in kidney function and the extent of hypoxic medullary damage with oral nabumetone (80 mg/kg) were comparable to a control group, and significantly less than those induced by indomethacin. In rats subjected to daily oral nabumetone for 3 consecutive weeks, renal function and morphology were preserved as well. Both nabumetone and 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid reduced renal parenchymal prostaglandin E2 to the same extent as indomethacin. It is concluded that while nabumetone adversely affects renal function and may intensify hypoxic medullary damage ex vivo, rat kidneys are not affected by this agent in vivo, both in acute and chronic studies. COX selectivity may not explain the renal safety of nabumetone.

  6. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  7. Effect of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with severe heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiming; Lu, Jing; Wang, Benwen; Ma, Genshan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility and effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with heart failure. A total of 20 patients with heart failure were enrolled, aged from 47 to 75 years (63±10 years). They were divided into the standard therapy (n = 10), and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation groups (n = 10). There were 15 males and 5 female patients, including 8 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 8 dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8 hypertensive cardiopathy. All of the patients met the criteria of New York Heart Association classes III-IV cardiac function. Patients with diabetes and renal failure were excluded. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was performed on the renal artery wall under X-ray guidance. Serum electrolytes, neurohormones, and 24 h urine volume were recorded 24 h before and after the operation. Echocardiograms were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and 6 months. Heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea and edema were also monitored. After renal nerve ablation, 24 h urine volume was increased, while neurohormone levels were decreased compared with those of pre-operation and standard therapy. No obvious change in heart rate or blood pressure was recorded. Symptoms of heart failure were improved in patients after the operation. No complications were recorded in the study. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for the patients with severe congestive heart failure.

  8. Protective effects of icariin on cisplatin-induced acute renal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pei; Zhang, Sen; Su, Xinlin; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy often causes acute kidney injury in cancer patients. Icariin is a bioactive flavonoid, which has renal protection and anti-inflammation effects. This study investigated the mechanism underlying the attenuation of cisplatin-induced renal injury by icariin. BALB/c mice were treated with cisplatin (15 mg/kg) with or without treatment with icariin (30 or 60 mg/kg for 5 days). Renal function, histological changes, degree of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis were examined. The effects of icariin on cisplatin-induced expression of renal TNF-α, NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 family proteins were evaluated. Treatment of mice with cisplatin resulted in renal damage, showing an increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, tubular damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These renal changes could be significantly improved by icariin treatment, especially in high dose of icariin group. Examination of molecules involving inflammation and apoptosis of the kidney revealed that treatment of icariin reduced expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax, increased the expression of BCL-2. These results indicate that icariin ameliorates the cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity via improving renal oxidant status, consequent NF-κB activation and inflammation cascade and apoptosis, and the following disturbed expression of apoptosis related proteins. PMID:26692955

  9. Renal hemodynamic effects of nabumetone, sulindac, and placebo in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cangiano, J L; Figueroa, J; Palmer, R

    1999-03-01

    We assessed the effects of nabumetone, sulindac, and placebo on renal function and renal excretion of vasodilatory prostaglandins in older female patients (age >50 years) with osteoarthritis and normal renal function. Using a prospective, crossover design, we compared the effects of nabumetone 2000 mg/d and sulindac 400 mg/d with placebo on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha in 12 patients. Urinary excretion of vasodilatory prostaglandins was not decreased after 14 days of treatment with either nabumetone or sulindac. Likewise, treatment with nabumetone or sulindac did not significantly alter renal function compared with placebo. There were no differences in mean changes in GFR or RPF from baseline after treatment with nabumetone or sulindac compared with placebo. The mean (+/- SD) changes in GFR from baseline were 0%+/-8% in patients receiving nabumetone, -8%+/-15% in patients receiving sulindac, and -7%+/-15% in patients receiving placebo. The results of this study demonstrate that treatment with nabumetone or sulindac caused no deterioration in renal function in older female patients with osteoarthritis and normal renal function.

  10. Effects of Sugammadex and Neostigmine on Renal Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Yasemin; Palabiyik, Onur; Cegin, Bilal Muhammed; Goktas, Ugur; Kati, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Background Neostigmine, the currently commonly used agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Sugammadex is a novel and unique compound designed as an antagonist of steroidal neuromuscular blockers. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sugammadex or neostigmine on kidney functions in patients scheduled for elective surgery. Material/Methods Patients scheduled for a surgical procedure under desflurane/opioid anesthesia received an intubating dose rocuronium. Patients were divided into 2 groups receiving either sugammadex or neostigmine atropine to reverse neuromuscular blockade. Cystatin C, creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, and calcium levels in the blood and α1microglobulin, β2microglobulin, and microalbumin levels in the urine were measured. Results There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the demographic data. In the Neostigmine Group, although β2microglobulin and microalbumin were similar, a significant increase was found in the postoperative α1microglobulin and cystatin C values. In the Sugammadex Group, although β2-microglobulin and cystatin C were similar, a significant increase was found in the postoperative α1-microglobulin and microalbumin values. The only significant difference was cystatin C value variation in the Neostigmine Group compared to the Sugammadex Group. Conclusions We believe that the use of more specific and sensitive new-generation markers like cystatin C to evaluate kidney function will provide a better understanding and interpretation of our results. Sugammadex has more tolerable effects on kidney function in patients than does neostigmine. However, when compared to preoperative values, there is a negative alteration of postoperative values. Neostigmine and sugammadex do not cause renal failure but they may affect kidney function. PMID:26963316

  11. Effects of acute hepatic and renal failure on pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic failure as well as renal failure modified the pharmacokinetics of flunixin.

  12. Non-HLA antibodies to immunogenic epitopes predict the evolution of chronic renal allograft injury.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Tara K; Li, Li; Tran, Tim Q; Khatri, Purvesh; Naesens, Maarten; Sansanwal, Poonam; Dai, Hong; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2012-04-01

    Chronic allograft injury (CAI) results from a humoral response to mismatches in immunogenic epitopes between the donor and recipient. Although alloantibodies against HLA antigens contribute to the pathogenesis of CAI, alloantibodies against non-HLA antigens likely contribute as well. Here, we used high-density protein arrays to identify non-HLA antibodies in CAI and subsequently validated a subset in a cohort of 172 serum samples collected serially post-transplantation. There were 38 de novo non-HLA antibodies that significantly associated with the development of CAI (P<0.01) on protocol post-transplant biopsies, with enrichment of their corresponding antigens in the renal cortex. Baseline levels of preformed antibodies to MIG (also called CXCL9), ITAC (also called CXCL11), IFN-γ, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor positively correlated with histologic injury at 24 months. Measuring levels of these four antibodies could help clinicians predict the development of CAI with >80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, pretransplant serum levels of a defined panel of alloantibodies targeting non-HLA immunogenic antigens associate with histologic CAI in the post-transplant period. Validation in a larger, prospective transplant cohort may lead to a noninvasive method to predict and monitor for CAI.

  13. Pulmonary aspergilloma with renal oxalosis: fatal effect at a distance.

    PubMed

    Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Sakhdeo, Uma M

    2009-05-01

    Some species of the fungus Aspergillus, especially Aspergillus niger, produce oxalic acid as a fermentation byproduct. The acid combines with calcium ions at physiological pH to form insoluble calcium oxalate crystals that are mainly deposited at local sites. This is often seen in the lungs, where the crystals tend to potentiate the destructive capacity of the fungus. In rare instances, there is hyperoxaluria and deposition of the crystals in the renal tubules. We report this rare occurrence in a 59-year-old man with pulmonary aspergilloma and acute renal failure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fifth case to be reported.

  14. Renal Protective Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Li; Fu, Ping

    2016-10-18

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of E2 in acute AAN. Compared with male C57BL/6 mice of acute AAN, lower serum creatinine (SCr) and less renal injury, together with RTEC apoptosis in females, were found. Treatment with E2 in male AAN mice reduced SCr levels and attenuated renal tubular injury and RTEC apoptosis. In the mice kidney tissue and human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2 cells), E2 both attenuated AA-induced cell apoptosis and downregulated the expression of phosphor-p53 (Ser15), p53, and cleaved-caspase-3. This study highlights that E2 exhibited protective effects on the renal injury of acute AAN in male mice by reducing RTEC apoptosis, which might be related to inhibiting the p53 signaling pathway.

  15. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Spino, M.; Chai, R.P.; Isles, A.F.; Balfe, J.W.; Brown, R.G.; Thiessen, J.J.; MacLeod, S.M.

    1985-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine renal function in 10 healthy control subjects and eight patients with cystic fibrosis in stable condition. Sequential bolus injections of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 125/I-OIH were administered to assess glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow, respectively. Blood was subsequently collected for 3 hours, and urine for 24 hours. Renal clearances of both radioisotope markers were virtually identical in patients and controls. Inasmuch as neither glomerular filtration rate nor effective renal plasma flow was enhanced in patients with cystic fibrosis, increased clearance of drugs in these patients is unlikely to be the result of enhanced glomerular filtration or tubular secretion.

  16. [Correlation between E.N.G. changes and the evolution of the hematic constants in patients under prolonged hemodialysis and renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Teijeira Alvarez, J M

    1974-01-01

    An evolutive study of the E.N.G. on 25 patients affected of chronic renal failure (c.r.f.) in their previous periods and during the dialysis programme was developed. At the same time a large study on various serum changes was carried on. It is observed that the motor conduction velocity (M.C.V.) shows a decreasing evolution during dialysis, which mathematical patters is a branch of an equilateral hyperbola, of equation: (see article) The Na and K evolutive curves are also significatively fitted to the same mathematical pattern. It is observed a direct and inverse lineal correlation between M.C.V. values and those ones of the Na and K respectively, with p less than 0,05 and p less than 0,01. It is not observed any correlation of significatively value with the other serum parameters studied (R.A., Cl, Urea, Total proteins, Hematocrit, Ca, P, Creatinine, fluids and acid-base equilibrium). After a renal transplantation the M.C.V. presents a growing trayectory of the same mathematical pattern described before, reaching normal values about a year post-transplantion. The levels of Sodium serum follow a parallel trayectory than that one of the M.C.V. The recovery of the remainders serum parameters after renal transplantion occour during the first week, except for the hematocrit. It only remains a parallelism between the evolutive changes of M.C.V./Natremia during dialysis stage and after renal transplantion. These results seem to show a close dependence between variation of M.C.V. and Natremia. The hipoxia role over the sodium pump and the consequent variations of Natremia are discussed.

  17. Clinical evolution of chronic renal patients with HIV infection in replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Saracho, Ramón; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; Comas Farnés, Jordi; Arcos, Emma; Mazuecos Blanca, Auxiliadora; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Zurriaga, Óscar; Ferrer Alamar, Manuel; Bouzas Caamaño, Encarnación; García Falcón, Teresa; Portolés Pérez, José; Herrero Calvo, José A; Chamorro Jambrina, Carlos; Moina Eguren, Íñigo; Rodrigo de Tomás, María Teresa; Abad Díez, José María; Sánchez Miret, José I; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael; Díaz Tejeiro, Rafael; Moreno Alía, Inmaculada; Torres Guinea, Marta; Huarte Loza, Enma; Artamendi Larrañaga, Marta; Fernández Renedo, Carlos; González Fernández, Raquel; Sánchez Álvarez, Emilio; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a special group with growing interest. In order to study the epidemiological data of HIV+ patients on RRT in Spain, we collected individual information from 2004-2011 (period of use of highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] in the Autonomous Communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Catalonia, Valencia, Castilla la Mancha, Castilla León, Galicia, Madrid, La Rioja and the Basque Country, comprising 85% of the Spanish population. A total of 271 incident and 209 prevalent patients were analysed. They were compared with the remaining patients on RRT during the same period. The annual incidence was 0.8 patients per one million inhabitants, with a significant increase during the follow-up period. The proportion of prevalent HIV+ patients was 5.1 per 1,000 patients on RRT (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4-5.8. Although glomerular diseases constituted the majority of cases (42%), diabetic nephropathy was the cause in 14% of patients. The nation-wide totals for these percentages were 13 and 25%, respectively. Compared to the total of patients in treatment, the risk of death was significantly higher in the HIV+ group: hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age, sex and diabetes was 2.26 (95% CI 1.74 - 2.91). Hepatitis C coinfection increased the risk of death in the HIV+ group (HR 1.77; 95% CI 1.10 - 2.85). The probability of kidney transplantation in HIV+ was only 17% after 7 years, comparing with total RTT patients (HR 0.15; 95% CI: 0.10-0.24). Despite the use of HAART, the incidence of HIV+ patients on dialysis has increased; their mortality still exceeds non-HIV patients, and they have a very low rate of transplantation. It is necessary to further our knowledge of this disease in order to improve results.

  18. Effect of renal function on prognosis in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Adrián Ignacio; Cappola, Thomas P; Fang, James; Hetzel, Scott J; Kadlec, Andrew; Astor, Brad; Sweitzer, Nancy K

    2015-01-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to identify whether worsened or improved renal function during mid-term follow-up is associated with worsened outcomes in patients with chronic HF. A total of 892 participants from a multicenter cohort study of chronic HF were followed over 3.1 ± 1.9 years of enrollment. Worsened and improved renal functions were tested with multivariate models as independent predictors of HF hospitalization and mortality. Although 12% of subjects experienced a ≥25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 17% experienced a ≥25% increase in eGFR, and there was stability of kidney function observed in the cohort as a whole. The quartile with the worst RD at any point in time had increased risk of HF hospitalization and mortality. Worsened eGFR was associated with HF outcomes in the unadjusted (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.81, p = 0.035), but not the adjusted analysis. Improvement in eGFR was not associated with outcome (p = 0.453). In chronic HF, the severity of RD predicts risk of poor outcome better than changes in renal function during mid-term follow-up. This suggests that in patients with appropriately treated chronic HF, worsening renal function in itself does not yield useful prognostic information and may not reflect poor outcome.

  19. The Evolution of Multivariate Maternal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Townley, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations. PMID:24722346

  20. Renal interstitial sclerosis in aging: effects of enalapril and nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Inserra, F; Romano, L A; de Cavanagh, E M; Ercole, L; Ferder, L F; Gomez, R A

    1996-05-01

    The effects of nifedipine and enalapril on age-associated renal interstitial fibrosis were investigated in 60 CF1 female mice. Mice received 20 mg enalapril (ENAL) per L (N = 20), or 40 mg nifedipine (NIF) per L (N = 20) in their drinking water. Control (CONT) mice received tap water ad libitum. The percentages of both interstitial peritubular sclerosis (IPS) in cortex and interstitial medullary sclerosis (IMS) were determined. Kidney tissue was studied using immunological techniques and optical (OM) and electron microscopy (EM) to analyze the expression of renin. alpha-SM-actin and vimentine expression were also evaluated. The results showed that blood pressure levels in ENAL or NIF animals were not different from those of CONT. Renin expression was observed in arcuate vessels (AV) in ENAL animals, whereas no renin staining in AV was found in either NIF or CONT animals. Renin immunoreactivity in the juxtaglomerular apparatus was more intense in ENAL mice, as compared with NIF or CONT animals. Laboratory testing showed the following values: proteinuria (mg/mL): CONT 6.1 +/- 0.6, NIF 11.2 +/- 2.3, and ENAL 1.0 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.05); creatinine: CONT 1.37 +/- 0.24, NIF 0.87 +/- 0.16, and ENAL 0.63 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.01). The percentages of interstitial sclerosis were: %IPS: CONT 18.12 +/- 1.1, NIF 17.40 +/- 0.9, and ENAL 3.42 +/- 1.3 (P < 0.01); %IMS: CONT 23.41 +/- 1.5, NIF 21.80 +/- 1.9, and ENAL 6.12 +/- 1.2 (P < 0.01). Percentages of alpha-SM-actin expression were: CONT 13.10 +/- 1.9, NIF 13.80 +/- 0.2, and ENAL 1.00 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.01). Vimentine staining showed no differences among the groups. It was concluded that enalapril reduces the peritubular and medullar interstitial fibrosis, whereas nifedipine has no effect.

  1. Immune checkpoint inhibitors renal side effects and management.

    PubMed

    Rassy, Elie El; Kourie, Hampig R; Rizkallah, Jamale; Karak, Fadi El; Hanna, Colette; Chelala, Dania N; Ghosn, Marwan

    2016-12-01

    The choice of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer has improved the prognosis of many patients affected by various malignancies. The high expectations foreseen with immunotherapy have led to fast approvals despite the incomplete understanding of the toxicity profiles in the different organs, including the kidneys. The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in cancer patients complicates the issue further and requires a better knowledge of the renal safety profile to ensure an optimal safe treatment. This review summarizes the present knowledge of renal adverse events secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors and discusses their pathophysiology, clinical presentation and adequate management. We also advocate the need for a multidisciplinary approach in patients with immune-related toxic adverse events.

  2. Cardiovascular and renal effects of chronic exposure to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Abdias; Escudero, Elizabeth; Pando, Jackeline; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Over 140 million people live at high altitude, defined as living at an altitude of 2400 m or more above sea level. Subjects living under these conditions are continuously living under hypoxic conditions and, depending on the population, various adaptations have developed. Interestingly, subjects living chronically at high altitude appear to have a decreased frequency of obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, these benefits on health are balanced by the frequent development of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Recently, it has been recognized that subjects living at high altitude are at risk for developing high-altitude renal syndrome (HARS), which is a syndrome consisting of polycythemia, hyperuricemia, systemic hypertension and microalbuminuria, but with preserved glomerular filtration rate. More studies should be performed to characterize the mechanisms and etiology of HARS; as such studies may be of benefit not only to the high-altitude population, but also to better understanding of the renal consequences of acute and chronic hypoxia.

  3. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  4. Effect of DMSA loading on the renal handling of technetium-99m in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1986-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) was studied in rats treated with high doses of nonradioactive DMSA to inhibit the renal uptake mechanism(s). A static scan was obtained 1 hour after the intravenous (iv) injection of 99mTc DMSA and the radioactivity in kidneys and bladder was calculated as a percentage of the injected amount. Total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow were also determined. Preloading with DMSA caused a fall in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA together with a small increase in the amount excreted into the urinary bladder. Despite a stable GFR, the total amount of 99mTc DMSA handled by the kidneys (i.e., renal plus bladder activity) was reduced. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that peritubular uptake and subsequent intracellular fixation are of importance in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA. On the other hand, the radioactivity excreted into the urine probably stems from non-reabsorbed 99mTc DMSA initially filtered by the glomeruli.

  5. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  6. Effects of exercise on renal function in patients with moderate impairment of renal function compared to normal men.

    PubMed

    Taverner, D; Craig, K; Mackay, I; Watson, M L

    1991-01-01

    The renal excretory and haemodynamic responses to sustained moderate exertion were investigated in normotensive humans with impaired renal function and normal volunteers. The heart rate increase with exercise was similar in each group. Subjects with impaired renal function showed a significant fall in glomerular filtration rate on exertion, while normals did not. In the presence of renal disease, urine osmolality did not rise with exertion, although it rose markedly in the normal group. Free water clearance became negative after exercise in the normal group only. The diseased kidney is unable to maintain glomerular filtration rate or conserve water under the stress of exertion as well as the normal kidney.

  7. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J; Lewis, Julia B; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-08-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the RENAAL and IDNT trials to test this in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy randomized to ARB or non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (non-RAASi)-based antihypertensive therapy. Treatment effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were compared in subgroups based on dietary sodium intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake. Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus, treatment effects of ARB compared with non-RAASi-based therapy on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were greater in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy with lower than higher dietary sodium intake. This underscores the avoidance of excessive sodium intake, particularly in type 2 diabetic patients receiving ARB therapy.

  8. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on renal function and metabolism in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Jacob, Maria Helena Vianna Metello; da Rocha Janner, Daiane; Araújo, Alex Sander da Rosa; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos

    2011-05-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous steroid hormone involved in a number of biological actions in humans and rodents, but its effects on renal tissue have not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of DHEA treatment on diabetic rats, mainly in relation to renal function and metabolism. Diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of a 10mg/kg dose of DHEA diluted in oil. Plasma glucose and creatinine, in addition to urine creatinine, were quantified espectophotometrically. Glucose uptake and oxidation were quantified using radioactive glucose, the urinary Transforming Growth Factor β(1) (TGF-β(1)) was assessed by enzyme immunoassay, and the total glutathione in the renal tissue was also measured. The diabetic rats displayed higher levels of glycemia, and DHEA treatment reduced hyperglycemia. Plasmatic creatinine levels were higher in the diabetic rats treated with DHEA, while creatinine clearance was lower. Glucose uptake and oxidation were lower in the renal medulla of the diabetic rats treated with DHEA, and urinary TGF-β(1), as well as total gluthatione levels, were higher in the diabetic rats treated with DHEA. DHEA treatment was not beneficial to renal tissue, since it reduced the glomerular filtration rate and renal medulla metabolism, while increasing the urinary excretion of TGF-β(1) and the compensatory response by the glutathione system, probably due to a mechanism involving a pro-oxidant action or a pro-fibrotic effect of this androgen or its derivatives. In conclusion, this study reports that DHEA treatment may be harmful to renal tissue, but the mechanisms of this action have not yet been fully understood.

  9. Effect of growth hormone treatment on pubertal growth in a boy with cystinosis and growth failure after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Wühl, E; Nissel, R; Schaefer, F; Mehls, O

    1996-08-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has proven effective in improving growth in short prepubertal children with chronic renal failure (CRF) before and after renal transplantation. However, its effect in pubertal patients is still doubtful. We report the case of a boy with nephropathic cystinosis and persistent growth failure despite successful renal transplantation who was treated with rhGH (30 i.u./m2 body surface area/week sc) from early puberty up to final height.

  10. Effect of felodipine on renal haemodynamics and tubular sodium handling after single-dose cyclosporin infusion in renal transplant recipients treated with azathioprine and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J K; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, E B

    1995-11-01

    A total of 25 renal transplant recipients, treated solely with prednisolone and azathioprine, were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The effect of a single oral dose of felodipine 5 mg or placebo on: glomerular filtration rate (GFR); renal plasma flow (RPF); renal vascular resistance (RVR); renal tubular sodium and water handling, measured by the lithium clearance technique; plasma levels of angiotensin II (AngII), aldosterone (Aldo), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP); blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) was studied before, during, and after an intravenous infusion of cyclosporin (CyA). Three consecutive clearance periods were performed, each lasting 1 h. During the second period, CyA (0.75 mg kg-1 body weight) was infused. Before infusion of CyA, felodipine caused a significant rise (6.7%) in RPF and lowered RVR, but did not change GFR significantly. The rise in RPF was abolished by infusion of CyA. After infusion, both GFR (7.8%) and RPF (9.4%) were significantly higher and RVR lower after felodipine than after placebo. Proximal tubular output and total sodium excretion were higher on the felodipine day before and after, but not during CyA infusion. In all three periods felodipine reduced both systolic and diastolic BP. In conclusion, a single dose of felodipine increases RPF and decreases blood pressure in renal transplant recipients not treated with CyA. Although some of these changes are abolished by an acute intravenous infusion of CyA, the effects of felodipine are present again also during the 1st hour after the infusion and thereby indicate at least in part some renal protective effect of felodipine. It is suggested that a higher dose of felodipine might also have been preventive against CyA renal side-effects during the acute infusion.

  11. Renoprotective effect of ramulus mori polysaccharides on renal injury in STZ-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Liang, Tao; He, Qiaoling; Wei, Pingyuan; Zheng, Ni; Xu, Lingyuan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, increasing evidences have suggested that inflammatory stress is markedly occurred in the impaired tissue. Thus, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were used to investigate the potential renoprotective effect of ramulus mori polysaccharides (RMP) and to discuss the underlying mechanism. The results from the present study showed that RMP significantly lowered the blood glucose and serum levels of glycosylated protein, cholesterol, urea nitrogen (Urea-N), creatinine (Cr) and 24-hour urine protein, while the albumin content was elevated. Meanwhile, the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in renal tissue of STZ-lesioned mice were reduced by RMP treatment. Similarly, pathological examination indicated that STZ-induced renal injury was effectively mitigated. In addition, the protein levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) in renal tissue were notably decreased. Moreover, the endogenous expressions of phosphorylated-IκB (p-IκB) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were down-regulated, respectively. Together, these findings revealed that RMP treatment effectively attenuated STZ-induced cytotoxicity in renal tissue, in which RMP-exerted renoprotection was associated with intrarenally debilitating inflammation reaction through blocking the IL-1/NF-κB pathway, thereby maintaining the renal homeostasis.

  12. Effect of renal impairment on distribution of ofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Navarro, A; Martinez Lanao, J; Sanchez Recio, M M; Domínguez-Gil Hurlé, A; Tabernero Romo, J M; Gomez Sanchez, J C; Terreiro Delgado, M M

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the plasma and distribution kinetics of ofloxacin administered at a dosage of 400 mg orally to a group of healthy volunteers and a group of patients with renal impairment. Blood and blister fluid samples were taken at programmed times from all individuals included in the study. The analytical techniques for the determination of ofloxacin in both fluids were a plate diffusion method and a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. The fitting of the experimental data to the kinetic model used was done with the help of the AUTOAN 2 and NONLIN 84 computer programs. In the groups of healthy volunteers, the elimination half-life mean values were found to be 5.1 and 5.9 h in plasma and blister fluid, respectively. The maximum concentration reached in plasma (3.9 micrograms/ml) proved to be slightly higher than that in interstitial tissue fluid (2.8 micrograms/ml). In the patients with renal impairment, the maximum concentrations in both plasma and blister fluid were significantly increased, in the order of 5 to 8 micrograms/ml in the former and 3 to 4 micrograms/ml in interstitial tissue fluid. The parameters seen to undergo an increase as a result of the renal impairment were the area under the curve of the plasma-time levels, the area under the curve of the blister fluid-time levels, and the elimination half-life in plasma and blister fluid. The degree of absorption and the access capacity of the drug to interstitial tissue fluid remained constant. PMID:2334157

  13. Effects of growth hormone administration in pediatric renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Bartosh, S; Kaiser, B; Rezvani, I; Polinsky, M; Schulman, S; Palmer, J; Baluarte, H J

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rGH) was assessed in five pediatric allograft recipients with severe growth retardation despite successful renal transplants. rGH 0.05 mg/kg per dose was given six times weekly by subcutaneous injection to five prepubertal children (mean age 15.2 +/- 2.0 years) all of whom had bone ages less than or equal to 12 years (10.0 +/- 1.4 years), a height standard deviation score of less than -2.5 (-4.9 +/- 1.5), no evidence of catch-up growth, a calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of more than 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (51 +/- 6.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and stable renal function on alternate-day prednisone (16.7 +/- 2.6 mg/m2 per dose). Growth hormone profiles were abnormal in all children before treatment. rGH administration led to a significant increase in both growth rate (3.5 +/- 1.6 cm/year pre therapy, 8.5 +/- 1.4 cm/year post therapy, P less than 0.001) and percentage of expected growth velocity for bone age (67 +/- 31% pre therapy, 163 +/- 27% post therapy, P less than 0.001) with evidence of true catch-up growth. During the study period, three children had the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, and one had premature advancement of his bone age. GFR decreased in three children, and in one rGH was discontinued due to a steady rise in serum creatinine. No significant changes were seen in serum calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, or thyroid function, although a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase was found. In summary, growth-retarded pediatric renal allograft recipients may have abnormal endogenous GH production and respond favorably to rGH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Turpeinen, Miia; Koivuviita, Niina; Tolonen, Ari; Reponen, Petri; Lundgren, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Metsärinne, Kaj; Rane, Anders; Pelkonen, Olavi; Laine, Kari

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject There is an ongoing debate regarding the effect of renal impairment on CYP related metabolic activities. The possible effect of renal impairment on hepatic CYP2B6 activity, or on bupropion pharmacokinetics in renally impaired subjects without dialysis treatment has not yet been investigated. What this study adds Bupropion clearance was found to be significantly decreased in patients with renal impairment. This study provides further evidence for interplay between the role of the kidney and liver in drug disposition, and opens novel lines of research with respect to the regulation of CYP2B6. Aims To investigate the effect of kidney disease on bupropion pharmacokinetics and on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity as measured by bupropion hydroxylation. Methods In an open parallel group study, 17 healthy, nonsmoking subjects and 10 patients with impaired kidney function received a single 150 mg oral dose of sustained release bupropion. Plasma concentrations of bupropion and its metabolites were measured for up to 72 h. Subjects were genotyped for the CYP2B6 SNPs 1459 C>T, 785 A>G and 516 G>T. Results Bupropion AUC was 126% higher (P< 0.0001, 95% CI +72%, +180%), Cmax 86% higher (P = 0.001, 95% CI +40%, +131%), CL/F 63% lower (P = 0.001, 95% CI −29%, −96%), and t1/2 140% longer (P = 0.001, 95% CI +76%, +204%) in renally impaired patients. However, only minor changes were detected in the concentrations of the metabolites. In renally impaired subjects the hydroxybupropion : bupropion AUC ratio was decreased by 66% (P = < 0.0001, 95% CI −19%, −114%) and the hydrobupropion : bupropion AUC ratio by 69% (P = 0.001, 95% CI +8%, −146%) compared with controls. Conclusions The CL/F of bupropion was significantly lower in subjects with renal impairment. Because the principal metabolites of bupropion possess similar pharmacological activity to the parent compound, dosage recommendations for patients with renal impairment cannot be

  15. Staging of renal cell carcinoma: cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.J.; Broaddus, S.B.; Leadbetter, G.W. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The use of bone scans in the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma has become routine in many centers. In a retrospective analysis of 42 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, the authors analyzed the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans. Although these scans accurately predict metastatic disease to bone, they are not cost-effective as a routine preoperative tool because they do not alter outcome. In selected patients with bone pain and no other positive staging studies, preoperative bone scans may be of value in the decision to perform extirpative surgery.

  16. Sirolimus in renal transplant recipients with tuberous sclerosis complex: clinical effectiveness and implications for innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Haidinger, Michael; Hecking, Manfred; Weichhart, Thomas; Poglitsch, Marko; Enkner, Wolfgang; Vonbank, Karin; Prayer, Daniela; Geusau, Alexandra; Oberbauer, Rainer; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Soleiman, Afschin; Hörl, Walter H; Säemann, Marcus D

    2010-08-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by constitutively activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) resulting in nonmalignant tumours of several organs and consequently renal failure. Recent reports suggest a possible beneficial role of the mTOR-inhibitor (mTOR-I) sirolimus for TSC; however, safety and efficiency of sirolimus in TSC patients after renal transplantation, both as primary immunosuppressant as well as anti-proliferative agent, are still undefined. Moreover, it is currently unknown whether the TSC mutation affects the primary immune response in these patients. In this article, we report on three TSC patients after renal transplantation who have been converted from a calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression to sirolimus. During 2 years of follow-up, renal allograft function was stable or even improved, and no significant sirolimus-associated side-effects were noted. Beneficial effects of sirolimus against TSC were detected in the skin, along with improved spirometric measurements and an arrest of astrocytoma progression. We show that the inflammatory immune response was significantly altered in TSC patients as compared with controls and sirolimus potently affected both inflammatory cytokine production and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in these patients. Larger studies are warranted to further examine the relationship between clinical parameters and the molecular response to mTOR-inhibition in TSC patients after renal transplantation.

  17. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones. PMID:26580602

  18. Effects of salt restriction on renal growth and glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lax, D S; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Dworkin, L D

    1992-06-01

    Male Munich-Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and infarction of two thirds of the left kidney. Rats were randomly assigned to ingest standard chow (REM) or a moderately salt restricted chow (LS). A third group of rats were fed the low salt diet and were injected with an androgen (LSA). Eight weeks after ablation, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were markedly increased in REM. This increase was prevented by the low salt diet, however, the antihypertrophic effect of the diet was overcome by androgen. Values for glomerular volume and capillary radius were similar in LSA and REM. Morphologic studies revealed that approximately 25% of glomeruli were abnormal in REM. Much less injury was observed in salt restricted rats, however, the protective effect of the low salt diet was significantly abrogated when renal growth was stimulated in salt restricted rats by androgen. Micropuncture studies revealed that glomerular pressure was elevated in all three groups and not affected by diet or androgen. Serum cholesterol was also similar in the three groups. These findings indicate that renal and glomerular hypertrophy are correlated with the development of glomerular injury after reduction in renal mass and suggest that dietary salt restriction lessens renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting compensatory renal growth.

  19. The Effect of Different Glycaemic States on Renal Transplant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Depczynski, Barbara; O'Sullivan, Anthony J.; Luxton, Grant; Mangos, George

    2016-01-01

    Background. Optimal glycaemic targets following transplantation are unknown. Understanding the impact of DM and posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may improve patient and graft survival in transplant recipients. Aim. To determine the perioperative and one-year outcomes after renal transplantation and whether these outcomes are affected by preexisting DM, PTDM, or glycaemia during transplant admission. Method. Adult recipients of renal transplants from a single centre over 5.5 years were retrospectively reviewed. Measured outcomes during transplant admission included glycaemia and complications (infective complications, acute rejection, and return to dialysis) and, at 12 months, glycaemic control and complications (cardiovascular complication, graft failure). Results. Of 148 patients analysed, 29 (19.6%) had DM and 27 (18.2%) developed PTDM. Following transplantation, glucose levels were higher in patients with DM and PTDM. DM patients had a longer hospital stay, had more infections, and were more likely return to dialysis. PTDM patients had increased rates of acute rejection and return to dialysis. At 1 year after transplant, there were more cardiovascular complications in DM patients compared to those without DM. Conclusions. Compared to patients without DM, patients with DM or PTDM are more likely to suffer from complications perioperatively and at 12 months. Perioperative glycaemia is associated with graft function and may be a modifiable risk. PMID:28053992

  20. Prenatal programming-effects on blood pressure and renal function.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Amann, Kerstin; Koleganova, Nadezda; Benz, Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Impaired intrauterine nephrogenesis-most clearly illustrated by low nephron number-is frequently associated with low birthweight and has been recognized as a powerful risk factor for renal disease; it increases the risks of low glomerular filtration rate, of more rapid progression of primary kidney disease, and of increased incidence of chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Another important consequence of impaired nephrogenesis is hypertension, which further amplifies the risk of onset and progression of kidney disease. Hypertension is associated with low nephron numbers in white individuals, but the association is not universal and is not seen in individuals of African origin. The derangement of intrauterine kidney development is an example of a more general principle that illustrates the paradigm of plasticity during development-that is, that transcription of the genetic code is modified by epigenetic factors (as has increasingly been documented). This Review outlines the concept of prenatal programming and, in particular, describes its role in kidney disease and hypertension.

  1. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  2. Complement activation and effect of eculizumab in scleroderma renal crisis

    PubMed Central

    Devresse, Arnaud; Aydin, Selda; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Demoulin, Nathalie; Stordeur, Patrick; Lambert, Catherine; Gastoldi, Sara; Pirson, Yves; Jadoul, Michel; Morelle, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a life-threatening complication of systemic sclerosis characterized by abrupt onset of hypertension, thrombotic microangiopathy, and kidney injury. The mechanisms of the disease remain ill-defined, but a growing body of evidence suggests that activation of the complement system may be involved. Methods: Here, we report the case of a patient presenting with severe SRC and strong evidence of complement activation, both in serum and in the kidney, in the absence of genetic defect of the complement system. Results: Immunofluorescence studies on kidney biopsy showed significant deposits of C1q and C4d in the endothelium of renal arterioles, pointing toward activation of the classical pathway. Because of the dramatic clinical and histological severity, and the lack of response to early treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and plasma exchange, the patient was treated with the specific C5 blocker eculizumab. Contrarily to conventional treatment, eculizumab efficiently blocked C5b-9 deposition ex vivo and maintained hematological remission. Unfortunately, the patient died from heart failure a few weeks later. Postmortem examination of the heart showed diffuse patchy interstitial fibrosis, the typical lesion of systemic sclerosis-related cardiomyopathy, but normal coronary arteries and myocardial microvasculature. Conclusion: SRC may lead to complement system activation through the classical pathway. Early administration of C5 inhibitor eculizumab may have therapeutic potential in patients with life-threatening SRC refractory to conventional treatment using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. PMID:27472742

  3. Effect of urinary stone disease and its treatment on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Mehmet, Necmettin Mercimek; Ender, Ozden

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease that affects urinary tract in all age groups. Both in adults and in children, stone size, location, renal anatomy, and other factors, can influence the success of treatment modalities. Recently, there has been a great advancement in technology for minimally invasive management of urinary stones. The epoch of open treatment modalities has passed and currently there are much less invasive treatment approaches, such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy, and retrograde internal Surgery. Furthermore, advancement in imaging technics ensures substantial knowledge that permit physician to decide the most convenient treatment method for the patient. Thus, effective and rapid treatment of urinary tract stones is substantial for the preservation of the renal function. In this review, the effects of the treatment options for urinary stones on renal function have been reviewed. PMID:25949941

  4. Effect of carbon nanoparticles on renal epithelial cell structure, barrier function, and protein expression

    PubMed Central

    BLAZER-YOST, BONNIE L.; BANGA, AMIRAJ; AMOS, ADAM; CHERNOFF, ELLEN; LAI, XIANYIN; LI, CHENG; MITRA, SOMENATH; WITZMANN, FRANK A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess effects of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) exposure on renal epithelial cells, fullerenes (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were incubated with a confluent renal epithelial line for 48 h. At low concentrations, CNP-treated cells exhibited significant decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) but no changes in hormone-stimulated ion transport or CNP-induced toxicity or stress responses as measured by lactate dehydrogenase or cytokine release. The changes in TEER, manifested as an inverse relationship with CNP concentration, were mirrored by an inverse correlation between dose and changes in protein expression. Lower, more physiologically relevant, concentrations of CNP have the most profound effects on barrier cell function and protein expression. These results indicate an impact of CNPs on renal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than have been previously studied and suggest caution with regard to increasing CNP levels entering the food chain due to increasing environmental pollution. PMID:21067278

  5. Chronic Treatment with Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Beneficial Renal Effects and Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Mariana; Caniffi, Carolina; Bouchet, Gonzalo; Costa, María A.; Elesgaray, Rosana; Arranz, Cristina; Tomat, Analía L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal function, nitric oxide (NO) system, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as sex-related differences in the response to the treatment. Methods 10 week-old male and female SHR were infused with ANP (100 ng/h/rat) or saline (NaCl 0.9%) for 14 days (subcutaneous osmotic pumps). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded and diuresis and natriuresis were determined. After treatment, renal NO synthase (NOS) activity and eNOS expression were evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in the kidney. Collagen was identified in renal slices by Sirius red staining and apoptosis by Tunel assay. Results Female SHR showed lower SBP, oxidative stress, collagen content and apoptosis in kidney, and higher renal NOS activity and eNOS protein content, than males. ANP lowered SBP, increased diuresis, natriuresis, renal NOS activity and eNOS expression in both sexes. Renal response to ANP was more marked in females than in males. In kidney, ANP reduced TBARS, renal collagen content and apoptosis, and increased glutathione concentration and activity of GPx and SOD enzymes in both sexes. Conclusions Female SHR exhibited less organ damage than males. Chronic ANP treatment would ameliorate hypertension and end-organ damage in the kidney by reducing oxidative stress, increasing NO-system activity, and diminishing collagen content and apoptosis, in both sexes. PMID:25774801

  6. Augmented renal clearance in critically ill patients: incidence, associated factors and effects on vancomycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Campassi, María Luz; Gonzalez, María Cecilia; Masevicius, Fabio Daniel; Vazquez, Alejandro Risso; Moseinco, Miriam; Navarro, Noelia Cintia; Previgliano, Luciana; Rubatto, Nahuel Paolo; Benites, Martín Hernán; Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    Objective An augmented renal clearance has been described in some groups of critically ill patients, and it might induce sub-optimal concentrations of drugs eliminated by glomerular filtration, mainly antibiotics. Studies on its occurrence and determinants are lacking. Our goals were to determine the incidence and associated factors of augmented renal clearance and the effects on vancomycin concentrations and dosing in a series of intensive care unit patients. Methods We prospectively studied 363 patients admitted during 1 year to a clinical-surgical intensive care unit. Patients with serum creatinine >1.3mg/dL were excluded. Creatinine clearance was calculated from a 24-hour urine collection. Patients were grouped according to the presence of augmented renal clearance (creatinine clearance >120mL/min/1.73m2), and possible risk factors were analyzed with bivariate and logistic regression analysis. In patients treated with vancomycin, dosage and plasma concentrations were registered. Results Augmented renal clearance was present in 103 patients (28%); they were younger (48±15 versus 65±17 years, p<0.0001), had more frequent obstetric (16 versus 7%, p=0.0006) and trauma admissions (10 versus 3%, p=0.016) and fewer comorbidities. The only independent determinants for the development of augmented renal clearance were age (OR 0.95; p<0.0001; 95%CI 0.93-0.96) and absence of diabetes (OR 0.34; p=0.03; 95%CI 0.12-0.92). Twelve of the 46 patients who received vancomycin had augmented renal clearance and despite higher doses, had lower concentrations. Conclusions In this cohort of critically ill patients, augmented renal clearance was a common finding. Age and absence of diabetes were the only independent determinants. Therefore, younger and previously healthy patients might require larger vancomycin dosing. PMID:24770684

  7. The Beneficial Effects of Renal Transplantation on Altered Oxidative Status of ESRD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Preciado-Rojas, Priscila; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso Martín

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT), has been considered the best therapeutic option for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective. To determine the effect of RT on the evolution of oxidative DNA status. Methods. Prospective cohort (N = 50 receptors of RT); genotoxic damage, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N- glycosylase-1 (hOGG1); and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were evaluated. Results. Before RT, 8-OHdG were significantly elevated (11.04 ± 0.90 versus 4.73 ± 0.34 ng/mL) compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001), with normalization after 6 months of 4.78 ± 0.34 ng/mL (p < 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed with hOGG1 enzyme before RT with 2.14 ± 0.36 ng/mL (p = 0.01) and decreased significantly at the end of the study to 1.20 ng/mL (p < 0.001) but was higher than controls, 0.51 ± 0.07 ng/mL (p < 0.03). Antioxidant SOD was elevated at 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (p = 0.001) before RT; however, 6 months after RT it decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 1.6 IU/mL (p = 0.002), without achieving the levels of healthy controls (p = 0.01). The GPx, before RT, was significantly diminished with 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (39.0 ± 1.58) (p = 0.01), while, in the final results, levels increased significantly to 30.38 ± 3.16 IU/mL (p = 0.001). Discussion. Patients with ESRD have important oxidative damage before RT. The RT significantly reduces oxidative damage and partially regulates the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). PMID:27547292

  8. Protective effects of genetic inhibition of Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 in experimental renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kerroch, Monique; Alfieri, Carlo; Dorison, Aude; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Dussaule, Jean-Claude

    2016-02-16

    Chronic kidney disease is a progressive incurable pathology affecting millions of people. Intensive investigations aim to identify targets for therapy. We have previously demonstrated that abnormal expression of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) is a key factor of renal disease by promoting inflammation and fibrosis. The present study investigates whether blocking the expression of DDR1 after the initiation of renal disease can delay or arrest the progression of this pathology. Severe renal disease was induced by either injecting nephrotoxic serum (NTS) or performing unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice, and the expression of DDR1 was inhibited by administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotides either at 4 or 8 days after NTS (corresponding to early or more established phases of disease, respectively), or at day 2 after ligation. DDR1 antisense administration at day 4 stopped the increase of proteinuria and protected animals against the progression of glomeruloneprhitis, as evidenced by functional, structural and cellular indexes. Antisense administration at day 8 delayed progression -but to a smaller degree- of renal disease. Similar beneficial effects on renal structure and inflammation were observed with the antisense administration of DDR1 after ureteral ligation. Thus, targeting DDR1 can be a promising strategy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  9. Effect of atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (P<0.05) and improve renal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.

  10. Effects of vitamin D on renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy model rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanyan; Lv, Guodong; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Rui; Zhu, Jia; Xiao, Lati; Zhu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of vitamin D on renal fibrosis in rat diabetic nephropathy models, as well as the changes and interactions in the expressions of renal fibrogenesis- and inflammation-related genes. Rat diabetic nephropathy models were established by high-fat diets, which were subjected to TGF-β1 manipulation, as well as vitamin D treatment. H&E staining, Masson staining, and TEM detection were performed to assess the effects of vitamin D treatment and/or TGF-β1 manipulation on pathological changes in the renal tissues in these rat diabetic nephropathy models. Immunohistology and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of TGF-β1, MCP-1, CTGF, and VDR. Histological staining and TEM detection showed that, in both TGF-β1 over-expressed and interfered groups, vitamin D administration alleviated the renal fibrosis, compared with the vehicle treatment. Similar results were observed with the immunohistological staining. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that, when TGF-β1 was over-expressed in diabetic nephropathy, the expressions of MCP-1 and CTGF were also up-regulated, which would be decreased by the treatment of vitamin D. On the other hand, when TGF-β1 was interfered in DN, the expressions of MCP-1 and CTGF were relatively down-regulated, which would be further lowered by vitamin D administration. The mRNA expression of VDR was elevated by vitamin D treatment in these diabetic nephropathy models. Active vitamin D3 and lentivirus-mediated TGF-β1 interference could effectively reduce the renal fibrosis and protect the renal function in diabetic nephropathy rat models, which makes a promising therapeutic strategy for the disease.

  11. Renal Protective Effect of Probucol in Rats with Contrast-Induced Nephropathy and its Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Wei, Ri-bao; Li, Qing-ping; Yang, Xi; Li, Ping; Huang, Meng-jie; Wang, Rui; Cai, Guang-yan; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2015-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) refers to acute renal damage that occurs after the use of contrast agents. This study investigated the renal protective effect of probucol in a rat model of contrast-induced nephropathy and the mechanism of its effect. Material/Methods Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, N-acetylcysteine(NAC) group, and probucol group. We used a rat model of iopromide-induced CIN. One day prior to modeling, the rats received gavage. At 24 h after the modeling, blood biochemistry and urine protein were assessed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in renal tissue. Kidney sections were created for histopathological examination. Results The model group of rats showed significantly elevated levels of blood creatinine, urea nitrogen, 24-h urine protein, histopathological scores, and parameters of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Both the NAC and probucol groups demonstrated significantly lower Scr, BUN, and urine protein levels compared to the model group (P<0.05), with no significant difference between these 2 groups. The NAC group and the probucol group had significantly lower MDA and higher SOD than the model group at 24 h after modeling (P<0.05). The 8-OHdG-positive tubule of the probucol group and NAC group were significantly lower than those of the model group (p=0.046, P=0.0008), with significant difference between these 2 groups (P=0.024). Conclusions Probucol can effectively reduce kidney damage caused by contrast agent. The underlying mechanism may be that probucol accelerates the recovery of renal function and renal pathology by reducing local renal oxidative stress. PMID:26408630

  12. Evaluation of patient effective doses in CT urography, intravenous urography and renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Y; Sulieman, A; Abuderman, A; Alzimami, K; Omer, H

    2015-07-01

    Imaging of the renal system is performed with different techniques depending mainly on clinical symptoms and signs. This study intended to evaluate patient effective doses undergoing renal scintigraphy (technetium-99m-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid), computed tomography urography (CTU) and intravenous urography (IVU). A total of 60 patients were evaluated using Orbiter 37 Gamma camera single head, dual-slice CT scanner and conventional X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) processing unit. Patients effective dose were estimated using the administered activity, DosCal software and dose length product value for renal scan, IVU and CTU procedures, respectively. Patients' effective doses during renal scan, CTU and IVU procedures were 0.78 ± 0.18, 2.53 ± 0.94 and 1.81 ± 0.20 mSv, in that order. Patients were exposed to a higher effective dose during CTU compared with other two procedures. Patient doses depend on the size of patient, the type of scanner and the imaging protocol used. Effective doses considered low compared with previous studies.

  13. Protective Effects of Berberine on Renal Injury in Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuli; He, Hui; Liang, Dan; Jiang, Yan; Liang, Wei; Chi, Zhi-Hong; Ma, Jianfei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious diabetic complication with renal hypertrophy and expansion of extracellular matrices in renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells may be involved in the main mechanism. Berberine (BBR) has been shown to have antifibrotic effects in liver, kidney and lung. However, the mechanism of cytoprotective effects of BBR in DN is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the curative effects of BBR on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and the high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in NRK 52E cells. We found that BBR treatment attenuated renal fibrosis by activating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in the diabetic kidneys. Further revealed that BBR abrogated HG-induced EMT and oxidative stress in relation not only with the activation of Nrf2 and two Nrf2-targeted antioxidative genes (NQO-1 and HO-1), but also with the suppressing the activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Importantly, knockdown Nrf2 with siRNA not only abolished the BBR-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO-1 but also removed the inhibitory effect of BBR on HG-induced activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling as well as the anti-fibrosis effects. The data from present study suggest that BBR can ameliorate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN by activating Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting TGF-β/Smad/EMT signaling activity. PMID:27529235

  14. Effects of positive acceleration /+Gz/ on renal function and plasma renin in normal man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Shubrooks, S. J., Jr.; Fishman, L. M.; Duncan, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of positive radial centrifugation (+Gz) on plasma resin activity (PRA) and renal function were assessed in 15 normal male subjects under carefully controlled conditions of Na, K, and water intake. Twenty minutes of +2.0 Gz resulted in significant decreases in the mean rate of sodium excretion and creatine clearance and in a doubling of PRA in seven sodium-depleted subjects (10 meq Na intake). In eight sodium-replete subjects (200 mq Na intake), 30 min of +2.0 Gz was also associated with a decrease in the mean rate of sodium excretion. As a consequence of a concurrent decrease in creatine clearance, the fractional excretion of sodium during centrifugation did not differ from control, suggesting that the changes in Na excretion were mediated primarily by renal hemodynamic factors, although enhanced renal tubular sodium reabsorption may also have played a role.

  15. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zi-li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-tian; Zheng, Liu-hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-feng; Zhang, Yuan-shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens. PMID:27921400

  16. Effects of a stable prostacyclin analog on experimental ischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Tobimatsu, M; Ueda, Y; Saito, S; Tsumagari, T; Konomi, K

    1988-01-01

    The effect of OP-41483, a stable prostacyclin (PGI2) analog, on ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) was investigated in dogs. Administration of OP-41483 for three days after ischemia significantly increased renal cortical blood flow (RCBF) when compared with dogs treated with the saline vehicle. In the OP-41483-treated group, serum creatinine levels remained relatively low during postoperative days 1-3 and mean survival time was prolonged. Injection of a silicone rubber vascular casting compound (Microfil) revealed increased numbers of visible renal cortical glomeruli and microvessels compared to the saline vehicle group. Histologic sections showed only very limited tubular necrosis, whereas sections of kidneys treated with saline showed extensive tubular necrosis. In conclusion, this stable prostacyclin analog provided a significant degree of protection for the kidneys from ischemic injury and may be useful in a clinical setting. Images Figs. 3A-D. Figs. 4A-D. PMID:3291800

  17. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zi-Li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-Tian; Zheng, Liu-Hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens.

  18. Antioxidant effect of carnosine treatment on renal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yay, A; Akkuş, D; Yapıslar, H; Balcıoglu, E; Sonmez, M F; Ozdamar, S

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effects of an antioxidant, carnosine, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced renal injury in diabetic rats. We used four groups of eight rats: group 1, control; group 2, carnosine treated; group 3, untreated diabetic; group 4, carnosine treated diabetic. Kidneys were removed and processed, and sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and subjected to eNOS immunohistochemistry. Examination by light microscopy revealed degenerated glomeruli, thickened basement membrane and glycogen accumulation in the tubules of diabetic kidneys. Carnosine treatment prevented the renal morphological damage caused by diabetes. Moreover, administration of carnosine decreased somewhat the oxidative damage of diabetic nephropathy. Appropriate doses of carnosine might be a useful therapeutic option to reduce oxidative stress and associated renal injury in diabetes mellitus.

  19. Endotoxemia and the effects of dopamine on renal functions of neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Chin, Anthony; O'Conner, Linh Nguyen; Radhakrishnan, Jayant; Fornell, Linda; John, Eunice

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we observed the effects of moderate and high doses of dopamine on the renal functions of neonatal piglets during endotoxic shock. We found that fluid therapy alone was better at maintaining cardiac index and preventing elevation of systemic vascular resistance, than dopamine at 10 and at 20 microg/kg/min. Furthermore, urine output and glomerular filtration rate were reduced by dopamine. Following endotoxin administration dopamine decreased SVR and maintained a CI better than fluid alone. However, in spite of a better CI, greater deterioration in renal functions occurred in the dopamine groups as compared to the fluid group.

  20. The reflex effects of changes in carotid sinus pressure upon renal function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, F; Poucher, S M; Summerill, R A

    1984-01-01

    In chloralose-anaesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs, the carotid sinuses were vascularly isolated and perfused with arterial blood. Mean aortic pressure was held constant at 100 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- S.E. of mean, n = 19) by means of a pressure bottle connected to the aorta. Both vagus nerves were sectioned in the neck and propranolol hydrochloride (0.5 mg kg-1) was administered every 30 min. The left renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flowmeter (wrap-round probe), glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance and urinary sodium by flame photometry. Decreasing pressure in the isolated carotid sinuses from 186 +/- 10 to 63 +/- 5 mmHg resulted in significant decreases in renal blood flow from 281 +/- 35 to 177 +/- 30 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass; glomerular filtration rate from 40.0 +/- 7.8 to 12.3 +/- 4.4 ml min-1 100 g-1; urine flow from 0.31 +/- 0.05 to 0.12 +/- 0.03 ml min-1 100 g-1 and sodium excretion from 21.7 +/- 7.2 to 8.2 +/- 3.0 mumol min-1 100 g-1. Increasing carotid sinus pressure back to 188 +/- 11 mmHg resulted in increases in all the variables to values not significantly different from their initial values. Tying renal sympathetic nerves at low carotid sinus pressure (73 +/- 11 mmHg) caused an increase in all of the variables. After denervation there was no response to changes in carotid sinus pressure. These results show that changes in carotid sinus pressure can result in significant reflex effects on renal function and that these effects are mediated by renal sympathetic nerves. PMID:6492002

  1. Protective Effects of the Segmental Renal Artery Clamping Technique on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in db/db Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Wang, Shangqian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Pu

    2017-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is inevitable in partial nephrectomy and other kidney surgeries, with a higher incidence in patients with renal insufficiency. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of precise segmental renal artery clamping (SRAC) against renal I/R injury in db/db diabetic mice, compared with conventional renal artery clamping (RAC). Grape seed extract, a powerful free radical scavenger, was administered to diabetic mice for 4 weeks before operation in subgroups (30 mg/kg/d). The unilateral renal pedicle was ligatured, and I/R injury to the contralateral kidney was induced (ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h). Blood glucose value, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio increased gradually and showed no preoperative statistical differences among six subgroups. These parameters were significantly lower in the SRAC than in the RAC group 24 h postoperatively. Moreover, the nonischemic area in the SRAC group expressed less KIM-1 and TNF-α mRNA and also revealed minor histopathological damage induced by I/R. These findings suggest that SRAC effectively reduces early renal injury induced by I/R and accelerates the recovery of renal function in diabetic mice. Thus, SRAC may be an ideal technique in partial nephrectomy, especially for patients with diabetic nephropathy and other renal insufficiencies. PMID:28299325

  2. Systemic and renal effects of an ETA receptor subtype-specific antagonist in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmetterer, Leopold; Dallinger, Susanne; Bobr, Barbara; Selenko, Nicole; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Wolzt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs) might play a pathophysiological role in a variety of vascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BQ-123, a specific ETA receptor antagonist on systemic and renal haemodynamics in healthy subjects. This was done at baseline and during infusion of exogenous ET-1.The study was performed in a balanced, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind 4 way cross-over design in 10 healthy male subjects. Subjects received co-infusions of ET-1 (2.5 ng kg−1 min−1 for 120 min) or placebo and BQ-123 (15 μg min−1 for 60 min and subsequently 60 μg min−1 for 60 min) or placebo. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed by the para-aminohippurate (PAH) and the inulin plasma clearance method, respectively.BQ-123 alone had no renal or systemic haemodynamic effect. ET-1 significantly reduced RPF (−24%, P<0.001) and GFR (−12%, P=0.034). These effects were abolished by co-infusion of either dose of BQ-123 (RPF: P=0.0012; GFR: P=0.020).BQ-123 reversed the renal haemodynamic effects induced by exogenous ET-1 in vivo. This indicates that vasoconstriction in the kidney provoked by ET-1 is predominantly mediated by the ETA receptor subtype. PMID:9692778

  3. Effect of chaetocin on renal cell carcinoma cells and cytokine-induced killer cells.

    PubMed

    Rombo, Roman; Weiher, Hans; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

    2016-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selective ex vivo anti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative CD4-/CD8- phenotype that are isolated from human blood. The addition of distinct interleukins and antibodies results in the generation of CIK cells that are able to specifically target and destroy renal carcinoma cells. The results of this research state that the anti-ccRCC activity of chaetocin is weak and does not show a high grade of selectivity on clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Although the CIK cells show a high grade of selective anti-ccRCC activity, this effect could not be improved by the addition of chaetocin. So chaetocin seems to be no suitable agent for specific targeting ccRCC cells or for the combination therapy with CIK cells in renal cancer.

  4. Effect of chaetocin on renal cell carcinoma cells and cytokine-induced killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rombo, Roman; Weiher, Hans; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selective ex vivo anti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative CD4-/CD8- phenotype that are isolated from human blood. The addition of distinct interleukins and antibodies results in the generation of CIK cells that are able to specifically target and destroy renal carcinoma cells. The results of this research state that the anti-ccRCC activity of chaetocin is weak and does not show a high grade of selectivity on clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Although the CIK cells show a high grade of selective anti-ccRCC activity, this effect could not be improved by the addition of chaetocin. So chaetocin seems to be no suitable agent for specific targeting ccRCC cells or for the combination therapy with CIK cells in renal cancer. PMID:27141211

  5. The effect of thymoquinone on the renal functions following ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Fayez T; Lubbad, Loay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thymoquinone, an antioxidant phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa, on the alterations in renal functional parameters following warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the rat. Methods: Wistar rats underwent left renal ischemia for 35 minutes. Group-TQ (n=15) received thymoquinone 10 mg/kg/day (dissolved in a vehicle (corn oil) orally by gavage starting 4 days prior to IRI and continued 6 days thereafter when the hemodynamic and tubular renal functions of the right and left kidneys were measured using clearance techniques. Group-Vx (n=15) underwent similar protocol but received only the vehicle. Results: IRI affected all hemodynamic and tubular parameters in the affected kidney. Thymoquinone attenuated the IRI-related alteration in renal functions so when the left ischemic kidney in Group-TQ and Group-Vx were compared, the left RBF and GFR were significantly higher in Group-TQ (2.02±0.39 vs. 1.27±0.21, P=0.04 and 0.33±0.08 vs. 0.18±0.03, P=0.03, respectively). Thymoquinone also improved left renal FENa (1.59±0.28 vs. 2.40±0.35, P=0.04). In addition, it decreased the gene expressions of KIM-1, NGAL, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and PAI-1 (143±20 vs. 358±49, 16±3 vs. 34±6, (1.1±0.2 vs. 2.8±0.4, 1.6±0.1 vs. 2.8±0.1, and 2.4±0.3 vs. 5.8±1.0, P<0.05 for all). Conclusion: Thymoquinone ameliorated the IRI effect on the hemodynamic and tubular renal functional parameters as well as the expression of some kidney injury markers and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines indicating a renoprotective effect of this agent on the IRI-induced renal dysfunction with potential clinical implications. PMID:28078054

  6. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  7. Effects of tenoxicam on renal function and the disposition of inulin and p-aminohippurate in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Freestone, S; McAuslane, J A; Prescott, L F

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of tenoxicam on renal function were studied in 10 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance 46.7 +/- 11.9 ml min-1 1.73 m-2) and eight healthy volunteers. A parallel treatment control group of eight healthy volunteers received placebo. Tenoxicam was given orally in a dose of 40 mg daily for 2 days followed by 20 mg daily for a further 8 days. Renal function was assessed by measurement of the renal clearances of inulin and p-aminohippurate (PAH) using the single injection technique before and during administration of tenoxicam. 2. In the healthy volunteers there were no changes in glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, or the urinary excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase and beta 2-microglobulin on the 3rd and 10th days of treatment with tenoxicam. The mean urinary excretion of prostaglandins E2 and 6-keto F1 alpha decreased during treatment but there was great individual variation and the differences were not statistically significant. Tenoxicam had no effect on the half-life, clearance, volume of distribution or urinary recovery of inulin and PAH. 3. There was no significant change in the clearance of inulin and creatinine after treatment with tenoxicam for 10 days in the patients with chronic renal failure. However, in this group there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine on the 3rd and 6th days with a return to pretreatment levels by the 10th day. The administration of tenoxicam for 10 days was associated with a small but significant increase in the plasma half-life and volume of distribution of inulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1958445

  8. The renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors and a mini-review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andrianesis, Vasileios; Glykofridi, Spyridoula; Doupis, John

    2016-12-01

    Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new and promising class of antidiabetic agents which target renal tubular glucose reabsorption. Their action is based on the blockage of SGLT2 sodium-glucose cotransporters that are located at the luminal membrane of tubular cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, inducing glucosuria. It has been proven that they significantly reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), along with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The glucosuria-induced caloric loss as well as the osmotic diuresis significantly decrease body weight and blood pressure, respectively. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors do not interfere with insulin action and secretion, their efficacy is sustained despite the progressive β-cell failure in T2DM. They are well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycemia. Their most frequent adverse events are minor: genital and urinal tract infections. Recently, it was demonstrated that empagliflozin presents a significant cardioprotective effect. Although the SGLT2 inhibitors' efficacy is affected by renal function, new data have been presented that some SGLT2 inhibitors, even in mild and moderate renal impairment, induce significant HbA1c reduction. Moreover, recent data indicate that SGLT2 inhibition has a beneficial renoprotective effect. The role of this review paper is to explore the current evidence on the renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  9. The renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors and a mini-review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Andrianesis, Vasileios; Glykofridi, Spyridoula; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new and promising class of antidiabetic agents which target renal tubular glucose reabsorption. Their action is based on the blockage of SGLT2 sodium-glucose cotransporters that are located at the luminal membrane of tubular cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, inducing glucosuria. It has been proven that they significantly reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), along with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The glucosuria-induced caloric loss as well as the osmotic diuresis significantly decrease body weight and blood pressure, respectively. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors do not interfere with insulin action and secretion, their efficacy is sustained despite the progressive β-cell failure in T2DM. They are well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycemia. Their most frequent adverse events are minor: genital and urinal tract infections. Recently, it was demonstrated that empagliflozin presents a significant cardioprotective effect. Although the SGLT2 inhibitors’ efficacy is affected by renal function, new data have been presented that some SGLT2 inhibitors, even in mild and moderate renal impairment, induce significant HbA1c reduction. Moreover, recent data indicate that SGLT2 inhibition has a beneficial renoprotective effect. The role of this review paper is to explore the current evidence on the renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:28203358

  10. Protective effect of oral L-arginine administration on gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Can, C; Sen, S; Boztok, N; Tuglular, I

    2000-03-03

    We investigated the effects of orally supplemented L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor in gentamicin-induced renal failure. Rats were given gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day s.c.), gentamicin and L-arginine (2 g/l, drinking water), gentamicin and L-NAME (100 mg/l, drinking water) or gentamicin plus L-arginine and L-NAME. After 8 days, the gentamicin group developed marked renal failure, characterized by a significantly decreased creatinine clearance and increased blood creatinine, fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, systolic blood pressure and daily urine volume when compared to controls. Renal histological analysis confirmed tubular necrosis. L-arginine administration caused normalization of these parameters, whereas L-NAME led to aggravation of the failure. Concomitant administration of L-NAME and L-arginine to gentamicin-treated rats caused no significant changes when compared to the rats receiving gentamicin alone. We conclude that L-arginine supplementation has beneficial effects in gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats and that these effects are reversed by the NO-synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.

  11. Acute effect of calcium blocker on renal hemodynamics in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Kaizu, K; Ling, Q Y; Uriu, K; Ikeda, M; Eto, S

    1995-01-01

    This study was done to examine the acute effect of a calcium channel blocker on renal hemodynamics in the diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes, and barnidipine (B) was used as a calcium blocker. Renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured by a clearance method with paraaminohypurate (PAH) and inulin, respectively. Rats were divided into two groups: nondiabetic SHR, N-SHR; diabetic SHR, DM-SHR. B increased RBF in N-SHR (7.44 +/- 1.99 versus 8.50 +/- 1.97 mL/min/g.kw) while there was no change in DM-SHR. B reduced renovascular resistance (RVR) in DM-SHR and N-SHR. B increased GFR in N-SHR (1.15 +/- 0.24 versus 1.34 +/- 0.25 mL/min/g.kw), in spite of no changes in DM-SHR. B did not modify filtration fraction (FF) in both groups. These results indicate (1) in SHR, B exerts beneficial effects on hypertensive renal damage by reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), RVR, RBF, and GFR; (2) in diabetic SHR, B is less effective in restoring renal hyperfiltration in spite of reducing RVR.

  12. Effect of chronic accumulation of aluminum on renal function, cortical renal oxidative stress and cortical renal organic anion transport in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Stella T; Gionotti, Marisa; Millen, Néstor; Elías, María Mónica

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the nephrotoxicity of aluminum lactate administered for 3 months (0.57 mg/100 g bodyweight aluminum, i.p., three times per week) to male Wistar rats. Renal function was studied after 6 weeks of treatment (urine was obtained from rats in metabolic cages) and at the end of the treatment using clearance techniques. Another group of rats was used as kidneys donors at the end of treatment. The renal cortex was separated and homogenized to determine glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. Renal cortex slices were also used to study the p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) accumulation during steady-state conditions and the kinetics of uptake process. Clearance results, at the end of the treatment, indicated that renal functions in treated-rats were not different from those measured in control rats, although the renal concentration parameters differ when they were measured in treated rats after 24 h of food and water deprivation. Balances of water and sodium were also modified at both 1.5 and 3 months of treatment. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) relative to inulin excreted in urine was significantly impaired: controls 2.2+/-0.6 IUI/mg, Al-treated 5.1+/-0.5 IU/mg, P<0.05. These data indicated that proximal tubular cells were loosing apical brush border membranes. Data obtained in cortex homogenates indicated that both GSH and GST activity were significantly decreased, and a significant increase of LPO was noted simultaneously in Al-treated rats. Renal accumulation of PAH, estimated as slice-to-medium ratio, decreased significantly in the Al-treated rats: control rats 3.06+/-0.02 ( n=12), Al-treated rats 2.26+/-0.04 ( n=12), P<0.0001. The maximal rate of uptake was also diminished in treated rats, while the apparent affinity remained unchanged. All these results indicate that aluminum accumulation in renal tissue affects cellular metabolism, promotes oxidative stress and

  13. Effect of Renal Embolization with Trisacryl and PAVc

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Barbosa, Leandro; Caldas, Jose Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Conti, Mario Luiz; Malheiros, Denise Maria Avancini Costa; Ramos, Francisco Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evaluate the degree of vascular occlusion, vascular recanalization, and necrosis of the vascular wall caused by polyvinyl alcohol-covered polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) particles compared to trisacryl particles after renal embolization. METHODS Seventy-nine female albino New Zealand rabbits underwent arterial catheterization of the right kidney. Thirty-three animals were embolized with trisacryl particles, thirty-one with PVAc particles, and fifteen were kept as controls. Four animals were excluded (three trisacryl and one PVAc) due to early death. Five subgroups of six animals were created. The animals in the different groups were sacrificed either 48 hours, 5 days, 10 days, 30 days, or 90 days after embolization. The control group was divided into subgroups of three animals each and kept for the same periods of time. The kidneys were dyed with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome and then examined using optical microscopy. RESULTS There were significant differences in the degree of vascular occlusion caused by the trisacryl and the PVAc particles between the five-day and the ten-day groups. Additional differences were noted between the five-day and 48-hour groups in regard to the amount of necrosis. For both findings, the PVAc group members showed adequate tissue reaction (ischemia and volumetric reduction) and less recanalization than those treated with trisacryl. CONCLUSION The use of PVAc as an embolization material exhibited an adequate tissue reaction (ischemia and volumetric reduction), more expressive vascular occlusion and necrosis, and less recanalization than the trisacryl material. PMID:19936185

  14. Experimental models of acute renal failure and erythropoietin: what evidence of a direct effect?

    PubMed

    Sturiale, Alessio; Campo, Susanna; Crascì, Eleonora; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The kidney can achieve a structural and functional recovery after the damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion. This is due to the regeneration of epithelial tubular cells, the intervention of immature cells mainly localized in the medulla, and a small number of bone marrow-derived stem cells. In many instances, however, recovery is delayed or does not occur at all. The mechanisms allowing the renal cells to de-differentiate still need to be clarified in order to find a therapeutic approach that can amplify this ability and then stop the fibroid involution and the progression toward renal failure. Several authors have hypothesized a protective effect of EPO against ischemic and cytotoxic renal damage and observed that patients precociously treated with EPO showed a slower progression of renal failure. EPO has been demonstrated to have proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects in ischemia-reperfusion models in the brain and cell cultures. Moreover, EPO can mobilize stem cells and increase the plasmatic levels and the renal expression of VEGF. These effects seem to be dose-dependent and could be due to the activation of signal transduction systems, like Jak and STAT. In the presence of high doses of exogenous EPO or during the treatment with long-acting EPO-like molecules, non-specific receptors may be activated through a low-affinity link. Further investigations are needed to determine new therapeutic applications for EPO and other analogous hormones. Very long-acting molecules or molecules with cyto-protective but no erythropoietic effect may represent useful tools in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPO's action and may have a rapid and safe therapeutic application.

  15. The effects of valsartan on renal glutathione peroxidase expression in alleviation of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Sina; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Argani, Hassan; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Ghasemi, Babollah; Ghazizadeh, Teimour; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Bargahi, Nasrin; Nemati, Mahboob; Mota, Ali; Vatankhah, Amir Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrotoxicity as a side effect caused by the immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine-A (CsA), can be a major problem in transplant medicine. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. It has been shown that the antihypertensive drug, valsartan (Val), has also renoprotective effects but, its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the Val effect in the alleviation of CsA nephrotoxicity via probable renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) upregulation and oxidative stress decrease. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups based on CsA and/or Val administration: group A (Control, 1 mL/kg/day of olive oil as vehicle), group B (CsA, 30 mg/kg/day), group C (CsA+Val, 30+30 mg/kg/day), and group D (Val, 30 mg/kg/day). After the administration period (six weeks), renal GPx expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma levels of GPx and 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) were measured by spectrophotometer. Plasma levels of urea and creatinine were measured by an autoanalyzer. Results: CsA treatment led to the decrease in renal expression and plasma levels of GPx in comparison to other study groups. Rats received CsA were detected to have significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma 8-OHdG, MDA, PCG, urea, and creatinine levels in comparison to other groups. Plasma urea and creatinine levels were negatively correlated with renal GPx expression and positively correlated with the oxidative stress markers. Conclusion:Administration of Val may result in attenuating the nephrotoxic side effect of CsA via probable renal GPx upregulation, and subsequently oxidative stress decrease. PMID:27853675

  16. Ischemic Postconditioning and Subanesthetic S(+)-Ketamine Infusion: Effects on Renal Function and Histology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Resende, Marco A. C.; Pantoja, Alberto V.; Barcellos, Bruno M.; Reis, Eduardo P.; Consolo, Thays D.; Módolo, Renata P.; Domingues, Maria A. C.; Assad, Alexandra R.; Cavalcanti, Ismar L.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Módolo, Norma S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic postconditioning (IP) in renal Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) models improves renal function after IRI. Ketamine affords significant benefits against IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study investigated the effects of IP and IP associated with subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Methods. Forty-one Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: CG (10), control; KG (10), S(+)-ketamine infusion; IPG (10), IP; and KIPG (11), S(+)-ketamine infusion + IP. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. IRI and IP were induced only in IPG and KIPG by left kidney arterial occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Complete reperfusion was preceded by three cycles of 2 min of reocclusion followed by 2 min of reperfusion. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Tubular damage was evaluated by renal histology. Results. Creatinine and BUN were significantly increased. Severe tubular injury was only observed in the groups with IRI (IPG and KIPG), whereas no injury was observed in CG or KG. No significant differences were detected between IPG and KIPG. Conclusions. No synergic effect of the use of subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine and IP on AKI was observed in this rat model. PMID:26413552

  17. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate.

  18. Effective immunization against influenza in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, V O; Flynn, J T; Deforest, A; Kaiser, B A; Schulman, S L; Bradley, A; Palmer, J; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1996-12-01

    Viral infections such as influenza are an important cause of morbidity following organ transplantation. We evaluated the immunogenicity of a commercially available influenza vaccine in pediatric renal transplant recipients in a two-phase, prospective study. In phase one, 47 transplant patients and seven control subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia received influenza vaccine. Sera were collected at the time of vaccination and 6 wk later. In phase two, sera from 18 transplant recipients and 47 healthy adults who had received the same vaccine were collected 6-12 months after vaccination. Antibody titers to the A/Taiwan/1/86 antigen were measured with hemagglutination inhibition assay in both phases of the study. Vaccine was well tolerated in all subjects. No vaccinated patient required hospitalization for complications of influenza infection. Vaccination did not increase the frequency of acute allograft rejection. In phase one, 43 patients (91%) and 5 controls (71%) either seroconverted (developed a fourfold or greater rise in titer), or developed post-vaccination titers > or = 1:160 (p = NS). Among the transplant recipients, non-seroconverters had a higher pre-vaccination geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) than those who seroconverted. Seroconversion developed independently of whether patients received double or triple immunosuppression. In phase two, post-vaccination GMT were similar for patients and control subjects at 11.5 and 8 months post-vaccination, respectively. In our study, influenza vaccination produced equivalent humoral immunity in transplant recipients and normal subjects. Routine influenza vaccination should be performed annually in this high-risk population.

  19. Effect of prostaglandin E1 on certain renal actions of parathyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Nama P.; DeRubertis, Frederick R.; Michelis, Michael F.; Fusco, Robert D.; Field, James B.; Davis, Bernard B.

    1972-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone increased basal adenyl cyclase activity and that increase was inhibited by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Tissue cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) concentrations were increased by parathyroid hormone and that increase was likewise inhibited by PGE1. Both parathyroid hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased 32P incorporation into renal cortical phospholipids. PGE1 diminished the effect of parathyroid hormone but not dibutyryl cyclic AMP to influence that parameter. PGE1 likewise modulated the effect of parathyroid hormone but not dibutyryl cyclic AMP to decrease fractional phosphate reabsorption by the renal tubule. It is suggested that PGE1 inhibits the effect of parathyroid hormone by decreasing its effect on adenyl cyclase. Such interaction may be important in modulating the intracellular action of parathyroid hormone on kidney cortex. PMID:4344730

  20. Volcanic aerosols: Chemistry, evolution, and effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Richard

    1991-02-01

    Stratospheric aerosols have been the subject of scientific speculation since the 1880s, when the powerful eruption of Krakatoa attracted worldwide attention to the upper atmosphere through spectacular optical displays. The presence of a permanent tenuous dust layer in the lower stratosphere was postulated in the 1920s following studies of the twilight glow. Junge collected the first samples of these 'dust' particles and demonstrated that they were actually composed of sulfates, most likely concentrated sulfuric acid (Junge and Manson, 1961; Junge, 1963). Subsequent research has been spurred by the realization that stratospheric particles can influence the surface climate of earth through their effects on atmospheric radiation. Such aerosols can also influence, through chemical and physical effects, the trace composition of the atmosphere, ozone concentrations, and atmospheric electrical properties. The properties of stratospheric aerosols (both the background particles and those enhanced by volcanic eruptions) were measured in situ by balloon ascents and high altitude aircraft sorties. The aerosols were also observed remotely from the ground and from satellites using both active (lidar) and passive (solar occultation) techniques (remote sensing instruments were carried on aircraft and balloon platforms as well). In connection with the experimental work, models were developed to test theories of particle formation and evolution, to guide measurement strategies, to provide a means of connecting laboratory and field data, and to apply the knowledge gained to answer practical questions about global changes in climate, depletion of the ozone layer, and related environmental problems.

  1. Volcanic aerosols: Chemistry, evolution, and effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols have been the subject of scientific speculation since the 1880s, when the powerful eruption of Krakatoa attracted worldwide attention to the upper atmosphere through spectacular optical displays. The presence of a permanent tenuous dust layer in the lower stratosphere was postulated in the 1920s following studies of the twilight glow. Junge collected the first samples of these 'dust' particles and demonstrated that they were actually composed of sulfates, most likely concentrated sulfuric acid (Junge and Manson, 1961; Junge, 1963). Subsequent research has been spurred by the realization that stratospheric particles can influence the surface climate of earth through their effects on atmospheric radiation. Such aerosols can also influence, through chemical and physical effects, the trace composition of the atmosphere, ozone concentrations, and atmospheric electrical properties. The properties of stratospheric aerosols (both the background particles and those enhanced by volcanic eruptions) were measured in situ by balloon ascents and high altitude aircraft sorties. The aerosols were also observed remotely from the ground and from satellites using both active (lidar) and passive (solar occultation) techniques (remote sensing instruments were carried on aircraft and balloon platforms as well). In connection with the experimental work, models were developed to test theories of particle formation and evolution, to guide measurement strategies, to provide a means of connecting laboratory and field data, and to apply the knowledge gained to answer practical questions about global changes in climate, depletion of the ozone layer, and related environmental problems.

  2. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Erythropoietin and Melatonin on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Banaei, Shokofeh; Alihemmati, Alireza; Baradaran, Behzad; Azimian, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of renal dysfunction. It contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of erythropoietin (EPO) and melatonin (MEL), which are known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion. MEL (10mg/kg, i.p) and EPO (5000U/kg, i.p) were administered prior to ischemia. After 24 h reperfusion, blood samples were collected for the determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum creatinine levels. Also, renal samples were taken for Immunohistochemical evaluation of Bcl2 and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) expression. Results: Ischemia reperfusion increased creatinine, TAC, MDA levels and TNF-α expression, also, IR decreased Bcl2 expression. Treatment with EPO or MEL decreased creatinine, MDA levels, and increased TAC level. Also, MEL up-regulated Bcl2 expression and down-regulated TNF-α expression compared with EPO. Conclusion: Treatment with EPO and MEL had a curative effect on renal IR injury. These results may indicate that MEL protects against inflammation and apoptosis better than EPO in renal IR injury. PMID:24409409

  3. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation on biomarkers of hepatic and renal function in young trained rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Wronski, Evanio Castor; Ulbrich, Anderson Zampier; Boff, Everton

    2013-11-01

    Creatine supplementation has been widely used by athletes and young physical exercise practioneers in order of increasing muscle mass and enhancing athletic performance, but their use/overuse may represent a health risk on hepatic and renal impaired function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 40 days of oral creatine supplementation on hepatic and renal function biomarkers in a young animal model. Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were divided in five groups (n = 7): control (CONTR), oral creatine supplementation (CREAT), moderate exercise training (EXERC), moderate exercise training plus oral creatine supplementation (EXERC + CREAT) and pathological group (positive control for liver and kidney injury) by the administration of rifampicin (RIFAMPICIN). Exercise groups were submitted to 60 min/day of swimming exercise session with a 4% of body weight workload for six weeks. The EXERC + CREAT showed the higher body weight at the end of the training protocol. The CREAT and EXERC + CREAT group showed an increase in hepatic (Aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) and renal (urea and creatinine) biomarkers levels (p < 0.05). Our study showed that the oral creatine supplementation promoted hepatic and renal function challenge in young rats submitted to moderate exercise training.

  5. Renal effects of essential fatty acid deficiency in hydropenic and volume-expanded rats.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Ana D O; Nunes, Flávia A; Léger, Claude; Aléssio, Maria L M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effects of essential fatty acid (EFA) on fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na(+))) and renal hemodynamics in rats during hydropenia (H) and acute volume expansion (VE), successively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured using a blood pressure transducer and a flow probe, respectively, both connected to a flowmeter. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by inulin clearance. The rats receiving coconut oil as only source of dietary lipids (the EFA-deficient group) presented lower levels of linoleic acid in cortex and medulla and lower body weight than the rats receiving soy oil in place of coconut oil (the control non-EFA-deficient group). During H, the EFA-deficient rats exhibited a lower level of renal vascular resistance resulting in a higher level of RBF and a higher urinary flow (V') and FE(Na(+)), although GFR was lower than in the control group. During VE, the rats of the control group responded with increased MAP, RBF, V' and FE(Na(+)), which were not found in the EFA-deficient group, suggesting an impaired hemodynamic adjustment in EFA deficiency. In conclusion, both experimental conditions revealed that EFA deficiency affects the renal hemodynamics.

  6. A single mechanism to explain the effect of calcium on renal function.

    PubMed

    Lahera, V; Ruilope, L M; Romero, J C

    1991-07-01

    It is known that calcium induces the formation of potent vasodilators in endothelial cells and vasoconstriction in smooth muscle cells, whereas in the renal parenchyma, it modulates sodium excretion through vascular and tubular mechanisms. Consequently, an increased concentration of calcium in renal circulation may induce a sequence of contrasting hemodynamics and excretory effects depending on the threshold of a particular mechanism that is first being stimulated. In order to identify this sequence of responses and their respective thresholds, we infused into the renal artery of anesthetized dogs progressively increasing doses of calcium gluconate that ranged from 1 to 400 micrograms/kg/min. The administration of 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/kg/min of calcium gluconate was followed by a significant increase in urinary excretion of PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and by a marked diuresis and natriuresis without altering renal blood flow (RBF) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Renin release was increased by 80% only during the infusion of the 10 micrograms/kg/min dose. The intrarenal infusion of a 400 micrograms/kg/min dose of calcium produced marked decreases in RBF and GFR, while urine sodium excretion (UNaV), UPGE2V, and U6-keto-PGF1 alpha V continued and were markedly elevated. During all these maneuvers, mean arterial pressure remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effect of growth hormone on renal and systemic acid-base homeostasis in humans.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, A; Mahlbacher, K; Hulter, H N; Krapf, R

    1998-04-01

    The effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH, 0.1 U.kg body wt-1.12 h-1) on systemic and renal acid-base homeostasis were investigated in six normal subjects with preexisting sustained chronic metabolic acidosis, induced by NH4Cl administration (4.2 mmol.kg body wt-1.day-1). GH administration increased and maintained plasma bicarbonate concentration from 14.1 +/- 1.4 to 18.6 +/- 1.1 mmol/l (P < 0.001). The GH-induced increase in plasma bicarbonate concentration was the consequence of a significant increase in net acid excretion that was accounted for largely by an increase in renal NH+4 excretion sufficient in magnitude to override a decrease in urinary titratable acid excretion. During GH administration, urinary pH increased and correlated directly and significantly with urinary NH4+ concentration. Urinary net acid excretion rates were not different during the steady-state periods of acidosis and acidosis with GH administration. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activities increased significantly in response to acidosis and were suppressed (glucocorticoid) or decreased to control levels (mineralocorticoid) by GH. The partial correction of metabolic acidosis occurred despite GH-induced renal sodium retention (180 mmol; gain in weight of 1.8 +/- 0.2 kg, P < 0.005) and decreased glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activities. Thus GH (and/or insulin-like growth factor I) increased plasma bicarbonate concentration and partially corrected metabolic acidosis. This effect was generated in large part by and maintained fully by a renal mechanism (i.e., increased renal NH3 production and NH+4/net acid excretion).

  8. Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) genetic polymorphism: pleiotropic effects on heritable renal traits

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Maple M.; Rana, Brinda K.; Tang, Chih-Min; Shiina, Tetsuo; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rao, Fangwen; Salem, Rany M.; Waalen, Jill; Ziegler, Michael G.; Insel, Paul A.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Because dopamine D1 receptors (DRD1) influence renal sodium transport and vascular hemodynamics, we examined whether genetic polymorphisms play a role in renal function. We conducted polymorphism discovery across the DRD1 open reading frame and its 5′-UTR and then performed association studies with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma creatinine (pCr), and fractional excretion of uric acid (FeUA). We used a twin/family group of 428 subjects from 195 families and a replication cohort of 677 patients from the Kaiser health-care organization sampled from the lower percentiles of diastolic blood pressures. Although the coding region lacked common non-synonymous variants, we identified two polymorphisms in the DRD1 5′-UTR (G-94A, A-48G) that occurred with frequencies of 15 and 30%, respectively. In the twin/family study, renal traits were highly heritable, such that DRD1 G-94A significantly associated with eGFR, pCr, and FeUA. Homozygotes for the G-94A minor allele (A/A) exhibited lower eGFR, higher pCr, and lower FeUA. No effects were noted for DRD1 A-48G. Patients in the Kaiser group had similar effects of G-94A on eGFR and pCr. Kidney cells transfected with the -94A variant but not the wild type vectors had increased receptor density. Because the -94A allele is common and may reduce glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, G-94A profiling may aid in predicting survival of renal function in patients with progressive renal disease. PMID:19675531

  9. Pre-terminal renal insufficiency in a patient with enteric hyperoxaluria: effect of medical management on renal function.

    PubMed

    Pipeleers, L; Wissing, K M; Pirson, Y; Cosyns, J P; Geers, C; Tielemans, C

    2012-01-01

    Enteric hyperoxaluria causes tubular deposition calcium oxalate crystals and severe chronic interstitial nephritis. We describe a patient with pre-terminal renal failure due to oxalate nephropathy after ileal resection. Increased oral hydration, low oxalate diet, and oral calcium carbonate and potassium citrate supplements resulted in a significant improvement of renal function. During the three-year follow-up, urinary oxalate concentration was repeatedly reduced below the crystallization threshold and serum creatinine decreased from 4.5 to 1.7 mg/dL. This case illustrates the benefit of combining and optimizing dietary and medical management in enteric hyperoxaluria, even in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  10. Influence of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cicletanine and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and prostanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, N; Geoffroy, J; Pozet, N; Cuisinaud, G; Benzoni, D; Zech, P Y; Sassard, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The kinetics of a single oral dose (300 mg) of cicletanine a new antihypertensive drug with diuretic properties, and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and of the major stable metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were studied in patients with normal renal function (n = 6), mild (n = 9) and severe (n = 10) renal insufficiency. 2. In normotensive subjects with normal renal function, cicletanine was rapidly and regularly absorbed, its apparent elimination half-life established around 7 h, and both its renal clearance (0.4 ml min-1) and its cumulative renal excretion (0.85% of the administered dose), were low. Mild renal insufficiency did not significantly alter these parameters, while severe renal impairment reduced the renal clearance and the cumulative urinary excretion of cicletanine and increased its apparent elimination half-life (31 h). However the area under the plasma curve was not changed due to reduced plasma concentrations in these patients. 3. Cicletanine induced a rapid and marked (four fold as a mean) increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and potassium which lasted for 6 to 10 h, in subjects with normal renal function. Renal insufficiency did not alter the slope of the calculated plasma concentration-effects curves but reduced the maximum effect observed for water, sodium and potassium. 4. A single oral dose of cicletanine did not change the urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the three groups of patients studied, the basal values of which being found to be closely related to the creatinine clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358898

  11. Prophylactic effect of baicalein against renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Amjid; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahsan, Haseeb; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Despite a tremendous advancement in the management of diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy (DN) is still a significant problem for many patients with diabetes, because of the inefficacy and associated side effects of pharmacological drugs. There is a demand for new therapeutic drugs which on one hand efficiently prevent the development of DN by targeting several metabolic and inflammatory pathways, and on the other hand, are side-effect free. In recent years, many researchers have suggested that inflammation plays an important role in the development of DN, hence, NF-κB has received much attention. We investigated the nephroptotective effects of baicalein (BAC), a flavonoid, in high fat diet/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. BAC (10 mg/kg bw/day and 20 mg/kg bw/day) treatment was given to the diabetic rats by oral gavage for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes. The effect of BAC was compared to a commercial antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone (RZ, 3 mg/kg bw/day). BAC and RZ treatment significantly lowered food intake, body weight and levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) in diabetic rats. Both, BAC and RZ restored normal renal function and mitigated renal oxidative stress. BAC and RZ also suppressed the activation of NF-κB, decreased expression of iNOS and TGF-β1, and ameliorated the structural changes in renal tissues. Moreover, BAC also normalized the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and liver function enzymes. However, rosiglitazone treatment produced liver toxicity as was evident from increased serum levels of liver function enzymes; ALP, SGOT and SGPT. Taken together, BAC treatment preserved renal function by anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, BAC was found to be more effective as compared to RZ, suggesting the efficacy of BAC in the treatment of DN.

  12. Protection against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury: A comparative experimental study of the effect of ischaemic preconditioning vs. postconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Shokeir, Ahmed A.; Hussein, Abdelaziz M.; Awadalla, Amira; Samy, Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Azza; Khater, Sheiri; Barakat, Nashwa

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of ischaemic preconditioning (Ipre) vs. ischaemic postconditioning (Ipost) on renal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Materials and methods In all, 120 male Sprague–Dawley rats were classified into four groups of 30 rats each, designated sham, control, Ipre and Ipost. Renal function, including serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (CrCl), fractional Na excretion (FENa) and renal histopathology were measured at 2, 24 and 48 h after ischaemia. Markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in kidney tissues during the same intervals. Results Ipre caused a significant improvement in renal function, as indicated by a significant decrease in serum creatinine, BUN and FENa, with a significant increase in CrCl. However, Ipost caused no significant improvement in renal function. Morphologically Ipre caused a marked significant improvement in the renal tubular damage score compared to Ipost. Also, Ipre caused a significant decrease in MDA, and significant increase in GSH and SOD when compared to Ipost. Conclusion Ipre is more potent than Ipost for improving the renal injury induced by I/R. Ipre caused a marked improvement in renal function and morphology, while Ipost caused a minimal improvement in morphology only. Moreover, Ipre caused a marked and significant reduction in oxidative stress in kidney tissues, while Ipost caused a minimal reduction. PMID:26558061

  13. Effect of photobiomodulation on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Ahmad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hoseinzadeh, Hesam Aldin

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) on renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion (IR) in diabetic rats. Twenty streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly distributed into two groups, containing ten rats each: IR group (G1) and IR + PBM group (G2). After the right nephrectomy, the ischemia was produced in the left kidney for 30 min, followed by the reperfusion for 24 h. Then, a 685-nm laser diode with an output power of 15 mW (spot size = 0.28 cm(2) and energy density = 3.2 J/cm(2)) was employed. PBM was carried out by irradiating the rats over six points on the skin over the left kidney region three times, i.e., immediately after skin suturing and 1 and 2 h after initiating reperfusion for 6 min. At the end of reperfusion period, the rats were anesthetized, and blood samples were collected and used for the estimation of renal function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine). Then, the left kidney was harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The serum levels of BUN and creatinine were significantly higher in G1 compared to G2 (P < 0.05). G1 had higher renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels compared to G2 (P < 0.05). Renal IR in diabetic rats (G1) resulted in a significant decrease in renal tissue glutathione (GSH) (P < 0.05) when compared to laser-treated rats (G2). A significant restoration was observed in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05) and catalase (CAT) (P < 0.05) in G2 as compared to G1. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were increased in G1 in comparison to G2 (P < 0.05). The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly higher in the renal tissue of G1 than that of G2 (P < 0.05). In addition, specimens from the G1 had a significantly greater histological injury than those from the G2 (P < 0.05). The results of present investigation revealed that PBM attenuated kidney damage induced by renal IR in diabetic rats.

  14. Human effects on estuarine shoreline decadal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rilo, A.; Freire, P.; Ceia, R.; Mendes, R. N.; Catalão, J.; Taborda, R.

    2012-04-01

    Due to their sheltered conditions and natural resources, estuaries were always attractive to human activities (industrial, agriculture, residential and recreation). Consequently, the complex interactions between anthropogenic and natural drivers increase estuarine shoreline vulnerability to climate changes impacts. The environmental sustainability of these systems depends on a fragile balance between societal development and natural values that can be further disturbed by climate change effects. This challenging task for scientific community, managers and stakeholders can only be accomplished with interdisplinary approaches. In this context, it seems clear that estuarine management plans should incorporate the concept of change into the planning of policy decisions since these natural dynamic areas are often under human pressure and are recognized as sensitive to climate change effects. Therefore, the knowledge about historical evolution of estuarine shoreline is important to provide new insights on the spatial and temporal dimensions of estuarine change. This paper aims to present and discuss shoreline changes due to human intervention in Tagus estuary, located on the west coast of Portugal. Detailed margins cartography, in a 550m fringe (drawn inland from the highest astronomical tide line), was performed based on 2007 orthophotos (spatial resolution of 0.5 m) analysis. Several classification categories were considered, as urbanized areas, industrial, port and airport facilities, agriculture spaces, green areas and natural zones. The estuarine bed (area bellow the highest astronomical tide line) was also mapped (including human occupation, natural habitats, morpho-sedimentary units) based on the geographic information above and LANSAT 7 TM+ images using image processing techniques. Aerial photographs dated from 1944, 1946, 1948, 1955 and 1958 were analyzed for a set of pilot zones in order to fully understand the decadal shoreline change. Estuarine bed presents

  15. Effects of intravenous ibandronate injection on renal function in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk for renal disease--the DIVINE study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul D; Ragi-Eis, Sergio; Mautalen, Carlos; Ramirez, Francisco; Jonkanski, Iris

    2011-12-01

    The Designed for intravenous (IV) Ibandronate reNal safety Evaluation (DIVINE) study was a 1-year prospective, randomized, open label, multi-center study that evaluated the renal safety of quarterly (every 3 months) ibandronate IV injection given over 15-30s compared with infusion given over 15 min, and weekly oral alendronate, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) at increased risk for renal disease. Both injection and infusion of IV ibandronate showed comparable safety to alendronate, with only small changes in serum creatinine (sCr) for each treatment group, and AEs were generally comparable between groups. All three treatments had similar effects on renal function, measured by change in baseline of the glomerular filtration rate; the ibandronate IV injection group was noninferior to the ibandronate IV infusion and weekly oral alendronate groups at 9 months, with similar results at 1 year. The results of this study demonstrate the profile of IV ibandronate, which allows it to be dosed as an IV injection in the primary care setting without the need for an infusion, even in patients with pre-existing hypertension or diabetes mellitus.

  16. The Effects of Long-Term Chaetomellic Acid A Administration on Renal Function and Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Renal Mass Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, António; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Pires, Carlos André; Colaço, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with chaetomellic acid A (CAA) on oxidative stress and renal function in a model of renal mass reduction. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (RMR) or sham-operated (SO). One week after surgery, rats have been divided into four experimental groups: RMR: RMR rats without treatment (n = 14); RMR + CAA: RMR rats treated with CAA (n = 13); SO: SO rats without treatment (n = 13); and SO + CAA: SO rats treated with CAA (n = 13). CAA was intraperitoneally administered in a dose of 0.23 µg/Kg three times a week for six months. Results. RMR was accompanied by a significant reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (p < 0.05) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio. CAA administration significantly increased catalase and GR activity (p < 0.05) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio, but no significant difference between the treated and nontreated groups was found in this ratio. No significant differences were found between the RMR groups in any of the parameters of renal function. However, CAA administration slightly improves some parameters of renal function. Conclusions. These data suggest that CAA could attenuate 5/6 RMR-induced oxidative stress. PMID:28326323

  17. Renoprotective effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor in a mouse model of progressive renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro; Oda, Takashi; Matsubara, Hidehito; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takechi, Hanako; Oshima, Naoki; Sakurai, Yutaka; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2017-11-01

    Although the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors beyond their hypoglycemic action have been reported, whether these inhibitors have renoprotective effects in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. We examined the therapeutic effects of DPP-4 inhibition in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), a nondiabetic model of progressive renal fibrosis. After UUO surgery, mice were administered either the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin or a vehicle by oral gavage once a day for 10 days. Physiological parameters, degrees of renal fibrosis and inflammation, and molecules related to renal fibrosis and inflammation were then evaluated using sham-operated mice as controls. Positive area of α-smooth muscle actin was significantly smaller and expression of transforming growth factor β messenger RNA was significantly lower in the alogliptin-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group. Renal total collagen content was also significantly lower in the alogliptin-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that alogliptin exerted renoprotective antifibrotic effects. The positive area of F4/80 was significantly smaller and expression of CD68 messenger RNA was significantly lower in the alogliptin-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group, suggesting an anti-inflammatory action by the DPP-4 inhibitor. Compared to the results for the vehicle-treated group, expression of markers for M1 macrophages tended to be lower in the alogliptin-treated group, and the relative expression of M2 macrophages tended to be higher. These data indicate the various protective effects of DPP-4 inhibition in nondiabetic mice with UUO. DPP-4 inhibitors may therefore be promising therapeutic choices even for nondiabetic CKD patients.

  18. Effect of reduced renal mass on renal ammonia transporter family, Rh C glycoprotein and Rh B glycoprotein, expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young; Baylis, Chris; Verlander, Jill W; Han, Ki-Hwan; Reungjui, Sirirat; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2007-10-01

    Kidneys can maintain acid-base homeostasis, despite reduced renal mass, through adaptive changes in net acid excretion, of which ammonia excretion is the predominant component. The present study examines whether these adaptations are associated with changes in the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg). We used normal Sprague-Dawley rats and a 5/6 ablation-infarction model of reduced renal mass; control rats underwent sham operation. After 1 wk, glomerular filtration rate, assessed as creatinine clearance, was decreased, serum bicarbonate was slightly increased, and Na(+) and K(+) were unchanged. Total urinary ammonia excretion was unchanged, but urinary ammonia adjusted for creatinine clearance, an index of per nephron ammonia metabolism, increased significantly. Although reduced renal mass did not alter total Rhcg protein expression, both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated hypertrophy of both intercalated cells and principal cells in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct that was associated with increased apical and basolateral Rhcg polarization. Rhbg expression, analyzed using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of cell-specific expression, was unchanged. We conclude that altered subcellular localization of Rhcg contributes to adaptive changes in single-nephron ammonia metabolism and maintenance of acid-base homeostasis in response to reduced renal mass.

  19. Rosiglitazone is effective to improve renal damage in type-1-like diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, K-C; Cherng, Y-G; Chen, L-J; Hsu, C-T; Cheng, J-T

    2014-04-01

    A marked decrease of klotho expression was observed in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats) showing diabetic nephropathy. It has been documented that klotho is the target gene of PPARγ. However, the effect of PPARγ agonist on klotho expression in kidney of STZ rats remains obscure. Thus, we used rosiglitazone (TZD) as PPARγ agonist to investigate the effect on renal dysfunction in STZ rats. Treatment of TZD reversed the lower levels of PPARγ, klotho, and FGFR1 expressions in kidneys of STZ rats without the correction of hyperglycemia. Also, renal functions and structural defeats were improved by TZD treatment. Taken together, oral administration of TZD may improve STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy due to restoration of the expression of klotho axis through an increase in PPARγ expression without changing blood glucose in rats.

  20. The effect of aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following unilateral ureteral obstruction in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Fayez T; Lubbad, Loay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of blocking renin-angiotensin system by direct renin inhibition using aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO). Methods: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UO for 72 hours. Group-Alsk (n=12) received aliskiren (30 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water starting one day before creating UO and continued until the terminal experiment five days post reversal when renal functions were measured using clearance techniques. Group-Vx (n=12) underwent similar protocol but had water only. Gene expression analysis of some markers of kidney injury was measured using PCR technique. Results: In Group-Vx, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the left kidney were significantly lower than the right kidney (1.82±0.12 vs. 3.19±0.40, P=0.001 and 0.81±0.08 vs. 1.44±0.09, P=0.004, respectively). However, left fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was higher than the right FENa (0.80±0.15 vs. 0.55±0.04, P=0.05). Comparing the left obstructed kidney in Group-Alsk vs. Group-Vx, RBF and GFR were higher in Group-Alsk (2.44±0.30 vs. 1.82±0.12, P=0.049 and 1.02±0.11 vs. 0.81±0.08, P=0.07, respectively). The left renal FENa was lower in Group-Alsk but did not reach statistical significance (0.54±0.07 vs. 0.80±0.15, P=0.07). Aliskiren also decreased the gene expressions of NGAL, KIM-1 and p53. Conclusion: Direct renin inhibition by aliskiren appears to have protective effect on the renal dysfunction and on the markers of renal injury following UO indicating a potential clinical benefit of this agent. Further, this data and the previous studies indicate that blocking renin-angiotensin system at any level has a protective effect in obstructive nephropathy. PMID:27570581

  1. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  2. The effect of indomethacin on systemic and renal hemodynamics in neonatal piglets during experimental endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Nicholas; Beier, Ulf H; Gorla, Sema Rao; Fornell, Linda; Lumpaopong, Adisorn; Radhakrishnan, Jayant; John, Eunice

    2008-08-01

    Systemic and renal hemodynamics are affected by prostaglandin production during endotoxemia. To study indomethacin effects on endotoxinemia in a neonatal piglet model, sixteen 7-10 day old piglets were anesthetized, ventilated, and catheterized. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and urine output were continuously monitored. Endotoxin (0.06 mcg/kg) was injected after baseline measurements. We studied two groups with either endotoxinemia alone (n = 7) or an additional indomethacin infusion (0.2 mg/kg per h, n = 9). HR, MAP, renal blood flow (RBF), systemic and renal vascular resistance (SVR, RVR), cardiac index (CI), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), were obtained at baseline, at 1, 2 and 3 h. We observed a drop in CI and an increase in SVR and HR within 3 h of endotoxinemia, while MAP remained unchanged. These effects were prevented by indomethacin. RVR was not altered significantly. Endotoxinemia triggered a drop of RBF in both control (P < 0.01) and intervention group (P < 0.05). In the intervention group, drop of GFR, urine volume, and paraaminohippuric acid clearance were apparent signs of nephrotoxicity (P < 0.01, <0.05, and <0.01). In conclusion, indomethacin maintains hemodynamic parameters during endotoxinemia at the expense of nephrotoxicity. We speculate that indomethacin counteracts the renoprotective effect of prostaglandins.

  3. Effects of continuous and intermittent renal replacement therapies among adult patients with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Chen, Xiaoyu; Bleß, Hans-Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) can be treated using continuous (CRRT) or intermittent renal replacement therapies (IRRT). Although some studies suggest that CRRT may have advantages over IRRT, study findings are inconsistent. This study assessed differences between CRRT and IRRT regarding important clinical outcomes (such as mortality and renal recovery) and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, ethical aspects that are linked to renal replacement therapies in the intensive care setting are considered. Methods: Systematic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library including RCTs, observational studies, and cost-effectiveness studies were performed. Results were pooled using a random effects-model. Results: Forty-nine studies were included. Findings show a higher rate of renal recovery among survivors who initially received CRRT as compared with IRRT. This advantage applies to the analysis of all studies with different observation periods (Relative Risk (RR) 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.05, 1.16]) and to a selection of studies with observation periods of 90 days (RR 1.07; 95% CI [1.04, 1.09]). Regarding observation periods beyond there are no differences when only two identified studies were analyzed. Patients initially receiving CRRT have higher mortality as compared to IRRT (RR 1.17; 95% CI [1.06, 1.28]). This difference is attributable to observational studies and may have been caused by allocation bias since seriously ill patients more often initially receive CRRT instead of IRRT. CRRT do not significantly differ from IRRT with respect to change of mean arterial pressure, hypotensive episodes, hemodynamic instability, and length of stay. Data on cost-effectiveness is inconsistent. Recent analyzes indicate that initial CRRT is cost-effective compared to initial IRRT due to a reduction of the rate of long-term dialysis dependence. As regards a short time horizon, this cost benefit has not been shown. Conclusion: Findings of

  4. Effects of continuous and intermittent renal replacement therapies among adult patients with acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Tonio; Chen, Xiaoyu; Bleß, Hans-Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) can be treated using continuous (CRRT) or intermittent renal replacement therapies (IRRT). Although some studies suggest that CRRT may have advantages over IRRT, study findings are inconsistent. This study assessed differences between CRRT and IRRT regarding important clinical outcomes (such as mortality and renal recovery) and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, ethical aspects that are linked to renal replacement therapies in the intensive care setting are considered. Methods: Systematic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library including RCTs, observational studies, and cost-effectiveness studies were performed. Results were pooled using a random effects-model. Results: Forty-nine studies were included. Findings show a higher rate of renal recovery among survivors who initially received CRRT as compared with IRRT. This advantage applies to the analysis of all studies with different observation periods (Relative Risk (RR) 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.05, 1.16]) and to a selection of studies with observation periods of 90 days (RR 1.07; 95% CI [1.04, 1.09]). Regarding observation periods beyond there are no differences when only two identified studies were analyzed. Patients initially receiving CRRT have higher mortality as compared to IRRT (RR 1.17; 95% CI [1.06, 1.28]). This difference is attributable to observational studies and may have been caused by allocation bias since seriously ill patients more often initially receive CRRT instead of IRRT. CRRT do not significantly differ from IRRT with respect to change of mean arterial pressure, hypotensive episodes, hemodynamic instability, and length of stay. Data on cost-effectiveness is inconsistent. Recent analyzes indicate that initial CRRT is cost-effective compared to initial IRRT due to a reduction of the rate of long-term dialysis dependence. As regards a short time horizon, this cost benefit has not been shown. Conclusion: Findings of

  5. Effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine on renal arteries in portal hypertension and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Gloria; Cortina, Belén; Mauricio, María Dolores; Novella, Susana; Lluch, Paloma; Navarrete-Navarro, Javier; Noguera, Inmaculada; Medina, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in renal arteries from portal hypertensive and cirrhotic rats. METHODS Rat renal arteries from Sham (n = 15), pre-hepatic portal hypertension (PPVL; n = 15) and bile duct ligation and excision-induced cirrhosis (BDL; n = 15) were precontracted with norepinephrine, and additional contractions were induced with ADMA (10-6-10-3 mol/L), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (1 × 10-9-3 × 10-6 mol/L) were determined in precontracted renal artery segments with norepinephrine in the absence and in the presence of ADMA. Kidneys were collected to determine the protein expression and activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), an enzyme that catabolizes ADMA. RESULTS In renal arteries precontracted with norepinephrine, ADMA caused endothelium-dependent contractions. The pD2 values to ADMA were similar in the Sham and PPVL groups (4.20 ± 0.08 and 4.11 ± 0.09, P > 0.05, respectively), but were lower than those of the BDL group (4.79 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation that did not differ, in terms of pD2 and maximal relaxation, among the 3 groups studied. Treatment with ADMA (3 × 10-4 mol/L) inhibited acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the 3 groups, but the inhibition was higher (P < 0.05) in the BDL group compared with that for the Sham and PPVL groups. The mRNA and protein expression of DDAH-1 were similar in kidneys from the three groups. Conversely, DDAH-2 expression was increased (P < 0.05) in PPVL and further enhanced (P < 0.05) in the BDL group. However, renal DDAH activity was significantly decreased in the BDL group. CONCLUSION Cirrhosis increased the inhibitory effect of ADMA on basal- and induced-release of NO in renal arteries, and decreased DDAH activity in the kidney. PMID:28082806

  6. Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

  7. [Expression of LIM and SH3 protein 1 in renal clear cell carcinoma and its effects on invasion and migration of renal clear cell carcinoma 786-O cells].

    PubMed

    Jin, B; Gao, L; Li, W; Chen, J C; Wen, R M; Wang, J Q

    2017-03-23

    Objective: To investigate the expression of LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP1) in renal cell carcinoma and its significance in the invasion and migration of renal clear cell carcinoma 786-O cell line. Methods: The expression level of LASP1 in 41 cases of renal cell carcinoma tissues and normal renal tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between the expression level of LASP1 and clinical characteristics was further analyzed. Expression of LASP1 in 10 cases of tumor tissues with or without lymph node metastasis was analyzed by Western blot. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting LASP1 was constructed and transfected into 786-O cells to downregulate LASP1 expression. The interference effect of LASP1 siRNA on LASP1 protein and the expression of related proteins in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway were detected by Western blot. The effects of LASP1 knockdown on cell proliferation, migration and invasion and gene expression were then assessed using CCK8 assay, transwell cell migration system and western blot analysis, respectively. Results: The positive rate of LASP1 expression in renal clear cell carcinoma tissues was 90.2% (37/41), which was significantly higher than that in the adjacent tissues (29.3%, P=0.002). The expression of LASP1 in renal cell carcinoma was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage of renal cell carcinoma (P<0.05). The results of Western blot showed that LASP1 (0.696±0.053) was highly expressed in renal cell carcinoma (1.459±0.628), especially in cases with lymph node metastasis (2.692±0.186, P<0.05). The LASP1 siRNA remarkably down-regulated the expression of LASP1 protein in 786-O cells. The abilities of proliferation, invasion and migration of 786-O cells were decreased significantly in the LASP1 siRNA groups.The relative expression of E-cadherin protein in the siRNA group (0.848±0.020) was significantly higher than those in the siRNA-NC group (0.671±0.018) and control

  8. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium‐treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium‐treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium‐treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium‐treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg. PMID:25501430

  9. Effect of metformin against cisplatin induced acute renal injury in rats: a biochemical and histoarchitectural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2013-09-01

    Although cisplatin has been a mainstay for cancer therapy, its use is limited mainly because of nephrotoxicity. Accumulating literature suggest the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of metformin, a first line antidiabetic drug. With this background, we investigated the effect of metformin on the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A single injection of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) caused marked renal damage, characterized by a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and abnormal histo-architecture of kidney. These were accompanied by significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA), total reactive oxygen species (tROS) and caspase-3 levels and decreased antioxidant levels. Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the increase in malondialdehyde and tROS generation and restores the decrease in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. However metformin treatment did not prevent the cisplatin induced renal injury as there was no significant difference of renal function parameters (BUN and Cr), kidney histopathology as well as caspase-3 activity between cisplatin per se and metformin plus cisplatin treated rats. Histopathology studies revealed that similar glomerular and tubular pathological architecture in both cisplatin per se and cisplatin plus metformin group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that metformin is not an adjuvant drug to treat nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin therapy.

  10. Renal protective effects of extracts from guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yun; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in extracts of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), and examined the renal protective effects of guava aqueous extract (GAE) and ethanol extract (GEE) in diabetic mice. GAE had more caffeic acid, myricetin, and quercetin; and GEE had more cinnamic, coumaric and ferulic acids. GAE or GEE at 1 and 2 % was supplied in diet for 12 weeks. GAE or GEE intake at 2 % significantly reduced glucose and blood urea nitrogen levels, increased insulin level in plasma of diabetic mice (p < 0.05). GAE or GEE treatments dose-dependently reserved glutathione content, retained activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β levels in kidney (p < 0.05). GAE and GEE treatments at 2 % significantly declined renal N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, pentosidine and fructose levels (p < 0.05), and suppressed renal activity of aldose reductase (p < 0.05). These findings support that guava fruit could protect kidney against diabetic progression via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects.

  11. Comparison between the effects of indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide on creatinine clearance in patients with impaired renal function and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Madkour, H; Gadallah, M; Riveline, B; Plante, G E; Massry, S G

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of indapamide or hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure and renal function were examined in patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension. Both drugs controlled hypertension and blood pressure remained normal during the 2 years of the study. Despite this comparable control of hypertension, indapamide therapy was associated with a 28.5 +/- 4.4% increase in creatinine clearance while treatment with hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a 17.4 +/- 3.0% decrease in creatinine clearance. The results of the study indicate that indapamide is superior to hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension.

  12. The effects of stimulating carotid chemoreceptors on renal haemodynamics and function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, F; Poucher, S M; Summerill, R A

    1987-01-01

    1. Dogs were anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated. The carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated by changing the perfusion of vascularly isolated carotid sinus regions from arterial to venous blood. The mean carotid sinus pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure were held constant at 124 +/- 3 and 122 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. Both vagosympathetic trunks were sectioned in the neck and propranolol (17 micrograms kg-1 min-1 I.V.) and gallamine triethiodide (0.2-2.0 mg kg-1 30 min-1 I.V.) were infused. Renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flow probe, glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance, sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In sixteen tests in thirteen dogs perfusion of the carotid sinus regions with venous blood resulted in significant decreases in renal blood flow from 271 +/- 24 to 198 +/- 21 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass; glomerular filtration rate from 41.0 +/- 4.8 to 22.1 +/- 3.1 ml min-1 100 g-1; filtration fraction from 0.25 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.02; urine flow from 0.48 +/- 1.0 to 0.21 +/- 0.03 ml min-1 100 g-1; sodium excretion from 18.1 +/- 4.1 to 12.9 +/- 4.2 mumol min-1 100 g-1; and osmolar excretion 327 +/- 42 to 171 +/- 26 mu osmol min-1 100 g-1. The right atrial pressure did not change significantly from 4.6 +/- 1.2 cmH2O. 3. In seven dogs, tying renal sympathetic nerves abolished all the responses except that of sodium excretion which was now reversed; sodium excretion increased from 68 +/- 19 to 116 +/- 38 mumol min-1 100 g-1 without significant change in right atrial pressure from 7.4 +/- 1.9 cmH2O. Crushing the carotid bodies, however, abolished all the responses. 4. The results show that carotid chemoreceptor stimulation can cause significant reflex effects on renal haemodynamics and function which are mediated via renal sympathetic nerves. They also show that the chemoreceptor stimulation can cause natriuresis in the absence of haemodynamic changes, in the

  13. Effect of benazepril on the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells from diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    PENG, TAO; WANG, JIE; ZHEN, JUNHUI; HU, ZHAO; YANG, XIANGDONG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benazepril on the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells from diabetic rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the present study. Eight of the 30 rats were randomly selected and served as the normal control group (N group), while the remaining 22 rats, injected with streptozotocin (STZ), comprised the diabetic rat model. Rats with diabetes were randomly divided into the diabetic (DM group) and benazepril (B group) groups. The total course was conducted over 12 weeks. Blood glucose, body weight, kidney/body weight, 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured at the start and end of the study. We observed the tubulointerstitial pathological changes, and applied immunohistochemistry and western blotting to detect the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in renal tissue. The levels of blood glucose, kidney/body weight, 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and tubulointerstitial damage index (TII) in the DM group were significantly higher than that in the N group (p<0.01). Except for blood glucose and kidney/body weight, the remaining indices were lower in the B group compared with those in the DM group (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining results revealed the expression of α-SMA in renal tubular epithelial cells to be significantly higher in the DM and B groups compared with the control (N) group (p<0.01). Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of α-SMA in diabetic renal tissue increased 3.27-fold compared with that of the N group, while the expression of α-SMA in the B group decreased 45% compared with that in the DM group. In conclusion, benazepril significantly reduced the expression of α-SMA in renal tubular epithelial cells obtained from diabetic rats, inhibited the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells and played an important role in kidney protection. PMID:24944793

  14. Cardiovascular and renal effects of carvedilol in dogs with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Masami; Sasaki, Takahiro; Ueno, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Taiji; Ishikawa, Yumi

    2002-06-01

    To determine the acute effects of carvedilol (beta-blocker) on cardiovascular and renal function and its pharmacokinetics in dogs. Fifteen mature mongrel dogs (7-15 kg) of both sexes were used in these experiments. Eight dogs served as controls, and seven dogs served as iatrogenic mitral regurgitation (MR) experimental animals. Carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered, and the blood carvedilol concentration was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine was also evaluated. Isoproterenol (0.025 microg/kg/min) was infused via the saphenous vein for 5 min, and phenylephrine (5 microg/kg) was injected with carvedilol (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) or placebo for 4 days. The heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured, and LV fractional shortening was measured by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate and sodium para-aminohippurate. Carvedilol (0.2 mg/kg) decreased the heart rate, whereas renal function, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular contractile function were not affected. Carvedilol (0.4 mg/kg) decreased heart rate, blood pressure, and renal function. The tachycardic response to isoproterenol was significantly diminished for 36 hr by 0.4 mg/kg carvedilol. Carvedilol 0.2 mg/kg inhibited this effect for 24 hr. Thus, it is necessary to titrate the dosage of carvedilol, it should be initiated at less than 0.2 mg/kg and titrated up to 0.4 mg/kg for heart failure dogs.

  15. Reduced effect of percutaneous renal denervation on blood pressure in patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmieder, Roland E; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/<90 mm Hg) is unknown. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation in 126 patients divided into 63 patients with ISH and 63 patients with combined hypertension (CH, ≥140/≥90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.

  16. Metabolic and renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fortuny, Clàudia; Deyà-Martínez, Ángela; Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the benefits of combined antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in morbidity and mortality due to perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection are beyond question and outweigh the toxicity these drugs have been associated with in HIV-infected children and adolescents to date. In puberty, abnormal body fat distribution is stigmatizating and leads to low adherence to ARV treatment. The other metabolic comorbidities (mitochondrial toxicity, dyslipidemias, insulin resistance and low bone mineral density) and renal toxicity, albeit nonsymptomatic in most children, are increasingly being reported and potentially put this population at risk for early cardiovascular or cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease, diabetes, pathologic fractures or premature renal failure in the third and fourth decades of life. Evidence from available studies is limited because of methodological limitations and also because of several HIV-unrelated factors influencing, to some degree, the development of these conditions. Current recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of metabolic and renal adverse effects in HIV-children and adolescents are based on adult studies, observational pediatric studies and experts' consensus. Healthy lifestyle habits (regarding diet, exercise and refraining from toxic substances) and wise use of ARV options are the only preventive tools for the majority of patients. Should abnormal findings arise, switches in one or more ARV drugs have proved useful. Specific therapies are also available for some of these comorbidities, although the experience in the pediatric age is still very scarce. We aim to summarize the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of metabolic and renal adverse effects in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents.

  17. Effect of chronic poisoning with aluminum on the renal handling of phosphate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L

    1998-01-16

    The effects of aluminum on renal function and phosphate handling were studied using clearance techniques in chronically-intoxicated rats. Rats were given aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w., i.p.), three times per week during 6 months. The phosphate tubular transport capacity was evaluated by determining the maximum tubular transport (TmRPi) and the fractional excretion of phosphate (FE% Pi) during the infusion of phosphate solutions with increasing concentrations (0, 9, 18, 33 mM). Parathyroid gland function was studied using indirect methods: calcemia recovery after EDTA administration and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP as indicative of renal PTH actions, by RIA. The systemic acid base status was determined and food intake and rat growth were controlled in both groups. No changes were observed in the renal function. Pi reabsorption values per ml glomerular filtration rate (TRPi/GFR microg/ml) for different Pi plasmatic concentrations were distributed following a saturation curve compatible with a saturation kinetics. Aluminum increased TmRPi/GFR in treated animals (T) 76+/-4 as compared with control animals (C) 57+/-7 microg/ml, without a statistical modification in the apparent affinity. The FE% Pi and FE% Na were significantly lower in treated animals than in control animals. There were neither systemic variations in the acid-base balance nor in the Ca and Pi concentrations in plasma. The calcemia recovery following a hypocalcemic stimulus and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP (T: 44+/-4; C: 91+/-7 pmol/min) were diminished. Considering all these facts, it can be postulated that the aluminum renal effect is associated from a decrease in PTH phosphaturic capacity. Nevertheless, other associated factors like minor phosphate intestinal absorption rate may not be disregarded, even though there were no significant intake variations.

  18. The Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Abolfazl; Cyrus, Ali; Babaei, Maryam; Taheri, Majid; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Behzadinia, Ezatollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Renal colic can be managed by preventing the contraction movements of ureter muscles. By reducing acetylcholine in the nerve terminals, magnesium sulfate could be effective in this regard. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on acute renal colic pain relief. Method: The present study was a double-blind clinical trial in which the patients suffering from acute renal colic were randomly divided into 2 groups of who either received standard protocol (intravenous infusion of 0.1 mg/Kg morphine sulfate, 30 mg of Ketorolac, and 100 ml normal saline as placebo/15 minutes) or standard protocol plus 15 mg/Kg of intravenous magnesium sulfate 50%/100 ml normal saline/15 minutes. Severity of patients’ pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, and 30 and 60 minutes after infusion. The collected data were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Results: 100 cases were randomly allocated to intervention or control group. The two groups were similar in baseline pain score and demographic characteristics. At 30 and 60 minutes, mean pain score was less in the intervention group compared to the control group. Moreover, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant regarding the additional amount of morphine, suggesting that the intervention group needed less additional morphine than the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Magnesium sulfate can be used as an adjunct drug in treatment of patients suffering from renal colic. It not only alleviates the pain in the patients, but also diminishes the need for pain medications. PMID:28286832

  19. The effect of radiopharmaceutical choice on the determination of relative renal function in rats with unilateral renal obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Lallone, R.

    1984-01-01

    A significant divergence of GFR and ERPF within a single kidney could lead to different estimates of relative renal function depending on which radiopharmaceutical is administered. To address this question, the authors studied adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction by giving each animal an intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..Ci of I-125 iothalamate (GFR), I-131 hippurate (ERPF), and TC-99m DMSA and measuring the 30 minute clearance (renal uptake and urine excretion) of each agent. Normal control animals were sham operated; 25 experimental animals were subjected to permanent unilateral ureteral occlusion and studied at 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Acute ureteral obstruction impaired the clearance of iothalamate to a much greater degree than OIH or DMSA at 6 hours and 1 day (rho<.005) and 3 days (rho<.05). The decline in DMSA clearance reflected ERPF more closely than GFR. In evaluating renal disease, one should consider the functional parameter reflected by the radiopharmaceutical as well as the underlying disease state.

  20. Acupuncture and somatic nerve stimulation: mechanism underlying effects on cardiovascular and renal activities.

    PubMed

    Yao, T

    1993-01-01

    Acupuncture and acupuncture-like somatic nerve stimulation exert modulatory effects upon cardiovascular and renal activity under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It seems that acupuncture facilitates the physiological reflexes in response to changes in internal or external environment. Thus, acupuncture can lower high blood pressure in hypertensives, elevate low blood pressure in hypotensives, and promote urinary sodium excretion during hyperosmotic challenge, etc. Acupuncture effects are thought to be mediated by activation of the small myelinated fibres coming from muscle receptors. Preliminary studies show that different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are involved in the effects of acupuncture.

  1. Effects of alpha adrenoceptor blockade on renal nerve stimulation-induced norepinephrine release and vasoconstriction in the dog kidney.

    PubMed

    Hisa, H; Araki, S; Tomura, Y; Hayashi, Y; Satoh, S

    1989-02-01

    Effects of alpha-antagonists on renal norepinephrine (NE) release and vasoconstriction induced by renal nerve stimulation (RNS) were examined in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. RNS at 1,2 and 3 Hz (1 msec duration, 10-20 V) for 1 min decreased renal blood flow (RBF) and increased both the renal venous NE concentration (NEC) and calculated renal NE efflux (NEE). The RBF responses to 2 and 3 Hz RNS and NEC responses to 1, 2 and 3 Hz RNS during intrarenal arterial infusion of yohimbine (1.0 micrograms/kg/min) were greater than those observed during the control period. The NEE responses to 1 and 2 Hz RNS, but not to 3 Hz RNS, were also potentiated by the yohimbine infusion. Prazosin treatment (0.2 mg/kg i.v.) attenuated the RBF responses. Subsequent infusion of yohimbine potentiated both the NEC and NEE responses to 1, 2 and 3 Hz RNS in this alpha-1 adrenoceptor-blocked state. These results suggest that an alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated inhibitory mechanism of neural NE release exists in the dog kidney, which can be activated by endogenously released catecholamines to modulate the neural control of renal hemodynamics. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction may affect the evaluation of neural NE release by NEE when high-frequency RNS is applied during inhibition of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated mechanism.

  2. The Effects of Local Supralethal Irradiation on Renal Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    Doyle W. G. Ewald ARMED FORCES RADIOBIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Defense Nuclear Agency Bethesda, Maryland App-oved for public release...USN Director ARMED FORCES RADIOBIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Defense Nuclear Agency Bethesda, Maryland Approved for public release; distribution...J. Physiol. 182:561-566, 1955. 3. Avioli, L. V., Lazor , M. Z., Cotlove, E., Brace, K. C. and Andrews, J. R. Early effects of radiation on

  3. Role of ATP-dependent K channels in the effects of erythropoietin in renal ischaemia injury

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Tonguç Utku; Yazihan, Nuray; Dalgic, Aydın; Kaya, Ezgi Ermis; Salman, Bulent; Kocak, Mehtap; Akcil, Ethem

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Erythropoietin (EPO) has cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects in pathological conditions, including hypoxia and ischaemia-reperfusion injury. One of the targets to protect against injury is ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels. These channels could be involved in EPO induced ischaemic preconditoning like a protective effect. We evaluated the cell cytoprotective effects of EPO in relation to KATP channel activation in the renal tubular cell culture model under hypoxic/normoxic conditions. Methods: Dose and time dependent effects of EPO, KATP channel blocker glibenclamide and KATP channel opener diazoxide on cellular proliferation were evaluated by colorimetric assay MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in human renal proximal tubular cell line (CRL-2830). Evaluation of the dose and time dependent effects of EPO, glibenclamide and diazoxide on apoptosis was done by caspase-3 activity levels. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 α) mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-PCR. Kir 6.1 protein expresion was evalutaed by Western blot. Results: Glibenclamide treatment decreased the number of living cells in a time and dose dependent manner, whereas EPO and diazoxide treatments increased. Glibenclamide (100 μM) treatment significantly blocked the anti-apoptotic effects of EPO (10 IU/ml) under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. EPO (10 IU/ml) and diazoxide (100 μM) treatments significantly increased (P<0.01) whereas glibenclamide decreased (P<0.05) HIF-1 α mRNA expression. Glibenclamide significantly (P<0.01) decreased EPO induced HIF-1 α mRNA expression when compared with the EPO alone group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the cell proliferative, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of EPO were associated with KATP channels in the renal tubular cell culture model under hypoxic

  4. Concentration of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate in renal hypertrophy. Contrasting effects of early diabetes and unilateral nephrectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Kunjara, S; Sochor, M; Greenbaum, A L; McLean, P

    1986-01-01

    Studies were made of the renal phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PPRibP) content and PPRibP synthetase (EC 2.7.6.1) activity in rats diabetic for 5, 14 or 20 days, or unilaterally nephrectomized (UN) for 5 days, and in doubly lesioned animals. Approximately equal degrees of renal enlargement were found after 5 days diabetes or 5 days UN. In the doubly lesioned animals the increment of growth was additive. Unilateral nephrectomy of 5 days duration, in contrast with diabetes, had no effect on the PPRibP content of the contralateral kidney, nor did it modify the renal PPRibP content when performed on animals diabetic for 5, 14 or 20 days. The activity of PPRibP synthetase was unaffected by diabetes, UN or diabetes +UN. The results pinpoint a stage of nucleotide synthesis which is differentially affected by the two stimuli, in line with evidence for differences in regulation of nucleic acid turnover in the two conditions. PMID:2432888

  5. The effect of activated charcoal on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Alza'abi, Mohamed; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa I; Beegam, Sumaya; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Brand, Susanne; Schupp, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) is a sorbent that has been shown to remove urinary toxins like urea and indoxyl sulfate. Here, the influence of AC on kidney function of rats with experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) is investigated. CRF was induced in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%) for four weeks. As an intervention, AC was added to the feed at concentrations of 10%, 15% or 20%. Adenine treatment impaired kidney function: it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vanin-1. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, phosphate and uric acid. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were adversely affected. Most of these changes were significantly ameliorated by dietary administration of AC at a concentration of 20%, while effects induced by lower doses of dietary AC on adenine nephrotoxicity were not statistically significant. The results suggest that charcoal is a useful sorbent agent in dietary adenine-induced CRF in rats and that its usability as a nephroprotective agent in human kidney disease should be studied.

  6. Protective effect of crocetin on hemorrhagic shock-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbo; Yan, Junling; Xi, Liang; Qian, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhenghong; Yang, Lina

    2012-07-01

    Multiple organ failure is a common outcome of hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation, and the kidney is one of the prime target organs involved. The main objective of the study was to evaluate whether crocetin, a natural product from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has beneficial effects on renal dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Anesthetized rats were bled to reduce mean arterial blood pressure to 35 (SD, 5) mmHg for 60 min and then were resuscitated with their withdrawn shed blood and normal saline. Crocetin was administered via the duodenum at a dose of 50 mg/kg 40 min after hemorrhage. The increase in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen was significantly reduced at 2 h after hemorrhage and resuscitation in crocetin-treated rats. The increases in renal nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 were also attenuated by crocetin. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in a significant elevation in malondialdehyde production and was accompanied by a reduction in total superoxide dismutase activity, activation of nuclear factor κB, and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These changes were significantly attenuated by crocetin at 2 h after resuscitation. These results suggested that crocetin blocks inflammatory cascades by inhibiting production of reactive oxygen species and restoring superoxide dismutase activity to ameliorate renal dysfunction caused by hemorrhage shock and resuscitation.

  7. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna; Karim, Alias A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the protective effects of sequential acetone extract of Ficus racemosa bark at two doses (FR250; 250 mg kg-1 and FR500; 500 mg kg-1 p.o.) against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Results: Doxorubicin administration resulted in significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total protein and glutathione concentrations, while increased (P ≤ 0.05) serum urea, creatinine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Extract pretreatment restored biochemical parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased serum creatinine levels by 22.5% and 44%, while serum urea levels were decreased by 30.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Extract pretreatment (500 mg kg-1) decreased TBARS and increased glutathione levels in the kidney and testis to control levels. These observations were substantiated by histopathological studies, wherein normal renal and testicular architecture was restored in FR500 group. Conclusion: Doxorubicin exposure results in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of F. racemosa stem bark extract offers significant renal and testicular protection by inhibiting lipidperoxidation-mediated through scavenging free radicals. PMID:23772108

  8. Effects of small changes in carotid sinus pressure on renal haemodynamics and function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, F; Poucher, S M; Summerill, R A

    1989-01-01

    1. In dogs anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated, the carotid sinuses were vascularly isolated and perfused with arterial blood. Mean aortic pressure was held constant at 111 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 18) by means of a pressure bottle connected to the aorta and a Starling resistance. Both vagus nerves were sectioned in the neck and propranolol hydrochloride (1 mg kg-1 h-1) or atenolol (0.5-4 mg kg-1 h-1) was administered. The left and right renal blood flows were measured by electromagnetic flowmeters (wrap-round probes), glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance, urinary sodium by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In six dogs decreasing pressure in the isolated carotid sinuses from 119 +/- 4 to 78 +/- 3 mmHg (n = 9) resulted in significant decreases in renal blood flow by 18 +/- 3% (P less than 0.01), glomerular filtration rate by 41 +/- 9% (P less than 0.01), filtration fraction by 30 +/- 11% (P less than 0.05), urine flow by 46 +/- 6% (P less than 0.001), sodium excretion by 46 +/- 9% (P less than 0.001) and osmolar excretion by 44 +/- 6% (P less than 0.001). Fractional sodium excretion did not change significantly. Increasing carotid sinus pressure back to 120 +/- 4 mmHg (n = 6) resulted in increases in all the variables to values not significantly different from those at initial high carotid pressure. 3. Ligation of left renal nerves at low carotid sinus pressure (83 +/- 3 mmHg, n = 5) caused significant increases in all of the variables in the left kidney. After ligation, changes in carotid sinus pressure produced no effect on the denervated left kidney, but in the three dogs in which the responses of the right kidney were also tested, the usual responses after denervation of the left kidney were seen. 4. The results show that changes in carotid sinus pressure around the normal range can result in significant reflex effects on renal haemodynamics and function and that these effects are mediated solely

  9. Cardiac and renal protective effects of dexmedetomidine in cardiac surgeries: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, AS; Mahmoud, KM; Kasemy, ZA; Helwa, MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac and renal injuries are common insults after cardiac surgeries that contribute to perioperative morbidity and mortality. Dexmedetomidine has been shown to protect several organs against ischemia/reperfusion-(I/R) induced injury. We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on cardiac and renal I/R injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgeries were randomized to dexmedetomidine group that received a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine initiated 5 min before cardiopulmonary bypass (1 μg/kg over 15 min, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h) until 6 h after surgery, whereas the control group received an equivalent volume of physiological saline. Primary outcome measures included myocardial-specific proteins (troponin-I, creatine kinase-MB), urinary-specific kidney proteins (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase-pi, glutathione transferase alpha), serum proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta), norepinephrine, and cortisol levels. They were measured within 5 min of starting anesthesia (T0), at the end of surgery (T1), 12 h after surgery (T2), 24 h after surgery (T3), 36 h postoperatively (T4), and 48 h postoperatively (T5). Furthermore, creatinine clearance and serum cystatin C were measured before starting surgery as a baseline, and at days 1, 4, 7 after surgery. Results: Dexmedetomidine reduced cardiac and renal injury as evidenced by lower concentration of myocardial-specific proteins, kidney-specific urinary proteins, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, it caused higher creatinine clearance and lower serum cystatin C. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine provided cardiac and renal protection during cardiac surgery. PMID:27833481

  10. Effects of tempol on altered metabolism and renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p < 0.05) in FT rats compared with their untreated counterparts. The vasoconstriction response to all agonists was lower in F rats than in control rats by about 35%-65% (all p < 0.05). Vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, and methoxamine but not Ang II were about 41%-75% higher in FT rats compared with F rats (all p < 0.05). Acute tempol infusion blunted responses to noradrenaline, methoxamine, and Ang II in control rats by 32%, 33%, and 62%, while it blunted responses to noradrenaline and Ang II in F rats by 26% and 32%, respectively (all p < 0.05), compared with their untreated counterparts. Superoxide radicals play a crucial role in controlling renal vascular responses to adrenergic agonists in insulin-resistant rats. Chronic but not acute tempol treatment enhances renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

  11. Effect of MPL 9000 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on renal hemodynamics and urine flow: assessment by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Naito, S; Yoshida, T; Ogata, N; Ichiya, Y; Koga, H; Kotoh, S; Masuda, K; Kumazawa, J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) with an MPL9000 lithotriptor on renal hemodynamics and urine flow was investigated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy. In the first-pass scintigrams obtained within 1 min after injection of 99mTc-DTPA, there was no significant change in the time to the maximum radioactivity level and the maximum radioactivity ratio at 1 day before ESWL and 1 day or 1 month after ESWL. However, analysis of 30-min scintigrams showed that urinary clearance of radioactivity was delayed in the treated kidney 1 day after ESWL, particularly in the region targeted by shock waves, despite the absence of overt urinary tract obstruction by residual stone fragments. This change was reversible and was no longer noted 1 month after ESWL. These results suggest that ESWL with the MPL9000 lithotriptor induces a focal and temporary decrease in urine flow in the treated kidney, but has little or no effect on renal hemodynamics.

  12. Renal effects of L-DOPA in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Grossman, E; Shenkar, A; Peleg, E; Thaler, M; Goldstein, D S

    1999-06-01

    We examined whether low-dose L-DOPA treatment induces natriuresis and diuresis in patients with congestive heart failure who have cardiac decompensation despite treatment with digoxin, a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and who respond acutely to intravenously infused dopamine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 11 patients with severe congestive heart failure received L-DOPA (0.10 g, p.o., t.i.d., for 1 day and then 0.25 g, p.o., t.i.d., for 2 days after a washout period of > or = 1 day), with assessments of plasma and urinary levels of catechols, urinary volume, and sodium content, and clinical and laboratory measures of improvement of congestive heart failure. L-DOPA elicited short-term, dose-related increases in urinary volume and sodium excretion. At the 0.10-g dose, L-DOPA increased plasma L-DOPA levels and urinary L-DOPA excretion by about fivefold, whereas at the 0.25-g dose, L-DOPA increased plasma and urinary L-DOPA by >50-fold. Twenty-four-hour urinary dopamine excretion increased by about fivefold after the low dose of L-DOPA and approximately 50-fold after the high dose. The results demonstrate that oral L-DOPA treatment can produce beneficial natriuretic and diuretic effects in selected patients with congestive heart failure. The bioavailability of oral L-DOPA appears to vary with the dose. These results support findings from previous studies about beneficial cardiac functional effects of L-DOPA in patients with refractory heart failure.

  13. Antagonistic effects of chloroquine on autophagy occurrence potentiate the anticancer effects of everolimus on renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, A; Santini, D; Zappavigna, S; Lombardi, A; Misso, G; Boccellino, M; Desiderio, V; Vitiello, P P; Di Lorenzo, G; Zoccoli, A; Pantano, F; Caraglia, M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease often asymptomatic and weakly chemo-radiosensitive. Currently, new biologic drugs are used among which everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, that has been approved for second-line therapy. Since mTOR is involved in the control of autophagy, its antitumor capacity is often limited. In this view, chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, is an autophagy inhibitor that blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus alone or in combination with chloroquine on renal cancer cell viability and verified possible synergism. Our results demonstrate that renal cancer cells are differently sensitive to everolimus and chloroquine and the pharmacological combination everolimus/chloroquine was strongly synergistic inducing cell viability inhibition. In details, the pharmacological synergism occurs when chloroquine is administered before everolimus. In addition, we found a flow autophagic block and shift of death mechanisms to apoptosis. This event was associated with decrease of Beclin-1/Bcl(-)2 complex and parallel reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl(-)2 in combined treatment. At last, we found that the enhancement of apoptosis induced by drug combination occurs through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation, while the extrinsic pathway is involved only partly following its activation by chloroquine. These results provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma after appropriate clinical trial.

  14. Antagonistic effects of chloroquine on autophagy occurrence potentiate the anticancer effects of everolimus on renal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, A; Santini, D; Zappavigna, S; Lombardi, A; Misso, G; Boccellino, M; Desiderio, V; Vitiello, P P; Di Lorenzo, G; Zoccoli, A; Pantano, F; Caraglia, M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease often asymptomatic and weakly chemo-radiosensitive. Currently, new biologic drugs are used among which everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, that has been approved for second-line therapy. Since mTOR is involved in the control of autophagy, its antitumor capacity is often limited. In this view, chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, is an autophagy inhibitor that blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus alone or in combination with chloroquine on renal cancer cell viability and verified possible synergism. Our results demonstrate that renal cancer cells are differently sensitive to everolimus and chloroquine and the pharmacological combination everolimus/chloroquine was strongly synergistic inducing cell viability inhibition. In details, the pharmacological synergism occurs when chloroquine is administered before everolimus. In addition, we found a flow autophagic block and shift of death mechanisms to apoptosis. This event was associated with decrease of Beclin-1/Bcl-2 complex and parallel reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in combined treatment. At last, we found that the enhancement of apoptosis induced by drug combination occurs through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation, while the extrinsic pathway is involved only partly following its activation by chloroquine. These results provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma after appropriate clinical trial. PMID:25866016

  15. Long-term effects of pediatric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Yigit; Yucel, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in children. Objectives To investigate the long-term effects of pediatric ESWL on renal function in light of updated literature. Methods PubMed and Medline were searched for studies on ESWL in a pediatric population with keywords including efficacy, child, kidney calculi, ureter calculi, lithotripsy, injury, vascular trauma, and shock waves. The research was limited to the English literature during a period from 1980 to 2014. In total, 3,000 articles were evaluated, but only 151 papers were considered. Only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included in the current study. Results However, the acute effects of ESWL in kidney are well-described. Although there are limited studies on the long-term effects of ESWL in children, there is a widespread opinion that ESWL is not affecting renal functions in the long-term. Conclusion ESWL is a safe, effective, and noninvasive treatment option in children. Although ESWL can cause some acute effects in the kidney, there is no long-term effect on the growing kidneys of children. PMID:24892029

  16. Brittleness Effect on Rock Fatigue Damage Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati, Hamid Reza; Ghazvinian, Abdolhadi

    2014-09-01

    The damage evolution mechanism of rocks is one of the most important aspects in studying of rock fatigue behavior. Fatigue damage evolution of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness were considered in the present study. Intensive experimental tests were conducted on the chosen rock samples and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used in some of them to monitor the fracturing process. Experimental tests indicated that brittleness strongly influences damage evolution of rocks in the course of static and dynamic loading. AE monitoring revealed that micro-crack density induced by the applied loads during different stages of the failure processes increases as rock brittleness increases. Also, results of fatigue tests on the three rock types indicated that the rock with the most induced micro-cracks during loading cycles has the least fatigue life. Furthermore, the condition of failure surfaces of the studied rocks samples, subjected to dynamic and static loading, were evaluated and it was concluded that the roughness of failure surfaces is influenced by loading types and rock brittleness. Dynamic failure surfaces were rougher than static ones and low brittle rock demonstrate a smoother failure surface compared to high brittle rock.

  17. The role of the renal effects of angiotensin II in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Young, D B; Lohmeier, T E; Hall, J E; Declue, J E; Bengis, R G; Coleman, T G; Guyton, A C

    1980-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is involved in many forms of clinical and experimental hypertension. Although angiotensin II has powerful vasoconstrictor properties, it is doubtful that any substance can produce sustained hypertension solely by increasing total peripheral resistance. Since the authors have demonstrated previously that alterations in the kidney's ability to excrete sodium can affect long-term arterial blood pressure regulation, they investigated angiotensin's effect on renal function in several experimental models. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that angiotensin has a powerful direct antinatriuretic effect, the magnitude of which is sufficient to cause marked hypertension at angiotensin concentrations well within the pathophysiological range.

  18. Nature vs Nurture: Effects of Learning on Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagrani, Nagina

    In the field of Evolutionary Robotics, the design, development and application of artificial neural networks as controllers have derived their inspiration from biology. Biologists and artificial intelligence researchers are trying to understand the effects of neural network learning during the lifetime of the individuals on evolution of these individuals by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The conclusion of these analyses can help develop optimized artificial neural networks to perform any given task. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects of learning on evolution. This has been done by applying Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning methods to the evolution of Artificial Neural Tissue controller. The controller has been assigned the task to collect resources in a designated area in a simulated environment. The performance of the individuals is measured by the amount of resources collected. A comparison has been made between the results obtained by incorporating learning in evolution and evolution alone. The effects of learning parameters: learning rate, training period, discount rate, and policy on evolution have also been studied. It was observed that learning delays the performance of the evolving individuals over the generations. However, the non zero learning rate throughout the evolution process signifies natural selection preferring individuals possessing plasticity.

  19. Involvement of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate-Dependent Protein Kinase I in Renal Antifibrotic Effects of Serelaxin

    PubMed Central

    Wetzl, Veronika; Schinner, Elisabeth; Kees, Frieder; Hofmann, Franz; Faerber, Lothar; Schlossmann, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney fibrosis has shown to be ameliorated through the involvement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and its dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). Serelaxin, the recombinant form of human relaxin-II, increases cGMP levels and has shown beneficial effects on kidney function in acute heart failure patients. Antifibrotic properties of serelaxin are supposed to be mediated via relaxin family peptide receptor 1 and subsequently enhanced nitric oxide/cGMP to inhibit transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. This study examines the involvement of cGKI in the antifibrotic signaling of serelaxin. Methods and Results: Kidney fibrosis was induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction in wildtype (WT) and cGKI knock-out (KO) mice. After 7 days, renal antifibrotic effects of serelaxin were assessed. Serelaxin treatment for 7 days significantly increased cGMP in the kidney of WT and cGKI-KO. In WT, renal fibrosis was reduced through decreased accumulation of collagen1A1, total collagen, and fibronectin. The profibrotic connective tissue growth factor as well as myofibroblast differentiation were reduced and matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 were positively modulated after treatment. Moreover, Smad2 as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) phosphorylation were decreased, whereas phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5a phosphorylation was increased. However, these effects were not observed in cGKI-KO. Conclusion: Antifibrotic renal effects of serelaxin are mediated via cGMP/cGKI to inhibit Smad2- and ERK1-dependent TGF-β signaling and increased PDE5a phosphorylation. PMID:27462268

  20. Effect of cold storage on immediate graft function in an experimental model of renal transplantation in cats.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca A; Hardie, Robert J; Schmiedt, Chad W; Delaney, Fern A; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of cold storage (CS) on immediate posttransplantation function of renal autografts in cats. ANIMALS 15 healthy 1-year-old cats. PROCEDURES Cats were assigned to 2 groups and underwent autotransplantation of the left kidney followed by nephrectomy of the right kidney. The left kidney was autotransplanted either immediately (IT group; n = 6) or after being flushed with a cold sucrose phosphate solution and stored on ice while the implant site was prepared (CS group; 9). Serum creatinine and BUN concentrations were monitored daily and autografts were ultrasonographically examined intermittently for 14 days after surgery. RESULTS Mean duration of CS was 24 minutes for the CS group. Posttransplantation serum creatinine and BUN concentrations for the CS group had lower peak values, returned to the respective reference ranges quicker, and were generally significantly lower than those for the IT group. Mean posttransplantation autograft size for the CS group was smaller than that for the IT group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that immediate posttransplantation function of renal autografts following a short period of CS was better than that of renal autografts that did not undergo CS, which suggested CS protected grafts from ischemic injury and may decrease perioperative complications, speed recovery, and improve the long-term outcome for cats with renal transplants. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Cats metabolize immunosuppressive drugs in a manner similar to humans; therefore, renal transplantation in cats may serve as a desirable model for investigating the effects of renal transplantation in human patients.

  1. (1)H NMR metabolomics analysis of renal cell carcinoma cells: Effect of VHL inactivation on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Cormier, Kevin; Touaibia, Mohamed; Reyjal, Julie; Robichaud, Sarah; Belbraouet, Mehdi; Turcotte, Sandra

    2016-05-15

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is an onco-suppressor involved in oxygen and energy-dependent promotion of protein ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Loss of function mutations of VHL (VHL-cells) result in organ specific cancers with the best studied example in renal cell carcinomas. VHL has a well-established role in deactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and in regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activity. Cell culture metabolomics analysis was utilized to determined effect of VHL and HIF-1α or HIF-2α on metabolism of renal cell carcinomas (RCC). RCC cells were stably transfected with VHL or shRNA designed to silence HIF-1α or HIF-2α genes. Obtained metabolic data was analysed qualitatively, searching for overall effects on metabolism as well as quantitatively, using methods developed in our group in order to determine specific metabolic changes. Analysis of the effect of VHL and HIF silencing on cellular metabolic footprints and fingerprints provided information about the metabolic pathways affected by VHL through HIF function as well as independently of HIF. Through correlation network analysis as well as statistical analysis of significant metabolic changes we have determined effects of VHL and HIF on energy production, amino acid metabolism, choline metabolism as well as cell regulation and signaling. VHL was shown to influence cellular metabolism through its effect on HIF proteins as well as by affecting activity of other factors.

  2. Effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to endothelin-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Rubio, Carmen; Carrascosa, Jose Ma; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Martín-Carro, Beatriz; Granado, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular alterations are the most prevalent cause of impaired physiological function in aged individuals with kidney being one the most affected organs. Aging-induced alterations in renal circulation are associated with a decrease in endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and with an increase in contracting factors such as endothelin-1(ET-1). As caloric restriction (CR) exerts beneficial effects preventing some of the aging-induced alterations in cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to ET-1 in aged rats. Vascular function was studied in renal arteries from 3-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (3m) and in renal arteries from 8-and 24-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (8m and 24m), or subjected to 20% caloric restriction during their three last months of life (8m-CR and 24m-CR). The contractile response to ET-1 was increased in renal arteries from 8m and 24m compared to 3m rats. ET-1-induced contraction was mediated by ET-A receptors in all experimental groups and also by ET-B receptors in 24m rats. Caloric restriction attenuated the increased contraction to ET-1 in renal arteries from 8m but not from 24m rats possibly through NO release proceeding from ET-B endothelial receptors. In 24m rats, CR did not attenuate the aging-increased response of renal arteries to ET-1, but it prevented the aging-induced increase in iNOS mRNA levels and the aging-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in arterial tissue. In conclusion, aging is associated with an increased response to ET-1 in renal arteries that is prevented by CR in 8m but not in 24m rats.

  3. Renal Effects and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Salt Content Diets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebeca Caldeira Machado; Vassallo, Paula Frizera; Crajoinas, Renato de Oliveira; Oliveira, Marilene Luzia; Martins, Flávia Letícia; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Araújo, Isabella Binotti; Forechi, Ludimila; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Several evidences have shown that salt excess is an important determinant of cardiovascular and renal derangement in hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the renal effects of chronic high or low salt intake in the context of hypertension and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. To this end, newly weaned male SHR were fed with diets only differing in NaCl content: normal salt (NS: 0.3%), low salt (LS: 0.03%), and high salt diet (HS: 3%) until 7 months of age. Analysis of renal function, morphology, and evaluation of the expression of the main molecular components involved in the renal handling of albumin, including podocyte slit-diaphragm proteins and proximal tubule endocytic receptors were performed. The relationship between diets and the balance of the renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 enzymes was also examined. HS produced glomerular hypertrophy and decreased ACE2 and nephrin expressions, loss of morphological integrity of the podocyte processes, and increased proteinuria, characterized by loss of albumin and high molecular weight proteins. Conversely, severe hypertension was attenuated and renal dysfunction was prevented by LS since proteinuria was much lower than in the NS SHRs. This was associated with a decrease in kidney ACE/ACE2 protein and activity ratio and increased cubilin renal expression. Taken together, these results suggest that LS attenuates hypertension progression in SHRs and preserves renal function. The mechanisms partially explaining these findings include modulation of the intrarenal ACE/ACE2 balance and the increased cubilin expression. Importantly, HS worsens hypertensive kidney injury and decreases the expression nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm. PMID:26495970

  4. Effects of "in vivo" administration of baclofen on rat renal tubular function.

    PubMed

    Donato, Verónica; Pisani, Gerardo Bruno; Trumper, Laura; Monasterolo, Liliana Alicia

    2013-09-05

    The effects of the in vivo administration of baclofen on renal tubular transport and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression were evaluated. In conscious animals kept in metabolic cages, baclofen (0.01-1mg/kg, s.c.) induced a dose-dependent increment in the urine flow rate (UFR) and in sodium and potassium excretion, associated with an increased osmolal clearance (Closm), a diminished urine to plasma osmolality ratio (Uosm/Posm) and a decrease in AQP2 expression. The above mentioned baclofen effects on functional parameters were corroborated by using conventional renal clearance techniques. Additionally, this model allowed the detection of a diminution in glucose reabsorption. Some experiments were performed with water-deprived or desmopressin-treated rats kept in metabolic cages. Either water deprivation or desmopressin treatment decreased the UFR and increased the Uosm/Posm. Baclofen did not change the Uosm/Posm or AQP2 expression in desmopressin-treated rats; but it increased the UFR and diminished the Uosm/Posm and AQP2 expression in water-deprived animals. These results indicate that in vivo administration of baclofen promotes alterations in proximal tubular transport, since glucose reabsorption was decreased. The distal tubular function was also affected. The increased Closm indicates an alteration in solute reabsorption at the ascending limb of the Henle's loop. The decreased Uosm/Posm and AQP2 expression in controls and in water-deprived, but not in desmopressin-treated rats, lead us to speculate that some effect of baclofen on endogenous vasopressin availability could be responsible for the impaired urine concentrating ability, more than any disturbance in the responsiveness of the renal cells to the hormone.

  5. [Cardiac effects of fenibut in development of experimental chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, A V; Barabanova, T A; Penchul, N A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fenibut on the mechanical activity of myocardium was studied in vitro and in vivo in rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) in a regime of physiologically alternating load simulating the intact heart function. The administration of fenibut (10 mg/kg) in rats after nephrectomy prevents the development of myocardial hyperfunction (characteristic of the animals with CRI in stage 1). In in vitro experiments on isolated myocardium fenibut also decreased the myocardial hyperfunction and reduced contractility to a control level, which was accompanied by accelerated relaxation in all finite systolic lengths.

  6. The effect of cyclosporin A on peripheral blood T cell subpopulations in renal allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Sweny, P; Tidman, N

    1982-01-01

    Treatment with cyclosporin A (CyA) produces a reversal of the normal ratio of OKT4+ (inducer type) to OKT84 (suppressor-cytotoxic type) cells so that renal allograft recipients on CyA alone develop a four-fold increase in the absolute number of circulating OKT8 positive cells. Conventional immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisolone reduces both populations of T cells without altering the ratio of OKT4+ to OKT8+ cells. This effect of CyA may help to explain its action as an immunosuppressive agent. PMID:6210475

  7. Effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on uterine myomas in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Fong, Y F; Singh, K

    1999-07-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) has been used in the treatment of both idiopathic menorrhagia and adenomyosis. An electronic search of the on-line medical literature revealed no reports of its use for menorrhagia secondary to uterine myomas. Presented here is the successful treatment of uterine myomas with menorrhagia in a woman with a renal transplant. There was a significant reduction in menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and uterine and myoma size with the use of the LNG-IUS. We believe that this system provides an alternative to conventional hysterectomy and gonadotrophin-releasing hormonal analog medical treatment for uterine myomas, with a possibly inhibitory effect on myoma growth.

  8. Renal accumulation and intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury in the rabbit: Effect of unilateral nephrectomy and dose of mercuric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. )

    1991-06-01

    The effects of unilateral nephrectomy and dose of mercuric chloride on the short-term renal accumulation and intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury were studied in the rabbit. The renal accumulation of inorganic mercury, on a per gram basis, was increased in uninephrectomized (NPX) rabbits compared with that in sham-operated (SO) rabbits 24 h after the animals received either a nontoxic 2.0 mumol/kg or nephrotoxic 4.0 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride. In the NPX rabbits given the 2.0 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride, the increased accumulation of inorganic mercury was due to increased accumulation of mercury in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. In the NPX rabbits given the 4.0 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride, the increased renal accumulation of mercury appeared to be due to increased accumulation of mercury in both the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Interestingly, no differences in the renal accumulation of inorganic mercury were found between NPX and SO rabbits given a low nontoxic 0.5 mumol/kg dose of mercuric chloride. As the dose of mercuric chloride was increased from 0.5 to 4.0 mumol/kg, the percent of the administered dose of mercury that accumulated in each gram of renal tissue decreased substantially. The findings in the present study indicate that the renal accumulation of inorganic mercury increases after unilateral nephrectomy when certain nontoxic and nephrotoxic doses of mercuric chloride are administered. In addition, they indicate that the percent of the administered dose of mercury that accumulates in the renal tissue of both NPX and SO rabbits decreases as the dose of mercuric chloride is increased.

  9. The effect of nimesulide on oxidative damage inflicted by ischemia-reperfusion on the rat renal tissue.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Zeynep; Sener, Ebru; Kurt, Nezahat; Comez, Mehmet; Yapanoglu, Turgut

    2015-03-01

    The objective of our study is to research biochemically and histopathologically the effect of nimesulide on oxidative damage inflicted by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) on the rat renal tissue. Twenty-four albino Wistar type of male rats were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into groups as: renal ischemia-reperfusion control (RIR), nimesulide+renal ischemia-reperfusion of 50 mg/kg (NRIR-50), nimesulide+renal ischemia-reperfusion of 100 mg/kg (NRIR-100), and sham groups (SG). In NRIR-50 and NRIR-100 groups were given nimesulide, and RIR and SG groups were given distilled water, an hour after anesthesia. Groups, except for the SG group, 1-h-ischemia and then 6-h-reperfusion were performed. In the renal tissue of the RIR group in which the malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHGua) levels were measured, the COX-1 and COX-2 activities were recorded. Nimesulide at 100 mg/kg doses reduced the oxidant parameters more significantly than 50 mg/kg doses; on the other hand, it raised the antioxidant parameters. It has been shown that 100 mg/kg doses of nimesulide prevented the renal I/R damage more significantly than a dose of 50 mg/kg, which shows that nimesulide, in clinics, could be used in the prevention of I/R damage.

  10. Diabetes-Induced Decrease in Renal Oxygen Tension: Effects of an Altered Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Fredrik; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Fasching, Angelica; Hansell, Peter; Liss, Per

    During conditions with experimental diabetes mellitus, it is evident that several alterations in renal oxygen metabolism occur, including increased mitochondrial respiration and increased lactate accumulation in the renal tissue. Consequently, these alterations will contribute to decrease the interstitial pO2, preferentially in the renal medulla of animals with sustained long-term hyperglycemia.

  11. Application of pharmacometric approaches to evaluate effect of weight and renal function on pharmacokinetics of alogliptin

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Himanshu; Czerniak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of the study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of alogliptin in healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects using a population PK approach and to assess the influence of various covariates on alogliptin exposure. Methods Plasma concentration data collected from two phase 1 studies and one phase 3 study following administration of alogliptin (12.5–400 mg) were used for the PK model development. One‐ and two‐compartment models were evaluated as base structural PK models. The impact of selected covariates was assessed using stepwise forward selection and backward elimination procedures. The predictability and robustness of the final model was evaluated using visual predictive check and bootstrap analyses. The final model was used to perform simulations and guide appropriate dose adjustments. Results A two‐compartment model with first‐order absorption and elimination best described the alogliptin concentration vs. time profiles. Creatinine clearance and weight had a statistically significant effect on the oral clearance (CL/F) of alogliptin. The model predicted a lower CL/F (17%, 35%, 80%) and a higher systemic exposure (56%, 89%, 339%) for subjects with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. Effect of weight on CL/F was not considered clinically relevant. Simulations at different doses of alogliptin support the approved doses of 12.5 mg and 6.25 mg for patients with moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. Conclusions The PK of alogliptin was well characterized by the model. The analysis suggested an alogliptin dose adjustment for subjects with moderate‐to‐severe renal impairment and no dose adjustments based on weight. PMID:26617339

  12. [The effect of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids in patients with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Molnár, Márta; Szekeresné Izsák, Margit; Nagy, Judit; Figler, Mária

    2009-02-01

    It is known that dietary protein restriction slows the progression of chronic renal disease. If daily protein intake is less than 0.5-0.6 g/kgbw, the diet has to be supplemented with essential aminoacids/ketoacids. In this study the authors evaluate the long-term effect of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids on the progression of chronic renal failure, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, nutritional status, the compliance of patients and the permanent dietary education for the compliance. 51 predialysis patients have been treated with ketoacids supplemented low-protein diet during 12-57 months (mean treatment period: 26 months). Serum creatinine raised from 349.72+/-78.04 micromol/l to 460.66+/-206.66 micromol/l (27 micromol/l/year or 2.3 micromol/l/month), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased from 21.52+/-7.84 ml/min to 18.22+/-7.76 ml/min (0.83 ml/min/year or 0.07 ml/min/month). The slope of 1/serum creatinine versus time was 0.0018 by linear regression analysis. Serum parathormon decreased significantly, but serum calcium and phosphorus did not change. Nutritional status of patients did not change significantly during the follow-up period. Protein intake decreased significantly and remained at this lower level during the treatment period. According to results: low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids was effective in slowing progression of chronic renal failure, decreased PTH, did not change nutritional status. With permanently and good education it was possible to keep patients on low-protein diet for a long period.

  13. Effect of bicarbonate supplementation on renal function and nutritional indices in predialysis advanced chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jiwon; Kwon, Soon Kil; Kim, Hye-Young

    2014-12-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend alkali therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis to prevent complications. This study aims to investigate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the progression of renal function and nutritional indices in patients with predialysis advanced CKD. Forty patients with predialysis stage 5 CKD(estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR <15mL/min per 1.73m(2)) and 40 patients with stage 4 CKD (eGFR 15 to 30mL/min per 1.73m(2)) who had a total CO2 less than 22mEq/L were assigned into the bicarbonate treatment group or control group for 12 months. In stage 4 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of eGFR during the study between the treatment group and the control group (-2.30±4.49 versus -6.58±6.32mL/min/1.73m(2), p<0.05). However, in stage 5 CKD, there were no significant differences in the change of eGFR during the study between the two groups (-2.10±2.06 versus -3.23±1.95mL/min/1.73 m(2)).There were no significant differences in the changes of nutritional indices such as albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and Ondodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) during the study between the two groups. In stage 5 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of TLC and OPNI between the two groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of decline of renal function in stage 4 CKD and improves nutritional indices in stage 5 CKD. Alkali therapy in advanced CKD may have beneficial effect on renal function and malnutrition.

  14. Effect of Bicarbonate Supplementation on Renal Function and Nutritional Indices in Predialysis Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jiwon; Kwon, Soon Kil

    2014-01-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend alkali therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis to prevent complications. This study aims to investigate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the progression of renal function and nutritional indices in patients with predialysis advanced CKD. Forty patients with predialysis stage 5 CKD(estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR <15mL/min per 1.73m2) and 40 patients with stage 4 CKD (eGFR 15 to 30mL/min per 1.73m2) who had a total CO2 less than 22mEq/L were assigned into the bicarbonate treatment group or control group for 12 months. In stage 4 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of eGFR during the study between the treatment group and the control group (-2.30±4.49 versus -6.58±6.32mL/min/1.73m2, p<0.05). However, in stage 5 CKD, there were no significant differences in the change of eGFR during the study between the two groups (-2.10±2.06 versus -3.23±1.95mL/min/1.73 m2).There were no significant differences in the changes of nutritional indices such as albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and Ondodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) during the study between the two groups. In stage 5 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of TLC and OPNI between the two groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of decline of renal function in stage 4 CKD and improves nutritional indices in stage 5 CKD. Alkali therapy in advanced CKD may have beneficial effect on renal function and malnutrition. PMID:25606047

  15. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guerra Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. Moreover, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective [corrected].

  16. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus: cost-effectiveness analysis for renal transplantation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Silva, Grazielle Dias; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, five years after renal transplantation. METHODS This cost-effectiveness analysis was based on historical cohort data obtained between 2000 and 2004 and involved 2,022 patients treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, matched 1:1 for gender, age, and type and year of transplantation. Graft survival and the direct costs of medical care obtained from the National Health System (SUS) databases were used as outcome results. RESULTS Most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 36.6 years. The most frequent diagnosis of chronic renal failure was glomerulonephritis/nephritis (27.7%). In five years, the tacrolimus group had an average life expectancy gain of 3.96 years at an annual cost of R$78,360.57 compared with the cyclosporine group with a gain of 4.05 years and an annual cost of R$61,350.44. CONCLUSIONS After matching, the study indicated better survival of patients treated with regimens using tacrolimus. However, regimens containing cyclosporine were more cost-effective. PMID:25741648

  17. Sucrose ingestion following exercise: selected cardiovascular, hormonal, renal, and metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Gleim, G W; Glace, B W; Zabetakis, P M; Michelis, M F; Nicholas, J A

    1992-12-01

    Carbohydrates, frequently consumed following exercise for glycogen resynthesis, have been shown to have other systemic effects in resting men. We examined the effects of postexercise sucrose (a disaccharide carbohydrate) ingestion on the renal, cardiovascular, and sympathetic nervous systems. Eight men consumed 1 l of water (W) or 1 l of a 200 g sucrose solution (S) following 1 hour of bicycle exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Measurements were made during 2 hours of recovery. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure were elevated following S as compared to W (p < 0.009, p < 0.04, respectively). Diastolic blood pressure was lower after S (p < 0.04) and mean blood pressure did not differ between beverages. Plasma and urinary catecholamines decreased similarly after exercise regardless of treatment. After S insulin (p = 0.0019) and glucose (p = 0.0036) were increased but serum aldosterone (p = 0.0083) and potassium (p = 0.0285) responses were lower. No differences were observed for plasma renin activity. Urine volume and kaliuresis were less after S (p = 0.03, p = 0.03). A 24% increase in metabolic rate (p = 0.002) and increased respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.02) after S were observed. Systemic effects of sucrose ingestion following exercise include cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and metabolic changes.

  18. [Side effect analyses in consideration of renal functions for capecitabine-administered patients].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2012-05-01

    There is a high frequency of serious side effects overseas in cases with a reduced creatinine clearance, for whom a 75% reduction in dose administration is recommended. The insidence of hematological toxicity was investigated in 89 cases[L group: Ccr<5 0mL/min(6 cases), M group: 50mL/min≤Ccr<80mL/min(34 cases), and H group: 80mL/min≤Ccr(49 cases)]who took capecitabine alone. The frequency of side effects was significantly high in group L[L: 6 cases(100%), M: 30 cases(88. 2%), and H: 30 cases(61. 2%)]. The frequency of grade 2 or more was higher in cases with a reduced renal function[L: 5 cases(83. 3%),M: 17 cases(50. 0%), and H: 18 cases(36. 7%)]. A significantly high decrease in hemoglobin was seen in group L[all grades; L: 5 cases(83. 3%),M: 20 cases(58. 8%), and H: 12 cases(24. 5%), and a grade 2 or more; L: 5 cases (83. 3%), M: 7 cases(20. 6%), and H: 5 cases (10. 2%)]. Moreover, there was little improvement when a decrease in hemoglobin occurred in grade 3 cases. Our findings suggest that it is necessary to manage drug dosage for Japanese patients while considering their renal function, and to actively monitor for any side effects.

  19. The effect of hemodialysis, vitamin D metabolites and renal transplantation on the skeletal demineralization associated with renal osteodystrophy: a computerized histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Main, J; Velasco, N; Catto, G R; Fraser, R A; Edward, N; Adami, S; O'Riordan, J L

    1986-12-01

    Twenty-three patients with end-stage renal failure treated by hemodialysis or transplantation were followed for up to 10 years. Sequential full thickness iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained to assess the effects on bone disease of hemodialysis, treatment with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25-(OH)2D3] and renal transplantation. The biopsies were analyzed by a computerized histomorphometric technique which allowed accurate measurements of calcified bone and osteoid areas. Serum aluminum and parathyroid hormone concentrations were also monitored. Hemodialysis was associated with a loss of calcified bone and an increase in osteoid areas. The progressive bone loss was arrested but not reversed following treatment with either 1,25-(OH)2D3 or 24,25-(OH)2D3. Osteoid area was unchanged or reduced following treatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3 in all but three patients who had serum aluminum concentrations in excess of 5 mumol/l. 24,25-(OH)2D3 was not effective in reducing osteoid area, and combined treatment with 1,25 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 had no effect beyond that expected with 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone. Bone biopsies showed loss of calcified bone and an increase in osteoid areas one year and more after successful renal transplantation in five patients. Nineteen of the 23 patients developed serum aluminum concentrations greater than 3 mumol/l, probably because of the use of oral aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binding agent. In these patients serum parathyroid hormone concentrations greater than 600 pg/ml appeared to prevent the development of osteopenia.

  20. 'Transcollateral' Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S. Swamy, Ajay

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  1. Hypomagnesaemia following theophylline or furosemide injection in ewes: renal versus extrarenal effect

    PubMed Central

    Larvor, P.; Rayssiguier, Y.

    1972-01-01

    1. Intravenous theophylline infusion (30 mg/kg body weight during 90 min) induces in normal ewes a magnesuria associated with hypomagnesaemia. Intravenous furosemide infusion (1 mg/kg body weight during 90 min) induces in the same animals a similar magnesuria with only a slight hypomagnesaemia. 2. In magnesium deficient ewes, theophylline induces a hypomagnesaemia, without a significant rise in magnesuria. 3. Theophylline infusion, with simultaneous reinjection of the excess magnesium excreted in urine, induces a significant hypomagnesaemia. 4. Thyroidectomy does not inhibit the effect of theophylline on magnesaemia. 5. It is concluded that the effect of theophylline on magnesaemia is mainly of extrarenal origin, while the effect of furosemide is only renal. The effect of theophylline is not mediated through calcitonin secretion. PMID:4647246

  2. Effect of a Flared Renal Stent on the Performance of Fenestrated Stent-Grafts at Rest and Exercise Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kandail, Harkamaljot; Hamady, Mohamad; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the hemodynamic impact of a flared renal stent on the performance of fenestrated stent-grafts (FSGs) by analyzing flow patterns and wall shear stress–derived parameters in flared and nonflared FSGs in different physiologic scenarios. Methods: Hypothetical models of FSGs were created with and without flaring of the proximal portion of the renal stent. Flared FSGs with different dilation angles and protrusion lengths were examined, as well as a nonplanar flared FSG to account for lumbar curvature. Laminar and pulsatile blood flow was simulated by numerically solving Navier-Stokes equations. A physiologically realistic flow rate waveform was prescribed at the inlet, while downstream vasculature was modeled using a lumped parameter 3-element windkessel model. No slip boundary conditions were imposed at the FSG walls, which were assumed to be rigid. While resting simulations were performed on all the FSGs, exercise simulations were also performed on a flared FSG to quantify the effect of flaring in different physiologic scenarios. Results: For cycle-averaged inflow of 2.94 L/min (rest) and 4.63 L/min (exercise), 27% of blood flow was channeled into each renal branch at rest and 21% under exercise for all the flared FSGs examined. Although the renal flow waveform was not affected by flaring, flow within the flared FSGs was disturbed. This flow disturbance led to high endothelial cell activation potential (ECAP) values at the renal ostia for all the flared geometries. Reducing the dilation angle or protrusion length and exercise lowered the ECAP values for flared FSGs. Conclusion: Flaring of renal stents has a negligible effect on the time dependence of renal flow rate waveforms and can maintain sufficient renal perfusion at rest and exercise. Local flow patterns are, however, strongly dependent on renal flaring, which creates a local flow disturbance and may increase the thrombogenicity at the renal ostia. Smaller dilation angles, shorter

  3. Pleistocene effects on North American songbird evolution

    PubMed Central

    Klicka, J.; Zink, R. M.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have used comparisons of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence divergence among populations and species to test existing hypotheses about avian evolution during the Pleistocene epoch. In 1998, Avise and Walker concluded that the Pleistocene was an important time for avian evolution, including the initiation of phylogeographic separations and the completion of speciation events that began in the Pliocene. The study implied that these conclusions conflicted with the study, in 1997, by Klicka and Zink, which concluded that most species pairs previously thought to have originated in the past 250 000 years were much older. The two studies are complementary in the sense that Avise and Walker dealt primarily with phylogeographic (intraspecific) separations. Furthermore, Klicka and Zink concentrated on the inception of divergences whereas the Avise and Walker focused on the timing of the completion of speciation. To accomplish this, Avise and Walker analysed 'phylogroups', geographically coherent subsets of biological species in which mtDNA haplotypes exhibit reciprocal monophyly. The study used the average interphylogroup mtDNA distance (0.027), calibrated at 2% per million years, to conclude that speciation required on average one million years to complete. Hence, speciation events begun in the Late Pliocene would have been completed in the mid- to late Pleistocene. Although we appreciate the extended nature of the speciation process and Avise and Walker's insightful attempt to estimate its duration, we conclude that their value was an overestimate by a factor of two. In particular we question whether phylogroups can be used in the novel evolutionary role that Avise and Walker envisioned, because of the vagaries of taxonomic practices and lack of consensus regarding species concepts. To extend their analysis of intraspecific, phylogeographic separations, we compiled previously analysed and newly available data for divergence times for North American songbird

  4. Effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Kohagura, Kentaro; Tana, Takeshi; Higa, Akira; Yamazato, Masanobu; Ishida, Akio; Nagahama, Kazufumi; Sakima, Atsushi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ohya, Yusuke

    2016-08-01

    Hyperuricemia may promote the progression of hypertension and renal dysfunction. However, the effects of hyperuricemia treatment on blood pressure and renal function in adult hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia remain unclear. A total of 137 hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia (96 men and 41 women; mean age of 67 years) who recently started taking xanthine oxidase inhibitors (allopurinol or febuxostat) as outpatients were recruited. Serum uric acid level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2)) and blood pressure (mm Hg) were retrospectively compared immediately before and shortly after starting treatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors. The mean blood pressure and the eGFR immediately before starting treatment were 128/71 mm Hg and 44.6 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2), respectively. Although the eGFR decreased from 46.6 to 44.6 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) before starting treatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors, it increased to 46.2 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) (P=0.001, compared with immediately before treatment) without any significant changes in blood pressure after the administration of xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the increase in eGFR after starting xanthine oxidase inhibitor treatment positively correlated with the changes in systolic blood pressure and negatively correlated with the changes in uric acid levels and the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. These results suggest that xanthine oxidase inhibitors may delay the progression of renal dysfunction in adult hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia.

  5. Effect of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy on early renal function: Does it deteriorate?

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Mohseni, Mohammad Ghasem; Roshan, Hamzeh; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on short or long-term renal function has been evaluated in many studies. We evaluated the effect of tubeless PCNL on early renal function. Materials and Methods: A total of 117 patients referring to our university center for PCNL were enrolled in the study if they were matched with the inclusion criteria. Serum creatinine and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured before PCNL and 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after the operation. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using Cockroft-Gault formula. Results: There were 79 (67.5%) men and 38 women (32.5%) with the mean age of 49.94 years ranging from 18 to 80 years in the study group. The mean creatinine level elevated in the first 48 h after PCNL but it started to reduce on the 3rd day (mean preoperative creatinine level: 1.32 ± 0.18 mg/dL, mean creatinine level after 48 h: 1.59 ± 0.24 mg/dL, creatinine level after 72 h: 1.42 ± 0.21245 mg/dL) (P < 0.0001). GFR values had the same rise and fall pattern as serum creatinine level (mean preoperative GFR: 74.89 mL/min, mean GFR after 48 h: 64.04 mL/min, GFR after 72 h: 69.54 mL/min, P < 0.0001). PCNL also affected blood Hb level. The mean preoperative Hb level was 15.06 ± 0.87 g/dL and it significantly decreased to 13.09 ± 1.06 g/dL after the operation (P < 0.0005). Conclusions: Tubeless PCNL like standard PCNL decreases GFR in the very early postoperative days. It is recommended that factors that might have a negative impact on renal function during first few days after PCNL be avoided. PMID:26605229

  6. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  7. Immunopathologic effects of scorpion venom on hepato-renal tissues: Involvement of lipid derived inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Lamraoui, Amal; Adi-Bessalem, Sonia; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Scorpion venoms are known to cause different inflammatory disorders through complex mechanisms in various tissues. In the study here, the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites in hepatic and renal inflammation responses were examined. Mice were envenomed with Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom in the absence or presence of inhibitors that can interfere with lipid inflammatory mediator synthesis, i.e., dexamethasone (PLA2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), or celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). The inflammatory response was assessed by evaluating vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative/nitrosative stress marker levels, and by histologic and functional analyses of the liver and kidney. Results revealed that the venom alone induced an inflammatory response in this tissues marked by increased microvascular permeability and inflammatory cell infiltration, increases in levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreases in antioxidant defense. Moreover, significant alterations in the histological architecture of these organs were associated with increased serum levels of some metabolic enzymes, as well as urea and uric acid. Pre-treatment of mice with dexamethasone led to significant decreases of the inflammatory disorders in the hepatic parenchyma; celecoxib pre-treatment seemed to be more effective against renal inflammation. Indomethacin pre-treatment only slightly reduced the inflammatory disorders in the tissues. These results suggest that the induced inflammation response in liver was mediated mainly by PLA2 activation, while the renal inflammatory process was mediated by prostaglandin formation by COX-2. These findings provide additional insight toward the understanding of activated pathways and related mechanisms involved in scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  8. [Effects and underlying mechanism of berberine on renal tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Ma, Z J; Hu, S L; Wang, S S; Guo, X; Zhang, X N; Sun, B; Chen, L M

    2016-10-18

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Berberine on renal tubulointerstitial injury and its potential mechanism in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control rats (NC group), diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group), diabetic rats treated with Berberine (BBR group) for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical examination, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was quantified by Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and Masson staining. The expressions of E-cadherin (E-cad), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Results: 24 h urinary microalbumin (mAlb)[(170.5±58.1) vs (253.7±53.0) mg]and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG)[(33.5±7.2) vs (49.5±9.3)U/L]in diabetic rats were significantly decreased by BBR treatment(both P<0.05). The apparent renal tubulointerstitial injury was found in the DM group, which was ameliorated by BBR treatment. The expression of α-SMA, NF-κB and MCP-1 were significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cad in BBR-treated DM rats (all P<0.05). Conclusion: BBR could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic rats, the mechanism of which may be associated with the amelioration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through suppressing the expression of the NF-κB and MCP-1.

  9. Effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chao-Lun; Chou, Hsu-Wen; Chan, K Arnold; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-03-01

    We performed this population-based study to investigate the effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Pay-for-Performance program for diabetes mellitus database, 2006 to 2009, type 2 diabetic patients aged 40 to 100 years with the first prescription of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin were identified. All the data were linked to the National Health Insurance claims database, 2000 to 2010, to construct longitudinal health care data. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the eGFRs between baseline and the end of follow-up (maximum 2 years) were compared. Totally, 3,601 new users of atorvastatin and 1,968 new users of rosuvastatin were included. The median follow-up was 238 days in atorvastatin users and 210 days in rosuvastatin users. The eGFR at baseline was 72.3 ± 25.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in atorvastatin users and 73.7 ± 27.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in rosuvastatin users. In both statin groups, we found no significant change in eGFR (+0.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 95% confidence interval -0.4 to 0.7, p = 0.62 in atorvastatin users; -0.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 95% confidence interval -0.8 to 0.6, p = 0.77 in rosuvastatin users). In conclusion, neither treatment with atorvastatin nor rosuvastatin was associated with a significant change of renal function in type 2 diabetic patients.

  10. The effect of a thermal renal denervation cycle on the mechanical properties of the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Alan A; Sheridan, William S; Sharif, Faisal; Murphy, Bruce P

    2014-11-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect that a thermal renal denervation cycle has on the mechanical properties of the arterial wall. Porcine arterial tissue specimens were tested in three groups: native tissue, decellularized tissue, decellularized with collagen digestion (e.g. elastin only). One arterial specimen was used as an unheated control specimen while another paired specimen was subjected to a thermal cycle of 70°C for 120s (n=10). The specimens were subjected to tensile loading and a shrinkage analysis. We observed two key results: The mechanical properties associated with the elastin extracellular matrix (ECM) were not affected by the thermal cycle. The effect of the thermal cycle on the collagen (ECM) was significant, in both the native and decellularized groups the thermal cycle caused a statistically significant decrease in stiffness, and failure strength, moreover the native tissue demonstrated a 27% reduction in lumen area post exposure to the thermal cycle. We have demonstrated that a renal denervation thermal cycle can significantly affect the mechanical properties of an arterial wall, and these changes in stiffness and failure strength were associated with alterations to the collagen rather than the elastin extracellular matrix component.

  11. Effect of Ramipril on Urinary Protein Excretion in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients Converted to Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Alberú, J; Barama, A; Marder, B A; Silva, H T; Flechner, S M; Flynn, A; Healy, C; Li, H; Tortorici, M A; Schulman, S L

    2015-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of ramipril on urinary protein excretion in renal transplant patients treated with sirolimus following conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor. Patients received ramipril or placebo for up to 6 weeks before conversion and 52 weeks thereafter. Doses were increased if patients developed proteinuria (urinary protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.5); losartan was given as rescue therapy for persistent proteinuria. The primary end point was time to losartan initiation. Of 295 patients randomized, 264 met the criteria for sirolimus conversion (ramipril, 138; placebo, 126). At 52 weeks, the cumulative rate of losartan initiation was significantly lower with ramipril (6.2%) versus placebo (23.2%) (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between ramipril and placebo for change in glomerular filtration rate from baseline (p = 0.148) or in the number of patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (13 vs. 5, respectively; p = 0.073). One patient in the placebo group died due to cerebrovascular accident. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sirolimus and were not potentiated by ramipril co-administration. Ramipril was effective in reducing the incidence of proteinuria for up to 1 year following conversion to sirolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients.

  12. Effect of mass gain on stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, R.; Zinnecker, H.

    A fully hydrodynamical treatment is given of the stationary isothermal accretion problem onto a moving gravitating point mass. It is noted that the derivation is purely analytical. It is found that the accretion rate is more than a factor of 50 higher than the accretion rate derived from the partially nonhydrodynamical treatment by Hoyle and Lyttleton (1939) or Bondi and Hoyle (1944). It is thought that his result may have some bearing on the evolutionary tracks of young pre-Main Sequence stars still embedded in their parent protocluster cloud. Also discussed is the work of Federova (1979), who investigated the pre-Main Sequence evolution of degenerate low mass 'stars' with strong accretion of protocluster cloud material. It is suggested that the stars that lie below the Main Sequence in young clusters could strongly accrete matter at the pre-Main Sequence stage. It is also suggested that the observed lack of low mass stars in open galactic clusters (van den Bergh, 1961) compared to the field may derive from the accretion of residual gas preferentially by low mass stars.

  13. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zatelli, A.; Roura, X.; D’Ippolito, P.; Berlanda, M.; Zini, E.

    2016-01-01

    Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4) were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22) received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h) and in group B (n=22) benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h); in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS), serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001). Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05). In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet. PMID:27540513

  14. The Evolution of Institutional Effectiveness in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    The origins of institutional effectiveness are traced, its evolution within community colleges is described, the use of the term "institutional effectiveness" is analyzed, and a practical, operational definition of the term is presented. The author hopes that this definition and the discussion in this article prove useful to community college…

  15. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  16. Primary effects of carotid chemoreceptor stimulation on gracilis muscle and renal blood flow and renal function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    al-Obaidi, M; Karim, F

    1992-01-01

    1. In chloralose-anaesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs, the carotid sinus regions were vascularly isolated and perfused either with arterial or mixed (arterial and venous) blood (partial pressure of O2 (PO2) 43.8 +/- 2.4 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.M. n = 14) to stimulate the carotid chemoreceptors. The carotid sinus pressure was held constant at 142.0 +/- 2.8 mmHg. Measurements were made of renal and gracilis muscle blood flow by wrap-round electromagnetic flow probes placed around the renal and gracilis arteries, glomerular filtration rate by creatine clearance, urinary sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In ten dogs, with intact cervical vagosympathetic trunks, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation produced significant increases in aortic pressure (AoP) of 12.7 +/- 1.1% (n = 10, P < 0.001), in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 14.7 +/- 4.1% (P < 0.001), urine flow rate (V) of 16.5 +/- 3.5% (P < 0.002), in urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) of 17.5 +/- 2.5% (P < 0.005) and in urinary osmolar excretion (UosmV) of 13.2 +/- 2.2% (P < 0.001), but a significant decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) of 5.8 +/- 1.8% (P < 0.02). In six of these dogs in which gracilis muscle blood flow (MBF) was also recorded, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation caused significant increases in AoP of 12.8 +/- 1.4% (n = 6, P < 0.001) and in MBF of 10.0 +/- 1.6% (P < 0.002), and a small but significant decrease in RBF of 3.6 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.02). 3. In fourteen dogs, with sectioned cervical vagosympathetic trunks, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation produced increases in AoP of 22.0 +/- 2.6% (n = 14, P < 0.001), in GFR of 36.9 +/- 4.2% (P < 0.001), in V of 30.1 +/- 4.4% (P < 0.001), in UNaV of 31.4 +/- 5.3% (P < 0.001), and in UosmV of 25.7 +/- 5.8% (P < 0.001). However, it produced a greater decrease in RBF of 10.5 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001). In ten of these dogs, where MBF was recorded, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation caused greater increase in AoP of 22.4 +/- 3

  17. Effects of oolong tea on renal sympathetic nerve activity and spontaneous hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Shen, Jiao; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Nagai, Katsuya

    2008-04-01

    In a previous study, evidence was presented that oolong tea (OT) reduced abdominal fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice. In the study presented here, we examined the sympathetic and cardiovascular effects of intraduodenal injection of OT in urethane-anesthetized rats and found that it suppressed renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP). In addition, pretreatment with the histaminergic H3-receptor antagonist thioperamide or bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy eliminated the effects of OT on RSNA and BP. Furthermore, OT drinking for 14 weeks reduced BP elevation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results thus suggest that OT may exert its hypotensive action through changes in autonomic neurotransmission via an afferent neural mechanism. Moreover, we found that intraduodenal injection of decaffeinated OT lowered RSNA and BP as well as OT, indicating that substances other than caffeine contained in OT may function as effective modulators of RSNA and BP.

  18. Effect of berberine on the renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by inhibition of the Notch/snail pathway in diabetic nephropathy model KKAy mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guannan; Zhao, Zongjiang; Zhang, Xinxue; Wu, Amin; Huang, Yawei; Miao, Yonghui; Yang, Meijuan

    2017-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal tubular interstitial fibrosis are the main pathological changes of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Previous studies have suggested that berberine (BBR) has antifibrotic effects in the kidney and can reduce apoptosis and inhibit the EMT of podocytes in DN. However, the effect of BBR on the renal tubular EMT in DN and its mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was performed to explore the effects of BBR on the renal tubular EMT and the molecular mechanisms of BBR in DN model KKAy mice and on the high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in mouse renal tubular epithelial cells. Our results showed that, relative to the model mice, the mice in the treatment group had an improved general state and reduced blood glucose and 24-h urinary protein levels. Degradation of renal function was ameliorated by BBR. We also observed the protective effects of BBR on renal structural changes, including normalization of an index of renal interstitial fibrosis and kidney weight/body weight. Moreover, BBR suppressed the activation of the Notch/snail pathway and upregulated the α-SMA and E-cadherin levels in DN model KKAy mice. BBR was further found to prevent HG-induced EMT events and to inhibit the HG-induced expression of Notch pathway members and snail1 in mouse renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings indicate that BBR has a therapeutic effect on DN, including its inhibition of the renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, the BBR-mediated EMT inhibition occurs through Notch/snail pathway regulation.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  20. Effect of chronic salt loading on adenosine metabolism and receptor expression in renal cortex and medulla in rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Wu, F; Li, P L; Cowley, A W

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that chronic salt loading increased renal interstitial adenosine concentrations and desensitized renal effects of adenosine, a phenomenon that could facilitate sodium excretion. However, the mechanisms responsible for the increased adenosine production and decreased adenosine response are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of the dietary high salt intake on adenosine metabolism and receptor expression in the renal cortex and medulla in Sprague Dawley rats. Fluorescent high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were performed to determine adenosine levels in snap-frozen kidney tissues. Comparing rats fed a normal (1% NaCl) versus high salt (4% NaCl) diet, renal adenosine concentrations in rats fed a high salt diet were significantly higher (cortex: 43+/-3 versus 85+/-4, P<0.05; medulla: 183+/-4 versus 302+/-8 nmol/g wet tissue, P<0.05). Increased adenosine concentrations were not associated with changes in the 5'-nucleotidase or adenosine deaminase activity, as determined by quantitative isoelectric focusing and gel electrophoresis. Western blot analyses showed that a high salt diet (4% NaCl for 3 weeks) downregulated A1 receptors (antinatriuretic type), did not alter A2A and A2B receptors (natriuretic type), and upregulated A3 receptors (function unknown) in both renal cortex and medulla. The data show that stimulation of adenosine production and downregulation of A1 receptors with salt loading may play an important role in adaptation in the kidney to promote sodium excretion.

  1. Lactating and nonlactating rats differ to renal toxicity induced by mercuric chloride: the preventive effect of zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Favero, Alexandre M; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Franciscato, Carina; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Juliana S F; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; da Luz, Sônia C A; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M; Pereira, Maria E

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of HgCl2 on renal parameters in nonlactating and lactating rats and their pups, as well as the preventive role of ZnCl2 . Rats received 27 mg kg(-1) ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5 mg kg(-1) HgCl2 for five subsequent days (s.c.). A decrease in δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the blood and an increase in urine protein content in renal weight as well as in blood and urine Hg levels were observed in lactating and nonlactating rats from Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups. ZnCl2 prevented partially the δ-ALA-D inhibition and the proteinuria in nonlactating rats. Renal Hg levels were increased in all HgCl2 groups, and the ZnCl2 exposure potentiated this effect in lactating rats. Nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 exhibited an increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels, δ-ALA-D activity inhibition and histopathological alterations (necrosis, atrophic tubules and collagen deposition) in the kidneys. ZnCl2 exposure prevented the biochemical alterations. Hg-exposed pups showed lower body and renal weight and an increase in the renal Hg levels. In conclusion, mercury-induced nephrotoxicity differs considerably between lactating and nonlactating rats. Moreover, prior exposure with ZnCl2 may provide protection to individuals who get exposed to mercury occupationally or accidentally.

  2. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  3. The effect of oculo-acupuncture on recovery from ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhu; Song, Kun-Ho; You, Myung-Jo; Son, Dong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Whan; Kim, Duck-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The potential recovery effect by oculo-acupuncture (OA) on ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs was investigated. Acute renal damage was induced by ingestion of ethylene glycol in six mongrel dogs. The dogs were assigned to control (three dogs) and experimental (three dogs) groups. The control group did not receive any treatment, while the experimental group was treated with oculo-acupuncture at kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region of the eyes after the induction of renal damage. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) were measured in both control and experimental groups. The blood RBC and Hb were also examined. The serum BUN and creatinine activities in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group, the serum Na and Cl had the irregular change in both groups, and the blood Hb in the control and experimental group showed decreasing tendency. Significant differences were observed on the 3rd and 7th day in BUN, 7th day in creatinine, 2nd day in Na and Cl, and 7th day in Hb when compared to the control group. Whereas, serum K concentration and RBC in the experimental group did not change significantly. The recovery findings of the renal injury were also observed in the experimental group histopathologically. In conclusion, OA therapy (kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region) was effective for recovery of the renal injury induced by ethylene glycol in dogs.

  4. Differences between renal effects of venom from two Bothrops jararaca populations from southeastern and southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; Jorge, Antônio Rafael Coelho; de Menezes, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra; Mello, Clarissa Perdigão; Lima, Danya Bandeira; Silveira, João Alison de Moraes; Alves, Natacha Teresa Queiroz; Marinho, Aline Diogo; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Gonçalves Machado, Larissa; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul

    2017-01-01

    Components from animal venoms may vary according to the snake's age, gender and region of origin. Recently, we performed a proteomic analysis of Bothrops jararaca venom from southern (BjSv) and southeastern (BjSEv) Brazil, showing differences in the venom composition, as well as its biological activity. To continue the study, we report in this short communication the different effects induced by the BjSEv and BjSv on isolated kidney and MDCK renal cells. BjSEv decreased perfusion pressure (PP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) and increased urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), while BjSv did not alter PP and RVR and reduced UF and GFR. Both types of venom, more expressively BjSEv, reduced %TNa(+), %TK(+) and %Cl(-). In MDCK cells, the two types of venom showed cytotoxicity with IC50 of 1.22 μg/mL for BjSv and 1.18 μg/mL for BjSEv and caused different profiles of cell death, with BjSv being more necrotic. In conclusion, we suggest that BjSv is more nephrotoxic than BjSEv.

  5. Ameliorating Effect of Gemigliptin on Renal Injury in Murine Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin Yeong; Kim, Jin Sug; Kim, Yang Gyun; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown the antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of DPP-IV inhibitor in experimental models of renal injury. We tested whether DPP-IV inhibitor (gemigliptin) ameliorates renal injury by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice with adriamycin nephropathy. Methods. Mice were treated with normal saline (control), gemigliptin (GM), adriamycin (ADR), or adriamycin combined with gemigliptin (ADR+GM). Apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress were analyzed via western blotting, real-time PCR, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Results. In the ADR+GM group, urine albumin creatinine ratio decreased significantly compared with that in the ADR group on day 15. Glomerulosclerosis index and tubulointerstitial injury index in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy decreased after gemigliptin treatment. ADR group showed higher levels of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress-related molecules compared with the control group. The upregulation of these molecules was significantly reduced by gemigliptin. In the ADR group, the staining intensities of WT-1 and nephrin reduced, but these changes were ameliorated in the ADR+GM group. Conclusion. We demonstrated that gemigliptin ameliorates nephropathy by suppressing apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice administered adriamycin. Our data demonstrate that gemigliptin has renoprotective effects on adriamycin-induced nephropathy. PMID:28326327

  6. NMR studies of renal phosphate metabolites in vivo: Effects of hydration and dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, S.D.; Eng, C.; Balaban, R.S. )

    1988-10-01

    The present study characterizes the {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of rabbit kidneys in vivo and evaluates the effect of hydration on phosphorous metabolites including the organic solute glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC). Cortical phosphorylethanolamine is the predominant component of the phosphomonoester region of the {sup 31}P spectrum. The contribution of blood to the spectrum is mainly from 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, which comprises {approximately}30% of the inorganic phosphate region. Acute infusion of 0.9% saline decreases the sodium content of the inner medulla by >50% in 15 min as shown by {sup 23}Na imaging. Despite this medullary Na dilution, no change in renal GPC content was observed for >1 h even with the addition of furosemide or furosemide and antidiuretic hormone. However, 20 h of chronic dehydration with 0.45% saline did result in a 30% decrease in renal GPC content when compared with dehydrated animals. These findings are consistent with GPC not playing a role in the short-term regulation of the medullary intracellular milieu in response to acute reductions in medullary Na content.

  7. 28-day repeated dose response study of diglycolic acid: Renal and hepatic effects.

    PubMed

    Sprando, Robert L; Mossoba, Miriam E; Black, Thomas; Keltner, Zachary; Vohra, Sanah; Olejnik, Nicholas; Toomer, Howard; Stine, Cynthia; Evans, Eric; Sprando, Jessica L; Ferguson, Martine

    2017-03-25

    The acute oral toxicity of diglycolic acid (DGA) was evaluated. Groups of female rats (n = 8 rats/group) received 28 consecutive daily single doses of 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, 30.0, 100.0 or 300.0 mg DGA/kg body weight by gastric intubation. One group of animals served as vehicle control. Tissues and blood serum were collected at necropsy on day 29. Select organs were weighed and fixed in formalin for histopathological analysis. Animals from the 300 mg/kg bw dose group were removed from the study after 5 consecutive days of treatment as a consequence of adverse treatment related effects. The animals in the remaining treatment groups survived the exposure period. No adverse clinical signs were observed throughout the exposure period in the surviving animals. No significant differences from controls were observed for feed and fluid consumption or body weight gain in the surviving animals. Lesions were observed in the kidneys, liver, stomach, intestine, thymus, spleen and bone marrow in animals from the 300 mg/kg dose group and signs of renal tubular regeneration were observed only in the 100 mg/kg dose group. These results suggest that high levels of pure DGA would need to be consumed before renal and other forms of organ toxicity are observed.

  8. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  9. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  10. Distribution, elimination, and renal effects of single oral doses of europium in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Keiko; Usuda, Kan; Nakayama, Shin; Sugiura, Yumiko; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Akihiro; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Kono, Koichi

    2011-11-01

    Single doses of europium (III) chloride hexahydrate were orally administered to several groups of rats. Cumulative urine samples were taken at 0-24 h, and blood samples were drawn after 24-h administration. The europium concentration was determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The volume, creatinine, ß-2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase were measured in the urine samples to evaluate possible europium-induced renal effects. The blood samples showed low europium distribution, with an average of 77.5 μg/L for all groups. Although the urinary concentration and excretion showed dose-dependent increases, the percentage of europium excreted showed a dose-dependent decrease, with an average of 0.31% in all groups. The administration of europium resulted in a significant decrease of creatinine and a significant increase of urinary volume, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, and ß-2-microglobulin. Rare earth elements, including europium, are believed to form colloidal conjugates that deposit in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli. This specific reaction may contribute to low europium bioavailability and renal function disturbances. Despite low bioavailability, the high performance of the analytical method for determination of europium makes the blood and urine sampling suitable tools for monitoring of exposure to this element. The results presented in this study will be of great importance in future studies on the health impacts of rare earth elements.

  11. The Bohr Effect Is Not a Likely Promoter of Renal Preglomerular Oxygen Shunting

    PubMed Central

    Olgac, Ufuk; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether possible preglomerular arterial-to-venous oxygen shunting is affected by the interaction between renal preglomerular carbon dioxide and oxygen transport. We hypothesized that a reverse (venous-to-arterial) shunting of carbon dioxide will increase partial pressure of carbon dioxide and decrease pH in the arteries and thereby lead to increased oxygen offloading and consequent oxygen shunting. To test this hypothesis, we employed a segment-wise three-dimensional computational model of coupled renal oxygen and carbon dioxide transport, wherein coupling is achieved by shifting the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve in dependence of local changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH. The model suggests that primarily due to the high buffering capacity of blood, there is only marginally increased acidity in the preglomerular vasculature compared to systemic arterial blood caused by carbon dioxide shunting. Furthermore, effects of carbon dioxide transport do not promote but rather impair preglomerular oxygen shunting, as the increase in acidity is higher in the veins compared to that in the arteries. We conclude that while substantial arterial-to-venous oxygen shunting might take place in the postglomerular vasculature, the net amount of oxygen shunted at the preglomerular vasculature appears to be marginal. PMID:27833564

  12. Protective effect of sulfated chitosan of C3 sulfation on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of sulfated chitosan of C3 sulfation (TCTS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure. Compared with the normal group, rats from model group exhibited collecting duct and medullary ascending limb dilation and casts by glycerol treating. TCTS, which was injected to pretreat rats by glycerol, exerted a protective effect. The results showed that serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were markedly increased in glycerol-treated rats. It is proved that TCTS reduced their levels significantly. Ions level in plasma and urine were significantly changed in glycerol-treated rats, whereas TCTS almost recovered their levels back to normal. For female rats, administration of TCTS reduced their mortality. This study showed a noticeable renal morphologic and functional protection by TCTS in glycerol-induced acute renal failure.

  13. Selective effects of a fiber chimeric conditionally replicative adenovirus armed with hep27 gene on renal cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Wenshun; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Liantao; Liu, Junjie; Zheng, Junnian

    2016-06-02

    ASBTARCT Adenoviruses mediated cancer gene therapies are widely investigated and show a promising effect on cancer treatment. However, efficient gene transfer varies among different cancer cell lines based on the expression of coxsakie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Hep27, a member of dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, can bind to Mdm2, resulting in the attenuation of Mdm2-mediated p53 degradation. Here we constructed a fiber chimeric adenovirus carrying hep27 gene (F5/35-ZD55-Hep27), in which the fiber protein of 5-serotype adenovirus (Ad5) was substituted by that of 35-serotype adenovirus (Ad35), aiming to facilitate the infection for renal cancer cells and develop the role of hep27 in cancer therapy. We evaluated the CAR and CD46 (a membrane cofactor protein for Ad35) expression in four kinds of renal cancer cells and assessed the relationship between receptors and infection efficiency. 5/35 fiber-modified adenovirus had a much promising infectivity compared with Ad5-based vector in renal cancer cells. F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 had enhanced antitumor activity against human renal cancer cells compared to the other groups. Further, hep27 mediated p53 and cleaved-PARP upregulation and mdm2 downregulation was involved and caused increased apoptosis. Moreover, F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 significantly suppressed tumor growth in subcutaneous renal cancer cell xenograft models. Our data demonstrated that 5/35 fiber-modified adenovirus F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 transferred into renal cancers efficiently and increased p53 to induce cancer cell apoptosis. Thus 5/35 fiber-modified adenoviral vector F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 might a promising vector and antitumor reagent for renal cancer gene therapy.

  14. Renal and extrarenal effects of gum arabic ( Acacia senegal )--what can be learned from animal experiments?

    PubMed

    Nasir, Omaima

    2013-01-01

    Gum arabic (GA), a water-soluble dietary fiber rich in Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+), is used in Middle Eastern countries for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Recent animal experiments shed some light into mechanisms involved in the therapeutic action of GA. According to experiments in healthy mice, GA treatment increases creatinine clearance, enhances renal excretion of ADH, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), decreases plasma phosphate concentration as well as urinary excretion of phosphate and Na(+). In diabetic mice GA treatment increases urinary Ca(2+) excretion, and decreases plasma phosphate concentration, plasma urea concentration, urinary flow rate, natriuresis, phosphaturia, glucosuria, proteinuria as well as blood pressure. Extrarenal effects of GA treatment in mice include decreased expression of intestinal Na(+) coupled glucose carrier SGLT1 with subsequent delay of electrogenic intestinal glucose transport, glucose-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and body weight gain. GA treatment decreases colonic transcription of the angiogenetic factors angiogenin 1, angiogenin 3 and angiogenin 4, of CD38 antigen, aquaporin4, interleukin18, vav-3-oncogene, y(+)-amino acid-transporter, sulfatase1, ubiquitinD and chemokine ligand5. Moreover, GA treatment decreases angiogenin and ß-catenin protein expression. Accordingly, GA treatment counteracts the development of tumors following chemical cancerogenesis. In mouse dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immunity, GA treatment modifies maturation and cytokine release. GA treatment further favourably influences the course of murine malaria. The effects of GA treatment on plasma phosphate concentration, blood pressure and proteinuria may prove beneficial in chronic renal failure and diabetic nephropathy. The effect of GA on intestinal glucose transport may be useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes, the effect of GA on angiogenin and ß-catenin expression

  15. Dual Effect of Adenosine A1 Receptor Activation on Renal O2 Consumption.

    PubMed

    Babich, Victor; Vadnagara, Komal; Di Sole, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    The high requirement of O2 in the renal proximal tubule stems from a high rate of Na(+) transport. Adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) activation regulates Na(+) transport in this nephron segment. Thus, the effect of the acute activation and the mechanisms of A1R on the rate of O2 consumption were evaluated. The A1R-antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which metabolize endogenous adenosine, reduced O2 consumption (40-50%). Replacing Na(+) in the buffer reversed the ADA- or CPX-mediated reduction of O2 consumption. Blocking the Na/H-exchanger activity, which decreases O2 usage per se, did not enhance the ADA- or CPX-induced inhibition of O2 consumption. These data indicate that endogenous adenosine increases O2 usage via the activation of Na(+) transport. In the presence of endogenous adenosine, A1R was further activated by the A1R-agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA); CPA inhibited O2 usage (30%) and this effect also depended on Na(+) transport. Moreover, a low concentration of CPA activated O2 usage in tissue pretreated with ADA, whereas a high concentration of CPA inhibited O2 usage; both effects depended on Na(+). Protein kinase C signaling mediated the inhibitory effect of A1R, while adenylyl cyclase mediated its stimulatory effect on O2 consumption. In summary, increasing the local concentrations of adenosine can either activate or inhibit O2 consumption via A1R, and this mechanism depends on Na(+) transport. The inhibition of O2 usage by A1R activation might restore the compromised balance between energy supply and demand under pathophysiological conditions, such as renal ischemia, which results in high adenosine production.

  16. Comparative effects of chelating agents on distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, S.; Shimada, H.; Kiyozumi, M. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of three chelating agents, sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate(NBG-DTC), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol(BAL), and D-penicillamine(D-PEN), on the distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury were compared in rats exposed to HgCl2. Rats were injected i.p. with 203HgCl2 (300 micrograms of Hg and 2 microCi of 203Hg/kg) and 30 min or 24 h later they were injected with a chelating agent (a quarter of an LD50). The injection of the chelating agents significantly enhanced the biliary and urinary excretions of mercury. BAL was the most effective for removal of mercury from the body at 30 min after mercury treatment. The extent of enhancing effect of the chelating agents for removal of mercury at 24 h after mercury was in the order NBG-DTC = BAL greater than D-PEN. The injection of BAL at 24 h after mercury treatment caused the redistribution of mercury to the heart and lung. NBG-DTC did not result in the redistribution of mercury to the heart, lung, and brain. Urinary excretion of protein and AST significantly increased 24-48 h after mercury treatment and decreased to the control values 72 h after mercury. The injection of the chelating agents at 30 min after mercury treatment significantly decreased the urinary excretion of protein and AST. In rats pretreated with mercury 24 h earlier, the chelating agents significantly decreased the urinary protein at 48 h after mercury treatment, but did not decrease the urinary AST. The results of this study indicate that the chelating agents are effective in removing mercury from the body, resulting in the protective effect against the mercury-induced renal damage.

  17. Feedback control of temperature evolution in rabbit kidney in vivo using MRI guided focused ultrasound. Application to renal VX2 carcinoma ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delemazure, A. S.; Salomir, R.; Grenier, N.; Palussière, J.; Deminière, C.; Mougenot, C.; Moonen, C. W.

    2005-03-01

    A significant number of patients with small renal tumours may get benefit from in situ thermo-ablation techniques. Focused ultrasound is a non-invasive approach which offers excellent flexibility. On the other hand, real time MR thermometry is a valuable tool for monitoring and controlling therapy. In this study, coupling of focused ultrasound with PRF-based, respiratory-gated MR thermometry was used to provide temperature feedback control for local hyperthermia in the rabbit kidney. Two heating protocols were initially used in healthy kidneys (medulla and cortex): 1. fixed focal point heating; 2. spiral trajectories of the focal point. Further, five VX2 renal carcinomas were treated with multiple focal point heating in each tumour. Post-treatment MRI follow up and post mortem histology were performed. The shape and size of the lesions (MRI, histology) were compared to the calculated thermal dose map. The standard deviation of the MR thermometry ranged from 0.5°C to 1°C. The temperature controller matched the objective curve with approximately 1°C precision (fixed focal point mode). Several technical and physiological difficulties for spiral heating could not be overcome with the available setup. Thermal ablation with temperature feedback control in healthy and tumour bearing kidney was demonstrated to be feasible and effective, despite specific challenges (deep seated organ, respiratory motion, high blood perfusion).

  18. Effects of efonidipine hydrochloride on renal arteriolar diameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masuhisa; Notoya, Mitsuru; Kohda, Yuka; Yamashita, Junji; Takashita, Yuko; Gemba, Munekazu

    2002-09-01

    Efonidipine, a calcium antagonist, has been reported to dilate not only afferent but also efferent arterioles, thereby reducing glomerular hydrostatic pressure. We investigated the effect of chronic treatment with efonidipine or lisinopril on the afferent and efferent arteriolar diameters by the vascular cast technique. Four-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were divided into three groups: untreated, efonidipine (25 mg/kg/day)-treated, and lisinopril (3 mg/kg/day)-treated. At 22 weeks of age, the renal vasculatures were fixed at the maximally dilated condition. The morphometrical measurements showed that the treatments with efonidipine and lisinopril caused structural alteration of the vasculature, resulting in significantly greater efferent arteriolar diameters than in untreated SHR. In addition, lisinopril-treated rats had wider afferent lumina. The renoprotective effect of efonidipine and lisinopril might be partly due to the structurally larger efferent arteriolar lumen.

  19. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damages in rat: inhibitory effects of cacao polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Kamei, Masanori; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the protective effect of cacao polyphenol extract (CPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats. Rats were administered CPE for 7 days and then received intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Two hours after injection, we found that CCl4 treatment significantly increased biochemical injury markers, lipid peroxides (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney rather than liver, suggesting that kidney is more vulnerable to oxidative stress under the present experimental conditions. CPE supplementation significantly reduced these changes, indicating that this compound has antioxidant properties against CCl4-induced oxidative stress. An inhibitory effect of CPE on CCl4-induced CYP2E1 mRNA degradation may provide an explanation for CPE antioxidant property. Together, these results provide quantitative evidence of the in vivo antioxidant properties of CPE, especially in terms of PCOOH and MDA levels in the kidneys of CCl4-treated rats.

  20. Cellular Preoxygenation Partially Attenuates the Antitumoral Effect of Cisplatin despite Highly Protective Effects on Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulian, Bahram; Rezaei, Maryam; Hajializadeh, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that oxygen pretreatment significantly protects human embryonic renal tubular cell against acute cisplatin- (CP-) induced cytotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate whether this protective effect is associated with decreasing therapeutic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells. For this purpose, cultured human embryonic kidney epithelial-like (AD293), cervical carcinoma epithelial-like (Hela), and ovarian adenocarcinoma epithelial-like (OVCAR-3) cells were subjected to either 2-hour pretreatment with oxygen (≥90%) or normal air and then to a previously determined 50% lethal dose of cisplatin for 24 hours. Cellular viability was evaluated via MTT and Neutral Red assays. Also, activated caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as the biochemical markers of cell apoptosis, were determined using immunoblotting. The hyperoxic preexposure protocol significantly protects renal AD293 cells against cisplatin-induced toxicity. Oxygen pretreatment also partially attenuated the cisplatin-induced cytotoxic effects on Hela and OVCAR-3 cells. However, it did not completely protect these cells against the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In summary, the protective methods for reducing cisplatin nephrotoxic side effects like oxygen pretreatment might be associated with concurrent reduction of the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells like cervical carcinoma (Hela) and ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-3) cells. PMID:28298953

  1. Cellular Preoxygenation Partially Attenuates the Antitumoral Effect of Cisplatin despite Highly Protective Effects on Renal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Rasoulian, Bahram; Kaeidi, Ayat; Rezaei, Maryam; Hajializadeh, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that oxygen pretreatment significantly protects human embryonic renal tubular cell against acute cisplatin- (CP-) induced cytotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate whether this protective effect is associated with decreasing therapeutic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells. For this purpose, cultured human embryonic kidney epithelial-like (AD293), cervical carcinoma epithelial-like (Hela), and ovarian adenocarcinoma epithelial-like (OVCAR-3) cells were subjected to either 2-hour pretreatment with oxygen (≥90%) or normal air and then to a previously determined 50% lethal dose of cisplatin for 24 hours. Cellular viability was evaluated via MTT and Neutral Red assays. Also, activated caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as the biochemical markers of cell apoptosis, were determined using immunoblotting. The hyperoxic preexposure protocol significantly protects renal AD293 cells against cisplatin-induced toxicity. Oxygen pretreatment also partially attenuated the cisplatin-induced cytotoxic effects on Hela and OVCAR-3 cells. However, it did not completely protect these cells against the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In summary, the protective methods for reducing cisplatin nephrotoxic side effects like oxygen pretreatment might be associated with concurrent reduction of the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells like cervical carcinoma (Hela) and ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-3) cells.

  2. The Evolution of Soft Collinear Effective Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Christopher

    2015-02-25

    Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is an effective field theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for processes where there are energetic, nearly lightlike degrees of freedom interacting with one another via soft radiation. SCET has found many applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, especially in recent years the physics of hadronic jets in e+e-, lepton-hadron, hadron-hadron, and heavy-ion collisions. SCET can be used to factorize multi-scale cross sections in these processes into single-scale hard, collinear, and soft functions, and to evolve these through the renormalization group to resum large logarithms of ratios of the scales that appear in the QCD perturbativemore » expansion, as well as to study properties of nonperturbative effects. We overview the elementary concepts of SCET and describe how they can be applied in high-energy and nuclear physics.« less

  3. The Evolution of Soft Collinear Effective Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Christopher

    2015-02-25

    Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is an effective field theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for processes where there are energetic, nearly lightlike degrees of freedom interacting with one another via soft radiation. SCET has found many applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, especially in recent years the physics of hadronic jets in e+e-, lepton-hadron, hadron-hadron, and heavy-ion collisions. SCET can be used to factorize multi-scale cross sections in these processes into single-scale hard, collinear, and soft functions, and to evolve these through the renormalization group to resum large logarithms of ratios of the scales that appear in the QCD perturbative expansion, as well as to study properties of nonperturbative effects. We overview the elementary concepts of SCET and describe how they can be applied in high-energy and nuclear physics.

  4. Effect of microgravity on renal and femoral flows during LBNP & intravenous saline load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbeille, P.; Gaffney, F. A.; Beck, L.; Coulon, J.; Porcher, M.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    Renal and femoral hemodynamics were studied in crew members at rest and during lower body negative pressure before and after the D-2 Spacelab mission and with intravenous saline loading. Specific measurements included renal vascular resistance, femoral arterial flow, and vascular resistance, along with other cardiovascular parameters. Cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity is discussed with a focus on changes observed in femoral and renal vascular resistance.

  5. Effects of Fluid Flow on Slip Evolution in a Thermoporoelastic Medium: Implications for Seismic Moment Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamashita, T.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a framework associated with the interaction among heat, fluid pressure and inelastic pore creation, and found three nondimensional parameters, Su, Su' and Ta, which are related to the dilatancy effect, fluid flow effect and the upper limit of the dilatancy, respectively. Without fluid flow, they were found to generate two qualitatively different slip behaviors, acceleration case and spontaneous slip cessation case. In particular, the acceleration case shows the initial deceleration and later acceleration approaching the final high-speed slip. Between the deceleration and acceleration phases, we observe a transient state featured by low and approximately constant slip velocity. We employ the fluid flow effect here and give some implications for understanding the temporal evolution of seismic moments. For example, Ide et al. (2007) found that ordinary earthquakes and slow earthquakes have different forms of temporal evolutions of the seismic moments. In addition, Duputel et al. (2013) observed examples showing exceptional moment evolution behavior even among ordinary earthquakes. Yamashita and Suzuki (2011) successfully modeled the former result by introducing slip-induced dilatancy coupled with fluid flow, while the modeling of the latter remains unaccomplished. If we introduce the fluid flow, we observe only the acceleration case and the duration of the transient state is longer than that without the fluid flow. This can be a model for a slow earthquake if we assume a 2-D model, and the seismic moment of such an earthquake evolves in almost a quadratic function in time. On the other hand, for the acceleration case without the fluid flow, the seismic moment evolution is almost a cubic function. Moreover, for the spontaneous slip cessation case, it evolves with a quadratic or linear function. The framework explaining all the behaviors mentioned above has been obtained. Quantitative investigation on the nondimensional parameters will also be done.

  6. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  7. [Protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan-ling; Xia, Jie-yu; Jia, Dao-yong; Zhang, Meng-si; Zhang, Yan-yan; Wang, Lu; Huang, Guo-ning; Wang, Ya-ping

    2015-11-01

    To explore the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides(ASP) on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 10 mice in each group. The D-galactose model group was subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (120 mg x kg(-1)), qd x 42; the ASP + D-galactose model group was intraperitoneally injected with ASP since the 8th day of the replication of the D-galactose model, qd x 35; and the normal control group was subcutaneously injected with saline at the same dose and time. On the 2nd day of after the injection, the peripheral blood was collected to measure the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cys-C; paraffin sections were made to observe the renal histomorphology by HE staining; senescence-associated β-g-alactosidase (SA-β-Gal) stain was used to observe the relative optical density (ROD) in renal tissues; transmission electron microscopy was assayed to observe the renal ultrastructure; the renal tissue homogenate was prepared to measure the content of SOD, GSH-PX, MDA; the content of AGEs and 8-OH-dG were measured by ELISA. According to the result, compared with the D-galactose model group, the ASP + D-galactose model group showed obviously decreases in the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cysc, AGES, 8-OH-dG, the number of hardening renal corpuscle, renal capsular space and renal tubular lumen, ROD of SA-β-Gal staining positive kidney cells, mesangial cells, basement membrane thickness, podocyte secondary processes fusion and MDA and increases in the number of normal renal corpuscle, ribosome and rough endoplasmic reticulum in podocytes, the activity of SOD and GSH-PX. In Conclusion, A. sinensis polysaccharides can antagonize kidney subacute damages induced by D-galactose in mice. Its protective mechanism may be correlated with the inhibition of the oxidative stress injury.

  8. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  9. Effects of Conformism on the Cultural Evolution of Social Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner’s Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23874528

  10. Quantum fluctuations in percolating superconductors: an evolution with effective dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nande, Amol; Fostner, Shawn; Grigg, Jack; Smith, Alex; Temst, Kristiaan; Van Bael, Margriet J.; Brown, Simon A.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate percolating films of superconducting nanoparticles and observe an evolution from superconducting to metallic to insulating states as the surface coverage of the nanoparticles is decreased. We demonstrate that this evolution is correlated with a reduction in the effective/dominant dimensionality of the system, from 2D to 1D to 0D, and that the physics in each regime is dominated by vortices, phase slips and tunnelling respectively. Finally we construct phase diagrams that map the various observed states as a function of surface coverage (or, equivalently, normal state resistance), temperature and measurement current.

  11. Quantum Fluctuations in Percolating Superconductors: an Evolution with Effective Dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Nande, Amol; Fostner, Shawn; Grigg, Jack; Smith, Alex; Temst, Kristiaan; van Bael, Margriet; Brown, Simon A

    2017-02-06

    .We investigate percolating films of superconducting nanoparticles and observe an evolution from superconducting to metallic to insulating states as the surface coverage of the nanoparticles is decreased. We demonstrate that this evolution is correlated with a reduction in the effective / dominant dimensionality of the system, from 2D to 1D to 0D, and that the physics in each regime is dominated by vortices, phase slips and tunneling respectively. Finally we construct phase diagrams that map the various observed states as a function of surface coverage (or, equivalently, normal state resistance), temperature and measurement current.

  12. Nitrofurantoin safety and effectiveness in treating acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency: antibiotic stewardship implications.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Cunha, C B; Lam, B; Giuga, J; Chin, J; Zafonte, V F; Gerson, S

    2017-02-02

    Nitrofurantoin remains a key oral antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) option in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli (GNB). However, there have been concerns regarding decreased nitrofurantoin efficacy with renal insufficiency. In our experience over the past three decades, nitrofurantoin has been safe and effective in treating AUC in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency. Accordingly, we retrospectively reviewed our recent experience treating AUC in hospitalized adults with decreased renal function (CrCl < 60 ml/min) with nitrofurantoin. Excluded were complicated urinary tract infections. Urinary isolated susceptibility testing was done by micro broth dilution (MBD). Treatment duration was 5-7 days. Cure was defined as eradication of the uropathogen and failure was defined as minimal/no decrease in urine colony counts. Of 26 evaluable patients with renal insufficiency (CrCl < 60 ml/min), nitrofurantoin eradicated the uropathogen in 18/26 (69%) of patients, and failed in 8/26 (31%). Of the eight failures, five were due to intrinsically resistant uropathogens, e.g., Proteus sp., and one failure was related to an alkaline urine. Of the treatment failures, only two were due to renal insufficiency, i.e., CrCl < 30 ml/min. Since there are few oral antibiotics available to treat AUC due to MDR GNB uropathogens, these results have important ASP implications. Currently, nitfurantoin is not recommended if CrCl < 60 ml/min. In our experience, used appropriately against susceptible uropathogens, nitrofurantoin was highly effective in nearly all patients with CrCl = 30-60 ml/min., and only failed in two patients due to renal insufficiency (CrCl < 30 ml/ml).

  13. Children's toxicology from bench to bed--Drug-induced renal injury (4): Effects of nephrotoxic compounds on fetal and developing kidney.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masami

    2009-01-01

    The kidney is a major target of toxic compounds. Susceptibility of the kidney to toxic effects of compounds is attributed to the unique morphologic and physiologic features of this organ. Renal development and maturation begins in the fetal period and continuous throughout the postnatal period. The effects of noxious compounds on the kidney are influenced by the state of renal development and maturation. Therefore, to asses the renal toxic potential of a compound in fetuses and infants, the development and maturation of the kidney should be taken into account. Renal development and maturation involves both morphological and functional aspects. Renal development begins in the fetus and proceeds to partial functional capacity before birth. After birth, the kidney continues morphologic and functional maturation during the postnatal period of infancy. The fetal or infant kidney is vulnerable to the renal toxicity of certain compounds due to its morphological and functional characteristics. On the other hand, the infant kidney is sometimes more tolerant to nephrotoxic compounds compared to the adult kidney because of its immature glomerular filtration, concentrating capability and active transportation. Design and interpretation of studies in fetuses and infants regarding renal toxicity should include careful consideration of the state of renal development and maturation and of the mechanisms of renal injury.

  14. The effect of anesthetization and urinary bladder catheterization on renal function of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Willford, W.A.

    1970-01-01

    1. Rainbow trout were anesthetized with MS-222 (Sandoz) or methylpentynol and catheterized. Urine was collected at selected intervals up to 48 hr. 2. Effects of MS-222 anesthesia on urine flow and composition were isolated from the stress of catheterization by re-anesthetizing the fish 18 to 20 hr post catheterization. 3. Urine output patterns were similar following MS-222 or methylpentynol anesthesia and catheterization. Highest urine flows were measured 4 to 8 hr post treatment. The highest urine output after re-anesthetization with MS-222 was observed 2 to 4 hr post-anesthesia. 4. Highest concentrations of Na2+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- and inorganic PO4 in the urine were measured in the first 2 hr after anesthesia and catheterization. 5. Flow rates and chemical composition of urine indicate that "normal" renal function is re-established 12 to 24 hr post-treatment.

  15. From Pre-Existing Renal Failure to Perioperative Renal Protection: The Anesthesiologist’s Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Huti, Gentian; Sula, Hektor; Baftiu, Nehat; Kaci, Myzafer; Bodeci, Artan; Pesha, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Context Pre-existing renal dysfunction presents specific features that anesthesiologists must deal with. Anesthesia and renal function are connected and can interfere with each other. Induced hypotension anesthesia and the toxic effects of anesthetic drugs can further deteriorate renal function. Evidence Acquisition Decreased renal function can prolong anesthetic drug effects by decreased elimination of these drugs. Anesthesia can deteriorate renal function and decreased renal function can interfere with drug elimination leading to their prolonged effect. The anesthesiologist must understand all the physiological aspects of the patient, renal protection, and the relationships between anesthetic drugs and renal function. This review article aims to summarize these aspects. Results Perioperative renal failure and renal protection is a crucial moment in clinical practice of every anesthesiologist. Conclusions Good knowledges for renal function remain a hallmark of daily practice of the anesthesiologist, considering renal function as an important determinant factor in anesthesia practice. PMID:27642570

  16. Effect of barnidipine on blood flow to major organs and renal function in anaesthetized dogs and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, M; Kasai, C; Ishikawa, J; Masaki, K; Asano, M

    1995-12-01

    1. The effects of barnidipine on blood flow to major organs and on renal function were investigated in anaesthetized dogs and conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and the results were compared with those for nicardipine, nitrendipine, nisoldipine, manidipine and amlodipine. 2. In anaesthetized dogs, barnidipine (0.3-3 mu g/kg i.v.) dose-dependently decreased blood pressure and increased or preserved blood flow in the vertebral, coronary, femoral and renal arteries. The effect of barnidipine on blood flow was the most potent of the compounds tested. In conscious SHR, barnidipine (0.3-3 mg/kg p.o.) produced a dose-dependent antihypertensive effect and decreased renal vascular resistance. Barnidipine also dose-dependently increased urinary volume. The antihypertensive and diuretic effects of barnidipine were the most potent of the drugs tested. 3. In summary, barnidipine was shown to preserve or increase blood flow to major organs and to produce diuretic activity with a decrease in blood pressure. These findings suggest that barnidipine maintains or promotes renal function at antihypertensive doses.

  17. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas del Rio, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  18. Dissimilar effects of chronic treatment with aspirin, flubiprofen and indomethacin on renal prostaglandins

    SciTech Connect

    Quilley, C.P.; McGiff, J.C.; Quilley, J.

    1986-03-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) excretion is not sustained during long-term aspirin administration. The authors compared the effects of 9d treatment of SHR rats with aspirin (A), 200 mg/kg/d s.c., flubiprofen (F), 2.5 mg/kg/12h s.c., and indomethacin (I), 2.5 mg/kg/12 s.c. on excretion of radioimmunoassayable PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C) arachidonic acid (AA) by renal papillae was also examined. In vehicle-treated control rats (C) PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ excretion varied from 32.2 +/- 6.2 (mean +/- SEM) to 41.6 +.- 7.3 ng/6h, 3-fold higher than that of PGE/sub 2/. Within 6h of administration all 3 drugs reduced excretion of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 2/ to less than 20% and 35% of C rats. Although urinary concentrations of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 2/ in A-treated rats remained depressed, a 2-fold increase in urine volume resulted in excretion rates similar to C rats. In contrast, urine volume in I- and F-treated rats was unaffected while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 2/ excretion rates in I-treated rats were 50''% of C rats and were also lower than control in F-treated rats. Paradoxically, metabolism of AA to PGs by by renal papillae dissected on day 10, 2-4h after the last drug dose, was markedly inhibited by A (PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ by 62% and PGE/sub 2/ by 82%), but unaffected by I and F. As the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors differ on in vivo and indices of PG production, their intended action should be verified by measuring PG levels in biological fluids.

  19. Effect of Peritoneal Dialysis Modality on the 1-Year Rate of Decline of Residual Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan Ho; Oh, Hyung Jung; Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Yung Ly; Nam, Ki Heon; Park, Kyoung Sook; An, Seong Yeong; Ko, Kwang Il; Koo, Hyang Mo; Doh, Fa Mee; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The effect of different peritoneal dialysis (PD) modalities on the decline in residual renal function (RRF) is unclear due to inconsistencies among studies. In particular, the effect of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) modalities [continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis (NIPD)] on RRF has not been examined in a large cohort. Materials and Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective study to investigate the association between PD modalities and decline in RRF in 142 incident PD patients [34 on CCPD, 36 on NIPD, and 72 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)]. RRF was measured within 2 months from PD start and at 1 year after PD initiation. Results The RRF at 1 year after PD initiation was 1.98±2.20 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CCPD patients and 3.63±3.67 mL/min/1.73 m2 in NIPD patients, which were moderately lower than 4.23±3.51 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CAPD patients (p=0.064). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between CCPD and NIPD patients, although APD patients had a faster 1-year RRF decline rate than CAPD patients (CCPD and NIPD vs. CAPD: -45.68 and -36.69 vs. 1.17%/year, p=0.045). APD was associated with a more rapid decline in RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing PD, although multivariate analysis attenuated the significance of this finding (β=-31.50; 95% CI, -63.61 to 0.62; p=0.052). Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPD might be more helpful than APD for preserving RRF during the first year of dialysis therapy, although there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between the two APD modalities. PMID:24339299

  20. Targeting renal glucose reabsorption to treat hyperglycaemia: the pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Volker; Thomson, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    also uricosuric. These pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are likely to have contributed to the results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial in which the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, slowed the progression of chronic kidney disease and reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes. This review discusses the role of SGLT2 in the physiology and pathophysiology of renal glucose reabsorption and outlines the unexpected logic of inhibiting SGLT2 in the diabetic kidney.

  1. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    MedlinePlus

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  2. Effects of alprostadil and iloprost on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle injury following hindlimb ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Erer, Dilek; Özer, Abdullah; Demirtaş, Hüseyin; Gönül, İpek Işık; Kara, Halil; Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Oktar, Gürsel Levent; Arslan, Mustafa; Küçük, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of alprostadil (prostaglandin [PGE1] analog) and iloprost (prostacyclin [PGI2] analog) on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle tissues after ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods Wistar albino rats underwent 2 hours of ischemia via infrarenal aorta clamping with subsequent 2 hours of reperfusion. Alprostadil and iloprost were given starting simultaneously with the reperfusion period. Effects of agents on renal, lung, and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) tissue specimens were examined. Results Renal medullary congestion, cytoplasmic swelling, and mean tubular dilatation scores were significantly lower in the alprostadil-treated group than those found in the I/R-only group (P<0.0001, P=0.015, and P<0.01, respectively). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary partial destruction, consolidation, alveolar edema, and hemorrhage scores were significantly lower in alprostadil- and iloprost-treated groups (P=0.017 and P=0.001; P<0.01 and P<0.0001). Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration scores in skeletal muscle tissue were significantly lower in the iloprost-treated group than the scores found in the nontreated I/R group (P<0.0001). Conclusion Alprostadil and iloprost significantly reduce lung tissue I/R injury. Alprostadil has more prominent protective effects against renal I/R injury, while iloprost is superior in terms of protecting the skeletal muscle tissue against I/R injury. PMID:27601882

  3. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity.

  4. Effects of Probenecid and Cimetidine on Renal Disposition of Ofloxacin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Edward F.; Halstenson, Charles E.

    1998-01-01

    The renal handling of ofloxacin in rats which were given ofloxacin either alone or in combination with probenecid or cimetidine was studied. In the presence of cimetidine or probenecid, ofloxacin’s total and renal clearances were reduced and its half-life was prolonged. This suggests that ofloxacin is secreted by both the anionic and cationic transport systems. PMID:9527807

  5. The effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of naloxegol.

    PubMed

    Bui, Khanh; She, Fahua; Sostek, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of a 25-mg oral dose of naloxegol was examined in patients with renal impairment classified as moderate, severe, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and compared with healthy subjects (n = 8/group). Geometric mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was increased in patients with moderate (1.7-fold) or severe (2.2-fold) impairment, and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were elevated in patients with moderate (1.1-fold) or severe (1.8-fold) impairment. These findings were driven by higher exposures in two patients in each of the moderate and severe impairment groups; exposures in all other patients were similar to the control group. Overall exposures in ESRD patients were similar and Cmax was 29% lower versus normal subjects. Renal impairment minimally affected other plasma pharmacokinetic parameters. As renal clearance was a minor component of total clearance, exposure to naloxegol was unaffected by the degree of renal impairment, with no correlation between either AUC or Cmax and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Hemodialysis was an ineffective means to remove naloxegol. Naloxegol was generally well tolerated in all groups. Renal impairment could adversely affect clearance by hepatic and gut metabolism, resulting in the increased exposures observed in outliers of the moderate and severe renal impairment groups.

  6. Effect of TREM-1 blockade and single nucleotide variants in experimental renal injury and kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tammaro, A.; Kers, J.; Emal, D.; Stroo, I.; Teske, G. J. D.; Butter, L. M.; Claessen, N.; Damman, J.; Derive, M.; Navis, G.; Florquin, S.; Leemans, J. C.; Dessing, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR)-injury induces activation of innate immune response which sustains renal injury and contributes to the development of delayed graft function (DGF). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a pro-inflammatory evolutionary conserved pattern recognition receptor expressed on a variety of innate immune cells. TREM-1 expression increases following acute and chronic renal injury. However, the function of TREM-1 in renal IR is still unclear. Here, we investigated expression and function of TREM-1 in a murine model of renal IR using different TREM-1 inhibitors: LP17, LR12 and TREM-1 fusion protein. In a human study, we analyzed the association of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants in the TREM1 gene in a cohort comprising 1263 matching donors and recipients with post-transplant outcomes, including DGF. Our findings demonstrated that, following murine IR, renal TREM-1 expression increased due to the influx of Trem1 mRNA expressing cells detected by in situ hybridization. However, TREM-1 interventions by means of LP17, LR12 and TREM-1 fusion protein did not ameliorate IR-induced injury. In the human renal transplant cohort, donor and recipient TREM1 gene variant p.Thr25Ser was not associated with DGF, nor with biopsy-proven rejection or death-censored graft failure. We conclude that TREM-1 does not play a major role during experimental renal IR and after kidney transplantation. PMID:27928159

  7. Effect of severe renal impairment on umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol pharmacokinetics and safety: a single-blind, nonrandomized study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rashmi; Hardes, Kelly; Brealey, Noushin; Tombs, Lee; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background Umeclidinium and vilanterol, long-acting bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are primarily eliminated via the hepatic route; however, severe renal impairment may adversely affect some elimination pathways other than the kidney. Objectives To evaluate the effect of severe renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol. Methods Nine patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) and nine matched healthy volunteers received a single dose of umeclidinium 125 μg; and after a 7- to 14-day washout, a single dose of umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 μg. Results No clinically relevant increases in plasma umeclidinium or vilanterol systemic exposure (area under the curve or maximum observed plasma concentration) were observed following umeclidinium 125 μg or umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 μg administration. On average, the amount of umeclidinium excreted in 24 hours in urine (90% confidence interval) was 88% (81%–93%) and 89% (81%–93%) lower in patients with severe renal impairment compared with healthy volunteers following umeclidinium 125 μg and umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 μg administration, respectively. Treatments were well tolerated in both populations. Conclusion Umeclidinium 125 μg or umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 μg administration to patients with severe renal impairment did not demonstrate clinically relevant increases in systemic exposure compared with healthy volunteers. No dose adjustment for umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol is warranted in patients with severe renal impairment. PMID:25565796

  8. Clinical effect of trimetazidine on prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Haili; Su, Qiang; Guo, Wenqin; Dai, Weiran; Li, Hongqing; Yang, Huafeng; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: With the continuous development of cardiac interventional medicine, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is increasing every year, which is a serious threat to people's physical and mental health. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a type of anti-ischemic drug developed in recent years, which can significantly reduce the incidence of CIN. At present, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical effect of TMZ on prevention of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency. However, the study did not include patients from other countries and speaking different languages. So we conducted this study to update the previous meta-analysis that investigated the effects of TMZ on prevention of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency, and provided some theoretical reference for clinical. Methods: By searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, VIP database, and Wang Fang database for randomized controlled trial, which is comparing TMZ versus conventional hydration for prevention of CIN. Two researchers independently screened literature, and then evaluated the quality of literature and extracted the relevant data. Stata 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Finally, this updated review showed that 3 studies that were not included in the previous meta-analysis were included in our study (3 articles were published in the Chinese Journal, 1 study for CIN, 1 study for CIN, serum creatinine (Scr), and superoxide dismutase, 1 study for CIN and Scr), and 1 outcome (Scr) reflecting the change of renal function was additionally included in our study. Of the 932 studies, 6 randomized controlled trials met the criteria, including 377 patients in TMZ group and 387 patients in control group. This meta-analysis for all studies showed that TMZ can significantly reduce the incidence of CIN (relative risk 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16, 0.46, P = 0.000), and can decrease the level

  9. Effects of Fetal and Neonatal Murine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infusion on MicroRNA-145 Expression in Renal Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in MRL/lpr Mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, C; Liu, X Y; Wan, W Q; Yi, Z W

    2015-10-01

    For patients with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus, current medications are insufficient to control their condition, and new treatments are necessary. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of fetal and neonatal murine peripheral blood (FNPB) mononuclear cells and their impact on microRNA-145 (miR-145) in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. MRL/lpr mice aged 20 weeks were randomized to 3 groups of 15 (control group, radiation group, infusion group). The renal tissues were subjected to pathological examination. In situ hybridization assay was applied to measure miR-145 expression in renal vessels of MRL/lpr mice. The infusion group had significantly better results for pathological renal tissue lesions than either the control or radiation group. In MRL/lpr mice, there was positive expression of miR-145 in renal VSMCs, although the expression of miR-145 was not discernible in renal vascular intima and adventitia. The miR-145 expression in renal VSMCs in the infusion group was significantly higher than in the control or radiation group, and higher in the radiation group than in the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The increased expression of miR-145 in renal VSMCs might be one of the mechanisms supporting FNPB as a therapy for lupus nephritis; it also suggests that the miR-145 in renal vessels might be a new target for treatment of lupus nephritis.

  10. The effect of parity on morphological evolution among phrynosomatid lizards.

    PubMed

    Oufiero, C E; Gartner, G E A

    2014-11-01

    The shift from egg laying to live-bearing is one of the most well-studied transitions in evolutionary biology. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of this transition on morphological evolution. Here, we evaluated the effect of reproductive mode on the morphological evolution of 10 traits, among 108 species of phrynosomatid lizards. We assess whether the requirement for passing shelled eggs through the pelvic girdle has led to morphological constraints in oviparous species and whether long gestation times in viviparous species have led to constraints in locomotor morphology. We fit models to the data that vary both in their tempo (strength and rate of selection) and mode of evolution (Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) and estimates of trait optima. We found that most traits are best fit by a generalized multipeak OU model, suggesting differing trait optima for viviparous vs. oviparous species. Additionally, rates (σ(2) ) of both pelvic girdle and forelimb trait evolution varied with parity; viviparous species had higher rates. Hindlimb traits, however, exhibited no difference in σ(2) between parity modes. In a functional context, our results suggest that the passage of shelled eggs constrains the morphology of the pelvic girdle, but we found no evidence of morphological constraint of the locomotor apparatus in viviparous species. Our results are consistent with recent lineage diversification analyses, leading to the conclusion that transitions to viviparity increase both lineage and morphological diversification.

  11. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Methods: Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. Results: 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure. PMID:28255416

  12. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact.

  13. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae) on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Abdulkadir Umar, Zezi; Umar Habib, Danmalam; Abdullahi Hamza, Yaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p<0.05). Significant reduction in electrolytes concentration was observed following treatment with extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) (p<0.05). Histopathological findings of the kidney revealed massive necrosis of the glomerulus with tubular distortion and lymphocyte hyperplasia at 250 and 500 mg/kg while intense glomerular and tubular necrosis was observed at 1000 mg/kg of the extract. Conclusion: Since different doses of the extract caused reduction in electrolyte concentration and damage to the kidney it is suggested that prolonged administration of the extract is associated with increased risk of kidney toxicity. PMID:28078240

  14. Effects of music on complications during hemodialysis for chronic renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Koca Kutlu, Adalet; Eren, Ayşe Gül

    2014-10-01

    The study was planned as a case-control study to examine the effects of music on some of the complications experienced by chronic renal failure (CRF) patients during hemodialysis. A total of 60 patients (30 intervention and 30 control) diagnosed with end-stage renal failure undergoing hemodialysis treatment participated in this study. The study was conducted in Manisa Merkez Efendi State Hospital Hemodialysis Unit and Manisa Özel Anemon Hemodialysis between April 2012 and July 2012. The intervention group listened 30 minutes in each session (12 total sessions) Turkish art music at the beginning of the third hour of their hemodialysis sessions. Patient Information Form and visual analog scale to assess pain, nausea, vomiting, and cramps during hemodialysis session were used. For the analysis of data, the number, percentage, chi-square test, and significance test of independent group differences between two averages were conducted. According to the findings of the study, the average of the intervention and control group ages, respectively, was 50.86 ± 11.3 and 55.13 ± 9.68. The primary duration of hemodialysis treatment for both intervention and control groups was "1 year and above" (70.0%). The intervention group's pain and nausea scores were lower than the control group for all 12 sessions. The difference between the intervention and the control group's pain scores was significant (P < 0.05). However, in pain scores from the first session to 12th session, continuous decreasing trend was not observed. According to the results, music can be used as an independent nursing practice for reduction of complications for CRF patients receiving hemodialysis treatment.

  15. Effects of desflurane and isoflurane on hepatic and renal functions and coagulation profile during donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Toprak, H I; Şahin, T; Aslan, S; Karahan, K; Şanli, M; Ersoy, M Ö

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effect of two inhalation anesthetics desflurane and isoflurane on postoperative hepatic and renal functions as well as coagulation profiles in living donors undergoing right hepatectomy. This study was performed on 80 patients who were randomly allocated to group D (desflurane, n = 40) or group I (isoflurane, n = 40) after Faculty Ethics Committee approval. After induction, isoflurane or desflurane was used with air/oxygen for anesthetic maintenance. The isoflurane or desflurane concentration was set at one minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). Remifentanil was infused for analgesia as well as cisatracurium. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, platelet count, and hemoglobin levels were analyzed preoperatively at end of the operation, and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 30. Both AST and ALT differed significantly and continually except on POD 30. AST showed significant elevations from the end of the operation to POD 2 and ALT, from the end of the operation to POD 5 in group I compared with group D. INR was significantly higher from the end of the operation to POD 3 in group I and to POD 2 in group D. At the end of the operation as well as on POD 1 and POD 2, INR was significantly increased in group I compared with group D. Albumin level was significantly lower at the end of the operation in both groups, but it was not different. No patient developed hepatic or renal failure. Our study showed better postoperative hepatic tests and INR using desflurane than isoflurane at equivalent doses of 1 MAC in living donors undergoing right hepatectomy.

  16. Short- and Mid-term Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Normal Renal Tissue: An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wendler, J. J. Porsch, M.; Huehne, S.; Baumunk, D.; Buhtz, P.; Fischbach, F.; Pech, M.; Mahnkopf, D.; Kropf, S.; Roessner, A.; Ricke, J.; Schostak, M.; Liehr, U.-B.

    2013-04-15

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel nonthermal tissue ablation technique by high current application leading to apoptosis without affecting extracellular matrix. Previous results of renal IRE shall be supplemented by functional MRI and differentiated histological analysis of renal parenchyma in a chronic treatment setting. Three swine were treated with two to three multifocal percutaneous IRE of the right kidney. MRI was performed before, 30 min (immediate-term), 7 days (short-term), and 28 days (mid-term) after IRE. A statistical analysis of the lesion surrounded renal parenchyma intensities was made to analyze functional differences depending on renal part, side and posttreatment time. Histological follow-up of cortex and medulla was performed after 28 days. A total of eight ablations were created. MRI showed no collateral damage of surrounded tissue. The highest visual contrast between lesions and normal parenchyma was obtained by T2-HR-SPIR-TSE-w sequence of DCE-MRI. Ablation zones showed inhomogeneous necroses with small perifocal edema in the short-term and sharp delimitable scars in the mid-term. MRI showed no significant differences between adjoined renal parenchyma around ablations and parenchyma of untreated kidney. Histological analysis demonstrated complete destruction of cortical glomeruli and tubules, while collecting ducts, renal calyxes, and pelvis of medulla were preserved. Adjoined kidney parenchyma around IRE lesions showed no qualitative differences to normal parenchyma of untreated kidney. This porcine IRE study reveals a multifocal renal ablation, while protecting surrounded renal parenchyma and collecting system over a mid-term period. That offers prevention of renal function ablating centrally located or multifocal renal masses.

  17. Effect of volume expansion on renal citrate and ammonia metabolism in KCl-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, S; Zett, B; Anderson, B; Fraley, D S

    1975-01-01

    When rats with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced potassium chloride deficiency are given sodium chloride there is simultaneously a partial correction of metabolic alkalosis and a marked reduction in urinary citrate excretion and renal citrate content. To examine DOCA's role in this phenomenon and to determine how sodium chloride alters renal metabolism, rats were made KC1 deficient using furosemide and a KC1-deficient diet. Renal citrate and ammonia metabolism were then studied after chronic oral sodium chloride administration or acute volume expansion with isotonic mannitol. Although both maneuvers partially corrected metabolic alkalosis, sodium chloride raised serum chloride concentration while mannitol significantly decreased it. Urinary citrate excretion decreased to 10% of control in rats given NaCl and to 50% of control in rats infused with mannitol. The filtered load of citrate was constant or increased indicating increased tubular citrate reabsorption. Renal cortical citrate content also decreased approximately 50%. Renal cortical slices from KCl-deficient rats incubated in low or normal chloride media produced equal amounts of 14CO2 from (1, 5-14C) citrate. In addition, urinary ammonia excretion increased by over 300% in both groups. This occurred in the mannitol group despite increased urinary pH and flow rate indicating a rise in renal ammonia production. It seems that neither DOCA nor an increase in serum chloride concentration explains the experimental results. Rather, it appears that volume expansion is responsible for increased renal tubular citrate reabsorption and renal ammonia production. As these renal metabolic responses ordinarily occur in response to acidosis, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that volume expansion reduces renal cell pH in 3KCl-deficient rats. PMID:239022

  18. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on exercise blood pressure, heart rate, and capacity in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix; Linz, Dominik; Pöss, Janine; Cremers, Bodo; Kindermann, Ingrid; Laufs, Ulrich; Ukena, Christian; Böhm, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Renal denervation reduces office blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation on blood pressure, heart rate, and chronotropic index at rest, during exercise, and at recovery in 60 patients (renal denervation group=50, control group=10) with resistant hypertension using a standardized bicycle exercise test protocol performed 6 and 12 months after renal denervation. After renal denervation, exercise blood pressure at rest was reduced from 158±3/90±2 to 141±3/84±4 mm Hg (P<0.001 for systolic blood pressure/P=0.007 for diastolic blood pressure) after 6 months and 139±3/83±4 mm Hg (P<0.001/P=0.022) after 12 months. Exercise blood pressure tended to be lower at all stages of exercise at 6- and 12-month follow-up in patients undergoing renal denervation, although reaching statistical significance only at mild-to-moderate exercise levels (75-100 W). At recovery after 1 minute, blood pressure decreased from 201±4/95±2 to 177±4/88±2 (P<0.001/P=0.066) and 188±6/86±2 mm Hg (P=0.059/P=0.01) after 6 and 12 months, respectively. Heart rate was reduced after renal denervation from 71±3 bpm at rest, 128±5 bpm at maximum workload, and 96±5 bpm at recovery after 1 minute to 66±2 (P<0.001), 115±5 (P=0.107), and 89±3 bpm (P=0.008) after 6 months and to 69±3 (P=0.092), 122±7 (P=0.01), and 93±4 bpm (P=0.032) after 12 months. Mean exercise time increased from 6.59±0.33 to 8.4±0.32 (P<0.001) and 9.0±0.41 minutes (P=0.008), and mean workload increased from 93±2 to 100±2 (P<0.001) and 101±3 W (P=0.007) at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. No changes were observed in the control group. In conclusion, renal denervation reduced blood pressure and heart rate during exercise, improved mean workload, and increased exercise time without impairing chronotropic competence.

  19. Effect of FTY720 (fingolimod) on graft survival in renal transplant recipients: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gholamnezhadjafari, Reza; Falak, Reza; Aflatoonian, Reza; Ali Keshtkar, Abbas; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that FTY720 has inconsistent effects in kidney transplant recipients. Several review articles on FTY720 have been published, but most have focused on the mechanism of action of FTY720. Therefore, this review aims to evaluate and determine the beneficial and harmful effects of FTY720 therapy in kidney transplant recipients. Methods and analysis We electronically searched the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Sciences, EMBASE, Cochrane databases and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials. Any clinical, randomised controlled trials relating to FTY720 for treating kidney transplant recipients were included without publication status or language restriction. Study selection, data extraction and assessment of study quality were performed independently by two researchers. Data were synthesised by either the fixed effects or the random effects model according to a heterogeneity test. If the extracted data were suitable for meta-analysis, STATA software was used to combine the relative risks for dichotomous outcomes, and the mean differences for continuous outcomes with 95% CIs were measured. Death, loss of function and incidence of acute kidney rejection were assessed as the primary outcomes. Renal graft function, malignancy, delayed graft function and infection were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Ethics/dissemination This review does not require formal ethics approval because the data are not individualised. The resulting review article will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42015024648. PMID:27126975

  20. Effect of mercury (Hg) dental amalgam fillings on renal and oxidative stress biomarkers in children.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Sedairi, Al anoud; Elkhatib, Rola

    2012-08-01

    We examined the effect of mercury (Hg) associated with dental amalgam fillings on biomarkers of renal and oxidative stress in children between the ages of 5-15.5 years. Urine samples were analyzed for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), α(1)-microglobulin (α(1)-MG), β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG), retinol binding protein (RBP), albumin (ALB), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The level of urinary Hg (UHg-C) was calculated as μg/g creatinine. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the excretion of urinary NAG was significantly associated with the presence of dental amalgam fillings (β=0.149, P=0.03) and the levels of UHg-C (β=0.531, P=0), with an interaction between the two (P=0). The increase in urinary NAG in relation to UHg-C levels had a dose-effect pattern. The lowest observed effect was seen at UHg-C levels above 1.452 μg/g creatinine, which is lower than previously reported. In contrast, α(1)-MG was negatively associated with the presence of dental amalgam fillings (β=-0.270, P=0), but positively with UHg-C levels (β=0.393, P=0). There were 7 children without, and one child with, dental amalgam fillings with urinary α(1)-MG levels above the reference limit of >7 mg/g creatinine. Even though α(1)-MG seems to be a reliable biomarker for early changes in renal functions, it might exert its effect only at a higher level of exposure. An inverse relationship was also observed between urinary 8-OHdG levels and the presence of dental amalgam fillings. This might suggest that the dental amalgam does not increase DNA damage but reduces the capacity to repair DNA, leading to lower urinary excretion of 8-OHdG. On the other hand, we found that Hg affected the excretion of urinary 8-OHdG in a dose-related pattern that was mostly associated with long-term exposure to low Hg levels. Urinary NAG levels were positively associated with urinary MDA levels (β=0.516, P=0) but not with 8-OHdG (β=0.134, P=0.078) after adjustment for

  1. Arsenic exposure, inflammation, and renal function in Bangladeshi adults: effect modification by plasma glutathione redox potential

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brandilyn A.; Liu, Xinhua; Hall, Megan N.; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Siddique, Abu B.; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is a widespread public health problem leading to increased risk for multiple outcomes such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and possibly renal disease; potential mechanisms include inflammation and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with increased inflammation and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and examined whether the effects of As were modified by plasma glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), or the reduction potential of the GSSG/2GSH pair (EhGSH). In a cross-sectional study of N = 374 Bangladeshi adults having a wide range of As exposure, we measured markers of inflammation (plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP)), renal function (eGFR), GSH, and GSSG. In covariate-adjusted models, a 10% increase in water As, urinary As adjusted for specific gravity (uAs), or blood As (bAs) was associated with a 0.74% (p = 0.01), 0.90% (p = 0.16), and 1.39% (p = 0.07) increase in CRP, respectively; there was no association with AGP. A 10% increase in uAs or bAs was associated with an average reduction in eGFR of 0.16 (p = 0.12) and 0.21 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.08), respectively. In stratified analyses, the effect of As exposure on CRP was observed only in participants having EhGSH > median (uAs pWald = 0.03; bAs pWald = 0.05). This was primarily driven by stronger effects of As exposure on CRP in participants with lower plasma GSH. The effects of As exposure on eGFR were not modified significantly by EhGSH, GSH, or GSSG. These data suggest that participants having lower plasma GSH and a more oxidized plasma EhGSH are at increased risk for As-induced inflammation. Future studies should evaluate whether antioxidant treatment lowers plasma EhGSH and reduces risk for As-induced diseases. PMID:25916185

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure was undertaken from the perspective of the Public Administration. The current Spanish situation, where all the patients undergoing graft function loss are referred back to dialysis in a late manner, was compared to an ideal scenario where all the patients are timely referred. Methods A Markov model was developed in which six health states were defined: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation, late referral hemodialysis, late referral peritoneal dialysis and death. The model carried out a simulation of the progression of renal disease for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients aged 40, who were observed in a lifetime temporal horizon of 45 years. In depth sensitivity analyses were performed in order to ensure the robustness of the results obtained. Results Considering a discount rate of 3 %, timely referral showed an incremental cost of 211 €, compared to late referral. This cost increase was however a consequence of the incremental survival observed. The incremental effectiveness was 0.0087 quality-adjusted life years (QALY). When comparing both scenarios, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 24,390 €/QALY was obtained, meaning that timely dialysis referral might be an efficient alternative if a willingness-to-pay threshold of 45,000 €/QALY is considered. This result proved to be independent of the proportion of late referral patients observed. The acceptance probability of timely referral was 61.90 %, while late referral was acceptable in 38.10 % of the simulations. If we however restrict the analysis to those situations not involving any loss of effectiveness, the acceptance probability of timely referral was 70.10 %, increasing twofold that of late referral (29.90 %). Conclusions Timely dialysis referral after graft function loss might be an efficient alternative in Spain, improving both patients’ survival rates and

  3. Effects of disc midplane evolution on CO snowline location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panić, O.; Min, M.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature changes in the planet forming disc midplanes carry important physico-chemical consequences, such as the effect on the locations of the condensation fronts of molecules - the snowlines. Snowlines impose major chemical gradients and possibly foster grain growth. The aim of this paper is to understand how disc midplane temperature changes with gas and dust evolution, and identify trends that may influence planet formation or allow to constrain disc evolution observationally. We calculate disc temperature, hydrostatic equilibrium and dust settling in a mutually consistent way from a grid of disc models at different stages of gas loss, grain growth and hole opening. We find that the CO snowline location depends very strongly on disc properties. The CO snowline location migrates closer to the star for increasing degrees of gas dispersal and dust growth. Around a typical A type star, the snowline can be anywhere between several tens and a few hundred au, depending on the disc properties such as gas mass and grain size. In fact, gas loss is as efficient as dust evolution in settling discs, and flat discs may be gas-poor counterparts of flared discs. Our results, in the context of different pre-main sequence evolution of the luminosity in low- and intermediate-mass stars suggests very different thermal (and hence chemical) histories in these two types of discs. Discs of T Tauri stars settle and cool down while discs of Herbig Ae stars may remain rather warm throughout the pre-main sequence.

  4. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of {sup 14}C-D-glucose and {sup 14}C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC{sub 50}, of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M, and 5.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K{sub i}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC{sub 50}s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins.

  5. Honey supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats elicits antihypertensive effect via amelioration of renal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Wahab, Mohd S; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N S; Salleh, Salzihan; Gurtu, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of GST and catalase (CAT) were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  6. In Brief: Evolution teacher survey; Effects of drought on rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2005-05-01

    More than 30% of teachers responding to an informal survey indicated that they feel pressured to include creationism, intelligent design, or other nonscientific alternatives to evolution in their science classrooms. An experiment to simulate the effects of climate change and severe drought on a parcel of rainforest in the Brazilian Amazon has found that some parts of the affected forest tolerated the dry condition by absorbing water from deeper in the soil.

  7. The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bopindolol.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, N J; Grant, A C; Rodger, R S; Meredith, P A; Elliott, H L

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, bopindolol, have been studied in 18 hypertensive patients with varying degrees of renal impairment following single and multiple oral dosing. Bopindolol, which undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism, was found to accumulate in patients with chronic renal failure but the disposition in patients on regular haemodialysis did not differ significantly from patients with normal renal function. The mechanism underlying these changes in pharmacokinetics is not clear but suggests the presence of metabolic inhibitors in uraemic plasma which are removed by regular haemodialysis. PMID:1678272

  8. Canagliflozin Slows Progression of Renal Function Decline Independently of Glycemic Effects.

    PubMed

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Desai, Mehul; Jardine, Meg; Balis, Dainius; Meininger, Gary; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with canagliflozin decreases HbA1c, body weight, BP, and albuminuria, implying that canagliflozin confers renoprotection. We determined whether canagliflozin decreases albuminuria and reduces renal function decline independently of its glycemic effects in a secondary analysis of a clinical trial in 1450 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin and randomly assigned to either once-daily canagliflozin 100 mg, canagliflozin 300 mg, or glimepiride uptitrated to 6-8 mg. End points were annual change in eGFR and albuminuria over 2 years of follow-up. Glimepiride, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg groups had eGFR declines of 3.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.8 to 3.8), 0.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.0), and 0.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (95% CI, 0.4 to 1.4), respectively (P<0.01 for each canagliflozin group versus glimepiride). In the subgroup of patients with baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio decreased more with canagliflozin 100 mg (31.7%; 95% CI, 8.6% to 48.9%; P=0.01) or canagliflozin 300 mg (49.3%; 95% CI, 31.9% to 62.2%; P<0.001) than with glimepiride. Patients receiving glimepiride, canagliflozin 100 mg, or canagliflozin 300 mg had reductions in HbA1c of 0.81%, 0.82%, and 0.93%, respectively, at 1 year and 0.55%, 0.65%, and 0.74%, respectively, at 2 years. In conclusion, canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg/d, compared with glimepiride, slowed the progression of renal disease over 2 years in patients with type 2 diabetes, and canagliflozin may confer renoprotective effects independently of its glycemic effects.

  9. The effect of maleate induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal handling of Tc-99m DMSA in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the healthy kidney Tc-99m DMSA accumulates in the proximal tubular cells. Consequently, impairment of the reabsorptive function of these cells may alter the renal handling of this static renal imaging agent. The authors investigated in rats the effects of a sodiummaleate (Ma) (2mmol/kg iv) induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal accumulation and excretion of Tc-99m DMSA. Such a treatment results in a moderate fall of the glomerular filtration rate, glycosuria, aminoaciduria and a tubular proteinuria. In 7 adult male Wistar rats, Tc-99m DMSA scans were taken before Ma, on the day of treatment, and 1 week thereafter. The accumulation of Tc-99m DMSA in kidneys (Ki) and bladder (Bl) was determined at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after i.v. injection. The results, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose, are presented. The findings show that a reversible Ma induced impairment of the proximal reabsorptive capacity severely alters the renal tubular handling of Tc-99m DMSA. In contrast to the control situation, only a small fraction of the DMSA is retained in the kidney and the majority is transported directly to the urinary bladder. When similar alterations are observed in clinical Tc-99m DMSA scans, this may be an indication of an impairment of the proximal tubular function.

  10. Alleviative effect of myricetin on ochratoxin A-induced oxidative stress in rat renal cortex: histological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    El-Haleem, Manal R Abdel; Kattaia, Asmaa A A; El-Baset, Samia A Abdel; Mostafa, Heba El Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The detoxification of OTA has been of major interest due to its widespread threat to human health. We aimed to investigate the possible alleviative effect of myricetin (MYR) against OTA-induced damage in renal cortex of rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: control (untreated), vehicle control (0.5 ml corn oil/day including dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MYR (100 mg MYR/kg b.w./day in distilled water), OTA (0.5 mg OTA/kg b.w./day; dissolved in 10% DMSO and then corn oil) and OTA + MYR group (received OTA and MYR at similar doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, renal cortices were processed for light and electron microscope examinations. Immunohistochemical staining for localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was carried out. Biochemical analysis of tissue glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined to evaluate oxidative stress. OTA administration induced deleterious renal injury evidenced by the structural and ultra-structural changes. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, PCNA and TGF-β1 were significantly up regulated compared with control. Alterations in antioxidant parameters supported that oxidative stress was one of the mechanisms involved in OTA toxicity. On the contrary, co-administration of MRY partially ameliorated OTA-induced renal injury. We suggest the potential effectiveness of MYR to counteract OTA-induced toxic oxidative stress on the renal cortex.

  11. The effect of thymoquinone treatment on the combined renal and pulmonary toxicity of cisplatin and diesel exhaust particles

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H; Shalaby, Asem; Manoj, Priyadarsini; Waly, Mostafa I; Yasin, Javed; Fahim, Mohamed; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Particulate air pollution (PAP) exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with renal disease. However, there are only a few studies on the interaction between PAP and renal injury, and none on agents that may ameliorate it. We studied the interaction between cisplatin (CP) nephrotoxicity and a single exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in rats 24 h before sacrifice, and assessed the effect of co-treatment with the active ingredient in Nigella Sativa seed oil, thymoquinone (TQ) thereon. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with CP (6 mg/kg) and four days later, they were exposed intratracheally to DEP (0.5 mg/kg), and were sacrificed 24 h later. Oral TQ (20 mg/kg) was given daily throughout the experimental period. CP alone caused several physiological, biochemical, and histopathological changes that included reduced growth and creatinine clearance, and raised plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine and urea concentrations, and urinary N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities. It adversely affected several indices of oxidative damage in the kidneys, and induced renal tubular necrosis. Most of these actions were significantly potentiated in rats given both CP and DEP. TQ significantly abrogated many of the effects of CP and DEP, given alone and in combination. These results provide experimental evidence that subjects with renal diseases can be at higher risk from PAP, and that TQ, pending further pharmacological and toxicological studies, can be considered a useful agent in patients with renal diseases and exposed to PAP. PMID:25925792

  12. Protective effects of salusin-α and salusin-β on renal ischemia/reperfusion damage and their levels in ischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Cakir, M; Duzova, H; Taslidere, A; Orhan, G; Ozyalin, F

    2017-01-01

    and the level of Cre was decreased in I/R + salusin-β10 group compared to the I/R group. We demonstrated a protective effect of salusin-α and salusin-β against renal I/R damage. Changes in the levels of salusin-α and salusin-β in the I/R group suggest that these peptides may be associated with acute renal failure.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  14. Effect of varying epistasis on the evolution of recombination.

    PubMed

    Kouyos, Roger D; Otto, Sarah P; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2006-06-01

    Whether recombination decelerates or accelerates a population's response to selection depends, at least in part, on how fitness-determining loci interact. Realistically, all genomes likely contain fitness interactions both with positive and with negative epistasis. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the conditions under which the potential beneficial effects of recombination with negative epistasis prevail over the detrimental effects of recombination with positive epistasis. Here, we examine the simultaneous effects of diverse epistatic interactions with different strengths and signs in a simplified model system with independent pairs of interacting loci and selection acting only on the haploid phase. We find that the average form of epistasis does not predict the average amount of linkage disequilibrium generated or the impact on a recombination modifier when compared to results using the entire distribution of epistatic effects and associated single-mutant effects. Moreover, we show that epistatic interactions of a given strength can produce very different effects, having the greatest impact when selection is weak. In summary, we observe that the evolution of recombination at mutation-selection balance might be driven by a small number of interactions with weak selection rather than by the average epistasis of all interactions. We illustrate this effect with an analysis of published data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus to draw conclusions on the evolution of recombination from experimental data, it is necessary to consider the distribution of epistatic interactions together with the associated selection coefficients.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of pazopanib compared with sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Amdahl, J.; Diaz, J.; Park, J.; Nakhaipour, H.R.; Delea, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Canada and elsewhere, pazopanib and sunitinib—tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors—are recommended as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mrcc). A large randomized noninferiority trial of pazopanib versus sunitinib (comparz) demonstrated that the two drugs have similar efficacy; however, patients randomized to pazopanib experienced better health-related quality of life (hrqol) and nominally lower rates of non-study medical resource utilization. Methods The cost-effectiveness of pazopanib compared with sunitinib for first-line treatment of mrcc from a Canadian health care system perspective was evaluated using a partitioned-survival model that incorporated data from comparz and other secondary sources. The time horizon of 5 years was based on the maximum duration of follow-up in the final analysis of overall survival from the comparz trial. Analyses were conducted first using list prices for pazopanib and sunitinib and then by assuming that the prices of sunitinib and pazopanib would be equivalent. Results Based on list prices, expected costs were CA$10,293 less with pazopanib than with sunitinib. Pazopanib was estimated to yield 0.059 more quality-adjusted life-years (qalys). Pazopanib was therefore dominant (more qalys and lower costs) compared with sunitinib in the base case. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, pazopanib was dominant in 79% of simulations and was cost-effective in 90%–100% of simulations at a threshold cost-effectiveness ratio of CA$100,000. Assuming equivalent pricing, pazopanib yielded CA$917 in savings in the base case, was dominant in 36% of probabilistic sensitivity analysis simulations, and was cost-effective in 89% of simulations at a threshold cost-effectiveness ratio of CA$100,000. Conclusions Compared with sunitinib, pazopanib is likely to be a cost-effective option for first-line treatment of mrcc from a Canadian health care

  16. Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  17. Effect of renal function on risedronate pharmacokinetics after a single oral dose

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, D Y; St Peter, J V; Eusebio, R A; Pallone, K A; Kelly, S C; Russell, D A; Nesbitt, J D; Thompson, G A; Powell, J H

    2000-01-01

    Aims To determine the relationship between risedronate pharmacokinetics and renal function. Methods Risedronate was administered to adult men and women (n = 21) with various degrees of renal function (creatinine clearance 15–126 ml min−1) as a single oral dose of 30 mg. Serum samples were obtained for 72 h after dosing, and urine samples were collected for 72 h after dosing and then periodically for 6 weeks. Risedronate concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Risedronate serum concentration-time and urinary excretion rate-time profiles were analysed simultaneously using nonlinear regression. Results Renal clearance and volume of distribution were linearly related to creatinine clearance (r2 = 0.854, P < 0.001; and r2 = 0.317, P < 0.01, respectively). Decreases in predicted renal clearance and volume of distribution of 82 and 69%, respectively, were observed when creatinine clearance decreased from 120 to 20 ml min−1. A 64% decrease in predicted oral clearance was observed when creatinine clearance decreased from 120 to 20 ml min−1 (P = 0.064). Iohexol clearance, a predictor of renal function, produced similar results to those observed with creatinine clearance. Risedronate was well tolerated by the study population. Conclusions Risedronate renal clearance was significantly related to a decrease in renal function. There was a consistent reduction in oral clearance with a decrease in creatinine clearance. However, based on the regression analysis, generally no dosage adjustment appears to be necessary for most patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance > 20 ml min−1). PMID:10718776

  18. The Impact of Renal Impairment on Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Drug-Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Giulio G.; Taniwaki, Masanori; Kalesan, Bindu; Räber, Lorenz; Stortecky, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Silber, Sigmund; Serruys, Patrick W.; Meier, Bernhard; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal impairment (RI) is associated with impaired prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in this patient population are not well established. Methods We pooled individual data for 5,011 patients from 3 trials with the exclusive and unrestricted use of DES (SIRTAX - N = 1,012, LEADERS - N = 1,707, RESOLUTE AC - N = 2,292). Angiographic follow-up was available for 1,544 lesions. Outcomes through 2 years were stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (normal renal function: GFR≥90 ml/min; mild RI: 90renal function at 2 years follow-up. There was no difference in cardiac death or MI between patients with mild RI compared to those with normal renal function (OR 1.10, 95%CI 0.75–1.61). The risk of target-lesion revascularization was similar for patients with moderate/severe RI (OR 1.17, 95%CI 0.70–1.95) and mild RI (OR 1.16, 95%CI 0.81–1.64) compared with patients with normal renal function. In-stent late loss and in-segment restenosis were not different for patients with moderate/severe RI, mild RI, and normal renal function. Conclusions Renal function does not affect clinical and angiographic effectiveness of DES. However, prognosis remains impaired among patients with moderate/severe RI. PMID:25184244

  19. Protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury: protective effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hasan; Fadillioglu, Ersin; Yagmurca, Murat; Uçar, Muharrem; Irmak, M Kemal

    2006-02-01

    Oxygen radicals have roles in the renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury usually encountered in several conditions such as renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the oxidant/antioxidant status and microscopy of renal tissues after IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control untreated rats, IR (30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion), IR + NAC (i.p.; 180 mg/kg) and IR + erdosteine (oral; 50 mg/kg/day for 2 days before experiments) groups. After unilateral renal IR, the right kidney was rapidly excised and sectioned vertically into two pieces for microscopic examination and biochemical analysis. Erdosteine and NAC treatment did not cause any significant change in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in comparison with the IR group, even if the SOD activity increased in IR groups than in the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity was decreased in the IR group in comparison with control and IR + erdosteine groups (P<0.05), whereas it was higher in the IR + erdosteine group than in the IR + NAC group (P<0.05). Xanthine oxidase (XO) activity was higher in all the IR-performed groups than in the control group (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and protein carbonyl (PC) content were increased after IR injury (P<0.05). Erdosteine or NAC treatments ameliorated these increased TBARS and PC contents in comparison with the IR group (P<0.05). Light microscopy of the IR group showed tubular dilatation, tubular necrosis and vacuole formation in epithelial cells. Erdosteine but not NAC apparently reduced the renal tissue damage. The pathological damage score after IR was significantly reduced after erdosteine treatment (P<0.05), but not after NAC treatment. In conclusion, renal IR resulted in oxidative damage as seen in biochemical lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation results with aggravated tubular necrosis. Erdosteine and

  20. Management of renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Podymow, Tiina; August, Phyllis; Akbari, Ayub

    2010-06-01

    Although renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, it poses considerable risk to maternal and fetal health. This article discusses renal physiology and assessment of renal function in pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on renal disease in patients with diabetes, lupus, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and chronic pyelonephritis. Renal diseases occasionally present for the first time in pregnancy, and diagnoses of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are described. Finally, therapy of end-stage renal disease in pregnancy, dialysis, and renal transplantation are reviewed.

  1. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric urea and ammonium concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D; Rowe, P A; el Nujumi, A M; Dahill, S; McColl, K E

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of measuring the gastric juice urea:ammonium ratio in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic renal failure. METHODS--Twenty three (12 men) patients with established chronic renal failure and dyspepsia were studied. Gastric juice (2 ml) was aspirated during endoscopy to measure urea and ammonium. The upper gastrointestinal tract was routinely inspected and two antral biopsy specimens obtained. The 14C-urea breath test was conducted within 14 days of endoscopic examination to determine H pylori antibody response. RESULTS--The median (range) serum urea concentration in 11 patients with renal failure and H pylori infection was similar to that in 12 without H pylori infection. The median gastric juice urea concentration in subjects with infection was lower than that in the subjects without infection (p < 0.01). The median gastric juice ammonium concentration in subjects with the infection was higher compared with subjects without infection (p < 0.01). There was an overlap of the urea and ammonium concentrations in gastric juice from both H pylori positive and negative subjects. The urea:ammonium ratio was 0.16 (0.01-1.11) for subjects with H pylori compared with 1.63 (1.0-18.9) in subjects without infection (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION--The urea:ammonium ratio differentiated both groups, with the exception of one false negative result. The urea:ammonium ratio proved almost as effective in identifying the presence of H pylori infection in subjects with chronic renal failure as it had in subjects with normal renal function. PMID:8331178

  2. Renal actions of endothelin-1 in newborn piglets: dose-effect relation and the effects of receptor antagonist (BQ-123) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin).

    PubMed

    Bhat, R; John, E; Chari, G; Shankararao, R; Fornell, L; Gulati, A; Vidyasagar, D

    1995-11-01

    Although the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on intact or perfused adult kidney are well understood, its effects in the fetus and the newborn have not been well studied. We examined the effects of infusions of 25, 50, and 100 ng/kg of ET-1 per minute on mean blood pressure (MBP), cardiac index (CI), renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urine volume (UV) in 7- to 10-day-old piglets (n = 24). In addition, the effects of pretreatment with a receptor antagonist (BQ-123) and with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) were studied in 12 separate piglets. ET-1 produced a dose- and level-dependent decrease in CI (60%), RBF (50% to 75%), GFR (66% to 80%) and MBP 15% to 17%. These changes returned to 75% to 80% of baseline 60 minutes after discontinuation of ET-1. Low-dose infusion (25 ng/kg) did not result in any changes in systemic or renal hemodynamics. Plasma half-life of ET-1 in piglets was 2.1 +/- 0.4 minutes. Pretreatment with the specific ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 completely blocked the ET-1-induced systemic and renal hemodynamic changes. Indomethacin blocked the ET-1-induced rise in MBP but failed to block any renal changes. In fact, indomethacin accentuated the changes induced by ET-1, especially the changes in RBF, RVR, and GFR. Studies of receptor binding in the renal cortex and medulla showed that, in the cortex, the Ki value for ET-1 was 6.32 +/- 1.57, and for ET-3 it was 20.05 +/- 4.38 (p < 0.05); in the medulla, the Ki values were similar for both ET-1 and ET-3. These results indicate that in piglets the renal vascular bed is highly sensitive to ET-1, and its effects are predominantly mediated through ETA receptors.

  3. Sunitinib therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: recommendations for management of side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kollmannsberger, C; Soulieres, D; Wong, R; Scalera, A; Gaspo, R; Bjarnason, G

    2007-01-01

    Sunitinib, a new vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, has demonstrated high activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and is now widely used for patients with metastatic disease. Although generally well tolerated and associated with a low incidence of common toxicity criteria grade 3 or 4 toxicities, sunitinib exhibits a distinct pattern of novel side effects that require monitoring and management. This article summarizes the most important side effects and proposes recommendations for their monitoring, prevention and treatment, based on the existing literature and on suggestions made by an expert group of Canadian oncologists. Fatigue, diarrhea, anorexia, oral changes, skin toxicity and hypertension seem to be the most clinically relevant toxicities of sunitinib. Fatigue may be partly related to the development of hypothyroidism during sunitinib therapy for which patients should be observed and, if necessary, treated. Hypertension can be treated with standard antihypertensive therapy and rarely requires treatment discontinuation. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia usually do not require intervention, in particular no episodes of neutropenic fever have been reported to date. A decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening side effect. Because of its metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 a number of drugs can potentially interact with sunitinib. Clinical response and toxicity should be carefully observed when sunitinib is combined with either a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer or inhibitor and doses adjusted as necessary. Knowledge about side effects, as well as the proactive assessment and consistent management of sunitinib-related side effects, is critical to ensure optimal benefit from sunitinib treatment. PMID:18542784

  4. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  5. Effect of pentoxifylline on renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leporini, Christian; Pisano, Anna; Russo, Emilio; D'Arrigo, Graziella; de Sarro, Giovambattista; Coppolino, Giuseppe; Bolignano, Davide

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an important health problem worldwide and the search for new therapeutic approaches for retarding CKD progression is a timely issue. Recent evidence suggest that the anti-inflammatory and hemorrheologic drug Pentoxifylline (PTX), may produce favorable effects on kidney function. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ascertain whether PTX derivatives, alone or in combination to other treatments, may be useful in slowing down disease progression in patients with diabetic or non-diabetic CKD. We found 26 studies (1518 subjects) matching our search criteria. Information on the effects of PTX on hard renal outcomes (doubling of serum creatinine or need for chronic dialysis) were lacking in all the reviewed trials. Conversely, PTX was effective in reducing proteinuria compared to control, a benefit that was more evident in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus, higher proteinuria at baseline and early renal impairment. An improvement in renal function (eGFR/creatinine clearance) was observed particularly in patients with more advanced CKD stage and in studies with longer follow-up. Conversely, cumulative analyses did not reveal any evident reduction in urinary albumin excretion, even in diabetic patients. The use of PTX was relatively safe as most trials recorded only minor gastrointestinal adverse effects. Although these findings point at some reno-protective effects of PTX, there is no conclusive evidence proving the usefulness of this agent for improving renal outcomes in subjects with chronic kidney disease of various etiology. Future trials adequately powered and designed on hard clinical end-points are needed.

  6. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of rosemary against lead-induced hepato-renal damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Wafaa A M; Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; Farouk, Sameh M

    2016-09-01

    In traditional medicine, Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf is used as a curative herbal therapy for the treatment of several diseases. The protective effects of rosemary in toxic effects of some environmental pollutants are known. However, there is paucity of information about its protective effects on lead acetate (LD) toxicity. To assess the protection of rosemary ethanolic extracts (REE) on LD-induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rabbits were treated with REE (30mg/kg) and/or LD (30mg LD/kg) by gavage administration for 30 days. The total phenolic compound content in REE was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu's assay and phyto-constituents were isolated and identified using gas chromatographic and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The protective effect of REE in LD-induced liver and renal dysfunction and blood cells was evaluated by estimating blood biomarkers of liver and renal damage, histological, and biochemical examinations. Antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation biomarker, protein and glycogen contents were estimated in both liver and kidney homogenates. The GC-MS analysis revealed that REE is rich in phenolic compounds including camphor, phytol, borneol, caryophyllene oxide, isopulegol, thymol, and verbenone. REE pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) suppressed levels of LD induced hepatic and renal damage products as well as lipid peroxidation. In contrast, pre-treatment using REE significantly (P<0.05) decreased LD-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes, protein, and glycogen content. Additionally, REE preserved blood cells and their structure and renal and hepatic architecture. In conclusion, these findings revealed that REE protects from toxic effects of LD possibly through its free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities.

  7. Blood levels and renal effects of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, P; Hasler, L; Gnädinger, M P; Lang, R E; Uehlinger, D E; Shaw, S; Rascher, W; Reubi, F C

    1986-01-01

    Since mammalian atria were recently found to contain vasoactive and natriuretic peptides, we investigated the following in normal humans: plasma human atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary water and electrolyte excretion, blood pressure (BP), and catecholamine, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels before, during, and after intravenous administration of the newly synthetized alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha hANP). In 10 subjects alpha hANP given as an initial bolus of 50 micrograms followed by a 45-min maintenance infusion at 6.25 micrograms/min increased plasma alpha hANP from 58 +/- 12 to 625 +/- 87 (mean +/- SEM) pg/ml; caused an acute fall in diastolic BP (-12%, P less than 0.001) and a hemoconcentration (hematocrit +7%, P less than 0.01) not fully explained by a negative body fluid balance; increased GFR (+15%, P less than 0.05) despite unchanged or decreased ERPF (filtration fraction +37%, P less than 0.001); augmented (P less than 0.05- less than 0.001) urinary chloride (+317%), sodium (+224%), calcium (+158%), magnesium (+110%), phosphate excretion (+88%), and free water clearance (from -0.76 to +2.23 ml/min, P less than 0.001) with only little change in potassium excretion; and increased plasma norepinephrine (P less than 0.001) while plasma and urinary epinephrine and dopamine, and plasma ADH, angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels were unchanged. The magnitude and pattern of electrolyte and water excretion during alpha hANP infusion could not be accounted for by increased GFR alone. Therefore, in normal man, endogenous alpha hANP seems to circulate in blood. alpha hANP can cause a BP reduction and hemoconcentration which occur, at least in part, independently of diuresis and are accompanied by sympathetic activation. An increase in GFR that occurs in the presence of unchanged or even decreased total renal blood flow is an important

  8. Parental effects and the evolution of phenotypic memory.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, B; Johnstone, R A

    2016-02-01

    Despite growing evidence for nongenetic inheritance, the ecological conditions that favour the evolution of heritable parental or grandparental effects remain poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore the evolution of parental effects in a patch-structured population with locally changing environments. When selection favours the production of a mix of offspring types, this mix differs according to the parental phenotype, implying that parental effects are favoured over selection for bet-hedging in which the mixture of offspring phenotypes produced does not depend on the parental phenotype. Positive parental effects (generating a positive correlation between parental and offspring phenotype) are favoured in relatively stable habitats and when different types of local environment are roughly equally abundant, and can give rise to long-term parental inheritance of phenotypes. By contrast, unstable habitats can favour negative parental effects (generating a negative correlation between parental and offspring phenotype), and under these circumstances, even slight asymmetries in the abundance of local environmental states select for marked asymmetries in transmission fidelity.

  9. Effect of Erythropoietin on Postresuscitation Renal Function in a Swine Model of Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kouskouni, Evangelia; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Kaparos, Georgios; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Lelovas, Pavlos; Kotsilianou, Olympia; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Gkiokas, Georgios; Garosa, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of EPO administration on postresuscitation renal function. Methods. Twenty-four female Landrace/Large-White piglets aged 10–15 weeks with average weight of 19 ± 2 kg were randomly assigned to 2 different groups of 12 subjects each. After the end of an 8-minute ventricular fibrillation, the control group (Group C) received saline as placebo, whereas the EPO group (Group E) received EPO 5000 U/kg. The animals were resuscitated according to the 2010 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation. Results. Five animals (41.67%) from Group C and 11 animals (91.67%) from Group E achieved ROSC (p = 0.027). Eight animals (66.67%, 5 surviving and 3 nonsurviving) from Group C suffered severe kidney damage or AKI compared to animals from Group E, in which none of the swine had evidence of severe kidney damage or AKI (p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in all tested biochemical markers between the two groups, as well as a positive correlation of creatinine with NGAL, L-FABP, and IL-18 (summed mean values' p = 0.049, 0.01, and 0.004, resp.). Conclusions. Administration of EPO protected swine from postresuscitation acute kidney injury. PMID:27847811

  10. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on renal vascular responses in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Al Suleimani, Y M; Al Mahruqi, A S; Al Za'abi, M; Shalaby, A; Ashique, M; Nemmar, A; Ali, B H

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated the possible association between exposure to particulate air pollution and the increased rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney diseases. The link of this observation to vascular damage has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, this study aims to investigate possible vascular damage that might be associated with exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DP) in adenine (AD)-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats, and the possible ameliorative effect of gum acacia (GA). CKD was induced by feeding AD (0.75%, w/w), and DP (0.5 mg/kg) was instilled intratracheally every second day and GA was given concomitantly in the drinking water at a dose of 15% w/v. All treatments were given concomitantly for 28 days. Changes in renal blood flow (RBF) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were monitored in these animals after anesthesia, together with several other endpoints. Exposure to DP significantly reduced RBF and this was significantly potentiated in AD-treated rats. Phenylephrine-induced decreases in RBF and increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were severely potentiated in rats exposed to DP, and these actions were significantly augmented in AD-treated rats. GA did not significantly affect the vascular impairment induced by AD and DP given together. This study provides experimental evidence that exposure to particulate air pollution can exacerbate the vascular damage seen in patients with CKD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 541-549, 2017.

  11. Protective effect of tartary buckwheat on renal function in type 2 diabetics: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ju; Li, Zaigui; Qin, Yuchang; Yue, Yanfen; Liu, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (TB) has been reported to be associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and T2DM has had a major impact on the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Thus, the hypothesis that a daily intake of TB will improve DKD risk factors, including urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), urea nitrogen (UN), serum creatinine, and uric acid was tested. In a parallel, randomized, open-label controlled trial, 104 T2DM patients were randomly assigned to a diet control group (systematic diet plans and intensive nutritional education) or a TB intervention group (daily replacement of a portion of staple foods with TB foods). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline and the end of the 4-week study. The primary outcomes were that TB significantly decreased the rela tive changes in UACR (2.43–2.35, logarithmic transformed mg/g creatinine) and UN (5.12–4.91 mmol/L) in the TB intervention group vs the diet control group at 4 weeks (P<0.05), without obvious effect on blood glucose during the 4-week study. In addition, subgroup analyses based on different DKD stages also showed a significant reduction in UACR and UN for the T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria (P<0.05). These results support the hypothesis that TB as a replacement of staple food probably alleviates renal dysfunction in T2DM patients. PMID:27920542

  12. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE) on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n = 36) were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days). The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW) respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  13. Clinical and Prognostic Effect of Plasma Fibrinogen in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei; Jing, Suoshi; Liu, Xingchen; Wang, Hanzhang; Wang, Xinping; Kaushik, Dharam; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although numerous studies have shown that plasma fibrinogen is linked to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk, the consistency and magnitude of the effect of plasma fibrinogen are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the association between plasma fibrinogen and RCC prognosis. Methods. An electronic search of Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and the Cochrane databases was performed to identify relevant studies published prior to June 1, 2016. Results. A total of 3744 patients with RCC from 7 published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prognostic and clinical relevance of plasma fibrinogen are evaluated in RCC patients. Statistical significance of the combined hazard ratio (HR) was detected for overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and disease-free survival. Our pooled results showed that elevated plasma fibrinogen was significantly associated with clinical stage and Fuhrman grading. The level of plasma fibrinogen was not found to be associated with tumor type and gender. Conclusions. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is a strong indicator of poorer prognosis of patients with RCC, whereas the plasma fibrinogen is not significantly associated with tumor type. Therefore, plasma fibrinogen could be used in patients with RCC for risk stratification and decision providing a proper therapeutic strategy. PMID:28154828

  14. Clinical and Prognostic Effect of Plasma Fibrinogen in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuejun; Hong, Mei; Jing, Suoshi; Liu, Xingchen; Wang, Hanzhang; Wang, Xinping; Kaushik, Dharam; Rodriguez, Ronald; Wang, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although numerous studies have shown that plasma fibrinogen is linked to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk, the consistency and magnitude of the effect of plasma fibrinogen are unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the association between plasma fibrinogen and RCC prognosis. Methods. An electronic search of Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and the Cochrane databases was performed to identify relevant studies published prior to June 1, 2016. Results. A total of 3744 patients with RCC from 7 published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prognostic and clinical relevance of plasma fibrinogen are evaluated in RCC patients. Statistical significance of the combined hazard ratio (HR) was detected for overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and disease-free survival. Our pooled results showed that elevated plasma fibrinogen was significantly associated with clinical stage and Fuhrman grading. The level of plasma fibrinogen was not found to be associated with tumor type and gender. Conclusions. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is a strong indicator of poorer prognosis of patients with RCC, whereas the plasma fibrinogen is not significantly associated with tumor type. Therefore, plasma fibrinogen could be used in patients with RCC for risk stratification and decision providing a proper therapeutic strategy.

  15. Protective effects of leflunomide on renal lesions in a rat model if diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Ji, Yongqiang; Lv, Wei; He, Tianwei; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes with poor efficacy of clinical treatment. This study investigated the protective effects of leflunomide, a new immunosuppressant, on tubulointerstitial lesions in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in male Wistar rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats were treated daily for 8 weeks with low (5 mg/kg) and high dose (10 mg/kg) of leflunomide, and benazepril hydrochloride (4 mg/kg) as a positive control. In diabetic rats, the 24-h urine volume, urine protein and microalbumin, blood creatinine and urea nitrogen significantly increased, which were attenuated by leflunomide treatment in a dose-dependent manner (all p < 0.05). The increase of kidney weight/body weight and the histopathological findings of tubulointerstitial lesion in diabetic rats were mitigated by leflunomide treatment. Immunohistochemistry study and real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin and CD68 expression in the renal tubulointerstitial region were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while these increases were inhibited by leflunomide treatment. These findings suggest that leflunomide protects the kidney injury of diabetic rats might through its inhibition of OPN/TGF-β1 mediated extracellular matrix deposition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as its inhibition on tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

  16. The effect of slice thickness on quantitation of in vivo renal volume with cine computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lerman, L.O.; Bentley, M.D.; Bell, M.R.; Rumberger, J.A.; Romero, J.C. )

    1990-02-26

    The development of fast computed tomography (CT) scanners allows the accurate quantitations of the volume (V) of the in-vivo kidney (K) and its component tissues, using 3 mm thick slices. Utilizing thicker slices may potentially enable the use of shorter scan times with less exposure to contrast media. To determine the relative accuracy of such scans, the right Ks of 14 anesthetized dogs were first scanned, using 3mm thick slices, after a venous bolus injection of iohexol (0.5 cc/kg). The images were then averaged to produce 6 and 10 mm thick slices, and the Vs of the Ks, and their cortical and medullary Vs, determined after boundary identification. Following the scans, the Ks were excised and their Vs determined post-mortem by fluid displacement. The whole K Vs obtained with the 6 and 10 mm thick slices correlated well with those obtained with the 3 mm thick slices. The difference between the in vivo and the post-mortem renal and medullary Vs was consistent with the blood, filtrate and urine contents of the in vivo kidney. In conclusion, the use of 6 and 10 mm thick slices resulted in an overestimation of the in vivo cortical V due to a partial volume effect, which was reflected in a consistent overestimation of KV.

  17. Effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun Joong; Moon, Myoung E; Park, Haeng Soon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Im, Shun Young; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Young Ho

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosanoligosaccharide (COS) on the change of inflammatory response, renal function factor, and renal oxidative stress in glycerol-induced ARF in vitro and in vivo. The molecular weight of COS was approximately below 10 kDa with 90% degree of deacetylation. Renal proximal tubular cells were treated with only COS (0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%) or COS in the presence of glycerol (4mM). And rats were administered with glycerol (50%, 8 ml/kg) by intramuscular injection for the induction of ARF. For identification the protection effect of COS in the glycerol-induced ARF, rats were administered by COS (0.05 and 0.1%) using P.O. injection. The enzymatic activity of the released RDPase was assayed by the fluorometric method. The level of TNF-alpha in kidney or the culture medium was quantified using ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, USA) and, nitrite concentration was determined by the Griess reaction. We showed that COS stimulated the production of TNF-alpha, NO and the released RDPase. Glycerol increased the concentration of RDPase in kidney and decreased the released RDPase in proximal tubular cells. And, glycerol increased the production of NO, TNF-alpha, creatinine, and MDA, and decreased SOD. However, COS recovered the glycerol-induced inflammatory response, renal function factor, and antioxidant effect in kidney. COS had the antioxidant activity and the anti-inflammatory effect. And maybe that characteristics could help recover the glycerol-induced ARF.

  18. Protective Effects of Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C and E Alone or in Combination against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Omid; Kheirandish, Reza; Azizi, Shahrzad; Farajli Abbasi, Mohammad; Ghahramani Gareh Chaman, Shahin; Bidi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia reperfusion injury may occur in a variety of clinical situations, following a transient drop in total or regional blood flow to the kidney. This study was performed to investigate the protective effects of different antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, hydrocortisone and combination of these agents against experimental renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Method: Thirty male rats were divided into six groups. Group Sham, Group I/R: (45 min of ischemia followed by 1h of reperfusion), Group I/R+Vit C: (50 mg/kg Vit C, IV, immediately after reperfusion), Group I/R+Vit E: (20 mg/kg Vit E, IM, 15 min before reperfusion), Group I/R+Hydrocortisone: (50 mg/kg, IV, immediately after reperfusion), and Group Combination: Ischemia-reperfusion plus combination of Vit C, E and hydrocortisone. After the experiments, the left kidney was removed and the tissues were processed for histopathological examination. Result: Severe injuries such as necrosis of tubules, atrophy of glomerulus, and hemorrhage were observed in group I/R. Histological scores indicating tissue injury significantly decreased in all treatment groups compared to the group I/R. The renal tissue in group treatment was preserved in comparison with the group I/R. Comparison between the treatment groups showed that group combination was more effective and group vit E was less effective in protecting of renal tissue against I/R injuries. Conclusion: The results demonstrated simultaneous administration of combination of Vit C, E and hydrocortisone before reperfusion of blood flow to the ischemic tissue could show a synergy against deleterious effects of I/R injuries in kidney. PMID:26351497

  19. The renal protective effect of angiotensin receptor blockers depends on intra-individual response variation in multiple risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Schievink, Bauke; de Zeeuw, Dick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aims Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are renoprotective and targeted to blood pressure. However, ARBs have multiple other (off-target) effects which may affect renal outcome. It is unknown whether on-target and off-target effects are congruent within individuals. If not, this variation in short term effects may have important implications for the prediction of individual long term renal outcomes. Our aim was to assess intra-individual variability in multiple parameters in response to ARBs in type 2 diabetes. Methods Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, potassium, haemoglobin, cholesterol and uric acid after 6 months of losartan treatment were assessed in the RENAAL database. Improvement in predictive performance of renal outcomes (ESRD or doubling serum creatinine) for each individual using ARB-induced changes in all risk markers was assessed by the relative integrative discrimination index (RIDI). Results SBP response showed high variability (mean –5.7 mmHg, 5th to 95th percentile –36.5 to +24.0 mmHg) between individuals. Changes in off-target parameters also showed high variability between individuals. No congruency was observed between responses to losartan in multiple parameters within individuals. Using individual responses in all risk markers significantly improved renal risk prediction (RIDI 30.4%, P < 0.01) compared with using only SBP changes. Results were successfully replicated in two independent trials with irbesartan, IDNT and IRMA-2. Conclusions In this post hoc analysis we showed that ARBs have multiple off-target effects which vary between and within individuals. Combining all ARB-induced responses beyond SBP provides a more accurate prediction of who will benefit from ARB therapy. Prospective trials are required to validate these findings. PMID:25872610

  20. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  1. Environmental evolution: Effects of the origin and evolution of life on Planet Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Margulis, L.; Olendzenski, L.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a multiauthored textbook in planetary evolutionary biogeochemistry, emphasizing the major effects biota have had on the planetary environment and based on a long standing, one semister course at Boston University. A series of chapters described planetary atmospheres in the inner solar system, alternative views on the chemical origin of life, present-day microbial communities and the structures they build, the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic cells, and the fossil record of the late Precambrian. Four concluding chapters discuss the Phanerozoic, including the Gaia hypotheseis, plate tectonics, plant secondary compounds, and the role of chromosome fission in mammaliean evolution. A section on assignments, presentations, supplementary material, and background reading, and a comprehensive glossary are included.

  2. Prostaglandin-E1 has a protective effect on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and inflammation mediated gastric damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Selda; Orhan, Nurcan; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal complications are frequent in renal transplant recipients. In this regard, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced gastric damage seems to be important and there is no data available on the mechanism of this pathology. Because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, it can be suggested that prostaglandin-E1 (PGE1) protects cells from renal IRI-induced gastric damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of gastric damage induced by renal IRI and the effect of PGE1 on these mechanisms. We set an experiment with four different animal groups: physiological saline-injected and sham-operated rats, PGE1 (20μg/kg)-administered and sham operated rats, renal IRI subjected rats, and PGE1-administered and renal IRI subjected rats. The protective effect of PGE1 on renal IRI-induced gastric damage was determined based on reduced histological damage and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that PGE1 shows its protective effect through reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. During histological examination, we observed the presence of common mononuclear cell infiltration. Therefore, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β levels were measured and it has been shown that PGE1 suppressed both cytokines. Furthermore, it was found that PGE1 reduced the number of NF-κB(+) and caspase-3(+) inflammatory cells, and also NF-κB DNA-binding activity, while increasing proliferating cell nuclear antigen(+) epithelial cells in the stomach tissue of rats subjected to renal IR. Our data showed that PGE1 has a protective effect on renal IRI-induced oxidative stress and inflammation mediated gastric damage in rats.

  3. An integrated lipidomics and metabolomics reveal nephroprotective effect and biochemical mechanism of Rheum officinale in chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Wei, Feng; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major public health problem worldwide. Earlier studies have revealed salutary effects of rhubarb extracts in CRF. In this study, we employed lipidomic and metabolomic approaches to identify the plasma biomarkers and to determine the effect of treatment with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of rhubarb in a rat model of CRF with adenine-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. In addition, clinical biochemistry, histological evaluation and pro-fibrotic protein expression were analyzed. Significant changes were found between the CRF and control groups representing characteristic phenotypes of rats with CRF. Treatment with the three rhubarb extracts improved renal injury and dysfunction, either fully or partially reversed the plasma metabolites abnormalities and attenuated upregulation of pro-fibrotic proteins including TGF-β1, α-SMA, PAI-1, CTGF, FN and collagen-1. The nephroprotective effect of ethyl acetate extract was better than other extracts. The differential metabolites were closely associated with glycerophospholipid, fatty acid and amino acid metabolisms. The results revealed a strong link between renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glycerophospholipid metabolism and L-carnitine metabolism in the development of CRF. Amelioration of CRF with the three rhubarb extracts was associated with the delayed development and/or reversal the disorders in key metabolites associated with adenine-induced CRF. PMID:26903149

  4. The evolution of cooperation by the Hankshaw effect.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Sarah P; Connelly, Brian D; Dickinson, Katherine J; Kerr, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation-costly behavior that benefits others-faces one clear obstacle. Namely, cooperators are always at a competitive disadvantage relative to defectors, individuals that reap the benefits, but evade the cost of cooperation. One solution to this problem involves genetic hitchhiking, where the allele encoding cooperation becomes linked to a beneficial mutation, allowing cooperation to rise in abundance. Here, we explore hitchhiking in the context of adaptation to a stressful environment by cooperators and defectors with spatially limited dispersal. Under such conditions, clustered cooperators reach higher local densities, thereby experiencing more mutational opportunities than defectors. Thus, the allele encoding cooperation has a greater probability of hitchhiking with alleles conferring stress adaptation. We label this probabilistic enhancement the "Hankshaw effect" after the character Sissy Hankshaw, whose anomalously large thumbs made her a singularly effective hitchhiker. Using an agent-based model, we reveal a broad set of conditions that allow the evolution of cooperation through this effect. Additionally, we show that spite, a costly behavior that harms others, can evolve by the Hankshaw effect. While in an unchanging environment these costly social behaviors have transient success, in a dynamic environment, cooperation and spite can persist indefinitely.

  5. Radiation exposure from CT-guided ablation of renal masses: effects on life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D; Gervais, Debra A; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Sabir, Sharjeel H; Paul, Aaron B; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to project the effects of radiation exposure on life expectancy (LE) in patients who opt for CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) instead of surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We developed a decision-analytic Markov model to compare LE losses attributable to radiation exposure in hypothetical 65-year-old patients who undergo CT-guided RFA versus surgery for small (≤ 4 cm) RCC. We incorporated mortality risks from RCC, radiation-induced cancers (for procedural and follow-up CT scans), and all other causes; institutional data informed the RFA procedural effective dose. Radiation-induced cancer risks were generated using an organ-specific approach. Effects of varying model parameters and of dose-reduction strategies were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS. Cumulative RFA exposures (up to 305.2 mSv for one session plus surveillance) exceeded those from surgery (up to 87.2 mSv). In 65-year-old men, excess LE loss from radiation-induced cancers, comparing RFA to surgery, was 11.7 days (14.6 days for RFA vs 2.9 days for surgery). Results varied with sex and age; this difference increased to 14.6 days in 65-year-old women and to 21.5 days in 55-year-old men. Dose-reduction strategies that addressed follow-up rather than procedural exposure had a greater impact. In 65-year-old men, this difference decreased to 3.8 days if post-RFA follow-up scans were restricted to a single phase; even elimination of RFA procedural exposure could not achieve equivalent benefits. CONCLUSION. CT-guided RFA remains a safe alternative to surgery, but with decreasing age, the higher burden of radiation exposure merits explicit consideration. Dose-reduction strategies that target follow-up rather than procedural exposure will have a greater impact.

  6. The protective effects of methyl jasmonate against adriamycin--induced hepatic and renal toxicities.

    PubMed

    Kosoko, A M; Molokwu, C J; Farombi, E O; Ademowo, O G

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in adriamycin (ADR) induced hepatic and renal toxicities. 36 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control, ADR (20 mg/kg), MJ (50 mg/kg) only, MJ (100 mg/kg) only, MJ (50 mg/ kg) + ADR, MJ (100 mg/kg) + ADR groups (n = 6). The 2 doses of MJ was administered for 7 days in MJ only groups, ADR was administered intraperitoneally on the 8th day after pretreatment with the 2 different doses of MJ while ADR was administered on the 8th day only for the ADR only group. The malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), H2O2 generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine in the liver, kidneys and serum samples as applicable were estimated. Tissue MDA, H2O2 generation, and GST activity were markedly elevated while GSH content, CAT and SOD activities were significantly reduced in the tissues when compared to the control (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with MJ ameliorated ADR toxicities, with a significant reduction in serum urea concentration, ALT activity, MDA level, H2O2 generation, GST activity and a significant elevation in GSH content, CAT and SOD activities in the organ tissues. MJ induced significant reduction in MDA level and increase of GSH content in liver and kidney tissues. This study suggests that MJ may play an overall protective effect on ADR-induced toxicities in liver and kidneys and the inhibition of tissue peroxidative damage might contribute to this beneficial effect.

  7. FGFR3 and FGFR4 do not mediate renal effects of FGF23.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguang; Vierthaler, Luke; Tang, Wen; Zhou, Jianping; Quarles, L Darryl

    2008-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic factor that suppresses both sodium-dependent phosphate transport and production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] in the proximal tubule. In vitro studies suggest that FGFR3 is the physiologically relevant receptor for FGF23 in the kidney, but this has not been established in vivo. Here, immunohistochemical analysis of the mouse kidney revealed that the proximal tubule expresses FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) but not FGFR1, FGFR2, or FGFR4. Compared with wild-type mice, Hyp mice, which have elevated circulating levels of FGF23, exhibited low levels of serum phosphate and 1,25(OH)(2)D, reduced expression of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter NPT2a in the proximal tubules, and low bone mineral density as a result of osteomalacia. In contrast, neither the serum phosphate nor 1,25(OH)(2)D levels were altered in FGFR3-null mice. For examination of the role of FGFR3 in mediating the effects of FGF23, Hyp mice were crossed with FGFR3-null mice; interestingly, this failed to correct the aforementioned metabolic abnormalities of Hyp mice. Ablation of FGFR4 also failed to correct hypophosphatemia in Hyp mice. Because the ablation of neither FGFR3 nor FGFR4 inhibited the renal effects of excess FGF23, the kidney localization of FGFR1 was investigated. FGFR1 co-localized with Klotho, the co-factor required for FGF23-dependent FGFR activation, in the distal tubule. In summary, neither FGFR3 nor FGFR4 is the principal mediator of FGF23 effects in the proximal tubule, and co-localization of FGFR1 and Klotho suggests that the distal tubule may be an effector site of FGF23.

  8. Acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-10-01

    Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way

  9. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk) or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD) or 35% fat (HFD) for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI). Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO) and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea), TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase). Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production, increased

  10. Ameliorative effect of berberine on renal damage in rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Wen, Wei; Qi, Chun-Li; Zhao, Ru-Xia; Lü, Jun-Hua; Zhong, Chun-Yan; Chen, Yi-Yu

    2012-06-15

    Berberine (BBR) is one of the main constituents in Rhizoma coptidis and it has widely been used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects and mechanism of action of berberine on renal damage in diabetic rats. Diabetes and hyperglycaemia were induced in rats by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, such as i) control rats, ii) untreated diabetic rats iii) 250 mg/kg metformin-treated, iv and v) 100 and 200 mg/kg berberine-treated diabetic rats and treated separately for 8 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycosylated hemoglobin were measured in rats. Kidneys were isolated at the end of the treatment for histology, Western blot analysis and estimation of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and renal advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). The results revealed that berberine significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in diabetic rats. The histological examinations revealed amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular pathological changes following treatment with berberine. In addition, the protein expressions of nephrin and podocin were significantly increased. It seems likely that in rats berberine exerts an ameliorative effect on renal damage in diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. The possible mechanisms for the renoprotective effects of berberine may be related to inhibition of glycosylation and improvement of antioxidation that in turn upregulate the expressions of renal nephrin and podocin.

  11. Effects of cadmium and uranium on some in vitro renal targets.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Henge-Napoli, M H; Minaro, L; Mirto, H; Barrouillet, M P; Cambar, J

    2002-01-01

    Metals are major pollutants not only in occupational settings but also in the general environment. Chronic exposure of workers has been related to severe damage, especially at the renal level. While toxic compounds such as metals are well known to severely impair tubular functions, it is clear that nephrotoxicants can act on various other renal targets, i.e., vascular and glomerular ones. In vitro models are available to assess these toxicities and can be used to better understand the different cell targets. This paper summarizes data obtained in our laboratory after exposure of isolated renal structures such as glomeruli, and cell cultures such as glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells, to cadmium and uranium. Morphometric studies by image analysis of isolated glomeruli and mesangial cultured cells showed that cadmium and uranium induced a dose- and time-dependent glomerular contraction accompanied by disorganization of the cytoskeleton. Classical viability tests demonstrated various factors influencing the metal toxicity. The important roles of pH, extracellular protein concentrations and the nature of the anion accompanying the metal were demonstrated. These data obtained in in vitro models provide better understanding of the cytotoxicity after metal uptake and accumulation in glomerular and tubular cells. Moreover, the glomerular and tubular cytotoxicity they induce may be correlated with severe renal hemodynamic changes in vivo. Finally, we briefly present eventual improvements for in vitro renal models by the use of new cell models such as immortalized human cell lines or by the introduction of porous supports and perifusion devices.

  12. Effects of renal impairment on aluminum (Al) kinetics and Al-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; McNamara, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Al-induced toxicity most commonly occurs in the renally impaired. To study the influence of renal impairment on Al kinetics and toxicity, renally impaired rabbits were prepared by the remnant kidney procedure. Six weeks after partial nephrectomy creatinine clearance was 21% of controls and serum creatinine, BUN, Ca, and PO/sub 4/ were 222, 248, 122, and 50% of presurgery levels respectively. Serum Al kinetics after i.v. Al were: Al clearance 27%, initial and steady state volumes of distribution 50 and 80%, half life 362% and mean residence time 300% of controls (renally intact rabbits). Beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy, rabbits received 145 to 160 ..mu..mole Al/kg s.c. daily, 5 x weekly x 4 weeks. Acquisition of a classically conditioned reflex (nictitating membrane extension) was impaired comparable to that produced by 100-200 ..mu..mole Al in controls but retention and extinction deficits were greater than those seen after 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Tissue Al concentrations were less than those seen after 200 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Body weight was comparable to that produced by 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. These results suggest that renal impairment alters Al serum distribution, impairs its clearance, and increases the Al-induced impairment of memory and body weight gain.

  13. Effects of fasting during Ramadan on renal function of patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Houda; Tazi, Nada; Najdi, Adil; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2015-03-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is prohibited when an individual's health is endangered. Little work has been published in this direction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to evaluate the impact of fasting during Ramadan on the renal function of patients with CKD, adjusting for the initial degree of renal impairment. We prospectively studied 60 patients with CKD (35 females; mean age 45.6 ± 15.8 years). All study patients were older than 15 years, being followed-up at the nephrology clinic for more than six months, having a stable CKD during the preceding six months and who had fasted during Ramadan the previous year. Patients who had a medical contra-indication for fasting were excluded from the study [severe or resistant arterial hypertension, insulin-requiring diabetes, acute renal failure (ARF), active renal disease, repetitive urolithiasis or terminal chronic renal failure]. Statistical analysis was performed in collaboration with the epidemiology lab at the Fez Medical School using the SPSS software version 17. Three of the study patients developed ARF in the first week and four of them at the end of the month of the study period. The risk of developing ARF was significantly higher for patients with baseline creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . However, the small sample size does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions on fasting during Ramadan in stable CKD patients. Studies on larger numbers of patients are recommended.

  14. Effects of Lipid-Based Oral Formulations on Plasma and Tissue Amphotericin B Concentrations and Renal Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Risovic, Verica; Boyd, Michael; Choo, Eugene; Wasan, Kishor M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various lipid and mixed-micelle formulations on the oral absorption and renal toxicity of amphotericin B (AMB) in rats. The maximum concentration of AMB in plasma and the area under the concentration-time curve for 0 to 24 h for AMB were elevated in rats administered triglyceride (TG)-rich AMB formulations in comparison to those in rats given (i) AMB preformulated as a micelle containing sodium deoxycholate with sodium phosphate as a buffer (DOC-AMB), (ii) an AMB-lipid complex suspension, or (iii) AMB solubilized in methanol. Furthermore, our findings suggest that AMB incorporated into TG-based oral formulations has less renal toxicity than DOC-AMB. PMID:14506053

  15. Effect of gum arabic on oxidative stress and inflammation in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Husseni, Isehaq; Beegam, Sumyia; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Schierling, Simone; Queisser, Nina; Schupp, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease in humans, and in chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats. The aim of this work was to study the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in adenine-induced CRF and the effect thereon of the purported nephroprotective agent gum arabic (GA). Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, adenine in feed (0.75%, w/w), GA in drinking water (15%, w/v) and adenine+GA, as before. Urine, blood and kidneys were collected from the rats at the end of the treatment for analysis of conventional renal function tests (plasma creatinine and urea concentration). In addition, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the oxidative stress markers glutathione and superoxide dismutase, renal apoptosis, superoxide formation and DNA double strand break frequency, detected by immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, were measured. Adenine significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, significantly decreased the creatinine clearance and induced significant increases in the concentration of the measured inflammatory mediators. Further, it caused oxidative stress and DNA damage. Treatment with GA significantly ameliorated these actions. The mechanism of the reported salutary effect of GA in adenine-induced CRF is associated with mitigation of the adenine-induced inflammation and generation of free radicals.

  16. Effects of Acetazolamide on the Unrinary Excretion of Cyclic AMP and on the Activity of Renal Adenyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Hector J.; Walls, John; Yates, Jesse; Klahr, Saulo

    1974-01-01

    Acetazolamide, an inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, increased the urinary excretion of cyclic AMP in normal and parathyroidectomized rats. The increase was greater in rats with intact parathyroid glands than in parathyroidectomized rats. This rise in the urinary excretion of cyclic AMP was not due to an increase in urine flow or a change in urine pH. Furosemide caused an increase in urine flow, but did not affect the excretion of cyclic AMP or phosphate. Alkalinization of the urine with bicarbonate did not increase the urinary excretion of phosphate or cyclic AMP. Acetazolamide increased the productionof cyclic AMP by rat renal cortical slices in vitro. This effect was dose-dependent. Acetazolamide also stimulated the activity of renal cortical adenyl cyclase in a dose-dependent manner but had no effect on the activity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The pattern of urinary excretion of cyclic AMP and phosphate after administration of acetazolamide was similar to that observed in rats given parathyroid hormone. It is suggested that acetazolamide stimulates the renal production of cyclic AMP by activating adenyl cyclase and that this may be the mechanism by which this inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase produces phosphaturia. PMID:4357608

  17. Chamomile and oregano extracts synergistically exhibit antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renal protective effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rajagopalan; Ashraf, Elbessoumy A; Essam, Mahmoud A

    2017-01-01

    The bio-activities of separate Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) are well studied; however, the combined effects of both natural products in animal diabetic models are not well characterized. In this study, alloxan-induced male albino rats were treated with single dose aqueous suspension of chamomile or oregano at dose level of either 150 or 300 mg/kg body mass or as equal parts as combination by stomach tube for 6 weeks. After treatment, blood samples were assessed for diabetic, renal, and lipid profiles. Insulin, amylase activity, and diabetic renal apoptosis were further evaluated. Treatment with higher dose of the extracts (300 mg/kg) as individual or as mixture of low doses (150 mg/kg of both the extracts) had significant mass gain, hypoglycemic effect (p ≤ 0.05) with decreased amylase activity and increased serum insulin levels. Restoration of renal profile, lipid profile with increase in HDL-c (p ≤ 0.05) along with reversal of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were well observed with 300 mg/kg mixture, showing synergistic activity of the extracts compared with individual low dose of 150 mg/kg. Collectively, our results indicate that combination of chamomile and oregano extracts will form a new class of drugs to treat diabetic complications.

  18. Alterations of erythrocyte rheology and cellular susceptibility in end stage renal disease: Effects of peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Nesrin Zeynep; Bozfakioglu, Semra; Ugurel, Elif; Sinan, Mukaddes; Yalcin, Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of peritoneal dialysis on hemorheological and hematological parameters and their relations with oxidant and antioxidant status of uremic patients. Hemorheological parameters (erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation, osmotic deformability, blood and plasma viscosity) were measured in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and volunteers. Erythrocyte deformability, osmotic deformability and aggregation in both autologous plasma and 3% dextran 70 were measured by laser diffraction ektacytometry. Enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were studied in erythrocytes; lipid peroxidation was studied by measuring the amount of malondialdehyde in both erythrocytes and plasma samples. Blood viscosity at native hematocrit was significantly lower in PD patients at all measured shear rates compared to controls, but it was high in PD patients at corrected (45%) hematocrit. Erythrocyte deformability did not show any difference between the two groups. Osmotic deformability was significantly lower in PD patients compared to controls. Aggregation index values were significantly high in PD patients in plasma Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were decreased in PD patients whereas superoxide dismutase activity was increased compared to controls. Malondialdehyde was significantly increased in erythrocytes and plasma samples of PD patients which also shows correlations with aggregation parameters. It has been concluded that erythrocytes in PD patients are more prone to aggregation and this tendency could be influenced by lipid peroxidation activity in patient's plasma. These results imply that uremic conditions, loss of plasma proteins and an increased risk of oxidative stress because of decreasing levels of antioxidant enzymes affect erythrocyte rheology during peritoneal dialysis. This level of distortion may have crucial effects

  19. Effect of obesity on response to cardiovascular drugs in pediatric patients with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Sherif; Pinsk, Maury; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased concentration of inflammatory mediators, which in turn, in adults, reduces the response to calcium channel blockers (CCBs). We reviewed the medical charts of 263 pediatric nephrology patients with renal conditions, with the aim of studying the effect of obesity on the response to L-type CCBs, angiotensin interrupting agents (ANGIs), or a combination of the two. Forty-eight patients were ultimately enrolled in the study: 25 obese and 23 non-obese patients. The effect of the treatments on lowering the blood pressure was compared in obese versus non-obese patients. The systolic response to CCBs, measured as at least a 10% reduction from the baseline, was significantly lower in the obese (12.5%) patients than in the non-obese (52.9%) ones. The differences in diastolic response (58.8 and 25% for non-obese and obese patients, respectively) did not reach significance. The percentage response to CCBs, however, was significantly less in the obese patients than in the non-obese patients for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Corticosteroids also significantly influenced the response to CCBs in terms of diastolic pressure (62.9 and 25% for non-obese and obese patients, respectively). None of the tested covariates, including obesity, was found to significantly influence the response to ANGIs alone or in various combinations with CCBs. In conclusion, obesity and corticosteroid therapy should be considered when initiating antihypertensive drug treatment in children with kidney disease as both may contribute to a reduced efficacy of the antihypertensive therapy.

  20. Alterations of erythrocyte rheology and cellular susceptibility in end stage renal disease: Effects of peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ertan, Nesrin Zeynep; Bozfakioglu, Semra; Ugurel, Elif; Sinan, Mukaddes; Yalcin, Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of peritoneal dialysis on hemorheological and hematological parameters and their relations with oxidant and antioxidant status of uremic patients. Hemorheological parameters (erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation, osmotic deformability, blood and plasma viscosity) were measured in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and volunteers. Erythrocyte deformability, osmotic deformability and aggregation in both autologous plasma and 3% dextran 70 were measured by laser diffraction ektacytometry. Enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were studied in erythrocytes; lipid peroxidation was studied by measuring the amount of malondialdehyde in both erythrocytes and plasma samples. Blood viscosity at native hematocrit was significantly lower in PD patients at all measured shear rates compared to controls, but it was high in PD patients at corrected (45%) hematocrit. Erythrocyte deformability did not show any difference between the two groups. Osmotic deformability was significantly lower in PD patients compared to controls. Aggregation index values were significantly high in PD patients in plasma Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were decreased in PD patients whereas superoxide dismutase activity was increased compared to controls. Malondialdehyde was significantly increased in erythrocytes and plasma samples of PD patients which also shows correlations with aggregation parameters. It has been concluded that erythrocytes in PD patients are more prone to aggregation and this tendency could be influenced by lipid peroxidation activity in patient’s plasma. These results imply that uremic conditions, loss of plasma proteins and an increased risk of oxidative stress because of decreasing levels of antioxidant enzymes affect erythrocyte rheology during peritoneal dialysis. This level of distortion may have crucial effects

  1. Effect of low dose nicotinic acid on hyperphosphatemia in patients with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Zahed, N S; Zamanifar, N; Nikbakht, H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for ectopic calcification and coronary artery diseases in end stage renal diseases (ESRD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-dose nicotinic acid on hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESRD. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was done on 70 ESRD patients with serum phosphoure ≥5.5 mg/dl. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 35) and the intervention group received niacin 25 mg/day as the initial dose. After 4 weeks, in patients who did not respond to treatment, niacin dose was increased up to 50 mg/dl. At the end of week 8, in case there was no treatment effect, the dose was raised to 100 mg/day. The appropriate response to treatment was defined as serum phosphorous level reductions <5.5 mg/dl. The age was 50.5 ± 14.3 years and duration of dialysis 5.1 ± 5.3 months. In the niacin group, mean phosphorus level decreased from 6.7 ± 0.84 mg/dl at the end of the 1(st) month to 5.8 ± 1.0 mg/dl at the end of the 2(nd) month and to 4.4 ± 1.4 mg/dl at the end of the 3(rd) month (P = 0.004). In the placebo group, mean phosphorus level increased from 6.5 ± 1.2 mg/dl to 7.2 ± 0.91 mg/dl at the end of the 3(rd) month (P = 0.006). In the niacin group, high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly from 45.00 ± 14.9 to 47.2 ± 11.6 (P = 0.009). We conclude that niacin (100 mg/day) decreased phosphorus serum level and increased HDL serum level in patients on dialysis.

  2. Effects of exercise and excitement on mesenteric and renal dynamics in conscious, unrestrained baboons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatner, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to measure arterial pressure and mesenteric and renal blood flows from nine unrestrained, conscious baboons during periods of rest, moderate exercise, and extreme excitement. A description of the experiments hardware is presented, including artificial depressants phenylcyclidine hydrochloride, 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, and pentobarbital sodium, 15 mg/kg, and an ultrasonic telemetry flow meter. Results showed rising heart rate and arterial pressure coupled with a reduction of mesenteric and renal flows as the level of exercise was increased. These findings are compared with mesenteric and renal flows somewhat above control level, but relatively stable heart rate and arterial pressure, postprandially. Attention is given to a quantitative analysis of the experimental results.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effects on renal tubular cells apoptosis in ischemic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Min; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Hui; Han, Yafei; An, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Jisheng

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia is the most frequent cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by apoptosis of renal tubular cell. A common result of ischemia in AKI is dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which causes the protein-folding capacity to lag behind the protein-folding load. The abundance of misfolded proteins stressed the ER and results in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). While the UPR is an adaptive response, over time it can result in apoptosis when cells are unable to recover quickly. Recent research suggests that ER stress is a major factor in renal tubular cell apoptosis resulting from ischemic AKI. Thus, ER stress may be an important new progression factor in the pathology of ischemic AKI. In this article, we review UPR signaling, describe pathology and pathophysiology mechanisms of ischemic AKI, and highlight the dual function of ER stress on renal tubular cell apoptosis.

  4. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P < 0.05). The MS + XST group showed notable decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures than that of the MS group. The MS group showed significant increases in the SOD activity and NO level and decrease in the MDA level after being intervened with Astragali Radix. ACE and AT1R protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  5. Effect of vanadium on renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rats: a possible role of leptin.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed D; Abdel-Razek, Hesham A; Osman, Osama M

    2011-03-01

    Several researches attempt to protect diabetic patients from the development of nephropathy. Involvement of leptin and renal Na+,K+-ATPase enzyme in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development is a recent field for researches. Vanadium, as a trace element with insulin mimetic effect, may act synergistically with insulin to protect against the development of DN. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control group (C), vanadium control group (CV), streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (D), insulin-treated diabetic group (DI), vanadium-treated diabetic group (DV), and combined insulin and vanadium-treated diabetic group. Six weeks later, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured and retro-orbital blood samples were collected to estimate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(₁c)), serum sodium (Na+) and creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma leptin levels. Preparation of microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate for estimation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity was done. The D group showed a significant increase in SBP, HbA(₁c), serum Na+, creatinine, and BUN levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate while plasma leptin level decreased significantly compared with C and CV groups. Both DI and DV groups showed a significant improvement in all the above measured parameters compared with D group while there were no significant changes between the DI and DV groups. Concomitant treatment with insulin and vanadium resulted in a significant improvement in all the measured parameters compared to each alone. Vanadium in combination with insulin ameliorates DN markers and reduces renal Na+,K+-ATPase overactivity in diabetic rats. An effect that may be partially mediated through correction of hypoleptinemia observed in these animals.

  6. Temsirolimus Is Highly Effective as Third-Line Treatment in Chromophobe Renal Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Meisel, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C.; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21526001

  7. Temsirolimus is highly effective as third-line treatment in chromophobe renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Meisel, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2011-01-15

    We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  8. Effect of the duration of bladder overdistention on renal function and morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hong-Zhou; Cao, Min; Xiang, Jian-Jian; Zhou, Xie-Lai; Yin, Hong-Ping; Jin, Bai-Ye; Chen, Zhao-Dian; Jin, Xiao-Dong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the duration of bladder overdistention (DOBO) on kidney structure and function in rats. Bladder overdistention was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by an infusion of saline. Forty rats were divided into five groups: DOBO 1, 2, 4 or 8 h groups and the control. Renal function was evaluated using serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Apoptotic indices and morphologic changes of the kidney were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared with the control, rats undergoing 2, 4 or 8 h of overdistention showed significant, time-dependent increases in SCr (12.375 vs. 23.125, 34.375 and 51.500 μmol/l, respectively), BUN (6.980 vs. 18.689, 25.184 and 32.079 mmol/l, respectively), renal size (1.041 vs. 1.472, 1.484 and 1.634 cm(3), respectively) and renal pelvis separation (0.000 vs. 0.223, 0.320, 0.308 and 0.277 cm, respectively; P<0.01). In the rats, 2, 4 and 8 h of overdistention elicited time-dependent increases in the blood flow rate in the main renal artery (MRA; 44.827 vs. 49.082, 59.688 and 67.123 cm(3)/sec, control vs. DOBO 2, 4 and 8 h), the interlobar renal artery (IRA; 32.095 vs. 39.16 and 51.745 cm(3)/sec, control vs. DOBO 4 and 8 h) and the segmental renal artery (SRA; 21.171 vs. 24.355 and 25.358 cm(3)/sec, control vs. DOBO 4 and 8 h; P<0.01). TUNEL results showed that prolonged overdistention increased the apoptotic index of renal cells significantly (1.15, 1.77, 3.40, 5.34 and 13.91% for control and DOBO 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, respectively; P<0.01) and TEM indicated that prolonged overdistention resulted in ultrastructural injuries of increased severity. DOBO plays a significant role in the functional and structural impairment of the rat kidney. With increasing duration, the hemodynamic changes, cell apoptosis and ultrastructural injuries of the kidney are more evident, all of

  9. [Effect of potassium ions on the contractile activity of renal artery smooth muscle].

    PubMed

    Orlov, R S; Aĭvar, Iu P

    1979-07-01

    Study of isolated segments of renal arteries in rabbits showed that decrease of potassium ion concentration in the bathing fluid was followed by increase in tension, while its increase from 5 meq/l to 10 meq/l was accompanied by gradual relaxation of vessel muscles and increase of their sensitivity to noradrenalin (NA). This relationship was lacking in segments activated with NA. The ability of NA and angiotensin to activate renal arterial muscles by electromechanic and pharmacomechanic coupling mechanismes was proved experimentally. The paper discussed the role of the cell membrane sodium potassium pump in vascular muscles.

  10. Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: physiopathology, decoupling of tout court pelvic dilatation-obstruction semantic connection, biomarkers to predict renal damage evolution.

    PubMed

    Alberti, C

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of fetal ultrasonography results in a frequent antenatally observation of hydronephrosis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) accounting for the greatest fraction of congenital obstructive nephropathy. UPJO may be considered, in most cases, as a functional obstructive condition, depending on defective fetal smooth muscle/nerve development at this level, with lack of peristaltic wave propagation--aperistaltic segment--and, therefore, poor urine ejection from the renal pelvis into the ureter. The UPJO-related physiopathologic events are, at first, the compliant dilatation of renal pelvis that, acting as hydraulic buffer, protects the renal parenchyma from the rising intrapelvic pressure-related potential damages, and, subsequently, beyond such phase of dynamic balance, the tubular cell stretch-stress induced by increased intratubular pressure and following parenchymal inflammatory lesions: inflammatory infiltrates, fibroblast proliferation, activation of myofibroblasts, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), several chemo- and cytokines, growth factors, prostaglandins and eicosanoids, angiotensin-II are the main pathogenetic mediators of the obstructive nephropathy. Apoptosis of tubular cells is the major cause of the tubular atrophy, together with epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. Some criticisms on tout court semantic renal pelvis dilatation-obstruction connection have been raised considering that the renal pelvis expansion isn't, in any case, linked to an ostructive condition, as it may be verified by diuretic (furosemide) renogram together with scintiscan-based evaluation of differential renal function. In this regard, rather than repetitive invasive nuclear procedures that expose the children to ionizing radiations, an intriguing noninvasive strategy, based on the evaluation of urinary biomarkers and urinary proteome, can define the UPJO-related possible progress of parenchymal lesions

  11. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    PubMed Central

    El-Mesery, ME; Al-Gayyar, MM; Salem, HA; Darweish, MM; El-Mowafy, AM

    2009-01-01

    causal relationships. Conclusion DHA elicited prominent chemopreventive effects on its own, and appreciably augmented those of CP as well. The extent of tumor progression in various mouse groups was highly reflected by CRP levels (thus implying a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP). Further, this study is the first to reveal that DHA can obliterate the lethal CP-induced nephrotoxicity and renal tissue injury. At the molecular level, DHA appears to act by reducing leukocytosis, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. PMID:19341447

  12. Evolution of the violin: The law of effect in action.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Cullen, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As is true for most other human inventions, the origin of the violin is unknown. What is known is that this popular and versatile instrument has notably changed over the course of several hundred years. At issue is whether those evolutionary changes in the construction of the violin are the result of premeditated, intelligent design or whether they arose through a trial-and-error process. Recent scientific evidence favors the latter account. Our perspective piece puts these recent empirical findings into a comprehensive selectionist framework. According to this view, the many things we do and make--like violins--arise from a process of variation and selection which accords with the law of effect. Contrary to popular opinion, there is neither mystique nor romance in this process; it is as fundamental and ubiquitous as the law of natural selection. As with the law of natural selection in the evolution of organisms, there is staunch resistance to the role of the law of effect in the evolution of human inventions. We conclude our piece by considering several objections to our perspective.

  13. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  14. In vitro effects of Panax ginseng in aristolochic acid-mediated renal tubulotoxicity: apoptosis versus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine the effects of a Panax ginseng extract on aristolochic acid-mediated toxicity in HK-2 cells. A methanolic extract of ginseng (50 µg/mL) was able to reduce cell survival after treatment with 50 µM aristolochic acid for 24, 48, and 72 h, as evidenced by a resazurin reduction assay. This result was confirmed by a flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis using annexin V-PI staining, and indicated higher apoptosis rates in cells treated with aristolochic acid and P. ginseng extract compared with aristolochic acid alone. However, P. ginseng extract by itself (5 and 50 µg/mL) increased the Ki-67 index, indicating an enhancement in cellular proliferation. Cell cycle analysis excluded a P. ginseng extract-mediated induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest such as the one typically observed with aristolochic acid. Finally, β-catenin acquisition was found to be accelerated when cells were treated with both doses of ginseng, suggesting that the epithelial phenotype of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells was maintained. Also, ginseng treatment (5 and 50 µg/mL) reduced the oxidative stress activity induced by aristolochic acid after 24 and 48 h. These results indicate that the ginseng extract has a protective activity towards the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species induced by aristolochic acid. However, the ginseng-mediated alleviation of oxidative stress did not correlate with a decrease but rather with an increase in aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and death. This deleterious herb-herb interaction could worsen aristolochic acid tubulotoxicity and reinforce the severity and duration of the injury. Nevertheless, increased cellular proliferation and migration, along with the improvement in the epithelial phenotype maintenance, indicate that ginseng could be useful for improving tubular regeneration and the recovery following drug-induced kidney injury. Such dual activities of ginseng certainly warrant further in vivo

  15. Effect and clinical prediction of worsening renal function in acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Breidthardt, Tobias; Socrates, Thenral; Noveanu, Markus; Klima, Theresia; Heinisch, Corinna; Reichlin, Tobias; Potocki, Mihael; Nowak, Albina; Tschung, Christopher; Arenja, Nisha; Bingisser, Roland; Mueller, Christian

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and effect of worsening renal function (WRF) on survival among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Furthermore, we sought to establish a risk score for the prediction of WRF and externally validate the previously established Forman risk score. A total of 657 consecutive patients with acute decompensated heart failure presenting to the emergency department and undergoing serial creatinine measurements were enrolled. The potential of the clinical parameters at admission to predict WRF was assessed as the primary end point. The secondary end point was all-cause mortality at 360 days. Of the 657 patients, 136 (21%) developed WRF, and 220 patients had died during the first year. WRF was more common in the nonsurvivors (30% vs 41%, p = 0.03). Multivariate regression analysis found WRF to independently predict mortality (hazard ratio 1.92, p <0.01). In a single parameter model, previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease was the only independent predictor of WRF and achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.60. After the inclusion of the blood gas analysis parameters into the model history of chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio 2.13, p = 0.03), outpatient diuretics (hazard ratio 5.75, p <0.01), and bicarbonate (hazard ratio 0.91, p <0.01) were all predictive of WRF. A risk score was developed using these predictors. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the Forman and Basel prediction rules achieved an area under the curve of 0.65 and 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, WRF was common in patients with acute decompensated heart failure and was linked to significantly worse outcomes. However, the clinical parameters failed to adequately predict its occurrence, making a tailored therapy approach impossible.

  16. Anti-Diabetic and Hepato-Renal Protective Effects of Ziyuglycoside II Methyl Ester in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Hwang, Seock Yeon; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Park, Un Kyu; Kim, Byoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, and closely associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and hepato-renal dysfunction. This study investigated the anti-diabetic and hepato-renal protective properties of ziyuglycoside I (ZG01) derivative on type 2 diabetes. ZG01 was isolated from roots of Sanguisorba officinalis and chemically modified by deglycosylation and esterification to obtained ziyuglycoside II methyl ester (ZG02-ME). Here, we showed that ZG02-ME has stronger anti-diabetic activity than the original compound (ZG01) through decreasing blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin levels in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (db/db mice). We further found that ZG02-ME treatment effectively ameliorated serum insulin, leptin and C-peptide levels, which are key metabolic hormones, in db/db mice. In addition, we showed that elevated basal blood lipid levels were decreased by ZG02-ME treatment in db/db mice. Furthermore, treatment of ZG02-ME significantly decreased serum AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine, and liver lipid peroxidation in db/db mice. These results demonstrated that compared to ZG01, chemically modified ZG02-ME possess improved anti-diabetic properties, and has hepato-renal protective activities in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26198246

  17. The preventive effects of diminazene aceturate in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Malek, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor (ACE2/Ang-1-7/MasR) appears to counteract most of the deleterious actions of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II receptor 1 (ACE/Ang II/AT1R) in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury but ACE2 activity and its levels are sexually dimorphic in the kidney. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of activation endogenous ACE2 using the diminazene aceturate (DIZE) in renal I/R injury in male and female rats. Methods. 36 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of male and female and each group distinct to three subgroups (n = 6). I/R group was subjected to 45 min of bilateral ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion, while treatment group received DIZE (15 mg/kg/day) for three days before the induction of I/R. The other group was assigned as the sham-operated group. Results. DIZE treatment in male rats caused a significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, liver functional indices, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and increase kidney nitrite levels (P < 0.05), and in female rats a significant increase in creatinine and decrease serum nitrite levels compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. DIZE may protect the male kidney from renal I/RI through antioxidant activity and elevation of circulating nitrite level.

  18. The Preventive Effects of Diminazene Aceturate in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor (ACE2/Ang-1-7/MasR) appears to counteract most of the deleterious actions of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II receptor 1 (ACE/Ang II/AT1R) in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury but ACE2 activity and its levels are sexually dimorphic in the kidney. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of activation endogenous ACE2 using the diminazene aceturate (DIZE) in renal I/R injury in male and female rats. Methods. 36 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of male and female and each group distinct to three subgroups (n = 6). I/R group was subjected to 45 min of bilateral ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion, while treatment group received DIZE (15 mg/kg/day) for three days before the induction of I/R. The other group was assigned as the sham-operated group. Results. DIZE treatment in male rats caused a significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, liver functional indices, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and increase kidney nitrite levels (P < 0.05), and in female rats a significant increase in creatinine and decrease serum nitrite levels compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. DIZE may protect the male kidney from renal I/RI through antioxidant activity and elevation of circulating nitrite level. PMID:25478235

  19. Inhibitory effect of JBP485 on renal excretion of acyclovir by the inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianghao; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Meng, Qiang; Peng, Jinyong; Sun, Huijun; Kaku, Taiichi; Liu, Kexin

    2012-09-29

    The purpose is to investigate whether the targets of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between JBP485 and acyclovir are OAT1 and OAT3 in kidney. Plasma concentration and accumulative urinary excretion of acyclovir in vivo, uptake of acyclovir in kidney slices and uptake of acyclovir in human (h) OAT1/ hOAT3-human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells in vitro were performed to examine the effect of JBP485 on urinary excretion of acyclovir. The plasma concentration of acyclovir was increased markedly and accumulative urinary excretion and renal clearance of acyclovir were decreased significantly after intravenous administration of acyclovir in combination with JBP485. JBP485 (a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3), p-aminohippurate (PAH) (a substrate for OAT1) and benzylpenicillin (PCG) (a substrate for OAT3) could decrease the uptake of acyclovir in kidney slices and in hOAT1-/hOAT3-HEK293 cells. These results suggest that JBP485 inhibits the renal excretion of acyclovir by inhibiting renal transporters OAT1 and OAT3 in vivo and in vitro. Our results indicate the possibility of DDI between dipeptide and acyclovir.

  20. Effects of renal denervation on vascular remodelling in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: A randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Carl; Keegan, Jennifer; Gatehouse, Peter D; Rajani, Ronak; Khattar, Rajdeep S; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Rosen, Stuart D; Lyon, Alexander R; di Mario, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of renal denervation (RDT) on micro- and macro-vascular function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Design A prospective, randomised, open-controlled trial with blinded end-point analysis. Setting A single-centre London teaching hospital. Participants Twenty-five patients with HFpEF who were recruited into the RDT-PEF trial. Main outcome measures Macro-vascular: 24-h ambulatory pulse pressure, aorta distensibilty (from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), aorta pulse wave velocity (CMR), augmentation index (peripheral tonometry) and renal artery blood flow indices (renal MR). Micro-vascular: endothelial function (peripheral tonometry) and urine microalbuminuria. Results At baseline, 15 patients were normotensive, 9 were hypertensive and 1 was hypotensive. RDT did not lower any of the blood pressure indices. Though there was evidence of abnormal vascular function at rest, RDT did not affect these at 3 or 12 months follow-up. Conclusions RDT did not improve markers of macro- and micro-vascular function. PMID:28228942

  1. Morphological and cytohistochemical evaluation of renal effects of cadmium-doped silica nanoparticles given intratracheally to rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccini, T.; Roda, E.; Barni, S.; Manzo, L.

    2013-04-01

    Renal morphological parameters were determined in rats intratracheally instilled with model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs, 1mg/rat), also exploring whether their potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Cd-SiNP effects, evaluated 7 and 30 days post-exposure, were assessed by (i) histopathology (Haematoxylin/Eosin Staining), (ii) characterization of apoptotic features by TUNEL staining. Data were compared with those obtained by CdCl2 (400μg/rat), SiNPs (600μg/rat), 0.1 ml saline. Area-specific cell apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups: cortex and inner medulla were the most affected regions. Apoptotic changes were apparent at 7 days post-exposure in both areas, and were still observable in inner medulla 30 days after treatment. Increase in apoptotic frequency was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs. Histological findings showed comparable alterations in the renal glomerular (cortex) architecture occurring in all treatment groups at both time-points considered. The glomeruli appeared often collapsed, showing condensed, packed mesangial and endothelial cells. Oedematous haemorrhagic glomeruli were also observed in Cd-SiNPs-treated animals. Bare SiNPs caused morphological and apoptotic changes without modifying the renal gene expression profile. These findings support the concept that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  2. Effects of lornoxicam and intravenous ibuprofen on erythrocyte deformability and hepatic and renal blood flow in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Küçük, Ayşegül; Kösem, Bahadır; Kartal, Seyfi; Şıvgın, Volkan; Turgut, Hüseyin Cihad; Aydın, Muhammed Enes; Koç, Derya Sebile; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Change in blood supply is held responsible for anesthesia-related abnormal tissue and organ perfusion. Decreased erythrocyte deformability and increased aggregation may be detected after surgery performed under general anesthesia. It was shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease erythrocyte deformability. Lornoxicam and/or intravenous (iv) ibuprofen are commonly preferred analgesic agents for postoperative pain management. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lornoxicam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ibuprofen (30 mg/kg, iv) on erythrocyte deformability, as well as hepatic and renal blood flows, in male rats. Methods Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: iv lornoxicam-treated group (Group L), iv ibuprofen-treated group (Group İ), and control group (Group C). Drug administration was carried out by the iv route in all groups except Group C. Hepatic and renal blood flows were studied by laser Doppler, and euthanasia was performed via intra-abdominal blood uptake. Erythrocyte deformability was measured using a constant-flow filtrometry system. Results Lornoxicam and ibuprofen increased the relative resistance, which is an indicator of erythrocyte deformability, of rats (P=0.016). Comparison of the results from Group L and Group I revealed no statistically significant differences (P=0.694), although the erythrocyte deformability levels in Group L and Group I were statistically higher than the results observed in Group C (P=0.018 and P=0.008, respectively). Hepatic and renal blood flows were significantly lower than the same in Group C. Conclusion We believe that lornoxicam and ibuprofen may lead to functional disorders related to renal and liver tissue perfusion secondary to both decreased blood flow and erythrocyte deformability. Further studies regarding these issues are thought to be essential. PMID:27536068

  3. Comparative effect of propofol versus sevoflurane on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury after elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, AS; Mahmoud, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal injury is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Propofol has been reported to protect several organs from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced injury. We performed a randomized clinical trial to compare propofol and sevoflurane for their effects on renal I/R injury in patients undergoing elective AAA repair. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients scheduled for elective AAA repair were randomized to receive propofol anesthesia in group I or sevoflurane anesthesia in group II. Urinary specific kidney proteins (N-acetyl-beta-glucosamidase, alpha-1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase [GST]-pi, GST-alpha) were measured within 5 min of starting anesthesia as a base line (T0), at the end of surgery (T1), 8 h after surgery (T2), 16 h after surgery (T3), and 24 h postoperatively (T4). Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1-β) were measured at the same time points. In addition, serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured before starting surgery as a baseline and at days 1, 3, and 6 after surgery. Results: Postoperative urinary concentrations of all measured kidney specific proteins and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in the propofol group. In addition, the serum creatinine and cystatin C were significantly lower in the propofol group compared with the sevoflurane group. Conclusion: Propofol significantly reduced renal injury after elective open AAA repair and this could have clinical implications in situations of expected renal I/R injury. PMID:27375385

  4. Acute and long-term renal and metabolic effects of piretanide in congestive cardiac failure.

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, W R; Noormohamed, F H; Lant, A F

    1988-01-01

    1. The renal and metabolic effects of the sulphamoylbenzoic acid diuretic, piretanide, have been studied, under controlled dietary conditions, in 39 patients with congestive cardiac failure. 2. In acute studies, peak saluresis occurred within 4 h of oral piretanide administration; saluresis was complete within 6 h, after which a significant antidiuretic effect was observed. Addition of triamterene, 50 mg, blunted the 0-6 h kaliuretic effect of piretanide. Over 24 h, piretanide, alone, caused insignificant urinary losses of potassium when compared with control. 3. In comparative studies, the piretanide dose-response curve was found to be parallel to that of frusemide over the dose range studied. The 0-6 h saluretic responses of piretanide, 6, 12 and 18 mg, were found to be equivalent to frusemide, 40, 80 and 120 mg respectively. The collective mean ratios of all the saluretic responses to each dose of piretanide with the corresponding dose of frusemide was observed to be 0.99 +/- 0.12, over 0-6 h period, and 0.86 +/- 0.09 over the 24 h period. The relative potency of piretanide, when compared with frusemide was found to be 6.18 (95% confidence limits 4.87-8.33), over the 0-6 h period, and 4.73 (95% confidence limits 3.65-6.14), over 24 h period. 4. In 15 patients in severe cardiac failure, urinary recovery of piretanide, over first 6 h, at the start of treatment was 21.2 +/- 2.1% while efficiency of the diuretic (mmol Na/mg drug) was 47.3 +/- 4.1. Long-term piretanide therapy was continued in the same group for up to and in some cases over 3 years. No other diuretics or potassium supplements were given. Piretanide dosage ranged from 6 to 24 mg day-1 according to clinical need. Plasma potassium fell significantly at 12 and 24 months, though remaining within the normal range. At these same times, significant elevations in both plasma urate and total fasting cholesterol were observed. Two patients developed overt gout on high dose piretanide therapy (24 mg day-1

  5. Effects and Side Effects of Using Sorafenib and Sunitinib in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Randrup Hansen, Caroline; Grimm, Daniela; Bauer, Johann; Wehland, Markus; Magnusson, Nils E.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, targeted therapies have proven beneficial in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib are included in international clinical guidelines as first-line and second-line therapy in mRCC. Hypertension is an adverse effect of these drugs and the degree of hypertension associates with the anti-tumour effect. Studies have compared newer targeted drugs to sorafenib and sunitinib in terms of PFS, OS, quality of life and safety profiles. Phase III studies presented promising response rates and acceptable safety profiles of axitinib and tivozanib compared to sorafenib, and a phase II study reported greater efficacy using a combination of bevacizumab and IFN-α compared to sunitinib. Treatment with nintedanib exhibited a notably low prevalence of hypertension compared to sunitinib. The use of sorafenib and sunitinib are challenged by new drugs, but do not appear likely to be substituted in the near future. To clarify whether newer targeted drugs should replace sorafenib and sunitinib, more research is needed. This manuscript reviews the current utility and adverse effects of sorafenib and sunitinib and newer targeted therapies in the treatment of mRCC. PMID:28230776

  6. Dynamical Evolution of Asteroids and Meteoroids Using the Yarkovsky Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottke, William F., Jr.; Vokrouhlicky, David; Rubincam, David P.; Broz, Miroslav; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Yarkovsky effect is a thermal radiation force which causes objects to undergo semimajor axis drift and spin up/down as a function of their spin, orbit, and material properties. This mechanism can be used to (i) deliver asteroids (and meteoroids) with diameter D < 20 km from their parent bodies in the main belt to chaotic resonance zones capable of transporting this material to Earth-crossing orbits, (ii) disperse asteroid families, with drifting bodies jumping or becoming trapped in mean-motion and secular resonances within the main belt, and (iii) modify the rotation rates of asteroids a few km in diameter or smaller enough to explain the excessive number of very fast and very slow rotators among the small asteroids. Accordingly, we suggest that nongravitational forces, which produce small but meaningful effects on asteroid orbits and rotation rates over long timescales, should now be considered as important as collisions and gravitational perturbations to our overall understanding of asteroid evolution.

  7. THE LOCAL EFFECT OF SEROTONIN UPON RENAL VASCULAR RESISTANCE AND URINE FLOW RATE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and following denervation plus infusion of phentolamine . Blood flow rate was controlled and uncontrolled. Renal vascular resistance increased, on the... phentolamine . Significant changes in urine flow rate were not observed. Gross and microscopic examination of the kidneys revealed no specific pathological

  8. Cytostatic drugs are without significant effect on digitoxin plasma level and renal excretion.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Wilke, J; Rietbrock, N

    1982-11-01

    In three patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.5 mg digitoxin before and 24 hr after combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured 0 to 168 hr after digitoxin and the areas under plasma concentration-time curves *(AUCs) were calculated. In 10 patients receiving 0.1 mg digitoxin, daily plasma glycoside concentration and daily renal excretion were measured before and after COPP, COP, or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) treatment schemes. In contrast to previous reports on digoxin, cytostatic drug therapy does not lead to a reduction in steady-state digitoxin plasma levels and daily renal excretion. During cytostatic therapy attainment of peak digitoxin level was delayed after a single dose, showing that the rate of digitoxin absorption was reduced, but that the AUCs and renal excretion of digitoxin (parameters of the extent of digitoxin absorption) were not diminished. Since the absorption rate is not clinically relevant in patients on long-term glycoside therapy, our results indicate that digitoxin is preferable to digoxin in such patients.

  9. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors: Effects on Renal and Intestinal Glucose Transport: From Bench to Bedside.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Sunder; Polidori, David; Zambrowicz, Brian; Henry, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with disabling micro- and macrovascular complications that lead to excessive morbidity and premature mortality. It affects hundreds of millions of people and imposes an undue economic burden on populations across the world. Although insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects play a major role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, several other metabolic defects contribute to the initiation/worsening of the diabetic state. Prominent among these is increased renal glucose reabsorption, which is maladaptive in patients with diabetes. Instead of an increase in renal glucose excretion, which could ameliorate hyperglycemia, there is an increase in renal glucose reabsorption, which helps sustain hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are novel antidiabetes agents that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and promote glucosuria, thereby leading to reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. In this article, we review the long journey from the discovery of the glucosuric agent phlorizin in the bark of the apple tree through the animal and human studies that led to the development of the current generation of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  10. Renal mineralocorticoid receptor and electrolyte homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Terker, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The renal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a steroid hormone receptor essential for maintaining electrolyte homeostasis. Its role in mediating effects of aldosterone was likely vital in enabling the evolution of terrestrial life. Dysregulated aldosterone-MR signaling has been identified as the cause of multiple clinical diseases, suggesting the physiological importance of the MR. While the physiology of this pathway has been studied for over 60 years, only more recently have genetic mouse models been available to dissect its function in vivo. This review will focus on recent advances in our knowledge of MR function with an emphasis on these models. PMID:26136532

  11. Host Plant Cultivar Effects on Hydrogen Evolution by Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Bedmar, E J; Edie, S A; Phillips, D A

    1983-08-01

    The effect of host plant cultivar on H(2) evolution by root nodules was examined in symbioses between Pisum sativum L. and selected strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum. Hydrogen evolution from root nodules containing Rhizobium represents the sum of H(2) produced by the nitrogenase enzyme complex and H(2) oxidized by any uptake hydrogenase present in those bacterial cells. Relative efficiency (RE) calculated as RE = 1 - (H(2) evolved in air/C(2) H(2) reduced) did not vary significantly among ;Feltham First,' ;Alaska,' and ;JI1205' peas inoculated with R. leguminosarum strain 300, which lacks uptake hydrogenase activity (Hup(-)). That observation suggests that the three host cultivars had no effect on H(2) production by nitrogenase. However, RE of strain 128C53 was significantly (P effects on H(2) uptake capacity of both strain 128C53 and the genetically related strain 3960. The (3)H(2) incorporation assay showed that strains 128C53 and 3960 in symbiosis with Feltham First had about 10% of the uptake hydrogenase activity measured in root nodules of Alaska or JI1205. These data are the first demonstration of significant host plant effects on rhizobial uptake hydrogenase in a single plant species.

  12. Renal and Neurologic Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in Children: Evidence of Early Effects and Multiple Interactions at Environmental Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    de Burbure, Claire; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Leroyer, Ariane; Nisse, Catherine; Haguenoer, Jean-Marie; Mutti, Antonio; Smerhovský, Zdenek; Cikrt, Miroslav; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Razniewska, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Marek; Bernard, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic are common environmental pollutants in industrialized countries, but their combined impact on children’s health is little known. We studied their effects on two main targets, the renal and dopaminergic systems, in > 800 children during a cross-sectional European survey. Control and exposed children were recruited from those living around historical nonferrous smelters in France, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Children provided blood and urine samples for the determination of the metals and sensitive renal or neurologic biomarkers. Serum concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, and β2-microglobulin were negatively correlated with blood lead levels (PbB), suggesting an early renal hyperfiltration that averaged 7% in the upper quartile of PbB levels (> 55 μg/L; mean, 78.4 μg/L). The urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein, Clara cell protein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase was associated mainly with cadmium levels in blood or urine and with urinary mercury. All four metals influenced the dopaminergic markers serum prolactin and urinary homovanillic acid, with complex interactions brought to light. Heavy metals polluting the environment can cause subtle effects on children’s renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, which reinforces the need to control and regulate potential sources of contamination by heavy metals. PMID:16581550

  13. Association between occupational exposure to arsenic and neurological, respiratory and renal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Halatek, Tadeusz Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Rabieh, Sasan; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Occupational exposure by inhalation in copper smelter is associated with several subclinical health phenomena. The respiratory tract is usually involved in the process of detoxication of inhaled noxious agents which, as arsenic, can act as inductors of oxidative stress (Lantz, R.C., Hays, A.M., 2006. Role of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced toxicity. Drug Metab. Rev. 38, 791-804). It is also known that irritating fumes affect distal bronchioles of non-ciliated, epithelial Clara cells, which secrete anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Clara cell protein (CC16) into the respiratory tract. The study group comprised 39 smelters employed at different workplaces in a copper foundry, matched for age and smoking habits with the control group (n = 16). Subjective neurological symptoms (SNS), visual evoked potentials (VEP), electroneurographic (EneG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) results were examined in the workers and the relationships between As concentration in the air (As-Air) and urine (As-U) were assessed. Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarkers: CC16 as early pulmonary biomarker and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}M) in urine and serum and retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex immunoassay. The concentrations of arsenic exceeded about two times the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) (0.01 mg/m{sup 3}). The contents of lead did not exceed the TLV (0.05 mg/m{sup 3}). Low CC16 levels in serum (12.1 {mu}g/l) of workers with SNS and VEP symptoms and highest level As-U (x{sub a} 39.0 {mu}g/l) were noted earliest in relation to occupational time. Moreover, those effects were associated with increased levels of urinary and serum {beta}{sub 2}M and urinary RBP. Results of our study suggested the initiative key role of oxidative stress in triggering the processes that eventually lead to the subclinical effects of arsenic on the nervous system.

  14. Effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan on the adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Xuan; Han, Baoqin; Sui, Xianxian; Hu, Rui; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-02-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan (LMWC) on chronic renal failure (CRF) rats induced by adenine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Chitosan were hydrolyzed using chitosanase at pH 6-7 and 37° for 24 h to obtain LMWC. In vitro, the effect of LMWC on the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) showed that it had no cytotoxic effect and could promote cell growth. For the in vivo experiment, chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine were randomly divided into control group, Niaoduqing group, and high-, medium- and low-dose LMWC groups. For each group, we detected serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione oxidase (GSH-Px) activities of renal tissue, and obtained the ratio of kidney weight/body weight, pathological changes of kidney. The levels of serum SCR, BUN were higher in the adenine-induced rats than those in the control group, indicating that the rat chronic renal failure model worked successfully. The results after treatment showed that LMWC could reduce the SCR and BUN levels and enhance the activities/levels of T-SOD and GSH-PX in kidney compared to control group. Histopathological examination revealed that adenine-induced renal alterations were restored by LMWC at three tested dosages, especially at the low dosage of 100 mg kg-1 d-1.

  15. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Renal Scintigraphy Sponsored by ...

  16. Mother Knows Best: Epigenetic Inheritance, Maternal Effects, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary evolution biology has recognized the role of development in evolution. Evolutionarily oriented psychologists have similarly recognized the role that behavioral plasticity, particularly early in development, may have had on the evolution of species, harking back to the ideas of Baldwin (the Baldwin effect). Epigenetic theories of…

  17. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  18. The effecting factors of sulfur evolution during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zechang; Yu Hongguan; Wang Li

    1997-12-31

    Three kinds of bituminous coal and one kind of anthracite have been used to investigate the factors affecting sulfur evolution during coal combustion by means of improved automatic sulfur analyzer. In this paper the sulfur evolution index, that is, the relative quantity of sulfur evolution (Vs), the final quantity of sulfur evolution (Va), the rate of sulfur evolution and delay time, are selected to describe the sulfur evolution. The results show that the rate and quantity of sulfur evolution is affected by the temperature, retention time, type of coal, sulfur forms, calcium-based content in coal, oxygen concentration and flow velocity of air. The study can provide some knowledge for selecting sorbent for coal combustion.

  19. Effect of low dose nicotinic acid on hyperphosphatemia in patients with end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Zahed, N. S.; Zamanifar, N.; Nikbakht, H.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for ectopic calcification and coronary artery diseases in end stage renal diseases (ESRD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-dose nicotinic acid on hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESRD. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was done on 70 ESRD patients with serum phosphoure ≥5.5 mg/dl. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 35) and the intervention group received niacin 25 mg/day as the initial dose. After 4 weeks, in patients who did not respond to treatment, niacin dose was increased up to 50 mg/dl. At the end of week 8, in case there was no treatment effect, the dose was raised to 100 mg/day. The appropriate response to treatment was defined as serum phosphorous level reductions <5.5 mg/dl. The age was 50.5 ± 14.3 years and duration of dialysis 5.1 ± 5.3 months. In the niacin group, mean phosphorus level decreased from 6.7 ± 0.84 mg/dl at the end of the 1st month to 5.8 ± 1.0 mg/dl at the end of the 2nd month and to 4.4 ± 1.4 mg/dl at the end of the 3rd month (P = 0.004). In the placebo group, mean phosphorus level increased from 6.5 ± 1.2 mg/dl to 7.2 ± 0.91 mg/dl at the end of the 3rd month (P = 0.006). In the niacin group, high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly from 45.00 ± 14.9 to 47.2 ± 11.6 (P = 0.009). We conclude that niacin (100 mg/day) decreased phosphorus serum level and increased HDL serum level in patients on dialysis. PMID:27512294

  20. Effects of 6 months yoga program on renal functions and quality of life in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Arya, Tung Vir Singh; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of 6 months yoga program in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with CKD were studied and divided into two groups (yoga group and control group) to see the effect of yoga in CKD. Patients in the yoga group were offered yoga therapy along with other conventional treatment modalities, while the control group was only on conventional treatment. Subjects in yoga group were trained to perform specific yogic asanas for at least 5 days a week for 40–60 min a day. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, renal function, requirement of a number of dialysis, and quality of life (QOL) indicators were done. Fifty patients (yoga – 25; control-25) completed 6 months follow-up. Results: In yoga group, a significant reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, significant reduction in blood urea and serum creatinine levels, and significant improvement in physical and psychological domain of the World Health Organization QOL (as assessed by BREF QOL scores) were seen after 6 months. In control group, rise of blood pressure, deterioration of renal function, and QOL were observed. Poststudy comparison between the two groups showed a statistically significant reduction of blood pressure, nonsignificant reduction in blood urea and serum creatinine, and significant improvement in physical and psychological domain of QOL in yoga group as compared to control group. For subjects in yoga group, the need for dialysis was less when compared to control group although this difference was statistically insignificant. Except for inability of some patients to perform certain yogic asanas no adverse effect was found in the study. Conclusion: Six months yoga program is safe and effective as an adjuvant therapy in improving renal functions and QOL of CKD patients. PMID:28149061

  1. Conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen to everolimus in renal transplant recipients: effect on renal function and proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Fierro, A; Benavente, D; Zehnder, C; Ferrario, M; Contreras, L; Herzog, C; Buckel, E

    2007-04-01

    New immunosuppressive agents are being actively researched to avoid complications of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity, and posttransplantation cancer. The family of mTOR inhibitors offers a unique immunosuppressive opportunity to avoid CNI toxicity and reduce the incidence of malignancy. Nevertheless, increasing data have demonstrated that sirolimus (SRL), the first mTOR introduced in the treatment of solid organ transplant recipients, induces proteinuria, an adverse event that could produce deterioration of long-term renal function. In this short-term study of patients followed for 1 to 16 months, we examined changes in renal function and proteinuria among renal transplant recipients converted from a CNI-based regimen to an everolimus (EVL)-based one, a recently introduced mTOR inhibitor. Our data showed that renal function can be optimized after conversion to EVL by up to 42% in recipients showing CAN grade 1 or 2, or CNI nephrotoxicity. Importantly, patients who improved their creatinine clearance did not show increased proteinuria measured in a voided specimen as the ratio of urinary protein and creatinine concentration (P/C). These results, if confirmed with long-term follow-up and a larger number of patients, would allow us to consider EVL as a promising agent for maintenance immunosuppressive regimens in kidney transplantation.

  2. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-09-13

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10-100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  3. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  4. The Effect of Autophagy on Inflammation Cytokines in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Ling, Haibin; Chen, Hongguang; Wei, Miao; Meng, Xiaoyin; Yu, Yonghao; Xie, Keliang

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by a rapid loss of kidney function and an antigen-independent inflammatory process that causes tissue damage, which was one of the main manifestations of kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Recent studies have demonstrated autophagy participated in the pathological process of acute kidney injury. In this study, we discuss how autophagy regulated inflammation response in the kidney I/R. AKI was performed by renal I/R. Autophagy activator rapamycin (Rap) and inhibitor 3-methyladenine (MA) were used to investigate the role of autophagy on kidney function and inflammation response. After the experiment, kidney tissues were obtained for the detection of autophagy-related protein microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)II, Beclin1, and Rab7 and lysosome-associated membrane protein type (LAMP)2 protein by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PT-PCR) and Western blotting, and histopathology and tissue injury scores also. The blood was harvested to measure kidney function (creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels) after I/R. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1, and IL-10 were measured after I/R. I/R induced the expression of LC3II, Beclin1, LAMP2, and Rab7. The activation and inhibition of autophagy by rapamycin and 3-MA were promoted and attenuated histological and renal function in renal I/R rats, respectively. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1 were decreased, and IL-10 was further increased after activation of autophagy treated in I/R rats, while 3-MA exacerbated the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in renal I/R. I/R can activated the autophagy, and autophagy increase mitigated the renal injury by decreasing kidney injury score, levels of Cr and BUN after renal I/R, and inflammation response via regulating the balance of pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation cytokines.

  5. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in renal fibrosis promoted by hypochlorite-modified albumin in a remnant kidney model and protective effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Liu, Yan-Jun; Liu, Zong-Rui; Tang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Yi-Hua; Zhou, Ru-Ning; Chen, Si-Qi; Niu, Hong-Xin

    2017-03-18

    Oxidative stress aggravates renal fibrosis, a pathway involved in almost all forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of renal oxidative stress has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we explored the role and mechanism of hypochlorite-modified albumin (HOCl-alb) in mediating oxidative stress and fibrotic response in a remnant-kidney rat model. Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6 NX) was performed on the rats and then the animals were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either vehicle alone, or HOCl-rat serum albumin (RSA) in the presence or absence of SS-31 (administered intraperitoneally). A sham-operation control group was set up concurrently. Compared with the control group, 5/6 NX animals displayed marked mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction, as evidenced by decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP production, mtDNA copy number alterations and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, release of cytochrome C (Cyto C) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal tissues. They also displayed increased levels of HOCl-alb in both plasma and renal tissues. These changes were accompanied by accumulation of extracellular matrix, worsened proteinuria, deteriorated renal function, and a marked increase of macrophage infiltration along with up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression. HOCl-alb challenge further exacerbated the above biological effects in 5/6 NX animals, but these adverse effects were prevented by administration of SS-31, a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant peptide. These data suggest that accumulation of HOCl-alb may promote renal inflammation and fibrosis, probably related to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction and that the mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 might be a novel therapy for renal fibrosis and chronic renal failure

  6. The Mozart effect: tracking the evolution of a scientific legend.

    PubMed

    Bangerter, Adrian; Heath, Chip

    2004-12-01

    Theories of the diffusion of ideas in social psychology converge on the assumption that shared beliefs (e.g., social representations, rumours and legends) propagate because they address the needs or concerns of social groups. But little empirical research exists demonstrating this link. We report three media studies of the diffusion of a scientific legend as a particular kind of shared belief. We studied the Mozart effect (ME), the idea that listening to classical music enhances intelligence. Study 1 showed that the ME elicited more persistent media attention than other science reports and this attention increased when the ME was manifested in events outside of science. Study 2 suggested that diffusion of the ME may have responded to varying levels of collective anxiety. Study 3 demonstrated how the content of the ME evolved during diffusion. The results provide evidence for the functionality of diffusion of ideas and initial elements for a model of the emergence and evolution of scientific legends.

  7. Renal physiology of nocturia.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Renal function, diurnal fluctuations in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, sex, and advanced age affect urine formation and may contribute to nocturia. Renal effects of AVP are mediated by AVP V2 receptors in the kidney collecting duct. Changes in AVP concentration have the greatest relative effects on urine volume when AVP levels are low; therefore small changes can have a large effect on renal water excretion. AVP is the major regulator of water excretion by the kidneys, and AVP levels have been shown to affect nocturnal voiding. Results of several studies show that patients with nocturia had no significant variation in plasma AVP, whereas patients without nocturia had significant diurnal variation in plasma AVP. The V2 receptor gene is located on the X chromosome, which has important sex-specific consequences. For example, mutations in the V2 gene can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, predominantly in men. Age-related changes in water metabolism are associated with overall body composition, kidney, and brain. Older people generally experience decreased extracellular fluid and plasma volume, which leads to increased adverse consequences from net body water gain or loss. Renal function declines with age, and the ability to concentrate urine and conserve sodium is reduced in the elderly. Thirst perception is also decreased in the elderly, who, compared with younger people, tend to hypersecrete AVP in response to higher plasma osmolality, possibly resulting in hyponatremia. These aspects of renal physiology should be considered when antidiuretic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of nocturia.

  8. The Combined Effect of High Ambient Temperature and Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function in Hospitalized Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Novack, Victor; Rogachev, Boris; Haviv, Yosef S.; Barski, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging kidney manifests structural, functional as well as pharmacological changes, rendering elderly patients more susceptible to adverse environmental influences on their health, dehydration in particular. Hypothesis Higher temperature is associated with renal function impairment in patients 65 years and older who routinely take thiazide and/or ACE-inhibitors/ARBs. Methods We obtained health data of patients older than 65 who were admitted to a large tertiary center during the years 2006–2011, with a previous diagnosis of hypertension, and treated with thiazide, ACE-inhibitors/ARBs or both. We collected environmental data of daily temperature, available from collaborative public and governmental institutions. In order to estimate the effect of daily temperature on renal function we performed linear mixed models, separately for each treatment group and creatinine change during hospital admission. Results We identified 26,286 admissions for 14, 268 patients with a mean age of 75.6 (±6.9) years, of whom 53.6% were men. Increment in daily temperature on admission of 5°C had significant effect on creatinine increase in the no treatment (baseline creatinine adjusted 0.824 mg/dL, % change 1.212, % change 95% C.I 0.082–2.354) and dual treatment groups (baseline creatinine adjusted 1.032mg/dL, % change 3.440, % change 95% C.I 1.227–5.700). Sub-analysis stratified by advanced age, chronic kidney disease and primary diagnosis on hospital admission, revealed a significant association within patients admitted due to acute infection and treated with dual therapy. Conclusion Whereas previous studies analyzed sporadic climate effects during heat waves and/or excluded older population taking anti-hypertensive medications, the present study is novel by showing a durable association of temperature and decreased renal function specifically in elderly patients taking anti-hypertensive medications. PMID:27992525

  9. Angiotensin Type-2 (AT-2)-Receptor activation reduces renal fibrosis in cyclosporine nephropathy: Evidence for blood-pressure independent effect.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira R T; Carletti, Raffaella; Roma, Francesca; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Stella, Andrea

    2016-09-27

    Compound 21 (C21), selective agonist of AT2 receptors, shows antinflammatory effects in hypertension and nephroprotection in diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of C21 in cyclosporine nephropathy, which is characterized mainly by tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Ten days before and during the experimental periods, low-salt diet was administered to Sprague Dawley rats. Cyclosporine-A (15mg/kg/day, i.p.) and cyclosporine-A plus C21 (0.3 mg/kg /day, i.p) were administered for 1 and 4 weeks. Control groups was left without any treatment. Blood pressure (plethysmographic method) and 24 hour albuminuria were measured once a week. At the end of the experiments, the kidneys were excised for histomorphometric analysis of renal fibrosis and for immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrates and type I and IV collagen expression.
    After 1 and 4 weeks, the rats treated with cyclosporine showed a significant increase (p <0.01) in blood pressure, no significant changes in albuminuria, a significant increase (p <0.01) in glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates as compared to the control rats. Treatment with C21 did not modify the cyclosporine dependent increase of blood pressure, which was higher than in control rats, but after 4 weeks of treatment significantly reduced (p <0.01) glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, type 1 collagen expression and macrophage infiltration, as compared to rats treated with cyclosporine.The administration of C21 showed a protective effect on cyclosporine nephropathy, decreasing renal fibrosis and macrophage infiltration. These data suggest that C21 may counteract tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, the most potent predictor of the progression of renal diseases.

  10. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and ascorbic acid against oxytetracycline-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Ghazy, Emad W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic widely used for treatment of a wide range of infections. However, its improper human and animal use leads to toxic effects, including hepatonephrotoxicity. Our objective was to evaluate protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and/or ascorbic acid (AA), against OTC-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Forty male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups of eight each. The 1st group (control) was given saline. The 2nd group was given OTC (200 mg/kg, orally). The 3rd and 4th groups were orally administered NSO and AA (2 ml/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively) 1 hr before OTC administration at the same dose regimen used for the 2nd group. Both NSO and AA were given in combination for the 5th group along with OTC administration. Serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney injury were evaluated, and lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant markers in hepatic and renal tissues were examined. Results: OTC-treated animals revealed significant alterations in serum biochemical hepato-renal injury markers, and showed a markedly increase in hepato-renal lipid peroxidation and inhibition in tissue antioxidant biomarkers. NSO and AA protect against OTC-induced serum and tissue biochemical alterations when each of them is used alone or in combination along with OTC treatment. Furthermore, both NSO and AA produced synergetic hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The present study revealed the preventive role of NSO and/or AA against the toxic effects of OTC through their free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activities. PMID:25945233

  11. Long-term leptin treatment exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on renal tubular cells via prostaglandin E2 augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Cheng, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Cheng-Hsien

    2012-08-15

    Adipokine leptin reportedly acts on the kidney in pathophysiological states. However, the influence of leptin on renal tubular epithelial cells is still unclear. Gentamicin, a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection, can cause nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the influence of long-term leptin treatment on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E) and mice. We monitored apoptosis and molecular mechanisms using annexin V/ propidium iodide staining and small interfering RNA transfection. In NRK-52E cells, leptin reduced gentamicin-induced apoptosis at 24h, but significantly increased apoptosis at 48 h. Long-term treatment of leptin decreased Bcl-x(L) expression and increased caspase activity in gentamicin-treated NRK-52E cells. Leptin also increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in a dose-dependent manner. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS398 (N-[2-(Cyclohexyloxy)-4- nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide), blocked PGE(2) augmentation and the pro-apoptotic effects of leptin. The addition of PGE(2) recovered the pro-apoptotic effect of leptin in NS398-treated NRK-52E cells. In a mouse animal model, a 10 day leptin treatment significantly increased gentamicin-induced apoptotic cells in proximal tubules. NS398 treatment inhibited this in vivo pro-apoptotic effect of leptin. Results reveal that long-term elevation of leptin induces COX-2-mediated PGE(2) augmentation in renal tubular cells, and then increases these cells' susceptibility to gentamicin-induced apoptosis.

  12. Angiotensin type-2 (AT-2)-receptor activation reduces renal fibrosis in cyclosporine nephropathy: evidence for blood pressure independent effect

    PubMed Central

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira R.T.; Carletti, Raffaella; Roma, Francesca; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Stella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Compound 21 (C21), selective agonist of angiotensin type-2 (AT-2) receptors, shows anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models of hypertension and nephroprotection in diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of C21 in cyclosporine nephropathy, which is characterized mainly by tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Ten days before and during the experimental periods, low-salt diet was administered to Sprague–Dawley rats. Cyclosporine-A (CsA; 15 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal injection) and CsA plus C21 (0.3 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal injection) were administered for 1 and 4 weeks. Control groups were left without any treatment. Blood pressure (plethysmographic method) and 24 h urinary albumin excretion were measured once a week. At the end of the experimental protocols, the kidneys were excised for histomorphometric analysis of renal fibrosis and for immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrates and type I and type IV collagen expression. After 1 and 4 weeks, the rats treated with CsA showed a significant increase (P<0.01) in blood pressure, no significant changes in urinary albumin excretion and a significant increase (P<0.01) in glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates as compared with the control rats. Treatment with C21 did not modify the CsA dependent increase of blood pressure, which was higher than in control rats, but after 4 weeks of treatment significantly reduced (P<0.01) glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, type 1 collagen expression and macrophage infiltration, as compared with rats treated with cyclosporine. The administration of C21 showed a protective effect on cyclosporine nephropathy, decreasing renal fibrosis and macrophage infiltration. These data suggest that C21 may counteract tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, the most potent predictor of the progression of renal diseases. PMID:27679859

  13. Evolution of Small Binary Asteroids with the Binary YORP Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Small, Near-Earth binaries are believed to be created following the fission of an asteroid spun up by the YORP effect. It is then believed that the YORP effect acting on the secondary (Binary YORP) increases or decreases the binary mutual distance on 10^5 yr timescales. How long this mechanism can apply is not yet fully understood. We investigate the binary orbital and rotational dynamics by using non-averaged, direct numerical simulations, taking into account the relative motion of two ellipsoids (primary and secondary) and the solar perturbation. We add the YORP force and torque on the orbital and rotational motion of the secondary. As a check of our code we obtain a ~ 7.2 cm/yr drift in semi-major axis for 1999 KW4 beta, consistent with the values obtained with former analytical studies. The synchronous rotation of the secondary is required for the Binary YORP to be effective. We investigate the synchronous lock of the secondary in function of different parameters ; mutual distance, shape of the secondary, and heliocentric orbit. For example we show that the secondary of 1999 KW4 can be synchronous only up to 7 Rp (primary radius), where the resonance becomes completely chaotic even for very small eccentricities. We use Gaussian Random Spheres to obtain various secondary shapes, and check the evolution of the binaries with the Binary YORP effect.

  14. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  15. Amelioration of Renal Inflammation, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis Underlies the Protective Effect of Low Dosage of Atorvastatin in Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumkao, Krit; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Thongnak, La-ongdao; Wanchai, Keerati; Arjinajarn, Phatchawan; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Lungkaphin, Anusorn

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic. However, its therapeutic use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. The mechanisms of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity are principally from renal inflammation and oxidative stress. Since atorvastatin, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, exerts lipid-lowering effects, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anti-apoptotic effects, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of atorvastatin against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were used and nephrotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin, 100 mg/kg/day, for 15 days. Atorvastatin, 10 mg/kg/day, was administered by orally gavage 30 min before gentamicin injection on day 1 to 15 (pretreatment) or on day 10 to15 (delayed treatment). For only atorvastatin treatment group, it was given on day 1 to 15. At the end of the experiment, kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine as well as renal inflammation (NF-κB, TNFαR1, IL-6 and iNOS), renal fibrosis (TGFβ1), ER stress (calpain, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase 12) and apoptotic markers (cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) as well as TUNEL assay were determined. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed by marked elevations in serum urea and creatinine, kidney hypertrophy, renal inflammation, fibrosis, ER stress and apoptosis and attenuation of creatinine clearance. Atorvastatin pre and delayed treatment significantly improved renal function and decreased renal NF-κB, TNFαR1, IL-6, iNOS and TGFβ1 expressions. They also attenuated calpain, GRP78, CHOP, caspase 12, Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expressions in gentamicin-treated rat. These results indicate that atorvastatin treatment could attenuate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, substantiated by the reduction of inflammation, ER stress and apoptosis. The effect of atorvastatin in protecting from renal damage induced by gentamicin seems to be more effective when it

  16. Effect of systemic inflammation on level of ferritin seminal in chronic renal male patient undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege. Methods A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n = 27) and absent when CRP was ≤5 mg/L (n = 33). Control group (n = 20) CRP was ≤1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was no significant difference in mean SF levels among patients with inflammation (295.34 ± 145.39 ng/mL), those without inflammation (324.42 ± 145.51 mg/mL), and controls (335.70 ± 075.90 ng/mL; p = 0.49). There was no correlation between mean SF and PF levels in the patients with and without inflammation). All participants were eugonadal with mean

  17. Effectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Se Kyoo; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Byeong Deog

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary n-3 fatty acid for patients with renal dysfunction. While about 40% to 80% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) complain about pruritus and xerosis, there are few reports on the effects of topical n-3 fatty acid on these symptoms. Objective In order to investigate the possible beneficial effects of topical n-3 fatty acid, oils extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica) seed were formulated into topical products, the effects of which were measured. Methods Five healthy volunteers having xerotic pruritus symptoms and 5 patients with pruritus caused by either ESRD or diabetes were involved in this study. A topical formulation containing 4% chia seed oils were applied for an 8-week duration. Subjective itching symptoms were assessed on a 6-point scale, as were other skin functions, namely transepidermal water loss and skin capacitance. Results After the 8 weeks of application, significant improvements in skin hydration, lichen simplex chronicus, and prurigo nodularis were observed in all patients. A similar improvement was also observed among healthy volunteers with xerotic pruritus. Improvement of epidermal permeability barrier function and skin hydration, represented by trans-epidermal water loss and skin capacitance, respectively, were also observed. No adverse effects were observed in all the tested patients and volunteers. Conclusion Chia seed oil can be used as an adjuvant moisturizing agent for pruritic skin, including that of ESRD patients. PMID:20548903

  18. Effects of Aspirin Therapy on Ultrasound–Guided Renal Allograft Biopsy Bleeding Complications

    PubMed Central

    Baffour, Francis I.; Hickson, LaTonya J.; Stegall, Mark D.; Dean, Patrick G.; Gunderson, Tina M.; Atwell, Thomas D.; Kurup, A. Nicholas; Schmitz, John J.; Park, Walter D.; Schmit, Grant D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine if patient aspirin exposure and timing affect bleeding risk after renal allograft biopsy. Materials and Methods Review of 6,700 renal allograft biopsies (in 2,362 unique patients) was performed. Median patient age was 53.0 years [interquartile range 43.0, 62.0]; 56.2% of patients were male. Of biopsies, 4,706 (70.2%) were performed in patients with no aspirin exposure within 10 days of biopsy; 664 (9.9%), were performed within 8–10 days of aspirin exposure; 855 (12.8%), within 4–7 days; and 475 (7.1%), within 0–3 days. Follow-up to 3 months after the procedure was completed in all patients. Biopsies were categorized as protocol or indication; 19.7% were indication biopsies. Bleeding complications were graded based on SIR criteria. Logistic regression models examined the association between aspirin use and bleeding events. Results Rate [95% confidence interval] of major bleeding complications was 0.24% [0.14, 0.39], and rate of any bleeding complication was 0.66% [0.46, 0.90]. Bleeding events were significantly associated with patients undergoing indication biopsies compared with protocol biopsies (odds ratio [OR] 2.27, P = .012). Patient factors associated with major bleeding complications in multivariate models included estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 0.61, P = .016) and platelet count (OR 0.64, P = .033). Aspirin use was not significantly associated with increased risk of bleeding complication except for use of 325 mg of aspirin within 3 days of biopsy (any complication OR 3.87 [1.12, 13.4], P = .032; major complication OR 6.30 [1.27, 31.3], P = .024). Conclusions Renal allograft biopsy bleeding complications are very rare, particularly for protocol biopsies. Use of 325 mg of aspirin within 3 days of renal allograft biopsy was associated with increased bleeding complications. PMID:27993506

  19. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of small renal masses: Clinical effectiveness and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, G.; Goodman, C.; Melzer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined. PMID:21116349

  20. Stanniocalcin 1 effects on the renal gluconeogenesis pathway in rat and fish.

    PubMed

    Schein, Vanessa; Kucharski, Luiz C; Guerreiro, Pedro M G; Martins, Tiago Leal; Morgado, Isabel; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M; da Silva, Roselis S M

    2015-10-15

    The mammalian kidney contributes significantly to glucose homeostasis through gluconeogenesis. Considering that stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) regulates ATP production, is synthesized and acts in different cell types of the nephron, the present study hypothesized that STC1 may be implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the vertebrate kidney. Human STC1 strongly reduced gluconeogenesis from (14)C-glutamine in rat renal medulla (MD) slices but not in renal cortex (CX), nor from (14)C-lactic acid. Total PEPCK activity was markedly reduced by hSTC1 in MD but not in CX. Pck2 (mitochondrial PEPCK isoform) was down-regulated by hSTC1 in MD but not in CX. In fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) kidney slices, both STC1-A and -B isoforms decreased gluconeogenesis from (14)C-acid lactic, while STC1-A increased gluconeogenesis from (14)C-glutamine. Overall, our results demonstrate a role for STC1 in the control of glucose synthesis via renal gluconeogenesis in mammals and suggest that it may have a similar role in teleost fishes.

  1. Dietary mobile apps and their effect on nutritional indicators in chronic renal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Janice; Porter, Judi

    2015-05-10

    Dietary apps for mobile technology are becoming increasingly available and can assist in recording food and fluid intake for nutrition assessment or monitoring. Patients with chronic renal disease, particularly those on dialysis, are required to make significant dietary changes. This study systematically reviews the current literature to assess whether dietary mobile apps improve dietary intake and clinical outcomes in the renal population, specifically those with Chronic Kidney Disease levels 3-5, including dialysis. A systematic search of Medline Complete, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was performed and supplemented by manual searches of citation and reference lists. Of the 712 studies considered, five were eligible for inclusion in this review. The quality of each included study was assessed using a Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Among five studies (two RCTs and three case studies/reports), none found significant changes in nutrient intake, biochemical markers or intradialytic weight gain, through the use of dietary mobile apps. The included studies show potential for clinical benefits of mobile app interventions in a renal population. However there is a need for additional rigorous trials to demonstrate if there is a clinical benefit to mobile phone app interventions in this population.

  2. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-S. Chuang, L.-Y.; Guh, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S.

    2008-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27{sup Kip1}, collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells.

  3. Effect of diet on the incidence of and mortality owing to gastritis and renal disease in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, E P; Miller, S; Lobetti, R; Caldwell, P; Bertschinger, H J; Burroughs, R; Kotze, A; van Dyk, A

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-two adult cheetahs were evaluated for the degree of gastritis by endoscopic biopsy and for renal disease by serum creatinine. Cheetahs free of Grade 3 gastritis and renal disease were placed on Trial A; remaining cheetahs were placed on Trial B, which ran concurrently. All cheetahs were monitored for 4 years. Cheetahs exited Trial A and entered Trial B if they developed Grade 3 gastritis or renal disease. Cheetahs exited Trial B if they developed clinical gastritis or renal disease that required a dietary change or aggressive medical therapy or died owing to either disease. Cheetahs on Trial A were fed either a supplemented meat diet (N = 26) or commercial cat food (N = 22). Cheetahs on Trial B were fed either the same meat diet (N = 28) or a commercial dry cat food formulated for renal disease (N = 16). Cheetahs fed meat on Trial A had a daily hazard of developing Grade 3 gastritis 2.21 times higher (95% CI 0.95-5.15) than cheetahs fed commercial cat food. This hazard was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Mean gastritis scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Cheetahs fed commercial cat food in both Trials had lower serum urea levels and higher creatinine levels than those fed meat. Evidence for the effect of diet in cheetahs with gastritis and/or renal disease (Trial B) was inconclusive. The number of cheetahs dying of gastritis or renal disease at the facility has dropped markedly since the study began. These results indicate that diet may play an important role in the incidence of Grade 3 gastritis and that dietary and/or therapeutic management of gastritis may reduce mortality owing to gastritis and renal disease in captive cheetahs.

  4. Analysis of the effect of canagliflozin on renal glucose reabsorption and progression of hyperglycemia in zucker diabetic Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Chiaki; Xu, Jun Zhi; Lee, Seunghun Paul; Qi, Jenson; Kimata, Hirotaka; Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Nakayama, Keiko; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Hikida, Kumiko; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Arakawa, Kenji; Saito, Akira; Ueta, Kiichiro; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2014-11-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a major role in renal glucose reabsorption. To analyze the potential of insulin-independent blood glucose control, the effects of the novel SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin on renal glucose reabsorption and the progression of hyperglycemia were analyzed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The transporter activity of recombinant human and rat SGLT2 was inhibited by canagliflozin, with 150- to 12,000-fold selectivity over other glucose transporters. Moreover, in vivo treatment with canagliflozin induced glucosuria in mice, rats, and dogs in a dose-dependent manner. It inhibited apparent glucose reabsorption by 55% in normoglycemic rats and by 94% in hyperglycemic rats. The inhibition of glucose reabsorption markedly reduced hyperglycemia in ZDF rats but did not induce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic animals. The change in urinary glucose excretion should not be used as a marker to predict the glycemic effects of this SGLT2 inhibitor. In ZDF rats, plasma glucose and HbA1c levels progressively increased with age, and pancreatic β-cell failure developed at 13 weeks of age. Treatment with canagliflozin for 8 weeks from the prediabetic stage suppressed the progression of hyperglycemia, prevented the decrease in plasma insulin levels, increased pancreatic insulin contents, and minimized the deterioration of islet structure. These results indicate that selective inhibition of SGLT2 with canagliflozin controls the progression of hyperglycemia by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption in ZDF rats. In addition, the preservation of β-cell function suggests that canagliflozin treatment reduces glucose toxicity via an insulin-independent mechanism.

  5. The Evolution and Space Weather Effects of Solar Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krista, Larisza; Gallagher, P.

    2011-05-01

    As solar activity is the foremost important aspect of space weather, the forecasting of flare and CME related transient geomagnetic storms has become a primary initiative. Minor magnetic storms caused by coronal holes (CHs) have also proven to be important due to their long-lasting and recurrent geomagnetic effects. In order to forecast CH related geomagnetic storms, the author developed the Coronal Hole Automated Recognition and Monitoring (CHARM) algorithm to replace the user-dependent CH detection methods commonly used. CHARM uses an intensity thresholding method to identify low intensity regions in EUV or X-ray images. Since CHs are regions of "open” magnetic field and predominant polarity, magnetograms were used to differentiate CHs from other low intensity regions. The Coronal Hole Evolution (CHEVOL) algorithm was developed and used in conjunction with CHARM to study the boundary evolution of CHs. It is widely accepted that the short-term changes in CH boundaries are due to the interchange reconnection between the CH open field lines and small loops. We determined the magnetic reconnection rate and the diffusion coefficient at CH boundaries in order to test the interchange reconnection model. The author also developed the Minor Storm (MIST) package to link CHs to high-speed solar wind (HSSW) periods detected at Earth. Using the algorithm the relationship between CHs, the corresponding HSSW properties, and geomagnetic indices were studied between 2000-2009. The results showed a strong correlation between the velocity and HSSW proton plasma temperature, which indicates that the heating and acceleration of the solar wind plasma in CHs are closely related, and perhaps caused by the same mechanism. The research presented here includes analysis of CHs on small and large spatial/temporal scales, allowing us to further our understanding of CHs as a whole.

  6. The effects of naproxen and sulindac on renal function and their interaction with hydrochlorothiazide and piretanide in man.

    PubMed

    Dixey, J J; Noormohamed, F H; Lant, A F; Brewerton, D A

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effect of a single dose challenge of naproxen (500 mg) and sulindac (200 mg) on renal function in five volunteers, and the effect of a single dose challenge of the thiazide, hydrochlorothiazide (100 mg), and loop diuretic, piretanide (6 mg) on renal function when the diuretics were given alone or when superimposed on chronic therapy of either naproxen or sulindac. None of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or diuretic exposures significantly influenced glomerular filtration rate, as measured by creatinine clearance. Over the first 4 h of the study, both naproxen and sulindac reduced fractional excretion of sodium by approximately 50%. Sulindac also caused a significant uricosuria whilst naproxen promoted urate retention. Similar changes were observed over 8 h. Superimposition of either hydrochlorothiazide or piretanide on top of chronic sulindac therapy resulted in a blunting of the natriuresis by approximately 30% compared to when these diuretics were given alone: the action of the diuretics was unchanged by naproxen. Sulindac pretreatment did not alter the urinary excretion of either hydrochlorothiazide or piretanide; naproxen did not alter hydrochlorothiazide excretion. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that NSAIDs exert direct tubular effects that do not necessarily interfere with the delivery of diuretics to their sites of action within the nephron.

  7. Suppressive effects of dietary curcumin on the increased activity of renal ornithine decarboxylase in mice treated with a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Okada, Shigeru

    2005-06-10

    Curcumin, a natural, biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma species, has been shown to act as a biological response modifier in various disorders. We have reported previously that the dietary supplementation of curcumin enhances the activities of antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes in mice (M. Iqbal, S.D. Sharma, Y. Okazaki, M. Fujisawa, S. Okada, Dietary supplementation of curcumin enhances antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes in ddY mice: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity, Pharmacol and Toxicol. 92 (2003) 33_38.) and inhibits ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced oxidative injury of lipids and DNA in vitro (M. Iqbal, Y. Okazaki, S. Okada, In vitro curcumin modulates Ferric Nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids and DNA damage, Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis Supplement 23 (2003) 151-160.). In our present study, Fe-NTA, a known complete renal carcinogen, which generate ROS in vivo, was given intraperitoneally to mice and curcumin was tested for its ability to inhibits oxidative stress and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) as well as histopathological changes in the kidney. Substantial changes in glutathione, antioxidant enzymes as well as changes in phase II metabolizing enzymes were observed in the kidney at 12 h after treatment with Fe-NTA (9.0 mg Fe/kg body weight). Effect of oxidative stress induced by Fe-NTA were also demonstrated by the increase in lipid peroxidation as monitored by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified proteins in kidney. Likewise, the level of protein carbonyl contents, an indicator of protein oxidation was also increased after Fe-NTA administration. However, the changes in these parameters were restored to normal in curcumin-pretreated mice. The ODC activity in the kidney was significantly increased by Fe

  8. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on altered renal hemodynamics induced by low protein diet in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Tapia, E; Martínez-Maldonado, M

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the role of angiotensin II in mediating the alterations in renal hemodynamics known to result from low protein feeding to normal rats by examining the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. 2 wk of low protein (6% casein) diet resulted in decreased glomerular filtration rate (normal protein [NP], 1.82 +/- 0.17 vs. low protein [LP], 0.76 +/- 0.01 ml/min; P less than 0.05) and renal plasma flow (NP, 6.7 +/- 0.2 vs. LP, 3.3 +/- 0.3 ml/min; P less than 0.05); renal vascular resistance rose (NP, 8.7 +/- 0.4 vs. LP, 19.8 +/- 1.4 dyn . s per cm5; P less than 0.05). These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma renin activity (NP, 7.0 +/- 0.7 vs. LP, 4.4 +/- 0.8 ng A I/ml per h; P less than 0.05), plasma aldosterone concentration (NP, 7.0 +/- 0.6 vs. LP, 4.1 +/- 0.7 ng/dl; P less than 0.05), and urinary PGE2 excretion (NP, 3,120 +/- 511 vs. LP, 648 +/- 95 pg/mgCr; P less than 0.05); by contrast renal renin content was significantly increased (NP, 2,587 +/- 273 vs. LP, 7,032 +/- 654 ng A I/mg protein; P less than 0.05). Treatment with captopril (30 mg/kg per d) raised glomerular filtration rate (GFR; LP + capt, 1.6 +/- 0.2 ml/min) and renal plasma flow (RPF; LP + capt, 6.7 +/- 0.7 ml/min), and reduced renal vascular resistance (LP + capt, 9.2 +/- 0.5 dyn/s per cm5) in low protein-fed animals. These values were not different from those measured in untreated and captopril-treated rats fed a normal (23%) protein diet. There were no changes in systemic mean arterial pressure in any group of rats. These data provide evidence that intrarenal angiotensin II mediates the changes in intrarenal hemodynamics induced by protein deprivation. The effects of low protein feeding may be partly potentiated by the reduction in PGE2 synthesis. However, the normalization of GFR and RPF in view of only modest increases in PGE2 excretion after captopril (LP, 648 +/- 95 vs. LP + capt, 1,131 +/- 82 pg/mgCr; P less than 0.05) suggests

  9. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Erbatur, Meral Erdal; Sezen, Şaban Cem; Bayraktar, Aslıhan Cavunt; Arslan, Mustafa; Kavutçu, Mustafa; Aydın, Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine – administered before ischemia – has protective effects against lower extremity ischemia reperfusion injury that induced by clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods: After obtaining ethical committee approval, four study groups each containing six rats were created (Control (Group C), diabetes-control (Group DM-C), diabetes I/R (Group DM-I/R), and diabetes-I/R-dexmedetomidine (Group DM-I/R-D). In diabetes groups, single-dose (55 mg/kg) streptozotocin was administered intraperitoneally. Rats with a blood glucose level above 250 mg/dl at the 72nd hour were accepted as diabetic. At the end of four weeks, laparotomy was performed in all rats. Nothing else was done in Group C and DM-C. In Group DM-I/R, ischemia reperfusion was produced via two-hour periods of clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta. In Group DM-I/R-D, 100 μg/kg dexmedetomidine was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before ischemia period. At the end of reperfusion, period biochemical and histopathological evaluation of renal tissue specimen were performed. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathion S transferase (GST) levels were found significantly higher in Group DM-I/R when compared with Group C and Group DM-C. In the dexmedetomidine-treated group, TBARS, NOS, CAT, and GST levels were significantly lower than those measured in the Group D-I/R. In histopathological evaluation, glomerular vacuolization (GV), tubular dilatation (TD), vascular vacuolization and hypertrophy (VVH), tubular cell degeneration and necrosis (TCDN), tubular hyaline cylinder (THC), leucocyte infiltration (LI), and tubular cell spillage (TCS) in Group DM-I/R were significantly increased when compared with the control group

  10. Effect of spatial structure on the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Roca, Carlos P; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel

    2009-10-01

    Spatial structure is known to have an impact on the evolution of cooperation, and so it has been intensively studied during recent years. Previous work has shown the relevance of some features, such as the synchronicity of the updating, the clustering of the network, or the influence of the update rule. This has been done, however, for concrete settings with particular games, networks, and update rules, with the consequence that some contradictions have arisen and a general understanding of these topics is missing in the broader context of the space of 2x2 games. To address this issue, we have performed a systematic and exhaustive simulation in the different degrees of freedom of the problem. In some cases, we generalize previous knowledge to the broader context of our study and explain the apparent contradictions. In other cases, however, our conclusions refute what seems to be established opinions in the field, as for example the robustness of the effect of spatial structure against changes in the update rule, or offer new insights into the subject, e.g., the relation between the intensity of selection and the asymmetry between the effects on games with mixed equilibria.

  11. Chain/column evolution and corresponding electrorheological effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Weijia; Zheng, D. W.; Tu, K. N.

    1999-01-01

    We present an investigation about chain/column evolution and the corresponding electrorheological (ER) effect performed with glass/oil ER fluid. Our results demonstrate that once the field applied to the ER fluids surpasses a certain time period, the particles begin aggregating to form chains. These chains then coarsen and eventually form columns in the direction of the external field. We found that different column structures can be obtained depending on how the electric field is applied to the ER fluid. Only a loose column structure can be achieved if a square pulse field is applied to the ER fluid, yet a compact column is formed when the field strength is increased slowly. We have measured the ER effect with a sensitive yield stress testing device as the structure varies. The results indicate that there exist three increasing tendencies of interaction among particles corresponding to three processes of sequential transition between states; they are (1) random spatial configuration to chain, (2) chain to metastable column, and (3) metastable column to stable column.

  12. Morphology Evolution during Injection Molding: effect of packing pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantani, R.; Coccorullo, I.; Speranza, V.; Titomanlio, G.

    2007-04-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely employed methods for manufacturing polymeric products. The final properties and the quality of an injection molded part are to a great extent affected by morphology. Thus, the prediction of microstructure formation is of technological importance, also for optimizing processing variables, in order to cut down on the expensive costs of tooling and the trial-and-error procedures. In this work, some injection molding tests were performed with the aim of studying the effects of packing pressure on morphology distribution. The resulting morphology of the moldings was in fact characterized by adopting different experimental techniques and, in order to underline the effects of holding pressure, it was compared with previous results gathered on samples obtained applying a lower holding pressure. Furthermore, the molding tests were simulated by means of a code developed at University of Salerno, which implements procedures able to model molecular orientation, crystallization kinetics and morphology evolution. The results obtained show that on increasing holding pressure the molecular orientation inside the samples increases, and simulations show that this is due mainly to the increase of relaxation time caused by the higher pressures. Furthermore, a sensible reduction of the percentage of α-phase is found on increasing the holding pressure, whereas the percentage of mesomorphic phase increases and a small fraction of γ-phase is found, which was not present in the samples molded at lower holding pressures.

  13. The effects of evolution education: examining attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution in college courses.

    PubMed

    Short, Stephen D; Hawley, Patricia H

    2015-01-20

    The present study examined changes in university students' attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution measured by the previously validated Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS) in response to curricular content. Specifically, student responses on the survey were compared across an evolutionary psychology course, an introductory biology course with significant evolutionary content, and a political science course with no evolutionary content. To this end, 868 students were assessed at a large Midwestern U.S. university prior to and following completion of one of the three courses. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine latent mean differences in self-reported Evolution Knowledge/Relevance, Creationist Reasoning, Evolutionary Misconceptions, and Exposure to Evolution. A significant and notable increase in Knowledge/Relevance, as well as decreases in Creationist Reasoning and Evolutionary Misconceptions, was observed for the evolutionary psychology course, whereas the biology course demonstrated no change in Knowledge/Relevance and a significant increase in Evolutionary Misconceptions. The implications of these findings for evolution education are discussed.

  14. Effects of ANG II type 1 and 2 receptors on oxidative stress, renal NADPH oxidase, and SOD expression.

    PubMed

    Chabrashvili, Tina; Kitiyakara, Chagriya; Blau, Jonathan; Karber, Alex; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2003-07-01

    Oxidative stress accompanies angiotensin (ANG) II infusion, but the role of ANG type 1 vs. type 2 receptors (AT1-R and AT2-R, respectively) is unknown. We infused ANG II subcutaneously in rats for 1 wk. Excretion of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were related to renal cortical mRNA abundance for subunits of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutases (SODs) using real-time PCR. Subsets of ANG II-infused rats were given the AT1-R antagonist candesartan cilexetil (Cand) or the AT2-R antagonist PD-123,319 (PD). Compared to vehicle (Veh), ANG II increased 8-Iso excretion by 41% (Veh, 5.4 +/- 0.8 vs. ANG II, 7.6 +/- 0.5 pg/24 h; P < 0.05). This was prevented by Cand (5.6 +/- 0.5 pg/24 h; P < 0.05) and increased by PD (15.8 +/- 2.0 pg/24 h; P < 0.005). There were similar changes in MDA excretion. Compared to Veh, ANG II significantly (P < 0.005) increased the renal cortical mRNA expression of p22phox (twofold), Nox-1 (2.6-fold), and Mn-SOD (1.5-fold) and de