Ozaltin, Fatih; Yalçin, Bilgehan; Orhan, Diclehan; Sari, Neriman; Caglar, Melda; Besbas, Nesrin; Bakkaloglu, Aysin
Renal involvement is a common finding in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Acute renal failure at initial presentation due to lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys has been described infrequently. We report a 17-year-old male who presented with acute renal failure due to massive lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys, which necessitated hemodialysis. The diagnosis of B-cell NHL was established by tru-cut biopsy of the kidneys and the patient had an excellent response to high-dose chemotherapy with no major complication. The presence of extrarenal involvement in the testes and the retroperitoneal lymph nodes made the diagnosis of primary renal lymphoma debatable. However, considering the delay in diagnosis and the high proliferative rate of B-cell NHL, we might postulate that the disease had originated primarily in the kidneys. We recommend that in NHL cases with severe renal involvement, full-dose chemotherapy should be instituted with meticulous clinical and laboratory follow-up in order to improve clinical and renal failure status rapidly and to avoid further dissemination of NHL.
Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo
A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.
Wohl, P; Chadimová, M; Englis, M; Táborský, P; Rossmann, P; Matl, I
The objective of the paper is to draw attention to a rare cause of rapidly progressing renal failure which developed in the course of four months as a result of light chain deposition disease. The authors submit two case-histories of the disease assessed by renal biopsy after previous clinical and laboratory suspicion of monoclonal gammapathy. In one patient in the sternal punctate plasmacytoma was diagnosed and in the second case it was not possible to detect any type of monoclonal gammapathy or another possible cause of disease. Renal failure was in both cases irreversible and both patients were enlisted in regular haemodialyzation treatment.
Langston, Cathy E
Acute renal failure was diagnosed in 6 cats that had ingested Easter lily or tiger lily plants. All 6 were treated medically; 2 underwent hemodialysis. Three cats survived the acute episode, and although they had chronic renal failure, they survived for more than 1.5 years. Two cats died despite aggressive medical management, including hemodialysis. One cat was euthanatized shortly after the diagnosis was made. Three of the cats were oliguric or anuric at the time of initial examination, and all 3 died. None of the 3 cats that survived had oliguria or anuria. Various members of the lily family (Liliaceae) can cause nephrotoxicosis in cats, but the toxic principle is not known. Although the prognosis for full recovery of cats with lily toxicosis is poor, long-term survival is possible with supportive care. The prognosis appears to be better for cats with nonoliguric renal failure.
Vecer, J; Kubátová, H; Soucek, M; Charvát, J; Kvapil, M; Matousovic, K; Martínek, V
Rhabdomyolysis (damage of the muscles of various origin) leads to the efflux of the intracellular fluids in the circulation. The common complication of this status is the renal failure. The early diagnosis and the proper treatment makes the fall of renal function reversible. That is why the possibility of the rhabdomyolysis must be consider. The case report describes the development of renal failure in young, previously healthy men, followed by trauma mechanism after drug and alcohol abuse.
Creyghton, W M; Lobatto, S; Weening, J J
We report a 34-year-old male patient without prior medical history who presented with acute renal failure due to acute bacterial pyelonephritis. Both blood and urine cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although a kidney biopsy revealed extensive necrosis and no viable glomeruli, renal function recovered to near normal after intermittent hemodialysis and antibiotic therapy. We believe that it is important to include this entity in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure since proper diagnosis and treatment is essential for recovery of renal function. Furthermore, we would like to draw attention to Klebsiella pneumoniae as an important potential pathogen in such cases, in addition to Escherichia coli.
Balwani, Manish R; Engineer, Divyesh P; Gumber, Manoj R; Kute, Vivek B; Singh, Rajesh; Patel, Himanshu V; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gera, Dinesh; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L
Epstein syndrome constitutes macrothrombocytopenia without neutrophil inclusion bodies along with deafness and renal failure. A diagnosis of Epstein syndrome was made in a 17 year-old-male patient with macrothrombopathic thrombocytopenia, renal failure and sensorineural hearing loss. Our patient is unique as he presented with rapidly progressive renal failure and developed chronic kidney disease in second decade of life with no symptomatic hearing loss or bleeding tendency. Epstein syndrome needs to be differentiated from Alport syndrome which is more common disease with similar clinical presentation. PMID:28197502
Le Vaillant, J; Pellerin, L; Brouard, J; Eckart, P
Renal failure secondary to acetaminophen poisoning is rare and occurs in approximately 1-2 % of patients with acetaminophen overdose. The pathophysiology is still being debated, and renal acetaminophen toxicity consists of acute tubular necrosis, without complication if treated promptly. Renal involvement can sometimes occur without prior liver disease, and early renal manifestations usually occur between the 2nd and 7th day after the acute acetaminophen poisoning. While therapy is exclusively symptomatic, sometimes serious metabolic complications can be observed. The monitoring of renal function should therefore be considered as an integral part of the management of children with acute, severe acetaminophen intoxication. We report 3 cases of adolescents who presented with acute renal failure as a result of voluntary drug intoxication with acetaminophen. One of these 3 girls developed severe renal injury without elevated hepatic transaminases. None of the 3 girls' renal function required hemodialysis, but one of the 3 patients had metabolic complications after her acetaminophen poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bareiss, Dirk; Hopfer, Helmut; Menter, Thomas; Jehle, Andreas; Burkhalter, Felix
We report a case of a 68 year old male who presented with an acute onset of anuric renal failure. Investigations revealed a histologically confirmed “double-positive” anti-GBM disease with initially undetectably high antibody values. An induction therapy with plasma exchange, cyclophosphamide and initially high dose steroids and further maintenance therapy for three months was initiated. The patient remained dialysis-dependent despite partial recovering of renal function. Without pulmonary involvement there were no clues for Goodpasture’s disease. Renal prognosis is unfavourable.
Jae-Chen, Shin; Young-Joo, Jeon; Seon-Min, Park; Kang Seok, Seo; Jung-Hyun, Shim; Jung-Il, Chae
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections. Systemic candidiasis is encountered with increasing frequency in immunocompromised hosts, leading to renal failure that results in severe morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying kidney susceptibility following infection with several C. albicans strains, such as B311 and SC5314. Fungal growth of the highly virulent SC5314 strain was 10(3)-fold higher compared to the nonpathogenic B311 strain in the kidneys. An intravenous challenge of SC5314 in mice, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine levels, which resulted in mortality at 8 or 35 days after infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas all the B311-infected mice had BUN and creatinine levels in the normal range and survived. Whether virulent C. albicans may escape clearance by activating signaling pathways that lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, was investigated. B311 infections significantly elevated TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression in the kidneys, whereas the expression in SC5314-infected mice remained unchanged. Furthermore, B311 infection significantly elevated the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicated that the less virulent strains of C. albicans induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. These results determined that an impairment of the protective mechanisms occurred in the kidneys with virulent C. albicans infection.
Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching
Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.
Erucism is a skin reaction to envenomation from certain poisonous caterpillar bristles. In Brazil, most reports of erucism provoked by Lonomia caterpillars are from the southern region. Most manifestations of erucism are local and include burning pain, itching, local hyperthermia and, rarely, blisters (benign symptoms with spontaneous regression in a few hours). General symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, headache, fever, myalgia, abdominal pain and conjunctivitis may also occur. Uncommon symptoms include arthritis, coagulation disorders (manifested as bruising and bleeding), intracerebral hemorrhage and acute renal failure, which comprise serious complications. The present study reports the case of 60-year-old patient from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, who came into contact with a caterpillar and developed, a few days later, chronic renal disease. PMID:23849585
Nampoory, Naryanan; Gheith, Osama; Al-Otaibi, Torki; Halim, Medhat; Nair, Prasad; Said, Tarek; Mosaad, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Zakareya; Alsayed, Ayman; Yagan, Jude
We report a case of slow graft function in a renal transplant recipient caused by uremic acute pericardial effusion with tamponade. Urgent pericardiocentesis was done with an improvement in blood pressure, immediate diuresis, and quick recovery of renal function back to baseline. Pericardial tamponade should be included in consideration of causes of type 1 cardiorenal syndrome in renal transplant recipients.
Karki, Pragya; Malik, Sarthak; Mallick, Bipadabhanjan; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S
Abstract Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The patient experienced a long, protracted course of illness, requiring renal replacement therapy with other supportive management, which led to improvement over a period of four weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing associated hemolysis in a patient with viral hepatitis who presents with very high bilirubin levels or associated kidney injury. Such patients will require aggressive supportive care with prompt fluid and electrolyte management. PMID:28097104
Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G
The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.
Kałuzyńska, Anna; Jander, Anna; Puczko-Nogal, Barbara; Nowicki, Michał
We carried out a retrospective analysis of medical files to evaluate causes of chronic renal failure in 80 children (M--49, F--31), age 1 month to 20 years) who started renal replacement therapy in the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis of the Polish Mothers Memorial Hospital in the years 1990-2007. In 28 children (35%) reflux and obstructive nephropathy was a cause of renal failure. In 5 children the disease was secondary to the neurogenic bladder. The incidence of these nephropathies in our population was constant in the analyzed years. In our group there were 2 neonates and 7 adolescent who were diagnosed with nephropathy as late as in the endstage phase. Boys with posterior urethral valve required renal replacement therapy earlier (146 +/- 55 months). We conclude that obstructive and reflux nephropathy are still the essential cause of end stage renal disease in children.
Hanif, M.; Mobarak, M. R.; Ronan, A.; Rahman, D.; Donovan, J. J.; Bennish, M. L.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the cause of a large increase in the number of children with unexplained renal failure. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Children's hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS--Cases were all 339 children with initially unexplained renal failure; controls were 90 children with cause of renal failure identified; all were admitted to hospital during 35 months after January 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Differences between the case and control patients in clinical and histological features and outcome; toxicological examination of 69 bottles of paracetamol from patients and pharmacies. RESULTS--Compared with children with an identified cause for their renal failure, children with initially unexplained renal failure were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to have hepatomegaly (58% v 33%), oedema (37% v 20%), and hypertension (58% v 23%); to have a higher serum creatinine concentration (mean 519 mumol/l v 347 mumol/l) and lower serum bicarbonate concentration (10.1 mmol/l v 12.4 mmol/l); to have been given a drug for fever (91% v 31%); to have ingested a brand of paracetamol shown to contain diethylene glycol (20% v 0%); and to have died in hospital (70% v 33%). Diethylene glycol was identified in 19 bottles of paracetamol, from 7 of 28 brands tested. In the 12 months after a government ban on the sale of paracetamol elixir, new cases of renal failure decreased by 54%, and cases of unexplained renal failure decreased by 84%. CONCLUSION--Paracetamol elixirs with diethylene glycol as a diluent were responsible for a large outbreak of fatal renal failure in Bangladesh. PMID:7613408
Woodrow, G.; Patel, S.; Berman, P.; Morgan, A. G.; Burden, R. P.
Urinary tract infections in the elderly are common, often asymptomatic and usually benign. We report three patients who presented with acute renal failure due to acute pyelonephritis in the absence of clinical findings of infection or urinary tract obstruction. Blood and urine cultures grew Escherichia coli in two of the patients and in two patients renal biopsy confirmed acute pyogenic pyelonephritis. Antimicrobial therapy and haemodialysis led to improvement, though one patient subsequently died from an unrelated cause. We suggest that acute bacterial pyelonephritis should be considered as a cause of acute renal failure in the elderly. Clinical features of infection may be absent despite bacteraemia. Prompt diagnosis and intervention may avoid chronic renal failure in a group that has a less favourable outcome with long-term dialysis. Images Figure 1 PMID:8497436
Stewart, J H; McCarthy, S W; Storey, B G; Roberts, B A; Gallery, E; Mahony, J F
The nature of the original renal disease was determined in 403 consecutive cases of end-stage renal failure, in 317 of which the clinical diagnosis was corroborated by histological examination of the kidney. Five diseases accounted for 20 or more cases--glomerulonephritis (31% of the total), analgesic nephropathy (29%), primary vesicoureteral reflux (8%), essential hypertension (6%), and polycystic kidneys (5%). In only four cases did renal failure result from chronic pyelonephritis without a demonstrable primary cause. Greater use of micturating cystography and cystoscopy and routine urine testing for salicylate are advocated for earlier diagnosis of the major causes of "pyelonephritis". The incidence of end-stage renal failure in people aged 15-55 in New South Wales was estimated to be at least 34 new cases per million of total population each year. PMID:1090338
Bruno, Andrea; Chimienti, Domenico; Montanaro, Alda; Prete, Fernando; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Basile, Carlo
The McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare cause of severe hydroelectrolyte disorders and fluid depletion as a result of rectal tumor hypersecretion, which can lead to acute renal failure. We report the case of a 70-year-old female who presented with hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and acute renal failure, due to a watery, mucinous diarrhea. A large rectal villous adenoma was discovered on ileocolonoscopy, and definitive management was achieved by removal of the tumor. In conclusion, reversal of the biochemical derangement is the cornerstone of successful management of the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome. Then, immediate surgical resection of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:24533197
Alonso, Joaquín V.; cachinero, Pedro L.; Ubeda, Fran R.; Ruiz, Daniel J. L.; Blanco, Alfredo
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) due to obstructive uropathy is a urological emergency. The standard radiological investigations in the emergency setting include X-ray, ultrasonography and computed tomography. But occasionally the cause of obstruction may be elusive. METHODS: We present a case of obstructive uropathy due to bilateral stones presenting as acute renal failure. The patient underwent successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for dissolution of calculi. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated, and reported asymptomatic in a follow-up. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between nephrological, urological, and radiological services is required. PMID:25215151
Knauf, Felix; Asplin, John R.; Granja, Ignacio; Schmidt, Insa M.; Moeckel, Gilbert; David, Rachel; Flavell, Richard A.; Aronson, Peter S.
Oxalate nephropathy with renal failure is caused by multiple disorders causing hyperoxaluria due to either overproduction of oxalate (primary hyperoxaluria) or excessive absorption of dietary oxalate (enteric hyperoxaluria). To study the etiology of renal failure in crystal-induced kidney disease, we created a model of progressive oxalate nephropathy by feeding mice a diet high in soluble oxalate (high oxalate in the absence of dietary calcium). Renal histology was characterized by intratubular calcium-oxalate crystal deposition with an inflammatory response in the surrounding interstitium. Oxalate nephropathy was not found in mice fed a high oxalate diet that also contained calcium. NALP3, also known as cryopyrin, has been implicated in crystal-associated diseases such as gout and silicosis. Mice fed the diet high in soluble oxalate demonstrated increased NALP3 expression in the kidney. Nalp3-null mice were completely protected from the progressive renal failure and death that occurred in wild-type mice fed the diet high in soluble oxalate. NALP3-deficiency did not affect oxalate homeostasis, thereby excluding differences in intestinal oxalate handling to explain the observed phenotype. Thus, progressive renal failure in oxalate nephropathy results primarily from NALP3-mediated inflammation. PMID:23739234
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...
Tachtsi, Maria D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Atmatzidis, Stefanos K; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios K; Atmatzidis, Konstantinos S
Compressive myopathy syndrome (SCM) is a syndrome characterized by the lesion of skeletal muscle resulting in subsequent release of intracellular contents (myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, potassium, etc.) into the circulatory system, which can cause potentially lethal complications. There are numerous causes that can lead to SCM resulting to acute rhabdomyolysis, and many patients present with multiple causes. The most common potentially lethal complication is acute renal failure. The occurrence of acute rhabdomyolysis should be considered as a possibility in any patient who can remain stationary for long periods, or is in a coma, or is intoxicated in any form. We report the rare case of a 26-year-old patient who developed SCM caused by ischemia reperfusion, with subsequent acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after prolonged compression of the right upper extremity.
Lai, Allen Yu-Hung; Kuo, Yuh-Chen
We present a 69-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain. Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) scout film showed a huge, 320-g triangular pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results. Bladder stone is a common disease, but it is rare for such a calculus to be so large as to cause bilateral hydronephrosis. Surgical intervention by cystolithotomy or endoscopic cystolithotripsy can achieve satisfactory results. Bladder outlet obstruction should be treated simultaneously. Close follow-up, however, is mandatory because the recurrence of urolithiasis is high in those patients with voiding problems and recurrent urinary infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest bladder stone in a human male. This case report also illustrates the importance of radiologic evaluation of patients with repeated urinary infections.
Nagode, L A; Chew, D J
Nephrocalcinosis is accepted to contribute to the progression of renal failure. We have reviewed evidence that nephrocalcinosis is caused directly by the excess parathyroid hormone produced in renal disease. Evidence that hyperparathyroidism in uremic patients results from calcitriol deficiency and the mechanisms by which this comes about have been discussed. We have shown that renal secondary hyperparathyroidism can be eliminated or substantially reduced without increasing blood calcium using a low-dosage regimen of calcitriol. Decreasing PTH concentrations to or near normal alleviates this hormone's toxicity to many organs, including the kidneys. Potential benefits for the uremic patient include an increase in the quality and length of life. Calcitriol treatment provides a powerful means to reduce PTH concentration in uremic patients that may not be achieved with other methods. Further prospective clinical studies of uremic dogs and cats are warranted to document preservation of renal function and histology during calcitriol treatments.
Kurt-Sukur, E D; Özçakar, Z B; Fitöz, S; Yilmaz, S; Hoppe, B; Yalçinkaya, F
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal-recessive disease caused by the deficient activity of the liver specific enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. Increased endogenous oxalate production induces severe hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, progressive nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. Here we report a 6 month old boy who presented with vomiting and decreased urine volume. He was diagnosed with chronic kidney failure at 4 months of age and peritoneal dialysis was introduced at a local hospital. His parents were third degree cousins and family history revealed 2 maternal cousins who developed end stage renal disease during childhood. When he was admitted to our hospital, laboratory studies were consistent with end stage renal disease, ultrasound showed bilateral massive nephrocalcinosis. As clinical presentation was suggestive for primary hyperoxaluria type 1, plasma oxalate was determined and found extremely elevated. Genetic testing proved diagnosis by showing a disease causing homozygous mutation (AGXT-gene: c.971_972delT). The patient was put on pyridoxine treatment and aggressive dialysis programme. In conclusion; progressive renal failure in infancy with massive nephrocalcinosis, especially if accompanied by consanguinity and family history, should always raise the suspicion of PH type 1. Increased awareness of the disease would help physicians in both treating the patients and guiding the families who have diseased children and plan to have further pregnancies.
Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way
Hase, Isano; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Ohara, Tetsuya; Takizawa, Hidenori; Furihata, Tomoe; Yamada, Issei; Fukushima, Yasutugu; Ishii, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Takeshi; Koide, Michio; Saitou, Atsushi
A 77-year-old man who had fever and chest pain was admitted to a neighboring hospital on a diagnosis of pneumonia. Chest X-ray film finding deteriorated despite treatment with 2 g cefotaxime per day. Because of accompanying acute renal failure, he was transferred to our hospital. Hemodialysis with intravenous administration of erythromycin and meropenem resulted in recovery from acute renal failure, and his general condition improved. Because of liver dysfunction, erythromycin was changed to pazufloxacin. Although he was negative for Legionella urinary antigen determined with a rapid assay kit, Binax NOW, his serum titer for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 4 was elevated. Finally, a diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 4 was established.
Birewar, Sonali; Oppenheimer, Mark; Zawada, Edward T
Muscular disorders and even hypothyroid myopathy with elevated muscle enzymes are commonly seen in hypothyroidism. In this paper, we report a case of acute renal failure in a 35-year old male patient with myalgia. His serum creatinine reached a level of 2.4 mg/dl. Later, his myalgia was found to be due to hypothyroidism with TSH of over 500 uiv/ml. With thyroid replacement therapy, myalgia and his serum creatinine stabilized and subsequently improved. Hypothyroidism, although rare, has been reported as a definite and authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis. As a result, hypothyroidism must be considered in patients presenting with acute renal failure and elevated muscle enzymes.
... the ureter (s) or a tube connected to an external drainage bag. Both options are used to unblock the ureters in order to allow proper urine flow from the kidneys if this has been identified as the cause for the renal failure. Surgical treatment such as a urinary stent or ...
Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim
Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.
Bots, Michiel L; Blankestijn, Peter J
It is well established that the presence of impaired renal function is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Irrespective of the starting level of renal function, a decline in renal function over two years is a relevant and strong risk factor for end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality. Even a decline of 20 to 30 per cent is associated with to a considerable increased risk and requires further attention.
Mackelaite, Lina; Alsauskas, Zygimantas C; Ranganna, Karthik
Renal failure in cirrhosis poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Laboratory values and predictive equations grossly overestimate renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Development of renal failure connotes a worse prognosis; mortality is especially high with hepatorenal syndrome. Classification of the causes of renal failure in patients with cirrhosis is provided with more extensive discussion of selected causes. Finally, a suggested diagnostic approach to renal failure in cirrhosis is given.
Leszczyńiska, Beata; Ziółkowska, Helena; Majcher, Anna; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria
Growth deficiency is one of complications in chronic renal failure (CRF). In Poland recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was introduce to treatment in children with CRF in 1994. The aim of study was to evaluate causes of the end of rhGH treatment in children with CRF. Among 90 children with different stages of CRF treated with rhGH between 2000-2005 we analyzed 85 patients (33 in CRF and 52 in ESRD), in mean age 9.8 years (from 3 to 17.8 years) which finished therapy. RhGH was used subcutaneously, everyday in doses 1.1 j/kg/week. The anthropometric measurements were performed at the beginning and after one year of the study. The mean time of treatment in 85 children was 18.4 months (1-60 months). The causes of the treatment termination were: renal transplantation in 40 pts (47%), increase of PTH serum level in 13 pts (15.3%), lack of treatment effect in 10pts (11.8%), height achievement at the level of 10c in 10 pts (11.8%), non compliance in 3 pts (3.5%), patient's decision of finishing therapy in 6 pts (7%) and the diagnosis of diabetes during rhGH treatment in 1 pts (1.2%), acute pancreatitis in 1pts (1.2%), epilepsy in 1 pts (1.2%). 25 (29.5%) of out 85 analyzed children had finished the study in the first year. In other 60 patients mean growth velocity was 8.1 cm/year (from 3.3 to 12.4 cm/year). The main causes of the termination of rhGH treatment in children with CRF were renal transplantation and decompensated secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Alston, Charlotte L; Morak, Monika; Reid, Christopher; Hargreaves, Iain P; Pope, Simon A S; Land, John M; Heales, Simon J; Horvath, Rita; Mundy, Helen; Taylor, Robert W
Isolated complex I deficiency is the most commonly reported enzyme defect in paediatric mitochondrial disorders, and may arise due to mutations in nuclear-encoded structural or assembly genes, or the mitochondrial genome. We present the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data in a young girl whose clinical picture is dominated by chronic renal failure, myopathy and persistent lactic acidosis. An isolated complex I deficiency in muscle was identified due to a novel mutation (m.12425delA) in the MTND5 gene. This single nucleotide deletion is heteroplasmic and detectable in several tissues from the proband but not her mother, suggesting a de novo mutation event. The description of the first frameshift mutation in a mitochondrial complex I gene affirms mitochondrial DNA mutations as an important cause of isolated complex I deficiency in children and the importance of whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality and provide important genetic advice.
Waldum, Bård; Westheim, Arne S; Sandvik, Leiv; Flønæs, Berit; Grundtvig, Morten; Gullestad, Lars; Hole, Torstein; Os, Ingrid
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of anemia in outpatients with chronic heart failure attending specialized heart failure clinics and specifically to investigate its prognostic utility in patients with severe renal dysfunction or advanced heart failure. Anemia is an independent prognostic marker in patients with heart failure. The effect of anemia on mortality decreases with increasing creatinine levels. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the prognostic effect of anemia in 4,144 patients with heart failure from 21 outpatient heart failure clinics in Norway. Severe renal failure was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and advanced heart failure as New York Heart Association functional classes IIIb and IV. Baseline anemia was present in 24% and was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.56, p = 0.004). Baseline anemia did not predict mortality in the 752 patients with severe renal dysfunction (adjusted HR: 1.08, 95 % CI: 0.77 to 1.51, p = 0.662) and the 528 patients with advanced heart failure (adjusted HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.34, p = 0.542). In the 1,743 patients who attended subsequent visits, sustained anemia independently predicted worse prognosis (adjusted HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.94, p = 0.008), whereas transient and new-onset anemia did not. According to our study, baseline anemia was not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in outpatients with heart failure and accompanied severe renal dysfunction or advanced heart disease. Sustained anemia after optimizing heart failure treatment might imply worse prognosis independently of renal function and New York Heart Association functional class. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kao, K C; Tsai, Y H; Lin, M C; Huang, C C; Tsao, C Y; Chen, Y C
A 34-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department with the development of quadriparesis and respiratory failure due to hypokalemia after prolonged glue sniffing. The patient was subsequently given mechanical ventilatory support for respiratory failure. He was weaned from the ventilator 4 days later after potassium replacement. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon found in glues, cements, and solvents. It is known to be toxic to the nervous system, hematopoietic system, and causes acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Acute respiratory failure with hypokalemia and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure should be considered as potential events in a protracted glue sniffing.
Dou, Xianrui; Hu, Haitang; Ju, Yongle; Liu, Yongdong; Kang, Kaifu; Zhou, Shufeng; Chen, Wenfang
Kidney injury associated with lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically caused by direct tumor infiltration which occasionally results in acute renal failure. Glomerular involvement presenting as proteinuria or even nephrotic syndrome is exceptionally rare. Here we report a case of 54-year-old male CLL patient with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. The lymph node biopsy confirmed that the patients had CLL with remarkable immunoglobulin light chain amyloid deposition. The renal biopsy demonstrated the concurrence of AL amyloidosis and neoplastic infiltration. Combined treatment of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab resulted in remission of CLL, as well as the renal disfunction and nephrotic syndrome, without recurrence during a 12-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CLL patient showing the nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure caused by AL amyloidosis and neoplastic infiltration. Though AL amyloidosis caused by plasma cell dyscrasia usually responses poorly to chemotherapy, this patient exhibited a satisfactory clinical outcome due to successful inhibition of the production of amylodogenic light chains by combined chemotherapy.
Khan, Owais A; Hageman, Joseph R; Clardy, Christopher
Acute renal failure (ARF) in a neonate is a serious condition that impacts 8% to 24% of hospitalized neonates. There is a need for prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid additional complications. In this review, a neonate was found to have renal failure associated with renal vein thrombosis. There are varying etiologies of ARF. Causes of ARF are typically divided into three subsets: pre-renal, renal or intrinsic, and post-renal. Treatment of ARF varies based on the cause. Renal vein thrombosis is an interesting cause of renal or intrinsic ARF and can be serious, often leading to a need for dialysis.
D'Apolito, Maria; Du, Xueliang; Pisanelli, Daniela; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo; Giacco, Ferdinando; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Colia, Anna Laura; Brownlee, Michael; Giardino, Ida
Objective The pathogenic events responsible for accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are poorly understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that concentrations of urea associated with CRF and increased ROS production in adipocytes might also increase ROS production directly in arterial endothelial cells, causing the same pathophysiologic changes seen with hyperglycemia. Methods Primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to 20 mM urea for 48 hrs. C57BL/6J wild-type mice underwent 5/6 nephrectomy or a sham operation. Randomized groups of 5/6 nephrectomized mice and their controls were also injected i.p. with a SOD/catalase mimetic (MnTBAP) for 15 days starting immediately after the final surgical procedure. Results Urea at concentrations seen in CRF induced mitochondrial ROS production in cultured HAEC. Urea-induced ROS caused the activation of endothelial pro-inflammatory pathways through the inhibition of GAPDH, including increased protein kinase C isoforms activity, increased hexosamine pathway activity, and accumulation of intracellular AGEs (advanced glycation end products). Urea-induced ROS directly inactivated the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme PGI2 synthase and also caused ER stress. Normalization of mitochondrial ROS production prevented each of these effects of urea. In uremic mice, treatment with MnTBAP prevented aortic oxidative stress, PGI2 synthase activity reduction and increased expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins TNFα, IL-6, VCAM1, Endoglin, and MCP-1. Conclusions Taken together, these data show that urea itself, at levels common in patients with CRF, causes endothelial dysfunction and activation of proatherogenic pathways. PMID:25682038
Sakthirajan, R.; Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Murugan, S.; Balasubramaniyan, T.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the commonest rheumatological diseases. Renal involvement is not common but can occur as a result of chronic inflammation as part of disease process or drug toxicity. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ failure of variable severity. Only a few cases of TMA in patients with RA were reported to date. We describe a 45-year-old female patient with RA who presented with oliguria and edema. Renal biopsy showed TMA with patchy cortical necrosis. She improved with hemodialysis and plasmapheresis. PMID:28182045
Foster, Jonathan D; Pinkerton, Marie E
A 3.5-year-old male neutered cat was presented for investigation of renomegaly appreciated during a routine physical examination. Marked renomegaly due to bilateral hydronephrosis was detected and further testing identified International Renal Interest Society stage 2, non-hypertensive, non-proteinuric chronic kidney disease. Ten months later the cat was evaluated for acute lethargy; severe azotemia with oliguria was documented. Medical therapy failed to result in clinical improvement and the cat was euthanased. Necropsy revealed bilateral marked hydronephrosis secondary to a tortuous proximal ureter consistent with proximal ureteropelvic junction stenosis. This is the first report of this disorder leading to progressive renal failure in a cat.
Jiang, Haowen; Wu, Zhong; Ding, Qiang
To present our clinical outcomes in managing acute renal failure caused by impacted ureteral calculi with ureteroscopy and holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy as emergency treatment. A series of 27 patients with acute postrenal failure were treated from November 2002 to December 2005. Impacted calculi were located in bilateral ureters in 22 patients and unilateral ureters in 5 patients with a solitary or single functioning kidney. Acute renal failure was demonstrated with oliguria or anuria and a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Patients were treated emergently with ureteroscopy and holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy in the hospital within 24 hours. Ureteral stenting was performed in all cases. Postoperative renal function, electrolytes, and urine volume were monitored daily for 7 days. Radiography and/or ultrasonography were performed at a follow-up visit in 4 weeks. Ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy were successfully performed in all patients. The mean operative time was 29.2 minutes (range 15-60). The successful fragmentation rate in the ureteroscopic procedure was 93.9% (46 of 49), and the overall stone-free rate was 88.9% (24 of 27). Shock wave lithotripsy was used in 3 patients after recovery of renal function. Of the 27 patients, 26 (96.3%) returned to normal renal function within 7 days. One patient (3.7%) had significant improvement of renal function, but it had not returned to normal at 12 weeks of follow-up. No intraoperative complications or postoperative ureteral stricture occurred. Emergency ureteroscopy and holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy can be safely and successfully performed by skilled endourologists for acute renal failure caused by impacted ureteral calculi.
Nasr, Samih H; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D; Milliner, Dawn S; Boelkins, Mark; Broviac, John; Fidler, Mary E
2,8-dihydroxyadeninuria (DHA) disease (also called 2,8 dihydroxyadeninuria) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by complete adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and typically manifests as recurrent nephrolithiasis. Only rare cases of DHA nephrolithiasis have been reported from the USA. Herein, we report three American patients who developed DHA crystalline nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with recurrence in the allograft. Three cases of DHA crystalline nephropathy were identified from the Renal Pathology Laboratory of Mayo Clinic. Detailed clinical and pathologic descriptions are provided. All three patients were Caucasian adults with no history of obstructive nephropathy. Two patients had no history of nephrolithiasis and one had a single episode of stones 36 years prior to presentation. All patients presented with severe renal failure with a mean serum creatinine of 7.5 mg/dl. Renal biopsies revealed numerous tubular and interstitial brown DHA crystals, tubular degenerative changes and moderate to marked tubulointerstitial scarring. Two patients were initially misdiagnosed, one as primary hyperoxaluria and the other as chronic interstitial nephritis. All three patients progressed to ESRD, within 1 month following renal biopsy in two and after 9 months in one. All three patients underwent renal transplantation with early disease recurrence in three allografts in two patients. DHA disease is an under-recognized condition that can lead to irreversible renal failure and frequently recurs in the transplant. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of crystalline nephropathy, even in the absence of history of nephrolithiasis.
Aldridge, B M; Garry, F B
A 13-month-old Angus steer was examined with a 6-week history of lethargy, malaise and dribbling urine. Laboratory exam revealed crystalluria and poor renal function. Ultrasound revealed hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Euthanasia was chosen because of a poor prognosis for economic recovery. Necropsy demonstrated numerous calculi causing partial urethral obstruction approximately 25 cm from the end of the penis. Secondary renal changes were confirmed. Urolithiasis occurs commonly in ruminants. Secondary obstruction is usually complete with severe consequences. This is the first report of chronic partial obstructive urolithiasis resulting in endstage renal disease.
Vogt, B; Frey, F J
The introduction of lactulose as a new therapeutic agent for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy was a major breakthrough in this field. It was hypothesized that lactulose might prevent postoperative renal impairment after biliary surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The presumable mechanism purported was the diminished endotoxinemia by lactulose. Unfortunately, such a reno-protective effect has not been shown conclusively until now in clinical studies. In chronic renal failure lactulose is known to promote fecal excretion of water, sodium, potassium, amonium, urea, creatinine and protons. Thus, lactulose could be useful for the treatment of chronic renal failure. However, compliance to the therapy represents a major problem.
Viswanathan, Stalin; Balamurugesan, Kandan
We report an 83-year-old diabetic male who presented with acute-onset renal failure, seizures, psychosis, pneumonia, and right foot gangrene. Investigations revealed thrombocytopenia, CSF lymphocytosis, ANA and dsDNA positivity, hypocomplementemia, and pneumonitis following which he was treated with pulse methylprednisolone. He was treated for Pseudomonas-related ventilator-associated pneumonia, candiduria, and E. coli-related bedsore infection prior to discharge. He was discharged at request and died 17 days later due to a respiratory infection. PMID:25374741
Broder, Anna; Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Izmirly, Peter; Costenbader, Karen H
Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification as gold standards, we determined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of having SLE denoted as the primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the US Renal Data System (USRDS). ESRD patients were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in electronic medical records of 1 large tertiary care center, Montefiore Hospital, from 2006 to 2012. Clinical data were extracted and reviewed to establish SLE diagnosis. Data were linked by social security number, name, and date of birth to the USRDS, where primary causes of ESRD were ascertained. Of 7,396 ESRD patients at Montefiore, 97 met ACR/SLICC SLE criteria, and 86 had SLE by record only. Among the 97 SLE patients, the attributed causes of ESRD in the USRDS were 77 SLE and 12 with other causes (unspecified glomerulonephritis, hypertension, scleroderma), and 8 missing. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for SLE in the USRDS were 79%, 99.9%, 93%, and 99.7%, respectively. Of the 60 patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, 44 (73%) had SLE as primary ESRD cause in the USRDS. Attribution of the primary ESRD causes among SLE patients with ACR/SLICC criteria differed by race, ethnicity, and transplant status. The diagnosis of SLE as the primary cause of ESRD in the USRDS has good sensitivity, and excellent specificity, PPV, and NPV. Nationwide access to medical records and biopsy reports may significantly improve sensitivity of SLE diagnosis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Bhargava, V; Gupta, P; Kauntia, R; Bajpai, G
Dengue fever is a tropical infection, which is mosquito-borne disease, caused by dengue virus and spread by Aedes mosquitoes. The incidence of dengue fever has risen rapidly over the past few years. About half of dengue infections are asymptomatic, and a great majority present with fever and body ache. However, the occurrence of complications is well known, including acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI in dengue is usually attributable to a pre-renal cause. Thrombotic microangiopathy is an extremely rare complication of dengue fever, with only a few published case reports in medical literature. This case intends to highlight the importance of recognizing dengue fever-induced thrombotic microangiopathy by physicians and pathologists, enabling better diagnosis and management of this life-threatening condition.
Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P
Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459
Vijan, Vikrant; Vupputuri, Anjith; Nandakumar, Sandya; Mathew, Navin
Nosocomial catheter-related and Arteriovenous fistula (AV)-related infections are significant concern in patients undergoing haemodialysis. These infections are associated with multiple complications as well as mortality and demands immediate and appropriate management. While coagulase-negative staphylococci, S.aureus, and Escherichia coli are the most common causes of catheter-related infections in haemodialysis patients, such infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are relatively rare. Here, we present an unusual case of 36-year-old male patient with chronic renal failure, who developed endocarditis and sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the left hand arteriovenous fistula. The bacteraemia in the present case caused multiple complications including dry gangrene of bilateral lower limbs, stroke, endophthalmitis, left brachial artery thrombosis and vegetations on the interventricular septum and aortic wall. Despite antibiotic treatment, the patient suffered a cardiac arrest and could not be revived. PMID:27630891
Vimalachandran, Pradeepa; Kunadharaju, Rajesh; Mehta, Vishisht; Colanta, Agnes
Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is an immune mediated disease associated Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposition within the affected organs. While the disease is commonly seen in the pediatric age group, it is rarely seen in adults. We report the case of a 93-year-old Caucasian lady who presented with nonthrombocytopenic purpuric rash and acute kidney injury after an episode of bronchitis. Rapid and progressive deterioration of renal function prompted a kidney biopsy, which showed findings consistent with IgA nephropathy confirming the diagnosis of HSP. The patient was treated with high dose intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone; however, her kidney disease progressed to end stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. HSP is usually a self-limiting disease in children. However, adults are at an increased risk of severe renal involvement including end stage renal disease. Purpuric skin rash with renal involvement should raise suspicion for HSP. This is the oldest known patient with HSP. PMID:27672395
Colella, Sara; Fioretti, Federica; Massaccesi, Chiara; Primomo, Gian L; Panella, Gianluca; D'Emilio, Vittorio; Pela, Riccardo
Although pleural effusion (PE) can be caused by several pathologies like congestive heart failure, infections, malignancies, and pulmonary embolism, it is also a common finding in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diagnostic thoracentesis is of limited value in the differential diagnosis, and the role of more invasive investigations like medical thoracoscopy (MT) is still unclear. To evaluate the usefulness of MT in unexplained PE in CKD. In the electronic database of our Institution, we retrospectively searched for patients with CKD who underwent MT for unexplained PE between January 2008 and August 2016. Ten patients were included in the present study. The average age was 72.4 years, the male:female ratio 9:1 and the average blood creatinine value 5.96 mg/dL. The average follow-up was 18 months.A thoracentesis showed an exudate was found in 9 patients and in 1 case pleural fluid characteristics were not recorded for technical reasons; in none of them the cytologic or microbiological analyses were considered diagnostic.The clinical suspicion was a neoplastic (5) or an infectious disease (5). In 4 patients with recurrent PE, MT was performed to obtain talc pleurodesis.No immediate procedure-related complications were recorded; 1 patient developed empyema after 2 months. In 6 cases final diagnosis was chronic uremic pleuritis, hydrothorax in 2, and chronic lymphocytic pleurisy in 2. MT represents a safe and effective diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in patients with CKD, that itself is a common cause of exudative effusion, and those patients may not require MT.
Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Shull, Gary E; Siddiqui, Faraz; Zahedi, Kamyar; Amlal, Hassane
The Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), which is the target of inhibition by thiazides, is located in close proximity to the chloride-absorbing transporter pendrin in the kidney distal nephron. Single deletion of pendrin or NCC does not cause salt wasting or excessive diuresis under basal conditions, raising the possibility that these transporters are predominantly active during salt depletion or in response to excess aldosterone. We hypothesized that pendrin and NCC compensate for loss of function of the other under basal conditions, thereby masking the role that each plays in salt absorption. To test our hypothesis, we generated pendrin/NCC double knockout (KO) mice by crossing pendrin KO mice with NCC KO mice. Pendrin/NCC double KO mice displayed severe salt wasting and sharp increase in urine output under basal conditions. As a result, animals developed profound volume depletion, renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis without hypokalemia, which were all corrected with salt replacement. We propose that the combined inhibition of pendrin and NCC can provide a strong diuretic regimen without causing hypokalemia for patients with fluid overload, including patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, diuretic resistance, or generalized edema.
Playford, R J; Matthews, C H; Campbell, M J; Delves, H T; Hla, K K; Hodgson, H J; Calam, J
A 68 year old man with a creatinine clearance rate of only 15 ml/min took twice the recommended dose of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) as DeNol liquid; 10 ml qds; a total of 864 mg bismuth daily for two months. Whole blood bismuth concentrations rose to 880 micrograms/l and he developed global cerebral dysfunction with hallucinations, ataxia, and an abnormal EEG. Renal clearance of bismuth rose from 0.24 to 2.4 ml/min when the heavy metal chelator 2-3 dimercapto-1 propane sulphonic acid (DMPS) was given by mouth. Bismuth was measured by a novel method involving inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry. Fifty days after stopping TDB, whole blood bismuth concentrations fell to 46 micrograms/l and the patient's EEG returned to normal. His mental function also recovered completely. The case serves as a timely reminder that TDB should not be administered to patients with renal disorders, as stated in the data sheet. PMID:2323603
Playford, R J; Matthews, C H; Campbell, M J; Delves, H T; Hla, K K; Hodgson, H J; Calam, J
A 68 year old man with a creatinine clearance rate of only 15 ml/min took twice the recommended dose of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) as DeNol liquid; 10 ml qds; a total of 864 mg bismuth daily for two months. Whole blood bismuth concentrations rose to 880 micrograms/l and he developed global cerebral dysfunction with hallucinations, ataxia, and an abnormal EEG. Renal clearance of bismuth rose from 0.24 to 2.4 ml/min when the heavy metal chelator 2-3 dimercapto-1 propane sulphonic acid (DMPS) was given by mouth. Bismuth was measured by a novel method involving inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry. Fifty days after stopping TDB, whole blood bismuth concentrations fell to 46 micrograms/l and the patient's EEG returned to normal. His mental function also recovered completely. The case serves as a timely reminder that TDB should not be administered to patients with renal disorders, as stated in the data sheet.
Sexual dysfunction in end-stage renal disease is a troublesome, multifactorial disorder. Abnormality of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is but one of the causes leading to the impotence and infertility commonly encountered in chronic renal failure. Short of kidney transplantation, no therapy is available. Though infertility is the rule in end-stage renal disease, successful fatherhood and deliveries have occurred on rare occasions.
Misson, Robert T.; Cutler, Ralph E.
Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretic advantages over the presently used agents. PMID:4013281
Cruz, Luzia S; Vargas, Roberto; Lopes, Antonio Alberto
Leptospirosis, a spirochetal zoonosis, is a globally re-emerging infectious disease that has disseminated from its habitual rural base to become the cause of urban epidemics in poor communities of industrialized and developing nations. This review addresses the issues in the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of the disease, as well as progress made toward understanding the pathogenesis of leptospiral nephropathy. In developing nations, leptospirosis plays an important role as a potentially preventable cause of acute renal failure. The data indicate that in certain developing regions, such as the city of Salvador, Brazil, leptospirosis is misdiagnosed with other infectious disease such as dengue and the overall disease burden is likely underestimated partly because of the protean and nonspecific presentation. Severe forms of the disease are associated with high case-fatality rate. In urban Brazil, outbreaks of leptospirosis can be predicted by heavy rain and flooding and this may serve to indicate which resources should be allocated to prevent the disease. Advancements in the basic research and epidemiology of leptospirosis should contribute to the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and of an effective vaccine. Policy makers should be urged to address the underlying conditions of poverty as well as environmental issues, which have led to the emergence of leptospirosis.
Shrivastava, Rajesh; Williams, Andrew; Mikhail, Ashraf; Roberts, David; Richards, Martyn; Aithal, Vandse
Alagille Syndrome (OMIM 118450) is a multisystem developmental disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expression. It commonly manifests in children with early cholestatic jaundice due to paucity of interlobular biliary ducts. Renal involvement is less common but can take various forms including renovascular disease, renal agenesis or hypoplasia, cystic renal disease, mesangiolipidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal tubular acidosis. We describe a family of Alagille syndrome with JAG 1 mutation running through at least two generations, affecting four members with variable phenotypic expressions and disease severity. Alagille syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adults with renovascular disease and children with agenesis/dysgenesis of kidney and reflux nephropathy even in the absence of hepatic disease. Renal transplant can be successful in these patients although living related donation may not be appropriate given the high penetrance and variable expression of this condition. This syndrome may cause symptomatic bradyarrhythmias as described in our series.
Ozkaya, Ozan; Genc, Gurkan; Bek, Kenan; Sullu, Yurdanur
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used drug and known as a safety antipyretic and analgesic drug in childhood. Acetaminophen-associated liver damage is more recognized than kidney damage. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity can be seen together after acetaminophen overdose, but renal damage without liver damage is a rarely seen entity in all age groups being reported more rarely in childhood. We present here a 16-year-old girl with renal failure without liver damage because of acetaminophen toxicity and a review of literature for pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical course, treatment, and outcome.
Winter, R E
This is a brief compilation of the work of many investigators. It includes facts about toxicity and recommendations about antibiotic management in patients with renal failure. As new data are accrued, changes in these recommendations will be necessary.
Rajapakse, Senaka; Abeynaike, Lakshan; Wickramarathne, Thanushi
A 43-year-old male patient with idiopathic Parkinson disease, on dopaminergic therapy, was admitted with confusion and agitation, diaphoresis, and hyperkinesia after the commencement of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine 2 weeks prior for depression. He was found to have severe rhabdomyolysis and developed acute renal failure. The most likely diagnosis was serotonin syndrome induced by venlafaxine, although neuroleptic malignant syndrome was also considered. The differential diagnosis, atypical features in this presentation, and possible mechanisms are discussed.
Jönsson, Sofia; Agic, Mediha Becirovic; Narfström, Fredrik; Melville, Jacqueline M; Hultström, Michael
Decompensation in heart failure occurs when the heart fails to balance venous return with cardiac output, leading to fluid congestion and contributing to mortality. Decompensated heart failure can cause acute kidney injury (AKI), which further increases mortality. Heart failure activates signaling systems that are deleterious to kidneys such as renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and vasopressin secretion. All three reduce renal blood flow (RBF) and increase tubular sodium reabsorption, which may increase renal oxygen consumption causing AKI through renal tissue hypoxia. Vasopressin contributes to venous congestion through aquaporin-mediated water retention. Additional water retention may be mediated through vasopressin-induced medullary urea transport and hyaluronan but needs further study. In addition, there are several systems that could protect the kidneys and reduce fluid retention such as natriuretic peptides, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide. However, the effect of natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide are blunted in decompensation, partly due to oxidative stress. This review considers how neurohormonal signaling in heart failure drives fluid retention by the kidneys and thus exacerbates decompensation. It further identifies areas where there is limited data, such as signaling systems 20-HETE, purines, endothelin, the role of renal water retention mechanisms for congestion, and renal hypoxia in AKI during heart failure.
Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven
Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.
Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix
Renal denervation has been developed in order to lower systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertension by a reduction in renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerve activity. In heart failure sympathetic activation, in particular, renal norepinephrine release is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. Initial studies have shown that renal denervation is able to reduce not only blood pressure but also heart rate, and is associated with a reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and ameliorated microalbuminuria. Since some experimental and observational data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect, it is possible that renal denervation might also play a therapeutic role in arrhythmias often occurring in chronic heart failure. The first proof-of-concept studies are planned to evaluate the clinical effect of this pathophysiologically plausible method, which might be able to change clinical practice.
Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Cucchiari, David; Merizzoli, Elisa; Elmore, Ugo; Angelini, Claudio; Badalamenti, Salvatore
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare disorder in which a colorectal tumor (usually a villous adenoma) determines secretory mucous diarrhea, which in turn leads to prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Even though the outcome is usually favorable with complete recovery after surgery, the diagnosis is often delayed, making the patient susceptible to life-threatening complications, mainly severe acidosis and hypokalemia. We present two paradigmatic cases with extreme electrolytes imbalance and complete recovery following the appropriate treatment. The pathogenesis of this degenerative condition is discussed in detail.
... Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, diaphragm, rib cage, pulmonary arteries, brain, and spinal cord ... STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US ...
Almueilo, Samir H
Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.
Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Nishimura, Maki; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi
In the current study, we examined the effects of depletion of phagocytes on the progression of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL infection in mice. Strikingly, the depletion of phagocytic cells, including macrophages, with clodronate in the acute phase of infection significantly reduced peripheral parasitemia but increased mortality. Moribund mice displayed severe pathological damage, including coagulative necrosis in liver and thrombi in the glomeruli, fibrin deposition, and tubular necrosis in kidney. The severity of infection was coincident with the increased sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, the systematic upregulation of inflammation and coagulation, and the disruption of endothelial integrity in the liver and kidney. Aspirin was administered to the mice to minimize the risk of excessive activation of the coagulation response and fibrin deposition in the renal tissue. Interestingly, treatment with aspirin reduced the parasite burden and pathological lesions in the renal tissue and improved survival of phagocyte-depleted mice. Our data imply that the depletion of phagocytic cells, including macrophages, in the acute phase of infection increases the severity of malarial infection, typified by multiorgan failure and high mortality.
Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Nishimura, Maki; Furuoka, Hidefumi
In the current study, we examined the effects of depletion of phagocytes on the progression of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL infection in mice. Strikingly, the depletion of phagocytic cells, including macrophages, with clodronate in the acute phase of infection significantly reduced peripheral parasitemia but increased mortality. Moribund mice displayed severe pathological damage, including coagulative necrosis in liver and thrombi in the glomeruli, fibrin deposition, and tubular necrosis in kidney. The severity of infection was coincident with the increased sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, the systematic upregulation of inflammation and coagulation, and the disruption of endothelial integrity in the liver and kidney. Aspirin was administered to the mice to minimize the risk of excessive activation of the coagulation response and fibrin deposition in the renal tissue. Interestingly, treatment with aspirin reduced the parasite burden and pathological lesions in the renal tissue and improved survival of phagocyte-depleted mice. Our data imply that the depletion of phagocytic cells, including macrophages, in the acute phase of infection increases the severity of malarial infection, typified by multiorgan failure and high mortality. PMID:26755155
Pentikaeinen, P.J.P.; Pasternack, A.; Lampainen, E.; Neuvonen, P.J.; Penttilae, A.
To study the effects of renal failure on bumetanide kinetics, the authors administered single intravenous doses of 1.0 mg/3.08 microCi /sup 14/C-bumetanide to six healthy subjects and 22 patients with variable degrees of renal failure. The kinetics of /sup 14/C-bumetanide and total /sup 14/C were adequately described by a two-compartment open model in the control subjects and in the patients. The volume of the central compartment and the distribution t1/2 were of the same order in both groups, whereas the mean (+/- SE) volume at steady state was larger (22.1 +/- 1.6 and 16.9 +/- 1.0 L) and the elimination t1/2 was longer (1.9 +/- 0.2 and 1.4 +/- 0.1 hours) in patients with renal failure than in healthy controls. Bumetanide renal clearance was lower (10 +/- 3 and 90 +/- 13 ml/min) in patients than in subjects and correlated with creatinine clearance (r = 0.784) and log serum creatinine level (r = -0.843), whereas nonrenal clearance was significantly higher in the patients (153 +/- /sup 14/ and 99 +/- 6 ml/min). Bumetanide total plasma clearance did not significantly change. The non-protein-bound, free fraction of bumetanide was higher in patients and correlated with plasma albumin levels (r = -0.777). The kinetics of total /sup 14/C showed similar but greater changes than those of 14C-bumetanide. Thus the most important changes in bumetanide kinetics in patients with renal failure are low renal clearance and a high free fraction, with a consequent increase in nonrenal clearance, volume of distribution, and elimination t1/2.
Renal failure patients require vitamin replacement therapy that addresses the specialized needs of renal failure. Four factors including restricted diet, uremic toxins, drug-nutrient interactions, and in ESRD, the dialysis process, affect the normal absorption, retention and activity of necessary micronutrients which support all aspects of carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism. Studies have shown that the typical renal failure diet is low in B vitamins, that uremic factors affect folate and pyridoxine activities and that many B vitamins are lost on dialysis at a rate greater than are lost with normal urinary excretion. In addition, retention of vitamin A or inappropriately high supplementation of vitamin C may cause toxicities which exacerbate existing pathologies. Further, emerging research suggests some vitamins such as folic acid and pyridoxine, if provided in higher than normal amounts, may have an impact on reducing the risk of some aspects of renal cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to supplement some vitamins, and use restraint in the supplementation of others. It is clear that renal failure patients, including predialysis, ESRD and transplant patients need specialized supplementation that meets the requirements of disease and its management.
The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.
Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.
The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.
Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.
Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.
Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.
Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.
Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith
The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.
Jeong, Won Il; Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da Hee; Chung, Jae Yong; Yang, Hai Jie; Yuan, Dong Wei; Hong, Il Hwa; Park, Jin Kyu; Goo, Moon Jung; Jeong, Kyu Shik
Three dead dogs were brought to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University for study. Clinically, all the dogs showed emaciation, anorexia, depression, hemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhea for 7-10 days before death. All the clinical signs were first noted for about one month after feeding the dogs with commercial diets. At necropsy, all 3 dogs had severe renal damage with the same green-yellowish colored nephroliths in the renal pelvis. They also showed systemic hemorrhage and calcification of several organs, which might have been induced by uremia. Microscopically, necrosis, calcification and calculi were detected in the renal tubules, and especially in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. These findings were supportive of a mycotoxic effect, and especially on their kidneys. However, the precise cause of the toxic effect in these cases of canine renal failure could not be determined.
Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda
High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.
Ueda, Tomoya; Kawakami, Rika; Sugawara, Yu; Okada, Sadanori; Nishida, Taku; Onoue, Kenji; Soeda, Tsunenari; Okayama, Satoshi; Takeda, Yukiji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawata, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Shiro; Saito, Yoshihiko
Renal impairment is a common comorbidity and the strongest risk factor for poor prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). In clinical practice, renal function is labile during episodes of ADHF, and often worsens after discharge. The significance of worsening of renal function (WRF) after discharge has not been investigated as extensively as baseline renal function at admission or WRF during hospitalization. Among 611 consecutive patients with ADHF emergently admitted to our hospital, 233 patients with 3 measurements of serum creatinine (SCr) level measurements (on admission, at discharge, and 1 year after discharge) were included in the present study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of WRF at 1 year after discharge (1y-WRF), defined as an absolute increase in SCr >0.3 mg/dL (>26.5 μmol/L) plus a ≥25% increase in SCr at 1 year after discharge compared to the SCr value at discharge. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed as adverse outcomes. During a mean follow-up of 35.4 months, 1y-WRF occurred in 48 of 233 patients. There were 66 deaths from all causes. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly higher in patients with 1y-WRF (log-rank P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) according to Kaplan-Meier analysis. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, 1y-WRF was a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Hemoglobin and B-type natriuretic peptide at discharge, as well as left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, were independent predictors of 1y-WRF. In patients with ADHF, 1y-WRF is a strong predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Kossiva, Lydia; Kyriakou, Dimitrios; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Garoufi, Anastasia
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is usually a benign, self-limiting disorder. An acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection usually causes atypical lymphocytosis and mild decrease in platelets. Severe thrombocytopenia is an extremely rare complication. Anti-D immunoglobulin has been used for treatment of ITP in Rh(D)-positive nonsplenectomized patients. Severe hemolysis and acute renal failure are extremely rare complications that may be aggravated by the presence of an acute EBV infection. It is believed that anti-D immunoglobulin triggers an unusual virus-induced immune response causing hemolysis. We present a 4-year-old girl with ITP caused by an acute EBV infection that developed acute kidney injury following treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin. The patient recovered completely from thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. Intravascular hemolysis and acute kidney injury are consistent with anti-D immunoglobulin mechanism of action. Pediatric patients treated with anti-D immunoglobulin for ITP should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of hemolysis that may be aggravated by the presence of EBV infection leading to impaired renal function.
Sucajtys-Szulc, Elzbieta; Szolkiewicz, Marek; Swierczynski, Julian; Rutkowski, Boleslaw
Dyslipidemia commonly present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recently linked to increased proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serum concentration. We tested a hypothesis that increased liver PCSK9 biosynthesis could be partially responsible for the elevated circulating PCSK9 level, and subsequently contribute to hypercholesterolemia observed in subjects with CKD. Rat model of chronic renal failure (CRF) was used in the study. Animals underwent a 5/6 nephrectomy or a sham operation. Liver expression of Pcsk9, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (Srebf-2), and β-actin were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Liver protein levels of PCSK9, LDL-receptor (LDL-R), and SREBF-2 were analyzed using Western blotting. Serum PCSK9 concentration was estimated by immunoassay. Rats with an experimental CRF as compared to pair-fed and control ones were characterized by: (a) an up-regulation of liver Pcsk9 and Srebf-2 genes expression with parallel increase of serum PCSK9 concentration; (b) a decrease in liver LDL-R protein level, and (c) an increase of serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. We also found significant correlations between serum creatinine and liver PCSK9 mRNA levels (r = 0.88, p < 0.001) and between serum creatinine and circulating PCSK9 levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The results suggest that a rat model of CRF is associated with an increased liver Pcsk9 gene expression. The coordinated up-regulation of Pcsk9 and Srebf-2 genes expression suggests that SREBF-2 may play a key role in regulation of Pcsk9 gene expression, circulating PCSK9 level, and hypercholesterolemia in experimental CRF.
Rojas Feria, P; González Rodríguez, J D; Canalejo González, D; Sánchez Moreno, A; Cabrera, R; Martín Govantes, J
The picking and consumption of wild mushrooms is a frequent practice in our region and may lead to accidental poisoning when confused with edible mushrooms. We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy who, following the ingestion of a poisonous mushroom, presented with uncontrollable vomiting and subsequent hepatic, haematological and renal failure some hours later. The patient required haemodialysis. The clinical course, laboratory findings and renal histology, which showed tubular necrosis with basal membrane preserved and lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate, confirmed the diagnosis of a severe mixed syndrome. The patient evolved favourably after the poisoning, recovering renal and liver function. In any case of acute renal failure of unknown cause in children, it would be necessary to rule out ingestion of mushrooms, since the patient could benefit from early treatment with haemoperfusion and thus prevent the deterioration of the renal function and other organs. In our patient, haemoperfusion was not carried out due to the lengthy period of latency since the ingestion of the toxic substance until diagnosis.
Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan
Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is increased in both patients and experimental animals with renal failure. The kidney is a richly innervated organ and has both efferent and afferent nerves. Renal denervation shows protective effects against renal failure in both animals and humans. The underlying mechanisms include a decrease in blood pressure, a decrease in renal efferent SNA, a decrease in central SNA and sympathetic outflow, and downregulation of the reninangiotensin system. It has been demonstrated that re-innervation occurs within weeks after renal denervation in animals but that no functional re-innervation occurs in humans for over two years after denervation. Renal denervation might not be renal protective in some situations including bile duct ligation-induced renal failure and ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Catheter-based renal denervation has been applied to patients with both early and end stage renal failure and the published results so far suggest that this procedure is safe and effective at decreasing blood pressure. The effectiveness of renal denervation in improving renal function in patients with renal failure needs to be further investigated.
... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 4, with or without renal failure ... failure syndrome action myoclonus–renal failure syndrome AMRF epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 4, with or without renal failure ...
Andreoli, Sharon Phillips
Acute renal failure in the newborn is a common problem and is typically classified as prerenal, intrinsic renal disease including vascular insults, and obstructive uropathy. In the newborn, renal failure may have a prenatal onset in congenital diseases such as renal dysplasia with or without obstructive uropathy and in genetic diseases such as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Acute renal failure in the newborn is also commonly acquired in the postnatal period because of hypoxic ischemic injury and toxic insults. Nephrotoxic acute renal failure in newborns is usually associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications used to close a patent ductus arteriosis. Alterations in renal function occur in approximately 40% of premature newborns who have received indomethacin and such alterations are usually reversible. Renal artery thrombosis and renal vein thrombosis will result in renal failure if bilateral or if either occurs in a solitary kidney. Cortical necrosis is associated with hypoxic/ischemic insults due to perinatal anoxia, placenta abruption and twin-twin or twin-maternal transfusions with resultant activation of the coagulation cascade. As in older children, hospital acquired acute renal failure is newborns is frequently multifactorial in origin. Although the precise incidence and prevalence of acute renal failure in the newborn is unknown, several studies have shown that acute renal failure is common in the neonatal intensive care unit. Recent interesting studies have demonstrated that some newborns may have genetic risks factors for acute renal failure. Once intrinsic renal failure has become established, management of the metabolic complications of acute renal failure continues to involve appropriate management of fluid balance, electrolyte status, acid-base balance, nutrition and the initiation of renal replacement therapy when appropriate. Renal replacement therapy may be provided by peritoneal dialysis
Miklaszewska, Monika; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Drozdz, Dorota; Sułowicz, Władyław
Acute renal failure is a sudden clinical condition caused by loss of renal ability to maintain homeostasis. Despite significant advances in renal replacement therapy--the mortality rate in ARF patients is still very high--ranging from 20% to 50%. Differential diagnostics, especially between acute prerenal and intrinsic acute renal failure is an extremly important stage in patient evaluation process. In the article--the authors present a short and concise profile of novel, more and less promising for future diagnostic ARF biomarkers: neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), human kidney injury molecule-1 (hKIM-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 18 (IL-18), urinary cysteine-rich protein (Cyr 61), urinary glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cystatin C, spermidine/spermine N-acetyl transferase (SSAT) and actin) which are recently either in the animal model research stage or during preliminary clinical studies. Extension of research and wideninig of knowledge about the discussed novel, early markers of ARF--would permit for quicker introduction of specifically guided therapy and might improve the prognosis of ARF patients in the near future.
Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Terra, Carlos
Acute renal failure, now termed acute kidney injury (AKI), is frequently found in patients with cirrhosis. The occurrence of AKI, irrespective of the underlying cause, is associated with reduced in-hospital, 3-mo and 1-year survival. Hepatorenal syndrome is associated with the worst outcome among AKI patients with cirrhosis. Several definitions for AKI that have been proposed are outlined and evaluated in this paper. Among these, the International Club for Ascites-AKI criteria substantially strengthen the quality of early diagnosis and intervention according to underlying cause of AKI. PMID:26413223
Turney, J H; Ellis, C M; Parsons, F M
A total of 142 women with severe acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from obstetric causes was treated by dialysis at a single centre from 1956 to 1987. One-year survival was 78.6%, which compares favourably with other causes of ARF. Abortion, haemorrhage and preclampsia comprised 95% of cases, with survival being best (82.9%) with abortion. Survival was adversely affected by increasing age. Acute cortical necrosis (12.7% of patients) carried 100% mortality after 6 years. Follow-up of survivors showed normal renal function up to 31 years following ARF; 25-year patient survival was 71.6%. Improvements in obstetric care and the disappearance of illegal abortions have resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of obstetric ARF.
Holloway, Andrew; O'Brien, Robert
Perirenal fluid accumulation has been described as an ultrasonographic feature of urine leakage, hemorrhage, abscessation, or neoplasia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report perirenal effusion as an additional ultrasonographic finding in canine and feline patients with acute renal failure. The causes of acute renal failure in 18 patients included nephrotoxicity (4), leptospirosis (3), ureteral obstruction (2), renal lymphoma (2), ureteronephrolithiasis (2), prostatic urethral obstruction (1) and interstitial nephritis and ureteritis (1). An underlying cause was not identified in three patients. The sonographic finding of perirenal fluid was bilateral in 15 patients. Unilateral perirenal fluid was identified ipsilateral to the site of ureteric obstruction in two patients. Large effusions extended into the caudal retroperitoneal space. Additional sonographic findings suggestive of renal parenchymal disease included mild (5), moderate (5) or severe (2) pyelectasia, increased renal echogenicity (11), increased (9) or decreased renal size (2) and ureteral and/or renal calculi (3). There did not appear to be an association between the volume of perirenal fluid and the severity of renal dysfunction. All patients with large effusions underwent euthanasia. Perirenal fluid developing in acute renal failure is thought to be an ultrafiltrate associated with tubular back-leak into the renal interstitium that overwhelms lymphatic drainage within the perirenal and retroperitoneal connective tissues although obstruction to urine flow may also play a role. Localized perirenal retroperitoneal free fluid may be a useful ultrasonographic feature to assist with the characterization of, and determination of prognosis in, patients with suspected renal disease.
Singh, Amrit Pal; Junemann, Anselm; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Grover, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Ravi
The animal models are pivotal for understanding the characteristics of acute renal failure (ARF) and development of effective therapy for its optimal management. Since the etiology for induction of renal failure is multifold, therefore, a large number of animal models have been developed to mimic the clinical conditions of renal failure. Glycerol-induced renal failure closely mimics the rhabdomyolysis; ischemia-reperfusion-induced ARF simulate the hemodynamic changes-induced changes in renal functioning; drug-induced such as gentamicin, cisplatin, NSAID, ifosfamide-induced ARF mimics the renal failure due to clinical administration of respective drugs; uranium, potassium dichromate-induced ARF mimics the occupational hazard; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine-induced ARF simulate contaminated water-induced renal dysfunction; sepsis-induced ARF mimics the infection-induced renal failure and radiocontrast-induced ARF mimics renal failure in patients during use of radiocontrast media at the time of cardiac catheterization. Since each animal model has been created with specific methodology, therefore, it is essential to describe the model in detail and consequently interpret the results in the context of a specific model.
Rojhirunsakool, Salinee; Vachiramon, Vasanop
Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited dermatosis which usually appears during childhood and is characterized by dyspigmentation, with both hypopigmented and hyperpigmented macules. We report a case of DUH with unexplained childhood-onset renal failure. The association between DUH and renal failure is yet to be proven by further studies. PMID:25969678
Neri, S; Pulvirenti, D; Patamia, I; Zoccolo, A; Castellino, P
We report an unusual case of transfusion-transmitted malaria which remained undiagnosed for several months in an Italian woman splenectomised and polytransfused for thalassaemia major. The infecting species was Plasmodium malariae, and the patient developed acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, and hepatic failure. Treatment with chlorochine was followed by a slow, but complete recovery of renal function.
de la Prada Alvarez, F J; Prados Gallardo, A M; Tugores Vázquez, A; Uriol Rivera, M; Morey Molina, A
Focal necrotizing encephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii infection represents one of the most common opportunistic infection in patients with the acquired inmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the treatment is commonly with a combination sulphadiazine, and pyrimethamine. A major side effect of sulfadiazine therapy is the occurrence of crystallization in the urinary collecting system. We report a patient with AIDS and Toxoplasmic encephalitis treated with sulfadiazine who developed acute renal failure. Renal ultrasound demonstrated echogenic areas within the renal parenchyma, presumed to be sulfa crystals. Renal failure and ultrasound findings resolved rapidly with hydratation and administration of alkali. Patients infected with AIDS frequently have characteristic that increase intratubular crystal precipitation and they require treatment with one or more of the drugs that are associated with crystal-induced renal failure. Controlled alkalinization of the urine and high fluid intake are recommended for prophylaxis of crystalluria. The literature concerning crystalluria and renal failure due to sulfadiazine is reviewed.
Vukusich, Antonio; Alvear, Felipe; Villanueva, Pablo; González, Claudio; Francisco, Olivari; Alvarado, Nelly; Zehnder, Carlos
There is a paucity of information about the epidemiology of acute renal failure in Chile. To perform a prospective multicentric survey of severe acute renal failure in Chile. All patients admitted to ten hospitals in Metropolitan Santiago, during a period of six months with severe acute renal failure, were studied. The criteria for severity was the requirement of renal replacement therapy. All patients information was gathered in special forms and the type of renal replacement therapy and evolution was registeres. One hundred fourteen patients were studied (65 males, age range 18 to 87 years). The calculated incidence of acute renal failure was 1.03 cases per 1000 hospital discharges. The onset was nosocomial in 79 subjects (69%) and community acquired in the rest. Renal failure was oliguric in 64 cases (56%) and in 60% of patients it had two or more causative factors. Sepsis, isolated or combined with other causes, was present in 51 of patients. Other causes included ischemia in 47%, surgery in 26%, exogenous toxicity in 25%, endocenous toxicity in 11%, acute glomerular damage in 6% and obstructive uropathy in 6%. Cardiac surgery was responsible for 47% of post operative cases of acute renal failure. Intermittent conventional hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement techniques and daily prolonged hemodialysis were used in 66%, 29% and 2% of patients, respectively. Overall mortality was 45% and it was higher in oliguric patients. Gender, age, cause or the type of therapy did not influence survival. Nine percent of surviving patients had some degree of kidney dysfunction at discharge. There is still a great space for prevention of severe acute renal failure in Chile, considering the main etiologies found in this study.
Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Mahmudi, Mohammad; Tabibian, Shadi; Khatib, Zahra Kashani; Tamaddon, Gholam Hossein; Moghaddam, Esmaeil Sanei; Bamedi, Taregh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Moradi, Eshagh
Background Acute renal failure describes as a syndrome by rapid decline in the ability of the kidney to eliminate waste products, regulate acid–base balance, and manage water homeostasis. When this impairment is prolonged and entered chronic phase, erythropoietin secretion by this organ is decreasing and toxic metabolic accumulates and causes hematological changes include decrease of HCT, MCV and RBC and platelet counts. This study evaluates present of anemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute and chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods This study conducted on 132 patients with renal impairment and also 179 healthy individuals as two separated control groups. Initially patients with renal problem were tested and after confirmation of impairment, patients were divided in two groups, acute with less than 3 months and chronic with more than 3 months renal failure, based on duration of the disease. Then complete blood count performed for each patient and finally obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Comparison between 96 patients with acute and 36 patients with chronic renal failure revealed that severity of anemia (HCT, Hb and MCV) between these two groups were statistically high in comparison with control groups (P > 0.05) but thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic renal failure was statistically different from control and the acute ones (P < 0.001). Conclusion It was recommended that in patients with chronic renal failure, to prevent the risk of bleeding, platelet count should be checked periodically. PMID:24505541
There is a widespread opinion that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rather harmless complication and that survival is determined not by renal dysfunction per se, but by the severity of the underlying disease. This opinion is in sharp contrast to evidence from several recent experimental and clinical investigations indicating that AKI is a condition which exerts a fundamental impact on the course of the disease, the evolution of associated complications and on prognosis, independently from the type and severity of the underlying condition. In conclusion, severe AKI in the critically ill patient is associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality and consumption of health care resources.
Krzemień, Grazyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Bieroza, Iwona; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria
Acute renal failure (ARF), which is diagnosed in 3.4-20% of newborns, is polyetiological in most cases. We present a newborn with non-oliguric ARF diagnosed in the first day of life, and caused by asphixia, intrauterine infection (IUI) and nephrotoxic effects of metotrexate treatment during pregnancy. Antibiotics, including netilmicin and vankomycin, were given because of IUI and infected central venous catheter. Dosage of drugs was adjusted to renal failure parameters, but monitoring of their serum levels was not available. It could cause augmented acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Analysis of ARF risk factors in newborns helps in early diagnosis of renal damage and in prompt implementation of therapy.
Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L
Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.
Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem
A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.
Humes, H D
Ischemic and toxic acute renal failure is reversible, due to the ability of renal tubule cells to regenerate and differentiate into a fully functional lining epithelium. Recent data support the thesis that recruitment or activation of macrophages to the area of injury results in local release of growth factors to promote regenerative repair. Because of intrinsic delay in the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the exogenous administration of growth promoters early in the repair phase of acute renal failure enhances renal tubule cell regeneration and accelerates renal functional recovery in animal models of acute renal failure. Molecular therapy for the acceleration of tissue repair in this disease process may be developed in the near future.
Evers, J.; Renner, E.; Bechtel, W. D.
1 Kinetics of brotizolam (0.25 mg) were studied in patients with different degrees of renal failure after single and repeated oral ingestion. Serum levels were analysed by radio-immunoassay. 2 Patients were divided into three groups according to their renal function, i.e. creatinine clearance values of 45-80, 15-45, or less than 15 ml/min. 3 The mean elimination half-life was 6.9-8.15 h, with a considerable variation of the peak concentration and elimination half-life in slight to moderate renal failure. There was no delay in elimination in severe renal failure and there was no drug accumulation. 4 No dose adjustment is necessary for brotizolam in renal failure. PMID:6661376
Newberry, W. Marcus; Sanford, Jay P.
In defining host resistance factors in uremia, experiments were designed to assess the effect of renal failure serum upon the reactivity of normal human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin in vitro. Normal buffy coat cells were resuspended in sera obtained from normal subjects and from 14 patients with renal failure, then stimulated with phytohemagglutinin M and the cellular response measured by the increase in thymidine or uridine uptake. The mean thymidine uptake by stimulated cells in normal sera was 14,389 ±1695 (SEM) cpm per 2 × 106 lymphocytes. Uridine uptake under the same conditions was 12,540 ±1887 cpm. Compared to these are a mean thymidine uptake of 2740 ±457 cpm and uridine uptake of 3928 ±667 cpm in renal failure sera. Both differences are significant at P<0.01 level. For controls representing “chronic illnesses,” sera from patients with pneumococcal meningitis, cirrhosis of the liver without jaundice, rheumatoid arthritis, and paraplegia with urinary tract infection did not cause suppression. No single drug had been taken by all the renal failure patients; three patients were taking no drugs. The serum from one patient with acute renal failure suppressed thymidine uptake while her serum obtained after recovery from her illness supported a normal lymphocyte response. Improvement of lymphocyte response was also noted in 9 of 10 sera obtained from patients immediately after hemodialysis. These observations plus the inhibition of stimulated cells by normal serum mixed with renal failure serum indicate the presence of a dialyzable inhibitory factor rather than the absence of a supporting factor in the renal failure sera. Lymphocytes preincubated for 24 hr in renal failure serum responded normally when transferred to normal serum and stimulated. Cells stimulated in normal serum and transferred to renal failure serum within the initial 24 hr of incubation demonstrated depressed thymidine uptake. Also, cell survival for 72 hr incubation as judged by
Emara, S S; Alzaylai, A A
Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management.
Emara, S.S.; Alzaylai, A.A.
Summary Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management. PMID:23966893
Smith, Graham D.; Robinson, Caroline; Stewart, Andrew P.; Edwards, Emily L.; Karet, Hannah I.; Norden, Anthony G. W.; Sandford, Richard N.
Summary Background and objectives In a single-center renal clinic, we have established routine mutation testing to diagnose UMOD-associated kidney disease (UAKD), an autosomal dominant disorder typically characterized by gout, hyperuricemia, and renal failure in the third to sixth decades. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Four probands and their multigeneration kindreds were assessed by clinical, historical, and biochemical means. Diagnostic UMOD sequencing was performed, and mutant uromodulin was characterized in vitro. Results All available affected members of the four kindreds harbored the same complex indel change in UMOD, which was associated with almost complete absence of gout and a later onset of CKD; the youngest age at ESRD or death was 38 years (range, 38 to 68 years) compared with 3 to 70 years in other reports. Three mutation carriers (all ≤35 years) are currently asymptomatic. The indel sequence (c.278_289del TCTGCCCCGAAGinsCCGCCTCCT; p.V93_G97del/ins AASC) results in the replacement of five amino acids, including one cysteine, by four novel residues, also including a cysteine. Uromodulin staining of the only available patient biopsy suggested disorganized intracellular trafficking with cellular accumulation. Functional characterization of the mutant isoform revealed retarded intracellular trafficking associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and reduced secretion into cell culture media, but to a lesser extent than we observed with the previously reported C150S mutation. Conclusions The indel mutation is associated with a relatively mild clinical UAKD phenotype, consistent with our in vitro analysis. UAKD should be routinely considered as a causative gene for ESRD of unknown cause, especially where there is an associated family history or where biopsy reveals interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22034507
Chevalier, R L; Campbell, F; Brenbridge, A N
Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.
Chevalier, R.L.; Campbell, F.; Brenbridge, A.N.
Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.
Post, A T; Voorhorst, G; Zanen, A L
Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor widely used in the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. In a 73-year-old man we describe renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis after use of omeprazol during 4 months. Unexpected renal failure without signs of hydronephrosis should always provoke awareness of drug reaction, omeprazole being one of the possible drugs.
Kawaida, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Kunio; Shimazu, Hisaaki; Nakamura, Toshikazu
Although acute renal failure is encountered with administration of nephrotoxic drugs, ischemia, or unilateral nephrectomy, there has been no effective drug which can be used in case of acute renal failure. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatotropic factor for liver regeneration and is known to have mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic activities for various epithelial cells, including renal tubular cells. Intravenous injection of recombinant human HGF into mice remarkably suppressed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine caused by administration of cisplatin, a widely used antitumor drug, or HgCl_2, thereby indicating that HGF strongly prevented the onset of acute renal dysfunction. Moreover, exogenous HGF stimulated DNA synthesis of renal tubular cells after renal injuries caused by HgCl_2 administration and unilateral nephrectomy and induced reconstruction of the normal renal tissue structure in vivo. Taken together with our previous finding that expression of HGF was rapidly induced after renal injuries, these results allow us to conclude that HGF may be the long-sought renotropic factor for renal regeneration and may prove to be effective treatment for patients with renal dysfunction, especially that caused by cisplatin.
Peces, R; Canora, J; Venegas, J L
Acute and chronic renal failure secondary to bilateral severe hydroureteronephrosis is a rare sequela of uterine prolapse. We report a case of neglected complete uterine prolapse in a 72-year-old patient resulting in bilateral hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and chronic renal failure. In an attempt to diminish the ureteral obstruction a vaginal pessary was used to reduce the uterine prolapse. Finally, surgical repair of prolapse by means of a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. In conclusion, all patients presenting with complete uterine prolapse should be screened to exclude urinary tract obstruction. If present, obstructive uropathy should be relieved by the reduction or repair of the prolapse before irreversible renal damage occurs.
Kissou, S A; Cessouma, R; Barro, M; Traoré, H; Nacro, B
Malaria is an endemic disease caused by one of the several Plasmodium species. Severe malaria is mainly due to Plasmodium falciparum in highly endemic areas. Acute renal failure (ARF) is a criterion of malaria severity as defined by WHO. Often observed in adults, particularly in India and Southeast Asia, this complication remains a rare complication of malaria in children. We report a case of oliguric ARF that occurred in a 7-year-old girl a few days after the onset of fever. The vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes often causing tubular necrosis is the primary mechanism of renal failure. As a possible diagnosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, renal failure and quartan hemoglobinuric nephropathy are other possible causes of renal failure in malaria. Renal biopsy, which was not performed in our patient, would have been a great help, but was not available. The outcome was favorable with recovery of renal function after 3 weeks of diuretic therapy. This development is not always the rule and the prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment options.
Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen
Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide
López-Gómez, Juan M.; Rivera, Francisco
Background and objectives: Renal biopsy in acute renal failure of unknown origin provides irreplaceable information for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This study analyzed the frequency and clinicopathologic correlations of renal native biopsied acute renal failure in Spain during the period 1994 through 2006. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Acute renal failure was defined as a rapid deterioration of glomerular filtration rate, with or without oligoanuria or rapidly progressive renal insufficiency, including acute-on-chronic renal failure. Patients who were younger than 15 yr were considered children, those between 15 and 65 yr adults, and those >65 elderly. Results: Between 1994 and 2006, data on 14,190 native renal biopsies were collected from 112 renal units in Spain. Of these, 16.1% (2281 biopsies) were diagnosed with acute renal failure. The prevalence of the main clinical syndromes was different in the three age groups: Biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure in children was 5.7%, in adults was 12.5%, and in elderly increased significantly to 32.9%. The prevalence of biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure according to cause was as follows: Vasculitis, 23.3%; acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 11.3%; and crescentic glomerulonephritis types 1 and 2, 10.1%. The prevalence of the different causes differed significantly according to age group. Conclusions: The Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis provides useful information about renal histopathology in biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure. The prevalence of vasculitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis is high, especially in elderly patients. These data obtained from a national large registry highlight the value of renal biopsy in undetermined acute renal failure. PMID:18354075
Seifter, Julian Lawrence; Samuels, Martin A
Kidney failure is one of the leading causes of disability and death and one of the most disabling features of kidney failure and dialysis is encephalopathy. This is probably caused by the accumulation of uremic toxins. Other important causes are related to the underlying disorders that cause kidney failure, particularly hypertension. The clinical manifestations of uremic encephalopathy include mild confusional states to deep coma, often with associated movement disorders, such as asterixis. Most nephrologists consider cognitive impairment to be a major indication for the initiation of renal replacement therapy with dialysis with or without subsequent transplantation. Sleep disorders, including Ekbom's syndrome (restless legs syndrome) are also common in patients with kidney failure. Renal replacement therapies are also associated with particular neurologic complications including acute dialysis encephalopathy and chronic dialysis encephalopathy, formerly known as dialysis dementia. The treatments and prevention of each are discussed. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.
Alonso, A; Lau, J; Jaber, B L
Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Some studies have reported a survival advantage among patients dialyzed with biocompatible membranes (BCM) compared to bioincompatible membranes (BICM). These findings were not consistently observed in subsequent studies. To ascertain whether the use of BCM confers an advantage in either survival or recovery of renal function over the use of BICM in adult patients with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (from 1966), EMBASE (from 1980), the Mexican Index of Latin American Biomedical Journals IMBIOMED (from 1990), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database LILACS (from 1982), and reference lists of articles. Search date: January 2007 Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of a BCM with a BICM in patients > 18 years of age with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. Two authors extracted the data independently. Cellulose-derived dialysis membranes were classified as BICM, and synthetic dialyzers were considered as BCM. The main outcomes were all-cause mortality and recovery of renal function by type of dialyzer. We further explored these outcomes according to the flux properties (high-flux or low-flux) of each of these dialyzers. A meta-analysis was conducted by combining data using a random-effects model. Ten studies were included in the primary analysis of mortality, with a total of 1100 patients. None of the pooled risk ratios (RRs) reached statistical significance. The pooled RR for mortality was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.07). The overall RR for recovery of renal function, which was inclusive of 1038 patients from nine studies, was 1.09 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.31). The pooled RR for mortality by dialyzer flux property was 1.05 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.37). The pooled RR for recovery of renal function by flux
Alonso, A; Lau, J; Jaber, B L
Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Some trials have reported a survival advantage among patients dialyzed with biocompatible membranes (BCM) compared to bioincompatible membranes (BICM). These findings were not consistently observed in subsequent studies. To ascertain whether the use of BCM confers an advantage in either survival or recovery of renal function over the use of BICM in adult patients with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in The Cochrane Library - Issue 1, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2004), EMBASE (1980 to January 2004), the Mexican Index of Latin American Biomedical Journals IMBIOMED (1990 to January 2004), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database LILACS (1982 to January 2004), and reference lists of articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of a BCM with a BICM in patients > 18 years of age with ARF requiring intermittent hemodialysis. Two authors extracted the data independently. Cellulose-derived dialysis membranes were classified as BICM, and synthetic dialyzers were considered as BCM. The main outcomes were all-cause mortality and recovery of renal function by type of dialyzer. We further explored these outcomes according to the flux properties (high-flux or low-flux) of each of these dialyzers. A meta-analysis was conducted by combining data using a random-effects model. Nine studies were included in the primary analysis of mortality, with a total of 1062 patients. None of the pooled RR's reached statistical significance. The pooled relative risk (RR) for mortality was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.81 to 1.07). The overall RR for recovery of renal function, inclusive of 1038 patients from nine studies was 1.09 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.31). The pooled RR for mortality by dialyzer flux property was 1.03 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.30). The RR for recovery of
Himmelfarb, J; Hakim, R M
The interactions between blood and the dialysis membrane, aside from solute clearance, can be referred to as biocompatibility. It has increasingly been recognized that significant side effects may occur as a result of interactions of blood with the dialysis membrane itself. The use of unmodified cellulosic hemodialysis membranes results in potent activation of the alternative pathway of complement, and numerous investigators have now carefully defined the membrane characteristics that contribute to complement activation, adsorption, and clearance. Complement-dependent granulocyte activation during hemodialysis causes neutrophil degranulation and protease release, the production of reactive oxygen species, and modulation of granulocyte cell adhesion molecules. Recently, a number of experimental studies in animal models suggest that complement and granulocyte activation during hemodialysis could contribute to the prolongation of acute renal failure. Based on the hypothesis that hemodialysis with complement and granulocyte-activating membranes could contribute to the prolongation of acute renal failure and increased mortality, several recent prospective randomized clinical trials examining the role of membrane biocompatibility in the treatment of acute renal failure have been reported. Although not unanimous in their conclusions, most studies suggest that hemodialysis with more biocompatible membranes in patients with acute renal failure leads to a more rapid return of renal function and a lower morbidity and mortality. Thus, hemodialysis membrane biocompatibility may be an important contributor to the outcome of patients with acute renal failure who require dialysis.
Landray, M. J.; Ringrose, T.; Ferner, R. E.; Arnold, I. R.
We present the case of a 77-year-old woman who initially presented with pyrexia of unknown origin, anaemia and mild renal impairment. When her omeprazole was stopped she improved rapidly. When omeprazole was re-started she developed fever and acute renal failure, which again settled quickly on discontinuation of omeprazole. This case demonstrates how drugs can cause severe multisystem disorders that may appear to be infective or inflammatory. Images Figure PMID:9799915
Kennedy, A. C.; Burton, J. A.; Allison, Marjorie E. M.
In 40 patients with renal amyloidosis seen in a ten-year period tuberculosis was the major preceding disease in 20, though it was active in only two at diagnosis. Most patients presented with renal failure, and only two survived for five years. This experience (at least, in the west of Scotland) conflicts with the generally accepted view that rheumatoid arthritis is the commonest cause of renal amyloidosis. PMID:4416752
Kennedy, A C; Burton, J A; Allison, M E
In 40 patients with renal amyloidosis seen in a ten-year period tuberculosis was the major preceding disease in 20, though it was active in only two at diagnosis. Most patients presented with renal failure, and only two survived for five years. This experience (at least, in the west of Scotland) conflicts with the generally accepted view that rheumatoid arthritis is the commonest cause of renal amyloidosis.
Matas, A J; Payne, W D; Simmons, R L; Buselmeier, T J; Kjellstrand, C M
Renal failure developed in 20 patients following blunt civilian trauma. Ten recovered normal renal function; 8 currently survive. Survivors and nonsurvivors did not differ in age, time from trauma to anuria, mean blood urea nitrogen or creatinine level prior to the first or to subsequent dialyses. However, there was an increased incidence of sepsis and liver failure in those who died. When outcome was related to site of injury, patients with closed head injury and/or intra-abdominal injury had a worse prognosis than those with thoracic or extremity injury only. Only 2 patients with perforated bowel survived; both had peritoneal dialysis combined with peritoneal lavage with antibiotic solutions. Mortality in patients with posttraumatic renal failure remains high; however, death is usually a result of associated complications rather than a result of the renal failure. Aggressive management of other complications of the trauma, especially sepsis or potential sepsis, is necessary. We recommend peritoneal dialysis combined with peritoneal antibiotic lavage where there is a potential for posttraumatic intra-abdominal sepsis associated with renal failure. PMID:843128
Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B; Hiner, L B; Foley, C M; Grover, W D
The progressive encephalopathy observed in 5 children with chronic renal failure was clinically similar to the so-called dialysis encephalopathy of adults, except that it was not related to dialysis therapy. Renal osteodystrophy is more prevalent in children than in adults and often more severe. The attempt to control the crippling deformities of renal osteodystrophy in growing children with renal insufficiency has led to the use of large quantities of aluminum containing antacids. The encephalopathy observed in children with chronic renal failure may be related to the oral ingestion of aluminum containing compounds in the presence of persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism. We suggest that alternative methods for the adequate control of serum phosphorus levels should be sought and indications for parathyroidectomy in children reevaluated. During the past 18 mos we have lowered the dose of aluminum containing compounds to 50 to 100 mg/Kg/day in our patients with progressive renal failure and recommend parathyroidectomy. No new cases of the encephalopathy have occurred.
Pérez Calvo, J I; Josa Laorden, C; Giménez López, I
Renal function is one of the most consistent prognostic determinants in heart failure. The prognostic information it provides is independent of the ejection fraction and functional status. This article reviews the various renal function assessment measures, with special emphasis on the fact that the patient's clinical situation and response to the heart failure treatment should be considered for the correct interpretation of the results. Finally, we review the literature on the performance of tubular damage biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Madrazo Delgado, M; Uña Orejón, R; Redondo Calvo, F J; Criado Jiménez, A
Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome characterized by the breakdown and later necrosis of skeletal muscle, leading to the release of various intracellular components into the blood stream. The clinical expression of rhabdomyolysis ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms involving multiorgan failure with electrolyte imbalance, respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Diagnosis is based on a finding of elevated serum levels of components that are normally found within the muscle cell, chiefly muscle enzymes and myoglobin. Acute kidney failure, one of the main consequences of rhabdomyolysis, occurs in 4% to 33% of cases. Treatment requires prompt volume replacement with crystalloids. In spite of successful resuscitation and prophylaxis against myoglobulin-induced renal failure, 1 out of every 3 patients develops kidney damage and requires continuous replacement therapy.
Ozkok, Abdullah; Elcioglu, Omer Celal; Bakan, Ali; Sasak, Gulsah; Atilgan, Kadir Gokhan; Alisir, Sabahat; Odabas, Ali Riza
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare plasma cell disorder mostly involving the upper airway; however, retroperitoneal infiltration is very rare. Kidney injury associated with EMP is exceptionally rare with only anecdotal reports. Herein we report a case of retroperitoneal EMP causing renal failure by the way of direct renal parenchymal infiltration. Renal parenchymal invasion should be considered in aggressive and refractory plasma cell dyscrasias with unexplained renal failure.
Hausberg, M; Tokmak, F
Patients with chronic renal failure are characterized by a tonic elevation of sympathetic tone. This factor largely contributes to their increased cardiovascular risk. The increased sympathetic drive is caused by activiation of renal afferent fibers in the diseased kidneys. Therapeutic options for hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure with respect to their sympathetic overactivity are inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-system and central sympatholytic drugs. The role of catheter-based renal denervation in these patients is currently under investigation.
Starke, R; Mackie, I; Drummond, O; MacGregor, I; Harrison, P; Machin, S
We previously found elevated levels of prion protein (PrP(C)) in the blood plasma of 16 patients with renal failure. We studied a further 20 patients with renal failure, and all had a significantly higher PrP(C) concentration than healthy normal subjects (P < 0.0001). Renal dialysis did not remove plasma PrP(C) in these patients. Because dialysis patients receive heparin during dialysis, which could potentially bind to PrP(C), the concentration of PrP(C) was measured in patients receiving heparin for cardiopulmonary bypass and was found to be similar to normal controls. We also studied several other groups with chronic illnesses and found that patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and sickle cell anaemia had normal plasma PrP(C) levels, but that those with beta-thalassaemia had slightly elevated levels of plasma PrP(C). This suggests that the observations in renal failure were not just part of a generalized response to chronic illness or acute phase reaction. The mechanism of elevated plasma PrP(C) levels in renal disease is unknown, but this shows that plasma PrP(C) is not a specific marker of neurological disease or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Le Huu Nho, R; Renard, S; Maurin, C; Souteyrand, P; Le Treut, Y P
We report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting a 26cm right renal angiomyolipoma with intratumoral arteriovenous fistula responsible for a high-output right heart failure. A radical surgical treatment after preoperative embolization allowed rapid improvement of cardiac symptoms with an uneventful postoperative course.
Radenkovic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Marko; Prostran, Milica
Endothelial dysfunction is principally characterized by impaired endothelium- dependent transduction mechanisms related to vascular relaxation, as an outcome of decreased release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, mainly nitric oxide, as well as augmented oxidative stress, increased inflammation and predominance of vascular action produced by endothelium-derived contracting factors. Current data strongly suggest that pathological development of different types of kidney impairment with further progression to renal failure includes notable vascular changes associated with endothelial dysfunction. In accordance, this scientific field represents an advancing area of investigation, involving different biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction linked to renal impairment, as well as clinical findings with new information that can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of endothelial dysfunction in kidney disease. With regards to quoted facts, the aim of this article was to review the latest data related to endothelial dysfunction and renal failure by selection of relevant articles released from 2010 to 2015.
Resch, M; Banas, B; Endemann, D; Mack, M; Riegger, G A J; Gröne, H J; Krämer, B K
A 15-year-old girl with a history of Kawasaki disease was admitted to our nephrological department due to acute renal failure. Despite antibiotic therapy because of fever and the symptoms of a pharyngitis in the last few days, the girl showed persisting fever and developed arthralgias, an exanthema and a rising serum creatinine as well as anuria. A wide variety of differential diagnoses has to be thought of because of the history of the Kawasaki disease (symptoms like fever, pharyngitis, exanthema and arthralgia), i.e. hemolytic-uremic syndrome, vasculitis, ascending infection, postinfection glomerulonephritis. In consideration of etiologically unclear "rapidly progressive renal failure" with anuria and thrombocytopenia an immediate renal biopsy was done and revealed a severe drug induced acute interstitial nephritis. Due to this diagnosis we treated the patient with corticosteroids. Within 4 weeks serum creatinine declined to 1.8 mg/dl but did not normalize.
Naik, Pradeep; Premsagar, B; Mallikarjuna, M
The acute renal failure is the frequent medical complication observed in liver transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of acute renal failure in post liver transplant patients. A total of 70 patients who underwent (cadaveric 52, live 18) liver transplantation were categorized based on clinical presentation into two groups, namely hepatorenal failure (HRF, n = 29), and Hepatic failure (HF, n = 41). All the patients after the liver transplant had received tacrolimus, mycophenolate and steroids. We analyzed the modification of diet in renal disease, (MDRD) serum urea, creatinine and albumin before and after 5th and 30th day of liver transplant and data was categorized into survivors and non-survivors group. In HRF survivor group, serum creatinine, and urea levels were high and, albumin, MDRD were low in pre- transplant and reached to normal levels on 30th day of post transplant, and 79.3 % of patients in this group showed resumption of normal kidney function. On the contrary in HRF nonsurvivor group, we did not observed any significant difference and 20.7 % of patients showed irreversible changes after the liver transplant. In HF survivor group, 82.9 % of liver failure patients did not show any deviation in serum creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD, whereas in HF non survivor group, 17.1 % of liver failure patients who had HCV positive before the transplant developed acute renal failure. The levels of creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD were normal before the transplant and on day 30th, the levels of albumin and MDRD were significantly low whereas serum urea, creatinine levels were high. In conclusion, based on these observations, an diagnosis and treatment of Acute renal failure is important among the liver transplantation cases in the early postoperative period.
Wiesen, Patricia; Van Overmeire, Lionel; Delanaye, Pierre; Dubois, Bernard; Preiser, Jean-Charles
The physiological and biological modifications related to acute renal failure in critically ill patients, including the current use of continuous renal replacement therapies, have dramatically changed the type and importance of the metabolic and nutrition disturbances observed during treatment of renal failure. This review summarizes the current knowledge and makes recommendations for the daily nutrition management of these patients. The filtration of water-soluble substances of low molecular weight by continuous hemodiafiltration results in significant losses of glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins, trace elements, and water-soluble vitamins. The losses of these macronutrients and micronutrients should be compensated for. During continuous renal replacement therapy, the daily recommended energy allowance is between 25 and 35 kcal/kg, with a ratio of 60%-70% carbohydrates to 30%-40% lipids, and between 1.5 and 1.8 g/kg protein. Providing energy 25-35 kcal/kg/d with a carbohydrate/lipid ratio of 60-70/30-40 and protein 1.5-1.8 g/kg/d is recommended during continuous renal replacement therapy. Supplemental vitamin B(1) (100 mg/d), vitamin C (250 mg/d), and selenium (100 mcg/d) are also recommended.
Hirschberg, R; Ding, H
During acute renal injury, there are alterations in the expression of several growth factors and their receptors in the kidney. The increased expression of several growth factors and/or their receptors at sites of nephron injury suggests important contributions to repair. Exogenous administration of some growth factors, such as IGF-I, EGF and HGF, accelerates recovery of renal function in experimental acute renal failure (ARF). In ARF growth factors act through several mechanisms, which may include altered cell cycle regulation and mitogenesis, differentiation of recovered cells, regulation of apoptosis, improved renal hemodynamics, and others. There is evidence for interactions of growth factors with other growth factors as well as with other genes resulting in complex orchestration of biologic events contributing to recovery from ARF.
Shaheen, Faissal A M; Al-Khader, Abdullah A
The prevalence of both acute and chronic renal failure is high in the Arab world. Data available on the exact prevalence of various renal diseases are very limited. Nevertheless, the reported prevalence of chronic renal failure is 80 to 120 per million population (pmp) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and 225 pmp in Egypt. This is in comparison with the reported prevalence of 283 pmp in Europe, 975 pmp in the United States, and 1149 pmp in Japan. Lower prevalence rates reported in this region could be due to underreporting. The economic burden of renal replacement on health care providers is enormous. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the estimated cost per annum incurred toward maintenance hemodialysis is US 19,400 US dollars and, considering that there are more than 7200 patients on regular dialysis in this country, the total expenditure is enormous. Such large amounts may be beyond the monetary capacity of many countries in this region because of limited financial resources. These figures clearly suggest that there is an urgent need to establish a massive prevention program. The strategy adapted should be innovative and imaginative and should be one that is maximally cost effective. Paradoxically, in the Arab world, we have a good opportunity to reduce the incidence of kidney failure (chronic and acute) substantially by appropriately chosen models. This is because many of the causes of renal failure are eminently preventable. In fact, a rough estimate is that these programs, if successful, can reduce the incidence by as much as 40% (personal communication, Shaheen, 2003). It is worthy of mention that, in the Arab world, the budget for research is about 0.15% of the national domestic product compared with the international average of 1.5%. In this article, we concentrate on some of the main causes of renal failure in the Arab world that we feel can be prevented and suggest ways that can best address this issue.
Laviano, A; Krznaric, Z; Sanchez-Lara, K; Preziosa, I; Cascino, A; Rossi Fanelli, F
Protein energy wasting is frequently observed in patients with advanced chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Anorexia and reduced food intake are critical contributing factors and negatively impact on patients' survival. Ghrelin is a prophagic peptide produced by the stomach and acting at the hypothalamic level to increase the activity of orexigenic neurons. In patients with chronic renal disease, plasma levels are increased as a likely effect of reduced renal clearance. Nevertheless, patients' food intake is significantly reduced, suggesting inflammation-mediated resistance of hypothalamic nuclei to peripheral signals. A number of forms of evidence show that ghrelin resistance could be overcome by the administration of exogenous ghrelin. Therefore, ghrelin has been proposed as a potential strategy to improve food intake in chronic renal failure patients with protein energy wasting. Preliminary data are encouraging although larger prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the results and to identify those patients who are likely to benefit most from the administration of exogenous ghrelin.
Kingston, R D; Shah, K J; Dawson-Edwards, P
Ascending uretero-pyelography has been carried out over a period of 13 years in 97 consecutive patients with undiagnosed renal failure. Sixty-nine were in a non-obstructive uropathy group while 26 had ureteric obstructions. There were two failures. Over 60% of examinations were performed under local anaesthesia, each examination taking an average of 20 min. There has been no mortality and two anaesthetic complications have been the only significant morbidity. Ureteric injury, urinary infection and renal function have all been investigated and recorded. Five per cent of patients developed urinary infection following AUP but without any major consequences. No significant ureteric injury occurred and no late sequelae were noted. Neither any reaction to contrast medium nor any further deterioration in renal function was observed; AUP was diagnostic in 46% of patients. In the remainder it ruled out obstructive uropathy and gave useful information about the kidneys, ureters and bladder. In experienced hands and with proper facilities AUP is safe and can be helpful in the diagnosis and management of patients in renal failure.
Carrasco, Rodrigo; Salinas, Mauricio; Rossel, Víctor
Rhabdomyolysis caused by cocaine abuse is multifactorial, involving tissue ischemia secondary to vasoconstriction and cellular damage caused by the drug. Renal failure may or may be not associated to rhabdomyolysis. We report a 41-year-old male admitted with a severe rhabdomyolysis after a cocaine overdose. In spite of a vigorous hydration and alkalization, he developed acute renal failure. Renal function recovered after several weeks of dialysis.
Gerona, S; Laudano, O; Macías, S; San Román, E; Galdame, O; Torres, O; Sorkin, E; Ciardullo, M; de Santibañes, E; Mastai, R
Renal failure is a common finding in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic value of pre, intra and postoperative factors and severity of renal dysfunction in patients who undergo liver transplantation. Therefore, the records of 38 consecutive adult patients were reviewed. Renal failure was defined arbitrarily as an increase in creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dl) and/or blood urea (> 80 mg/dl). Three patients were excluded of the final analysis (1 acute liver failure and 2 with a survival lower than 72 hs.) Twenty one of the 35 patients has renal failure after orthotopic liver transplantation. Six of these episodes developed early, having occurred within the first 6 days. Late renal impairment occurred in 15 patients within the hospitalization (40 +/- 10 days) (Mean +/- SD). In he overall series, liver function, evaluated by Child-Pugh classification, a higher blood-related requirements and cyclosporine levels were observed more in those who experienced renal failure than those who did not (p < 0.05). Early renal failure was related with preoperative (liver function) and intraoperative (blood requirements) factors and several causes (nephrotoxic drugs and graft failure) other than cyclosporine were present in patients who developed late renal impairment. No mortality. No mortality was associated with renal failure. We conclude that renal failure a) is a common finding after liver transplantation, b) the pathogenesis of this complication is multifactorial and, c) in not related with a poor outcome.
Li, Ning; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yuan, Jiyan; Chen, Guiying; Jiang, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen
Our aim was to evaluate the clinical profile, treatment, and outcome of ceftriaxone-associated postrenal acute renal failure (PARF) in children. We retrospectively studied 31 consecutive cases from 2003 to 2012 for PARF after ceftriaxone treatment. There was no past history of urolithiasis or nephropathy in these children. The average time of ceftriaxone administration before PARF was 5.2 days. The major symptoms apart from anuria included flank pain (>3 years old, 25/25), excessive crying (<3 years, 6/6), and vomiting (19/33). Ultrasound showed mild hydronephrosis (25/31) and ureteric calculi (11/31). Nine children recovered after 1 to 4 days of pharmacotherapy. Twenty-one children who were resistant to pharmacotherapy underwent retrograde ureteral catheterization. After catheterization of their ureters, normal urine flow was observed, and the symptoms subsided immediately. Catheter insertion failed in 1 child who subsequently underwent 3 sessions of hemodialysis before normal urination was restored. Ceftriaxone was verified to be the main component of the calculi in 4 children by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. The recovery was complete in all cases. Ceftriaxone therapy in children may cause PARF. Early diagnosis and prompt pharmacological therapy are important in relieving the condition. Retrograde ureteral catheterization is an effective treatment of those who fail to respond to pharmacotherapy.
Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Garber, Alan J.
To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively. These results in patients with chronic renal failure demonstrate (a) increased glucose production and utilization, (b) increased gluconeogenesis from alanine, (c) increased alanine production and utilization, and (d) a relative impairment to glucose disposal. We conclude that
Kristoffersen, A H; Bjånes, T K; Jordal, S; Leh, S; Leh, F; Svarstad, E
Essentials Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT) were found in drug users with renal failure. An oral methadone solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) had been injected intravenously. Spiking normal plasma with increasing concentrations of PVP resulted in artifically prolonged APTT. APTT prolongation may indicate PVP deposits as underlying cause in patients with renal failure.
Ahmed, T M; Yi, Z W; Chan, J C
This article reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of growth failure in chronic renal disease. The neuro-endocrine control of growth hormone secretion and insulin-like growth factor gene expression subject to use of corticosteroids, uremia, and metabolic acidosis are presented. It has been shown in other non-growth hormone deficient conditions such as Turner's syndrome that the use of exogenous growth hormone increases linear growth but also accelerates closure of the growth plate with no significant difference in the final height of such children. An understanding of growth factors is especially important and timely because of the tendency these days to use growth hormone to overcome the growth impairment of children with chronic renal failure.
O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat
Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.
Ross, Edward A
Longstanding experimental evidence supports the role of renal venous hypertension in causing kidney dysfunction and "congestive renal failure." A focus has been heart failure, in which the cardiorenal syndrome may partly be due to high venous pressure, rather than traditional mechanisms involving low cardiac output. Analogous diseases are intra-abdominal hypertension and renal vein thrombosis. Proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms include reduced transglomerular pressure, elevated renal interstitial pressure, myogenic and neural reflexes, baroreceptor stimulation, activation of sympathetic nervous and renin angiotensin aldosterone systems, and enhanced proinflammatory pathways. Most clinical trials have addressed the underlying condition rather than venous hypertension per se. Interpreting the effects of therapeutic interventions on renal venous congestion are therefore problematic because of such confounders as changes in left ventricular function, cardiac output, and blood pressure. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence from small studies of intense medical therapy or extracorporeal ultrafiltration for heart failure that there can be changes to central venous pressure that correlate inversely with renal function, independently from the cardiac index. Larger more rigorous trials are needed to definitively establish under what circumstances conventional pharmacologic or ultrafiltration goals might best be directed toward central venous pressures rather than left ventricular or cardiac output parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberge, R J; Crippen, D R; Jayadevappa, D; Kosek, T L
We present a case of a non-Q wave myocardial infarction and acute renal failure following an ingestion of naphtha, a petroleum distillate composed primarily of hydrocarbons. The patient's renal, metabolic, and cardiac status improved over several days with aggressive volume replacement and bicarbonate therapy. Acute cardiotoxic effects of hydrocarbon exposure generally manifest as dysrhythmias, secondary to myocardial sensitization to circulating catecholamines, or, possibly, coronary vasospasm. Ischemia from associated hypotension or direct myocardial toxicity are other potential causes of naphtha-related cardiac injury.
Subramanyam, Nambakam Tanuja
Introduction Acute Renal Failure (RF) is a rare but well recognized complication of Dengue Infection (DI). There has been paucity of published data regarding renal involvement in DI. Aim The aim of the present study was to elucidate different clinical presentations, disease outcomes of DI. To study the frequency, severity and predictors of RF in DI. Materials and Methods Patients diagnosed either as Dengue Fever (DF) or Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) respectively were enrolled for this study. The diagnostic criteria for DI were febrile illness associated with one of the following: 1) detection of dengue-specific IgM capture antibody or Non-Structural Protein1 (NS1) antigen; or 2) a four-fold or greater increase of dengue-specific IgG capture antibody by ELISA and haemoagglutination inhibition assay. Patients were diagnosed as having Acute RF, if serum creatinine was >1.2 mg/dl or who showed improvement by 50% in serum creatinine from the initial value. It is an observational study of medical charts, data of age, gender, and medical history of any underlying diseases in association with the severity of DI of each patient recorded. All of the laboratory results were collected. Parameters that influenced the clinical presentations and outcomes for development of classical DF or DHF/DSS in patients with or without RF were analysed and compared. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried. The Statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used. Results Most common symptoms were fever followed by headache and pain in abdomen. Among the patients with RF, all patients had recovery. The patients with DHF/DSS were more susceptible to develop renal failure compared to DF group. There were statistically significant higher frequencies of renal failure, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, low serum cholesterol. Patients in the RF group also had significantly
Leming, Melissa K; Breyer, Michael J
Patients with renal failure who are taking trimethoprim have an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia, which can cause muscle weakness. In patients with postpolio syndrome, a normal creatinine level could be abnormally high, renal failure is possible because of lack of creatinine production, and the muscle weakness from resultant hyperkalemia could be more severe because of their underlying condition. This abnormally high creatinine level has been termed from this point relative renal failure. The objective of the study was to review a case in which relative renal failure and hyperkalemia caused muscle weakness that manifested as shortness of breath and confusion with electrocardiographic changes. A dehydrated patient with relative renal failure and postpolio syndrome had taken trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole that caused symptomatic hyperkalemia. The patient presented with muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and confusion, with her postpolio syndrome compounding the situation and likely making the muscle weakness more severe. A patient on trimethoprim with renal failure is at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia. Patients with postpolio syndrome could have severe muscle weakness from the hyperkalemia and could have renal failure even with a normal creatinine level. This case report will remind treating physicians to evaluate such patients for hyperkalemia if they present with muscle weakness, especially if the patient has renal failure and is on trimethoprim.
Randeree, I G; Czarnocki, A; Moodley, J; Seedat, Y K; Naiker, I P
This study compares our experiences of the incidence and etiology of acute renal failure in pregnancy (ARF-P) in patients requiring hemodialysis, a decade after a previous publication from our institution. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 42 patients with a diagnosis of ARF-P during a 3-year period from 1990 to 1992 was undertaken [16% of the total number of acute renal failure (ARF) patients needing hemodialysis]. The incidence of ARF-P (expressed relative to all cases of acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis) decreased from 24.6% (1978) to 16% (1992: p = 0.03). Preeclampsia-eclampsia (PE:E) replaced septic abortion as the principal cause of ARF-P. In those patients with PE:E, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/L) occurred in all, while 33% developed the HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets). Ingestion of herbal toxins was noted mostly in patients with septic abortion. Maternal mortality was 5% and was due to multiorgan failure complicating septic abortion. The perinatal mortality of 55% occurred in women with early gestation, thrombocytopenia, and high serum creatinine levels. Acute renal failure in pregnancy continues to present a challenge in South Africa, a developing country. There were significantly more obstetric than gynecological causes in 1992 (p = 0.0003). This could be attributed to the steady decline in septic abortion since 1978. The main contributor to obstetric-related causes was PE:E. Greater emphasis should therefore be placed on detecting hypertension at antenatal visits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Norman, Jill T; Fine, Leon G
In chronic renal failure (CRF), renal impairment correlates with tubulointerstitial fibrosis characterized by inflammation, interstitial expansion with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), tubular atrophy and vascular obliteration. Tubulointerstitial injury subsequent to glomerular sclerosis may be induced by proteinuria, leakage of glomerular filtrate or injury to the post-glomerular peritubular capillaries (hypoxia). In vivo data in animal models suggest that CRF is associated with hypoxia, with the decline in renal Po2 preceding ECM accumulation. Chronic renal failure is characterized by loss of microvascular profiles but, in the absence of microvascular obliteration, hypoxia can occur by a variety of complementary mechanisms, including anaemia, decreased capillary flow, increased vasoconstriction, increased metabolic demand and increased diffusion distances due to ECM deposition. Hypoxia regulates a wide array of genes, including many fibrogenic factors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are the major, but not the sole, transcriptional regulators in the hypoxic response. In CRF, hypoxia may play a role in the sustained inflammatory response. In vitro studies in tubulointerstitial cells suggest that hypoxia can induce profibrogenic changes in proximal tubular epithelial cells and interstitial fibroblasts consistent with changes observed in CRF in vivo. The effect of hypoxia on renal microvascular cells warrants investigation. Hypoxia may play a role in the recruitment, retention and differentiation of circulating progenitor cells to the kidney contributing to the disease process and may also affect intrinsic stem cell populations. Chronic hypoxia in CRF fails to induce a sustained angiogenic response. Therapeutic manipulation of the hypoxic response may be of benefit in slowing progression of CRF. Potential therapies include correction of anaemia, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, administration of exogenous pro-angiogenic factors to protect the
Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao
Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.
Kaaroud, Hayet; Boubaker, Karima; Khiari, Karima; Cherif, Lotfi; Beji, Soumaya; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Abfallah, Néjib; Ben Maïz, Hédi
Acute renal failure (ARF) in patients with diabetes mellitus is frequent. It is caused by several factors notably drugs. Our retrospective study includes 20 cases of ARF induced by drugs in diabetic patients. Eleven men and 9 women with mean age of 55.2 years (17-71 years) were enrolled in the study. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in 18 cases and type 1 in 2 cases. Risk factors found are age more than 70 years in 17 cases, pre-existent renal failure in 17 cases, dehydratation in 6 cases, and drug association in 9 cases. In our study diuretics used solely or in association with other drugs were found to be the essential cause of ARF. ACE was noted in 5 cases, gentamycin in 2 cases, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in 1 case, colimycin in 1 case and radiographic contrast media in 4 cases. Symptoms of hypersensitivity are fever in 3 cases, itchiness in 2 case, hepatic dysfunction in 7 case, and hypereosinophilia in 3 cases. Oliguria was observed in 11 patients. Eight patients were dialyzed. Renal function recovery is total in 9 case and partial in 9 others. Two patients having oliguria died. Diuretics are the first cause of drug-induced ARF in diabetic patients. This ARF worsens the renal prognosis for these patients. Oliguria is high risk of mortality.
Dede, Fatih; Yilmaz, Bariş; Ayli, Deniz; Kayataş, Mansur; Atilgan, Gökhan; Caner, Sedat; Akyürek, Nalan; Odabaş, Ali Riza
Renal infiltration in malignant lymphomas may involve the interstitium but rarely causes acute renal failure. In this report, we describe a 59-year-old woman presenting with an acute renal failure due to bilateral diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's infiltration of the kidneys.
Fiaccadori, E; Maggiore, U; Rotelli, C; Parenti, E; Giacosa, R; Cabassi, A; Meschi, T; Borghi, L
Artificial nutrition in course of acute renal failure (ARF) is reviewed, on the basis of recent concepts on epidemiology and prognosis of the syndrome in critically ill patients. The relationships between nutritional status and ARF are evaluated, analyzing the possible role of nutritional status alterations as comorbidities and complications; pathogenetic mechanisms and consequences of hypercatabolism are described, with special regard to the peculiar metabolic derangements which are the hallmark of ARF. The effects of artificial nutrition on mortality and morbility in ARF are illustrated, along with quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutritional support (energy and protein needs, trace elements, vitamins etc). A rational approach to nutritional management of ARF patients is proposed, stressing the potential role of enteral nutrition, as well as the need for a full integration between nutritional support and renal replacement therapies.
Posen, G A; Jeffery, J R; Fenton, S S; Arbus, G S
This report encompasses data collected from all Canadian patients starting treatment for end-stage renal failure (ESRF) from 1981 until the end of 1987. Gross mortality showed an initial decline, but has stabilized since 1985. The year of entry into the system did not change the survival rate. There was an increase in the rate of acceptance of new patients between 1982 and 1987. The largest increases were in the older age groups, and resulted in a concomitant increase in the number of registered patients in older age groups. Survival on dialysis by age group declined with age. There was no difference in patient survival on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The probability of death for all patients entering the ESRF system remained constant notwithstanding year of entry into the system. It was slightly higher for males than females, much higher for patients with diabetes or renal vascular disease, higher with age, and much higher for patients not undergoing transplant.
Jones, Harry W.
A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.
Gupta, Pallav; Rana, D S; Bhalla, A K; Gupta, Ashwini; Malik, Manish; Gupta, Anurag; Bhargava, Vinant
Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of renal failure in both native and allograft renal biopsies. Drugs and sarcoidosis are the commonest causes of granulomatous interstitial nephritis as reported in Western countries. Unlike the west, tuberculosis is the commonest cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in Indian subcontinent. The etiological factors, clinical course, glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes associated with granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been analyzed in the present study along with the outcome in patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis.
Manivannan, Jeganathan; Barathkumar, T R; Sivasubramanian, Jeganathan; Arunagiri, Pandian; Raja, Boobalan; Balamurugan, Elumalai
Vascular calcification due to elevated phosphate levels is the major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction. The oxidative stress and gene expression events modulate the transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteogenic phenotype. This present study intends to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of diosgenin, an antioxidant on high phosphate induced vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats. High phosphate environment causes elevated calcium accumulation with related histological changes and alkaline phosphatase activity in aorta. Further it downregulates the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and elevates the level of lipid peroxidative markers. Moreover, the renal failure leads to reduced nitric oxide production. But, treatment with diosgenin at a dose of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg given via oral gavages causes reversion of all the above events in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose has shown more potential activity than other two doses, which has the ability to protect the alteration of liver markers and red blood cell antioxidant system without any adverse effects and it does not alter the kidney associated changes too. Finally, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study strongly supports its ability to protect the macromolecules from oxidative stress. All the above evidences show that diosgenin has overall benefits against renal failure-induced vascular calcification-associated oxidative stress.
Simón, J; Mendizábal, S; Zamora, I; Roques, V; Orive, B
A retrospective study of 35 newborn with acute renal failure is presented. The main causes of renal failure were neonatal hypoxia by asfixia or hemorrhagic shock (eight), congenital malformations (two) and hypertonic dehydration (25). Mortality rate was 22% including two neonates with severe congenital malformations. Sepsis was considered as the main complicating factor and often as inducer of renal failure. It was present on 55% of cases and on 75% of the deceased newborn. Cerebral injury was frequent but a follow-up study is necessary to establish the rate of neurologic sequelae. Early diagnosis and treatment of renal failure will decrease complications with improvement in prognosis. Etiological analysis of neonatal renal failure shows the need of a better health education of people and also medical control of pregnancy and perinatal period.
Schaefer, R M; Barenbrock, M; Teschner, M; Bahner, U
The most serious forms of acute renal failure (ARF) are nowadays encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU), where up to 25% of new patients are reported to develop ARF. Lethality rates may reach 50 to 90% when the ARF is part of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A multitude of extracorporeal procedures have been introduced into intensive care medicine. Applied with adequate skills and experience, most of these techniques will suffice to replace excretory renal function. However, because of low efficacy arterio-venous procedures (CAVH and CAVHD) have been abandoned for the veno-venous, pump-driven techniques (CVVH and CVVHD). Up to now, there is no consensus whether continuous or intermittent renal replacement therapy is more advantageous. In many cases, oliguric patients with circulatory instability will be treated by CVVH, even though there is no prospective study to show that in terms of outcome continuous treatment is superior to intermittent hemodialysis. It is equally conceivable to treat such patients with daily, prolonged (intermittent) hemodialysis. Apparently, the dose of replacement therapy, be it continuous filtration (36 to 48 l/24 h) or intermittent hemodialysis (daily 3 to 4 h) with a target BUN of less than 50 mg/dl, is more important than the modality of treatment. Moreover, there is good evidence that the use of biocompatible membranes (no complement- or leukocyte activation) is preferable and that with high-volume hemofiltration bicarbonate-containing replacement fluids should be used. However, despite all the technical advances, we firmly believe that the skills and the experience of those physicians and nurses who actually perform renal replacement therapy in the ICU are more important than the modality of treatment applied.
Rachaiah, Niranjan M; Jayappagowda, Lokesh A; Siddabyrappa, Harsha B; Bharath, Venkatesh K
The wasp stings usually cause local reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. However the multiple wasp stings may cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following multiple wasp stings. A middle aged healthy gentleman presented with pain and swelling of the upper part of the body following multiple wasp stings. After 2 days, he developed progressive decrease in urine output with high colored urine. Physical examination revealed the edematous and tender affected part. On investigating, it was found to have sequential elevations in renal function tests. The markers of muscle injury were grossly elevated and liver enzymes were deranged. These findings suggest multisystem involvement predominantly ARF secondary to rhabdomyolysis. With the initiation of the intense hemodialysis, all the above parameters became normal. Timely intervention of multiple wasp stings causing ARF with multiorgan involvement by hemodialysis not only prevents mortality but also other complications. PMID:22408758
Sheerin, Noella J; Newton, Phillip J; Macdonald, Peter S; Leung, Dominic Y C; Sibbritt, David; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Johnson, Kay; Krum, Henry; Davidson, Patricia M
Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation. This is a period of vulnerability both in altered pathophysiology and also the potential for iatrogenesis due to therapeutic interventions. Renal dysfunction is often associated with heart failure and portends adverse outcomes. Identifying heart failure patients at risk of renal dysfunction is important in preventing progression to chronic kidney disease or worsening renal function, informing adjustment to medication management and potentially preventing adverse events. However, there is no working or consensus definition in international heart failure management guidelines for worsening renal function. In addition, there appears to be no concordance or adaptation of chronic kidney disease guidelines by heart failure guideline development groups for the monitoring of chronic kidney disease in heart failure. Our aim is to encourage the debate for an agreed definition given the prognostic impact of worsening renal function in heart failure. We present the case for the uptake of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for acute kidney injury with some minor alterations. This has the potential to inform study design and meta-analysis thereby building the knowledgebase for guideline development. Definition consensus supports data element, clinical registry and electronic algorithm innovation as instruments for quality improvement and clinical research for better patient outcomes. In addition, we recommend all community managed heart failure patients have their baseline renal function classified and routinely monitored in accordance with established renal guidelines to help identify those at increased risk for worsening renal function or progression to chronic kidney disease.
The term chronic renal failure (CRF) usually means the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GF) below 0.25 mL/s. CRF is a world-wide serious health and economic issue with an increasing incidence and prevalence. CRF patients are, in comparison to other patients, hospitalized more often and for longer and, despite improvements in care, their quality of life is usually low and morbidity and mortality high. We present an overview of the most important CKD risk factors and the diseases most likely to result in CRF. Diabetic nephropathy, followed by various forms ofischemic renal disease and primary and secondary glomerulopathy, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are the leading causes of CRF. We provide a brief overview of other disease states that may result in renal failure. Clinical manifestations of CRF are discussed, mainly cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, haematological and neurological symptoms. Breathlessness is a consequence of hypervolaemia, metabolic acidosis and anaemia. The disease often presents with symptoms, such as headache and visual disturbances, resulting from arterial hypertension. Gastrointestinal symptoms and fatigue, usually caused by anaemia, are frequent. Platelet dysfunction is manifested as an increased bleeding time. Paradoxically, apart form tendency to abnormal bleeding, CRF also tends to be associated with thromboembolic complications. Patients may experience itching, bone, joint and muscle aches, are more prone to infections. They may suffer from insomnia, concentration disorders and apathy. The signs of peripheral mixed sensory-motor neuropathy include paraesthesia, paresis and restless leg syndrome. However, renal failure may also be oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic. Cardiovascular complications are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality of CRF patients.
Chandrajith, Rohana; Dissanayake, C B; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Herath, H M J M K; Padmasiri, J P
Endemic occurrence of chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology is reported in certain parts of the north central dry zone of Sri Lanka and has become a new and emerging health issue. The disease exclusively occurs in settlements where groundwater is the main source of drinking water and is more common among low socio-economic groups, particularly among the farming community. Due to its remarkable geographic distribution and histopathological evidence, the disease is believed to be an environmentally induced problem. This paper describes a detailed hydrogeochemical study that has been carried out covering endemic and non-endemic regions. Higher fluoride levels are common in drinking water from both affected and non-affected regions, whereas Ca-bicarbonate type water is more common in the affected regions. In terms of the geochemical composition of drinking water, affected households were rather similar to control regions, but there is a large variation in the Na/Ca ratio within each of the two groups. Fluoride as shown in this study causes renal tubular damage. However it does not act alone and in certain instances it is even cytoprotective. The fine dividing line between cytotoxicity and cytoprotectivity of fluoride appears to be the effect of Ca(2+) and Na(+) of the ingested water on the F(-) metabolism. This study illustrates a third major cause (the other two being hypertension and diabetes) of chronic kidney diseases notably in tropical arid regions such as the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin, Cheng-Jui; Wu, Vincent; Wu, Pei-Chen; Wu, Chih-Jen
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are protein-bound uremic toxins that increase in the sera of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and are not effectively removed by dialysis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the relationships of PCS and IS with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD stage 3 and above. Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched until January 1, 2014 with combinations of the following keywords: chronic renal failure, end-stage kidney disease, uremic toxin, uremic retention, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Patients with stage 1 to 5 CKD; 2) Prospective study; 3) Randomized controlled trial; 4) English language publication. The associations between serum levels of PCS and IS and the risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events were the primary outcome measures. Of 155 articles initially identified, 10 prospective and one cross-sectional study with a total 1,572 patients were included. Free PCS was significantly associated with all-cause mortality among patients with chronic renal failure (pooled OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.30, P = 0.013). An elevated free IS level was also significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (pooled OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.17, P = 0.003). An elevated free PCS level was significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events among patients with chronic renal failure (pooled OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.50, P = 0.002), while free IS was not significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular events (pooled OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.13, P = 0.196). Elevated levels of PCS and IS are associated with increased mortality in patients with CKD, while PCS, but not IS, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.
Mizuno, M; Nishikawa, K; Yuzawa, Y; Kanie, T; Mori, H; Araki, Y; Hotta, N; Matsuo, S
A 27-year-old man suffering from severe swelling and pain in his right arm was referred to our hospital. He showed signs of acute renal failure (ARF) with severe dermatitis of his right arm. Three days before being admitted, he accidentally touched some kind of marine organism with his right hand while snorkeling in the Sulu Sea around Cebu Island. Within a few minutes, he was experiencing severe pain in his right hand. Then his right hand gradually became swollen. The marine creature responsible for this injury was thought to have been a sea anemone, which is a type of coelenterate. Histologic findings of a renal biopsy indicated that acute tubular necrosis (ATN) had caused ARF in this patient's case. Supportive therapies improved renal function of this patient, and steroid pulse therapy attenuated the severe skin discoloration. The ATN was thought to have been caused by the poison from a sea anemone because there were no other conceivable reasons for the patient's condition. This is the first time that a marine envenomation case has been reported in which the sting of a sea anemone has caused ATN without the failure of any other organs.
Henning, P; Tomlinson, L; Rigden, S P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C
The most common causes of end stage renal failure in 46 children (mean age 11 years, range 4-14) treated between January 1972 and June 1977 were: reflux nephropathy (n = 12), cystinosis (n = 7), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 6), and Schönlein-Henoch disease (n = 5). The quality of life, degree of renal function, and height attainment of the 31 survivors were assessed in June 1985, when their mean age was 22 years (range 14-27), using hospital records and a questionnaire designed to highlight social and psychological problems. Twenty six patients had a functioning transplanted kidney. Average growth during treatment for all survivors was normal, but most were disappointed with their 'final height'. Though five patients had some form of disabling bone disease, all 31 could walk and 27 could run. Sixteen (67%) were in full or part time employment and nine were living independently. A group of 32 patients with juvenile onset diabetes treated at this hospital for at least five years were also asked to complete the questionnaire and of these, 17 responded. On average, their data could usefully be compared with those of cases of end stage renal failure. More of the diabetics had jobs, but most sexually mature patients with renal disease were concerned about their physical appearance and had not achieved any stable long term sexual relationships. We suggest that a poor body image resulting in low self esteem may be responsible for the deficiency and believe that further study in this group is warranted.
Kopeć, Jerzy; Januszek, Rafał; Wieczorek-Surdacka, Ewa; Sułowicz, Władysław
During the last years the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is permanently increasing and has become a global social and economical problem in the world as well as in Poland. The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with renal failure under supervision at the outpatient clinic, Department of Nephrology, University Hospital in Cracow. The study population enclosed 1183 patients (640 men and 543 women) aged between 17 and 98 years (mean 64.7) with creatinine concentration >120 micromol/l and/or creatinine clearance <90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Hemoglobin, iron, creatinine, urea, sodium, potasium, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, PTH, uric acid, albumin, total protein, bilirubin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglicerydes concentration and values of hematocrite, MCV, HbA1, as well as alkaline phosphatase, AspAT, AIAT activity were estimated based on standard laboratory methods. Creatinine clearances were evaluated based on 3 different methods: simplified MDRD formula, Cockcroft-Gault formula and 24-h urine collection. Mean creatinine concentration in the studied population was 172.8 micromol/l (1.95 mg/dl). Hypertension was diagnosed in 65% of patients. In spite of treatment, more than half of the patients (51.9%) have increased systolic blood pressure and above 1/3 (35%) increased diastolic blood pressure. Mean hemoglobin concentration was 13.02 g/dl; more than 12% of patients had decreased hemoglobin below 11 g/dl. Mean values of parameters discovering calcium-phosphate metabolism were: calcium--2.33 mmol/l, phosphate--1.23 mmol/l and parathormon--169.3 pg/ml. Increased value of total serum cholesterol level was noted more than half of the patients (56.5%). Significant positive correlations were found between GFR calculated based on Cockcroft-Gault formula and BMI, hemoglobin, hematocrite, serum iron, diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL serum cholesterol, triglicerydes level, as well as AIAT activity
Annema, Wijtske; Dikkers, Arne; Freark de Boer, Jan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are involved in the protection against cardiovascular disease by promoting cholesterol efflux, in which accumulated cholesterol is removed from macrophage foam cells. We investigated whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and graft failure in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (n=495, median follow-up 7.0 years). Cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline was quantified using incubation of human macrophage foam cells with apolipoprotein B–depleted plasma. Baseline efflux capacity was not different in deceased patients and survivors (P=0.60 or P=0.50 for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, respectively), whereas recipients developing graft failure had lower efflux capacity than those with functioning grafts (P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a lower risk for graft failure (P=0.004) but not cardiovascular (P=0.30) or all-cause mortality (P=0.31) with increasing gender-stratified tertiles of efflux capacity. Cox regression analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that efflux capacity was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.67 to 1.19; P=0.43). Furthermore, the association between efflux capacity and all-cause mortality (HR, .79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98; P=0.031) disappeared after further adjustment for potential confounders. However, efflux capacity at baseline significantly predicted graft failure (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64; P<0.001) independent of apolipoprotein A-I, HDL cholesterol, or creatinine clearance. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophage foam cells is not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality but is a strong predictor of graft failure independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels in renal transplant recipients. PMID:26319244
Chirmade, Rahul Arun; Baheti, Vidyasagar Hansraj; Tanwar, Harshawardhan Vedpalsingh; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh
Introduction India is the country with the highest burden of TB, an estimated incidence figure of 2.1 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9 million according to World Health Organization (WHO) statistics for 2013. Renal impairment in these patients is slow and due to continuous infection causing destruction of renal mass. Reconstruction of urinary tract which is frequently required for patients with Urinary TB poses significant challenges. This paper analyses these challenges. Aim To analyse challenges in reconstruction of urinary tract in patients with urinary tuberculosis and renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty-one patients with renal tuber-culosis were seen from August 2011 to August 2013. We faced major problem in outcomes of surgery in patients with multifocal disease. Results Out of 31 patients 18 patients were males and 13 were females. Total 11 patients had serum creatinine more than 2mg/dl (1.5 mg/dl being upper normal range of our laboratory) at the time of presentation. These patients had simultaneous kidney, ureter and bladder involvement or with bilateral disease. Four of these patients underwent uretero-calicostomy, five patients underwent augmentation cystoplasty with bilateral ureteric reimplantation and two patients underwent ileal conduit as they were having serum creatinine of more than 2.5 mg/dl. All patients who underwent ureterocalicostomy had re stricture and failure of surgery and augmentation cystoplasty had raised creatinine requiring second procedure in the form of percutaneous nephrostomy. Patients with ileal conduit remained stable with overnight bladder drainage at bed time. Conclusion Though renal failure is not considered contrain-dication for augmentation cystoplasty, reconstruction using large segment of bowel predisposes them to metabolic complications and sepsis. Use of short segment of ileal conduit with continued drainage at night in creatinine above 2.5 mg% is reasonable option for augmentation
... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant
Ring-Larsen, H; Palazzo, U
Forty patients with terminal cirrhosis and 40 patients with fulminant hepatic failure-all consecutively admitted-were studied with regard to incidence, types, and prognosis of complicating renal insufficiency. Renal failure was considered present when the serum creatinine was greater than 0.20 mmol/l. Of the patients with cirrhosis 26 (65%) developed renal failure. In 15 the type was functional, in three due to acute tubular necrosis, and in eight indeterminable. Of the patients with fulminant hepatic failure 22 (55%) had renal insufficiency; of these 13 had functional renal failure, five acute tubular necrosis, and in four the type was indeterminable. In both categories of patients, renal failure was equally frequent among patients with or without gastrointestinal bleeding and with or without ascites or diuretic therapy. The biochemical tests of liver function were similar in patients with or without renal failure in both categories. The mean renal blood flow in seven unselected patients with fulminant hepatic failure was reduced in the same order as previously observed in patients with cirrhosis. In terminal cirrhosis the mortality rate was 88% in the presence of renal failure, 71% in its absence (p greater than 0.05), while the same figures in fulminant hepatic failure were 100% and 67% (p less than 0.05). The incidence, relative frequency, and prognosis of renal failure were not different in the two conditions, indicating identical pathophysiological circumstances. PMID:7262632
Druml, W; Kierdorf, H P
Partial EN (enteral nutrition) should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition) may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF) and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully). In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN) should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks) or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out.
Druml, W.; Kierdorf, H. P.
Partial EN (enteral nutrition) should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition) may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF) and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully). In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN) should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks) or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out. PMID:20049069
Giamouzis, Gregory; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Butler, Javed; Karayannis, Georgios; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Skoularigis, John; Triposkiadis, Filippos
Renal dysfunction (RD) is a frequent comorbid condition and a major determinant of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). It is likely that the etiology of RD in patients with HF is much more complex than we first thought and represents a matrix of independent, albeit interacting, pathophysiological pathways with effects on both the kidney and the heart that share a common denominator: aging and inflammation. Renal dysfunction in HF has been attributed, among others, to biochemical, hormonal, and hemodynamic factors, coupled with pharmacological interventions. Regardless of the cause, the development of RD or worsening renal function is common in patients with HF, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence, however, that transient increases in creatinine in the setting of acute HF are not prognostically important, whereas persistent deterioration does portend a higher mortality in this patient population. In addition, congestion seems to play an important role in the course of renal deterioration, and the combination of congestion and worsening renal function is the most significant clinical prognosticator in HF patients. This review aims to provide an update on the epidemiology and prognostic significance of RD in HF patients, in both the acute and the chronic setting.
Kurata, Hayato; Takaoka, Masanori; Kubo, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Tomoaki; Tsutsui, Hidenobu; Takayama, Junji; Matsumura, Yasuo
To elucidate the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute renal failure, we investigated the effects of FK409, a spontaneous nitric oxide donor, and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury and endothelin-1 overproduction in post-ischemic kidneys. Ischemic acute renal failure was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. At 24 hours after reperfusion, renal function in untreated acute renal failure rats markedly decreased and histological examination revealed severe renal damage of the kidney. Increases in renal endothelin-1 contents were evident in the acute renal failure rats at 2 and 24 hours after reperfusion, respectively. Pretreatment with FK409 (1 or 3 mg/kg, intravenously) dose-dependently ameliorated renal injuries and suppressed the elevation of endothelin-1 content induced by ischemia/reperfusion. In contrast, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 or 10 mg/kg, intravenously) pretreatment dose-dependently aggravated renal injuries of acute renal failure rats, and the effect is accompanied by further increase in the renal endothelin-1 contents. These results suggest that both exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide have protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction and tissue damage, probably through the suppression of endothelin-1 overproduction in post-ischemic kidneys.
Aggarwal, Rohina S; Mishra, Vineet V; Jasani, Anil F; Gumber, Manoj
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6
Finco, Delmar R
Systemic hypertension is hypothesized to cause renal injury to dogs. This study was performed on dogs with surgically induced renal failure to determine whether hypertension was associated with altered renal function or morphology. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were measured before and after surgery. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC) were measured at 1, 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks after surgery, and renal histology was evaluated terminally. The mean of weekly MAP, SAP, and DAP measurements for each dog over the 1st 26 weeks was used to rank dogs on the basis of MAP, SAP, or DAP values. A statistically significant association was found between systemic arterial pressure ranking and ranked measures of adverse renal responses. When dogs were divided into higher pressure and lower pressure groups on the basis of SAP, group 1 (higher pressure, n = 9) compared with group 2 (lower pressure, n = 10) had significantly lower GFR values at 36 and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, and fibrosis. When dogs were divided on MAP and DAP values, group 1 compared with group 2 had significantly lower GFR values at 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, fibrosis, and cell infiltrate. These results demonstrate an association between increased systemic arterial pressure and renal injury. Results from this study might apply to dogs with some types of naturally occurring renal failure.
O'Sullivan, Eoin D; Hughes, Jeremy; Ferenbach, David A
Individuals age >65 years old are the fastest expanding population demographic throughout the developed world. Consequently, more aged patients than before are receiving diagnoses of impaired renal function and nephrosclerosis-age-associated histologic changes in the kidneys. Recent studies have shown that the aged kidney undergoes a range of structural changes and has altered transcriptomic, hemodynamic, and physiologic behavior at rest and in response to renal insults. These changes impair the ability of the kidney to withstand and recover from injury, contributing to the high susceptibility of the aged population to AKI and their increased propensity to develop subsequent progressive CKD. In this review, we examine these features of the aged kidney and explore the various validated and putative pathways contributing to the changes observed with aging in both experimental animal models and humans. We also discuss the potential for additional study to increase understanding of the aged kidney and lead to novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK
A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398
Parsons, Victor; Davies, Christine; Goode, Clifford; Ogg, Chisholm; Siddiqui, J.
Some samples of bone from patients with renal failure contained more aluminium than others, and the concentration tended to be highest in patients who had been uraemic or on dialysis longest. The significance of the association of raised concentrations of aluminium in bone with renal failure is discussed. PMID:5123910
Sathe, K; Ali, U; Ohri, A
Several traditional medicines contain potentially toxic heavy metals. Heavy metal poisoning is not an uncommon cause of renal damage, although the diagnosis can be easily missed. We report a case of chronic ingestion of an ayurvedic medicine containing mercury in a 2-year-old girl, resulting in anuric renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis.
Domi, Rudin; Huti, Gentian; Sula, Hektor; Baftiu, Nehat; Kaci, Myzafer; Bodeci, Artan; Pesha, Albert
Context Pre-existing renal dysfunction presents specific features that anesthesiologists must deal with. Anesthesia and renal function are connected and can interfere with each other. Induced hypotension anesthesia and the toxic effects of anesthetic drugs can further deteriorate renal function. Evidence Acquisition Decreased renal function can prolong anesthetic drug effects by decreased elimination of these drugs. Anesthesia can deteriorate renal function and decreased renal function can interfere with drug elimination leading to their prolonged effect. The anesthesiologist must understand all the physiological aspects of the patient, renal protection, and the relationships between anesthetic drugs and renal function. This review article aims to summarize these aspects. Results Perioperative renal failure and renal protection is a crucial moment in clinical practice of every anesthesiologist. Conclusions Good knowledges for renal function remain a hallmark of daily practice of the anesthesiologist, considering renal function as an important determinant factor in anesthesia practice. PMID:27642570
Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik
Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication.
Lusenti, T.; Fiorini, F.; Barozzi, L.
Introduction Obstructive uropathy caused by kidney stones is quite rare in transplant kidneys. Clinical case The authors report the case of a patient, previously gastrectomized for gastric carcinoma. He underwent renal transplantation using uretero-ureterostomy, and presented an episode of acute renal failure 7 years after surgery. Ultrasound (US) examination showed no sign of rejection but allowed detection of moderate hydronephrosis in the transplant kidney. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) revealed a kidney stone in the middle ureter at the crossing of the iliac vessels. The patient therefore urgently underwent percutaneous nephrostomy of the graft and recovered diuresis and renal function. The patient was transferred to the Transplant Center where he underwent ureterotomy with removal of the stone and subsequent ureteropyelostomy. Also transureteral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed due to urinary retention of prostatic origin. Histological examination showed prostate carcinoma, Gleason stage 3, which was treated conservatively using radiotherapy without suspension of the administered low dose of immunotherapy. Discussion Calculosis is one of the least common causes of obstructive uropathy in transplant kidneys. In the described case, US examination performed after onset of renal insufficiency led to subsequent radiological investigation and resulting interventional procedures (nephrostomy and surgical removal of the stone) with complete recovery of pre-existing renal function. PMID:23397045
Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome. PMID:28154583
Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome.
Carcelero, Esther; Soy, Dolors
Acute renal failure is frequent in critically ill patients. In those patients who need renal replacement therapy, continuous techniques are an alternative to intermittent haemodialysis. Critically ill patients often have an infection, which can lead to sepsis and renal failure. An early and adequate antibiotic treatment at correct dosage is extremely important. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent nosocomial pathogen that causes a high rate of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Many antibiotics are easily removed by continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) leading to a high risk of under dosing and therapeutic failure or resistance breakthrough. The objective of this review is to assess the clinical evidence on the pharmacokinetics and dosage recommendations of the main antibiotic groups used in MRSA treatment in patients treated with CRRT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel
intoxication, serum creatinine of the patient was 240 μmol/L. In cases of unexplained ARF, a toxic mechanism should always be considered and acute renal failure caused by Euphorbia paralias should be included as a cause if renal toxicity is suspected in those places where it is being used as a native medicine.
Rampton, D S; Cohen, S L; Crammond, V D; Gibbons, J; Lilburn, M F; Rabet, J Y; Vince, A J; Wager, J D; Wrong, O M
We have tested the hypothesis that dietary fiber, by inhibiting colonic bacterial ammonia generation and increasing fecal nitrogen excretion, might decrease hepatic urea synthesis and thereby reduce plasma urea in patients with chronic renal failure. Six and 8 week courses of two different hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan and ispaghula, reduced mean plasma urea in uremic subjects by 11% and 19% respectively. Ispaghula also reduced the rate of rise of plasma creatinine to zero and, in one formal balance study, increased fecal nitrogen excretion by 39%. Experiments in vitro showed that ispaghula depressed anaerobic fecal bacterial net ammonia generation by 30%, and adsorbed neither urea nor ammonia. The reduction in plasma urea caused by dietary fiber is likely to be due to inhibition of colonic bacterial production of ammonia; such therapy could conceivably alleviate some of the symptoms of uremia and postpone dialysis in patients with endstage renal disease.
Dada, Samuel A; Rafiu, Mojeed O; Olanrewaju, Timothy O
Ureterocele is a congenital anomaly, in which there is mal-development of the caudal segments of the ureter. There is a female preponderance with most cases seen in Caucasians. Among the reported complications of this condition, chronic renal failure occurring in the setting of ureterocele has not been well documented. We report a case of a young girl with bilateral ureterocele presenting with chronic renal failure, whose management presented a diagnostic failure and inadequate treatment.
Vargas, G A; Hoeflich, A; Jehle, P M
Can science discover some secrets of Greek mythology? In the case of Prometheus, we can now suppose that his amazing hepatic regeneration was caused by a peptide growth factor called hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Increasing evidence indicates that HGF acts as a multifunctional cytokine on different cell types. This review addresses the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the pleiotropic effects of HGF. HGF binds with high affinity to its specific tyrosine kinase receptor c-met, thereby stimulating not only cell proliferation and differentiation, but also cell migration and tumorigenesis. The three fundamental principles of medicine-prevention, diagnosis, and therapy-may be benefited by the rational use of HGF. In renal tubular cells, HGF induces mitogenic and morphogenetic responses. In animal models of toxic or ischemic acute renal failure, HGF acts in a renotropic and nephroprotective manner. HGF expression is rapidly up-regulated in the remnant kidney of nephrectomized rats, inducing compensatory growth. In a mouse model of chronic renal disease, HGF inhibits the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and kidney dysfunction. Increased HGF mRNA transcripts were detected in mesenchymal and tubular epithelial cells of rejecting kidney. In transplanted patients, elevated HGF levels may indicate renal rejection. When HGF is considered as a therapeutic agent in human medicine, for example, to stimulate kidney regeneration after acute injury, strategies need to be developed to stimulate cell regeneration and differentiation without an induction of tumorigenesis.
Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel
The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.
El-Sisi, Alaa E; Sokar, Samia S; Abu-Risha, Sally E; Ibrahim, Hanaa A
Life threatening conditions characterized by renal ischemia/reperfusion (RIR) such as kidney transplantation, partial nephrectomy, renal artery angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic bypass surgery, continue to be among the most frequent causes of acute renal failure. The current study investigated the possible protective effects of tadalafil alone and in combination with diltiazem in experimentally-induced renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Possible underlying mechanisms were also investigated such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Rats were divided into sham-operated and I/R-operated groups. Anesthetized rats (urethane 1.3g/kg) were subjected to bilateral ischemia for 30min by occlusion of renal pedicles, then reperfused for 6h. Rats in the vehicle I/R group showed a significant (p˂0.05) increase in kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) content; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; TNF-α and IL-1β contents. In addition significant (p˂0.05) increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) content, BUN and creatinine levels, along with significant decrease in kidney superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In addition, marked diffuse histopathological damage and severe cytoplasmic staining of caspase-3 were detected. Pretreatment with combination of tadalafil (5mg/kg bdwt) and diltiazem (5mg/kg bdwt) resulted in reversal of the increased biochemical parameters investigated. Also, histopathological examination revealed partial return to normal cellular architecture. In conclusion, pretreatment with tadalafil and diltiazem combination protected against RIR injury.
Brunini, Tatiana M C; Moss, Monique B; Siqueira, Mariana A S; Santos, Sérgio F F; Lugon, Jocemir R; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio C
The conditionally essential amino acid L-arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, a key second messenger involved in physiological functions including endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation. Extracellular L-arginine transport seems to be essential for the production of NO by the action of NO synthases (NOS), even when the intracellular levels of L-arginine are available in excess (L-arginine paradox). Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex clinical condition associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and thrombosis leading to cardiovascular events. Various studies document that markers of malnutrition and inflammation, such as low body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There is considerable literature demonstrating that a disturbance in the nitric oxide control mechanism plays a role in mediating the haemodynamic and haemostatic disorders present in CRF. Endogenous analogues of L-arginine, ADMA and L-NMMA, which can inhibit NO synthesis and L-arginine transport, are increased whilst L-arginine is reduced in plasma from all stages of CRF patients. In this context, the uptake of L-arginine in blood cells is increased in undialysed CRF patients and in patients treated by CAPD and haemodialysis. In platelets obtained from haemodialysis patients, the activation of L-arginine transport and NO production was limited to well-nourished patients. Impairment in nitric oxide bioactivity, coupled with malnutrition and inflammation, may contribute to increased incidence of atherothrombotic events in CRF. This article summarizes the current knowledge of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and malnutrition in CRF and briefly describes possible therapeutic interventions.
Butler, Louise; Brockley, Tomos; Denning, David; Richardson, Malcolm; Chisholm, Roger; Sinha, Smeeta; O'Driscoll, Ronan
A non-immunocompromised man developed acute Aspergillus pneumonia after spreading mouldy tree bark mulch. Despite normal renal function at presentation, he developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with acute kidney injury due to anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM) 4 weeks later. He remained dialysis dependent and died of sepsis 10 months later. We hypothesise that he contracted invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis from heavy exposure to fungal spores, leading to epitope exposure in the alveoli with subsequent development of GBM auto-antibodies.
Chow, Y W; Lim, B B; Hooi, L S
A three month prospective study was carried out in 1994 (8/3/94 - 7/6/94) and late 2004/early 2005 (24/11/2004 - 15/2/2005) among patients with acute renal failure (ARF) (serum creatinine > 0.200 mmol/1). Incidence of ARF had increased from 0.48% (78/16,418) to 1.1% (211/18,697) of admissions between 1994 and 2004. Two thirds of patients were male. Mean age was 57.7 +/- 20.1 years in 1994 and 55.6 +/- 17.8 years in 2004. No difference was noted in causative factors, rate of oliguric ARF (about 10%) and mean peak urea and creatinine. The cause was pre-renal failure in 43.6% in 1994 and 53.5% in 2004. The second commonest cause was sepsis with 41% in 1994 and 37.9% in 2004. One in six patients needed dialysis and peritoneal dialysis was the main dialysis modality (69.2% and 74.3%). Mortality was 56.4% in 1994 and 44.5% in 2004. A quarter of deaths occurred within two days of admission due to severe underlying illness. Mortality among non-oliguric patients decreased from 52.9% in 1994 to 37.0% in 2004 (p = 0.04); for patients from intensive care units it was 78.3% in 1994 and 68.5% in 2004.
Nakai, Kentaro; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kimura, Hiroshi; Miura, Shuhei; Maeda, Atsuhiro
We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with seizures and acute renal failure with hyperkalemia. She presented with bladder turgescence and hydronephrosis on admission and was diagnosed as obstructive acute renal failure. Urethral catheterization was performed after a single-session hemodialysis. It resulted in immediate improvement of renal function and consciousness, and subsequent disappearance of seizures. Improvement of serum creatinine level to 0.7 from 10.6 mg/dL was associated with a fall in blood level of amantadine hydrochloride from 4.40 to 0.47 microg/mL. Physicians should be aware of urinary retention in patients treated with amantadine as a first sign of intoxication that could lead if untreated to obstructive acute renal failure. And we recommend to check the overdose symptoms, even those with normal renal function, treated with amantadine.
Hoy, W E; Wang, Z; VanBuynder, P; Baker, P R; McDonald, S M; Mathews, J D
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship of albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with natural death and renal failure in an Australian Aboriginal community with high rates of renal disease. Study subjects were 825 adults (18+ years, mean 33.6 years) or 88% of adults in a remote community who participated in a health screening program offered between 1990 and 1997. The urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR; g/mol) was used as the renal disease marker. Participants were followed for 1.0 to 9.8 years (mean 5.8 years) until renal failure, death, the start of systematic antihypertensive/renal-protective treatment or June 30, 2000. Sixty-five people reached a terminal end point of renal failure or natural death. Sixteen people developed terminal renal failure, all of whom had an ACR of 34+ at baseline exam. There were 49 other natural deaths, which were also strongly correlated with increasing ACR and decreasing GFR over a wide range. This was observed in people without diabetes and in people with normal and elevated blood pressures. It applied to deaths associated with cardiovascular disease and to deaths without an assigned primary or underlying cardiovascular or renal cause. With adjustment for age, the association with death was more robust with ACR than GFR. When compared with people with an ACR <3.4, the hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI) for nonrenal natural death of persons with an ACR 3.4 to 33 was 3.0 (1.1 to 8.4), with an ACR 34 to 99, it was 5.4 (1.8 to 15.9), and with an ACR 100+, it was 6.5 (2.0 to 21). Regression equations predicted that each tenfold increase in the ACR was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in all-cause natural death: a> 400-fold increase in renal deaths, a 4-fold increase in cardiovascular deaths, and a 2.2-fold increase in nonrenal noncardiovascular deaths. Eighty-four percent of all-cause natural death was associated with pathologic albuminuria. All renal failure develops out of a background of persistent
Voiculescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, Gener; Mandache, Eugen; Hortopan, Monica; Constantinescu, Ileana; Iliescu, Olguta
Renal transplantation is often associated with severe complications. Except for acute rejection, infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive treatment are the most frequent problems observed after transplantation. Infections with hepatic viruses (HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV) and cytomegalic virus (CMV) are the main infectious complications after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine toxicity is not unusual for a patient with renal transplantation and is even more frequent for patients with hepatic impairment due to viral infections. The subjects of this report are two renal transplant recipients with acute pancreatitis, severe hepatitis and acute renal failure on graft, receiving immunosuppressive therapy for maintaining renal graft function
Bear, R A; Cole, E H; Lang, A; Johnson, M
Severe renal insufficiency is considered to indicate a poor prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, their reported median survival being approximately 2 months. In five consecutive patients with severe renal failure secondary to acute myeloma kidney early aggressive therapy, including chemotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, led to a significant improvement in the renal function of four; the fifth patient received a cadaveric renal transplant after 1 year of peritoneal dialysis. After a median follow-up period of 12 months all the patients were alive and had improved renal function. This experience contrasts with that previously reported and suggests that aggressive management may improve the survival of patients with acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney. PMID:7004618
Sinkeler, Steef J; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan
The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal impairment in chronic heart failure is traditionally assumed to be mainly due to a decrease in cardiac output and a subsequent decrease in renal perfusion. This will lead to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and a compensatory increase in tubular sodium retention. The latter is a physiological renal response aimed at retaining fluids in order to increase cardiac filling pressure and thus renal perfusion. In heart failure, however, larger increases in cardiac filling pressure are needed to restore renal perfusion and thus more volume retention. In this concept, in chronic heart failure, an equilibrium exists where a certain degree of congestion is the price to be paid to maintain adequate renal perfusion and function. Recently, this hypothesis was challenged by new studies, wherein it was found that the association between right-sided cardiac filling pressures and renal function is bimodal, with worse renal function at the highest filling pressures, reflecting a severely congested state. Renal hemodynamic studies suggest that congestion negatively affects renal function in particular in patients in whom renal perfusion is also compromised. Thus, an interplay between cardiac forward failure and backward failure is involved in the renal function impairment in the congestive state, presumably along with other factors. Only few data are available on the impact of intervention in volume status on the cardio-renal interaction. Sparse data in cardiac patients as well as evidence from cohorts with primary renal disease suggest that specific targeting of volume overload may be beneficial for long-term outcome, in spite of a certain further decrease in renal function, at least
Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Taneva, Borjanka; Selim, Gjulsen
BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia is a common manifestation in clinical practice and occurs as a result of primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, milk-alkali syndrome, hyper or hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis and other known and unknown causes. Patients with milk-alkali syndrome typically are presented with renal failure, hypercalcemia, and metabolic alkalosis caused by the ingestion of calcium and absorbable alkali. This syndrome is caused by high intake of milk and sodium bicarbonate. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 28-year old male admitted to hospital with a one-month history of nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, increased blood pressure and worsening of renal function with hypercalcemia. His serum PTH level was almost undetectable; he had mild alkalosis, renal failure with eGFR of 42 ml/min, anemia, hypertension and abnormal ECG with shortened QT interval and ST elevation in V1-V4. He had a positive medical history for calcium-containing antacids intake and after ruling out primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, multiple myelomas, sarcoidosis, and thyroid dysfunction, it seemed plausible to diagnose him as having the milk-alkali syndrome. CONCLUSION: Although milk-alkali syndrome currently may be more probably a result of calcium and vitamin D intake in postmenopausal women, or in elderly men with reduced kidney function taking calcium-containing medications, one should not exclude the possibility of its appearance in younger patients taking calcium-containing medications and consider it a serious condition taking into account its possibility of inducing renal insufficiency. PMID:27335601
Modi, K B; Paterson, P J
We report a patient with severe renal failure in whom massive bladder hemorrhage was successfully treated with alum irrigation. There was no substantial potassium or aluminum absorption with alum irrigation.
González de Molina, Francisco Javier; Ferrer, Ricard
Severe sepsis and septic shock cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Early appropriate empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and advanced resuscitation therapy are the cornerstones of treatment for these conditions. In prescribing an antibiotic regimen in septic patients with acute renal failure treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, several factors should be considered: pharmacokinetics, weight, residual renal function, hepatic function, mode of renal replacement therapy (membrane and surface area, sieving coefficient, effluent and dialysate rate, and blood flow rate), severity of illness, microorganism, minimum inhibitory concentration, and others. Studies that determine the serum antibiotic concentrations are very useful in establishing the correct dosage in critical patients.
Korzets, A.; Danby, P.; Edmunds, M. E.; Feehally, J.; Walls, J.
A case of acute renal failure in association with a deliberate labetalol overdose is described. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms behind the deterioration in renal function are discussed. Treatment of beta-blockade overdose, with special emphasis on the place of glucagon in such poisoning, is reviewed. PMID:2349173
Prabhu, Chaitanya; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Remalayam, Bhavith; Adil, Mohammed
We report a 58-year-old man with multiple yellow jacket stings who developed urticaria, renal failure, quadriparesis, rhabdomyolysis in succession. Investigations revealed renal and hepatic dysfunction, proteinuria, demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis. He improved with methylprednisolone, antihypertensives and two sessions of haemodialysis. PMID:25984147
Viswanathan, Stalin; Prabhu, Chaitanya; Arulneyam, Jayanthi; Remalayam, Bhavith; Adil, Mohammed
We report a 58-year-old man with multiple yellow jacket stings who developed urticaria, renal failure, quadriparesis, rhabdomyolysis in succession. Investigations revealed renal and hepatic dysfunction, proteinuria, demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis. He improved with methylprednisolone, antihypertensives and two sessions of haemodialysis.
van Dorp, W T; Jie, K; Lobatto, S; Weening, J J; Valentijn, R M
Two patients, who had had pulmonary sarcoidosis, developed renal failure due to sarcoid granulomatous interstitial nephritis after their original pulmonary symptoms had subsided. Treatment with prednisone resulted in almost complete recovery of renal function. Lysozyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and gallium scintigraphy can be of diagnostic value.
Santoro, Jonathan D.; Chao, Stephanie; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lee, Henry C.
Omphalocele-exstrophy of the bladder-imperforate anus-spinal defect (OEIS) complex is a rare constellation of clinical abnormalities with wide phenotypic presentation. We describe a case of a preterm neonate with OEIS complex with acute renal failure, and the challenges in diagnosis and management of this patient as renal failure can be a multifactorial process when encountered with this rare complex. PMID:26495176
Taylor, I L; Sells, R A; McConnell, R B; Dockray, G J
The realisation that circulating gastrin is heterogeneous necessitates a reappraisal of gastrin's role in the increased incidence of duodenal ulcer disease that occurs in chronic renal failure. Radioimmunoassays employing region-specific antisera have been used to examine renal and extrarenal factors controlling serum gastrin concentration in patients with chronic renal failure. The present study has shown that basal serum gastrin concentrations measured with a carboxyl-terminal specific antibody were significantly higher in eight patients with chronic renal failure treated by dietary restriction (388+/-196 pM) than in 14 patients with chronic renal failure treated by haemodialysis (28.7+/-4.6 pM). However, basal gastrin concentrations in both groups of patients were significantly higher than in 25 normal subjects (12.3+/-1.8 pM) and showed significant negative correlations with maximal gastric acid secretion (p < 0.01). Markedly raised basal gastrin concentrations were observed only in chronic renal failure patients who were also achlorhydric. Although the peak postprandial increment in big gastrin concentration in 11 chronic renal failure patients (34.0+/-7.5 pM) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in 25 normal subjects (19.5+/-4.6 pM), the little gastrin responses were not significantly different. In addition, clearance of exogenous little gastrin was similar in four chronic failure patients (clearance half time: 8.1+/-0.7 min) and four normal subjects (clearance half time: 6.5+/-1.2 min). These studies suggest that the human kidney is unimportant in the metabolism of little gastrin. As circulating little gastrin is six times more potent than big gastrin in stimulating acid secretion, these studies suggest that the raised gastrin concentrations observed in patients with chronic renal failure have little significance in terms of their increased incidence of duodenal ulcer disease.
Novati, R; Nebiolo, P E; Galotto, C; Mastaglia, M; Manes, M
A fifty-three years old surgeon had acute renal failure consisting with acute tubulo-interstizial nephropaty twelve days after influenza vaccination; he was on statin therapy since one month. He was given steroidal therapy and fully recovered two weeks apart. This is the fourth case report of acute renal failure after influenza vaccination in patients on statins therapy. The case we describe could account for a underestimated, even if very rare, phenomenon.
Addison's disease is a rare condition. Its onset of symptoms most often is nonspecific contributing to a diagnostic and therapeutic delay. Acute renal failure can be the first manifestation of this disease. We report the case of a patient with Addison's disease who was initially treated for acute renal failure due to multiple myeloma and whose diagnosis was adjusted thereafter. Patient's condition dramatically improved after treatment with intravenous rehydration; injectable hydrocortisone.
Kovach, Jaclyn L
To describe hypertensive optic neuropathy and choroidopathy caused by renal failure in an 18-year-old woman. The clinical and angiographic findings of a young patient with hypertensive optic neuropathy and choroidopathy caused by hypertensive emergency secondary to renal failure are described. The patient's visual acuity, bilateral optic nerve swelling, and macular edema improved with blood pressure control. Several small areas of exudative retinal detachment remain. Accelerated or malignant hypertension is a common cause of bilateral optic nerve swelling and exudative retinal detachments. Treatment of systemic hypertension is essential in reversing the ocular manifestations of the condition.
Butani, Lavjay; Berg, Gerre; Makker, Sudesh P
Prolongation of the QTc interval, a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias, has been observed in adult hemodialysis patients; there are few data on the QTc interval in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) and following renal transplantation (Tx). The purpose of our study was to determine the QTc interval in children with CRF and post renal Tx. Twenty children with CRF and 16 children with renal Tx who were followed at the University of California, Davis, underwent prospective EKG monitoring. The mean QTc interval in the CRF and post-Tx cohorts was normal at 407.9 ms and 408.2 ms, respectively. None of the children with CRF had QTc prolongation. Two Tx recipients had QTc prolongation; both had cardiac dilatation on echocardiography (ECHO). There was no correlation between the QTc interval and the creatinine clearance in either group. However, a significant correlation was noted between QTc prolongation and cardiac dilatation on ECHO in the Tx group (P=0.02, Fisher's exact test). In conclusion, QTc prolongation is uncommon in children with CRF and following Tx, in the absence of cardiac dilatation. However, caution is still needed before prescribing medications known to cause QTc prolongation.
Ou, Yan; Liu, Zengying; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Lin, Yan; Han, Jin; Duan, Zhaoyang; Jia, Lining; Gui, Baosong
Vascular calcification (VC) is a major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction in chronic renal failure (CRF). Citrate binds calcium and inhibits the growth of calcium crystals. This present study intends to evaluate the effect of citrate on VC in adenine-induced CRF rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the citrate control group, model group, model rats with low-dose treatment of citrate (216 mg/kg) and model rats with high-dose treatment of citrate (746 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized at 5 weeks with their blood and aorta in detection. The results showed that serum level of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, and related renal failure function marker were elevated in the model group. Furthermore, the aortic calcium accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly increased in the model group compared with control groups. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin staining results demonstrated that the vascular calcification in aorta is significantly increased in the model group. Finally, the expression of VC-related proteins including bone morphogenetic protein and osteocalcin were increased in the model group, whereas alpha-smooth muscle actin was decreased in the model group compared with the control group. However, treatment with citrate caused a reversal effect of all the above events in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, citrate may attenuate vascular calcification in adenine-induced CRF rats. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer
Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.
Talaie, Haleh; Emam-Hadi, Mohammad; Panahandeh, Reyhaneh; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad
ABSTRACT The clinical syndrome of rhabdomyolysis is caused by injury of skeletal muscles resulting in release of intracellular muscle constituents. Drug poisoning is one of the causes of severe rhabdomyolysis. Severe electrolyte disorders and acute renal failure may occur in rhabdomyolysis, leading to life-threatening situations. Early initiation of renal replacement therapy can help improve outcome. In the present retrospective study, medical records of 181 patients suspected of rhabdomyolysis from Loghman-Hakim Hospital in the period of 2004 to 2005 were reviewed. A creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) value of greater than five times normal (>/=975 IU/L) was the basis for confirmation of a rhabdomyolysis diagnosis. An increased serum creatinine level of more than 30% was the basis for acute renal failure diagnosis. Out of 156 patients, 100 were male with an age range of 13 to 78 years. One hundred and two (92%) patients had CPK >975 U/L, and 36 patients (28.6%) had a 30% or more increase in their creatinine level during their admission days. Mean fluid intake was the same in patients with renal failure and those without renal failure. In 8.3% of the cases, multiple drug poisoning was observed. The most common compound overdose associated with rhabdomyolysis was opium. It is concluded that fluid therapy alone is not adequate in the management of acute renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Therefore, other etiological factors are involved that remain to be elucidated by further studies.
Nakaya, Yutaka; Shimohata, Takaaki; Haraguchi, Sayaka; Nakao, Toshiyuki; Minaguchi, Jun; Sumitani, Haruo; Harada, Nagakatsu; Sakaue, Hiroshi
Starvation causes more rapid development of a catabolic state in patients with liver cirrhosis than in normal subjects. Because the kidneys have a gluconeogenic activity similar to that of the liver, we tested whether patients with chronic renal failure develop a catabolic state after an overnight fast. The effect of an overnight fast on diurnal changes in respiratory quotient (RQ) was studied in 12 normal subjects and 12 patients with stable chronic renal failure. Changes in RQ in the early morning after an overnight fast were also studied in 27 patients with chronic renal failure not on dialysis. We also examined the effect on RQ of consuming a light snack in the evening before the measurements. The RQ before breakfast, but not at other times, was significantly lower in patients with renal failure than in normal subjects (0.824 ± 0.051 versus 0.868 ± 0.038, P < 0.05). This indicated that patients with renal failure had higher fat use and developed a catabolic state early in the morning. The RQ before breakfast showed significant inverse correlations with creatinine levels (r = -0.604, P < 0.001). Supplementation with a carbohydrate-rich snack in the evening resulted in a significant increase of 0.07 ± 0.04 (P < 0.05) in mean RQ in the early morning. This suggested that a late evening snack is useful for improving the catabolic state of patients with renal failure. Starvation involving an overnight fast facilitates catabolism of visceral and muscle proteins in renal failure. This suggests that nutritional management of renal failure should focus not only on the contents of a meal, but also on the timing of the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Konishi, N; Takeshita, K
A 41-year-old woman took an overdose of sedatives on the 13th of January, 1994 and remained a sleep in the straight sitting position until she was woken up on the 15th. The next day she consulted our hospital complaining of pain and swelling of her right leg. X-ray examination with contrast medium revealed obstruction of the deep vein of her right leg by a thrombus. On the 17th, her serum urea nitrogen was 75.9 mg/dl and creatinine was 5.4 mg/dl accompanied by oliguria. The myoglobin value was 27,000 ng/ml in serum and 88,000 ng/ml in urine. She was diagnosed as acute renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis and hemodialysis therapy was started. She was released from hemodialysis on the 31th of January. The swelling of her right leg disappeared at the end of February. However, her right foot was affected paralysis of the fibular nerve. Electromyogram of her right anterotibial muscle and the test of conduction velocity of right tibial nerve revealed that the neurological disturbance of her right leg was caused by thrombosis of the deep vein. Generally speaking, the swelling of the extremities resulting from rhabdomyolysis caused by crush syndrome is due to a massive shift of body-fluid into the crushed muscles. We believe that when the extremities are compressed (and/or crushed) for a long time, venous thrombosis of the extremities occurs due to compression, there by causing swelling of the compressed extremities, as in this case.
Venzin, R M; Cohen, C D; Maggiorini, M; Wüthrich, R P
We report the first case of acute renal failure with hyperkalemia associated with the recently marketed direct renin inhibitor aliskiren. To optimize blood pressure control, the antihypertensive medication of a 76-year-old hypertensive female patient was changed from the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan to aliskiren. Spironolactone was continued, as serum creatinine and potassium levels were initially normal. Two weeks later the patient presented with acute oliguric renal failure, symptomatic hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, necessitating emergency dialytic treatment. Unrecognized pre-existing renal insufficiency (CKD Stage 2 - 3) and the continuation of spironolactone were identified as predisposing risk factors.
George, Smiley Annie; Al-Rushaidan, Sulaiman; Francis, Issam; Soonowala, Darius; Nampoory, M R Narayanan
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of uric acid metabolism that leads to formation and excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine into urine. The low solubility of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine results in precipitation and formation of urinary crystals and renal stones. Patients with this disorder usually have recurrent nephrolithiasis and can develop nephropathy secondary to crystal precipitation in the renal parenchyma. The disease is most often underdiagnosed and can recur in renal transplant, causing graft failure. Lack of specific clinical manifestations, chemical and radiologic features identical to those shown with uric acid stones, and lack of awareness among clinicians are among the causes for the underdiagnoses of this treatable disease. Allopurinol, a xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitor, is the mainstay of treatment, supported by high fluid intake and dietary modifications. The possibility of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency should be considered in all cases of urolithiasis in children, patients with recurrent urolithiasis, and patients with urolithiasis associated with renal failure of unknown cause, including patients with end-stage renal disease and renal transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of a 41-year-old female patient who had a late diagnosis of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephropathy-induced end-stage renal disease, made on the native nephrectomy that accompanied the renal transplant, and who had a timely intervention that prevented recurrence in the graft.
Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, GianLuca; Nait, Francesca; Pezzutto, Francesca; Martinis, Flavia; Sechi, Leonardo A
Patients with renal failure are at increased risk of cardiovascular events even at the earliest stages of disease. In addition to many classic cardiovascular risk factors, many conditions that are commonly identified as emerging risk factors might contribute to occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Changes in circulating levels of many of these emerging risk factors have been demonstrated in patients with early stages of renal failure caused by different types of renal disease and have been associated with detection of cardiovascular complications. However, for most of these factors evidence of benefits of correction on cardiovascular outcome is missing. In this article, we comment on the role of lipoprotein(a) and prothrombotic factors as potential contributors to cardiovascular events in patients with early renal failure.
Mandal, A K; Baig, M; Koutoubi, Z
Renal changes that occur with aging mainly consist of impairment in the ability to concentrate urine and to conserve sodium and water. These physiological changes increase the risk of volume depletion and the prerenal type of acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly people. Bladder outlet obstruction caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy is a common cause of ARF in elderly men. Another frequent cause of ARF in the elderly is drug-induced nephropathy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics are most often implicated in the development of ARF in the elderly. However, considering the high usage of these drugs, the incidence of drug-induced nephropathy is relatively small. NSAIDs are more likely to cause ARF in patients with congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease (including diabetic nephropathy) or chronic liver disease than in otherwise healthy individuals. NSAID-induced ARF is often of the prerenal type, but may be caused by acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). The presence of heavy proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome differentiates NSAID-induced AIN from AIN caused by other drugs. Antibiotics, especially semisynthetic penicillins, more commonly give rise to AIN associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophiluria than NSAIDs. Ciprofloxacin is increasingly reported to cause AIN. Fever commonly accompanies AIN, especially when induced by antibiotics. Aminoglycosides produce ARF by inducing acute tubular necrosis (ATN), which results from the excessive accumulation of myeloid bodies in the tubules. In all cases of ARF it is essential to obtain a good history, to perform a through physical examination, with particular attention to skin turgor, and to measure blood pressure, pulse rate (supine and upright), urinary electrolyte and creatinine levels. Fractional excretion of sodium and the urine:plasma creatinine ratio are reliable indices that distinguish prerenal ARF from ATN. A prompt response to fluid challenge, with an increase in
Small, Evan; Sandefur, Benjamin J
Guaifenesin is a common nonprescription medication that has been implicated in drug-induced nephrolithiasis. Dextromethorphan, a nonprescription antitussive found in some guaifenesin-containing preparations, is increasingly recognized as a substance of abuse by many youth and young adults. Renally excreted medications known to have poor solubility in urine have the potential to precipitate when ingested in large quantity, leading to acute obstruction of the ureters and renal failure. We describe the case of a 22-year-old male who developed severe bilateral flank pain, hematuria, and oliguria after an isolated recreational ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. The patient was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure, suspected to be secondary to precipitation of medication metabolites in the urine. This case highlights the potential for acute renal failure secondary to guaifenesin and dextromethorphan abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beaufils, M; Lantz, B; Paillard, F; Richet, G
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is often associated with hypertension, as a cause or a consequence. We studied the changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), renal function (as measured by creatinine clearance), and plasma renin activity (PRA) in 19 hypertensive patients with CRF before, during and after oral administration once a day for at least 30 days of 5 mg tertatolol, a new beta-blocker. All patients were free of any antihypertensive medication for at least 1 month before administration of tertatolol. The dose of tertatolol given in this study was the same as that commonly used in patients with normal renal function. From day 0 to day 30 of tertatolol, measurements in the supine position were as follows: systolic BP (SBP) decreased from 168.4 +/- 4.6 to 145.3 +/- 4.3 mm Hg (p less than 0.01); diastolic BP (DBP) decreased from 106.1 +/- 2.4 to 87.1 +/- 2.0 mm Hg (p less than 0.01); HR decreased from 77.9 +/- 1.6 to 63.2 +/- 1.7 b.p.m. (p less than 0.01); PRA decreased from 1.816 +/- 0.521 to 1.052 +/- 0.323 ng/ml/h (p less than 0.01). Creatinine clearance remained stable: 37.1 +/- 4.1 versus 37.1 +/- 4.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 (not significant). Similar results (for SBP, DBP, HR and PRA) were obtained in the erect position. It is concluded that tertatolol in hypertensive patients with CRF: significantly lowers BP and HR without excessive bradycardia, significantly lowers PRA, the most important decrease being observed for the highest initial PRA, does not alter renal function, and has a good clinical acceptability.
Yu Yao, Bian
A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840
Khaddash, Ibrahim; Hawatmeh, Amer; Altheeb, Zaid; Hamdan, Aiman; Shamoon, Fayez
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a weakness of the heart muscle. It is an idiopathic cardiomyopathy that presents with heart failure secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction toward the end of pregnancy or in the months after delivery, in the absence of any other cause of heart failure. It is a rare condition that can carry mild or severe symptoms. PMID:28074806
Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Kielar, Mariusz L; Zhou, Xin J; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Christopher Y
Biliary obstruction affects the renal response to ischemia and also elicits a hepatic cytokine response. Using a murine model, we now test the hypothesis that these hepatic cytokines help determine the outcome of ischemic acute renal failure. C3H/HEN mice were subjected to bile duct ligation 24 h (ABDL) or 7 days (CBDL) prior to induction of acute ischemic renal failure (ARF). Serum creatinine (Scr), cytokine mRNA abundance, and renal histology were studied 24 h after renal ischemia. ABDL prior to ARF resulted in amelioration of renal injury (Scr 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl compared to 2.5 +/- 0.1 mg/dl in sham/ARF group, (mean +/- SE, n = 11/group). CBDL exacerbated renal injury. Increased hepatic mRNA for interleukin-10 (IL10) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) was detected in the ABDL/ARF group but not in the CBDL/ARF group. These data suggest that hepatic production of IL10 and IL1RA in response to ABDL ameliorates ischemic ARF, an effect that is lost after several days of BDL. Our data support the concept that hepatic cytokines modulate renal injury. This adds a new dimension in our understanding of renal injury in the setting of hepatic disease. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Watanabe, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Akio; Isono, Makoto; Sinchi, Masayuki; Masunaga, Ayako; Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko
A 64-year-old woman who has a history of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital with the exacerbation of exertional dyspnea and urinary retention due to severe gross hematuria. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor involving the inferior and middle poles of the right kidney with no nodal involvement, or distant metastases, but that was accompanied by markedly proliferated blood vessels around the inferior vena cava and right renal vein, seemingly a result of an arteriovenous fistula. After embolization of the right renal artery, right radical nephrectomy was performed via a thoracoabdominal incision. The histological diagnosis of the tumor was clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G2 > G3, Fuhrman nuclear grade3, pT2a. Although the presence of an arteriovenous fistula was not confirmed histologically, the severely condensed proliferation of the blood vessels in the renal hilum is consistent with the diagnosis of an arteriovenous fistula accompanying renal cell carcinoma. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms of congestive heart failure, including dyspnea, subsided and her serum BNP levels and CTR value returned to normal levels. Two years after the operation, she shows no signs of recurrence or metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, there have been 25 cases of arteriovenous fistulas accompanied by renal cell carcinoma but only a few in which the symptoms were those of severe congestive heart failure. Clinicians should be aware that renal cell carcinoima could be a cause of heart failure.
Jain, Poonam; Shah, Sapna; Coussa, Razek; Prakash, Satya
Renal insufficiency leads to uremia, a complicated syndrome. It thus becomes vital to reduce waste metabolites and regulate water and electrolytes in kidney failure. The most common treatment of this disease is either dialysis or transplantation. Although these treatments are very effective, they are extremely costly. Recently artificial cells, microencapsulated live bacterial cells, and other cells have been studied to manage renal failure metabolic wastes. The procedure for microencapsulation of biologically active material is well documented and offers many biomedical applications. Microencapsulated bacteria have been documented to efficiently remove urea and several uremic markers such as ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride. These bacteria also have further potential as biotherapeutic agents because they can be engineered to remove selected unwanted waste. This application has enormous potential for removal of waste metabolites and electrolytes in renal failure as well as other diseases such as liver failure, phenylketonuria, and Crohn’s disease, to name a few. This paper discusses the various options available to date to manage renal failure metabolites and focuses on the potential of using encapsulated live cells as biotherapeutic agents to control renal failure waste metabolites and electrolytes. PMID:19707412
Savoldi, S; Mesiano, P; Rocchietti, M
Immunosuppressive treatment is widely used in transplant patients, who often have chronic renal failure, while its use in nephropathies of native kidneys with chronic renal insufficiency is still limited. In recent years a number of papers have reported advantages of its use also in this setting. A prerequisite for immunosuppression in this condition is accurate renal histology, in order to define the etiology, activity/chronicity index and prognosis. Although clinicians agree on the use of aggressive treatment for secondary nephropathies, the approach to primary forms in the presence of chronic renal failure remains controversial, as does the definition of a ''point of no return'' beyond which treatment could be ineffective or unsafe. Nonrandomized studies found that immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide can be useful in membranous nephropathy with renal insufficiency. The use of immunosuppressive drugs in IgA nephropathy in the presence of established renal insufficiency seems to improve renal survival with a limited occurrence of side effects. Since the pharmacokinetics of the current immunosuppressive agents (steroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, mycophenolate mofetil) is modified by renal insufficiency, attention should be paid to reducing drug doses and monitoring toxicity. Immunosuppressive treatment is a critical procedure in patients with chronic renal failure, in whom an increased risk of infection is already present. In conclusion, on the basis of the data of the literature, we can hypothesize that the ''point of no return'' exceeds the threshold generally considered safe by clinicians. Nevertheless, a strict definition of a cutoff value for renal function to establish whether or not a certain treatment should be given is not applicable in clinical practice, where the choice of an immunosuppressive approach must be tailored to the individual patient based on a global evaluation including renal histology, clinical conditions
Hooi, L S
A retrospective review of 246 patients with established acute renal failure (ARF) needing dialysis from 1990-1994 is reported from Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru. Peritoneal dialysis was more commonly used than haemodialysis or haemofiltration. Patients on mechanical ventilation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) who were hypercatabolic and fluid overloaded were treated with haemofiltration. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 1.5:1. The majority were Malays (61.4%). Most patients were from the district of Johor Bahru, but 41.5% were from other districts in the Johor state. The mean age was 47.1 years (SD 18.2). The ARF was caused by acute tubular necrosis in 55.3%, post-renal obstruction in 22.8%, nephrotoxins in 5.7% and other causes in 16.2%. The proportions of patients referred from the medical, surgical and obstetric and gynaecology units were 50.8%, 45.5% and 3.7% respectively. The mortality rate was 48%. Patients with established ARF should be dialysed early as they tolerate uraemia poorly. Prevention is by prompt treatment of patients with sepsis, avoidance of hypovolaemia and nephrotoxic drugs.
Drüeke, Tilman B
aluminium absorption-from the methodological difficulties of measuring it accurately to understanding the long-term clinical risks of this metal-should guide us in the safety evaluation of other potentially toxic metals that have been proposed for therapeutic use in patients with renal failure.
Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Jing; Fu, Qiang
To explore the influence of Shenshuai Capsule on renal tissue apoptosis of Wistar rats with chronic renal failure. Wistar rats were fed with adenine to establish chronic renal failure model, and then they were divided into three groups separately fed with Shenshuai capsule (high or low dosage) and Niaoduqing. RIA, immunohistochemical method and electron microscopy were used. The parameters of renal function between the treatment group (high dosage) and the Niaoduqing group were significantly different respectively. Shenshuai capsule could inhibit tubular epicyte apoptosis and Fas genetic expression, and improve Bcl-2 genetic expression. Shenshuai capsule could inhibit epicyte apoptosis, and adjust Fas genetic expression. Bcl-2 genetic expression indicated that this may be one of the mechanism to postpone the renal failure by Shunshuai capsule.
Ulas, Aydin; Kaplan, Serife; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Torgay, Adnan; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet
Frequency of pulmonary complications after renal transplant has been reported to range from 3% to 17%. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal transplant recipients admitted to an intensive care unit to identify incidence and cause of acute respiratory failure in the postoperative period and compare clinical features and outcomes between those with and without acute respiratory failure. We retrospectively screened the data of 540 consecutive adult renal transplant recipients who received their grafts at a single transplant center and included those patients admitted to an intensive care unit during this period for this study. Acute respiratory failure was defined as severe dyspnea, respiratory distress, decreased oxygen saturation, hypoxemia or hypercapnia on room air, or requirement of noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. Among the 540 adult renal transplant recipients, 55 (10.7%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, including 26 (47.3%) admitted for acute respiratory failure. Median time from transplant to intensive care unit admission was 10 months (range, 0-67 mo). The leading causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia (56%) and cardiogenic pulmonary edema (44%). Mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen ratio was 174 ± 59, invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 13 patients (50%), and noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used in 8 patients (31%). The overall mortality was 16.4%. Acute respiratory failure was the reason for intensive care unit admission in almost half of our renal transplant recipients. Main causes of acute respiratory failure were bacterial pneumonia and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Mortality of patients admitted for acute respiratory failure was similar to those without acute respiratory failure.
Massart, Annelien; Lissens, Willy; Tournaye, Herman; Stouffs, Katrien
Approximately 10%–15% of couples are infertile, and a male factor is involved in almost half of these cases. This observation is due in part to defects in spermatogenesis, and the underlying causes, including genetic abnormalities, remain largely unknown. Until recently, the only genetic tests used in the diagnosis of male infertility were aimed at detecting the presence of microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single-gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. However, their causative effects often remain unproven. The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process. Through knockout mouse models, at least 388 genes have been shown to be associated with spermatogenesis in mice. However, problems often arise when translating this information from mice to humans. PMID:22138898
Saardi, Karl M; Schwartz, Robert A
Uremic frost is a striking cutaneous finding seen in patients with severe kidney disease. Familiarity with this condition can be a life-saving signal to initiate urgent dialysis. Uremic frost generally occurs at blood urea nitrogen levels of approximately 200 mg/dl, although it may arise with less severe uremia. Recently confirmed urea transporters in the skin may play a role in the development of uremic frost. Alternatively, damage to the cutaneous microvasculature and pilosebaceous units, as seen in chronic kidney disease, could account for the high levels of urea deposited outside the skin. The treatment of uremic frost is largely aimed at correcting the underlying cause of uremia and the other life-threatening conditions associated with renal failure.
Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R
Atherosclerosis development is accelerated in chronic renal failure (CRF) and is the major cause of death in this clinical condition. An increased oxidative stress and an endothelial dysfunction, with their complex interrelationships, are relevant aspects of atherogenesis in CRF patients and might be targets for treatment. Many studies have underlined the cardiovascular protection provided by a moderate wine consumption. This beneficial effect is due to both alcohol and nonalcoholic components of wine including several phenolic molecules such as quercetin and resveratrol. Wine polyphenols have antioxidant properties and favorably influence endothelial function, in particular by stimulating nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation and inhibiting the endothelin-1 pathway. The possible advantage of a moderate wine consumption in CRF patients can be hypothesized and deserves clinical investigation.
Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan; Poskurica, Mina
`Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure.The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat) significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn't possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase). Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.
Neumann, H P; Brüggen, V; Berger, D P; Herbst, E; Blum, U; Morgenroth, A; Schollmeyer, P; Wetterauer, U
Renal angiomyolipoma is common in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), the classic features of which are facial angiofibroma, seizures, and mental retardation. We report a family with three affected members demonstrating the wide spectrum of TSC-associated lesions ranging from asymptomatic findings to life-threatening complications. The predominant symptoms of the index patient were hypertension and mild renal insufficiency at age 48, resulting in end-stage renal failure at age 63 due to giant bilateral angiomyolipoma of the kidneys. The two TSC-affected siblings had died years previously, one from pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and the other during an epileptic state; the latter had situs inversus totalis as another remarkable finding. The diagnosis of TSC may be overlooked if CNS symptoms are absent and if cutaneous lesions are masked by cosmetic procedures, as occurred in the index case. Chronic renal failure due to angiomyolipoma is not widely known to clinical nephrologists, but develops in approximately 15% of TSC patients. Displacement of functional renal parenchyma by abnormal tissue appears to be the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to end-stage renal failure. Angiomyolipomas can be diagnosed from this characteristic sonographic pattern and the demonstration of fatty tissue in CT or MRI. Multiple renal cysts are also common in TSC. Therefore TSC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease.
Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Chronic renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis often encounter gastrointestinal troubles over their long treatment period. Helicobacter pylori infection has close association with development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, and is thought to be one of the major risk factors for gastrointestinal troubles in dialysis patients. However, it is unclear whether H. pylori infection is directly associated with progression of renal dysfunction and prognosis of chronic renal failure patients. Recent consensus shows that the prevalence of H. pylori infection in chronic renal failure patients is significantly lower than in subjects with normal renal function. In the natural history of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of infection decreases as dialysis periods progressed, in particular within the first four years after the start of treatment. However, the chance of natural eradication becomes rare for patients receiving dialysis treatment for a long time. Moreover, chronic renal failure patients with H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases, and therefore, are recommended to receive eradication therapies, especially for those receiving treatment for a long time and with higher risks of complication. Intensive endoscopic check-ups for the prevention of gastrointestinal events and the discovery of peptic ulcer and neoplastic diseases at an early phase may be required.
Rosenberg, J C; Bernstein, J; Rosenberg, B
Chronic renal failure in patients with tuberous sclerosis may be secondary to diffuse cystic disease, a lesion less common than the better known hamartomatous angiomyolipomas. Uremia, in the case of a nineteen-year old female with end-stage renal disease, was associated with severely atrophic kidneys that contained numerous collapsed and scarred cysts. No hamartomas were present. The patient survived for more than three years following cadaveric renal transplantation.
Daca, Agnieszka; Jarzembowski, Tomasz; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja
Infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. This results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. Enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. Prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. Here we evaluate a difference in presence of pp4, pp1, and pp7 prophages and ASA (aggregation substance) gene expression in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients (RTx) with different etiology of the end-stage renal failure. Prophages sequence was screened by PCR in strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from urine and feces of 19 RTx hospitalized at Medical University of Gdansk and 18 healthy volunteers. FLOW-FISH method with use of linear locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe was used to assess the ASA gene expression. Additionally, ability of biofilm formation was screened by crystal violet staining method. Presence of prophages was more frequent in fecal isolates from immunocompromised patients than in isolates from healthy volunteers. Additionally, both composition of prophages and ASA gene expression were related to the etiology of renal disease.
Daca, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Jacek M.; Bryl, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja
Infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. This results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. Enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. Prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. Here we evaluate a difference in presence of pp4, pp1, and pp7 prophages and ASA (aggregation substance) gene expression in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients (RTx) with different etiology of the end-stage renal failure. Prophages sequence was screened by PCR in strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from urine and feces of 19 RTx hospitalized at Medical University of Gdansk and 18 healthy volunteers. FLOW-FISH method with use of linear locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe was used to assess the ASA gene expression. Additionally, ability of biofilm formation was screened by crystal violet staining method. Presence of prophages was more frequent in fecal isolates from immunocompromised patients than in isolates from healthy volunteers. Additionally, both composition of prophages and ASA gene expression were related to the etiology of renal disease. PMID:25105126
Wong, W Y; Elliott-Mills, D; Powars, D
ESRD is a major complication in young adults with sickle cell anemia. As more patients with sickle cell anemia reach the third and fourth decades of life, the incidence of clinically apparent renal insufficiency will increase. As we understand the pathophysiology of renal damage and the effects of various therapies on the sickle renal vasculature, we can tailor specific management without further compromising already impaired renal function. Diagnostic clues must be recognized prior to the onset of irreversible damage, with appropriate intervention initiated at each age group. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the only available cure for SCA at the present time. The demonstration that several distinct haplotypes of the beta s gene cluster on chromosome 11 influence the clinical expression of sickle cell anemia may be useful in delineating children who are at high risk for severe disease, and hence candidates for such hazardous therapeutic interventions as BMT prior to onset of clinically discernable disease. Current BMT preparative regimens can produce renal cortical and pulmonary toxicity, posing a patient selection problem in those cases in which the vasculopathy of the major organs is at an early stage and might be potentially repairable. Gene therapy without toxic preparative regimens is the ultimate answer. The challenge for the near future is the development of effective early therapeutic intervention during childhood and young adulthood.
Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices.
Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices. PMID:26941817
Traditionally, renal dysfunction in congestive heart failure (cardiorenal syndrome type 1) has been attributed to reduced cardiac output and low mean arterial perfusion pressure, which elicit a series of neurohumoral activations resulting in increased renal vascular resistance and decreased renal function.During the last decade, several studies have shown that the extent of renal dysfunction is not so closely associated with indices of forward failure-such as the cardiac index or mean arterial pressure-but rather with indicators of congestion, such as left ventricular enddiasystolic pressure or central venous pressure (CVP), which are indicators of backward failure. The impact of backward failure on renal function is not confined to an elevation of CVP, the renal drainage pressure, but includes a broad spectrum of mechanisms. Involved are the organ systems right heart, lung, the liver, the proinflammatory signals originating from the intestines, but also renal interstitial edema (renal compartment syndrome) and the intraabdominal pressure.The therapeutic measures must focus on the modulation of the preload adapted to the specific situation of an individual patient. This includes diuretics aiming at different segments of the tubulus system including antagonists of aldosteron and ADH, extracorporeal fluid elimination by ultrafiltration or peritoneal dialysis.
Gookin, J L; Riviere, J E; Gilger, B C; Papich, M G
Acute renal failure was diagnosed in 4 cats receiving paromomycin orally for treatment of infectious enteritis. All 4 cats responded to fluid therapy and recovered normal or near-normal renal function; however, 3 of the cats subsequently became deaf and developed cataracts. Toxicoses were attributed to a combination of an excessive dosage of paromomycin and absorption of the drug across injured intestinal mucosal epithelium. Pharmacokinetic studies are needed to further define the disposition of paromomycin after oral administration to cats.
Rodriguez, D; Lewis, S L
Patients with acute renal failure are at high risk for developing malnutrition. Provision of adequate nutrition support begins with an understanding of the metabolic alterations that occur due to the disease state and renal replacement therapies. Assessment of nutritional requirements and implementation of appropriate feeding modalities can lead to optimal nutritional status and positive patient outcomes. Building collaborative relationships with other health care professionals is crucial to overcoming the barriers that hinder implementation of appropriate nutritional management.
Cayir, Atilla; Kosan, Celalettin
Growth is impaired in a chronic renal failure. Anemia, acidosis, reduced intake of calories and protein, decreased synthesis of vitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy and changes in growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor and the gonadotropin-gonadal axis are implicated in this study. Growth is adversely affected by immunosuppressives and corticosteroids after kidney transplantation. Treating metabolic disorders using the recombinant human growth hormone is an effective option for patients with inadequate growth rates. PMID:25745347
Cayir, Atilla; Kosan, Celalettin
Growth is impaired in a chronic renal failure. Anemia, acidosis, reduced intake of calories and protein, decreased synthesis of vitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy and changes in growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor and the gonadotropin-gonadal axis are implicated in this study. Growth is adversely affected by immunosuppressives and corticosteroids after kidney transplantation. Treating metabolic disorders using the recombinant human growth hormone is an effective option for patients with inadequate growth rates.
Maroni, B J
Evidence indicates that both nephrotic and nonnephrotic chronic renal failure (CRF) patients can activate normal compensatory responses when dietary protein intake is restricted and that their protein and energy requirements are similar to normal subjects. When properly implemented, low-protein diets are safe and the benefits include the amelioration of uremic symptoms and some of their metabolic complications and possibly a reduction in the rate of progression of renal failure. To ensure dietary adequacy and compliance, patients should be monitored when treated with low-protein diets. Recent evidence that the protein intake of patients with progressive CRF declines when they consume unrestricted diets should not be considered as an argument against the use of low-protein diets. Rather, it is a persuasive argument in favor of restricting dietary protein intake to minimize the complications of renal failure.
Bendz, Hans; Schön, Staffan; Attman, Per-Ola; Aurell, Mattias
We sought to establish the prevalence of lithium-induced end-stage renal disease in two regions of Sweden with 2.7 million inhabitants corresponding to about 30% of the Swedish population. Eighteen patients with lithium-induced end-stage renal disease were identified among the 3369 patients in the general lithium-treated population, representing a sixfold increase in prevalence compared with the general population for renal replacement therapy. All lithium-treated patients were older than 46 years at end-stage renal disease with a mean lithium treatment time of 23 years with ten patients having discontinued lithium treatment an average of 10 years before the start of renal replacement therapy. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (defined as plasma creatinine over 150 micromol/l) in the general lithium-treated population was about 1.2% (excluding patients on renal replacement therapy). Compared with lithium-treated patients without renal failure, those with chronic kidney disease were older and most were men but, as groups, their mean serum lithium levels and psychiatric diagnoses did not differ. We found that end-stage renal disease is an uncommon but not rare consequence of long-term lithium treatment and is more prevalent than previously thought. Time on lithium was the only identified risk factor in this study, suggesting that regular monitoring of renal function in these patients is mandatory.
Razukeviciene, Loreta; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne
We analyzed 19 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): 11 males and 8 females (mean age 38.3 yrs. (SD 16.4), who were under observation for 39.4 months (SD 17.2). At the moment of renal biopsy 73.7% of patients had arterial hypertension, 52.6%--nephrotic proteinuria, 36.9%--chronic renal failure. Global glomerulosclerosis was present in 14 biopsies (73.7%), and intersticial fibrosis--in 13 biopsies (68.4%). The results of analysis showed multiple risk factors for progression of renal failure: initial renal failure (p=0.005), proteinuria (> or =3 g/l) (p=0.005), expressed glomerulosclerosis (p=0.005) and expressed interstitial fibrosis (p=0.034). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were found to have a relatively bad long-term prognosis--the renal survival rate in 5 years was 77.8%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that expressed glomerulosclerosis was risk factor (logrank p=0.016, Breslov p=0.043) associated with end-stage renal disease in 5 years.
Motoki, Takahiro; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Komaki, Hirofumi; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Oya, Yasushi; Takeshita, Eri; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Saito, Takashi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Murata, Miho; Sasaki, Masayuki
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscular disorder in which respiratory and heart failures are the main causes of death. Intensive intervention in respiratory and cardiac function has dramatically improved the prognosis; however, dysfunction in other multiple organs may emerge in the later stages of the disease. We report the case of four non-ambulatory DMD patients who presented with renal failure. Common findings included decreased fluid intake, use of diuretics, and presence of chronic heart failure. The levels of serum cystatin C (CysC), a marker of kidney function unaffected by reduced muscle mass, were elevated in all four patients. In two patients, renal failure improved by increasing fluid intake, and discontinuing or reducing the dose of diuretics. The findings suggest that non-ambulatory DMD patients are at a risk of reduced kidney perfusion, which potentially leads to prerenal failure. Therefore, in DMD patients, dehydration signs and CysC levels should be monitored.
Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with end-stage renal failure in the outcome of chronic glomerulonephritis and patients with end-stage renal failure in the outcome of other diseases.
Popova, J A; Yadrihinskaya, V N; Krylova, M I; Sleptsovа, S S; Borisovа, N V
frequent complications of hemodialysis treatments are coagulation disorders. This is due to activation of the coagulation of blood flow in the interaction with a dialysis membrane material vascular prostheses and extracorporeal circuit trunks. In addition, in hemodialysis patients receiving heparin for years, there is depletion of stocks in endothelial cells in tissue factor inhibitor, inhibits the activity of an external blood clotting mechanism. the aim of our study was to evaluate the hemostatic system parameters in patients with end-stage renal failure, depending on the cause of renal failure. to evaluate the hemostatic system parameters in patients with end-stage renal failure, depending on the cause of renal failure and hemodialysis treatment duration conducted a study that included 100 patients observed in the department of chronic hemodialysis and nephrology hospital №1 Republican National Medical Center in the period of 2013-2016. in patients with end-stage renal failure in the outcome of chronic glomerulonephritis, a great expression of activation of blood coagulation confirm increased the mean concentration of fibrinogen, whereas in the group, which included patients with end-stage renal failure in the outcome of other diseases, such is not different from the norm, and a higher rate of hyperfibrinogenemia, identified in 2/3 patients in this group. it was revealed that the state of homeostasis in patients with end-stage renal failure in increasingly characterizes the level of fibrinogen and the activation of the hemostatic markers: soluble fibrin monomer complexes, D-dimers.
Wu, Chien-Te; Fu, Lin-Shien; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hung, Shein-Chung; Chi, Ching-Shiang
Several risk factors have been associated with the prognosis of lupus nephritis. However, few studies have focused on renal vascular lesions (such as thrombi due to immune complexes) as a prognostic factor in this disease. Here we present a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a 12-year-old girl who exhibited acute renal failure and severe hypertension on admission. Renal pathology findings included diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (class IVb) and lupus vasculopathy (LV) with immune complex deposition within glomerular capillaries and the preglomerular arteriolar lumen. Her clinical condition deteriorated rapidly, even after cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. It improved after 5 days of plasmapheresis and remained stable for up to 6 months under regular treatment. We suggest that renal biopsy performed early in SLE patients with renal involvement should be studied carefully for the presence of vascular lesions. Additionally, plasmapheresis can be considered in patients with LV refractory to other modalities of therapy.
Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Takahashi, Hiroki; Narumi, Taro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Honda, Yuki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Kubota, Isao
Cardio-renal anemia syndrome (CRAS) has begun to gather attention as a vicious circle since chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and anemia are all able to be caused and exacerbated by each other. However, it remains unclear whether renal tubular damage (RTD), another type of kidney dysfunction, is associated with this vicious circle. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of RTD with CRAS in patients with CHF. We included 300 consecutive patients with CHF. RTD was defined as a urinary β2-microglobulin to creatinine ratio ≥ 300 μg/g. Patients with RTD had lower serum iron and higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein than those without it. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that RTD was closely associated with anemia in patients with CHF, after adjustment for confounding factors. During a median period of 1,098 days, there were 86 cardiac events, including 14 cardiac deaths and 72 re-hospitalizations for worsening heart failure. Net reclassification improvement was significantly improved by addition of RTD to the model including age, New York Heart Association functional class, brain natriuretic peptide, anemia, and CKD. All patients were divided into 3 groups: CRAS+RTD group, CRAS group, and control group. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that CRAS+RTD had the greatest risk in patients with CHF. RTD was associated with normocytic anemia, accompanying iron deficiency and inflammation. RTD added prognostic information to conventional CRAS, suggesting the importance of RTD in cardio-renal anemia interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akçay, A; Altun, B; Usalan, C; Ulusoy, S; Erdem, Y; Yasavul, U; Turgan, C; Caglar, S
Endometriosis is a common disease but ureteral involvement is relatively rare. Ureteric endometriosis is mostly unilateral. Endometriotic ureteral obstruction is a serious event commonly diagnosed late and therefore associated with a major risk of hydronephrotic renal atrophy. We present the cyclical acute renal failure associated with menstruation in a patient who developed severe bilateral ureteral obstruction due to endometriosis. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but serious manifestation of endometriosis, especially if the clinical presentation is cyclical acute renal dysfunction in a premenopausal woman.
Wong, D M; Ruby, R E; Eatroff, A; Yaeger, M J
A newborn foal was presented because it was unresponsive and in cardiopulmonary arrest. Aggressive cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation was administered to the foal, which revived the foal; however, acute renal failure developed. Fluid retention and azotemia occurred although the foal was alert and able to suckle. A 6-hour renal replacement therapy session using hemodiafiltration and a continuous renal replacement therapy machine was administered to the foal at 3 days of age which lowered the foal's azotemia and facilitated removal of some of the excess body fluid. Despite therapy, the foal developed pulmonary edema and was euthanized. Although the foal in this case did not survive, this report highlights the possibility of developing postresuscitation complications such as acute renal failure and describes the use of renal replacement therapy using hemodiafiltration as a viable option in neonatal foals with acute kidney injury.
Li, Lu-Ping; Fan, Ying-Zhong; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Sheng-Li
To analyze the treatment of acute renal failure caused by irrational drug use. Data of 41 cases of acute renal failure seen from July 2008 to June 2012 in our hospital were reviewed. Bilateral renal parenchymas diffuse echo was found enhanced by ultrasound in all cases. Calculus image was not found by X-ray. All children had medical history of using cephalosporins or others. Alkalinization of urine and antispasmodic treatment were given to all children immediately, 17 children were treated with hemodialysis and 4 children accepted intraureteral cannula placement. In 24 children who accepted alkalinization of urine and antispasmodic treatment micturition could be restored within 24 hours, in 11 children micturition recovered after only one hemodialysis treatment and 2 children gradually restored micturition after hemodialysis twice, 4 children who accepted intraureteral cannula immediately restored micturition. In all children micturition recovered gradually after a week of treatment. Ultrasound examination showed that 39 children's calculus disappeared totally and renal parenchymas echo recovered to normal. The residual calculi with diameter less than 5 mm were found in 2 children, but they had no symptoms. The children received potassium sodium hydrogen citrate granules per os and were discharged from hospital. Ultrasound showed calculus disappeared totally one month later. Irrational drug use can cause children urolithiasis combined with acute renal failure, while renal dysfunction can reverse by drug withdrawal and early alkalinization of urine, antispasmodic treatment, intraureteral cannula or hemodialysis when necessary, most calculus can be expelled after micturition recovered to normal.
Rumpf, K W; Kaiser, H; Gröne, H J; Trapp, V E; Meinck, H M; Goebel, H H; Kunze, E; Kreuzer, H; Scheler, F
Acute rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuric renal failure occurred in a 66-year-old woman who was in hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma. No previous description of such a case has been found. The clinical picture was characterized by the typical findings of hyperosmolar coma, in addition to excessive serum creatine kinase and myoglobin levels and massive myoglobinuria with acute renal failure. The rhabdomyolysis became fully manifest only under insulin treatment, possibly the result of insulin-induced hypophosphataemia, which seems to be of importance in the causation of the rhabdomyolysis.
Curran, B J; Havill, J H
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inherited metabolic disorder. Although fructose intolerance usually presents in the paediatric age group, individuals can survive into adulthood by self.manipulation of diet. Hospitalisation can become a high.risk environment for these individuals because of loss of control of their strict dietary constraints and the added danger of administration of medications containing fructose, sucrose and sorbitol. We report a case of hereditary fructose intolerance in an adult presenting with hepatic and renal failure associated with an amiodarone infusion and explore the possibility of polysorbate 80 as a cause of this patient's hepatic and renal failure.
Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.
Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.
Ambapkar, Sachinkumar N.; Shetty, Naresh; Dwivedy, Arpita; Malve, Harshad Onkarrao
Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis which causes the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream. The manifestations of this syndrome range from asymptomatic elevation of serum muscle enzymes to life-threatening cases associated with extremely high enzyme levels, electrolyte imbalance, and acute renal failure. Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis include dark urine, muscle weakness, and fatigue. Statins are commonly used drugs for the prevention and management of dyslipidemia. We present an interesting and critical case on statin-induced rhabdomyolysis with renal failure and previously undiagnosed idiopathic hypothyroidism. PMID:27275082
Amann, K; Buzello, M; Simonaviciene, A; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, G; Koch, A; Nabokov, A; Gross, M L; Gless, B; Mall, G; Ritz, E
Chronic renal failure is characterized by remodeling of the heart with left ventricular hypertrophy (increasing oxygen demand) and capillary deficit leading to capillary/myocyte mismatch (decreasing oxygen supply). Erythropoietin (Epo) has known angiogenic properties causing endothelial cell activation, migration and sprouting, mediated at least in part via the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway. In uraemic cardiac hypertrophy the presence of diminished capillary supply implies that capillary growth does not keep pace with development of hypertrophy. To investigate whether this was due to a deficit of the angiogenic hormone Epo we examined whether Epo levels are altered and whether an increase in haematocrit by administration of rhEpo influences capillary supply, i.e. capillary/myocyte mismatch in experimental renal failure. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were either subjected to partial renal ablation or sham operation. Only modest amounts of renal tissue were removed so that the rats were not anemic. Subgroups of rats received either human (rh)Epo alone or in combination with unspecific antihypertensive treatment (dihydralazine plus furosemide) in order to control the Epo induced rise in blood pressure. Capillary supply was measured stereologically as capillary length per volume myocardium using the orientator method. Capillary length density was reduced by approximately 25% after partial renal ablation (3237+/-601 vs 4293+/-501 mm/mm(3) in controls). It was not statistically different in animals with partial renal ablation+rhEpo+antihypertensive treatment (3620+/-828 mm/mm(3)) compared to partial ablation alone. The study shows that lack of Epo does not cause, or contribute to, the deficit of capillary growth in the hypertrophied left ventricle of rats with renal failure. In addition, a rise in haematocrit is not accompanied by beneficial effects on alterations of cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure.
Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Ornelas-Arroyo, Sofía; Pérez-Bustos, Estela; Sánchez-Zúñiga, Jesús; Uribe-Esquivel, Misael
Rabdomiolysis and acute renal failure secondary to influenza infection are rare. Up to now, few cases have been reported and most of them are primarily among children. Myositis associated to influenza infection is caused by the toxic effect of the virus in the muscular fiber, dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and a cross reaction between the muscle fiber and the viral particles. We present the case of a 57 year old male with a diagnosis of H1N1 influenza who developed polyuria, oligoanuria, elevation of lactic dehydrogenase, myoglobin, creatinin phosphokinase and an electromyography with a myopathic pattern. The diagnosis of rabdomyolisis and acute renal failure were made, hemodyalisis was started and the patient improved satisfactorily. This is the first report of a patient with radmoyolisis and acute renal failure secondary to A H1N1 influenza treated during the Mexico epidemic.
Oe, Shinji; Shibata, Michihiko; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Hiura, Masaaki; Abe, Shintaro; Harada, Masaru
A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data showed severe liver injury and that the patient was positive for immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies. He was also complicated with severe renal dysfunction and had an extremely high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Therefore, he was diagnosed with severe acute liver failure with acute renal failure (ARF) caused by HAV infection. Prognosis was expected to be poor because of complications by ARF and high serum HGF. However, liver and renal functions both improved rapidly without intensive treatment, and he was subsequently discharged from our hospital on the 21(st) hospital day. Although complication with ARF and high levels of serum HGF are both important factors predicting poor prognosis in acute liver failure patients, the present case achieved a favorable outcome. Endogenous HGF might play an important role as a regenerative effector in injured livers and kidneys.
Yamamoto, Rie; Morita, Seiji; Aoki, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Inokuchi, Sadaki
Most of the reports of oxalic acid intoxication are in cases of ethylene glycol intoxication. These symptoms are known to be central nerve system manifestations, cardiopulmonary manifestations and acute renal failure. There have been only a few reports of direct oxalic acid intoxication. However, there have been a few recent reports of oxalic acid intoxication due to the ingestion of star fruit and ascorbic acid. We herein report the case of a patient with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis caused directly by consumption of oxalic acid. During the initial examination by the physician at our hospital, the patient presented with tachypnea, a precordinal burning sensation, nausea and metabolic acidosis. After admission, the patient developed renal failure and anion gap high metabolic acidosis, but did not develop any CNS or cardio-pulmonary manifestations in the clinical course. The patient benefitted symptomatically from hemodialysis.
Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R
In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.
Takamura, Akiteru; Sangen, Ryusho; Furumura, Yoshiki; Usuda, Daisuke; Kasamaki, Yuji; Kanda, Tsugiyasu
Myxedema coma, caused by severe lack of thyroid hormone, is characterized by deterioration of mental status, hypothermia, hypotension, hyponatremia, and hypoventilation. We describe an 84-year-old woman who presented with renal failure and new onset severe hypothyroidism leading to challenges in the recognition of myxedema coma.
to other intermediaries that are important. To explore this possibility, fructose- l ,6-diphosphate (FDP), a metabolite in the glycolytic pathway, was...Supported b- this contract. *1. Shapiro JI, Cheung C, Itabashi A , Chan L , Schrier RW: The protective effect of verapamil on renal function after warm and...proximal tubules. Am J Physiol, in press. *8. Shapiro JI, Chan L , Cheung C, Itabashi A , Rossi N, Schrier RW: The effect of ATP depletion in the isolated
Anderson, R J; Gordon, J A; Kim, J; Peterson, L M; Gross, P A
The mechanism of impaired renal concentrating ability following nonoliguric ischemic acute renal failure was studied in the rat. Fifty min of complete occlusion of the renal artery and vein with contralateral nephrectomy resulted in reversible, nonoliguric acute renal failure. Eight days following induction of acute renal failure, a defect in 30 hr dehydration urine osmolality was present when experimental animals were compared with uninephrectomized controls (1,425 +/- 166 versus 2,267 +/- 127 mOsm/kg water respectively, P less than 0.001). Comparable postdehydration plasma vasopressin levels in experimental and control animals and an impaired hydro-osmotic response to exogenous vasopressin in experimental animals documented a nephrogenic origin of the defect in urine concentration. Lower urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 in experimental animals and a failure of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin to improve dehydration urine osmolality suggested that prostaglandin E2 antagonism of vasopressin action did not contribute to the concentration defect. Postdehydration inner medullary (papillary) interstitial tonicity was significantly reduced in experimental animals versus controls (870 +/- 85 versus 1,499 +/- 87 mOsm/kg water respectively, P less than 0.001). To determine if this decreased interstitial tonicity was due to vascular mechanisms, papillary plasma flow was measured and found to be equivalent in experimental and control animals. To examine a role for biochemical factors in the renal concentration defect, cyclic nucleotide levels were measured in cytosol and membrane fragments. A decrease in vasopressin and sodium fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase was found in outer medullary tissue of experimental animals. In contrast, vasopressin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was comparable in the inner medullary tissue of control and experimental animals. Our study suggests a defect in generation of renal inner medullary interstitial
Bryden, John; Gill, Richard J; Mitton, Robert A A; Raine, Nigel E; Jansen, Vincent A A; Hodgson, David
Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to sublethal stress impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. We then exposed bumblebee colonies to sublethal levels of a neonicotinoid pesticide. The dynamics of colony failure, which we observed, were most accurately described by our model. We argue that our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for sublethal stress in colony declines. PMID:24112478
Bryden, John; Gill, Richard J; Mitton, Robert A A; Raine, Nigel E; Jansen, Vincent A A
Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to sublethal stress impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. We then exposed bumblebee colonies to sublethal levels of a neonicotinoid pesticide. The dynamics of colony failure, which we observed, were most accurately described by our model. We argue that our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for sublethal stress in colony declines. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.
Cano, N J M; Aparicio, M; Brunori, G; Carrero, J J; Cianciaruso, B; Fiaccadori, E; Lindholm, B; Teplan, V; Fouque, D; Guarnieri, G
Among patients with renal failure, those with ARF and critical illness represent by far the largest group undergoing artificial nutrition. ARF, especially in the ICU, seldom occurs as isolated organ failure but rather is a component of a much more complex metabolic environment, in the setting of the multiple organ failure. Nutritional programs for ARF patients must consider not only the metabolic derangements peculiar to renal failure and with the underlying disease process/associated complications, but also the relevant derangements in nutrient balance due to renal replacement therapies, especially when highly efficient renal replacement therapies (RRT) are used, such as continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH), or prolonged intermittent modalities such as sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED). Finally it is to be taken into account that nutrient requirements can change considerably during the course of illness itself (see also guidelines on PN in intensive care). From a metabolic point of view, patients with CKD or on chronic HD who develop a superimposed acute illness should be considered to be similar to patients with ARF. The same principles in respect of PN should therefore be applied.
Walker, W. S.; Thurston, C. J.
A case of extreme hypernatraemia (serum sodium 212 mmol/l) occurring in association with renal failure following a caecocystoplasty procedure is reported. The causative factors in extreme hypernatraemia are reviewed and an unusual reabsorptive mechanism via the transposed intestinal segment is proposed to explain the degree of hypernatraemia present in this case. PMID:6494095
Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.
Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625
Raine, A E; Seymour, A M; Roberts, A F; Radda, G K; Ledingham, J G
Cardiac function and energetics in experimental renal failure in the rat (5/6 nephrectomy) have been investigated by means of an isolated perfused working heart preparation and an isometric Langendorff preparation using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR). 4 wk after nephrectomy cardiac output of isolated hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at all levels of preload and afterload in the renal failure groups than in the pair-fed sham operated control group. In control hearts, cardiac output increased with increases in perfusate calcium from 0.73 to 5.61 mmol/liter whereas uremic hearts failed in high calcium perfusate. Collection of 31P NMR spectra from hearts of renal failure and control animals during 30 min normoxic Langendorff perfusion showed that basal phosphocreatine was reduced by 32% to 4.7 mumol/g wet wt (P < 0.01) and the phosphocreatine to ATP ratio was reduced by 32% (P < 0.01) in uremic hearts. During low flow ischemia, there was a substantial decrease in phosphocreatine in the uremic hearts and an accompanying marked increase in release of inosine into the coronary effluent (14.9 vs 6.1 microM, P < 0.01). We conclude that cardiac function is impaired in experimental renal failure, in association with abnormal cardiac energetics and increased susceptibility to ischemic damage. Disordered myocardial calcium utilization may contribute to these derangements. PMID:8254048
Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L
Summary Heart-kidney interactions have been increasingly recognized by clinicians and researchers involved in the study and treatment of heart failure and kidney disease. A classification system has been developed to categorize the different manifestations of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Recent work has highlighted the significant negative prognostic effect of worsening renal function on outcomes for individuals with heart failure. The etiology of the concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction remains unclear; however, increasing evidence supports alternatives to the established theory of underfilling, including effects of venous congestion and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. Conventional therapy focuses on blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with expanding use of direct renin and aldosterone antagonists. Novel therapeutic interventions using extracorporeal therapy and antagonists of the adenosine pathway show promise and require further investigation. PMID:20621250
Taugner, F; Baatz, G; Nobiling, R
The kidneys of eight male and two female cats with subacute (clinical illness 1-3 months) to chronic (clinical illness > 3 months) renal failure were examined histopathologically, electron microscopically and immunohistochemically. Semiquantitative morphometric data, obtained by measurement of the reninpositive portion of the afferent arteriole (RPP) and evaluation of the juxtaglomerular index (JGI), were compared with data from three healthy control cats. On the basis of the morphometric data, the animals with renal failure could be classified in three groups showing either a stimulated (group A), an unaltered (group B) or an inhibited (group C) renin-angiotensin system. In the three group A cats the JGI and RPP were increased (45.5 +/- 3.5%; 130 microns); in the four group B cats these values were comparable with those of the controls; in the three group C animals the JGI was decreased but the RPP was unaltered (11.7% +/- 3.2%; 56 microns). The increase in kidney renin in animals affected by chronic renal failure (CRF) may have been due to a volume depletion. Prolonged CRF seemed to result in increasing hypertrophy of renal blood vessels, leading to renal hypoxia and increasing preglomerular resistance. Reduced kidney renin status may have been caused by inhibition of renin synthesis in prolonged CRF as a result of renal ischaemia.
Van Dyck, M; Proesmans, W
Chronic renal failure in childhood jeopardizes both growth and development. In children with chronic renal failure from birth, growth in height and weight have been found to be generally poor. Few data on head circumference are available. A cohort of 19 children with chronic renal failure from birth was studied from the early weeks of life to the age of 5 years. There were 18 boys; and 18 patients had congenital renal hypoplasia or hypodysplasia associated with obstructive uropathies. Eight patients received recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) after the age of 2 years. Only 2 patients needed renal replacement therapy before the age of 5 years. Data after transplantation were not included. The following variables were analyzed: body height, body mass index and head circumference. Data were expressed in median values of standard deviations scores (SDS). In the first 3 months of life there was a significant drop in height SDS, body mass index SDS and head circumference SDS. Thereafter, a stable growth velocity was observed for the rest of the study period, except for body mass index SDS. which improved after 36 months. There was a striking difference between patients who needed treatment or not with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Patients without rhGH displayed a stable growth after the age of 3 months until 5 years of age. In the remaining 8 patients, rhGH treatment resulted in a significant increase not only in height SDS but also in head circumference SDS. In infants and young children with chronic renal failure from birth, growth in head circumference parallels growth in body height. This applies to all patients and to data before and during rhGH treatment.
Alsuwaida, Abdulkareem; Hayat, Ashik; Alwakeel, Jamal S
Hyperoxaluria can result in the deposition of oxalate in bones, arteries, eyes, heart, nerves, kidneys and other structures when there is a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Liver and kidney transplantation is curative for patients with Type I primary hyperoxaluria. Here we report a case of recurrent oxalosis in a post-transplant kidney with early graft failure in an adult male.
Edelbaum, David N.; Sokol, Albert; Gaynor, Sanford; Rubini, Milton E.
The long-term results of intermittent peritoneal dialysis in long-term treatment of renal disease have yet to equal those of intermittent hemodialysis. However, further exploration and refinement of this technique is justified. Performed in acute stages of disease, both peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis relieve the symptoms of uremia and specifically “buy time” for the patient so that proper medical or surgical therapy may be instituted. In acute situations, peritoneal dialysis is the procedure of choice, and is an important adjunct to more conventional treatment for chronic renal disease. It may be useful sometimes even in chronically hemodialyzed patients—for example, when the hemodialysis cannula for one reason or another is inaccessible because of clots, replacement, or infection. It is especially valuable when the hemorrhagic complications of uremia contraindicate hemodialysis treatment. Its use in chronic uremia remains sharply limited in time, but for brief periods chronic peritoneal dialysis appears to be a reasonably satisfactory means of prolonging life while awaiting homotransplant or decision for maintenance hemodialysis therapy. PMID:5639945
Palevsky, Paul M; O’Connor, Theresa; Zhang, Jane Hongyuan; Star, Robert A; Smith, Mark W
The optimal management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in acute renal failure (ARF) is uncertain. The VA/NIH Acute Renal Failure Trail Network Study (ATN Study) tests the hypothesis that a strategy of intensive RRT will decrease 60-day all-cause mortality in critically ill patients with ARF. Dose separation between the two treatment arms is achieved by increasing the frequency of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) treatments from three times per week to six times per week, and by increasing continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) effluent volume from 20 mL/kg/hr to 35 mL/kg/hr. In both treatment arms, subjects convert between IHD and CVVHDF or SLED as hemodynamic status changes over time. This strategy attempts to replicate the conversion between modalities of RRT that occurs in clinical practice. However, in order to implement this strategy, flexible criteria needed to be developed to provide a balance between the need for uniformity of treatment between groups and practitioner discretion regarding modality of RRT to maintain patient safety. In order to address safety and ethical issues similar to those raised by the Office of Human Research Protections in its review of the ARDS Network studies, a survey of practitioner practices was performed and observational data on the management of RRT in comparable critically ill patients with ARF managed outside of the research context is being collected prospectively. These data will help inform the study’s DSMB and site IRB’s of the relationship between the study’s treatment arms and concurrent clinical practice. PMID:16317811
Gallego, N; Perez-Caballero, C; Gallego, A; Estepa, R; Liano, F; Ortuno, J
BACKGROUND—The outcome for children with acute renal failure (ARF) may be poor. However, relatively few published studies have considered prognosis of these patients. METHODS—We prospectively studied, from 1978 to 1998, 92 such children without heart disease to try to identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS—Forty five per cent of children with tumours, shock, and other causes died compared with none of those with a primary urinary tract related problem. ARF did not seem to be the cause of death in any case. Univariate analysis showed that in the non-primary urinary problem group (55 cases), patients with hypotension, high values of BUN or creatinine, or who needed mechanical ventilation or dialysis, had a poor outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that probability of death can be estimated using the following score: −0.02 + 0.28 (hypotension) + 0.19 (ventilation) + 0.27(dialysis) + 0.01(BUN). CONCLUSIONS—Mortality of patients with ARF was related to aetiology, the need for dialysis and/or ventilator use, hypotension, and BUN values. PMID:11207178
Warrington, R J; Hogg, G R; Paraskevas, F; Tse, K S
A patient who was receiving rifampin treatment for tuberculosis developed heterogenous light-chain proteinuria and insidious renal failure after a period of fluid restriction. The renal damage was characterized pathologically by an interstitial nephritis with invasive tubular casts and an associated renal vein thrombosis. The possible role of the light-chain proteinuria in the pathogenesis of the renal failure is discussed.
Dozier, Kristopher C; Yeung, Louise Y; Miranda, Marvin A; Miraflor, Emily J; Strumwasser, Aaron M; Victorino, Gregory P
Although renal trauma is increasingly managed nonoperatively, severe renovascular injuries occasionally require nephrectomy. Long-term outcomes after trauma nephrectomy are unknown. We hypothesized that the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is minimal after trauma nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the following: 1) our university-based, urban trauma center database; 2) the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); 3) the National Inpatient Sample (NIS); and 4) the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were compiled to estimate the risk of ESRD after trauma nephrectomy in the United States. Of the 232 patients who sustained traumatic renal injuries at our institution from 1998 to 2007, 36 (16%) underwent a nephrectomy an average of approximately four nephrectomies per year. The NTDB reported 1780 trauma nephrectomies from 2002 to 2006, an average of 356 per year. The 2005 NIS data estimated that in the United States, over 20,000 nephrectomies are performed annually for renal cell carcinoma. The USRDS annual incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis is over 90,000, of which 0.1 per cent (100 per year) of renal failure is the result of traumatic or surgical loss of a kidney. Considering the large number of nephrectomies performed for cancer, we estimated the risk of trauma nephrectomy causing renal failure that requires dialysis to be 0.5 per cent. National data regarding the etiology of renal failure among patients with ESRD reveal a very low incidence of trauma nephrectomy (0.5%) as a cause; therefore, nephrectomy for trauma can be performed with little concern for long-term dialysis dependence.
Thomas, David A.
Root causes of mission critical failures and major cost and schedule overruns in complex systems and programs are studied through the post-mortem analyses compiled for several examples, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Challenger and Columbia Shuttle accidents, and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. The roles of organizational complexity, cognitive biases in decision making, the display of quantitative data, and cost and schedule pressure are all considered. Recommendations for mitigating the risk of similar failures in future programs are also provided.
Odenigbo, U C; Ijoma, C K; Ulasi, I; Udeh, A C; Ibeh, C C
To study the prevalence of renal osteodystrophy in Chronic renal failure patients in Enugu, using radiological methods. Ninety adult patients (56 male and 34 female) were recruited from the renal clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu over a period of twelve consecutive months. A structured questionnaire was administered and a physical examination carried out at the initial interview. This was followed by other investigations including renal ultrasonography, plain radiographs and laboratory investigations including serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine, calcium and phosphate, total alkaline phosphate and creatinine clearance estimation. There was no obvious relationship between bone pain (a symptom of renal osteodystrophy) and the presence ofradiological features of renal osteodystrophy. The findings of the study showed that renal osteodystrophy, demonstrable by radiography is relatively uncommon, existing in only 3 subjects (3.35%). Among the 3 subjects, 2 showed radiological features of osteitis fibrosa cystica (one male and one female), while the other subject (one female) had radiological features of osteoporosis. All these subjects belonged to group 3 and had been on maintainance haemodialysis for more than 6 months. Other forms of renal osteodystrophy were not demonstrated. Renal osteodystrophy is probably not as common in Nigerian patients as in Caucasians and there may be reasons for this.
Park, Chang-Yong; Choi, Hyun-Yong; You, Nam-Kyu; Roh, Tae Hoon; Seo, Sook Jin
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on survival and relevant factors in patients who underwent CRRT after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the laboratory, clinical, and radiological data of 29 patients who underwent CRRT among 1,190 TBI patients treated at our institution between April 2011 and June 2015. There were 20 men and 9 women, and the mean age was 60.2 years. The mean initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 9.2, and the mean injury severity score was 24. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used for analysis of survival and relevant factors. Results The actuarial median survival time of the 29 patients was 163 days (range, 3-317). Among the above 29 patients, 22 died with a median survival time of 8 days (range, 3-55). The causes of death were TBI-related in 8, sepsis due to pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 4, and multi-organ failure in 10. Among the various factors, urine quantity of more than 500 mL for 24-hours before receiving CRRT was a significant and favorable factor for survival in the multivariate analysis (p=0.026). Conclusion According to our results, we suggest that early intervention with CRRT may be beneficial in the treatment of TBI patients with impending acute renal failure (ARF). To define the therapeutic advantages of early CRRT in the TBI patients with ARF, a well-designed and controlled study with more cases is required. PMID:27857914
Can, C; Sen, S; Boztok, N; Tuglular, I
We investigated the effects of orally supplemented L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor in gentamicin-induced renal failure. Rats were given gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day s.c.), gentamicin and L-arginine (2 g/l, drinking water), gentamicin and L-NAME (100 mg/l, drinking water) or gentamicin plus L-arginine and L-NAME. After 8 days, the gentamicin group developed marked renal failure, characterized by a significantly decreased creatinine clearance and increased blood creatinine, fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, systolic blood pressure and daily urine volume when compared to controls. Renal histological analysis confirmed tubular necrosis. L-arginine administration caused normalization of these parameters, whereas L-NAME led to aggravation of the failure. Concomitant administration of L-NAME and L-arginine to gentamicin-treated rats caused no significant changes when compared to the rats receiving gentamicin alone. We conclude that L-arginine supplementation has beneficial effects in gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats and that these effects are reversed by the NO-synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.
Schindler, R; Hutagalung, R; Jörres, A; John, S; Quintel, M I; Brunkhorst, F M; Heering, P
There are no reliable data on the structure and practice of the care of critically ill patients with acute renal failure in Germany. We carried out a detailed survey by sending a questionnaire to 2265 German Intensive Care Units. The questionnaire contained 19 questions regarding renal replacement therapy. 423 German intensive care units participated in the survey. Most of the ICUs are headed interdisciplinary (47%) or by anesthesiologists (30%), with significant differences depending on the size of the clinic, with primarily interdisciplinary management in smaller clinics. The offered type of renal replacement therapy varies significantly, the smaller the house the fewer methods are available. Thus, intermittent dialysis procedures are offered only in 35% of hospitals with up to 400 beds. The indication for the initiation of acute renal replacement therapy in intensive care is provided predominantly (53%) by an anesthesiologist. A nephrologist is only involved in 22% of all intensive care units. The indication is based primarily on a "clinical criteria", but these are poorly defined. Our results demonstrate the need for cross-disciplinary standards for the treatment of acute renal failure in German intensive care units. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bement, Laurence J.
Although pyrotechnics have successfully accomplished many critical mechanical spacecraft functions, such as ignition, severance, jettisoning and valving (excluding propulsion), failures continue to occur. Provided is a listing of 84 failures of pyrotechnic hardware with completed design over a 23-year period, compiled informally by experts from every NASA Center, as well as the Air Force Space Division and the Naval Surface Warfare Center. Analyses are presented as to when and where these failures occurred, their technical source or cause, followed by the reasons why and how these kinds of failures persist. The major contributor is a fundamental lack of understanding of the functional mechanisms of pyrotechnic devices and systems, followed by not recognizing pyrotechnics as an engineering technology, insufficient manpower with hands-on experience, too few test facilities, and inadequate guidelines and specifications for design, development, qualification and acceptance. Recommendations are made on both a managerial and technical basis to prevent failures, increase reliability, improve existing and future designs, and develop the technology to meet future requirements.
Wooley, Jennifer A; Btaiche, Imad F; Good, Kelley L
Acute renal failure (ARF) is rarely an isolated process but is often a complication of underlying conditions such as sepsis, trauma, and multiple-organ failure in critically ill patients. As such, concomitant clinical conditions significantly affect patient outcome. Poor nutritional status is a major factor in increasing patients' morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition in ARF patients is caused by hypercatabolism and hypermetabolism that parallel the severity of illness. When dialytic intervention is indicated, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a commonly used alternative to intermittent hemodialysis because it is well tolerated by hemodynamically unstable patients. This paper reviews the metabolic and nutritional alterations associated with ARF and provides recommendations regarding the nutritional, fluid, electrolyte, micronutrient, and acid-base management of these patients. The basic principles of CRRT are addressed, along with their nutritional implications in critically ill patients. A patient case is presented to illustrate the clinical application of topics covered within the paper.
Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...
Latt, N L; Araz, F; Alachkar, N; Durand, C M; Gurakar, A
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a rising global public health burden with an estimated 130-150 million infected people worldwide and 350,000 to 500,000 HCV-related deaths each year. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also a highly prevalent public health issue as the escalating numbers of patients worldwide are developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension due to high fat diets and a growing obesity epidemic. The high incidence and prevalence of HCV infection leads to substantial morbidity and mortality among renal dialysis patients. Recommendations are to screen for HCV infection among all patients with renal failure especially prior to initiation of hemodialysis and renal transplant evaluation. HCV-antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by confirmation with HCV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) is recommended for low prevalence regions, but in dialysis centers with a high prevalence of HCV, initial testing with NAT is recommended due to higher false positive EIA rates. Liver biopsy is used to assess of liver disease severity. Transjugular liver biopsy, as an effective and safe technique in patients with ESRD can be considered instead of percutaneous approach. Non-invasive approaches to staging fibrosis, including liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography and panels of serum fibrosis biomarkers, are also widely used. Although difficult to manage, combined pegylated- interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin therapy was the only treatment modality available for HCV-positive patients until the recently introduced new direct-acting antiviral agents. However, except boceprevir, there are no currently available data to suggest that these new anti-viral drugs are safe and effective among end-stage renal failure patients. IFN-containing regimens were also associated with high rates of renal graft loss in post-renal transplant patients. Therefore, management of HCV infection in renal failure patients is unique and should be tailored individually with
Matos-Villalobos, D; Rosa-Arevalo, M
Electromicroscopy (EM) findings of gastric mucosa from four patients with renal failure are reported. In these patients, the renal insufficiency appeared from different etiologies and ligth microscopy showed only corion edema. It was only through the EM studies that we could show great autophagic vacuoles in almost all surface epithelial cells; some of them, containing citoplasmic structure residues. In the four patients we found a remarkable activity of autophagocitosis. The autodestructive celular changes suggest two possibilities: a) the mucosal edema could obstruct a poorer nutrition of the tissues and/or b) It could represent a high flucagon activity.
Alzouebi, M; Sarrigiannis, P G; Hadjivassiliou, M
We describe a 47-year-old male who presented with acute renal failure and later developed bilateral facial weakness, complete ophthalmoplegia, flaccid tetraparesis and diminished sensation in the extremities. Renal biopsy and urine toxicology were consistent with ethylene glycol intoxication. Sequential neurophysiological examinations revealed sensory nerve axonal loss, proximal motor nerve conduction block and a proximodistal type of axonal degeneration. Seven months after ingestion, the patient improved and was able to walk unaided but with residual bilateral facial weakness and distal sensory loss.
García-Miguel, F J; Mirón Rodríguez, M F; Alsina Aser, M J
Acute renal failure is a serious complication of pregnancy associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality; the incidence is currently 1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The most common causes are gestational hypertension, bleeding, sepsis, and intrinsic renal disease. Other less common pregnancy-related syndromes, such as HELLP syndrome or thrombotic microangiopathy, may also lead to kidney failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are forms of thrombotic microangiopathy and although neither is specific to pregnancy, the incidence of these entities rises during gestation. The classic symptoms are fever, hemolytic microangiopathic anemia, thrombopenia, neurologic dysfunction, and kidney abnormalities. When renal involvement is the predominant manifestation, the diagnosis is usually hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Egom, Emmanuel E; Feridooni, Tiam; Hotchkiss, Adam; Kruzliak, Peter; Pasumarthi, Kishore B S
The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a member of the family of vasoactive peptides, is a potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory peptide that contributes to blood pressure and volume homeostasis. These attributes make BNP an ideal drug that could aid in diuresing a fluid-overloaded patient who had poor or worsening renal function. Despite the potential benefits of BNP, accumulating evidence suggests that simply increasing the amount of circulating BNP does not necessarily increase natriuresis in patients with heart failure (HF). Moreover, despite high BNP levels, natriuresis falls when HF progresses from a compensated to a decompensated state, suggesting the emergence of renal resistance to BNP. Although likely multifactorial, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain renal hyporesponsiveness in HF, including, but not limited to, decreased renal BNP availability, down-regulation of natriuretic peptide receptors, and altered BNP intracellular signal transduction pathways. Thus, a better understanding of renal hyporesponsiveness in HF is required to devise strategies to develop novel agents and technologies that directly restore renal BNP efficiency. It is hoped that development of these new therapeutic approaches will serve to limit sodium retention in patients with HF, which may ultimately delay the progression to overt HF.
Bridgewater, Darren; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Cain, Jason E.; Cox, Brian; Jakobson, Madis; Sainio, Kirsi
Renal dysplasia, defined by defective ureteric branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis, is the major cause of renal failure in infants and children. Here, we define a pathogenic role for a β-catenin–activated genetic pathway in murine renal dysplasia. Stabilization of β-catenin in the ureteric cell lineage before the onset of kidney development increased β-catenin levels and caused renal aplasia or severe hypodysplasia. Analysis of gene expression in the dysplastic tissue identified downregulation of genes required for ureteric branching and upregulation of Tgfβ2 and Dkk1. Treatment of wild-type kidney explants with TGFβ2 or DKK1 generated morphogenetic phenotypes strikingly similar to those observed in mutant kidney tissue. Stabilization of β-catenin after the onset of kidney development also caused dysplasia and upregulation of Tgfβ2 and Dkk1 in the epithelium. Together, these results demonstrate that elevation of β-catenin levels during kidney development causes dysplasia. PMID:21436291
Knight, R. J.; Collis, M. G.; Yates, M. S.; Bowmer, C. J.
1. The effect of the selective adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX), on the development of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure was investigated in the rat. 2. CPX at doses of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1, i.v. caused increasing degrees of antagonism of adenosine-induced bradycardia in anaesthetized rats. The magnitude of antagonism was not directly proportional to the increment in dose, but for each dose, it was similar in rats injected with either saline or cisplatin. CPX at a dose of 0.03 mg kg-1 significantly antagonized adenosine-induced bradycardia for up to 2.5 h, while doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1 produced significant blockade for periods longer than 5 h. 3. Administration of cisplatin (6 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused acute renal failure characterized by decreased inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, increased urine volume but decreased excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions and by increased plasma levels of urea and creatinine. Kidney weight was increased in cisplatin-treated rats and renal tubule necrosis occurred. 4. Administration of CPX (0.03 mg kg-1, i.v.; twice daily for two days) to rats given cisplatin did not reduce the severity of the resultant renal failure. However, treatment with 0.1 mg kg-1 CPX attenuated the increases in plasma creatinine/urea levels observed in rats on days 3 and 7 after induction of renal failure. In addition, this dose significantly reduced renal tubule damage and increased inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances. A similar pattern of protection was noted with CPX at a dose of 0.3 mg kg-1 although the increase in inulin clearance was not statistically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810593
Kohzuki, M; Kamimoto, M; Wu, X M; Xu, H L; Kawamura, T; Mori, N; Nagasaka, M; Kurosawa, H; Minami, N; Kanazawa, M; Saito, T; Yoshida, K
Patients with chronic renal failure are restricted to mild physical activity and tend to a lack of exercise. However, there have been few reports regarding the influence of chronic exercise on the progression of renal disease. Similarly, there are few animal models concerned with the effect of exercise training on improving renal function. Therefore, we assessed the renal effects of moderate chronic treadmill exercise in a remnant kidney model of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with chronic renal failure. We also assessed the effects of exercise and antihypertensive therapy on renal function. Eight-week-old SHR were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy by removal of the left kidney and excision of two-thirds of the right kidney. The rats were divided into four groups: (i) no exercise (Non-EX); (ii) moderate exercise with treadmill running (20 m/min, 0 grade incline for 60 min) (EX); (iii) EX with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril (2 mg/kg per day, i.p.); and (iv) EX with an angiotensin receptor antagonist, losartan (5 mg/kg per day, i.p.), for 4 weeks. Chronic EX significantly attenuated the increase in proteinuria (P < 0.01) and significantly protected against increases in the index of glomerular sclerosis (IGS). Both enalapril and losartan with EX significantly decreased blood pressure (P < 0.001), and further decreased the IGS. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, only antihypertensive drug remained in the model as a significant predictor of IGS (P < 0.0001). In contrast, exercise, antihypertensive drug and mean systolic blood pressure (weeks 1-4) remained in the model as a significant predictors of mean proteinuria (weeks 1-4) (all P < 0.0001). These results suggest that exercise does not worsen renal function and has renal-protective effects in this model of rats. Moreover, the antihypertensive therapy has additional renal-protective effects in this model of rats.
Makhoul, Imad R; Soudack, Michalle; Smolkin, Tatiana; Sujov, Polo; Epelman, Monica; Eisenstein, Israel; Magen, Daniela; Zelikovic, Israel
Sonographic findings of renal medullary hyperechogenicity have been observed in the neonate in association with severe perinatal renal injury, kidney malformations or nephrocalcinosis, and, rarely, in newborn infants with transient renal failure. The aim of the study was to describe the entity of neonatal transient renal failure with renal medullary hyperechogenicity (NTRFMH). We studied nine term neonates, born between August 1999 and February 2004 in our institution (0.1% of the live born infants), who developed transient renal dysfunction after birth, and in whom renal sonograms showed bilateral medullary hyperechogenicity. Seven of the infants (78%) had anuria until 30-45 hours of age, and two (22%) had oliguria. Peak serum creatinine levels ranged between 0.61 and 1.62 mg/dL (mean: 1.09+/-0.27 mg/dL) at 2-3 days of life. Additional findings included proteinuria in nine infants (100%), uric acid crystalluria in seven (78%), hyperuricemia in four (44%), and hypertension in one (11%). Hyperuricosuria was demonstrated in one out of the seven patients in whom this parameter was determined. Urinary excretion rates of calcium, phosphorus and oxalic acid were normal, as were urinary levels of amino acids and organic acids. Full clinical recovery accompanied by normalization of all laboratory parameters was observed in all infants by 4-6 days of life. Subsequent follow-up showed normal renal function, no urinary abnormalities, and normal renal sonograms in all infants. Our summary of the nine infants with NTRFMH reported on here and a review of 19 cases of this condition reported in the literature reveal a not-so-rare entity of unclear etiology, but excellent prognosis. Physicians caring for neonates should be aware of this benign and transient condition.
Webb, N.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Hughes, D.; Brocklebank, T.; Judd, B.; Lewis, M.; Postlethwaite, R.; Smith, P.; Corbitt, G.
OBJECTIVES—To investigate the seroconversion rate and duration of persistence of protective antibody titres after varicella immunisation in children with renal failure. DESIGN—32 children (25 end stage and 7 pre-end stage renal failure) were immunised using 2 × 2000 plaque forming unit doses of varicella vaccine 3 months apart. Varicella antibody titres were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS—All children initially seroconverted after immunisation. At a mean follow up of 20.3 months, 23 of 28 had protective antibody titres, 4 children having died of unrelated causes. Two children required a third booster dose. 11 children underwent renal transplantation; 10 had protective titres at the time of transplantation and, at a mean of 23.4 months after immunisation, 6 currently have protective titres. Minor side effects occurred after 11 vaccine doses in 9 children. No child developed varicella, despite 10 clear episodes of exposure to the wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS—Varicella immunisation in children with end stage and pre-end stage renal failure results in a high rate of seroconversion and persistence of protective antibody titres. More widespread use of the vaccine before renal transplantation is recommended. PMID:10648369
Mong Hiep, Tran Thi; Janssen, Françoise; Ismaili, Khalid; Khai Minh, Dang; Vuong Kiet, Doan; Robert, Annie
The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and treatment modalities and to determine mortality risks in hospitalized children with chronic renal failure (CRF) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We reviewed the records of 310 children with CRF hospitalized in Ho Chi Minh City from January 2001 to December 2005. The average annual number cases was 4.8 per million child population native to Ho Chi Minh City. Median age was 14 years; 85% of patients were in end-stage renal failure. Associated illnesses were anemia (96%), hypertension (74%), and cardiopulmonary diseases (39%). Causes of included glomerulonephritis (30%) and congenital/hereditary anomalies (20%), but in 50% of children, the etiology was unavailable. Seventy-three percent of cases with end-stage renal failure did not benefit from renal replacement therapy. During hospitalization, 47 patients (15%) died. Mortality risks were higher in young children (1-4 years), in boys, and in patients with acquired pathologies. Severe metabolic acidosis was the main predictive factor of mortality by multivariate regression analysis. Our data shows a poor outcome due to late referral and limited facilities for renal replacement therapy in children with CRF hospitalized in Ho Chi Minh City.
Sacks, S. H.; Aparicio, S. A.; Bevan, A.; Oliver, D. O.; Will, E. J.; Davison, A. M.
Nineteen patients presenting with late renal failure due to prostatic outflow obstruction (mean age 68.7 years; mean serum creatinine concentration 1158 mumol/l) were identified from the admission records of two renal units. As late renal failure secondary to prostatic enlargement is preventable case records were analysed retrospectively in an attempt to identify aspects of management in which preventive efforts might be of value. Delays in referral were common, with a mean of 2.8 years between the onset of prostatic symptoms and time of referral, six patients being referred who had had symptoms for more than three years. Four of five patients who had had a prostatectomy were known to be in renal failure at the time of operation but were not referred until 2-13 years later, when prostatic symptoms had recurred and there was evidence of progressive nephropathy with dilatation of the upper urinary tract. Two patients died on admission and eight (47% of survivors) required long term dialysis, most patients (80%) requiring some dialysis support during the initial period. These findings suggest that progressive nephropathy caused by prostatic outflow obstruction might, in part, be averted by more adequate screening of renal function in men with untreated prostatism and closer follow up of patients with uraemia at the time of prostatectomy. PMID:2466506
Sacks, S H; Aparicio, S A; Bevan, A; Oliver, D O; Will, E J; Davison, A M
Nineteen patients presenting with late renal failure due to prostatic outflow obstruction (mean age 68.7 years; mean serum creatinine concentration 1158 mumol/l) were identified from the admission records of two renal units. As late renal failure secondary to prostatic enlargement is preventable case records were analysed retrospectively in an attempt to identify aspects of management in which preventive efforts might be of value. Delays in referral were common, with a mean of 2.8 years between the onset of prostatic symptoms and time of referral, six patients being referred who had had symptoms for more than three years. Four of five patients who had had a prostatectomy were known to be in renal failure at the time of operation but were not referred until 2-13 years later, when prostatic symptoms had recurred and there was evidence of progressive nephropathy with dilatation of the upper urinary tract. Two patients died on admission and eight (47% of survivors) required long term dialysis, most patients (80%) requiring some dialysis support during the initial period. These findings suggest that progressive nephropathy caused by prostatic outflow obstruction might, in part, be averted by more adequate screening of renal function in men with untreated prostatism and closer follow up of patients with uraemia at the time of prostatectomy.
Zainal, D; Monniaty, M; Nazmi, N
The pattern and outcome of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) in Kelantan, the northeastern state of Malaysia was determined. A total of 60 patients with CRF managed at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia between January 1991 and June 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The prevalence of CRF was 24.8 patients per year. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.5 : 1.0. Their mean age at presentation was 51.4 +/- 13.7 years. The cause of CRF in majority of our patients was unknown. Their mean blood urea and serum creatinine were 38.9 +/- 9.8 mmol/l and 1,154.9 +/- 458.7 mumol/l respectively. Sixty-five percent of our patients were already in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) at the time of presentation and only 53.8% of them could afford a definitive renal replacement therapy. Their mortality rate was 21.7% and majority of the death occurred in patients who were not receiving definitive renal replacement therapy. This debilitating course will continue unless the cost of renal replacement therapy is subsidised or a renal transplantation program is activated. Hence public education to encourage organ donation in this part of Malysia is necessary.
García, N H; Baigorria, S T; Juncos, L I
Hyperkalemia is widely viewed as a common complication of ACE inhibition in azotemic patients. These renal failure patients are the patients who benefit most from ACE inhibition. Because we could not confirm this notion after a retrospective evaluation of 236 azotemic patients, we studied 2 models of renal mass reduction. In the first, we did a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) on rats and studied them 2 weeks after surgery (before chronic renal changes had developed). A second group was studied 16 weeks after Nx, once chronic renal failure was established. Rats in both models were treated with quinapril in drinking water. After baseline evaluation, we challenged them either by a high-K(+) diet or by blocking aldosterone receptors. We found that although quinapril blocked the K(+)-induced increase in aldosterone, serum K(+) levels and K(+) balance were maintained before and during high K(+) intake or during simultaneous spironolactone administration. We conclude that in hemodynamically stable rats with reduced renal mass and renal dysfunction, the administration of an ACE inhibitor does not cause severe hyperkalemia.
Pickering, S P; Fletcher, B D; Bryan, P J; Abramowsky, C R
A newborn male presented with bilateral nephromegaly and mild hypertension. Function of the right kidney was reduced on excretory urography. Ultrasound showed bilaterally enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity and poorly defined corticomedullary junctions. Areas of decreased medullary enhancement were seen on CT. Renal biopsy demonstrated lymphangioma, probably arising from the peripelvic renal tissues.
Patel, Ami M; Adeseun, Gbemisola A; Ahmed, Irfan; Mitter, Nanhi; Rame, J Eduardo; Rudnick, Michael R
Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used as a bridge to transplantation or as destination therapy in patients with end stage heart failure refractory to conventional medical therapy. A significant number of these patients have associated renal dysfunction before LVAD implantation, which may improve after LVAD placement due to enhanced perfusion. Other patients develop AKI after implantation. LVAD recipients who develop AKI requiring renal replacement therapy in the hospital or who ultimately require long-term outpatient hemodialysis therapy present management challenges with respect to hemodynamics, volume, and dialysis access. This review discusses the mechanics of a continuous-flow LVAD (the HeartMate II), the effects of continuous blood flow on the kidney, renal outcomes of patients after LVAD implantation, dialysis modality selection, vascular access, hemodynamic monitoring during the dialytic procedure, and other issues relevant to caring for these patients.
Noordzij, M J; Lefrandt, J D; Smit, A J
The article aims to present an overview of the existing knowledge on advanced glycation end products (AGE). They are moieties that bind to proteins, but also lipids and nuclear acids. AGE are formed during glycation and oxidative stress. Accumulation of AGE occurs especially in diabetes and chronic renal failure and plays a major pathogenetic role. The deleterious effects of AGE result from cross-linking of proteins and activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products. AGE accumulation can be noninvasively assessed by the skin autofluorescence reader. In diabetics, the skin autofluorescence predicts cardiac mortality and the occurrence of macro- and microvascular complications. In patients on haemodialysis, skin autofluorescence is highly elevated and predicts mortality. After renal transplantation AGE accumulation is lower than during haemodialysis, but still remains elevated and is a strong risk factor for chronic renal transplant dysfunction. Some of the potential methods to intervene with AGE accumulation are discussed in this article.
Beaudry, Claude; Laplante, Louis
We report two patients with terminal renal failure secondary to diabetic nephropathy treated with cadaveric kidney transplantation. Neither of these patients had peripheral vascular disease or peripheral neuropathy. There was a proliferative diabetic retinopathy with hemorrhages and exudates in one patient and only background diabetic changes in the ocular fundi of the other; there have been no significant changes in visual acuity or retinopathy in either patient following the transplantation. Both have good kidney function after 8 and 15 months and are completely rehabilitated. The requirement for insulin decreased in both patients during the period of renal insufficiency and increased following transplantation; this seemed to be related to the large dose of steroids given because now that a maintenance level of steroids has been established, both patients require the same dosage of insulin as they did before the onset of renal insufficiency. PMID:4574972
Humes, H David; Weitzel, William F; Bartlett, Robert H; Swaniker, Fresca C; Paganini, Emil P
Renal cell therapy in conjunction with continuous hemofiltration techniques may provide important cellular metabolic activities to patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and may thereby change the natural history of this disorder. The development of a tissue-engineered bioartificial kidney consisting of a conventional hemofiltration cartridge in series with a renal tubule assist device (RAD) containing 10(9) human renal proximal tubule cells provides an opportunity to evaluate this form of therapy in patients with ARF in the intensive care unit. Nine patients with ARF and multi-organ systems failure (MOSF) have been treated so far with a tissue-engineered kidney in an FDA-approved Phase I/II clinical study currently underway. Acute physiologic parameters and serum cytokine levels were assessed before, during and after treatment with a bioartificial kidney. Use of the RAD in this clinical setting demonstrates maintenance of cell viability and functionality. Cardiovascular stability appears to be maintained during RAD treatment. Human tubule cells in the RAD demonstrated differentiated metabolic and endocrinologic activity. Acute physiologic and plasma cytokine data demonstrate that renal cell therapy is associated with rapid and variable responses in patients with ARF and MOSF. The initial clinical experience with the bioartificial kidney and the RAD suggests that renal tubule cell therapy may provide a dynamic and individualized treatment program as assessed by acute physiologic and biochemical indices. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Markwell, P J
In a previous cross-sectional study of feline chronic renal failure (CRF), metabolic acidosis was identified in 52.6 per cent of animals with severe renal failure (plasma creatinine concentration >400 micromol/litre). The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether metabolic acidosis preceded or accompanied a deterioration in renal function in cats with CRF. Data were analysed from 55 cats with CRF that had been followed longitudinally for at least four months. Twenty-one cases showed deterioration in renal function over the period of the study, as evidenced by significant rises in their plasma creatinine concentrations and decreases in bodyweight. In five of the 21 cases, acidaemia accompanied the deterioration in renal function. Only one of these cats had evidence of metabolic acidosis before renal function deterioration. One other case developed metabolic acidosis without a rise in plasma creatinine concentration. These data suggest that biochemical evidence of metabolic acidosis does not generally occur until late in the course of feline CRF.
Krysiak, Robert; Kędzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kędzierska, Joanna; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław
The kidney plays an important role in synthesis, metabolism and elimination of a plethora of hormones. In subjects with chronic renal failure, particularly at its later stages, these adaptive responses are impaired and some of these alterations are of clinical relevance. Endocrine disturbances which are the most characteristic for chronic renal failure include: secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction and impaired growth. The pathogenesis of these complications is complex and multifactorial. This review discusses the most important changes in the function of the parathyroid glands, thyroid and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the light of recent developments in this field. This article also tries to give insights into diagnosis and putative therapeutic strategies. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Krysiak, Robert; Kędzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kędzierska, Joanna; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław
The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance, and volume regulation. In subjects with chronic renal failure, particularly at its later stages, these adaptive responses are impaired and some of these alterations are of clinical relevance. The ways in which chronic renal failure affects function of endocrine organs include impaired secretion of kidney-derived hormones, altered peripheral hormone metabolism, disturbed binding to carrier proteins, accumulation of hormone inhibitors, as well as abnormal target organ responsiveness. Apart from secondary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid dysfunction and impaired growth, reviewed in our previous study, endocrine disturbances that most frequently affect this group of patients include: abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamicpituitary- gonadal axes, bone loss and gynecomastia. The clinical picture and laboratory findings of these endocrine disturbances depend on the treatment strategy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.
Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with /sup 201/TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO/sup 4 +/, and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment.
Sánchez Vicente, J L; Castilla Martino, M; Contreras Díaz, M; Rueda Rueda, T; Molina Socola, F E; Muñoz Morales, A; López Herrero, F; Moruno Rodríguez, A; Vizuete Rodríguez, L; Martínez Borrego, A
The case is reported of a 61 year-old woman with Purtscher-like retinopathy associated with acute renal failure. Ophthalmic examination, fluorescein-angiography, and optical coherence tomography were consistent with Purtscher-like retinopathy. Ophthalmic symptoms and signs preceded renal failure. Pancreatitis and other systemic diseases were ruled out. The patient developed a neovascular glaucoma. Purtscher-like retinopathy rarely precedes the associated systemic illness. Early diagnosis based on ophthalmic symptoms may help in the recognition and treatment of the disease, and prevent later complications. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kumar, A; Leventhal, M R; Freedman, E L; Coburn, J; Delamarter, R
Eleven patients with chronic renal failure and destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine were evaluated with plain radiographs, flexion-extension views, computed tomography myelogram, or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. To determine if cervical spine fusion is an effective method of treatment for patients with chronic renal failure and destructive spondyloarthropathy. Several reports have described the pathogenesis and appearance of this condition, but little has been reported about the orthopedic management of destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine. Three patients had no spinal surgery, three patients had laminectomies alone, three patients had laminectomies with anterior fusions, and two patients had laminectomies with posterior fusions. Radiographs, computed tomography myelograms, and magnetic resonance images were evaluated to determine the results of treatment. Histologic examinations were performed in two patients. Patients with laminectomy alone had no improvement in pain or neurologic function (one died in the immediate postoperative period), one of three patients with anterior fusions had some improvement (one died in the immediate postoperative period), and both of those patients with posterior fusions improved, although both died within a year of surgery from unrelated causes. Even though the osteopenia present in patients with chronic renal failure tends to allow wire pull-out and makes internal fixation of the spine difficult, successful cervical spinal fusion can relieve pain and improve neurologic deficits in selected patients with chronic renal failure and destructive spondyloarthropathy, allowing them to remain more active for longer periods of time.
Hepatitis A virus is the most common acute viral hepatitis worldwide with approximately 1.5 million cases annually. Hepatitis A virus infection in general is self-limited. In rare cases, hepatitis A virus infection may cause renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and/or cholestasis. We report the first case of acute cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection complicated by hemolytic anemia, and renal failure in one patient. A 42-year-old Caucasian male presented with cholestasis, hemolytic anemia and renal failure after consuming street tacos in Central and South America while on a business trip. His protracted course required corticosteroid therapy, multiple sessions of plasma exchange, and numerous units of packed red blood cells. This case demonstrates the importance of vaccination in high-risk adults. A prompt diagnosis of acute hepatitis A virus infection is essential, as uncommon presentations may delay diagnosis leading to permanent morbidity and potentially death in fulminant cases. We also demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection, hemolytic anemia, and renal failure with corticosteroids and plasma exchange. PMID:25431704
Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Barua, U K; Datta, N C; Debnath, C R; Hoque, M M; Hossain, A S; Haider, M S; Das, M
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequently associated with CKD, which is important because individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to develop kidney failure. CVD in CKD is treatable and potentially preventable and CKD appears to be a risk factor for CVD. In order of incidence and frequency systemic hypertension, left ventricular failure, congestive cardiac failure, ischemic heart disease, anaemic heart failure, rhythm disturbances, pericarditis with or without effusion, cardiac tamponade, uraemic cardiomyopathy are various cardiovascular complications encountered in patients with chronic renal failure. A patient may present with one or more complications of cardiovascular system. The survival rate and prognosis to a great extent depends on proper management of these complications. Use of regular dialysis and renal transplant has changed the death pattern in developed countries but it is still a major problem in developing country. The aim of this article is early detection of CKD and proper management of it thereby preventing the major cardiovascular complications.
Ortiz, Alberto; Justo, Pilar; Sanz, Ana; Melero, Rosa; Caramelo, Carlos; Guerrero, Manuel Fernández; Strutz, Frank; Müller, Gerhard; Barat, Antonio; Egido, Jesus
Cidofovir is an antiviral drug with activity against a wide array of DNA viruses including poxvirus. The therapeutic use of cidofovir is marred by a dose-limiting side effect, nephrotoxicity, leading to proximal tubular cell injury and acute renal failure. Treatment with cidofovir requires the routine use of prophylactic measures. A correct knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cidofovir toxicity may lead to the development of alternative prophylactic strategies. We recently cared for a patient with irreversible acute renal failure due to cidofovir. Renal biopsy showed tubular cell apoptosis. Cidofovir induced apoptosis in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells in a temporal (peak apoptosis at 7 days) and concentration (10-40 microg/ml) pattern consistent with that of clinical toxicity. Apoptosis was identified by the presence of hypodiploid cells, by the exposure of annexin V binding sites and by morphological features and was associated with the appearance of active caspase-3 fragments. Cell death was specific as it was also present in a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2), but not in a human kidney fibroblast cell line, and was prevented by probenecid. An inhibitor of caspase-3 (DEVD) prevented cidofovir apoptosis. The survival factors present in serum, insulin-like growth factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor, were also protective. The present data suggest that apoptosis induction is a mechanism contributing to cidofovir nephrotoxicity. The prophylactic administration of factors with survival activity for tubular epithelium should be further explored in cidofovir renal injury.
Wood, A. J.; Ferry, D. G.; Bailey, R. R.
1 The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered labetalol were studied in four patients with severe renal failure and in three normal subjects. 2 A new and sensitive method for the assay of plasma labetalol concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography is described. 3 Labetalol has a relatively large apparent volume of distribution (3.3-7.9 l/kg, two-compartment open model) and a relatively high plasma clearance (0.3-1.6 1 h-1 kg-1). 4 There were no significant differences between the patients with severe renal failure and the controls for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters measured. 5 In the presence of renal functional impairment, no modification of labetalol dosage is required. 6 In another study of 31 patients, glomerular filtration rate was measured at 3-month intervals for 3-18 months. In ten patients there was no change, in ten there was an improvement and in 11 there was deterioration, but in only three was this attributable to treatment. 7 In our experience with over 300 patients, we conclude that labetalol plus diuretic treatment is efficacious and safe in all grades of hypertension including those with all degrees of renal insufficiency. PMID:7093103
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is one of the most common illnesses of geriatric cats. Common clinical signs include polydipsia, polyuria, decreased appetite, weight loss, and vomiting. Although CRF is incurable, it may be possible to delay the progression of the disorder by feeding an appropriate diet and by monitoring and normalizing (if possible) several parameters, including blood pressure, serum phosphorus and potassium levels, parathyroid hormone levels, and proteinuria.
Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.
Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538
Gruberg, L; Mehran, R; Dangas, G; Mintz, G S; Waksman, R; Kent, K M; Pichard, A D; Satler, L F; Wu, H; Leon, M B
Acute renal failure requiring dialysis is a rare but serious complication after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. We have analyzed the incidence, resource utilization, short- and long-term outcomes, and predictors of dialysis after percutaneous coronary interventions. We studied 51 consecutive patients who were not on dialysis on admission and developed acute renal failure that required in-hospital dialysis after PCI in comparison to the 7,690 patients who did not require dialysis after PCI. Patients who required dialysis were older, with a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes, prior bypass surgery, chronic renal failure, and a significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite similar angiographic success, these patients had a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality (27.5% vs. 1.0%, P < 0.0001), non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (45.7% vs. 14.6%, P < 0.0001), vascular and bleeding complications, and longer hospitalization. At 1-year follow-up, mortality (54.5% vs. 6.4%, P < 0.0001), myocardial infarction (4.5% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.006), and event-free survival (38.6% vs. 72.0%, P < 0.0001) were significantly worse in patients who required dialysis compared to patients who did not. Multivariate analysis revealed in-hospital dialysis and an increase in baseline serum creatinine levels as the most important predictors of in-hospital and long-term mortality. Thus, acute renal failure that requires dialysis after percutaneous coronary interventions is associated with very high in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates and a dramatic increase in hospital resource utilization.
Hemmings, N.; West, M.; Birkhead, T. R.
About 10 per cent of birds' eggs fail to hatch, but the incidence of failure can be much higher in endangered species. Most studies fail to distinguish between infertility (due to a lack of sperm) and embryo mortality as the cause of hatching failure, yet doing so is crucial in order to understand the underlying problem. Using newly validated techniques to visualize sperm and embryonic tissue, we assessed the fertility status of unhatched eggs of five endangered species, including both wild and captive birds. All eggs were classified as ‘infertile’ when collected, but most were actually fertile with numerous sperm on the ovum. Eggs of captive birds had fewer sperm and were more likely to be infertile than those of wild birds. Our findings raise important questions regarding the management of captive breeding programmes. PMID:22977070
Lands, Harrison M; Drake, David B
The objective of this study was to review the investigation that uncovered the medical mystery of burn patients developing unexpected renal failure. The authors examined published and unpublished manuscripts and case reports, as well as conducted personal interviews with primary sources. In the late 1970s, emergence of resistant bacterial strains to the topical antimicrobial silver sulfadiazine occurred at the University of Virginia Medical Center. In the search for an alternative topical antimicrobial with known coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Furacin Soluble Dressing was substituted. However, Furacin Soluble Dressing produced an unexpected toxicity syndrome of hyperosmolality, metabolic gap acidosis, hypercalcemia, and ultimately renal failure. In a search for an antimicrobial with an improved spectrum against Pseudomonas, a Federal Drug Administration-approved product was used to treat large surface area burns. An unexpected toxicity syndrome developed which was traced to the polyethylene glycol base of Furacin Soluble Dressing. This substance was absorbed through the burn wounds, metabolized, and resulted in a toxicity syndrome leading to renal failure. The burn community should be cautious when using products that may be approved as nontoxic for small surface area application, as they may have unexpected medical side effects when used with large surface area burns.
Fagugli, R M; Gentile, G; Ferrara, G; Brugnano, R
Hyperuricemia is present in about 5% of the population, and allopurinol is frequently used to treat it. The use of this drug can be associated with a number of side effects, indicating allergic reactions, such as skin rash, reversible after its withdrawal. In some cases more severe hypersensitivity reactions may be seen, such as erythema multiforme exudativum, or Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS). Reversible clinical hepatotoxicity, as well as acute renal failure, may also develop after allopurinol therapy. We describe here the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic renal failure who was admitted to hospital after 1 week of sore throat and fever, presenting mucous membrane lesions, widespread blistering of the skin, evolving to flaccid vesicles and bullae, and extensive epidermal detachment associated with acute renal failure and cholestatic jaundice. A diagnosis of allopurinol-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was established. Allopurinol was discontinued, and intensive care management was required: the patient was successfully treated by using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), standard hemodialysis, and albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System - MARS, Teraklin AG, Rostock, Germany). Allopurinol-induced TEN is extremely rare, however, the survival rate is extremely low. Clinicians should be aware of this potentially severe adverse effect. This report emphasizes the importance of an aggressive pharmacological and dialysis treatment in the case of TEN.
Israel, Nejla; Markova, Tsveti
Calciphylaxis is a lethal disorder seen in patients with end-stage renal disease and is characterized by painful necrotic skin lesions. The pathophysiology is still unknown. Elevated calcium, phosphorous and parathormone appear to play a role in causing small and medium sized vasculopathy. Diagnosis is delayed, prognosis is poor and mortality remains high. In this article we describe the case of calciphylaxis in a patient with chronic renal failure and multiple medical comorbidities, and discuss diagnostic management, prognosis and treatment options. PMID:19830094
Mois, Emil Ioan; Graur, Florin; Sechel, Roxana; Al-Hajjar, Nadim
Giant tubular-villous adenoma of the rectum can determine secretory diarrhea, associated with a depleting syndrome of prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia. These symptoms are known as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, and there are about 50 cases reported in literature. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, prerenal azotemia, and electrolyte disturbances with a background of chronic diarrhea, caused by a giant rectal tumor. Conservative therapy initially improved and normalized renal function, and made surgical resection of the tumor possible.
MOIS, EMIL IOAN; GRAUR, FLORIN; SECHEL, ROXANA; AL-HAJJAR, NADIM
Giant tubular-villous adenoma of the rectum can determine secretory diarrhea, associated with a depleting syndrome of prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia. These symptoms are known as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, and there are about 50 cases reported in literature. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, prerenal azotemia, and electrolyte disturbances with a background of chronic diarrhea, caused by a giant rectal tumor. Conservative therapy initially improved and normalized renal function, and made surgical resection of the tumor possible. PMID:27152085
Osswald, H; Vallon, V; Mühlbauer, B
1. Adenosine (ADO) can induce renal vasoconstriction and a fall in glomerular filtration rate. When the rate of ATP hydrolysis prevails over the rate of ATP synthesis the kidney generates ADO at an enhanced rate. 2. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is the vascular response to changes of the NaCl concentration in the tubular fluid at the macula densa segment, which is the result of transepithelial electrolyte reabsorption by the proximal tubule and the loop of Henle. 3. TGF can be inhibited by ADO-A1 receptor antagonists and is potentiated by substances that can elevate extracellular ADO concentrations. These observations led to the hypothesis that ADO is an element of the signal transmission processes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. 4. Renal ischaemia and nephrotoxic substances can induce acute renal failure (ARF). ADO receptor antagonists have been shown to ameliorate renal function in several different models of ARF in laboratory animals and humans. 5. A number of factors, such as extracellular volume contraction, low NaCl diet, angiotensin II and cyclooxygenase inhibitors enhance to a similar extent: (a) the renal vascular response to endogenous and exogenous ADO; (b) the TGF response of the nephron; and (c) the severity of ARF. All three phenomena are susceptible to antagonism by ADO receptor antagonists. 6. Therefore, we conclude that ADO plays a significant role in normal and pathological states of kidney function.
Suehiro, K; Shimizu, J; Yi, G H; Gu, A; Wang, J; Keren, G; Burkhoff, D
Renal failure is common in heart failure due to renovascular constriction and hypotension. We tested whether selective pharmacological renal artery vasodilation and active renal artery perfusion (ARP) could improve renal function without adverse effects on systemic blood pressure in a canine model of acute heart failure (AHF). AHF was induced by coronary microembolization in 16 adult mongrel dogs. In five dogs, selective intrarenal (IR) papaverine (1, 2, and 4 mg/min) was administered into the left renal artery. In six dogs, ARP was performed in the left renal artery to normalize mean renal arterial pressure followed by administration of IR papaverine (2 mg/min). In five dogs, ARP plus intravenous furosemide was tested. Urine output (UO) and cortical renal blood flow decreased during AHF and were restored by 2 mg/min IR papaverine (UO: baseline 4.2 +/- 0.6, AHF 1.6 +/- 1.3, IR papaverine 5.8 +/- 1.1 ml/15 min; cortical blood flow: baseline 4.3 +/- 0.2, AHF 2.4 +/- 0.6, IR papaverine 4.2 +/- 1.2 ml/min/g) with no significant change in aortic pressure. ARP also increased urine output and cortical renal blood flow (UO: baseline 5.0 +/- 1.1, AHF 0.5 +/- 0.4, ARP 3.8 +/- 3.1 ml/15 min; cortical blood flow: baseline 4.0 +/- 0.5, AHF 2.0 +/- 0.8, ARP 3.52 +/- 1.1 ml/min/g). A combination of these methods in AHF further increased urine output to twice the normal baseline (10.5 +/- 7.5 ml/15 min). Addition of furosemide synergistically increased UO above that achieved with ARP alone (5.5 +/- 2.6 versus 40.3 +/- 24.7 ml/15 min, p = 0.03). In conclusion, ARP and selective renal vasodilation may effectively promote salt and water excretion in the setting of heart failure, particularly when systemic blood pressure is low.
Iavecchia, Lujan; Cereza García, Gloria; Sabaté Gallego, Mònica; Vidal Guitart, Xavier; Ramos Terrades, Natalia; de la Torre, Judith; Segarra Medrano, Alfons; Agustí Escasany, Antònia
The information available on the incidence and the characteristics of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) related to drugs is scarce. To estimate the incidence of drug-related ARF in hospitalised patients and to compare their characteristics with those of patients with ARF due to other causes. We selected a prospective cohort of patients with ARF during hospital admission (July 2010-July 2011). Information on patients' demographics, medical antecedents, ARF risk factors, ARF severity according to the RIFLE classification and hospital drug administration was collected. We analysed the relationship of drugs with the ARF episodes using Spanish Pharmacovigilance System methods and algorithm. A total of 194 cases had an episode of hospital-acquired ARF. The median age of patients was 72 years [IQR 20]; 60% were men. The ARF incidence during hospitalization was 9.6 per 1,000 admissions. According to the RIFLE classification, a risk of kidney damage or kidney injury was present in 77.8% of cases. In 105 (54.1%) cases, ARF was drug-related; the drugs most frequently involved were diuretics, agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system, immunosuppressants, β-blocking agents, calcium channel blockers, contrast media and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients with drug-related ARF had more multi-morbidity, fewer ARF risk factors and lower mortality. Half of ARF episodes during hospitalisation were drug related. Patients with drug-related ARF had higher cardiovascular morbidity than those with ARF related to other causes, but they had a lower frequency of ARF risk factors and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Deguchi, E; Akuzawa, M
The renal clearance test was carried out in 6 normal male cats and 12 male cats with chronic renal failure. The average concentrations of creatinine (Cr), urea, sodium (Na), and potassium (K) in the serum of the cats with chronic renal failure were 5.09, 136.7 (mg/100 ml), 143.9 and 3.71 (mEq/l) respectively, and the specific gravity of urine was 1.009. The renal clearances of Cr, urea, Na, and K (ml/min/kg of body weight) were 2.639 +/- 0.217, 1.034 +/- 0.110, 0.024 +/- 0.007 and 0.266 +/- 0.028, respectively in normal cats, and were 0.789 +/- 0.407, 0.358 +/- 0.211, 0.095 +/- 0.084 and 0.872 +/- 0.204 in cats with chronic renal failure. Clearance of Cr and urea was significantly lower in cats with chronic renal failure than in normal cats, while the values of Na and K were significantly higher in cats with chronic renal failure. The glomerular filtration of Cr and urea and the urinary excretion of these 4 substances were significantly higher in cats with chronic renal failure. The tubular reabsorption rates of Na and K were significantly lower in cats with chronic renal failure compared to those in normal cats, but there was no significant difference in urea and creatinine.
Sasaki, Tomohiko; Motoyama, Satoru; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Wakita, Akiyuki; Saito, Hajime; Anbai, Akira; Jin, Mario; Minamiya, Yoshihiro
Introduction We experienced two esophageal cancer patients who developed severe acute renal failure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorourasil. Presentation of case After administration of cisplatin, their serum creatinine increased gradually until they required hemodialysis and their renal failure was permanent. In both cases, renal biopsy examination indicated partial recovery of the proximal tubule, but renal function did not recover. After these events, one patient underwent definitive radiotherapy and the other underwent esophagectomy for their esophageal cancers, while continuing dialysis. Both patients are alive without cancer recurrence. Discussion In these two cases of cisplatin-induced renal failure, renal biopsy examination showed only slight disorder of proximal tubules and tendency to recover. Conclusion Although cisplatin-related nephrotoxicity is a well-recognized complication, there have been few reports of renal failure requiring hemodialysis in cancer patients. In this report, we present their clinical courses and the pathological findings of cisplatin-related renal failure. PMID:26851395
Strazdins, Vladimirs; Harvey, Ben
Acute renal failure (ARF) is uncommon in childhood and there is little consensus on the appropriate treatment modality when renal replacement therapy is required. Members of the European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group have produced the following guidelines in collaboration with nursing staff. Good practice requires early discussion of patients with ARF with pediatric nephrology staff and transfer for investigation and management in those with rapidly deteriorating renal function. Patients with ARF as part of multi-organ failure will be cared for in pediatric intensive care units where there should be access to pediatric nephrology support and advice. The choice of dialysis therapy will therefore depend upon the clinical circumstances, location of the patient, and expertise available. Peritoneal dialysis has generally been the preferred therapy for isolated failure of the kidney and is universally available. Intermittent hemodialysis is frequently used in renal units where nursing expertise is available and hemofiltration is increasingly employed in the intensive care situation. Practical guidelines for and the complications of each therapy are discussed. PMID:14685840
Merla, Ramanna; Martinez, Juan D; Martinez, Milagros A; Khalife, Wissam; Bionat, Susan; Bionat, Joanne; Barbagelata, Alejandro
The extent to which hypothyroidism affects renal function in patients with heart failure remains incompletely explored, despite the known adverse prognostic implications of renal dysfunction in these patients.In a pilot retrospective study, we evaluated 75 patients (age, >or=18 yr) with left ventricular ejection fractions <0.40. Forty-five patients had normal thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.35-5.5 micro IU/mL) and 30 had hypothyroidism. The group with hypothyroidism was subdivided into 17 patients who had controlled hypothyroidism (TSH, 0.35-5.5 micro IU/mL) and 13 who had uncontrolled hypothyroidism (TSH, >5.5 micro IU/mL). Renal function, measured in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was analyzed once in each patient, and the populations were statistically compared, with P <0.05 conferring statistical significance.Baseline characteristics in all groups were similar. Mean glomerular filtration rate was better in patients with normal thyroid function than those with hypothyroidism (75.45 +/- 31.48 vs 63.95 +/- 21.43 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=0.032). There was no significant difference between patients with controlled hypothyroidism (66.89 +/- 24.18 mL/min/1.73 m2) and those with normal thyroid function (P=0.131). In patients with uncontrolled hypothyroidism, mean glomerular filtration rate (60.2 +/- 17.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) was significantly worse than in patients with normal thyroid function (P=0.015).We found that heart-failure patients with insufficiently treated hypothyroidism have worse renal function than do patients whose thyroid function is normal or whose hypothyroidism is effectively treated. Larger studies will be needed in order to evaluate this conclusion further. We recommend that hypothyroidism in heart-failure patients be strictly controlled, lest it affect prognosis adversely.
van Welsem, M E; Lobatto, S
The case of a 41-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure and diabetes mellitus Type 1 who was being prepared for renal replacement therapy is described. After severe hypothyroidism was diagnosed, thyroid hormone substitution therapy was started. Subsequently, a substantial decline in serum creatinine was observed. Creatinine clearance rose from 19 to 40 ml/min and renal replacement therapy was no longer imminent. Several studies have described the pathophysiology of diminished renal function in hypothyroidism. Few studies or case reports have shown amelioration of end-stage renal failure as seen in our patient. The etiology is presumed to be multifactorial, in which hemodynamic effects and a direct effect of thyroid hormone on the kidney play an important role. Diagnosing signs of hypothyroidism and therapy with thyroid hormone in progressive renal failure could be very important in delaying the need for renal replacement therapy.
Patel, R; Das, M; Palazzolo, M; Ansari, A; Balasubramaniam, S
Eight cases of myoglobinuric acute renal failure that developed following exposure to phencyclidine were seen in the emergency department of the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital during a period of 36 months. All eight survived with complete recovery of renal function. Dialysis was necessary in three patients. Acute renal failure is an uncommon complication of phencyclidine abuse.
Soltani, Parvin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Pirasteh, Shadi
We report a case of acute renal failure related to rhabdomyolysis in a patient with Sheehan syndrome, while other diseases that could cause rhabdomyolysis were excluded. The patient's kidney function completely recovered with 3 sessions of intermittent hemodialysis. After thyroxine replacement therapy, musculoskeletal symptoms disappeared and creatine kinase concentrations decreased. Steroid replacement therapy was also administered. The present case suggests that rhabdomyolysis could occur in a patient with Sheehan syndrome without other precipitating factors.
Cheung, Ching M; Ponnusamy, Arvind; Anderton, John G
Numerous anatomical and functional changes occurring in the aging kidney lead to reduced glomerular filtration rate, lower renal blood flow and impaired renal autoregulation. The elderly are especially vulnerable to the development of renal dysfunction and in this population acute renal failure (ARF) is a common problem. ARF is often iatrogenic and multifactorial; common iatrogenic combinations include pre-existing renal dysfunction and exposure to nephrotoxins such as radiocontrast agents or aminoglycosides, use of NSAIDs in patients with congestive cardiac failure and use of ACE inhibitors and diuretics in patients with underlying atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The aetiology of ARF is classically grouped into three categories: prerenal, intrinsic and postrenal. Prerenal ARF is the second most common cause of ARF in the elderly, accounting for nearly one-third of all hospitalized cases. Common causes can be grouped into true volume depletion (e.g. decreased fluid intake), decreased effective blood volume (e.g. systemic vasodilation) and haemodynamic (e.g. renal artery stenosis, NSAID use). Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the most common cause of intrinsic ARF and is responsible for over 50% of ARF in hospitalized patients, and up to 76% of cases in patients in intensive care units. ATN usually occurs after an acute ischaemic or toxic event. The pathogenesis of ATN involves an interplay of processes that include endothelial injury, microvascular flow disruption, tubular hypoxia, dysfunction and apoptosis, tubular obstruction and trans-tubular back-leak. Vasculitis causing ARF should not be missed as this condition is potentially life threatening. The likelihood of a postrenal cause for ARF increases with age. Benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic carcinoma and pelvic malignancies are all important causes. Early identification of ARF secondary to obstruction with renal imaging is essential, and complete or partial renal recovery usually ensues following
Robinette, J B; Conger, J D
The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129
8 patients suffering from acute renal failure (shock kidney) with anuria extending over 3 to 5 days, were treated with L-thyroxine for 5 to 9 days (5-6 mug per kg body weight per day orally). Diuresis was restored within 34 to 46 hrs. Plasma levels of urea and creatinine decreased earlier and much more rapidly to normal than was to be expected from the natural history of the disease, indicating the prompt and extensive increase of glomerular filtration rate. Polyuria seemed less pronounced and also shortened as compared with the ordinary course of that form of sudden renal insufficiency. Obviously, the well-known diuretic response in the normal individual to high doses of thyroid hormones in not a factor in the induction of diuresis in acute renal failure. The tendency with L-thyroxine treatment to dilate the preglomerular arterial vessel is considered a consequence of the stimulation of sodium reabsorption in the upper nephron. High values of RPF and GFR, regularly observed in hyperthyroidism or after L-thyroxine administration, do not depend on any augmentation of cardiac output or on arterial hypertension, since such symptoms were missed in our patients and, in our view, such an interpretation is excluded by the very existence of the so-called autoregulation of the kidney which leaves RPF (and therefore GFR) independent of systemic blood pressure. The same intrarenal feed-back mechanism, normally adapting the glomerular blood supply to the resorptive capacity of the proximal-tubular epithelium (mediation via the juxta-glomerular apparatus), is responsible for the GFR- and RPF-raising effect of exogenous L-thyroxine in the intact kidney as well as in acute renal failure: both sodium reabsorption and sodium filtration are accelerated.--The special conditions under which L-thyroxine interferes with the pathogenetic process of acute renal failure, the latter being characterised by the critical insufficiency of tubular sodium reabsorption and therefore by
Santos, Fernando; Carbajo-Pérez, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Julián; Fernández-Fuente, Marta; Molinos, Inés; Amil, Benito; García, Enrique
Chronic renal failure modifies the morphology and dynamics of the growth plate (GP) of long bones. In young uremic rats, the height of cartilage columns of GP may vary markedly. The reasons for this variation are unknown, although the severity and duration of renal failure and the type of renal osteodystrophy have been shown to influence the height of GP cartilage. Expansion of GP cartilage is associated with that of the hypertrophic stratum. The interference of uremia with the process of chondrocyte differentiation is suggested by some morphological features. However, analysis by immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization of markers of chondrocyte maturation in the GP of uremic rats has yielded conflicting results. Thus, there have been reported normal and reduced mRNA levels for collagen X, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, as well as normal mRNA and protein expression for vascular endothelial growth factor and chondromodulin I, peptides related to the control of angiogenesis. In addition, a decreased immunohistochemical signal for growth hormone receptor and low insulin-like growth factor I mRNA in the proliferative zone of uremic GP are supportive of reduced chondrocyte proliferation. Growth hormone treatment improves chondrocyte maturation and activates bone metabolism in the primary spongiosa.
Volmer, Petra A; Roberts, Jennifer; Meerdink, Gavin L
The development of anuric renal failure associated with zinc intoxication was detected in a dog following ingestion of an ornamental brass knob from a toilet paper holder. The 3-y-old, male neutered, 15.4 kg Welsh Corgi presented to a local veterinary clinic with a 2-w history of intermittent vomiting, inappetance and lethargy. The dog was transferred to a veterinary teaching hospital where surgery was performed to remove the foreign body. The dogwas euthanized 24 h post-surgery due to the development of anuric renal failure. Whole blood drawn at the time of surgery had a serum zinc concentration of 89.8 ppm (normal 0.7-2.0 ppm). The serum zinc concentration in this dog is the highest reported concentration in the literature. Ingestion of any zinc-containing metal object can potentially result in a severe intravascular hemolysis with subsequent renal impairment. Zinc intoxication should be suspected when hemolysis is accompanied by the finding of a metallic object in the gut.
Gluhovschi, G; Golea, O; Schiller, A; Arcan, P; Drăgan, I; Nasem, A K; Barbu, N
A group of 37 hemodialyzed patients with chronic renal failure were investigated within a period of 6 months to 9 years. Of these patients five presented quantitatively significant bacteriuria noncorrelated with the causal nephropathy. Of the 9 patients with urologic past history two presented urinary infection. Urinary bacterial immunofluorescence was constantly positive in all the cases in which bacteriuria was significant and, at least in one determination when the germ count was below 10,000/ml. This finding was also supported by the increase of gammaglobulinemia and of the circulating immune complexes in all the cases investigated as well as of the B lymphocytes in one third of cases. Fifty percent of the patients presented T lymphocytopenia with excess of suppressor lymphocytes and deficit of the helper ones. It can, therefore be assumed that in patients with chronic renal failure nondialyzable antigens persist in the renal parenchyma where they stimulate anticorpogenesis but at a low level owing to some immune disturbances present in such patients.
Peces, R; Alvarez-Navascués, R
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a disorder encompassing a wide spectrum of pathological renal lesions. Coexistence of unilateral RCC and associated pathology in the contralateral kidney is an unusual and challenging therapeutic dilemma that can result in renal failure. So far, data on unilateral RCC with chronic renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy have not been published. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from unilateral RCC, and to assess the associated pathology and possible pathogenic factors. In 1999, a survey of the 350 patients treated by chronic dialysis in Asturias, Spain, was carried out to identify and collect clinical information on patients with primary unilateral RCC whilst on their renal replacement programme. Seven patients were identified as having ESRD and unilateral RCC, giving an incidence of 2% of patients treated by dialysis. There was a wide spectrum of associated disease and clinical presentation. All patients underwent radical or partial nephrectomy and were free of recurrence 6--64 months after surgery. Six patients were alive and free of malignancy recurrence for 6--30 months after the onset of haemodialysis. ESRD is rare in association with unilateral RCC, but does contribute to significant morbidity. However, the data presented here are encouraging and suggest that cancer-free survival with renal replacement therapy can be achieved in such patients.
Zeleniuk, V H; Zamors'kyĭ, I I; Horoshko, O M
The effect of three statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) on the renal function under conditions of experimental acute renal failure in rats was studied. The relatively effective doses were found to possess the most considerable renoprotective properties. All the statins were established to cause the restoration of functional activity of the kidneys under conditions of experimental rhabdomyolytic acute renal failure at various doses, but with the dose of 20 mg/kg they showed the most significant improvement in key indices of kidney function: an increase in diuresis by an average of 32% and glomerular filtration rate by an average of 90%, reduction of proteinuria in more than twice. At the same time, in the animals with acute renal failure the level of creatine phosphokinase was increased by 141%. However, the activity of blood plasma creatine phosphokinase of all animals treated with statins was 14% higher than in the intact control, indicating the minor myotrphic activity of statins in selected mode of administration. Thus, the use of 20 mg/kg dose is the most reasonable from the standpoint of renoprotective efficacy and safety.
Wang, Rui; Yan, Zhaopeng; Wu, Xingmao; Ji, Kaiqiang; Wang, Haiyuan; Zang, Bin
Hyperlipidemic pancreatitis (HP) is a serious inflammatory disease with very high mortality and multiple organ injuries including renal injury. Rosiglitazone (Ros), an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), was reported to show a protective role against pancreatitis. However, whether Ros has an effect on renal injury caused by HP is not yet clear. In the present study, the function of Ros was explored using ELISA, RT-PCR, western blot, PAS staining and immunohistochemistry. Results of this study showed that Ros could inhibit the activation of NF-κB and MAPK P38 signaling pathways, relieve inflammatory response and inhibit cell apoptosis, thus attenuating renal injury caused by HP. This study suggested that Ros might be a promising drug for the treatment of renal injury caused by HP and also laid theoretical foundation for the development of renal injury treatment. PMID:26191125
Lee, Young H; Sahu, Joya; O'Brien, Marie S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Jimenez, Sergio A
Scleromyxedema is a systemic disease characterized by lichenoid papules, nodules, and plaques on the skin and often diffuse skin induration resembling the cutaneous involvement of systemic sclerosis. The systemic involvement affects the musculoskeletal, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems, and the disorder is commonly associated with a paraproteinemia. Involvement of the kidney is rare and not considered a feature of the disease. Here, we describe an unusual case of scleromyxedema complicated by the development of scleroderma renal crisis-like acute renal failure with a marked intimal deposition of mucin, mucopolysaccharides, and hyaluronic acid in the intrarenal vessels.
Ramchandra, Rohit; Barrett, Carolyn J.
Heart failure (HF) is a serious debilitating condition with poor survival rates and an increasing level of prevalence. HF is associated with an increase in renal norepinephrine (NE) spillover, which is an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. The excessive sympatho-excitation that is a hallmark of HF has long-term effects that contribute to disease progression. An increase in directly recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) has also been recorded in animal models of HF. This review will focus on the mechanisms controlling sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the kidney during normal conditions and alterations in these mechanisms during HF. In particular the roles of afferent reflexes and central mechanisms will be discussed. PMID:26388778
Papalia, Teresa; Greco, Rosita; Mollica, Francesco; Mancuso, Domenico; Bonofiglio, Renzo
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the commonest form of autoimmune thyroiditis in the world. It occurs most frequently in women (female/male ratio, 6:1) in the age group between 30 and 60 years. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a few days' history of upper limb paresthesias, widespread joint and muscle pain, and headaches. Laboratory findings showed increased CPK, myoglobin and plasma creatinine levels with acute renal failure. Low free T3 and T4 values associated with a high TSH value, the presence of antithyroid globulin and peroxidase autoantibodies pointed to a diagnosis of hypothyroidism with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Treatment with levothyroxine was initiated and within 2 months normalization of renal function, myoglobin, CPK and thyroid hormone levels was observed.
Peerce, B E; Weaver, L; Clarke, R D
Hyperhosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are common and severe complications of chronic renal failure. Therapies to reduce serum phosphate have been shown to reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and slow the progression of renal failure. The effect of the inhibitor of intestinal phosphate absorption, 2'-phosphophloretin (2'-PP), on serum and urine chemistry, renal histology, and cardiac structure in the uremic rat model of renal failure, 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NX), was examined. The effect of 2'-PP on serum phosphate, serum PTH, serum total Ca(2+), and ionized Ca(2+), Ca(2+) x P(i) product, urine protein, urine osmolality, and creatinine clearance in 5/6 NX rats was examined. Uremic rats in chronic renal failure were gavaged daily with 25 microM 2'-PP. Over the course of a 5-wk experiment, serum chemistry in untreated uremic rats, 2'-PP-treated uremic rats, and age-matched control rats with normal renal function was determined twice a week. Urine creatinine, urine osmolality, urine phosphate, and urine protein were determined once a week from 24-h collections. 2'-PP reduced serum phosphate 40 +/- 3% compared with a 17% increase in untreated uremic control rats. 2'-PP did not alter total serum Ca(2+). During 5-wk experiments, serum PTH increased 65 +/- 25% in untreated uremic rats and decreased 70 +/- 7% in uremic rats treated with 25 microM 2'-PP. Creatinine clearance decreased 20% in untreated uremic rats compared with a 100% increase in 2'-PP-treated uremic rats. Urine protein decreased and urine osmolality increased in uremic rats treated with 2'-PP. The mechanism of the effect of 2'-PP on serum phosphate was inhibition of intestinal phosphate absorption. 2-PP inhibited intestinal phosphate absorption 50% without altering dietary protein absorption or intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Over the course of the 5-wk treatment with 2'-PP, uremic animals treated with 2'-PP had a 2-4% weight gain/wk, similar to the weight gain seen in age-matched control rats
Ravikanth, Reddy; Sandeep, S.; Philip, Babu
White phosphorus is well known as a potent hepatotoxin and a severe local and systemic toxin causing damage to gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiovascular, and renal systems. It is used in the manufacture of matches, fireworks, rodenticide, and fertilizers. Death results due to acute liver failure. Management of yellow phosphorus (YP) poisoning is supportive with no antidote available. Here, we present a case of acute YP poisoning in a 25-year-old female presenting with fulminant hepatic failure and duodenal perforation. PMID:28515612
Feest, T G; Dunn, E J; Burton, C J
Diabetic nephropathy is now the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world, and is associated with a higher patient morbidity and mortality than other causes of renal failure, largely because of associated cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have elucidated the factors which influence its onset and progression. The St Vincent Declaration in 1994 proposed standards for the appropriate management of patients with diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether referral to a nephrology clinic attempting to apply these standards influenced the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The results show a significant improvement in blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin and serum cholesterol following referral. There was a significant reduction in the rate of decline of renal function following referral in 39% of patients. With the possible exception of diabetic control there were no significant differences in the management of those that did and did not show improvement. The results show that with intensive out-patient clinic monitoring it is possible to improve the quality of patient care, and that even in established diabetic nephropathy it is possible to slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure.
Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Chiba, Toshinori; Shimizu, Seiko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Yuzo; Oikawa, Yuji; Takada, Tappei; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Abe, Junko; Inoue, Hiroki; Wakai, Kenji; Kawai, Sayo; Guang, Yin; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Niwa, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi
Gout is a common disease which results from hyperuricemia. We have reported that the dysfunction of urate exporter ABCG2 is the major cause of renal overload (ROL) hyperuricemia, but its involvement in renal underexcretion (RUE) hyperuricemia, the most prevalent subtype, is not clearly explained so far. In this study, the association analysis with 644 hyperuricemia patients and 1,623 controls in male Japanese revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction significantly increased the risk of RUE hyperuricemia as well as overall and ROL hyperuricemia, according to the severity of impairment. ABCG2 dysfunction caused renal urate underexcretion and induced hyperuricemia even if the renal urate overload was not remarkable. These results show that ABCG2 plays physiologically important roles in both renal and extra-renal urate excretion mechanisms. Our findings indicate the importance of ABCG2 as a promising therapeutic and screening target of hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:24441388
Lins, R L; Elseviers, M M; Daelemans, R; Arnouts, P; Billiouw, J-M; Couttenye, M; Gheuens, E; Rogiers, P; Rutsaert, R; Van der Niepen, P; De Broe, M E
A prognostic scoring system for hospital mortality in acute renal failure (Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure, SHARF score) was developed in a single-centre study. The scoring system consists of two scores, for the time of diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) and for 48 h later, each originally based on four parameters (age, serum albumin, prothrombin time and heart failure). The scoring system was now tested and adapted in a prospective study. The study involved eight intensive care units. We studied 293 consecutive patients with ARF in 6 months. Their mortality was 50.5%. The causes of ARF were medical in 184 (63%) patients and surgical in 108 (37%). In the latter group, 74 (69%) patients underwent cardiac and 19 (18%) vascular surgery. As the performance of the original SHARF scores was much lower in the multicentre study than in the original single-centre study, we re-analysed the multicentre data to customize the original model for the population studied. The independent variables were the score developed in the original study plus all additonal parameters that were significant on univariate analysis. The new multivariate analysis revealed an additional subset of three parameters for inclusion in the model (serum bilirubin, sepsis and hypotension). For the modified SHARF II score, r(2) was 0.27 at 0 and 0.33 at 48 h, respectively, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values were 0.82 and 0.83, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit P values were 0.19 and 0.05. After customizing and by using two scoring moments, this prediction model for hospital mortality in ARF is useful in different settings for comparing groups of patients and centres, quality assessment and clinical trials. We do not recommend its use for individual patient prognosis.
Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Six-Carpentier, Marie; Pinçon, Claire; Sediri, Ibrahim; Delsart, Pascal; Gras, Marc; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Gautier, Corinne; Montaigne, David; Jude, Brigitte; Asseman, Philippe; Le Jemtel, Thierry H
Functional renal impairment is a common feature of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The link between functional renal impairment and HFpEF remains incompletely understood. With hypertension and diabetes as frequent co-morbidities, patients with HFpEF are at risk of developing intra-renal vascular hemodynamic alterations that may lead to functional renal impairment and impact on prognosis. Renal resistive index (RRI) was non-invasively determined by Doppler ultrasonic examination in 90 HFpEF patients and 90 age- and sex-matched hypertensive patients without evidence of heart failure (HF) who served as controls. Clinical, laboratory and cardiac echocardiography data were obtained in HFpEF patients and controls. To investigate its possible clinical relevance, RRI was evaluated as a prognostic index of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for HF. Mean RRI was substantially greater in HFpEF patients than in controls (P < 0.0001), while mean blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin and serum protein levels were significantly lower in HFpEF patients than in controls. On multivariable analysis, mean RRI was independently associated with HFpEF. In addition, increased mean RRI was an independent predictor of poor outcome [hazard ratio = 1.06 95% confidence interval (1.01-1.10), P = 0.007] and remained significantly associated with the outcome after adjustment for univariate predictors that included low mean blood pressure, low hemoglobin concentration and low glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion. Patients with HFpEF exhibit intra-renal vascular hemodynamic alterations. The severity of intra-renal vascular hemodynamic alterations correlates with a poor outcome.
Wilkinson, R; James, O F; Roberts, S H; Morley, A R; Robson, V
Plasma renin activity has been measured daily in 36 patients suffering from self poisoning with acetaminophen. In 3 developing porto-systemic encephalopathy terminal renal failure developed with high plasma renin activity. In 2 who developed acute renal failure without porto-systemic encephalopathy, plasma renin activity was noted to rise before serum creatinine and to return to initial levels after 3 or 4 days while renal failure persisted. Six other patients with similar hepatic damage showed comparable rises in renin without developing renal failure. Our findings are consistent with but do not establish a pathogenetic role for renin in acetaminophen-induced acute renal failure. It is suggested that other factors may act with renin to bring about renal failure.
Howard, W.H.; Bunker, S.R.; Karl, R.D. Jr.; Ralston, T.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.
The differential diagnosis of a solitary photopenic defect in the renal fossa observed at renal scintigraphy is extensive. A case of one of the most unusual causes for this finding, renal agenesis, is presented. Additional cases that illustrate the similarity in the radionuclide appearance of other pathologic entities are also presented. Correlation with clinical findings and other imaging modalities is required to accurately distinguish these conditions.
Wilkinson, S P; Moodie, H; Stamatakis, J D; Kakkar, V V; Williams, R
An investigation into the possible role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of renal failure in cirrhosis and obstructive jaundice showed the two to be closely related. None of the patients with cirrhosis who had endotoxaemia had other evidence of Gram-negative infection at the time of the study, and the endotoxaemia was therefore probably due to impaired hepatic clearance of toxins normally absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, bacteriological evidence of Gram-negative infection was found in most of the patients with obstructive jaundice and endotoxaemia. PMID:795499
Schrier, Robert W.; Wang, Wei; Poole, Brian; Mitra, Amit
Acute renal failure (ARF), characterized by sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance, is a frequent clinical problem, particularly in the intensive care unit, where it is associated with a mortality of between 50% and 80%. In this review, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of ARF are discussed, including the vascular, tubular, and inflammatory perturbations. The clinical evaluation of ARF and implications for potential future therapies to decrease the high mortality are described. PMID:15232604
Martin, A M; Oduro-Dominah, A; Gibbins, J K; Devapal, D; Mitchell, D C
A study was made of thrice weekly haemodialysis of 3-3 1/2 hours' duration using a large surface area dialyser in patients with end-stage renal failure. Body water, potassium, and blood pressure control were satisfactory and comparable with the more widely used long dialysis schedules (6-9 hours thrice weekly). Patient rehabilitation was improved overall and the regimen enabled the dialysis unit to treat more patients despite a reduction in technical and nursing staff. The technique proved inadequate, however, in two patients with an intercurrent infection, and more intensive dialysis in recommended in such cases. PMID:1174885
IAD-A174 113 GLOMERULAR DYNAMIC STUDIES OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANOTE 1/1 RENAL FAILURE(U) VIRGINIA COMNWEALTH UNIV RICHMOND I D E OKEN 3e JUN 84...8217i1 . d /or 1 Special June 30, 1984 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Contract...values might be underestimated by tubular inulin leakage if measured in the customary fashion.) Nephron filtration fraction was estimated from the
Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja
We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment.
Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja
We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment. PMID:24179353
Camejo, G; Riera, G; Lee, M; López, F
Nine patients with chronic renal failure in maintenance hemodialysis (CRF-HD) and nine without hemodialysis (CRF) showed similar modifications in the structure and composition of VLDL and LDL isolated by density gradient centrifugation as compared to normal controls. In very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), the ratios of triglycerides to protein and of cholesterol to protein were strongly correlated. All patients, independently of their cholesterol and triglyceride levels, presented a "beta-VLDL" caused by an increment in the isoelectric point of the particles in the density range 1.006-1.019 g/ml. This was probably due to the augmented proportion of apoB in them and is not associated with the E2 phenotype. The results indicate that the structural modifications of VLDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL), present in chronic renal failure, are not changed by maintenance hemodialysis and that they are not necessarily associated with hyperlipidemia.
Re, Richard N
Chronic neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as various forms of chronic renal disease and systolic congestive heart failure, are among the most common progressive degenerative disorders encountered in medicine. Each disease follows a nearly relentless course, albeit at varying rates, driven by progressive cell dysfunction and drop-out. The neurologic diseases are characterized by the progressive spread of disease-causing proteins (prion-like proteins) from cell to cell. Recent evidence indicates that cell autonomous renin angiotensin systems operate in heart and kidney, and it is known that functional intracrine proteins can also spread between cells. This then suggests that certain progressive degenerative cardiovascular disorders such as forms of chronic renal insufficiency and systolic congestive heart failure result from dysfunctional renin angiotensin system intracrine action spreading in kidney or myocardium.
Issad, Belkacem; Rostoker, Guy; Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert
Acute renal failure (ARF) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often evolves in a context of multiple organ failure, which explains the high mortality rate and increase treatment needs. Among, two modalities of renal replacement therapy, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first modality used for the treatment of ARF in the 1950s. Today, while PD is generalized for chronic renal failure treatment, its use in the ICU is limited, particularly, due to the advent of new hemodialysis techniques and the development of continuous replacement therapy. Recently, a renewed interest in the use of PD in patients with ARF has manifested in several emerging countries (Brazil, Vietnam). A systematic review in 2013 showed a similar mortality in ARF patients having PD (58%) and those treated by hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration/hemofiltration (56.1%). In the International society of peritoneal dialysis (ISPD)'s guideline (2013), PD may be used in adult ARF as the other blood extracorporeal epuration technics (recommendation with grade 1B). PD is the preferred method in cardiorenal syndromes, in frailty patients with hemodynamic instability and those lacking vascular access; finally PD is also an option in elderly and patients with bleeding tendency. In industrial countries, high volume automated PD with a flexible catheter (usually Tenckhoff) is advocated. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub
The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.
Nony, Paul A; Schnellmann, Rick G
In many cases, acute renal failure (ARF) is the result of proximal tubular cell injury and death and can arise in a variety of clinical situations, especially following renal ischemia and drug or toxicant exposure. Although much research has focused on the cellular events leading to ARF, less emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms of renal cell repair and regeneration, although ARF is reversed in over half of those who acquire it. Studies using in vivo and in vitro models have demonstrated the importance of proliferation, migration, and repair of physiological functions of injured renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) in the reversal of ARF. Growth factors have been shown to produce migration and proliferation of injured RPTC, although the specific mechanisms through which growth factors promote renal regeneration in vivo are unclear. Recently, interactions between integrins and extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen IV were shown to promote the repair of physiological functions in injured RPTC. Specifically, collagen IV synthesis and deposition following cellular injury restored integrin polarity and promoted repair of mitochondrial function and active Na(+) transport. Furthermore, exogenous collagen IV, but not collagen I, fibronectin, or laminin, promoted the repair of physiological functions without stimulating proliferation. These findings suggest the importance of establishing and/or maintaining collagen IV-integrin interactions in the stimulation of repair of physiological functions following sublethal cellular injury. Furthermore, the pathway that stimulates repair is distinct from that of proliferation and migration and may be a viable target for pharmacological intervention.
Arze Aimaretti, L; Arze, S
Renal transplantation is the best therapeutic option for end-stage chronic renal disease. Assuming that it is more advisable if performed early, we aimed to show the clinical, social, and economic advantages in 70% of our patients who were dialyzed only for a short period. For this purpose, we retrospectively collected data over 28 years in 142 kidney transplants performed in patients with <6 weeks on dialysis. 66% of our patients were 30-60 years old; 98% of the patients had living donors. At transplantation, 64% of our patients had no public support; however, 64% of them returned to work and got health insurance 2 months later. Full rehabilitation was achieved in all cases, including integration to the family, return to full-time work, school and university, sports, and reproduction. Immunosuppression consisted of 3 drugs, including steroids, cyclosporine, and azathioprine or mycophenolate. The cost in the 1st year, including patient and donor evaluation, surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up, was $13,300 USD versus $22,320 for hemodialysis. We conclude that preemptive renal transplantation with <6 weeks on dialysis is the best therapeutic option for end-stage renal failure, especially in developing countries such as Bolivia, where until last year, full public support for renal replacement therapy was unavailable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
George, Sunil K; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end
George, Sunil K.; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D.; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end
Worwag, Stefanie; Langston, Cathy E
To determine patient demographics, clinicopathologic findings, and outcome associated with naturally acquired acute intrinsic renal failure (ARF) in cats. Retrospective case series. 32 cats with ARF. Cats were considered to have ARF if they had acute onset of clinical signs (< 7 days), serum creatinine concentration > 2.5 mg/dL (reference range, 0.8 to 2.3 mg/dL) and BUN > 35 mg/dL (reference range, 15 to 34 mg/dL) in conjunction with urine specific gravity < 1.025 or with anuria or increasing serum creatinine concentration despite fluid therapy and normal hydration status, and no signs of chronic renal disease. Cases were excluded if cats had renal calculi or renal neoplasia. Causes of ARF included nephrotoxins (n = 18 cats), ischemia (4), and other causes (10). Eighteen cats were oliguric. For each unit (mEq/L) increase in initial potassium concentration, there was a 57% decrease in chance of survival. Low serum albumin or bicarbonate concentration at initial diagnosis was a negative prognostic indicator for survival. Initial concentrations of BUN, serum creatinine, and other variables were not prognostic. Seventeen (53%) cats survived, of which 8 cats had resolution of azotemia and 9 cats were discharged from the hospital with persistent azotemia. Results suggested that survival rates of cats with ARF were similar to survival rates in dogs and that residual renal damage persisted in approximately half of cats surviving the initial hospitalization.
Braam, Branko; Cupples, William A; Joles, Jaap A; Gaillard, Carlo
Heart and kidney interactions are fascinating, in the sense that failure of the one organ strongly affects the function of the other. In this review paper, we analyze how principal driving forces for glomerular filtration and renal blood flow are changed in heart failure. Moreover, renal autoregulation and modulation of neurohumoral factors, which can both have repercussions on renal function, are analyzed. Two paradigms seem to apply. One is that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and extracellular volume control are the three main determinants of renal function in heart failure. The other is that the classical paradigm to analyze renal dysfunction that is widely applied in nephrology also applies to the pathophysiology of heart failure: pre-renal, intra-renal, and post-renal alterations together determine glomerular filtration. At variance with the classical paradigm is that the most important post-renal factor in heart failure seems renal venous hypertension that, by increasing renal tubular pressure, decreases GFR. When different pharmacological strategies to inhibit the RAS and SNS and to assist renal volume control are considered, there is a painful lack in knowledge about how widely applied drugs affect primary driving forces for ultrafiltration, renal autoregulation, and neurohumoral control. We call for more clinical physiological studies.
Alekseev, V G; Tsvigun, G V; Zaikina, N A
An ultrasonic investigation of the kidneys in patients with renal forms of acute renal failure (32 and 24 with ethylene glycol poisoning and leptospirosis, respectively) recorded in the oligo-anuric phase a specific ultrasonic picture of renal lesion demonstrable as long as full recovery of impaired functions. The picture was characterized by enlargement of the kidneys with good differentiation of the pyramids in enhanced parenchymal echogenicity. Ethylene glycol poisoning is characterized by limited renal mobility and an echo negative halo around them. These signs may appear helpful in the diagnosis of renal forms of acute renal failure.
Chen, Chin-Li; Lin, Shih-Hua; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang
Renal hyperparathyroidism usually occurs in chronic renal failure patients on regular dialysis. However, renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands is an uncommon condition. We herein present the case of a 35-year-old woman who has been on hemodialysis for 20 years. She had renal hyperparathyroidism with generalized weakness and bone pain for 2 years. The patient initially underwent parathyroidectomy at a local institution, during which two large parathyroid glands were resected from the right side (no parathyroid glands were found on the left side); however, the surgical procedure was unsuccessful, and the patient had persistent renal hyperparathyroidism after the operation. She was then transferred to our hospital and ectopic intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were localized by neck ultrasonography and technetium-99m sestamibi scans with single-photon emission computed tomography imaging preoperatively. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and two intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were found. The patient recovered uneventfully and her symptoms resolved. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands in cases where the renal hyperparathyroidism persists after parathyroidectomy.
Ahmed, Maimoona Mushtaq
Chronic renal failure is often associated with multiple organ co-morbidities, including thyroid dysfunction. This has been associated with poorer prognosis, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study aimed to examine the relationship between renal failure and thyroid dysfunction in an outpatient setting at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, from January 2011 to June 2012. Demographic and biochemical data were extracted from medical records. Differences in the levels of thyroid hormones and lipids between the four renal function groups were analyzed using the chi-square test for categorical variables and Kruskal- Wallis test for binomial variables. A total of 486 patients were included in the study population, of whom approximately half were female, and the median (range) age was 61 (17-90) years. According to creatinine measurements, renal function was normal in 48 participants, 290 had mild renal failure, 122 had moderate renal failure and 26 had severe renal failure. No significant relationships were observed between renal failure and cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels were significantly reduced (P = 0.005) and both free thyroxin (FT4; P = 0.034) and parathyroid hormone (PTH; P = 0.028) significantly increased with increasing severity of renal failure. Patients with moderate to severe renal failure displayed reduced hemoglobin levels and were significantly more likely to be anemic (P <0.001). Highly significant increases in alkaline phosphatase (P <0.001), uric acid (P <0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.014) levels were also observed with increasing renal dysfunction. To conclude, it was observed that renal dysfunction is associated with notable changes to other organ systems, including the thyroid. Further studies may investigate the association of multiple organ co-morbidities with prognosis in patients with chronic renal failure.
Sobh, M A; Moustafa, F E; el-Housseini, F; Basta, M T; Deelder, A M; Ghoniem, M A
In this study 17 patients, 11 with end-stage renal failure and six with nephrotic syndrome were selected. The selection criteria were presence of active intestinal schistosomiasis and absence of any surgical or other medical disease which could explain the renal disease. When examined by light microscopy, kidney biopsies showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in nine, membranous in four, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in two, sclerosing glomerulonephritis in one case, and no changes in another case. Direct immunofluorescence showed IgG deposits in 13 cases, IgM in 10 and different complement components (C3, C1q) in eight cases. Eluates from the kidney biopsies of the 17 schistosomal as well as six control cases were examined by ELISA against schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA). This test showed the presence of antibodies against the AWA in 12 out of 17 of the schistosomal cases, and zero out of six of the controls. When examined by direct IFA using sheep anti-circulating anodic antigen/FITC and by indirect IFA using monoclonal antischistosomal CAA IgG3, kidney biopsies of the ELISA positive cases showed granular deposits of circulating anodic antigen (CAA). We conclude that schistosomal specific nephropathy does exist in the clinical settings and can lead to end-stage renal disease, with CAA probably being a major responsible antigen.
Choker, G; Gouyon, J B
This study was designed to improve the definition of acute renal failure (ARF) in very preterm infants. Twenty-eight newborn infants with gestational age < or =32 weeks were prospectively studied in the first 5 days of life and made up a control group as they did not present risk factors for vasomotor renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency was defined as an increase in daily serum creatinine concentration above the 99th interval limit obtained in this control group, i.e., 43 micromol/l on day 1 and/or 21 micromol/l on day 2 and/or 14 micromol/l/day on day 3 and/or 22 micromol/l/day on day 4. According to this definition, 20 very preterm infants with ARF were identified. As compared with the control group, the ARF group showed more prolonged oliguric episodes, lower diuresis, insufficient weight loss (in spite of a reduction in water intake) and also more episodes with natremia <130 mEq/l (35 vs. 0%; p <0.05) and/or kalemia >6 mEq/l (40 vs. 11%; p <0.05). Therefore, assessment of daily changes in serum creatinine concentration in very preterm infants allows the diagnosis of clinically significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate.
Mehrabadi, Azar; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Magee, Laura A; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K S
To examine whether changes in postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors explain the increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada. Retrospective cohort study. Canada (excluding the province of Quebec). All hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2010 (n=2,193,425). Obstetric acute renal failure identified by ICD-10 diagnostic codes. Information on all hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec) between 2003 and 2010 (n=2,193,425) was obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Temporal trends in obstetric acute renal failure were assessed among women with and without postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors. Logistic regression was used to determine if changes in risk factors explained the temporal increase in obstetric acute renal failure. Rates of obstetric acute renal failure rose from 1.66 to 2.68 per 10,000 deliveries between 2003-04 and 2009-10 (61% increase, 95% confidence interval 24% to 110%). Adjustment for postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and other factors did not attenuate the increase. The temporal increase in acute renal failure was restricted to deliveries with hypertensive disorders (adjusted increase 95%, 95% confidence interval 38% to 176%), and was especially pronounced among women with gestational hypertension with significant proteinuria (adjusted increase 171%, 71% to 329%). No significant increase occurred among women without hypertensive disorders (adjusted increase 12%, -28 to 72%). The increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada between 2003 and 2010 was restricted to women with hypertensive disorders and was especially pronounced among women with pre-eclampsia. Further study is required to determine the cause of the increase among women with pre-eclampsia. © Mehrabadi et al 2014.
Graumann, Aaron; Zawada, Edward T
We report the case of an 87-year-old white woman with myasthenia gravis who presented with nausea, shortness of breath, azotemia, and hyperkalemia shortly after completing a course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). She had been receiving monthly transfusions of IVIG, but this time had received daily infusions for 5 days rather than 1 day. She had received this same dose in the past without incident. Her history was significant for coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, chronic steroid use, and recurrent urinary tract infection. On examination, she was slightly confused, mildly dehydrated, had a grade II systolic ejection murmur along the upper left sternal border, had bilateral and symmetric mild weakness of the upper and lower extremities, and exhibited mild edema of the lower extremities. Before transfer from the emergency room, she was found to have an elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine of 55 and 5.8 mg/dL (19.6 mmol/L and 512.7 micromol/L, respectively). Creatinine 8 days earlier was 0.9 mg/dL (79.6 micromol/L). The hospital course of the acute renal failure is presented with a review of the literature on cases of acute renal failure after IVIG.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies demonstrate that in a significant part of diabetic patients the renal insufficiency is frequently caused by non-diabetic kidney diseases, so that an effective clarification of untypical clinical courses is mandatory. Important cornerstones of DKD therapy are an optimized glycaemic management as well as a good blood pressure control. Although the prognosis of DKD has been improved in the last years, it is, even with novel therapy approaches, not possible to prevent the development of DKD. It remains to hope that with extended knowledge, intensified preclinical studies and well-defined clinical trials novel nephroprotective therapies become available in the next years.
Gorsane, Imène; Zouaghi, Karim; Goucha, Rim; El Younsi, Fethi; Hedri, Hafedh; Barbouch, Samia; Ben Abdallah, Taïeb; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Kheder, Adel
Acute renal failure may occur in varied circumstances. It is potentially reversible spontaneously or after specific treatment. It is rare after hunger strike and fewer cases were reported in the literature. The physiopathological mechanisms are varied and remain incompletely known. We report the case of a prisoner having presented an acute renal failure after a hunger strike wich was completely reversible. He's a 29 year old man, without a past medical facts, in July 2004 he was incarcereted in prison. In October 2004 he undertake a hunger strike during one month. In November 2004 he was hospitalized for global dehydration and shock. His physical examination showed blood pressure 60/40 mmHg, weight 59 Kg with a loss of weight about 10 Kg, diuresis 800 cc/day. His biological findings showed urea 100 mmol/l, creatinemia 679 (mo/l, natremia 179 mmol/l, kaliemia 5 mmol/l, glycemia 5.2 mmol/l, albuminemia 35 g/l, calcemia 2.35 mmol/l and biological marques of rhabdomyolysis: CPK at 11 times the normal and LDH two times the normal. His treatment consisted on rehydratation, parenteral then enteral refeeding and psychiatric talks. The evolution was favourable, re-establishment of good hydration state with a gain weight of 7 Kg, normalization of renal function, his creatininemia reached 85 (mol/l in three weeks and normalization of muscles enzymes in one month. Hunger strike continue to pose a problem because of it's frequency in penitentiary structures and its organic disorders which can lead to death. A good psychiatric cares may be undertaked in order to prevent a such bad manifestations.
Kingma, John G; Vincent, Chantal; Rouleau, Jacques R; Kingma, Iris
Impaired renal function is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events and death, but the pathophysiology is poorly defined. The hypothesis that coronary blood flow regulation and distribution of ventricular blood flow could be compromised during acute renal failure (ARF) was tested. In two separate groups (n = 14 each) of dogs with ARF, (1) coronary autoregulation (pressure-flow relations), vascular reserve (reactive hyperemia), and myocardial blood flow distribution (microspheres) and (2) coronary vessel responses to intracoronary infusion of select endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators were evaluated. In addition, coronary pressure-flow relations and vascular reserve after inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin release were evaluated. Under resting conditions, myocardial oxygen consumption increased in dogs with ARF compared with no renal failure (NRF; 11.8 +/- 9.2 versus 5.0 +/- 1.5 ml O(2)/min per 100 g; P = 0.01), and the autoregulatory break point of the coronary pressure-flow relation was shifted to higher diastolic coronary pressures (60 +/- 17 versus 52 +/- 8 mmHg in NRF; P = 0.003); the latter was shifted further rightward after inhibition of both nitric oxide and prostaglandin release. The endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio was comparable for both groups, suggesting preserved ventricular distribution of blood flow. In dogs with ARF, coronary vascular conductance also was reduced (P = 0.001 versus NRF), but coronary zero-flow pressure was unchanged. Vessel reactivity to each endothelium-dependent/independent compound also was blunted significantly. In conclusion, under resting conditions, coronary vascular tone, reserve, and vessel reactivity are markedly diminished with ARF, suggesting impaired vascular function. Consequently, during ARF, small increases in myocardial oxygen demand would induce subendocardial ischemia as a result of a limited capacity to increase oxygen supply and thereby contribute to higher
Close, Helen; Reilly, Joe; Mason, James M.; Kripalani, Mukesh; Wilson, Douglas; Main, John; Hungin, A. Pali S.
Objective Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy. Results Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0) adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH) was 44 (21 to 150). Conclusions Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small. PMID:24670976
Close, Helen; Reilly, Joe; Mason, James M; Kripalani, Mukesh; Wilson, Douglas; Main, John; Hungin, A Pali S
Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder. This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy. Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0) adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH) was 44 (21 to 150). Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small.
Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya
AIM: To investigate whether fetal kidney stem cells (fKSC) ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats and promote renal angiogenesis. METHODS: The fKSC were isolated from rat fetuses of gestation day 16 and expanded in vitro up to 3rd passage. They were characterized for the expression of mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The in vitro differentiation of fKSC towards epithelial lineage was evaluated by the treatment with specific induction medium and their angiogenic potential by matrigel induced tube formation assay. To study the effect of fKSC in ARF, fKSC labeled with PKH26 were infused in rats with cisplatin induced ARF and, the blood and renal tissues of the rats were collected at different time points. Blood biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate renal function. Renal tissues were evaluated for renal architecture, renal cell proliferation and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, renal cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling assay and early expression of angiogenic molecules viz. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by western blot. RESULTS: The fKSC expressed mesenchymal markers viz. CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 as well as renal progenitor markers viz. Wt1, Pax2 and Six2. They exhibited a potential to form CD31 and Von Willebrand factor expressing capillary-like structures and could be differentiated into cytokeratin (CK)18 and CK19 positive epithelial cells. Administration of fKSC in rats with ARF as compared to administration of saline alone, resulted in a significant improvement in renal function and histology on day 3 (2.33 ± 0.33 vs 3.50 ± 0.34, P < 0.05) and on day 7 (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 2.00 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). The infused PKH26 labeled fKSC were observed to engraft in damaged renal tubules and showed increased proliferation and reduced
Opina, Angeline D; Qureshi, Athar M; Brewer, Eileen; Elenberg, Ewa; Swartz, Sarah; Michael, Mini; Justino, Henri
Interventional catheterization procedures may be needed for patients with severe renal failure who are dependent on dialysis. To avoid the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte derangement during complex procedures in this oliguric/anuric patient population, we performed intra-procedural dialysis, either continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or continous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of pediatric patients, ages 0-18 years, with dialysis-dependent renal failure who received CRRT or CCPD during catheterization procedures from January 2013 to March 2016. Eight patients underwent a total of nine interventional catheterization procedures while receiving intra-procedural dialysis. Median age was 4.5 years (range 8 months to 17 years) and weight, 11.6 kg (11.2-62.6 kg). Six patients had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and two patients had acute kidney injury (AKI), one due to hepatorenal syndrome and one due to multifactorial causes associated with congenital heart disease. The most common reason for catheterization was occlusive venous thrombosis requiring recanalization. CRRT was used during five cases and CCPD during four cases. Median procedure time was 337 min (95-651 min) and median contrast dose 4.2 mL kg(-1) (1.2-8.2 mL kg(-1) ). Euvolemia was maintained based on pre- and post-catheterizations weights, and no significant electrolyte abnormalities occurred based on lab monitoring during and post-procedure. Intra-procedural dialysis using CRRT or CCPD enables even small pediatric patients with severe renal failure to undergo long and complex interventional catheterizations by reducing the risk of fluid overload and electrolyte abnormalities. Collaboration between nephrology, cardiology, and dialysis teams is necessary for successful management of this challenging patient population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rivera, M; Lucero, J; Guerrero, A; Márquez, J L; Montes, R; Suñer, M; Ruiz, A; Valdivia, M A; Mateos, J
Angiodysplasia is an important cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with chronic renal failure. Octreotide, a long-acting synthetic somatostatin analogue that reduces splachnic blood flow have been used to treat esophageal varicose hemorrhage, but its efficacy for bleeding vascular ecstasies is awaiting support. We present three patients with chronic renal failure (two with diabetic nephropaty and the third with mesangiocapilar glomerulonephritis and hepatic cirrosis), seric creatinine 3-4,5 mg/dl, and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding due to diffuse angiodysplasia and vascular ecstasies, diagnosed by oral endoscopy, colonoscopy and video capsule. They all were treated with octreotide, administered subcutanesly 0.1 mg twice a day for six months, with significantly decreased blood requirements in all of them, as well as the occurrence of bleeding episodes. It was well tolerated and none side-effects occurred in any subject. In our experience, octreotide is an effective and safe drug in bleeding angiodysplasia and ecstasies vascular of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic renal failure, and it may be a good option especially in patients who are not candidates for surgery or endoscopic treatment due to inaccessible sites, spread of the lesion, old age and/or concomitant disorders.
Vujicić, Bozidar; Ruzić, Alen; Zaputović, Luka; Racki, Sanjin
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue, especially in the setting of critical care. It has been shown in multiple studies to be a key independent risk factor for mortality, even after adjustment for demographics and severity of illness. There is wide agreement that a generally applicable classification system is required for AKI which helps to standardize estimation of severity of renal disfunction and to predict outcome associated with this condition. That's how RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-End-stage renal disease), and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications for AKI were found in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In the clinical setting of heart failure, a positive fluid balance (often expressed in the literature as weight gain) is used by disease management programs as a marker of heart failure decompensation. Oliguria is defined as urine output less than 0,3 ml/kg/h for at least 24 h. Since any delay in treatment can lead to a dangerous progression of the AKI, early recognition of oliguria appears to be crucial. Critically ill patients with oliguric AKI are at increased risk for fluid imbalance due to widespread systemic inflammation, reduced plasma oncotic pressure and increased capillary leak. These patients are particulary at risk of fluid overload and therefore restrictive strategy of fluid administration should be used. Objective, rapid and accurate volume assessment is important in undiagnosed patients presenting with critical illness, as errors may result in interventions with fatal outcomes. The historical tools such as physical exam, and chest radiography suffer from significant limitations. As gold standard, radioisolopic measurement of volume is impractical in the acute care enviroment. Newer technologies offer the promise of both rapid and accurate bedside estimation of volume status with the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Blood assessment with bioimpendance vector analysis, and bedside ultrasound seem to be
Sahinarslan, Asife; Guz, Galip; Okyay, Kaan; Torer, Nihan; Bali, Musa; Sindel, Sükrü; Cengel, Atiye
In patients with chronic renal failure, the main cause of mortality is cardiovascular disease. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are found to be related with decreased survival in both the normal population and in patients with chronic renal failure in different studies. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between cTnT and BNP in patients with chronic renal failure. 58 chronic haemodialysis patients were enrolled prospectively for the study. Blood samples for measurement of cTnT and BNP were collected after the haemodialysis. The patients are divided into 3 groups according to cTnT measurements. Group I included the patients with cTnT < 0.05 ng/ml, Group II included the patients with cTnT between 0.05 and 0.1 ng/ml and group III included the patients with cTnT > 0. 1 ng/ml. We performed echocardiography in all patients to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction and thickness of septum and posterior wall. When BNP levels were compared among the 3 groups, we found that the BNP level was lowest in group I and highest in group III (165.13 +/- 125.44 pg/dl; 236.0 +/- 107.83 pg/dl; 280.71 +/- 153.25 pg/dl, respectively) (P = 0.01).The difference in BNP levels among groups was statistically significant and independent from left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular ejection fraction and volume overload in multiple regression analysis. We also searched the relationship between plasma cTnT and BNP levels and found a positive correlation (r = 0.3; P = 0.023). cTnT and BNP levels were related to each other in patients with chronic renal failure.These parameters can help to identify the patients with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases.
Villacorta, Humberto; Saenz-Tello, Bolivar F; Santos, Eduarda Barcellos dos; Steffen, Ricardo; Wiefels, Christiane; Lima, Luiz Costa; Sales, Ana Luíza F; Soares, Pedro; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco
The presence of anemia and renal dysfunction grants a bad prognosis for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). The impact on patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is not widely studied. To study the prevalence and the prognosis of anemia and renal dysfunction (RD) in patients with heart failure according to the type of ventricular dysfunction. A total of 209 patients with chronic and stable heart failure were prospectively studied. Individuals with ejection fraction <50% were considered as HFREF patients. Anemia was defined, based on WHO criteria, as hemoglobin <13 g/dl for men and <12 g/dl for women. Renal function was calculated by means of the Simplified Modified Diet Renal Disease (sMDRD) formula. Hospitalizations, emergency admittances and obit by cardiac causes were considered as cardiac events. Ninety patients had HFREF and 119 had HFNEF. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was smaller in HFREF group (57.6 +/- 66.2 versus 94.8 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73m(2); p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of anemia between groups (23.3% versus 18.5%; p=0.34). Moderate to severe RD prevalence was higher in HFREF group (32.2% versus 16.8%; p=0.01). RD was the only factor associated with anemia that was independently associated with cardiac events (HR 2.52; 95%CI=1.27-5.2; p=0.01). RD was less prevalent in HFNEF, while the prevalence of anemia did not differ between groups. RD was predictor of cardiac events independently on ejection fraction.
Finco, D R; Brown, S A; Brown, C A; Crowell, W A; Sunvold, G; Cooper, T L
To determine effects of dietary protein and calories on progression of induced chronic renal failure in cats. 28 young adult female cats. Renal mass was reduced surgically, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined. Cats were alloted to 4 groups of 7 with similar mean GFR (1.52 to 1.55 ml/min/kg of body weight). Diets were formulated to provide: low protein and calorie (diet A), low protein and high calorie (diet B), high protein and low calorie (diet C), and high protein and calorie (diet D) intakes. Cats were fed their prescribed diet for 12 months, then blood and urine biochemical variables were measured, after which kidney specimens were examined microscopically. Protein intake by cats of groups C and D (9.0 g/d/kg) was substantially greater than that by cats of groups A and B (5.3 and 5.2 g/d/kg, respectively). Caloric intake by cats of groups B and D (73 and 71 calories/d/kg, respectively) was greater than that by cats of groups A and C (58 and 55 calories/d/kg, respectively). Renal glomerular lesions were mild and not affected by protein, calories or their interactions. Nonglomerular lesions, though mild, were significantly influenced by calorie intake, but not by protein or calorie-protein interactions. The GFR did not decrease in any group. Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio increased significantly in all groups after reduction of renal mass, but values from all groups remained within the reference range (0 to 0.3). Diets replete in protein were not associated with increased severity of glomerular or nonglomerular renal lesions, increased proteinuria, or decreased GFR. Diets replete in calories were not associated with increased severity of glomerular lesions, but were associated with mild increase of nonglomerular lesions. Factors other than protein and calorie intake must be considered potential causes of progression of renal failure in cats. Results raise questions about the practice of restricting quantity of protein in the diet of cats with
Chang, Yongen; Lau, Wei Ling; Jo, Hyunil; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Gewin, Leslie; Reed, Nilgun Isik; Atakilit, Amha; Nunes, Ane Claudia Fernandes; DeGrado, William F; Sheppard, Dean
Activated fibroblasts are deemed the main executors of organ fibrosis. However, regulation of the pathologic functions of these cells in vivo is poorly understood. PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is highly expressed in activated pericytes, a main source of fibroblasts. Studies using a PDGFRβ promoter-driven Cre system to delete αv integrins in activated fibroblasts identified these integrins as core regulators of fibroblast activity across solid organs, including the kidneys. Here, we used the same PDGFRβ-Cre line to isolate and study renal fibroblasts ex vivo We found that renal fibroblasts express three αv integrins, namely αvβ1, αvβ3, and αvβ5. Blockade of αvβ1 prevented direct binding of fibroblasts to the latency-associated peptide of TGF-β1 and prevented activation of the latent TGF-β complex. Continuous administration of a recently described potent small molecule inhibitor of αvβ1, compound 8, starting the day of unilateral ureteral obstruction operation, inhibited collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice 14 days later. Compound 8 also effectively attenuated renal failure, as measured by BUN levels in mice fed an adenine diet known to cause renal injury followed by fibrosis. Inhibition of αvβ1 integrin could thus hold promise as a therapeutic intervention in CKD characterized by renal fibrosis.
Ji, D; Gong, D; Xie, H; Xu, B; Liu, Y; Li, L
To investigate the efficacy of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) versus intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) in patients with severe acute renal failure (ARF). One hundred and ninety-three severe ARF patients who received renal support between December 1978 and December 1998 were involved in this study. Of them, 101 (52.3%) were treated with CRRT (CRRT group), and 92 (47.7%) with IHD (IHD group). Sixty (59.4%) patients in the CRRT group got through the acute phase of disease and 41 (40.6%) patients did not survive while in the IHD group 59 (64.1%) patients survived and 33 (35.9%) patients did not. No significant difference in survival rate was found between the two groups. 24 of 64 patients (37.5%) in the CRRT group with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) survived, while in the IHD group, 8 out of 44 (27.3%) survived, their survival rate was much lower than that in the CRRT group. Patients in CRRT group were more severely ill, as manifested by lower mean arterial pressure, higher APACHE II score, more dysfunctioned organs and requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support as compared with patients in the IHD group, CRRT was found to improve hemodynamic stability with a better fluid balance and control of biochemical status, increased nutritional intake and a shorter duration of acute renal failure (P < 0.05). CRRT perhaps may be the best choice in the treatment of severe ARF patients, for it can offer several distinct advantages compared to IHD. These may contribute to improving the survival rate of ARF patients, particularly those that are critically ill patients.
Jha, R; Gude, D; Narayan, G; Mandal, S N; Gupta, P C
Renovascular disease (RVD) can present with resistant hypertension, acute or rapidly progressive renal failure and occasionally nephrotic proteinuria. Revascularization plays an important role in controlling blood pressure and preserving renal function. It is widely believed that delay in revascularization would result in irreversible loss of renal function. However, we report a favorable outcome despite delayed revascularization in two patients of RVD- one presenting with recurrent flash pulmonary edema and other with progressive renal failure. The former's serum creatinine returned to normal despite 3 months of anuria and the latter became dialysis-independent despite 2 months of progressive decline in renal function. Both remain dialysis-free 3 years after surgery.
Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Schmidt, Matthias; Kuhn-Régnier, Ferdinand; Erdmann, Erland; Er, Fikret
Right heart failure occurs daily in clinical settings, but an underlying cardiac malignant tumor is very uncommon. We report a case of a 48-year-old man presenting only with palpitations and decompensated heart failure. Echocardiographic imaging revealed a large tumor of the right ventricle. Shortly after a putatively successful surgical approach, the patient was admitted again with heart failure symptoms. On reassessment, a complete relapse with multiple metastases could be seen. Generally, cardiac malignant tumors are diagnosed at a time-point when therapeutic options are very limited or even postmortem. Broad echocardiographic screening in patients with unspecific symptoms might be helpful to detect cardiac malignant tumors at early stages.
Kato, Taiki; Hamano, Atsushi; Kawamura, Hideki
We report a 35 month-old boy with acute renal failure caused by an obstructive ureteral stone associated with norovirus gastroenteritis. He visited his family physician because of fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. He was diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis. The symptoms relieved once, but abdominal pain and vomiting recurred two days after the visit and the volume of urine decreased. He was diagnosed as norovirus gastoenteritis and acute renal failure which was unresponsive to fluid replacement. Ultrasound study of the abdomen showed a solitary kidney with mild hydronephrosis. He was then admitted to our hospital. He was finally diagnosed as acute postrenal failure due to obstructive ureteral stone with left solitary kidney by abdominal computer tomography (CT). We performed transurethral catheterization immediately. The creatinine and blood urea nitrogen returned to normal level in 2 days. The CT performed on the 28th day post operation showed disappearance of the stone after uric alkalization. Recently, some cases of postrenal failure due to bilateral obstructive ureteral stones, mainly ammonium acid urate stones, associated with viral gastroenteritis were reported. As clinical features, they are common in boys three years or younger after an episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high uric acid concentration. By far, the most common cause of acute renal failure in patients with severe gastroenteritis is prerenal failure resulting from hypovolemia. But postrenal cause due to bilateral obstructive stones should be taken in a consideration.
Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico
Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function.
Reubi, F C; Vorburger, C; Tuckman, J
The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [(51)Cr]EDTA, and (24)Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of (24)Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase.
Reubi, F. C.; Vorburger, C.; Tuckman, J.
The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of 24Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase. PMID:4630601
Yoon, Kibo; Song, Soon Young; Lee, Chang Hwa; Ko, Byung Hee; Lee, Seunghun; Kang, Bo Kyeong; Kim, Mi Mi
The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) as a cause of acute renal infarction, and to evaluate the clinical and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of SRAD. From November 2011 to January 2014, 35 patients who were diagnosed with acute renal infarction by MDCT were included. We analyzed the 35 MDCT data sets and medical records retrospectively, and compared clinical and imaging features of SRAD with an embolism, using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. The most common cause of acute renal infarction was an embolism, and SRAD was the second most common cause. SRAD patients had new-onset hypertension more frequently than embolic patients. Embolic patients were found to have increased C-reactive protein (CRP) more often than SRAD patients. Laboratory results, including tests for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and the BUN/creatinine ratio (BCR) were significantly higher in embolic patients than SRAD patients. Bilateral renal involvement was detected in embolic patients more often than in SRAD patients. MDCT images of SRAD patients showed the stenosis of the true lumen, due to compression by a thrombosed false lumen. None of SRAD patients progressed to an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² or to end-stage renal disease during the follow-up period. SRAD is not a rare cause of acute renal infarction, and it has a benign clinical course. It should be considered in a differential diagnosis of acute renal infarction, particularly in patients with new-onset hypertension, unilateral renal involvement, and normal ranges of CRP, LDH, BUN, and BCR.
The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) as a cause of acute renal infarction, and to evaluate the clinical and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of SRAD. From November 2011 to January 2014, 35 patients who were diagnosed with acute renal infarction by MDCT were included. We analyzed the 35 MDCT data sets and medical records retrospectively, and compared clinical and imaging features of SRAD with an embolism, using Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. The most common cause of acute renal infarction was an embolism, and SRAD was the second most common cause. SRAD patients had new-onset hypertension more frequently than embolic patients. Embolic patients were found to have increased C-reactive protein (CRP) more often than SRAD patients. Laboratory results, including tests for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and the BUN/creatinine ratio (BCR) were significantly higher in embolic patients than SRAD patients. Bilateral renal involvement was detected in embolic patients more often than in SRAD patients. MDCT images of SRAD patients showed the stenosis of the true lumen, due to compression by a thrombosed false lumen. None of SRAD patients progressed to an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or to end-stage renal disease during the follow-up period. SRAD is not a rare cause of acute renal infarction, and it has a benign clinical course. It should be considered in a differential diagnosis of acute renal infarction, particularly in patients with new-onset hypertension, unilateral renal involvement, and normal ranges of CRP, LDH, BUN, and BCR. PMID:28244286
Casson, I F; Lee, M R; Brownjohn, A M; Parsons, F M; Davison, A M; Will, E J; Clayden, A D
Eight patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and five age-matched normal volunteers were given additional sodium chloride by mouth under conditions of metabolic balance. Whereas in the normal volunteers plasma renin activity was suppressed and urinary excretion of free dopamine increased, in the patients dopamine was not mobilised and plasma renin activity was not completely suppressed. Abnormal retention of sodium and water in glomerulonephritis may be due partly to a failure to mobilise dopamine in the kidney. Specific renal dopamine agonists may be natriuretic and hypotensive in chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:6402127
Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Lima, Lourenço de Azevedo; Guedes, Juliana Chaves Ruiz; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antônio Macedo; Martins, Carlos José
Perforating dermatoses are a group of skin diseases characterized by transepidermal elimination of dermal material. The disease is divided into two groups: the primary group and the secondary group. The classical or primary perforating dermatoses are subdivided into four types according to the eliminated dermal materials: Kyrle disease, perforating reactive collagenosis, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and perforating folliculitis. The secondary form is known as acquired perforating dermatosis. The term was proposed in 1989 by Rapini to designate the perforating dermatoses affecting adult patients with systemic disease, regardless of the dermal materials eliminated. This report describes a case of the disease with elimination of collagen and elastic fibers in a patient with chronic renal failure. PMID:28300880
Stopper, Helga; Schupp, Nicole; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Heidland, August
In end-stage renal failure, genomic damage is enhanced. This has been shown both in the predialysis and dialysis phase by various biomarkers, such as micronuclei frequency and single cell gel electrophoresis in lymphocytes as well as with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in leukocytes. There are also data about mitochondrial DNA deletions and chromosomal abnormalities. Genomic damage may be induced by a multitude of toxic factors and mutagens, in particular via enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. In in vitro studies, incubation of tubular cells with various AGEs (carboxymethyllysine-BSA, AGE-BSA, and methylglyoxal-BSA) and angiotensin II resulted in a marked DNA damage. Coincubation with various antioxidants as well as the angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan, suppressed the toxic action. Moreover, an improved uremic state by daily hemodialysis ameliorated the genomic damage in lymphocytes, as compared to patients on conventional hemodialysis.
Qurashi, Hala E A; Qumqumji, Abbas A A; Zacharia, Yasir
The powder of henna plant (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) is extensively used as a decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a hair dye. Most reports of henna toxicity have been attributed to adding a synthetic dye para-phenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is marketed as black henna added to natural henna to accentuate the dark color and shorten the application time. PPD toxicity is well known and extensively reported in medical literature. We report a case of a young Saudi male who presented with characteristic features of acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following ingestion of henna mixture. Management of PPD poisoning is only supportive and helpful only if instituted early. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, as the clinical features are quite distinctive.
Fieuws, Steffen; Verbeke, Geert; Maes, Bart; Vanrenterghem, Yves
Patients who have undergone renal transplantation are monitored longitudinally at irregular time intervals over 10 years or more. This yields a set of biochemical and physiological markers containing valuable information to anticipate a failure of the graft. A general linear, generalized linear, or nonlinear mixed model is used to describe the longitudinal profile of each marker. To account for the correlation between markers, the univariate mixed models are combined into a multivariate mixed model (MMM) by specifying a joint distribution for the random effects. Due to the high number of markers, a pairwise modeling strategy, where all possible pairs of bivariate mixed models are fitted, is used to obtain parameter estimates for the MMM. These estimates are used in a Bayes rule to obtain, at each point in time, the prognosis for long-term success of the transplant. It is shown that allowing the markers to be correlated can improve this prognosis.
Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt; Waniewski, Jacek
Many aspects of the management of renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure (ARF), including the appropriate assessment of dialysis adequacy, remain unresolved, because ARF patients often are not in a metabolic steady state. The aim of this study was to evaluate a system of adequacy indices for dialysis in ARF patients using urea and creatinine kinetic modeling. Kinetic modeling was performed for two different fictitious patients (A and B) with characteristics described by the average parameters for two patient groups and for two blood purification treatments: sustained low efficiency daily dialysis (SLEDD) in Patient A and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in Patient B, based on data from a clinical report. Urea and creatinine generation rates were estimated according to the clinical data on the solute concentrations in blood. Then, using estimated generation rates, two hypothetical treatments were simulated, CVVH in Patient A and SLEDD in Patient B. KT/V, fractional solute removal (FSR) and equivalent renal clearance (EKR) were calculated according to the definitions developed for metabolically unstable patients. CVVH appeared as being more effective than SLEDD because KT/V, FSR, and EKR were higher for CVVH than SLEDD in Patients A and B. Creatinine KT/V, FSR, and EKR were lower and well correlated to the respective indices for urea. Urea and creatinine generation rates were overestimated more than twice in Patient A and by 30-40% in Patient B if calculated assuming the metabolically stable state than if estimated by kinetic modeling. Adequacy indices and solute generation rates for ARF patients should be estimated using the definition for unsteady metabolic state. EKR and FSR were higher for urea and creatinine with CVVH than with SLEDD, because of higher K.T and minimized compartmental effects for CVVH.
Scheutzel, P; Ritter, W
Dental examination of 50 children with chronic renal failure revealed enamel hypoplasia in 26 (52%), retardation of dental age in 18 (36%) and delay of dental eruption in 16 (32%) cases. In comparison to normal children the prevalence of caries was significantly lower. Half of the children showed radiologic changes in the jaw-bones already during preterminal stage of renal insufficiency. The possible role of the dentist concerning early diagnosis of renal failure is discussed.
Goldstein, R E; Marks, S L; Kass, P H; Cowgill, L D
To determine the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure (CRF) and the correlation between gastrin concentration in plasma and severity of CRF. Cohort study. 30 cats with naturally developing CRF and 12 clinically normal control cats. Gastrin concentrations in plasma were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from cats after food was withheld 8 hours. Concentrations were compared, using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. 18 cats with CRF had high gastrin concentrations (median, 45 pg/ml; range, < 18 to > 1,333 pg/ml), compared with those for control cats (< 18 pg/ml). Prevalence of hypergastrinemia increased with severity of renal insufficiency. Three of 9 cats with mild CRF, 6 of 11 cats with moderate CRF, and 9 of 10 cats with severe CRF had high gastrin concentrations. Gastrin concentrations were significantly different between control cats and cats with CRF, regardless of disease severity. The potential role of high concentrations of gastrin on gastric hyperacidity, uremic gastritis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and associated clinical signs of hypergastrinemia (e.g., anorexia and vomiting) may justify use of histamine2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors to suppress gastric acid secretion in cats with CRF that have these clinical signs.
Diaconescu, M R; Glod, M; Costea, I; Grigorovici, Mirela; Covic, A
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine neoplasm with difficult histological diagnostic and unpredictable evolution. More unusual are the cases appearing in the course of end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis (22 observations in medical literature). A 46-year-old man suffering of chronic glomerulonephritis and renal failure for 13 years, having been on hemodialysis for three years, complains of asthenia, adynamia, muscle weakness, progressive osteoarticular pains, itching. The preoperative iPTH was 71/ng/ml, seric Ca2+/1.23 mmol/l, seric Ca/2.6/mmoli/l, seric P/2.02 mmol/l. Clinical and ultrasonographical examinations revealed a left "thyroid nodule" of 44 x 37 mm but no images of the parathyroid. Upon surgery, three parathyroid glands (two from the right side and the superior left one) were identified and excised after the frozen section. The fourth gland was not found but the resected "nodule" together with the adjacent thyroid lobe proved a parathyroid carcinoma upon paraffin examination. The clinical course after operation was uneventful. The authors underlined the criteria and difficulties in the pathologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma and also the principles of surgical treatment based on their experience of three cases.
Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic failure as well as renal failure modified the pharmacokinetics of flunixin.
Deepak, K.; Kahn, T.
This review summarizes the evidence for the defect in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in chronic renal failure, considers the role of various factors in causing this defect, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. Intracellular Na is elevated in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and muscle cells from some patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Recent evidence suggest that this elevation of cell Na may be, in large part, a consequence of decreased number of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump units per cell. Maintenance dialysis over a period of weeks ameliorates the defect in intracellular Na/sup +/, and this improvement is contemporaneous with an increase in the number of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump sites per cell. In erythrocytes with normal cell Na/sup +/, acute hemodialysis increases the rate of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ and /sup 42/K/sup +/ transport. Many factors such as the presence of retained toxic metabolite or circulating inhibitor in the uremic plasma, or biochemical changes produced by acute hemodialysis, may explain this finding. In cells with high cell Na/sup +/, the pump-mediated /sup 42/K/sup +/ transport is normalized at the expense of a raised cell Na/sup +/. The decreased muscle membrane potential in uremic subjects has been attributed to a decreased activity of Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump. The authors discuss the role of hormonal abnormalities and circulating inhibitors, which may cause an acute inhibition of the pump and of other factors such as K/sup +/ depletion, which may cause more chronic alterations. The implications of alteration of Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ pump transport and raised cell Na/sup +/ on other non-pump-mediated transport pathways are discussed. Raised cell Na/sup +/ may be a marker for the adequacy of maintenance dialysis in patients with end-stage renal failure.
Cetina, Lucely; Rivera, Lesbia; Candelaria, Myrna; de la Garza, Jaime; Dueñas-González, Alfonso
The prognosis of cervical cancer patients with renal failure secondary to obstructive uropathy is poor. Our objective was to analyze our experience in the management with chemoradiation of untreated cervical cancer patients complicated by obstructive nephropathy and kidney dysfunction. Untreated patients with cervical cancer and renal failure as manifested by raised serum creatinine were treated with pelvic radiotherapy concurrently with weekly gemcitabine at 300 mg/m2. Response, toxicity and renal function pre- and post-therapy were evaluated. Eight FIGO stage IIIB and one IVB patients were treated. Pre-treatment serum creatinine ranged from 1.6 to 18.5 mg/100 ml (median 3.3, mean 6.8) and creatinine clearance varied from 4 to 57 mg/ml/min (median 17, mean 22.1). Four patients had a percutaneous nephrostomy placed and four patients had symptoms from kidney failure. All patient completed chemoradiation. Most patients had grade 3 leukopenia and neutropenia. Dermatitis, colitis and proctitis were common. All patients had improvement in creatinine clearance (pre-therapy 22.78, post-therapy 54.3 mg/ml/min) (p=0.0058) and all but one normalized serum creatinine. Eight (89%) of nine patients achieved complete response and one patient had persistence. At a median follow-up of 11 months (range 6-14), all patients are alive, one with pelvic and another with systemic disease. Ureteral obstruction causing any degree of renal insufficiency should not be a contraindication to receive chemoradiation to attempt cure. In this setting where cisplatin-based therapy is contraindicated, the use of gemcitabine may be considered.
El-Charabaty, Elie; Nasr, Patricia; Barakat, Iskandar; Andrawes, Sherif
Foreign body ingestion is common, although perforation after ingestion is rare. We report a case of an ingested sharp wooden stick that perforated the proximal jejunum toward the renal vasculature, causing segmental renal artery thrombosis and renal infarct. The patient presented with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. A computed tomography scan revealed a linear opacity corresponding to the foreign body. The wooden stick was removed endoscopically through deep-push enteroscopy with a rat-tooth forceps. We report this unique case of perforation by a foreign body through the proximal jejunum to the left kidney, which was managed endoscopically. PMID:28144617
Ter Maaten, Jozine M; Damman, Kevin; Verhaar, Marianne C; Paulus, Walter J; Duncker, Dirk J; Cheng, Caroline; van Heerebeek, Loek; Hillege, Hans L; Lam, Carolyn S P; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A
Renal dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common and is associated with increased mortality. Impaired renal function is also a risk factor for developing HFpEF. A new paradigm for HFpEF, proposing a sequence of events leading to myocardial remodelling and dysfunction in HFpEF, was recently introduced, involving inflammatory, microvascular, and cardiac components. The kidney might play a key role in this systemic process. Renal impairment causes metabolic and systemic derangements in circulating factors, causing an activated systemic inflammatory state and endothelial dysfunction, which may lead to cardiomyocyte stiffening, hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis via cross-talk between the endothelium and cardiomyocyte compartments. Here, we review the role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation to explain the link between renal dysfunction and HFpEF, which allows for identification of new early risk markers, prognostic factors, and unique targets for intervention.
Amin, Hatem K; El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb; Leheta, Ola F
Glomerular filtration rate and/or creatinine are not accurate methods for renal failure prediction. This study tested homocysteine (Hcy) as a predictive and prognostic marker for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In total, 176 subjects were recruited and divided into: healthy normal group (108 subjects); mild-to-moderate impaired renal function group (21 patients); severe impaired renal function group (7 patients); and chronic renal failure group (40 patients) who were on regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were collected, and serum was separated for analysis of total Hcy, creatinine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, and calcium. Data showed that Hcy level was significantly increased from normal-to-mild impairment then significantly decreases from mild impairment until the patient reaches severe impairment while showing significant elevation in the last stage of chronic renal disease. Creatinine level was increased in all stages of kidney impairment in comparison with control. CRP level was showing significant elevation in the last stage. A significant decrease in both albumin and calcium was occurred in all stages of renal impairment. We conclude Hcy in combination with CRP, creatinine, albumin, and calcium can be used as a prognostic marker for ESRD and an early diagnostic marker for the risk of renal failure.
Watson, A.; Edefonti, A.; Fischbach, M.; Rönnholm, K.; Schaefer, F.; Simkova, E.; Stefanidis, C. J.; Strazdins, V.; Vande Walle, J.; Schröder, C.; Zurowska, A.; Ekim, M.
Childhood renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is the consequence of disturbances of the calcium-regulating hormones vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as of the somatotroph hormone axis associated with local modulation of bone and growth cartilage function. The resulting growth retardation and the potentially rapid onset of ROD in children are different from ROD in adults. The biochemical changes of ROD as well as its prevention and treatment affect calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and are directly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in pediatric renal patients. The aims of the clinical and biochemical surveillance of pediatric patients with CRF or on dialysis are prevention of hyperphosphatemia, avoidance of hypercalcemia and keeping the calcium phosphorus product below 5 mmol2/l2. The PTH levels should be within the normal range in chronic renal failure (CRF) and up to 2–3 times the upper limit of normal levels in dialysed children. Prevention of ROD is expected to result in improved growth and less vascular calcification. PMID:16247644
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), a metabolic bone disease accompanying chronic renal failure (CRF), is a major clinical problem in pediatric nephrology. Growing and rapidly remodeling skeletal systems are particularly susceptible to the metabolic and endocrine disturbances in CRF. The pathogenesis of ROD is complex and multifactorial. Hypocalcemia, phosphate retention, and low levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) related to CRF result in disturbances of bone metabolism and ROD. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of bone lesions might result in severe disability. Based on microscopic findings, renal bone disease is classified into two main categories: high- and low-turnover bone disease. High-turnover bone disease is associated with moderate and severe hyperparathyroidism. Low-turnover bone disease includes osteomalacia and adynamic bone disease. The treatment of ROD involves controlling serum calcium and phosphate levels, and preventing parathyroid gland hyperplasia and extraskeletal calcifications. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels should be kept within the normal range. The calcium-phosphorus product has to be <5 mmol(2)/L(2) (60 mg(2)/dL(2)). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in children with CRF should be within the normal range, but in children with end-stage renal disease PTH levels should be two to three times the upper limit of the normal range. Drug treatment includes intestinal phosphate binding agents and active vitamin D metabolites. Phosphate binders should be administered with each meal. Calcium carbonate is the most widely used intestinal phosphate binder. In children with hypercalcemic episodes, sevelamer, a synthetic phosphate binder, should be introduced. In children with CRF, ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), colecalciferol (vitamin D(3)), and calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) should be used as vitamin D analogs. In children undergoing dialysis, active vitamin D metabolites alfacalcidol (1alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D(3)) and calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin
Bac, Arnaud; Ramadan, Ahmed Sabry; Youatou, Pierre; Mols, Pierre; Cerf, Dominique; Ngatchou, William
Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial disease of the respiratory system caused by a gram-negative germ whose clinical manifestation can be benign limiting to flu-like syndrome or can be more severe being characterized by pneumonia which may be complicated by multisystem disease that can lead to death. We report the case of a 48 year-old patient with rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure following Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. We here highlight the pathophysiological aspects and treatment of this rare complication during Legionella infection.
Leduc, Martin; Hou, Xin; Hamel, David; Sanchez, Melanie; Quiniou, Christiane; Honoré, Jean-Claude; Roy, Olivier; Madaan, Ankush; Lubell, William; Varma, Daya R; Mancini, Joseph; Duhamel, François; Peri, Krishna G; Pichette, Vincent; Heveker, Nikolaus; Chemtob, Sylvain
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication characterized by an abrupt and sustained decline in renal function. Despite significant advances in supportive care, there is currently no effective treatment to restore renal function. PGE(2) is a lipid hormone mediator abundantly produced in the kidney, where it acts locally to regulate renal function; several studies suggest that modulating EP(4) receptor activity could improve renal function following kidney injury. An optimized peptidomimetic ligand of EP(4) receptor, THG213.29, was tested for its efficacy to improve renal function (glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and urine output) and histological changes in a model of ARF induced by either cisplatin or renal artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. THG213.29 modulated PGE(2)-binding dissociation kinetics, indicative of an allosteric binding mode. Consistently, THG213.29 antagonized EP(4)-mediated relaxation of piglet saphenous vein rings, partially inhibited EP(4)-mediated cAMP production, but did not affect Gα(i) activation or β-arrestin recruitment. In vivo, THG213.29 significantly improved renal function and histological changes in cisplatin- and renal artery occlusion-induced ARF models. THG213.29 increased mRNA expression of heme-oxygenase 1, Bcl2, and FGF-2 in renal cortex; correspondingly, in EP(4)-transfected HEK293 cells, THG213.29 augmented FGF-2 and abrogated EP(4)-dependent overexpression of inflammatory IL-6 and of apoptotic death domain-associated protein and BCL2-associated agonist of cell death. Our results demonstrate that THG213.29 represents a novel class of diuretic agent with noncompetitive allosteric modulator effects on EP(4) receptor, resulting in improved renal function and integrity following acute renal failure.
Bakrac, Milena; Bonaci, Branka; Krstic, Miodrag; Simic, Sanja; Colovic, Milica
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATCL) is a high grade, pleomorphic peripheral T-cell lymphoma usually with cytotoxic phenotypes. We describe a first case of patient with EATCL that is remarkable for its fulminant course and invasion of both kidneys manifested as acute renal failure. The patient was a 23 year old woman with a long history of celiac disease. She was presented with acute renal failure and enlarged mononuclear infiltrated kidneys. Diagnosis of tubuloi-nterstitial nephritis and polyserositis was confirmed with consecutive pulse doses of steroid therapy. After reco-very, she had disseminated disease two months later. Magnetic resonance imaging showed thickened intestine wall, extremely augmented kidneys, enlarged intra-abdominal lymph nodes with extra-luminal compression of common bile duct. Laparotomy with mesenterial adipous tissue and lymph glands biopsy was done. Consecutive pathophysiological and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the diagnosis of EATCL: CD45RO+, CD43+, CD3+. The revision of renal pathophysiology sub-stantiated the diagnosis. The patient received chemotherapy, but unfortunately she died manifesting signs of pulmonary embolism caused by tumor cells. PMID:16610043
Frank, H; Zilker, T; Kirchmair, M; Eyer, F; Haberl, B; Tuerkoglu-Raach, G; Wessely, M; Gröne, H-J; Heemann, U
Mushrooms of the Cortinarius species are nephrotoxic and can cause severe acute renal failure. The toxic effect is due to orellanine. It is suspected that the cytotoxic damage is caused by the production of oxygen-free radicals. Renal pathology shows tubular necrosis with interstitial nephritis. In addition to accidental intoxications as a consequence of mushroom meals, recent cases are often due to voluntary abuse of natural drugs like magic mushrooms. We report 4 current cases of acute renal failure from intoxication by Cortinarius species by confusing it with psychoactive fungi. Typical for the Cortinarius poisoning is the long latency period from ingestion until the onset of clinical symptoms (3 - 20 days). Diagnosis is based on microscopical identification of the mushroom spores, and detection of the orellanine toxin in leftover mushrooms. In renal biopsy tissue, orellanine is detectable by thin-layer chromaography technique up to 6 months after poisoning. There is no causative therapy, and treatment is symptomatic with adequate hemodialysis. In cases of otherwise unexplained acute renal failure, intoxication with nephrotoxic mushrooms should be considered.
Hofmann, Jonathan N; Schwartz, Kendra; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Shuch, Brian M; Karami, Sara; Rothman, Nathaniel; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Colt, Joanne S; Purdue, Mark P
Purpose In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among blacks than among whites. Risk of RCC is elevated among end-stage renal disease patients, although no studies have looked at differences by race in the relationship between chronic renal failure and RCC. Methods We investigated RCC risk in relation to chronic renal failure in a population-based case-control study of blacks and whites in Chicago and Detroit. Data, including information on kidney disease, were collected from interviews with 1,217 RCC cases (361 blacks, 856 whites) and 1,235 controls (523 blacks, 712 whites). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results Risk of RCC was increased in relation to chronic renal failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.2–10.1) and dialysis (OR 18.0, 95% CI 3.6–91). The association remained after defining exposure as those who had chronic renal failure ≥10 years prior to RCC diagnosis. Chronic renal failure was more strongly associated with RCC among blacks than among whites (OR 8.7, 95% CI 3.3–22.9 and 2.0, 0.7–5.6 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03) and among those without a history of diabetes relative to diabetic subjects (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.1–22.7 and 1.9, 0.6–5.9 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03). Conclusions These results suggest that chronic renal failure is a strong risk factor for RCC, particularly among black and non-diabetic subjects. Our findings of differences in risk estimates by race, to our knowledge the first such report, require replication. PMID:23179659
Bakathir, Abdulaziz A; Margasahayam, Manjunath V; Al-Ismaily, Mohammed I
This case report describes a 21-year-old female patient with a complex medical condition of end-stage chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism presenting with a history of gradual enlargement of the facial bones over a period of one year. The facial enlargement primarily involves the maxilla causing a bizarre facial and dental deformity. Based on the clinical, radiographic, and laboratory investigations the facial deformity was confirmed as a rare manifestation of renal osteodystrophy presenting as maxillary hyperplasia and hyperostosis cranialis.
Rickman, Linda Wilkins; Hollowell, John
A survey to determine why student teachers fail and what can be done to improve teacher education is discussed. Five factors of failure are identified: classroom management and discipline problems, inability to relate well with students, poor teaching methods, lack of commitment to the profession, and personal characteristics. (MLW)
Aqeel, Masooma; Batdorf, Bjorn; Olteanu, Horatiu; Patel, Jayshil J.
Introduction: Antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) is characterized by the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies in conjunction with clinical findings of fever, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Inflammatory myopathies carry a high risk of malignancy, but this association is less well outlined in ASS. We present the case of a patient with ASS who developed non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old female with ASS presented with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. She was empirically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for a health care–associated pneumonia; however, she failed to improve. Chest computed tomography revealed extensive bilateral ground glass opacities as well as extensive mediastinal and axillary lymphadenopathy. Infectious workup was negative. A surgical lung biopsy revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). The patient was started on chemotherapy with complete resolution of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Conclusions: Malignancy is very rare in the setting of ASS; and our case illustrates the unique presentation of PTCL in ASS. In addition, lung involvement in PTCL is variable (incidence ranging from 8% to 20%); and in this case, bilateral multifocal consolidation was biopsied and proven to be PTCL involving the lungs. This case highlights the rare noninfectious conditions that can present as acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in the setting of ASS. PMID:28210638
Aqeel, Masooma; Batdorf, Bjorn; Olteanu, Horatiu; Patel, Jayshil J
Introduction: Antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) is characterized by the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies in conjunction with clinical findings of fever, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Inflammatory myopathies carry a high risk of malignancy, but this association is less well outlined in ASS. We present the case of a patient with ASS who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old female with ASS presented with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. She was empirically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for a health care-associated pneumonia; however, she failed to improve. Chest computed tomography revealed extensive bilateral ground glass opacities as well as extensive mediastinal and axillary lymphadenopathy. Infectious workup was negative. A surgical lung biopsy revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). The patient was started on chemotherapy with complete resolution of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Conclusions: Malignancy is very rare in the setting of ASS; and our case illustrates the unique presentation of PTCL in ASS. In addition, lung involvement in PTCL is variable (incidence ranging from 8% to 20%); and in this case, bilateral multifocal consolidation was biopsied and proven to be PTCL involving the lungs. This case highlights the rare noninfectious conditions that can present as acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in the setting of ASS.
Ak, Gülçin; Ozgönül, Mert; Sözmen, Eser Y; Aslan, S Leyla; Sözmen, Bülent
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with a tendency to atherosclerosis due to the enhanced oxidative stress and insufficient antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and paraoxonase (PON 1), together with abnormalities in lipid parameters. We determined the in vitro susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation and PON1 activities in patients with chronic renal insufficiency to see how PON1 affected the progression of the disease and whether hemodialysis influenced these parameters. Thirty-seven patients (21 men, 16 women, mean age 43.9 +/- 16) with CRF were included, 23 were receiving hemodialysis treatment. Exclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus and acute coronary disease. Eighteen healthy subjects (9 men and 9 women, mean age 39.9 +/- 10.5) volunteered to participate as controls. All patients were evaluated by renal ultrasound (USG) and two-dimensional echography, and their lipid profiles, PON1 activity, basal and Cu-induced LDL oxidation were determined. PON1 activities of patients were lower than controls (14.4 +/- 11 vs 30.9 +/- 19 U/L, p < 0.05) while basal ox-LDL levels determined by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method were higher (0.6 +/- 0.4 vs 0.4+/- 0.2 nmol/mg LDL protein, p<0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups treated with hemodialysis or not. There was a positive correlation between renal cortical thickness and HDL levels (r=0.47, p=0.006) and PON1 activity (r=0.45, p=0.01). Our data showed that HDL cholesterol levels and PON1 activities were both lower in patients, indicating depletion of the protective antioxidant capacity. PON1 activities and phenotypes were no different in patients with coronary disease and others so it does not appear to be a significant indicator of coronary artery disease in patients with CRF.
Ward, Richard A; McLeish, Kenneth R
Chronic renal failure is characterized by oxidant stress, resulting in part from increased reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Plasma concentrations of methylglyoxal are increased in uraemia. Methylglyoxal activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in endothelial cells. Activation of p38 MAPK in neutrophils enhances reactive oxygen species production through exocytosis of intracellular storage granules. We tested the hypothesis that methylglyoxal enhances reactive oxygen species production by activating p38 MAPK in neutrophils. Neutrophils were exposed to methylglyoxal in vitro. Activation of p38 MAPK was determined by immunoblot analysis. Exocytosis was determined by measuring plasma membrane expression of CD35 and CD66b, specific markers of secretory vesicles and specific granules, respectively. Reactive oxygen species production was determined by measuring H(2)O(2) and O(-)(2) production. Methylglyoxal activated p38 MAPK and caused dose-dependent increases in CD35 and CD66b expression, which were blocked by the methylglyoxal scavenger, aminoguanidine, or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. Methylglyoxal caused dose-dependent increases in basal and Staphylococcus aureus-stimulated H(2)O(2) production and basal and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated O(-)(2) production. Enhancement of reactive oxygen species production was blocked by aminoguanidine and SB203580. Methylglyoxal enhances reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils through a process involving p38 MAPK-dependent exocytosis of intracellular storage granules. These findings, together with the observation that methylglyoxal concentrations are increased in renal failure, suggest a possible role for methylglyoxal as a uraemic toxin that contributes to the oxidant stress associated with renal failure.
Mahmoud, Mona Fouad; Diaai, Abdalla Ahmed; Ahmed, Fahmy
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger), Arabic gum (AG), and Boswellia on both acute and chronic renal failure (CRF) and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Acute renal failure was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion, while CRF was induced by adenine feeding for 8 weeks. Prophylactic oral administration of ginger, AG, Boswellia, or vehicle (in control groups) was started 3 days before and along with adenine feeding in different groups or 7 days before ischemia-reperfusion. Ginger and AG showed renoprotective effects in both models of renal failure. These protective effects may be attributed at least in part to their anti-inflammatory properties as evident by attenuating serum C-reactive protein levels and antioxidant effects as evident by attenuating lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde levels, and increasing renal superoxide dismutase activity. Ginger was more potent than AG in both models of renal failure. However, Boswellia showed only partial protective effect against both acute renal failure and CRF and it had no antioxidant effects. Finally, we can say that ginger and AG could be beneficial adjuvant therapy in patients with acute renal failure and CRF to prevent disease progression and delay the need for renal replacement therapy.
Beto, J A
This review describes categories of renal function (normal, renal insufficiency, end-stage renal failure), types of treatment modalities (renal insufficiency management, dialysis, transplantation), and corresponding dietary parameters (protein, energy, fiber, sodium, fluid, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, vitamins, minerals). The focus is directed toward general and nonrenal specialty practitioners, who are encountering a growing number of geriatric patients and patients who have undergone renal transplantation or are in early renal failure. The findings indicate that early intervention may delay or prevent rapid progression of renal disease in some patients, that treatment modalities continue to need individualized dietary support to maintain nutritional status, and that transplant goals should include control of obesity and hyperlipidemia to reduce cardiovascular mortality.
Kawamura, Y; Matsuo, H; Chiba, T; Nagamori, S; Nakayama, A; Inoue, H; Utsumi, Y; Oda, T; Nishiyama, J; Kanai, Y; Shinomiya, N
Renal hypouricemia (MIM 220150) is an inherited disorder characterized by low serum uric acid levels and has severe complications such as exercise-induced acute renal failure and urolithiasis. We have previously reported that URAT1/SLC22A12 encodes a renal urate-anion exchanger and that its mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1). With the large health-examination database of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, we found two missense mutations (R198C and R380W) of GLUT9/SLC2A9 in hypouricemia patients. R198C and R380W occur in highly conserved amino acid motifs in the "sugar transport proteins signatures" that are observed in GLUT family transporters. The corresponding mutations in GLUT1 (R153C and R333W) are known to cause GLUT1 deficiency syndrome because arginine residues in this motif are reportedly important as the determinants of the membrane topology of human GLUT1. Therefore, on the basis of membrane topology, the same may be true of GLUT9. GLUT9 mutants showed markedly reduced urate transport in oocyte expression studies, which would be the result of the loss of positive charges in those conserved amino acid motifs. Together with previous reports on GLUT9 localization, our findings suggest that these GLUT9 mutations cause renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2) by their decreased urate reabsorption on both sides of the renal proximal tubule cells. However, a previously reported GLUT9 mutation, P412R, was unlikely to be pathogenic. These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption via GLUT9 and URAT1 and can lead to a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases.
Chen, Pingan; Leng, Shuilong; Luo, Yishan; Li, Shaonan; Huang, Zicheng; Liu, Zhenxi; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jie; Lei, Xiaoming
In dogs with heart failure (HF) induced by overload pressure, the role of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on heart failure and in the renal artery is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and safety of RSD in dogs with pressure overload-induced heart failure. Twenty mongrel dogs were divided into a sham-operated group, an HF group and an HF + RSD group. In the sham-operated group, the abdominal aorta was located but was not constricted, in the HF group, the abdominal aorta was constricted without RSD, and the HF+RSD group underwent RSD with constriction of the abdominal aorta after 10 weeks. Blood sampling assays, echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) measurement and histopathological examination were performed. Renal sympathetic denervation caused a significant reduction in the levels of noradrenaline (166.62±6.84 vs. 183.48±13.66 pg/ml, P<0.05), plasma renin activity (1.93±0.12 vs. 2.10±0.13 ng/mlh, P<0.05) and B-type natriuretic peptide (71.14±3.86 vs. 83.15±5.73 pg/ml, P<0.05) at eight weeks after RSD in the HF+RSD group. Compared with the HF group at eight weeks, the left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole and end-systole were lower and the left ventricular ejection fraction was higher (all P<0.05) at eight weeks after RSD in the HF+RSD group. Intravenous ultrasound images showed no changes in the renal artery lumen, and intimal hyperplasia and vascular lumen stenosis were not observed after RSD. Renal sympathetic denervation could improve cardiac function in dogs with HF induced by pressure overload; RSD had no adverse influence on the renal artery. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
reasons for non-management contractor failures. These interviews led to letters and some phone interviews with national surety associations as we! l as...Table C-4 * 14 * CONSTRUCTION FIRM LIABILITIES FOI LOWI NG FA I L UPF 2500 ..... 200 1500* 0 00 00 1954 190 1966 197 1978 1984 1957 1963 1969 1975 1981...payroll according to Mr. Randell Tanner of Huffines, Tanner, and Russell Incorporated a Georgia commercial insurance firm. --As if to negate contractor
Mata-Miranda, Monica Maribel; Delgado-Macuil, Raul Jacobo; Rojas-Lopez, Marlon; Martinez-Flores, Ricardo; Vazquez-Zapien, Gustavo Jesus
Kidney diseases are a public health problem worldwide; the mortality rate is between 50 and 80%. Available therapies include replacement function by dialysis or transplant, associated with a high morbidity and mortality; kidney transplantation is limited by the shortage of donor organs, immune rejection and lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive. Likewise, none of these treatments compensates all kidney functions. There is a great concern in developing more effective therapies with the ability to replace the wide range of renal functions, so that, new researches on developing therapeutic strategies have focused on regenerative medicine, science that includes artificial creation of tissues and organs, in order to repair or replace a tissue or organ function. The aim of this paper is to review the new advances in regenerative medicine strategies for treatment of renal failure. Generally, regenerative medicine comprises two therapeutic strategies: cell therapy and tissue engineering. Cell therapy techniques depend on cell and tissue culture, with the aim to grow specific cells that will replace morphological structures, tissues and functions. In this area, some investigations that include the use of stem cells have been carried out. Tissue engineering complements cell therapy combining techniques of biological sciences and engineering to create structures and devices as scaffolds, matrices or biocompatible materials, which alone or in combination will give support and facilitate the repair of damaged tissue. Even though there is a great advance in regenerative medicine strategies, we are far from using any of its techniques on health institutions, due to it is necessary to evaluate side effects, biodistribution, dosage, type of administration, vehicle of cell therapy, as well as the evaluation of response time and long-term studies, among other studies.
Triolo, G; Mariano, F; Stella, M; Salomone, M; Magliacani, G
Appearance of acute renal failure (ARF) in severely burnt patients (GU) is a serious complication. It has a negative prognostic value and almost always develops in the context of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) induced by sepsis. Over the last 20 years, according to data available, the mortality rate has been reported to reach about 75%. We have analyzed the initial results obtained in GU patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Burns Center in Turin. Out of 105 GU patients admitted between July 1999 and September 2000 (burned surface area (BSA) 23.8%, range 2-95%, mortality rate 13.7%), 7 patients (6.4%) had complications of ARF requiring extracorporeal dialytic therapy (38 HF sessions lasting 4-6 hours, 2 HF + 12 HDF + 1 UF sessions lasting 8-11 hours). Total BSA of 7 GU patients with ARF was 62.5+/-11.3% (mean +/-SEM). Mortality rate was 71.4% which was due to septic shock and MODS. ARF onset was at 28.4+/-8.4 days from admission. Dialytic treatment started at Crs 2.3+/-0.42 mg/dl, and patients were treated for 7.6+/-3.5 days with a weight loss of 1859+/-161 gr/die. Circuit anticoagulation was obtained by minimal amount of heparin (132.2+/-26.5 U/hour) and no hemorrhagic complications were observed. In GU patients with ARF the dialytic treatment with daily long-lasting convective- diffusive techniques permitted us to achieve a survival and dialytic adequacy similar to those reported with continuous renal replacement therapies; however, mortality rate is high and related to septic shock and MODS.
Borrows, Richard; Loucaidou, Marina; Chusney, Gary; Borrows, Sarah; Tromp, Jen Van; Cairns, Tom; Griffith, Megan; Hakim, Nadey; McLean, Adam; Palmer, Andrew; Papalois, Vassilios; Taube, David
Anaemia is common following renal transplantation and is associated with the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). However the prevalence of anaemia in the first year following transplantation and the association between anaemia occurring early and the development of CHF have been understudied. In this study, 132 incident patients undergoing tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil-based renal transplantation were studied for the prevalence of, and risk factors for, anaemia and CHF in the early period post transplantation. Anaemia occurred in 94.5% and 53.1% of patients at 1 week and 12 months, respectively, and was associated with allograft dysfunction, hypoalbuminaemia, higher mycophenolic acid (MPA) levels, bacterial infection and hypoalbuminaemia. The association with hypoalbuminaemia may reflect the presence of chronic inflammation post-transplantation. Of patients displaying haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 41.1% and 29.4% were treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) at 1 and 12 months respectively. CHF developed in 26 patients beyond 1 month post-transplantation, with echocardiographic left ventricular systolic function preserved in all but one. CHF was associated with anaemia and lower haemoglobin, allograft dysfunction, duration of dialysis and left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography prior to transplantation, suggesting the aetiology of CHF may involve the interplay of diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pre-load mismatch and after-load mismatch. Modification of risk factors may improve anaemia management post transplantation. Reducing the prevalence of anaemia may in turn reduce the incidence of CHF-these observations support the need for clinical trials to determine how anaemia management may impact CHF incidence.
de Gasperi, A; Mazza, E; Noè, L; Corti, A; Cristalli, A; Prosperi, M; Sabbadini, D; Savi, M C; Vai, S
To define the pharmacokinetic profile of the induction dose of propofol in chronic renal failure patients. Determination of propofol blood concentrations after the bolus dose of 2 mg.kg-1 bw injected in 30 seconds in a peripheral vein in a group of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients and in a group of normal patients (controls). 10 CRF patients (7 males, 3 females, mean age 47 +/- 8 years old, mean body weight 66 +/- 8 kg) candidates to cadaveric renal transplantation and free from major hepatic diseases (study group); 8 ASA I patients (5 males, 3 females), without major cardiorespiratory, hepatic, renal, hematologic or metabolic diseases undergoing minor elective surgical procedures lasting from 50 to 90 minutes (control group). a) propofol blood concentrations by means of HPLC; b) derived pharmacokinetic parameters (calculated by means of Siphar, version 4.0, Societé de informatique médicale, Simed, Paris, 1991); c) cardiovascular parameters (heart rate, central venous pressure, invasive arterial pressure). The decay of propofol whole blood concentrations, distribution, redistribution and elimination half lives were similar in CRF and in control patients. On the contrary, significantly different in CRF patients were propofol blood concentrations from two to ten minutes following the induction dose (lower), the area under concentration- time curve (AUC) (smaller), the mean resident time (longer), the total body clearance (greater), the volumes of distribution at steady state and during the elimination phase (larger). The larger volumes of distribution are closely correlated with the significantly lower albumin concentrations in the uremic patients. An accelerated hepatic biotransformation is one of the possible explanations for the greater total body clearance of propofol in the uraemic patients: in fact an increased glucuronyltrasferase activity and glucuronoconjugation induced by phenols has been demonstrated in uraemia. On the other hand, large volumes of
Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A C
The present study comprises of 10 dogs of either sex with primary indication of azotaemia. All the dogs were subjected to detailed clinical, haematobiochemical, urinalysis, and microbiological examination along with radiographical and ultrasonographical examination. Based on the ultrasonographic structural abnormalities, the different renal affections associated with CRF in majority of dogs were diagnosed. The different affections included "end-stage" kidneys (n = 4), hydronephrosis (n = 1), renomegaly (n = 1), nephritis (n = 1), nephrolithiasis (n = 1), nephrocalcinosis (n = 1), and renal cyst (n = 1). The significant ultrasonographic features in these affections included small kidneys with loss of corticomedullary demarcation ("end-stage" kidneys); increased cortical echogenicity (nephritis); dilation of the renal pelvis, separation of the central renal sinus with anechoic space, atrophy of renal medulla, (hydronephrosis); enlarged kidneys with increased overall echogenicity of renal cortex (renomegaly and associated nephritis); hyperechoic-mineralized structure with shadowing (nephrolithiasis); diffuse, small, multiple hyperechoic structures in the renal parenchyma with distal acoustic shadowing (nephrocalcinosis); small spherical intercortical anechoic structures fluid (renal cysts). In the present study, ultrasound proved to be a quick, convenient, and sensitive modality in detecting alterations in renal size and parenchymal architecture. All the dogs so diagnosed with CRF were rendered conservative medical treatment to control clinical signs of uraemia; maintain adequate fluid, electrolyte, and acid/base balance; provide adequate nutrition; minimize progression of renal failure.
Vesin, P.; Traverso, H.
The term ‘functional renal failure’ has been used to describe the renal failure developing in advanced cirrhosis in which tubular function and structure remain intact. It may develop spontaneously, in which case prognosis is poor, but may be secondary to gastro-intestinal haemorrhage or excessive use of diuretics, in which case correction of the precipitating factor leads to improvement in renal function. It is suggested that the renal failure is due to a reduction in effective circulating plasma volume. PMID:1234327
Waller, Simon C; Ridout, Deborah; Cantor, Tom; Rees, Lesley
In pediatric chronic renal failure (CRF) optimal parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations that minimize renal osteodystrophy and maximize growth are unknown. The search for optimum concentrations has been complicated as currently used "intact" PTH (iPTH) assays cross-react with long carboxyl-terminal PTH fragments (C-PTH), which antagonize the biologic actions of 1-84 PTH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PTH, the 1-84 PTH:C-PTH ratio and growth rate in children with CRF. A total of 162 patients, median (range) age 9.9 years (0.3 to 17.1 years), were recruited: 136 with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)[96 managed conservatively (CRF group) and 40 transplanted patients], and 26 dialysis patients. Over a median (range) period of 1.1 years (0.5 to 1.7 years), children attended five (three to 15) clinics at which iPTH, cyclase-activating PTH (CAP-PTH), and height were measured. Mean PTH concentrations were within the normal range for both assays for the CRF group and up to twice the upper limit of normal for the dialysis group; CAP-PTH 24.8 pg/mL and 59.9 pg/mL (normal range 5 to 39 pg/mL), iPTH 37.1 pg/mL, and 102.6 pg/mL, respectively (normal range 14 to 66 pg/mL). The patients grew normally (change in height standard deviation score per year (DeltaHtSDS) =-0.01). There was no relationship between PTH concentrations and DeltaHtSDS in any patient group. The 1-84 PTH:C-PTH ratio was lower in dialyzed patients (P= 0.003), with worsening renal function (P= 0.047) and with PTH concentrations outside the normal range (P= 0.01). There was a weak correlation between the 1-84 PTH:C-PTH ratio and the DeltaHtSDS (r= 0.2, P= 0.01). Normal range PTH concentrations are appropriate, allowing normal growth in children with CRF managed conservatively. C-PTH may be of clinical significance.
Bridgewater, Darren; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Cain, Jason E; Cox, Brian; Jakobson, Madis; Sainio, Kirsi; Rosenblum, Norman D
Renal dysplasia, defined by defective ureteric branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis, is the major cause of renal failure in infants and children. Here, we define a pathogenic role for a β-catenin-activated genetic pathway in murine renal dysplasia. Stabilization of β-catenin in the ureteric cell lineage before the onset of kidney development increased β-catenin levels and caused renal aplasia or severe hypodysplasia. Analysis of gene expression in the dysplastic tissue identified downregulation of genes required for ureteric branching and upregulation of Tgfβ2 and Dkk1. Treatment of wild-type kidney explants with TGFβ2 or DKK1 generated morphogenetic phenotypes strikingly similar to those observed in mutant kidney tissue. Stabilization of β-catenin after the onset of kidney development also caused dysplasia and upregulation of Tgfβ2 and Dkk1 in the epithelium. Together, these results demonstrate that elevation of β-catenin levels during kidney development causes dysplasia. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology
Dana L. Kelly; Dale M. Rasmuson
This paper describes the approach taken by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the treatment of common-cause failure in probabilistic risk assessment of operational events. The approach is based upon the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, and examples are illustrated using the alpha-factor parameterization, the approach adopted by the NRC in their Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models. The cases of a failed component (with and without shared common-cause failure potential) and a component being unavailable due to preventive maintenance or testing are addressed. The treatment of two related failure modes (e.g., failure to start and failure to run) is a new feature of this paper. These methods are being applied by the NRC in assessing the risk significance of operational events for the Significance Determination Process (SDP) and the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program.
Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando
Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando
Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Gleghorn, E E; Eisenberg, L D; Hack, S; Parton, P; Merritt, R J
Elevated serum retinol concentrations have been previously reported in patients with renal failure, although overt clinical toxicity has been described only rarely. We present three patients with renal failure receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) who developed biochemical and clinical findings of hypervitaminosis A. Improvement followed deletion of vitamin A from the TPN. These cases demonstrate that patients with renal failure may be at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity if given TPN with standard retinol supplementation. Such patients should be carefully observed clinically and biochemically if supplementation is given.
Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar
A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455
Cruz, Iluminado A.; Hosten, Adrian O.; Dillard, Martin G.; Castro, Oswaldo L.
Advanced renal failure occurred in nine adult sickle cell disease patients. There were six men and three women with a mean age of 38.6 years. Eight patients had homozygous SS disease, one had sickle cell thalassemia. Three patients had acute renal failure from which they partially recovered. Six developed endstage kidney disease requiring dialysis. Two of these received a kidney transplant, and there was one death in the immediate postoperative period. Angina pectoris, hyperkalemia, and severe anemia complicated chronic dialysis, suggesting that early transplantation should be considered for sickle cell anemia patients with renal failure. PMID:6757451
Faulhaber-Walter, Robert; Scholz, Sebastian; Haller, Herrmann; Kielstein, Jan T; Hafer, Carsten
Background Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT) study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL). The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital). Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d). One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]). Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™) index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health). Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion Mortality after severe AKI is higher than short-term prospective studies show, and morbidity is significant. Kidney recovery as well as general health remains incomplete. Reduction of QoL is minor, and social rehabilitation is very good. Affectivity is heterogeneous, but most patients experience emotional well-being. In summary, AKI in critically ill patients leads to incomplete rehabilitation but acceptable QoL after 5 years. PMID:27284261
Torres, A.; Rubinstein, E.; Corey, G. R.; Stryjewski, M. E.; Barriere, S. L.
Objectives Telavancin is approved in Europe for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are not suitable. The approved European prescribing information contraindicates the use of telavancin in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min, including patients on haemodialysis) and pre-existing acute renal failure owing to the higher observed mortality in these patients. Data from the ATTAIN studies were reanalysed, excluding patients with these contraindicating conditions at baseline. (At the time of submission of this article, the European marketing authorization of telavancin for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia was suspended pending evidence of a new European Medicines Agency-approved supplier. Clinigen Healthcare Ltd, Theravance's commercialization partner for telavancin in Europe, is in the process of seeking approval of a new manufacturing source.) Methods A post hoc analysis of data from two Phase 3 ATTAIN trials of telavancin for the treatment of Gram-positive nosocomial pneumonia assessing clinical outcomes and safety. Results The all-treated population for this analysis represented 84.2% (1266/1503) of the ATTAIN all-treated population. The cure rates in the clinically evaluable population were similar in the telavancin (82.5%, 231/280) and vancomycin (81.3%, 243/299) groups [treatment difference (95% CI): 1.3% (−5.0% to 7.6%)], and were consistent with the overall ATTAIN study results. The cure rate was higher in the telavancin than the vancomycin treatment group in microbiologically evaluable patients with only Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline [85.0% (130/153) versus 75.2% (109/145), respectively; treatment difference (95% CI): 9.7% (0.6%–18.8%)]. The incidences of adverse events were similar between treatment groups and consistent with the overall findings of the ATTAIN study. Conclusions This analysis demonstrated that in the subset
Wang, Yunbo; Yan, Junling; Xi, Liang; Qian, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhenghong; Yang, Lina
Multiple organ failure is a common outcome of hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation, and the kidney is one of the prime target organs involved. The main objective of the study was to evaluate whether crocetin, a natural product from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has beneficial effects on renal dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Anesthetized rats were bled to reduce mean arterial blood pressure to 35 (SD, 5) mmHg for 60 min and then were resuscitated with their withdrawn shed blood and normal saline. Crocetin was administered via the duodenum at a dose of 50 mg/kg 40 min after hemorrhage. The increase in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen was significantly reduced at 2 h after hemorrhage and resuscitation in crocetin-treated rats. The increases in renal nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 were also attenuated by crocetin. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in a significant elevation in malondialdehyde production and was accompanied by a reduction in total superoxide dismutase activity, activation of nuclear factor κB, and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These changes were significantly attenuated by crocetin at 2 h after resuscitation. These results suggested that crocetin blocks inflammatory cascades by inhibiting production of reactive oxygen species and restoring superoxide dismutase activity to ameliorate renal dysfunction caused by hemorrhage shock and resuscitation.
D. M. Rasmuson; D. L. Kelly
This paper reviews the basic concepts of modelling common-cause failures (CCFs) in reliability and risk studies and then applies these concepts to the treatment of CCF in event assessment. The cases of a failed component (with and without shared CCF potential) and a component being unavailable due to preventive maintenance or testing are addressed. The treatment of two related failure modes (e.g. failure to start and failure to run) is a new feature of this paper, as is the treatment of asymmetry within a common-cause component group.
Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Doumouchtsis, Konstantinos K; Perrea, Despoina N; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K
In chronic renal failure several factors affect bone homeostasis leading to the development of renal osteodystrophy. Common calcitropic hormone derangements in renal failure play a central role in bone structure and mineral defects, which in turn accompany osteodystrophy frequently resulting in low bone mineral density (BMD) values. However, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from several comorbidities, which may partly account for renal bone disease lesions. Hypogonadism in particular accompanies chronic renal failure frequently and exerts an additive effect on bone loss potential. Sex hormones contribute to the equilibrium of osteotropic hormones and cytokines, exerting a protective action on bone tissue. Estrogens have a regulatory effect on bone metabolism in women with renal failure as well. Hypogonadal ESRD women experience a higher bone turnover and more significant bone mass decrements than ESRD women with relatively normal hormone profile and menstrual habits. Female hemodialysis patients have lower BMD values than male patients on average, probably because of menstrual cycle irregularities. However, hypogonadal ESRD men may also experience bone mineral deficits and the severity of hypogonadism may correlate to their bone mineral status. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) appears to reverse bone mineral loss to some extent in both sexes. In conclusion hypogonadism in renal failure contributes to the bone structure and mineral defects as well as the low-energy fracture risk, reflected in BMD measurements. HRT in ESRD patients should therefore not be overlooked in these patients in the face of their significant comorbidities.
Cianciolo, Rachel E; Rhodes, James L; Haskins, Mark E; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E
Renal failure was diagnosed in an 11-mo-old male domestic shorthair cat from a colony with mucopolysaccharidosis type I lysosomal storage disease. Grossly, the kidneys were enlarged and bulged on cut section. Histology revealed tubular necrosis and regeneration with severe interstitial macrophage accumulation. Tubular epithelial cells and interstitial macrophages were distended by abundant, large cytoplasmic vacuoles. Electron microscopy demonstrated severe tubular epithelial vacuolar degeneration with lysosomes distended by granular debris and mineral precipitates. Interstitial macrophages contained similarly distended lysosomes. Although the initial cause of the tubular injury was not identified, the presence of macrophages laden with storage product most likely exacerbated the disease. The macrophage infiltrate may have caused tubular ischemia by compressing peritubular capillaries and separating tubules from their blood supply. Because the kidney is not normally affected in MPS I, this case is an unusual presentation of a well-characterized disease. Furthermore, this report documents the diagnostic workflow used to investigate a single case of feline acute renal failure in the setting of numerous at-risk laboratory animals. PMID:22330352
Sucajtys-Szulc, Elzbieta; Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw; Wolyniec, Wojciech; Chmielewski, Michal; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Swierczynski, Julian
Anorexia is possibly one of the most important causes of malnutrition in uremic patients. The cause of this abnormality is still unknown. Considering that: (a) NPY is one of the most important stimulants of food intake; (b) eating is a central nervous system regulated process and (c) NPY is expressed in hypothalamus, we hypothesized that the decrease of NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus could be an important factor contributing to anorexia associated with uremic state. In contrast to the prediction, the results presented in this paper indicate that the NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus of chronic renal failure (CRF) rats was significantly higher than in the hypothalamus of control (pair-fed) rats. Moreover, we found that serum NPY concentration in CRF rats was higher than in control (pair-fed) animals. The increase of plasma NPY concentration in CRF rats may be due to the greater synthesis of the neuropeptide in liver, since higher level of NPY mRNA was found in liver of CRF rats. The results obtained revealed that experimental chronic renal failure is associated with the increase of NPY gene expression in hypothalamus and liver of rats.
Tremblay, R; Ethier, J; Quérin, S; Béroniade, V; Falardeau, P; Leblanc, M
From 1995 to 1998, 12 burned patients with acute renal failure (ARF) were treated by veno-venous continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) at the Burn Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. Their mean (+/-SD) age was 51+/-12 years, and the mean burned surface covered 48.6+/-15.8% of total body surface area. All patients were mechanically ventilated and presented evidence of sepsis. The mean delay before occurrence of ARF was 15+/-6 days and ARF was mainly related to sepsis and hypotension. Main reasons for CRRT initiation were azotemia and fluid overload. A total of 15 CRRT modalities were applied (12 continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration, CVVHDF; two continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, CVVH; and one continuous veno-venous hemodialysis, CVVHD) over 14+/-13 days. For CRRT, nine patients received heparin and three were not anticoagulated. Mean values for dialysate and reinjection flow rates were 1134+/-250 ml/h and 635+/-327 ml/h, respectively. Admission weight was 78.8+/-12.7 kg with a mean weight gain before CRRT initiation of 10.0+/-5.8 kg and a mean weight loss during CRRT of 8.9+/-5.5 kg. Nine patients received enteral plus parenteral nutrition, and three, parenteral nutrition only; the total caloric intake was 31.5+/-7.0 kcal/kg/day and protein intake, 1.8+/-0.4 g/kg/day. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was evaluated at 2.28+/-0.78 g/kg/day during CRRT. The mortality rate was 50%. The six survivors all recovered normal renal function with four of them requiring intermittent hemodialysis for short periods. In conclusion, veno-venous CRRT is particularly well suited for this selected population allowing smooth fluid removal and aggressive nutritional support.
Eisenga, Michele F; Kieneker, Lyanne M; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; van den Berg, Else; Deetman, Petronella E; Navis, Gerjan J; Gans, Reinold Ob; Gaillard, Carlo Ajm; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Joosten, Michel M
Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have commonly been urged to limit their potassium intake during renal insufficiency and may adhere to this principle after transplantation. Importantly, in experimental animal models, low dietary potassium intake induces kidney injury through stimulation of ammoniagenesis. In humans, low potassium intake is an established risk factor for high blood pressure. We hypothesized that low 24-h urinary potassium excretion [UKV; urinary potassium concentration × volume], the gold standard for assessment of dietary potassium intake, represents a risk factor for graft failure and mortality in RTRs. In secondary analyses, we aimed to investigate whether these associations could be explained by ammoniagenesis, plasma potassium, or blood pressure. In a prospective cohort of 705 RTRs, we assessed dietary potassium intake by a single 24-h UKV and food-frequency questionnaires. Cox regression analyses were used to investigate prospective associations with outcome. We included 705 stable RTRs (mean ± SD age: 53 ± 13 y; 57% men) at 5.4 y (IQR: 1.9-12.0 y) after transplantation and 253 kidney donors. Mean ± SD UKV was 73 ± 24 mmol/24 h in RTRs compared with 85 ± 25 mmol/24 h in kidney donors. During follow-up for 3.1 y (IQR: 2.7-3.9 y), 45 RTRs developed graft failure and 83 died. RTRs in the lowest sex-specific tertile of UKV (women, <55 mmol/24 h; men, <65 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of graft failure (HR: 3.70; 95% CI: 1.64, 8.34) and risk of mortality (HR; 2.66; 95% CI: 1.53, 4.61), independent of potential confounders. In causal path analyses, 24-h urinary ammonia excretion, plasma potassium, and blood pressure did not affect these associations. Our results indicate that low UKV is associated with a higher risk of graft failure and mortality in RTRs. Specific attention for adequate potassium intake after transplantation seems warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02811835. © 2016 American Society for
Paydas, Saime; Paydas, Semra; Balal, Mustafa
Acute leukemia has been reported as secondary to radiation therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). AA amyloidosis secondary to AS causes progressive organ failure. Although new therapeutic choices can be used, response to therapy in secondary amyloidosis is not good enough. In AA amyloidosis, clinical symptoms partially regress with colchicine. Here, we report a patient with acute leukemia and AS. After complete remission of acute leukemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome developed. After treatment of leukemia and tuberculosis, Colchicine and enalapril therapy resulted in an improvement of clinical symptoms. He was followed up for >15 years and is doing very well and has minimal symptoms related to AS.
Nammas, Wail; Koistinen, Juhani; Paana, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Pasi P
Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF. This provided the rationale for trials that demonstrated survival benefit associated with the use of beta adrenergic blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the MOXCON trial demonstrated that rapid uptitration of moxonidine (inhibitor of central sympathetic outflow) in patients with heart failure was associated with excess mortality and morbidity, despite reduction of plasma norepinephrine. Interestingly, renal norepinephrine spillover was the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure, in multivariable analysis. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel approach for control of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This article summarizes the available evidence for the effect of renal sympathetic denervation in the setting of heart failure. Key messages Experimental studies supported a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical studies demonstrated improvement of symptoms, and left ventricular function. In heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, renal sympathetic denervation is associated with improvement of surrogate endpoints.
Moran, S.M.; Myers, B.D.
Postischemic acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cardiac surgery is commonly prolonged and may be irreversible. To examine whether persistence of postischemic, tubular cell injury accounts for delayed recovery from ARF, we studied 10 patients developing protracted (36 +/- 4 d) ARF after cardiac surgery. The differential clearance and excretion dynamics of probe solutes of graded size were determined. Inulin clearance was depressed (5.0 +/- 1.7 ml/min), while the fractional urinary clearance of dextrans (radii 17-30 A) were elevated above unity. Employing a model of conservation of mass, we calculated that 44% of filtered inulin was lost via transtubular backleak. The clearance and fractional backleak of technetium-labeled DTPA ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA, radius = 4 A) were identical to those of inulin (radius 15 A). The time at which inulin or DTPA excretion reached a maximum after an intravenous bolus injection was markedly delayed when compared with control subjects with ARF of brief duration, 102 vs. 11 min. Applying a three-compartment model of inulin/DTPA kinetics (which takes backleak into account) revealed the residence time of intravenously administered inulin/DTPA in the compartment occupied by tubular fluid and urine to be markedly prolonged, 20 vs. 6 min in controls, suggesting reduced velocity of tubular fluid flow.
Bayliss, George P; Gohh, Reginald Y; Morrissey, Paul E; Rodrigue, James R; Mandelbrot, Didier A
Little data exist to guide the management of immunosuppression after renal graft failure. More aggressive tapering of immunosuppressive medications may reduce the risk of infection, but may increase the risk of rejection and sensitization. To document current practices in the US, we emailed a questionnaire to medical and surgical transplant directors as identified by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Emails were sent to 221 programs, of which 93 (42.1%) responded. About 24.7% of respondents reported adjusting immunosuppression according to a standard protocol; 75.3% said practices are physician dependent. The majority said that 80 or 100% of patients are off all immunosuppression one yr after returning to dialysis. The most important factors cited in deciding whether to stop immunosuppression were plans to retransplant (40.2%) and signs and symptoms of rejection (37.0%). When asked which immunosuppressive medications are continued indefinitely, 21.5% responded prednisone and 71.0% said none. Respondents most commonly said they performed graft nephrectomy only if there are signs and symptoms of rejection (47.3%) or if signs and symptoms of rejection fail to respond to steroids (34.4%). In the absence of good data to guide decisions on immunosuppression in patients with failed allografts, practices in the US vary greatly. More data are needed to determine which policies lead to the best outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Asanuma, Kentaro; Adachi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Chiba, Shuichi
This study investigates the effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure. Female dogs received a lysine hydrochloride (lysine) of 4500 mg/kg/day (3.75 ml/kg/hr) for 3 consecutive days. The dogs were observed for clinical signs. Body weights were recorded, food consumption and water consumption calculated, and urinalysis and blood biochemistry were performed daily. Plasma samples for amino acid determinations were obtained from all dogs, which were necropsied on Day 3. Histopathological examinations were done on all test animals. Compound-related findings include the following. Blood biochemistry results showed increases in ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, and creatinine. Urinary changes consisted of increases in urine volume, total protein, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. In addition, macroscopic findings consisted of pale, congested capsule; microscopic findings consisted of hypertrophy of proximal convoluted tubule (mainly S1 segment), and degeneration/desquamation of urinary tubule (mainly S3 segment with hyaline casts) in the kidney. From these findings, it can be concluded that lysine is nephrotoxic in dogs. Nephrotoxicity of lysine may relate to direct tubular toxicity and to tubular obstruction.
Vieira, Paulo J C; Silva, Leonardo R; Maldamer, Vinicius Z; Cipriano, Gerson; Chiappa, Adriana M G; Schuster, Rodrigo; Boni, Victor H F; Grandi, Tatiani; Wolpat, Andiara; Roseguini, Bruno T; Chiappa, Gaspar R
The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion. Arterial pressure and HR responses during exercise and recovery were similar in two groups of subjects. In the control group, CVR increased during exercise and remained elevated during circulatory occlusion, whereas no significant change was seen in the patients. Thus, the index of the metaboreflex was 7·82 ± 9·57 in the patients versus16·52 ± 14 units in the controls. The findings demonstrate that patients with CRF have a decreased vascular resistance response in the calf during the handgrip exercise, which suggests that CRF condition attenuates this reflex.
Pantovic, Suzana; Rosic, Gvozden; Obradovic, Zdravko; Rankovic, Goran; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Rosic, Mirko
In this study we postulated that during acute renal failure induced by gentamicin the transient or dynamic response of blood vessels could be affected, and that antioxidants can prevent the changes in dynamic responses of blood vessels. The new approach to ex vivo blood vessel experiments in which not only the end points of vessels response within the time interval is considered, but also dynamics of this response, was used in this paper. Our results confirm the alteration in dynamic response of blood vessels during the change of pressure in gentamicin-treated animals. The beneficial effects of vitamin C administration to gentamicin-treated animals are also confirmed through: lower level of blood urea and creatinine and higher level of potassium. The pressure dynamic responses of isolated blood vessels show a faster pressure change in gentamicin-treated animals (8.07 +/- 1.7 s vs. 5.64 +/- 0.18 s). Vitamin C administration induced slowdown of pressure change back to the control values. The pressure dynamic properties, quantitatively defined by comparative pressure dynamic and total pressure dynamic, confirm the alteration in dynamic response of blood vessels during the change of pressure in gentamicin-treated animals and beneficial effects of vitamin C administration.
Sun, Ning; Shen, Ying; Sun, Qiang; Li, Xu-ran; Jia, Li-qun; Zhang, Gui-ju; Zhang, Wei-ping; Chen, Zhi; Fan, Jian-feng; Jiang, Ye-ping; Feng, Dong-chuan; Zhang, Rui-feng; Zhu, Xiao-yu; Xiao, Hong-zhan
Infants in some areas of China developed urinary lithiasis after being fed with powdered milk that was tainted with melamine in 2008 and very small proportion of the infants developed acute renal failure caused by urinary tract calculus obstruction. The aim of this article was to summarize clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of infants with urinary calculus and acute renal failure developed after being fed with melamine tainted formula milk. Data of infant patients with urinary calculus and acute renal failure due to melamine tainted formula milk admitted to the Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Medical University and the Xuzhou Children's Hospital in 2008 were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, imaging features as well as effects of 4 types of therapies. All the 34 infants with urinary calculus were complicated with acute renal failure, their blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was (24.1+/-8.2) mmol/L and creatinine (Cr) was (384.2+/-201.2) micromol/L. The chemical analysis on the urinary calculus sampled from 15 of the infants showed that the calculus contained melamine and acidum uricum. The time needed for the four types of therapies for returning Cr to normal was (3.5+/-1.9) days for cystoscopy group, (2.7+/-1.1) days for lithotomy group, (3.8+/-2.3) days for dialysis group, and (2.7+/-1.6) days for medical treatment group, which had no statistically significant difference (P=0.508). Renal failure of all the 34 infants was relieved within 1 to 7 days, averaging (3.00+/-1.78) days. Melamine tainted formula milk may cause urinary calculus and obstructive acute renal failure. It is suggested that firstly the patients with urinary calculus complicated with acute renal failure should be treated with dialysis or medication to correct electrolyte disturbance, in particular hyperkalemia, and then relieve the obstruction with available medical and surgical methods as soon as possible. It was observed
Lou, L M; Boned, B; Gimeno, J A; Beguer, P; Cruz, A; Telmo, S; Lou, M T; Gómez Sánchez, R
We studied the features of acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly patients treated in a hospital, without an intensive care unit, to identify etiological factors and establish adequate preventive measures and treatment. During twelve consecutive months we studied prospectively 99 patients with ARF diagnosed by conventional criteria, an incidence of 1,238 cases per million per year. ARF affected 1.78% of patients admitted to hospital. We analyzed age, sex, serum creatinine, diuresis, etiology, type of ARF, preexisting chronic diseases, treatment, complications and outcome. Preexisting chronic diseases were common, the most frequent being hypertension (54%) and diabetes (39%). Previous treatments for cardiovascular diseases were frequent (angiotensin-renin system blockade 35.4%, diuretics 50.5%). 79% of ARF arose in hospital, 21% outside hospital. ARF was pre-renal in 60%, renal in 31% and post-renal in 9%. 34.7% were caused by volume depletion, 23.4% by low cardiac output and 23.4% by infection. 44.4% of ARF patients had oliguria or anuria latrogenic factors contributed to the ethiology of ARF in 35.3% of patients. Hospital stay was doubled by ARF the presence of ARF and the mortality was 36.4%. The rate was higher in ARF arising in hospital than in ARF acquired before admission. Factors that had a significant influence on the mortality rate were comorbid conditions, oliguroanuria, ARF of renal origin and serum albumin. We conclude that ARF has a high incidence, morbidity and mortality in this elderly population. Volume depletion, associated cardiovascular pathology and pharmacological treatment are important etiological factors in those with ARF outside hospital. Adequate treatment of ARF and avoidance of nephrotoxic medications are necessary in hospital.
Xue, Yuquan; Xu, Zhibin; Chen, Haiwen; Gan, Weimin; Chong, Tie
To evaluate whether low energy shock wave preconditioning could reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion. The right kidneys of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were removed to establish an isolated kidney model. The rats were then divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 was the sham treatment group; Group 2, received only low-energy (12 kv, 1 Hz, 200 times) shock wave preconditioning; Group 3 received the same low-energy shock wave preconditioning as Group 2, and then the left renal artery was occluded for 45 minutes; and Group 4 had the left renal artery occluded for 45 minutes. At 24 hours and one-week time points after reperfusion, serum inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), creatinine (Cr), and cystatin C (Cys C) levels were measured, malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue was detected, and changes in nephric morphology were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, serum iNOS, NGAL, Cr, Cys C, and MDA levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4; light and electron microscopy showed that the renal tissue injury in Group 3 was significantly lighter than that in Group 4. One week after reperfusion, serum NGAL, KIM-1, and Cys C levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning can reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion in an isolated kidney rat model.
Trachtman, H.; Wilson, D.; Rao, P.S. )
This study examined whether there is increased production of oxygen free radicals during chronic renal failure. Rats subjected to 3/4 nephrectomy and sham operated controls were killed after 3 weeks. Lipid extracts of plasma and renal tissue were examined by HPLC and kidney specimens were also analyzed by EPR spectroscopy. The redox capacity of blood was assessed using nitroblue tetrazolium and plasma ascorbate levels were measured with HPLC. There was no detectable renal production of oxygen free radicals in rats with chronic renal failure. Kidney parenchymal content of other oxidants and the oxidant: reductant ratio were similar in control and uremic animals. The plasma redox capacity and ascorbate levels were elevated in uremic rats. The authors conclude that early in the course of chronic renal failure, there is not excessive production of oxygen free radicals. There is accumulation of reductants, primarily ascorbate, in the plasma of uremic animals.
Karaolanis, Georgios; Lionaki, Sophia; Moris, Demetrios; Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Vernadakis, Spiridon
Secondary hyperoxaluria is a multifactorial disease affecting several organs and tissues, among which stand native and transplanted kidneys. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis may lead to renal insufficiency. Patients suffering from secondary hyperoxaluria, should be promptly identified and appropriately treated, so that less renal damage occurs. The aim of this review is to underline the causes of hyperoxaluria and the related pathophysiologic mechanisms, which are involved, along with the description of seven cases of irreversible renal graft injury due to secondary hyperoxaluria.
Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.
Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699
Booth, Lindsea C; May, Clive N; Yao, Song T
Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF.
Veschi, G; Zanforlin, G; Breda, G; Calappi, E; Cigada, M; Colombo, A; Marzorati, S; Mulazzi, D; Noto, A; Parma, A; Rotelli, S; Prelle, A; Cappellari, A; Iapichino, G
To describe a generalized myopathic disorder occurred in the convalescence phase of illness of a critically ill patient. Neurological Intensive Care Unit. A 43-year-old man with acute leukoencephalopathy and severe sepsis complicated by sustained and prolonged cardiovascular, respiratory and renal failure. After 15 days of complete respiratory autonomy, the patient presented an acute ventilatory failure associated with generalized muscle weakness. Neither a relapse of sepsis nor neurological worsening were detected. Electromyogram resulted in normal conduction velocity in both motor and sensitive nervous fibers. Muscular biopsy showed marked fiber size variability with several hypotrophic fibers type II fiber grouping, several areas of degeneration-necrosis with macrophage invasion, dishomogeneous oxidative enzymatic activity, no increase in glycogen or lipid content. These results excluded critical illness polyneuropathy and all the other known myopathies. Prolonged period of sepsis with multiple organ failure can result in a direct generalized myopathy. This possibility should be kept in mind while treating long term critically ill survivors.
Lewis, Helen; Arber, Sara
Previous medical research has shown that children with end-stage renal failure experience delay or underachievement of key markers of transition to adulthood. This article analyses 35 qualitative interviews with end-stage renal failure patients, aged 20-30 years, first diagnosed at 0-19 years of age, to explore how far delayed or underachievement in education and employment is related to their age at onset of end-stage renal failure. This study shows how unpredictable failures of renal replacement therapies, comorbidities and/or side effects of treatment in the early life course often coincided with critical moments for education and employment. Entering school, college, work-related training or employment, and disclosing health status or educational underachievement to an employer, were particularly critical, and those who were ill before puberty became progressively more disadvantaged in terms of successful transition into full-time employment, compared with those first diagnosed after puberty.
Chan, Kwok-Ying; Yip, Terence; Sham, Mau-Kwong; Cheng, Benjamin Hon-Wai; Li, Cho-Wing; Wong, Yim-Chi; Lau, Vikki Wai-Kee
People with intellectual disabilities are among the most disadvantaged groups in society. Here we report a mentally incompetent end stage renal failure (ESRF) patient with frequent emergency visits who made a significant improvement in symptoms control and reduction in casualty visits after introduction of renal palliative care service. Multidisciplinary approach would be useful in this case. PMID:25838954
Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou
Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.