... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...
Mahmoud, Mona Fouad; Diaai, Abdalla Ahmed; Ahmed, Fahmy
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger), Arabic gum (AG), and Boswellia on both acute and chronic renal failure (CRF) and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Acute renal failure was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion, while CRF was induced by adenine feeding for 8 weeks. Prophylactic oral administration of ginger, AG, Boswellia, or vehicle (in control groups) was started 3 days before and along with adenine feeding in different groups or 7 days before ischemia-reperfusion. Ginger and AG showed renoprotective effects in both models of renal failure. These protective effects may be attributed at least in part to their anti-inflammatory properties as evident by attenuating serum C-reactive protein levels and antioxidant effects as evident by attenuating lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde levels, and increasing renal superoxide dismutase activity. Ginger was more potent than AG in both models of renal failure. However, Boswellia showed only partial protective effect against both acute renal failure and CRF and it had no antioxidant effects. Finally, we can say that ginger and AG could be beneficial adjuvant therapy in patients with acute renal failure and CRF to prevent disease progression and delay the need for renal replacement therapy.
Iacoviello, Massimo; Leone, Marta; Antoncecchi, Valeria; Ciccone, Marco Matteo
Chronic kidney disease and its worsening are recurring conditions in chronic heart failure (CHF) which are independently associated with poor patient outcome. The heart and kidney share many pathophysiological mechanisms which can determine dysfunction in each organ. Cardiorenal syndrome is the condition in which these two organs negatively affect each other, therefore an accurate evaluation of renal function in the clinical setting of CHF is essential. This review aims to revise the parameters currently used to evaluate renal dysfunction in CHF with particular reference to the usefulness and the limitations of biomarkers in evaluating glomerular dysfunction and tubular damage. Moreover, it is reported the possible utility of renal arterial resistance index (a parameter associated with abnormalities in renal vascular bed) for a better assesment of kidney disfunction. PMID:25610846
Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Adekanmbi, Folasade
Acute renal failure (ARF) is encountered in neonatal care where it may be associated with significant morbidities. Pre-renal failure, which is due to impaired renal tissue perfusion, is the commonest type of ARF. It is amenable to treatment with excellent prognosis following prompt diagnosis and timely institution of appropriate intervention. Unfortunately, ARF in the newborn is usually asymptomatic and it is only suspected when a newborn infant has not been observed to pass urine over several hours or when serum Creatinine is observed to be elevated or rising. In resource-poor settings, it is often difficult to conduct detailed evaluation of suspected cases of newborn ARF due to lack of appropriate equipments and infrastructure. Similarly, therapeutic facilities are sparse and there is heavy reliance on conservative management of cases. Such difficulties encountered in the evaluation and management of newborns with ARF in most parts of the developing world, like Nigeria, where diagnostic and therapeutic facilities are limited are highlighted.
Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way
Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith
The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.
Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix
Renal denervation has been developed in order to lower systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertension by a reduction in renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerve activity. In heart failure sympathetic activation, in particular, renal norepinephrine release is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. Initial studies have shown that renal denervation is able to reduce not only blood pressure but also heart rate, and is associated with a reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and ameliorated microalbuminuria. Since some experimental and observational data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect, it is possible that renal denervation might also play a therapeutic role in arrhythmias often occurring in chronic heart failure. The first proof-of-concept studies are planned to evaluate the clinical effect of this pathophysiologically plausible method, which might be able to change clinical practice.
Khan, Owais A; Hageman, Joseph R; Clardy, Christopher
Acute renal failure (ARF) in a neonate is a serious condition that impacts 8% to 24% of hospitalized neonates. There is a need for prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid additional complications. In this review, a neonate was found to have renal failure associated with renal vein thrombosis. There are varying etiologies of ARF. Causes of ARF are typically divided into three subsets: pre-renal, renal or intrinsic, and post-renal. Treatment of ARF varies based on the cause. Renal vein thrombosis is an interesting cause of renal or intrinsic ARF and can be serious, often leading to a need for dialysis.
Goldsmith, M.S.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.; Crues, J.V. III
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with radionuclide scintigraphy (RNS) in 16 patients with renal transplants undergoing renal failure to determine which modality could best discriminate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity (CN). Although all rejecting transplants had reduced corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on T1-weighted MR images, four of five cases of ATN had appearances that could not be distinguished from rejection. A normal CMD suggests nonrejection, but diminished CMD is nonspecific. Tc-99m DTPA/I-131 hippuran RNS was superior to MRI in differentiating rejection from ATN. Although ATN and CN have similar RNS patterns, this distinction can usually be made based on the clinical time course. Other potential uses of MRI in the evaluation of the renal transplants are discussed.
Birewar, Sonali; Oppenheimer, Mark; Zawada, Edward T
Muscular disorders and even hypothyroid myopathy with elevated muscle enzymes are commonly seen in hypothyroidism. In this paper, we report a case of acute renal failure in a 35-year old male patient with myalgia. His serum creatinine reached a level of 2.4 mg/dl. Later, his myalgia was found to be due to hypothyroidism with TSH of over 500 uiv/ml. With thyroid replacement therapy, myalgia and his serum creatinine stabilized and subsequently improved. Hypothyroidism, although rare, has been reported as a definite and authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis. As a result, hypothyroidism must be considered in patients presenting with acute renal failure and elevated muscle enzymes.
... the ureter (s) or a tube connected to an external drainage bag. Both options are used to unblock the ureters in order to allow proper urine flow from the kidneys if this has been identified as the cause for the renal failure. Surgical treatment such as a urinary stent or ...
Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim
Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.
Barros, Milton; Martinelli, Reinaldo; Rocha, Heonir
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of urolithiasis, infection, and bladder dysfunction in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rats subjected to supratrigonal cystectomy. One group of Sprague-Dawley rats was submitted to supratrigonal cystectomy, a second to cystectomy during which a suspension of Proteus mirabilis was injected into the bladder stump, and a third to sham surgery (controls). The animals were sacrificed two months after surgery. Blood pressure and serum urea and creatinine were measured before surgery and at sacrifice when a careful inspection of the urinary tract was performed to determine the presence of hydronephrosis and calculi. Microbiological analyses were performed on urine aspirated from the bladder and on the kidneys. Significant differences were found between values of systolic blood pressure and serum urea and creatinine recorded prior to the surgical procedure and those recorded at sacrifice in each group except the control group. Renal failure was present in all animals subjected to cystectomy. Urinary calculi were documented in 5/10 animals subjected to cystectomy only and in all rats inoculated with P. mirabilis. Hypertension was documented in 43.75% of animals subjected to cystectomy. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed only in animals with urinary calculi, in each of which urine culture was also positive. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, calculi, and/or pyelonephritis were detected in the sham group. The findings of this study indicate that kidney failure in rats subjected to supratrigonal cystectomy is related to the severe bladder dysfunction induced by the surgical procedure.
Almueilo, Samir H
Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.
Al-Hamshary, Abd El-Hamid Salah; El-Shaaer, Osama Saad; Soliman, Doaa Refaay; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Hussien, Ahmed Ibraheem
Introduction High serum resistin levels are associated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objectives of this study were to determine the serum concentrations of resistin in children that present with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD), in order to examine the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on serum resistin levels, and to determine if a correlation exists between resistin and growth retardation in patients with CRF. Methods This case control study was undertaken in the pediatric hemodialysis unit of the Benha and Menoufia University hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015. The case group consisted of 50 patients with CRF aged from 6–18 years (25 of them under HD and 25 of them under conservative treatment) and 30 healthy children who constituted the control group. Urea, creatinine, and serum resistin were measured before and after the HD session for patients with CRF who are already under HD. Results A highly significant difference was found between the resistin levels in the two groups with mean level of 20.2 ± 7.58 ng/ml in the patient case group as compared to 4.9 ± 1.72 ng/ml in the control group. This highly significant difference found in the resistin level differed according to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage of progression as patients on regular HD had resistin levels with a mean of 24.6 ± 7.28 ng/ml while the CKD patients under conservative treatment have resistin level mean of 15.6 ± 4.72 ng/ml. there was a highly significant difference in resistin levels before HD (mean = 24.6 ± 7.28) and after hemodialysis (mean = 14.7 ± 5.2). Conclusion Patients with CRF experienced higher than normal resistin levels as compared to the case control group and it was found that patients on HD had more elevated levels of resistin than did those patients who were on conservative treatment. HD treatments were found to be capable of lowering a patient’s resistin levels. A highly significant negative correlation
Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan
Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is increased in both patients and experimental animals with renal failure. The kidney is a richly innervated organ and has both efferent and afferent nerves. Renal denervation shows protective effects against renal failure in both animals and humans. The underlying mechanisms include a decrease in blood pressure, a decrease in renal efferent SNA, a decrease in central SNA and sympathetic outflow, and downregulation of the reninangiotensin system. It has been demonstrated that re-innervation occurs within weeks after renal denervation in animals but that no functional re-innervation occurs in humans for over two years after denervation. Renal denervation might not be renal protective in some situations including bile duct ligation-induced renal failure and ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Catheter-based renal denervation has been applied to patients with both early and end stage renal failure and the published results so far suggest that this procedure is safe and effective at decreasing blood pressure. The effectiveness of renal denervation in improving renal function in patients with renal failure needs to be further investigated.
Misson, Robert T.; Cutler, Ralph E.
Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretic advantages over the presently used agents. PMID:4013281
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459
... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 4, with or without renal failure ... failure syndrome action myoclonus–renal failure syndrome AMRF epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 4, with or without renal failure ...
Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P
Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.
Singh, Amrit Pal; Junemann, Anselm; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Grover, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Ravi
The animal models are pivotal for understanding the characteristics of acute renal failure (ARF) and development of effective therapy for its optimal management. Since the etiology for induction of renal failure is multifold, therefore, a large number of animal models have been developed to mimic the clinical conditions of renal failure. Glycerol-induced renal failure closely mimics the rhabdomyolysis; ischemia-reperfusion-induced ARF simulate the hemodynamic changes-induced changes in renal functioning; drug-induced such as gentamicin, cisplatin, NSAID, ifosfamide-induced ARF mimics the renal failure due to clinical administration of respective drugs; uranium, potassium dichromate-induced ARF mimics the occupational hazard; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine-induced ARF simulate contaminated water-induced renal dysfunction; sepsis-induced ARF mimics the infection-induced renal failure and radiocontrast-induced ARF mimics renal failure in patients during use of radiocontrast media at the time of cardiac catheterization. Since each animal model has been created with specific methodology, therefore, it is essential to describe the model in detail and consequently interpret the results in the context of a specific model.
Neri, S; Pulvirenti, D; Patamia, I; Zoccolo, A; Castellino, P
We report an unusual case of transfusion-transmitted malaria which remained undiagnosed for several months in an Italian woman splenectomised and polytransfused for thalassaemia major. The infecting species was Plasmodium malariae, and the patient developed acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, and hepatic failure. Treatment with chlorochine was followed by a slow, but complete recovery of renal function.
Rojhirunsakool, Salinee; Vachiramon, Vasanop
Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited dermatosis which usually appears during childhood and is characterized by dyspigmentation, with both hypopigmented and hyperpigmented macules. We report a case of DUH with unexplained childhood-onset renal failure. The association between DUH and renal failure is yet to be proven by further studies. PMID:25969678
de la Prada Alvarez, F J; Prados Gallardo, A M; Tugores Vázquez, A; Uriol Rivera, M; Morey Molina, A
Focal necrotizing encephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii infection represents one of the most common opportunistic infection in patients with the acquired inmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the treatment is commonly with a combination sulphadiazine, and pyrimethamine. A major side effect of sulfadiazine therapy is the occurrence of crystallization in the urinary collecting system. We report a patient with AIDS and Toxoplasmic encephalitis treated with sulfadiazine who developed acute renal failure. Renal ultrasound demonstrated echogenic areas within the renal parenchyma, presumed to be sulfa crystals. Renal failure and ultrasound findings resolved rapidly with hydratation and administration of alkali. Patients infected with AIDS frequently have characteristic that increase intratubular crystal precipitation and they require treatment with one or more of the drugs that are associated with crystal-induced renal failure. Controlled alkalinization of the urine and high fluid intake are recommended for prophylaxis of crystalluria. The literature concerning crystalluria and renal failure due to sulfadiazine is reviewed.
Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L
Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.
Evers, J.; Renner, E.; Bechtel, W. D.
1 Kinetics of brotizolam (0.25 mg) were studied in patients with different degrees of renal failure after single and repeated oral ingestion. Serum levels were analysed by radio-immunoassay. 2 Patients were divided into three groups according to their renal function, i.e. creatinine clearance values of 45-80, 15-45, or less than 15 ml/min. 3 The mean elimination half-life was 6.9-8.15 h, with a considerable variation of the peak concentration and elimination half-life in slight to moderate renal failure. There was no delay in elimination in severe renal failure and there was no drug accumulation. 4 No dose adjustment is necessary for brotizolam in renal failure. PMID:6661376
Emara, S.S.; Alzaylai, A.A.
Summary Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management. PMID:23966893
Emara, S S; Alzaylai, A A
Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management.
Chevalier, R L; Campbell, F; Brenbridge, A N
Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.
Chevalier, R.L.; Campbell, F.; Brenbridge, A.N.
Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.
Sexual dysfunction in end-stage renal disease is a troublesome, multifactorial disorder. Abnormality of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is but one of the causes leading to the impotence and infertility commonly encountered in chronic renal failure. Short of kidney transplantation, no therapy is available. Though infertility is the rule in end-stage renal disease, successful fatherhood and deliveries have occurred on rare occasions.
Pérez Calvo, J I; Josa Laorden, C; Giménez López, I
Renal function is one of the most consistent prognostic determinants in heart failure. The prognostic information it provides is independent of the ejection fraction and functional status. This article reviews the various renal function assessment measures, with special emphasis on the fact that the patient's clinical situation and response to the heart failure treatment should be considered for the correct interpretation of the results. Finally, we review the literature on the performance of tubular damage biomarkers.
Post, A T; Voorhorst, G; Zanen, A L
Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor widely used in the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. In a 73-year-old man we describe renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis after use of omeprazol during 4 months. Unexpected renal failure without signs of hydronephrosis should always provoke awareness of drug reaction, omeprazole being one of the possible drugs.
Peces, R; Canora, J; Venegas, J L
Acute and chronic renal failure secondary to bilateral severe hydroureteronephrosis is a rare sequela of uterine prolapse. We report a case of neglected complete uterine prolapse in a 72-year-old patient resulting in bilateral hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and chronic renal failure. In an attempt to diminish the ureteral obstruction a vaginal pessary was used to reduce the uterine prolapse. Finally, surgical repair of prolapse by means of a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. In conclusion, all patients presenting with complete uterine prolapse should be screened to exclude urinary tract obstruction. If present, obstructive uropathy should be relieved by the reduction or repair of the prolapse before irreversible renal damage occurs.
Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen
Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide
Jönsson, Sofia; Agic, Mediha Becirovic; Narfström, Fredrik; Melville, Jacqueline M; Hultström, Michael
Decompensation in heart failure occurs when the heart fails to balance venous return with cardiac output, leading to fluid congestion and contributing to mortality. Decompensated heart failure can cause acute kidney injury (AKI), which further increases mortality. Heart failure activates signaling systems that are deleterious to kidneys such as renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and vasopressin secretion. All three reduce renal blood flow (RBF) and increase tubular sodium reabsorption, which may increase renal oxygen consumption causing AKI through renal tissue hypoxia. Vasopressin contributes to venous congestion through aquaporin-mediated water retention. Additional water retention may be mediated through vasopressin-induced medullary urea transport and hyaluronan but needs further study. In addition, there are several systems that could protect the kidneys and reduce fluid retention such as natriuretic peptides, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide. However, the effect of natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide are blunted in decompensation, partly due to oxidative stress. This review considers how neurohormonal signaling in heart failure drives fluid retention by the kidneys and thus exacerbates decompensation. It further identifies areas where there is limited data, such as signaling systems 20-HETE, purines, endothelin, the role of renal water retention mechanisms for congestion, and renal hypoxia in AKI during heart failure.
Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.
Ozaltin, Fatih; Yalçin, Bilgehan; Orhan, Diclehan; Sari, Neriman; Caglar, Melda; Besbas, Nesrin; Bakkaloglu, Aysin
Renal involvement is a common finding in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Acute renal failure at initial presentation due to lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys has been described infrequently. We report a 17-year-old male who presented with acute renal failure due to massive lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys, which necessitated hemodialysis. The diagnosis of B-cell NHL was established by tru-cut biopsy of the kidneys and the patient had an excellent response to high-dose chemotherapy with no major complication. The presence of extrarenal involvement in the testes and the retroperitoneal lymph nodes made the diagnosis of primary renal lymphoma debatable. However, considering the delay in diagnosis and the high proliferative rate of B-cell NHL, we might postulate that the disease had originated primarily in the kidneys. We recommend that in NHL cases with severe renal involvement, full-dose chemotherapy should be instituted with meticulous clinical and laboratory follow-up in order to improve clinical and renal failure status rapidly and to avoid further dissemination of NHL.
Matas, A J; Payne, W D; Simmons, R L; Buselmeier, T J; Kjellstrand, C M
Renal failure developed in 20 patients following blunt civilian trauma. Ten recovered normal renal function; 8 currently survive. Survivors and nonsurvivors did not differ in age, time from trauma to anuria, mean blood urea nitrogen or creatinine level prior to the first or to subsequent dialyses. However, there was an increased incidence of sepsis and liver failure in those who died. When outcome was related to site of injury, patients with closed head injury and/or intra-abdominal injury had a worse prognosis than those with thoracic or extremity injury only. Only 2 patients with perforated bowel survived; both had peritoneal dialysis combined with peritoneal lavage with antibiotic solutions. Mortality in patients with posttraumatic renal failure remains high; however, death is usually a result of associated complications rather than a result of the renal failure. Aggressive management of other complications of the trauma, especially sepsis or potential sepsis, is necessary. We recommend peritoneal dialysis combined with peritoneal antibiotic lavage where there is a potential for posttraumatic intra-abdominal sepsis associated with renal failure. PMID:843128
Savoldi, S; Mesiano, P; Rocchietti, M
Immunosuppressive treatment is widely used in transplant patients, who often have chronic renal failure, while its use in nephropathies of native kidneys with chronic renal insufficiency is still limited. In recent years a number of papers have reported advantages of its use also in this setting. A prerequisite for immunosuppression in this condition is accurate renal histology, in order to define the etiology, activity/chronicity index and prognosis. Although clinicians agree on the use of aggressive treatment for secondary nephropathies, the approach to primary forms in the presence of chronic renal failure remains controversial, as does the definition of a ''point of no return'' beyond which treatment could be ineffective or unsafe. Nonrandomized studies found that immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide can be useful in membranous nephropathy with renal insufficiency. The use of immunosuppressive drugs in IgA nephropathy in the presence of established renal insufficiency seems to improve renal survival with a limited occurrence of side effects. Since the pharmacokinetics of the current immunosuppressive agents (steroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, mycophenolate mofetil) is modified by renal insufficiency, attention should be paid to reducing drug doses and monitoring toxicity. Immunosuppressive treatment is a critical procedure in patients with chronic renal failure, in whom an increased risk of infection is already present. In conclusion, on the basis of the data of the literature, we can hypothesize that the ''point of no return'' exceeds the threshold generally considered safe by clinicians. Nevertheless, a strict definition of a cutoff value for renal function to establish whether or not a certain treatment should be given is not applicable in clinical practice, where the choice of an immunosuppressive approach must be tailored to the individual patient based on a global evaluation including renal histology, clinical conditions
Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B; Hiner, L B; Foley, C M; Grover, W D
The progressive encephalopathy observed in 5 children with chronic renal failure was clinically similar to the so-called dialysis encephalopathy of adults, except that it was not related to dialysis therapy. Renal osteodystrophy is more prevalent in children than in adults and often more severe. The attempt to control the crippling deformities of renal osteodystrophy in growing children with renal insufficiency has led to the use of large quantities of aluminum containing antacids. The encephalopathy observed in children with chronic renal failure may be related to the oral ingestion of aluminum containing compounds in the presence of persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism. We suggest that alternative methods for the adequate control of serum phosphorus levels should be sought and indications for parathyroidectomy in children reevaluated. During the past 18 mos we have lowered the dose of aluminum containing compounds to 50 to 100 mg/Kg/day in our patients with progressive renal failure and recommend parathyroidectomy. No new cases of the encephalopathy have occurred.
The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.
Le Huu Nho, R; Renard, S; Maurin, C; Souteyrand, P; Le Treut, Y P
We report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting a 26cm right renal angiomyolipoma with intratumoral arteriovenous fistula responsible for a high-output right heart failure. A radical surgical treatment after preoperative embolization allowed rapid improvement of cardiac symptoms with an uneventful postoperative course.
Radenkovic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Marko; Prostran, Milica
Endothelial dysfunction is principally characterized by impaired endothelium- dependent transduction mechanisms related to vascular relaxation, as an outcome of decreased release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, mainly nitric oxide, as well as augmented oxidative stress, increased inflammation and predominance of vascular action produced by endothelium-derived contracting factors. Current data strongly suggest that pathological development of different types of kidney impairment with further progression to renal failure includes notable vascular changes associated with endothelial dysfunction. In accordance, this scientific field represents an advancing area of investigation, involving different biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction linked to renal impairment, as well as clinical findings with new information that can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of endothelial dysfunction in kidney disease. With regards to quoted facts, the aim of this article was to review the latest data related to endothelial dysfunction and renal failure by selection of relevant articles released from 2010 to 2015.
Resch, M; Banas, B; Endemann, D; Mack, M; Riegger, G A J; Gröne, H J; Krämer, B K
A 15-year-old girl with a history of Kawasaki disease was admitted to our nephrological department due to acute renal failure. Despite antibiotic therapy because of fever and the symptoms of a pharyngitis in the last few days, the girl showed persisting fever and developed arthralgias, an exanthema and a rising serum creatinine as well as anuria. A wide variety of differential diagnoses has to be thought of because of the history of the Kawasaki disease (symptoms like fever, pharyngitis, exanthema and arthralgia), i.e. hemolytic-uremic syndrome, vasculitis, ascending infection, postinfection glomerulonephritis. In consideration of etiologically unclear "rapidly progressive renal failure" with anuria and thrombocytopenia an immediate renal biopsy was done and revealed a severe drug induced acute interstitial nephritis. Due to this diagnosis we treated the patient with corticosteroids. Within 4 weeks serum creatinine declined to 1.8 mg/dl but did not normalize.
Eubig, Paul A; Brady, Melinda S; Gwaltney-Brant, Sharon M; Khan, Safdar A; Mazzaferro, Elisa M; Morrow, Carla M K
A review of records from the AnTox database of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center identified 43 dogs that developed increased blood urea nitrogen concentration, serum creatinine concentration, or both as well as clinical signs after ingesting grapes, raisins, or both. Clinical findings, laboratory findings, histopathological findings, treatments performed, and outcome were evaluated. All dogs vomited, and lethargy, anorexia, and diarrhea were other common clinical signs. Decreased urine output, ataxia, or weakness were associated with a negative outcome. High calcium x phosphorus product (Ca x P), hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalcemia were present in 95%, 90%, and 62% of the dogs in which these variables were evaluated. Extremely high initial total calcium concentration, peak total calcium concentration, initial Ca x P, and peak Ca x P were negative prognostic indicators. Proximal renal tubular necrosis was the most consistent finding in dogs for which histopathology was evaluated. Fifty-three percent of the 43 dogs survived, with 15 of these 23 having a complete resolution of clinical signs and azotemia. Although the mechanism of renal injury from grapes and raisins remains unclear, the findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the clinical course of acute renal failure that can occur after ingestion of grapes or raisins in dogs.
Jeong, Won Il; Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da Hee; Chung, Jae Yong; Yang, Hai Jie; Yuan, Dong Wei; Hong, Il Hwa; Park, Jin Kyu; Goo, Moon Jung; Jeong, Kyu Shik
Three dead dogs were brought to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University for study. Clinically, all the dogs showed emaciation, anorexia, depression, hemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhea for 7-10 days before death. All the clinical signs were first noted for about one month after feeding the dogs with commercial diets. At necropsy, all 3 dogs had severe renal damage with the same green-yellowish colored nephroliths in the renal pelvis. They also showed systemic hemorrhage and calcification of several organs, which might have been induced by uremia. Microscopically, necrosis, calcification and calculi were detected in the renal tubules, and especially in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. These findings were supportive of a mycotoxic effect, and especially on their kidneys. However, the precise cause of the toxic effect in these cases of canine renal failure could not be determined.
Gerona, S; Laudano, O; Macías, S; San Román, E; Galdame, O; Torres, O; Sorkin, E; Ciardullo, M; de Santibañes, E; Mastai, R
Renal failure is a common finding in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic value of pre, intra and postoperative factors and severity of renal dysfunction in patients who undergo liver transplantation. Therefore, the records of 38 consecutive adult patients were reviewed. Renal failure was defined arbitrarily as an increase in creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dl) and/or blood urea (> 80 mg/dl). Three patients were excluded of the final analysis (1 acute liver failure and 2 with a survival lower than 72 hs.) Twenty one of the 35 patients has renal failure after orthotopic liver transplantation. Six of these episodes developed early, having occurred within the first 6 days. Late renal impairment occurred in 15 patients within the hospitalization (40 +/- 10 days) (Mean +/- SD). In he overall series, liver function, evaluated by Child-Pugh classification, a higher blood-related requirements and cyclosporine levels were observed more in those who experienced renal failure than those who did not (p < 0.05). Early renal failure was related with preoperative (liver function) and intraoperative (blood requirements) factors and several causes (nephrotoxic drugs and graft failure) other than cyclosporine were present in patients who developed late renal impairment. No mortality. No mortality was associated with renal failure. We conclude that renal failure a) is a common finding after liver transplantation, b) the pathogenesis of this complication is multifactorial and, c) in not related with a poor outcome.
Rojas Feria, P; González Rodríguez, J D; Canalejo González, D; Sánchez Moreno, A; Cabrera, R; Martín Govantes, J
The picking and consumption of wild mushrooms is a frequent practice in our region and may lead to accidental poisoning when confused with edible mushrooms. We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy who, following the ingestion of a poisonous mushroom, presented with uncontrollable vomiting and subsequent hepatic, haematological and renal failure some hours later. The patient required haemodialysis. The clinical course, laboratory findings and renal histology, which showed tubular necrosis with basal membrane preserved and lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate, confirmed the diagnosis of a severe mixed syndrome. The patient evolved favourably after the poisoning, recovering renal and liver function. In any case of acute renal failure of unknown cause in children, it would be necessary to rule out ingestion of mushrooms, since the patient could benefit from early treatment with haemoperfusion and thus prevent the deterioration of the renal function and other organs. In our patient, haemoperfusion was not carried out due to the lengthy period of latency since the ingestion of the toxic substance until diagnosis.
Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Garber, Alan J.
To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively. These results in patients with chronic renal failure demonstrate (a) increased glucose production and utilization, (b) increased gluconeogenesis from alanine, (c) increased alanine production and utilization, and (d) a relative impairment to glucose disposal. We conclude that
Lee, V.W.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.; Ngai, S.; Peng, T.T.
A study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of gallium imaging in the detection of renal amyloidosis. Ten of the 11 patients who had biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis demonstrated marked uptake in both kidneys. One patient revealed moderate gallium uptake in his kidneys. None of the patients had underlying renal or extrarenal pathology other than amyloidosis, which could account for renal gallium uptake (renal infection, neoplasm, hepatic failure or frequent blood transfusions). Four patients also had extrarenal foci of abnormal gallium uptake, suggesting other sites of amyloid deposits. Our data strongly suggest that gallium imaging has a high sensitivity for detection of renal amyloidosis. Its specificity is enhanced significantly by careful review of the clinical history to exclude other known causes of renal gallium uptake. Potentially, gallium imaging may be used to monitor the progress of patients under experimental therapy.
Subramanyam, Nambakam Tanuja
Introduction Acute Renal Failure (RF) is a rare but well recognized complication of Dengue Infection (DI). There has been paucity of published data regarding renal involvement in DI. Aim The aim of the present study was to elucidate different clinical presentations, disease outcomes of DI. To study the frequency, severity and predictors of RF in DI. Materials and Methods Patients diagnosed either as Dengue Fever (DF) or Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) respectively were enrolled for this study. The diagnostic criteria for DI were febrile illness associated with one of the following: 1) detection of dengue-specific IgM capture antibody or Non-Structural Protein1 (NS1) antigen; or 2) a four-fold or greater increase of dengue-specific IgG capture antibody by ELISA and haemoagglutination inhibition assay. Patients were diagnosed as having Acute RF, if serum creatinine was >1.2 mg/dl or who showed improvement by 50% in serum creatinine from the initial value. It is an observational study of medical charts, data of age, gender, and medical history of any underlying diseases in association with the severity of DI of each patient recorded. All of the laboratory results were collected. Parameters that influenced the clinical presentations and outcomes for development of classical DF or DHF/DSS in patients with or without RF were analysed and compared. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried. The Statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used. Results Most common symptoms were fever followed by headache and pain in abdomen. Among the patients with RF, all patients had recovery. The patients with DHF/DSS were more susceptible to develop renal failure compared to DF group. There were statistically significant higher frequencies of renal failure, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, low serum cholesterol. Patients in the RF group also had significantly
Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao
Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.
Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.
The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.
Schaefer, R M; Barenbrock, M; Teschner, M; Bahner, U
The most serious forms of acute renal failure (ARF) are nowadays encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU), where up to 25% of new patients are reported to develop ARF. Lethality rates may reach 50 to 90% when the ARF is part of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A multitude of extracorporeal procedures have been introduced into intensive care medicine. Applied with adequate skills and experience, most of these techniques will suffice to replace excretory renal function. However, because of low efficacy arterio-venous procedures (CAVH and CAVHD) have been abandoned for the veno-venous, pump-driven techniques (CVVH and CVVHD). Up to now, there is no consensus whether continuous or intermittent renal replacement therapy is more advantageous. In many cases, oliguric patients with circulatory instability will be treated by CVVH, even though there is no prospective study to show that in terms of outcome continuous treatment is superior to intermittent hemodialysis. It is equally conceivable to treat such patients with daily, prolonged (intermittent) hemodialysis. Apparently, the dose of replacement therapy, be it continuous filtration (36 to 48 l/24 h) or intermittent hemodialysis (daily 3 to 4 h) with a target BUN of less than 50 mg/dl, is more important than the modality of treatment. Moreover, there is good evidence that the use of biocompatible membranes (no complement- or leukocyte activation) is preferable and that with high-volume hemofiltration bicarbonate-containing replacement fluids should be used. However, despite all the technical advances, we firmly believe that the skills and the experience of those physicians and nurses who actually perform renal replacement therapy in the ICU are more important than the modality of treatment applied.
Latt, N L; Araz, F; Alachkar, N; Durand, C M; Gurakar, A
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a rising global public health burden with an estimated 130-150 million infected people worldwide and 350,000 to 500,000 HCV-related deaths each year. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also a highly prevalent public health issue as the escalating numbers of patients worldwide are developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension due to high fat diets and a growing obesity epidemic. The high incidence and prevalence of HCV infection leads to substantial morbidity and mortality among renal dialysis patients. Recommendations are to screen for HCV infection among all patients with renal failure especially prior to initiation of hemodialysis and renal transplant evaluation. HCV-antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by confirmation with HCV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) is recommended for low prevalence regions, but in dialysis centers with a high prevalence of HCV, initial testing with NAT is recommended due to higher false positive EIA rates. Liver biopsy is used to assess of liver disease severity. Transjugular liver biopsy, as an effective and safe technique in patients with ESRD can be considered instead of percutaneous approach. Non-invasive approaches to staging fibrosis, including liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography and panels of serum fibrosis biomarkers, are also widely used. Although difficult to manage, combined pegylated- interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin therapy was the only treatment modality available for HCV-positive patients until the recently introduced new direct-acting antiviral agents. However, except boceprevir, there are no currently available data to suggest that these new anti-viral drugs are safe and effective among end-stage renal failure patients. IFN-containing regimens were also associated with high rates of renal graft loss in post-renal transplant patients. Therefore, management of HCV infection in renal failure patients is unique and should be tailored individually with
Amaliev, G M; Uchikova, E; Malinova, M
Pregnancy in women with chronic renal failure is a complex therapeutic problem requiring a multidisciplinary approach. It is associated with a higher risk of many perinatal complications. The most common abnormalities are related to: progression of renal failure, development of preeclampsia development of nephrotic syndrome, anemic syndrome, IUGR and fetal death. The prognosis depends on the values of serum creatinine prior to pregnancy, the degree of deterioration of renal function, development of additional obstetric complications and the specific etiological reasons that have led to the occurrence of renal failure. Determining the optimum time for authorization birth depends on the condition of the mother, the condition of the fetus and the rate of progression of renal failure, and the deadline the pregnancy should be terminated is 35 weeks. We present a case of a patient with chronic renal failure, with favorable perinatal outcome.
Leming, Melissa K; Breyer, Michael J
Patients with renal failure who are taking trimethoprim have an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia, which can cause muscle weakness. In patients with postpolio syndrome, a normal creatinine level could be abnormally high, renal failure is possible because of lack of creatinine production, and the muscle weakness from resultant hyperkalemia could be more severe because of their underlying condition. This abnormally high creatinine level has been termed from this point relative renal failure. The objective of the study was to review a case in which relative renal failure and hyperkalemia caused muscle weakness that manifested as shortness of breath and confusion with electrocardiographic changes. A dehydrated patient with relative renal failure and postpolio syndrome had taken trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole that caused symptomatic hyperkalemia. The patient presented with muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and confusion, with her postpolio syndrome compounding the situation and likely making the muscle weakness more severe. A patient on trimethoprim with renal failure is at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia. Patients with postpolio syndrome could have severe muscle weakness from the hyperkalemia and could have renal failure even with a normal creatinine level. This case report will remind treating physicians to evaluate such patients for hyperkalemia if they present with muscle weakness, especially if the patient has renal failure and is on trimethoprim.
... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant
Ring-Larsen, H; Palazzo, U
Forty patients with terminal cirrhosis and 40 patients with fulminant hepatic failure-all consecutively admitted-were studied with regard to incidence, types, and prognosis of complicating renal insufficiency. Renal failure was considered present when the serum creatinine was greater than 0.20 mmol/l. Of the patients with cirrhosis 26 (65%) developed renal failure. In 15 the type was functional, in three due to acute tubular necrosis, and in eight indeterminable. Of the patients with fulminant hepatic failure 22 (55%) had renal insufficiency; of these 13 had functional renal failure, five acute tubular necrosis, and in four the type was indeterminable. In both categories of patients, renal failure was equally frequent among patients with or without gastrointestinal bleeding and with or without ascites or diuretic therapy. The biochemical tests of liver function were similar in patients with or without renal failure in both categories. The mean renal blood flow in seven unselected patients with fulminant hepatic failure was reduced in the same order as previously observed in patients with cirrhosis. In terminal cirrhosis the mortality rate was 88% in the presence of renal failure, 71% in its absence (p greater than 0.05), while the same figures in fulminant hepatic failure were 100% and 67% (p less than 0.05). The incidence, relative frequency, and prognosis of renal failure were not different in the two conditions, indicating identical pathophysiological circumstances. PMID:7262632
Drüeke, Tilman B
aluminium absorption-from the methodological difficulties of measuring it accurately to understanding the long-term clinical risks of this metal-should guide us in the safety evaluation of other potentially toxic metals that have been proposed for therapeutic use in patients with renal failure.
Aggarwal, Rohina S; Mishra, Vineet V; Jasani, Anil F; Gumber, Manoj
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6
Domi, Rudin; Huti, Gentian; Sula, Hektor; Baftiu, Nehat; Kaci, Myzafer; Bodeci, Artan; Pesha, Albert
Context Pre-existing renal dysfunction presents specific features that anesthesiologists must deal with. Anesthesia and renal function are connected and can interfere with each other. Induced hypotension anesthesia and the toxic effects of anesthetic drugs can further deteriorate renal function. Evidence Acquisition Decreased renal function can prolong anesthetic drug effects by decreased elimination of these drugs. Anesthesia can deteriorate renal function and decreased renal function can interfere with drug elimination leading to their prolonged effect. The anesthesiologist must understand all the physiological aspects of the patient, renal protection, and the relationships between anesthetic drugs and renal function. This review article aims to summarize these aspects. Results Perioperative renal failure and renal protection is a crucial moment in clinical practice of every anesthesiologist. Conclusions Good knowledges for renal function remain a hallmark of daily practice of the anesthesiologist, considering renal function as an important determinant factor in anesthesia practice. PMID:27642570
Vecer, J; Kubátová, H; Soucek, M; Charvát, J; Kvapil, M; Matousovic, K; Martínek, V
Rhabdomyolysis (damage of the muscles of various origin) leads to the efflux of the intracellular fluids in the circulation. The common complication of this status is the renal failure. The early diagnosis and the proper treatment makes the fall of renal function reversible. That is why the possibility of the rhabdomyolysis must be consider. The case report describes the development of renal failure in young, previously healthy men, followed by trauma mechanism after drug and alcohol abuse.
Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik
Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication.
Le Vaillant, J; Pellerin, L; Brouard, J; Eckart, P
Renal failure secondary to acetaminophen poisoning is rare and occurs in approximately 1-2 % of patients with acetaminophen overdose. The pathophysiology is still being debated, and renal acetaminophen toxicity consists of acute tubular necrosis, without complication if treated promptly. Renal involvement can sometimes occur without prior liver disease, and early renal manifestations usually occur between the 2nd and 7th day after the acute acetaminophen poisoning. While therapy is exclusively symptomatic, sometimes serious metabolic complications can be observed. The monitoring of renal function should therefore be considered as an integral part of the management of children with acute, severe acetaminophen intoxication. We report 3 cases of adolescents who presented with acute renal failure as a result of voluntary drug intoxication with acetaminophen. One of these 3 girls developed severe renal injury without elevated hepatic transaminases. None of the 3 girls' renal function required hemodialysis, but one of the 3 patients had metabolic complications after her acetaminophen poisoning.
Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome. PMID:28154583
Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Mahfoud, Felix
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, renal denervation in heart failure is worthy of further investigation, although its effectiveness still has to be proven. Herein, we describe the pathophysiological rationale and the effect of renal denervation on surrogates of the heart failure syndrome.
Merla, Ramanna; Martinez, Juan D; Martinez, Milagros A; Khalife, Wissam; Bionat, Susan; Bionat, Joanne; Barbagelata, Alejandro
The extent to which hypothyroidism affects renal function in patients with heart failure remains incompletely explored, despite the known adverse prognostic implications of renal dysfunction in these patients.In a pilot retrospective study, we evaluated 75 patients (age, >or=18 yr) with left ventricular ejection fractions <0.40. Forty-five patients had normal thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.35-5.5 micro IU/mL) and 30 had hypothyroidism. The group with hypothyroidism was subdivided into 17 patients who had controlled hypothyroidism (TSH, 0.35-5.5 micro IU/mL) and 13 who had uncontrolled hypothyroidism (TSH, >5.5 micro IU/mL). Renal function, measured in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was analyzed once in each patient, and the populations were statistically compared, with P <0.05 conferring statistical significance.Baseline characteristics in all groups were similar. Mean glomerular filtration rate was better in patients with normal thyroid function than those with hypothyroidism (75.45 +/- 31.48 vs 63.95 +/- 21.43 mL/min/1.73 m2; P=0.032). There was no significant difference between patients with controlled hypothyroidism (66.89 +/- 24.18 mL/min/1.73 m2) and those with normal thyroid function (P=0.131). In patients with uncontrolled hypothyroidism, mean glomerular filtration rate (60.2 +/- 17.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) was significantly worse than in patients with normal thyroid function (P=0.015).We found that heart-failure patients with insufficiently treated hypothyroidism have worse renal function than do patients whose thyroid function is normal or whose hypothyroidism is effectively treated. Larger studies will be needed in order to evaluate this conclusion further. We recommend that hypothyroidism in heart-failure patients be strictly controlled, lest it affect prognosis adversely.
Finco, Delmar R
Systemic hypertension is hypothesized to cause renal injury to dogs. This study was performed on dogs with surgically induced renal failure to determine whether hypertension was associated with altered renal function or morphology. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were measured before and after surgery. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC) were measured at 1, 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks after surgery, and renal histology was evaluated terminally. The mean of weekly MAP, SAP, and DAP measurements for each dog over the 1st 26 weeks was used to rank dogs on the basis of MAP, SAP, or DAP values. A statistically significant association was found between systemic arterial pressure ranking and ranked measures of adverse renal responses. When dogs were divided into higher pressure and lower pressure groups on the basis of SAP, group 1 (higher pressure, n = 9) compared with group 2 (lower pressure, n = 10) had significantly lower GFR values at 36 and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, and fibrosis. When dogs were divided on MAP and DAP values, group 1 compared with group 2 had significantly lower GFR values at 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, fibrosis, and cell infiltrate. These results demonstrate an association between increased systemic arterial pressure and renal injury. Results from this study might apply to dogs with some types of naturally occurring renal failure.
Korbet, S M
The evaluation of ultrafiltration failure is embarked upon when a patient has persistent problems with symptoms and signs of fluid overload. Fluid overload is a common problem in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and the risk of its occurrence increases with time on dialysis. Although often attributed to changes in peritoneal membrane function (membrane failure), there are a number of potential, and frequently more common factors that can contribute to the failure of adequate fluid removal in patients on PD. Many of the causes of ultrafiltration failure may be apparent after an initial informal evaluation. However, if after this the etiology remains unexplained, a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of this problem can be utilized with the use of the peritoneal equilibration test. Once a diagnosis is confirmed, a logical therapeutic plan can be formulated.
Dada, Samuel A; Rafiu, Mojeed O; Olanrewaju, Timothy O
Ureterocele is a congenital anomaly, in which there is mal-development of the caudal segments of the ureter. There is a female preponderance with most cases seen in Caucasians. Among the reported complications of this condition, chronic renal failure occurring in the setting of ureterocele has not been well documented. We report a case of a young girl with bilateral ureterocele presenting with chronic renal failure, whose management presented a diagnostic failure and inadequate treatment.
Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel
The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.
Holloway, Andrew; O'Brien, Robert
Perirenal fluid accumulation has been described as an ultrasonographic feature of urine leakage, hemorrhage, abscessation, or neoplasia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report perirenal effusion as an additional ultrasonographic finding in canine and feline patients with acute renal failure. The causes of acute renal failure in 18 patients included nephrotoxicity (4), leptospirosis (3), ureteral obstruction (2), renal lymphoma (2), ureteronephrolithiasis (2), prostatic urethral obstruction (1) and interstitial nephritis and ureteritis (1). An underlying cause was not identified in three patients. The sonographic finding of perirenal fluid was bilateral in 15 patients. Unilateral perirenal fluid was identified ipsilateral to the site of ureteric obstruction in two patients. Large effusions extended into the caudal retroperitoneal space. Additional sonographic findings suggestive of renal parenchymal disease included mild (5), moderate (5) or severe (2) pyelectasia, increased renal echogenicity (11), increased (9) or decreased renal size (2) and ureteral and/or renal calculi (3). There did not appear to be an association between the volume of perirenal fluid and the severity of renal dysfunction. All patients with large effusions underwent euthanasia. Perirenal fluid developing in acute renal failure is thought to be an ultrafiltrate associated with tubular back-leak into the renal interstitium that overwhelms lymphatic drainage within the perirenal and retroperitoneal connective tissues although obstruction to urine flow may also play a role. Localized perirenal retroperitoneal free fluid may be a useful ultrasonographic feature to assist with the characterization of, and determination of prognosis in, patients with suspected renal disease.
Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo
A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.
Brunini, Tatiana M C; Moss, Monique B; Siqueira, Mariana A S; Santos, Sérgio F F; Lugon, Jocemir R; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio C
The conditionally essential amino acid L-arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, a key second messenger involved in physiological functions including endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation. Extracellular L-arginine transport seems to be essential for the production of NO by the action of NO synthases (NOS), even when the intracellular levels of L-arginine are available in excess (L-arginine paradox). Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex clinical condition associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and thrombosis leading to cardiovascular events. Various studies document that markers of malnutrition and inflammation, such as low body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There is considerable literature demonstrating that a disturbance in the nitric oxide control mechanism plays a role in mediating the haemodynamic and haemostatic disorders present in CRF. Endogenous analogues of L-arginine, ADMA and L-NMMA, which can inhibit NO synthesis and L-arginine transport, are increased whilst L-arginine is reduced in plasma from all stages of CRF patients. In this context, the uptake of L-arginine in blood cells is increased in undialysed CRF patients and in patients treated by CAPD and haemodialysis. In platelets obtained from haemodialysis patients, the activation of L-arginine transport and NO production was limited to well-nourished patients. Impairment in nitric oxide bioactivity, coupled with malnutrition and inflammation, may contribute to increased incidence of atherothrombotic events in CRF. This article summarizes the current knowledge of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and malnutrition in CRF and briefly describes possible therapeutic interventions.
Schrier, Robert W.; Wang, Wei; Poole, Brian; Mitra, Amit
Acute renal failure (ARF), characterized by sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance, is a frequent clinical problem, particularly in the intensive care unit, where it is associated with a mortality of between 50% and 80%. In this review, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of ARF are discussed, including the vascular, tubular, and inflammatory perturbations. The clinical evaluation of ARF and implications for potential future therapies to decrease the high mortality are described. PMID:15232604
Creyghton, W M; Lobatto, S; Weening, J J
We report a 34-year-old male patient without prior medical history who presented with acute renal failure due to acute bacterial pyelonephritis. Both blood and urine cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although a kidney biopsy revealed extensive necrosis and no viable glomeruli, renal function recovered to near normal after intermittent hemodialysis and antibiotic therapy. We believe that it is important to include this entity in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure since proper diagnosis and treatment is essential for recovery of renal function. Furthermore, we would like to draw attention to Klebsiella pneumoniae as an important potential pathogen in such cases, in addition to Escherichia coli.
Newberry, W. Marcus; Sanford, Jay P.
In defining host resistance factors in uremia, experiments were designed to assess the effect of renal failure serum upon the reactivity of normal human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin in vitro. Normal buffy coat cells were resuspended in sera obtained from normal subjects and from 14 patients with renal failure, then stimulated with phytohemagglutinin M and the cellular response measured by the increase in thymidine or uridine uptake. The mean thymidine uptake by stimulated cells in normal sera was 14,389 ±1695 (SEM) cpm per 2 × 106 lymphocytes. Uridine uptake under the same conditions was 12,540 ±1887 cpm. Compared to these are a mean thymidine uptake of 2740 ±457 cpm and uridine uptake of 3928 ±667 cpm in renal failure sera. Both differences are significant at P<0.01 level. For controls representing “chronic illnesses,” sera from patients with pneumococcal meningitis, cirrhosis of the liver without jaundice, rheumatoid arthritis, and paraplegia with urinary tract infection did not cause suppression. No single drug had been taken by all the renal failure patients; three patients were taking no drugs. The serum from one patient with acute renal failure suppressed thymidine uptake while her serum obtained after recovery from her illness supported a normal lymphocyte response. Improvement of lymphocyte response was also noted in 9 of 10 sera obtained from patients immediately after hemodialysis. These observations plus the inhibition of stimulated cells by normal serum mixed with renal failure serum indicate the presence of a dialyzable inhibitory factor rather than the absence of a supporting factor in the renal failure sera. Lymphocytes preincubated for 24 hr in renal failure serum responded normally when transferred to normal serum and stimulated. Cells stimulated in normal serum and transferred to renal failure serum within the initial 24 hr of incubation demonstrated depressed thymidine uptake. Also, cell survival for 72 hr incubation as judged by
Arze Aimaretti, L; Arze, S
Renal transplantation is the best therapeutic option for end-stage chronic renal disease. Assuming that it is more advisable if performed early, we aimed to show the clinical, social, and economic advantages in 70% of our patients who were dialyzed only for a short period. For this purpose, we retrospectively collected data over 28 years in 142 kidney transplants performed in patients with <6 weeks on dialysis. 66% of our patients were 30-60 years old; 98% of the patients had living donors. At transplantation, 64% of our patients had no public support; however, 64% of them returned to work and got health insurance 2 months later. Full rehabilitation was achieved in all cases, including integration to the family, return to full-time work, school and university, sports, and reproduction. Immunosuppression consisted of 3 drugs, including steroids, cyclosporine, and azathioprine or mycophenolate. The cost in the 1st year, including patient and donor evaluation, surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up, was $13,300 USD versus $22,320 for hemodialysis. We conclude that preemptive renal transplantation with <6 weeks on dialysis is the best therapeutic option for end-stage renal failure, especially in developing countries such as Bolivia, where until last year, full public support for renal replacement therapy was unavailable.
Balwani, Manish R; Engineer, Divyesh P; Gumber, Manoj R; Kute, Vivek B; Singh, Rajesh; Patel, Himanshu V; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gera, Dinesh; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L
Epstein syndrome constitutes macrothrombocytopenia without neutrophil inclusion bodies along with deafness and renal failure. A diagnosis of Epstein syndrome was made in a 17 year-old-male patient with macrothrombopathic thrombocytopenia, renal failure and sensorineural hearing loss. Our patient is unique as he presented with rapidly progressive renal failure and developed chronic kidney disease in second decade of life with no symptomatic hearing loss or bleeding tendency. Epstein syndrome needs to be differentiated from Alport syndrome which is more common disease with similar clinical presentation. PMID:28197502
Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou
Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.
Nakai, Kentaro; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kimura, Hiroshi; Miura, Shuhei; Maeda, Atsuhiro
We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with seizures and acute renal failure with hyperkalemia. She presented with bladder turgescence and hydronephrosis on admission and was diagnosed as obstructive acute renal failure. Urethral catheterization was performed after a single-session hemodialysis. It resulted in immediate improvement of renal function and consciousness, and subsequent disappearance of seizures. Improvement of serum creatinine level to 0.7 from 10.6 mg/dL was associated with a fall in blood level of amantadine hydrochloride from 4.40 to 0.47 microg/mL. Physicians should be aware of urinary retention in patients treated with amantadine as a first sign of intoxication that could lead if untreated to obstructive acute renal failure. And we recommend to check the overdose symptoms, even those with normal renal function, treated with amantadine.
Voiculescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, Gener; Mandache, Eugen; Hortopan, Monica; Constantinescu, Ileana; Iliescu, Olguta
Renal transplantation is often associated with severe complications. Except for acute rejection, infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive treatment are the most frequent problems observed after transplantation. Infections with hepatic viruses (HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV) and cytomegalic virus (CMV) are the main infectious complications after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine toxicity is not unusual for a patient with renal transplantation and is even more frequent for patients with hepatic impairment due to viral infections. The subjects of this report are two renal transplant recipients with acute pancreatitis, severe hepatitis and acute renal failure on graft, receiving immunosuppressive therapy for maintaining renal graft function
Bear, R A; Cole, E H; Lang, A; Johnson, M
Severe renal insufficiency is considered to indicate a poor prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, their reported median survival being approximately 2 months. In five consecutive patients with severe renal failure secondary to acute myeloma kidney early aggressive therapy, including chemotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, led to a significant improvement in the renal function of four; the fifth patient received a cadaveric renal transplant after 1 year of peritoneal dialysis. After a median follow-up period of 12 months all the patients were alive and had improved renal function. This experience contrasts with that previously reported and suggests that aggressive management may improve the survival of patients with acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney. PMID:7004618
Sinkeler, Steef J; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan
The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal impairment in chronic heart failure is traditionally assumed to be mainly due to a decrease in cardiac output and a subsequent decrease in renal perfusion. This will lead to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and a compensatory increase in tubular sodium retention. The latter is a physiological renal response aimed at retaining fluids in order to increase cardiac filling pressure and thus renal perfusion. In heart failure, however, larger increases in cardiac filling pressure are needed to restore renal perfusion and thus more volume retention. In this concept, in chronic heart failure, an equilibrium exists where a certain degree of congestion is the price to be paid to maintain adequate renal perfusion and function. Recently, this hypothesis was challenged by new studies, wherein it was found that the association between right-sided cardiac filling pressures and renal function is bimodal, with worse renal function at the highest filling pressures, reflecting a severely congested state. Renal hemodynamic studies suggest that congestion negatively affects renal function in particular in patients in whom renal perfusion is also compromised. Thus, an interplay between cardiac forward failure and backward failure is involved in the renal function impairment in the congestive state, presumably along with other factors. Only few data are available on the impact of intervention in volume status on the cardio-renal interaction. Sparse data in cardiac patients as well as evidence from cohorts with primary renal disease suggest that specific targeting of volume overload may be beneficial for long-term outcome, in spite of a certain further decrease in renal function, at least
Bueschen, A J; Witten, D M
The renal scintillation camera study and the excretory urogram should be considered to be complementary studies. The renal scintillation camera study provides an accurate evaluation of changes in total, differential, and segmental renal function but affords only a gross assessment of anatomic changes. The excretory urogram provides superior information about renal anatomic changes but only inferior information about functional changes of the kidney. The advantages of a renal scintillation camera study with regard to the patient are that it is done in a state of normal hydration, it requires no bowel preparation, it is not associated with allergic reactions, it provides a low radiation exposure, and it is a noninvasive procedure for differential renal function which requires no ureteral catheters.
van Dorp, W T; Jie, K; Lobatto, S; Weening, J J; Valentijn, R M
Two patients, who had had pulmonary sarcoidosis, developed renal failure due to sarcoid granulomatous interstitial nephritis after their original pulmonary symptoms had subsided. Treatment with prednisone resulted in almost complete recovery of renal function. Lysozyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and gallium scintigraphy can be of diagnostic value.
Novati, R; Nebiolo, P E; Galotto, C; Mastaglia, M; Manes, M
A fifty-three years old surgeon had acute renal failure consisting with acute tubulo-interstizial nephropaty twelve days after influenza vaccination; he was on statin therapy since one month. He was given steroidal therapy and fully recovered two weeks apart. This is the fourth case report of acute renal failure after influenza vaccination in patients on statins therapy. The case we describe could account for a underestimated, even if very rare, phenomenon.
Santoro, Jonathan D.; Chao, Stephanie; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lee, Henry C.
Omphalocele-exstrophy of the bladder-imperforate anus-spinal defect (OEIS) complex is a rare constellation of clinical abnormalities with wide phenotypic presentation. We describe a case of a preterm neonate with OEIS complex with acute renal failure, and the challenges in diagnosis and management of this patient as renal failure can be a multifactorial process when encountered with this rare complex. PMID:26495176
Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya
AIM: To investigate whether fetal kidney stem cells (fKSC) ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats and promote renal angiogenesis. METHODS: The fKSC were isolated from rat fetuses of gestation day 16 and expanded in vitro up to 3rd passage. They were characterized for the expression of mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The in vitro differentiation of fKSC towards epithelial lineage was evaluated by the treatment with specific induction medium and their angiogenic potential by matrigel induced tube formation assay. To study the effect of fKSC in ARF, fKSC labeled with PKH26 were infused in rats with cisplatin induced ARF and, the blood and renal tissues of the rats were collected at different time points. Blood biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate renal function. Renal tissues were evaluated for renal architecture, renal cell proliferation and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, renal cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling assay and early expression of angiogenic molecules viz. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by western blot. RESULTS: The fKSC expressed mesenchymal markers viz. CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 as well as renal progenitor markers viz. Wt1, Pax2 and Six2. They exhibited a potential to form CD31 and Von Willebrand factor expressing capillary-like structures and could be differentiated into cytokeratin (CK)18 and CK19 positive epithelial cells. Administration of fKSC in rats with ARF as compared to administration of saline alone, resulted in a significant improvement in renal function and histology on day 3 (2.33 ± 0.33 vs 3.50 ± 0.34, P < 0.05) and on day 7 (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 2.00 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). The infused PKH26 labeled fKSC were observed to engraft in damaged renal tubules and showed increased proliferation and reduced
Kingma, John G; Vincent, Chantal; Rouleau, Jacques R; Kingma, Iris
Impaired renal function is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events and death, but the pathophysiology is poorly defined. The hypothesis that coronary blood flow regulation and distribution of ventricular blood flow could be compromised during acute renal failure (ARF) was tested. In two separate groups (n = 14 each) of dogs with ARF, (1) coronary autoregulation (pressure-flow relations), vascular reserve (reactive hyperemia), and myocardial blood flow distribution (microspheres) and (2) coronary vessel responses to intracoronary infusion of select endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators were evaluated. In addition, coronary pressure-flow relations and vascular reserve after inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin release were evaluated. Under resting conditions, myocardial oxygen consumption increased in dogs with ARF compared with no renal failure (NRF; 11.8 +/- 9.2 versus 5.0 +/- 1.5 ml O(2)/min per 100 g; P = 0.01), and the autoregulatory break point of the coronary pressure-flow relation was shifted to higher diastolic coronary pressures (60 +/- 17 versus 52 +/- 8 mmHg in NRF; P = 0.003); the latter was shifted further rightward after inhibition of both nitric oxide and prostaglandin release. The endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio was comparable for both groups, suggesting preserved ventricular distribution of blood flow. In dogs with ARF, coronary vascular conductance also was reduced (P = 0.001 versus NRF), but coronary zero-flow pressure was unchanged. Vessel reactivity to each endothelium-dependent/independent compound also was blunted significantly. In conclusion, under resting conditions, coronary vascular tone, reserve, and vessel reactivity are markedly diminished with ARF, suggesting impaired vascular function. Consequently, during ARF, small increases in myocardial oxygen demand would induce subendocardial ischemia as a result of a limited capacity to increase oxygen supply and thereby contribute to higher
Krzemień, Grazyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Bieroza, Iwona; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria
Acute renal failure (ARF), which is diagnosed in 3.4-20% of newborns, is polyetiological in most cases. We present a newborn with non-oliguric ARF diagnosed in the first day of life, and caused by asphixia, intrauterine infection (IUI) and nephrotoxic effects of metotrexate treatment during pregnancy. Antibiotics, including netilmicin and vankomycin, were given because of IUI and infected central venous catheter. Dosage of drugs was adjusted to renal failure parameters, but monitoring of their serum levels was not available. It could cause augmented acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Analysis of ARF risk factors in newborns helps in early diagnosis of renal damage and in prompt implementation of therapy.
Venzin, R M; Cohen, C D; Maggiorini, M; Wüthrich, R P
We report the first case of acute renal failure with hyperkalemia associated with the recently marketed direct renin inhibitor aliskiren. To optimize blood pressure control, the antihypertensive medication of a 76-year-old hypertensive female patient was changed from the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan to aliskiren. Spironolactone was continued, as serum creatinine and potassium levels were initially normal. Two weeks later the patient presented with acute oliguric renal failure, symptomatic hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, necessitating emergency dialytic treatment. Unrecognized pre-existing renal insufficiency (CKD Stage 2 - 3) and the continuation of spironolactone were identified as predisposing risk factors.
Wohl, P; Chadimová, M; Englis, M; Táborský, P; Rossmann, P; Matl, I
The objective of the paper is to draw attention to a rare cause of rapidly progressing renal failure which developed in the course of four months as a result of light chain deposition disease. The authors submit two case-histories of the disease assessed by renal biopsy after previous clinical and laboratory suspicion of monoclonal gammapathy. In one patient in the sternal punctate plasmacytoma was diagnosed and in the second case it was not possible to detect any type of monoclonal gammapathy or another possible cause of disease. Renal failure was in both cases irreversible and both patients were enlisted in regular haemodialyzation treatment.
Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Haoxiang; Feng, Ji; Wang, Lizhi
Chronic renal failure is a severe clinical problem which has some significant socioeconomic impact worldwide and hemodialysis is an important way to maintain patients' health state, but it seems difficult to get better in short time. Considering these, the aim in our research is to update and evaluate the effects of exercise on the health of patients with chronic renal failure. The databases were used to search for the relevant studies in English or Chinese. And the association between physical exercise and health state of patients with chronic renal failure has been investigated. Random-effect model was used to compare the physical function and capacity in exercise and control groups. Exercise is helpful in ameliorating the situation of blood pressure in patients with renal failure and significantly reduces VO2 in patients with renal failure. The results of subgroup analyses show that, in the age >50, physical activity can significantly reduce blood pressure in patients with renal failure. The activity program containing warm-up, strength, and aerobic exercises has benefits in blood pressure among sick people and improves their maximal oxygen consumption level. These can help patients in physical function and aerobic capacity and may give them further benefits. PMID:28316986
Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Haoxiang; Feng, Ji; Wang, Lizhi; Zhou, Hao
Chronic renal failure is a severe clinical problem which has some significant socioeconomic impact worldwide and hemodialysis is an important way to maintain patients' health state, but it seems difficult to get better in short time. Considering these, the aim in our research is to update and evaluate the effects of exercise on the health of patients with chronic renal failure. The databases were used to search for the relevant studies in English or Chinese. And the association between physical exercise and health state of patients with chronic renal failure has been investigated. Random-effect model was used to compare the physical function and capacity in exercise and control groups. Exercise is helpful in ameliorating the situation of blood pressure in patients with renal failure and significantly reduces VO2 in patients with renal failure. The results of subgroup analyses show that, in the age >50, physical activity can significantly reduce blood pressure in patients with renal failure. The activity program containing warm-up, strength, and aerobic exercises has benefits in blood pressure among sick people and improves their maximal oxygen consumption level. These can help patients in physical function and aerobic capacity and may give them further benefits.
Yu Yao, Bian
A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840
Kałuzyńska, Anna; Jander, Anna; Puczko-Nogal, Barbara; Nowicki, Michał
We carried out a retrospective analysis of medical files to evaluate causes of chronic renal failure in 80 children (M--49, F--31), age 1 month to 20 years) who started renal replacement therapy in the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis of the Polish Mothers Memorial Hospital in the years 1990-2007. In 28 children (35%) reflux and obstructive nephropathy was a cause of renal failure. In 5 children the disease was secondary to the neurogenic bladder. The incidence of these nephropathies in our population was constant in the analyzed years. In our group there were 2 neonates and 7 adolescent who were diagnosed with nephropathy as late as in the endstage phase. Boys with posterior urethral valve required renal replacement therapy earlier (146 +/- 55 months). We conclude that obstructive and reflux nephropathy are still the essential cause of end stage renal disease in children.
Cerqueira, Denise de Paula; Tavares, José Roberto; Machado, Regimar Carla
Objectives to evaluate the renal function of patients in an intensive care unit, to identify the predisposing factors for the development of renal failure, and to develop an algorithm to help in the control of the disease. Method exploratory, descriptive, prospective study with a quantitative approach. Results a total of 30 patients (75.0%) were diagnosed with kidney failure and the main factors associated with this disease were: advanced age, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lung diseases, and antibiotic use. Of these, 23 patients (76.6%) showed a reduction in creatinine clearance in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Conclusion a decline in renal function was observed in a significant number of subjects, therefore, an algorithm was developed with the aim of helping in the control of renal failure in a practical and functional way. PMID:26107827
van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Ruilope, Luis M; Maisel, Alan S; Damman, Kevin
Heart failure guidelines suggest evaluating renal function as a routine work-up in every patient with heart failure. Specifically, it is advised to calculate glomerular filtration rate and determine blood urea nitrogen. The reason for this is that renal impairment and worsening renal function (WRF) are common in heart failure, and strongly associate with poor outcome. Renal function, however, consists of more than glomerular filtration alone, and includes tubulointerstitial damage and albuminuria. For each of these renal entities, different biomarkers exist that have been investigated in heart failure. Hypothetically, and in parallel to data in nephrology, these markers may aid in the diagnosis of renal dysfunction, or for risk stratification, or could help in therapeutic decision-making. However, as reviewed in the present manuscript, while these markers may carry prognostic information (although not always additive to established markers of renal function), their role in predicting WRF is limited at best. More importantly, none of these markers have been evaluated as a therapeutic target nor have their serial values been used to guide therapy. The evidence is most compelling for the oldest-serum creatinine (in combination with glomerular filtration rate)-but even for this biomarker, evidence to guide therapy to improve outcome is circumstantial at best. Although many new renal biomarkers have emerged at the horizon, they have only limited usefulness in clinical practice until thoroughly and prospectively studied. For now, routine measurement of (novel) renal biomarkers can help to determine cardiovascular risk, but there is no role for these biomarkers to change therapy to improve clinical outcome in heart failure.
Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Chronic renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis often encounter gastrointestinal troubles over their long treatment period. Helicobacter pylori infection has close association with development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, and is thought to be one of the major risk factors for gastrointestinal troubles in dialysis patients. However, it is unclear whether H. pylori infection is directly associated with progression of renal dysfunction and prognosis of chronic renal failure patients. Recent consensus shows that the prevalence of H. pylori infection in chronic renal failure patients is significantly lower than in subjects with normal renal function. In the natural history of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of infection decreases as dialysis periods progressed, in particular within the first four years after the start of treatment. However, the chance of natural eradication becomes rare for patients receiving dialysis treatment for a long time. Moreover, chronic renal failure patients with H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases, and therefore, are recommended to receive eradication therapies, especially for those receiving treatment for a long time and with higher risks of complication. Intensive endoscopic check-ups for the prevention of gastrointestinal events and the discovery of peptic ulcer and neoplastic diseases at an early phase may be required.
Kissou, S A; Cessouma, R; Barro, M; Traoré, H; Nacro, B
Malaria is an endemic disease caused by one of the several Plasmodium species. Severe malaria is mainly due to Plasmodium falciparum in highly endemic areas. Acute renal failure (ARF) is a criterion of malaria severity as defined by WHO. Often observed in adults, particularly in India and Southeast Asia, this complication remains a rare complication of malaria in children. We report a case of oliguric ARF that occurred in a 7-year-old girl a few days after the onset of fever. The vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes often causing tubular necrosis is the primary mechanism of renal failure. As a possible diagnosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, renal failure and quartan hemoglobinuric nephropathy are other possible causes of renal failure in malaria. Renal biopsy, which was not performed in our patient, would have been a great help, but was not available. The outcome was favorable with recovery of renal function after 3 weeks of diuretic therapy. This development is not always the rule and the prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment options.
Wong, W Y; Elliott-Mills, D; Powars, D
ESRD is a major complication in young adults with sickle cell anemia. As more patients with sickle cell anemia reach the third and fourth decades of life, the incidence of clinically apparent renal insufficiency will increase. As we understand the pathophysiology of renal damage and the effects of various therapies on the sickle renal vasculature, we can tailor specific management without further compromising already impaired renal function. Diagnostic clues must be recognized prior to the onset of irreversible damage, with appropriate intervention initiated at each age group. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the only available cure for SCA at the present time. The demonstration that several distinct haplotypes of the beta s gene cluster on chromosome 11 influence the clinical expression of sickle cell anemia may be useful in delineating children who are at high risk for severe disease, and hence candidates for such hazardous therapeutic interventions as BMT prior to onset of clinically discernable disease. Current BMT preparative regimens can produce renal cortical and pulmonary toxicity, posing a patient selection problem in those cases in which the vasculopathy of the major organs is at an early stage and might be potentially repairable. Gene therapy without toxic preparative regimens is the ultimate answer. The challenge for the near future is the development of effective early therapeutic intervention during childhood and young adulthood.
Kawaida, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Kunio; Shimazu, Hisaaki; Nakamura, Toshikazu
Although acute renal failure is encountered with administration of nephrotoxic drugs, ischemia, or unilateral nephrectomy, there has been no effective drug which can be used in case of acute renal failure. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatotropic factor for liver regeneration and is known to have mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic activities for various epithelial cells, including renal tubular cells. Intravenous injection of recombinant human HGF into mice remarkably suppressed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine caused by administration of cisplatin, a widely used antitumor drug, or HgCl_2, thereby indicating that HGF strongly prevented the onset of acute renal dysfunction. Moreover, exogenous HGF stimulated DNA synthesis of renal tubular cells after renal injuries caused by HgCl_2 administration and unilateral nephrectomy and induced reconstruction of the normal renal tissue structure in vivo. Taken together with our previous finding that expression of HGF was rapidly induced after renal injuries, these results allow us to conclude that HGF may be the long-sought renotropic factor for renal regeneration and may prove to be effective treatment for patients with renal dysfunction, especially that caused by cisplatin.
Habboushe, Joseph; Sedor, Jennifer
We report the case of a 25-year-old man with an 8-year history of daily marijuana use diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. The patient presented with “constant” vomiting for over a day. His symptoms were completely relieved with compulsive hot showering and partially relieved by hot baths, by high ambient room temperature, and transiently after smoking marijuana. The patient was found to have a creatinine of 3.21 and admitted for acute renal failure secondary to cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a recently described condition affecting long-term marijuana users. We found 5 other case reports of acute renal failure secondary to CHS [1-5], and a total of 55 case reports of CHS. The unique combination of intractable vomiting and constant hot showers seems to put CHS patients at significant risk of severe dehydration and prerenal failure, a common and distinct entity we suggest be termed cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure (CHARF). The characteristics of cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure patients were similar to CHS patients, except a larger portion were over the age of 30 (4 of 6, vs 30%). Evaluating physicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion for this common sequela of CHS.
Traditionally, renal dysfunction in congestive heart failure (cardiorenal syndrome type 1) has been attributed to reduced cardiac output and low mean arterial perfusion pressure, which elicit a series of neurohumoral activations resulting in increased renal vascular resistance and decreased renal function.During the last decade, several studies have shown that the extent of renal dysfunction is not so closely associated with indices of forward failure-such as the cardiac index or mean arterial pressure-but rather with indicators of congestion, such as left ventricular enddiasystolic pressure or central venous pressure (CVP), which are indicators of backward failure. The impact of backward failure on renal function is not confined to an elevation of CVP, the renal drainage pressure, but includes a broad spectrum of mechanisms. Involved are the organ systems right heart, lung, the liver, the proinflammatory signals originating from the intestines, but also renal interstitial edema (renal compartment syndrome) and the intraabdominal pressure.The therapeutic measures must focus on the modulation of the preload adapted to the specific situation of an individual patient. This includes diuretics aiming at different segments of the tubulus system including antagonists of aldosteron and ADH, extracorporeal fluid elimination by ultrafiltration or peritoneal dialysis.
Naik, Pradeep; Premsagar, B; Mallikarjuna, M
The acute renal failure is the frequent medical complication observed in liver transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of acute renal failure in post liver transplant patients. A total of 70 patients who underwent (cadaveric 52, live 18) liver transplantation were categorized based on clinical presentation into two groups, namely hepatorenal failure (HRF, n = 29), and Hepatic failure (HF, n = 41). All the patients after the liver transplant had received tacrolimus, mycophenolate and steroids. We analyzed the modification of diet in renal disease, (MDRD) serum urea, creatinine and albumin before and after 5th and 30th day of liver transplant and data was categorized into survivors and non-survivors group. In HRF survivor group, serum creatinine, and urea levels were high and, albumin, MDRD were low in pre- transplant and reached to normal levels on 30th day of post transplant, and 79.3 % of patients in this group showed resumption of normal kidney function. On the contrary in HRF nonsurvivor group, we did not observed any significant difference and 20.7 % of patients showed irreversible changes after the liver transplant. In HF survivor group, 82.9 % of liver failure patients did not show any deviation in serum creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD, whereas in HF non survivor group, 17.1 % of liver failure patients who had HCV positive before the transplant developed acute renal failure. The levels of creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD were normal before the transplant and on day 30th, the levels of albumin and MDRD were significantly low whereas serum urea, creatinine levels were high. In conclusion, based on these observations, an diagnosis and treatment of Acute renal failure is important among the liver transplantation cases in the early postoperative period.
Segalen, Isabelle; Le Meur, Yannick
The incidence of chronic renal failure in the elderly is rising due to the ageing of the general population. Its management, and notably nephroprotective therapies, must be adapted to the elderly person who is often frail and with multiple pathologies. The decision to start extra-renal purification does not depend on the patient's chronological age but on their physiological age and requires dialogue between the patient and their family, the geriatrician and the nephrologist.
Landray, M. J.; Ringrose, T.; Ferner, R. E.; Arnold, I. R.
We present the case of a 77-year-old woman who initially presented with pyrexia of unknown origin, anaemia and mild renal impairment. When her omeprazole was stopped she improved rapidly. When omeprazole was re-started she developed fever and acute renal failure, which again settled quickly on discontinuation of omeprazole. This case demonstrates how drugs can cause severe multisystem disorders that may appear to be infective or inflammatory. Images Figure PMID:9799915
Maroni, B J
Evidence indicates that both nephrotic and nonnephrotic chronic renal failure (CRF) patients can activate normal compensatory responses when dietary protein intake is restricted and that their protein and energy requirements are similar to normal subjects. When properly implemented, low-protein diets are safe and the benefits include the amelioration of uremic symptoms and some of their metabolic complications and possibly a reduction in the rate of progression of renal failure. To ensure dietary adequacy and compliance, patients should be monitored when treated with low-protein diets. Recent evidence that the protein intake of patients with progressive CRF declines when they consume unrestricted diets should not be considered as an argument against the use of low-protein diets. Rather, it is a persuasive argument in favor of restricting dietary protein intake to minimize the complications of renal failure.
Bendz, Hans; Schön, Staffan; Attman, Per-Ola; Aurell, Mattias
We sought to establish the prevalence of lithium-induced end-stage renal disease in two regions of Sweden with 2.7 million inhabitants corresponding to about 30% of the Swedish population. Eighteen patients with lithium-induced end-stage renal disease were identified among the 3369 patients in the general lithium-treated population, representing a sixfold increase in prevalence compared with the general population for renal replacement therapy. All lithium-treated patients were older than 46 years at end-stage renal disease with a mean lithium treatment time of 23 years with ten patients having discontinued lithium treatment an average of 10 years before the start of renal replacement therapy. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (defined as plasma creatinine over 150 micromol/l) in the general lithium-treated population was about 1.2% (excluding patients on renal replacement therapy). Compared with lithium-treated patients without renal failure, those with chronic kidney disease were older and most were men but, as groups, their mean serum lithium levels and psychiatric diagnoses did not differ. We found that end-stage renal disease is an uncommon but not rare consequence of long-term lithium treatment and is more prevalent than previously thought. Time on lithium was the only identified risk factor in this study, suggesting that regular monitoring of renal function in these patients is mandatory.
Razukeviciene, Loreta; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne
We analyzed 19 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): 11 males and 8 females (mean age 38.3 yrs. (SD 16.4), who were under observation for 39.4 months (SD 17.2). At the moment of renal biopsy 73.7% of patients had arterial hypertension, 52.6%--nephrotic proteinuria, 36.9%--chronic renal failure. Global glomerulosclerosis was present in 14 biopsies (73.7%), and intersticial fibrosis--in 13 biopsies (68.4%). The results of analysis showed multiple risk factors for progression of renal failure: initial renal failure (p=0.005), proteinuria (> or =3 g/l) (p=0.005), expressed glomerulosclerosis (p=0.005) and expressed interstitial fibrosis (p=0.034). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were found to have a relatively bad long-term prognosis--the renal survival rate in 5 years was 77.8%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that expressed glomerulosclerosis was risk factor (logrank p=0.016, Breslov p=0.043) associated with end-stage renal disease in 5 years.
Wu, Chien-Te; Fu, Lin-Shien; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hung, Shein-Chung; Chi, Ching-Shiang
Several risk factors have been associated with the prognosis of lupus nephritis. However, few studies have focused on renal vascular lesions (such as thrombi due to immune complexes) as a prognostic factor in this disease. Here we present a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a 12-year-old girl who exhibited acute renal failure and severe hypertension on admission. Renal pathology findings included diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (class IVb) and lupus vasculopathy (LV) with immune complex deposition within glomerular capillaries and the preglomerular arteriolar lumen. Her clinical condition deteriorated rapidly, even after cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. It improved after 5 days of plasmapheresis and remained stable for up to 6 months under regular treatment. We suggest that renal biopsy performed early in SLE patients with renal involvement should be studied carefully for the presence of vascular lesions. Additionally, plasmapheresis can be considered in patients with LV refractory to other modalities of therapy.
Akçay, A; Altun, B; Usalan, C; Ulusoy, S; Erdem, Y; Yasavul, U; Turgan, C; Caglar, S
Endometriosis is a common disease but ureteral involvement is relatively rare. Ureteric endometriosis is mostly unilateral. Endometriotic ureteral obstruction is a serious event commonly diagnosed late and therefore associated with a major risk of hydronephrotic renal atrophy. We present the cyclical acute renal failure associated with menstruation in a patient who developed severe bilateral ureteral obstruction due to endometriosis. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but serious manifestation of endometriosis, especially if the clinical presentation is cyclical acute renal dysfunction in a premenopausal woman.
Wong, D M; Ruby, R E; Eatroff, A; Yaeger, M J
A newborn foal was presented because it was unresponsive and in cardiopulmonary arrest. Aggressive cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation was administered to the foal, which revived the foal; however, acute renal failure developed. Fluid retention and azotemia occurred although the foal was alert and able to suckle. A 6-hour renal replacement therapy session using hemodiafiltration and a continuous renal replacement therapy machine was administered to the foal at 3 days of age which lowered the foal's azotemia and facilitated removal of some of the excess body fluid. Despite therapy, the foal developed pulmonary edema and was euthanized. Although the foal in this case did not survive, this report highlights the possibility of developing postresuscitation complications such as acute renal failure and describes the use of renal replacement therapy using hemodiafiltration as a viable option in neonatal foals with acute kidney injury.
Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt; Waniewski, Jacek
Many aspects of the management of renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure (ARF), including the appropriate assessment of dialysis adequacy, remain unresolved, because ARF patients often are not in a metabolic steady state. The aim of this study was to evaluate a system of adequacy indices for dialysis in ARF patients using urea and creatinine kinetic modeling. Kinetic modeling was performed for two different fictitious patients (A and B) with characteristics described by the average parameters for two patient groups and for two blood purification treatments: sustained low efficiency daily dialysis (SLEDD) in Patient A and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in Patient B, based on data from a clinical report. Urea and creatinine generation rates were estimated according to the clinical data on the solute concentrations in blood. Then, using estimated generation rates, two hypothetical treatments were simulated, CVVH in Patient A and SLEDD in Patient B. KT/V, fractional solute removal (FSR) and equivalent renal clearance (EKR) were calculated according to the definitions developed for metabolically unstable patients. CVVH appeared as being more effective than SLEDD because KT/V, FSR, and EKR were higher for CVVH than SLEDD in Patients A and B. Creatinine KT/V, FSR, and EKR were lower and well correlated to the respective indices for urea. Urea and creatinine generation rates were overestimated more than twice in Patient A and by 30-40% in Patient B if calculated assuming the metabolically stable state than if estimated by kinetic modeling. Adequacy indices and solute generation rates for ARF patients should be estimated using the definition for unsteady metabolic state. EKR and FSR were higher for urea and creatinine with CVVH than with SLEDD, because of higher K.T and minimized compartmental effects for CVVH.
Shaheen, Faissal A M; Al-Khader, Abdullah A
The prevalence of both acute and chronic renal failure is high in the Arab world. Data available on the exact prevalence of various renal diseases are very limited. Nevertheless, the reported prevalence of chronic renal failure is 80 to 120 per million population (pmp) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and 225 pmp in Egypt. This is in comparison with the reported prevalence of 283 pmp in Europe, 975 pmp in the United States, and 1149 pmp in Japan. Lower prevalence rates reported in this region could be due to underreporting. The economic burden of renal replacement on health care providers is enormous. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the estimated cost per annum incurred toward maintenance hemodialysis is US 19,400 US dollars and, considering that there are more than 7200 patients on regular dialysis in this country, the total expenditure is enormous. Such large amounts may be beyond the monetary capacity of many countries in this region because of limited financial resources. These figures clearly suggest that there is an urgent need to establish a massive prevention program. The strategy adapted should be innovative and imaginative and should be one that is maximally cost effective. Paradoxically, in the Arab world, we have a good opportunity to reduce the incidence of kidney failure (chronic and acute) substantially by appropriately chosen models. This is because many of the causes of renal failure are eminently preventable. In fact, a rough estimate is that these programs, if successful, can reduce the incidence by as much as 40% (personal communication, Shaheen, 2003). It is worthy of mention that, in the Arab world, the budget for research is about 0.15% of the national domestic product compared with the international average of 1.5%. In this article, we concentrate on some of the main causes of renal failure in the Arab world that we feel can be prevented and suggest ways that can best address this issue.
Wilkinson, S P; Arroyo, V A; Moodie, H; Blendis, L M; Williams, R
Renal function was evaluated in 40 patients with fulminant hepatic failure, They were divided into two groups on the basis of glomerular filtration rates greater than 40 ml/min or less than 25 ml/min. A number of patients in group 1 had markedly abnormal renal retention of sodium together with a reduced free water clearance and low potassium excretion which could be explained by increased proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium. The patients in group 2 had evidence that renal tubular integrity was maintained when the glomerular filtration rate was greater than or equal ml/min (functional renal failure), but evidence of tubular damage was present when this was less than 3 ml/min (acute tubular necrosis). PMID:964682
to other intermediaries that are important. To explore this possibility, fructose- l ,6-diphosphate (FDP), a metabolite in the glycolytic pathway, was...Supported b- this contract. *1. Shapiro JI, Cheung C, Itabashi A , Chan L , Schrier RW: The protective effect of verapamil on renal function after warm and...proximal tubules. Am J Physiol, in press. *8. Shapiro JI, Chan L , Cheung C, Itabashi A , Rossi N, Schrier RW: The effect of ATP depletion in the isolated
Raine, A E; Seymour, A M; Roberts, A F; Radda, G K; Ledingham, J G
Cardiac function and energetics in experimental renal failure in the rat (5/6 nephrectomy) have been investigated by means of an isolated perfused working heart preparation and an isometric Langendorff preparation using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR). 4 wk after nephrectomy cardiac output of isolated hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at all levels of preload and afterload in the renal failure groups than in the pair-fed sham operated control group. In control hearts, cardiac output increased with increases in perfusate calcium from 0.73 to 5.61 mmol/liter whereas uremic hearts failed in high calcium perfusate. Collection of 31P NMR spectra from hearts of renal failure and control animals during 30 min normoxic Langendorff perfusion showed that basal phosphocreatine was reduced by 32% to 4.7 mumol/g wet wt (P < 0.01) and the phosphocreatine to ATP ratio was reduced by 32% (P < 0.01) in uremic hearts. During low flow ischemia, there was a substantial decrease in phosphocreatine in the uremic hearts and an accompanying marked increase in release of inosine into the coronary effluent (14.9 vs 6.1 microM, P < 0.01). We conclude that cardiac function is impaired in experimental renal failure, in association with abnormal cardiac energetics and increased susceptibility to ischemic damage. Disordered myocardial calcium utilization may contribute to these derangements. PMID:8254048
Udani, Suneel M; Koyner, Jay L
Summary Heart-kidney interactions have been increasingly recognized by clinicians and researchers involved in the study and treatment of heart failure and kidney disease. A classification system has been developed to categorize the different manifestations of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Recent work has highlighted the significant negative prognostic effect of worsening renal function on outcomes for individuals with heart failure. The etiology of the concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction remains unclear; however, increasing evidence supports alternatives to the established theory of underfilling, including effects of venous congestion and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. Conventional therapy focuses on blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with expanding use of direct renin and aldosterone antagonists. Novel therapeutic interventions using extracorporeal therapy and antagonists of the adenosine pathway show promise and require further investigation. PMID:20621250
Alsuwaida, Abdulkareem; Hayat, Ashik; Alwakeel, Jamal S
Hyperoxaluria can result in the deposition of oxalate in bones, arteries, eyes, heart, nerves, kidneys and other structures when there is a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Liver and kidney transplantation is curative for patients with Type I primary hyperoxaluria. Here we report a case of recurrent oxalosis in a post-transplant kidney with early graft failure in an adult male.
López-Gómez, Juan M.; Rivera, Francisco
Background and objectives: Renal biopsy in acute renal failure of unknown origin provides irreplaceable information for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This study analyzed the frequency and clinicopathologic correlations of renal native biopsied acute renal failure in Spain during the period 1994 through 2006. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Acute renal failure was defined as a rapid deterioration of glomerular filtration rate, with or without oligoanuria or rapidly progressive renal insufficiency, including acute-on-chronic renal failure. Patients who were younger than 15 yr were considered children, those between 15 and 65 yr adults, and those >65 elderly. Results: Between 1994 and 2006, data on 14,190 native renal biopsies were collected from 112 renal units in Spain. Of these, 16.1% (2281 biopsies) were diagnosed with acute renal failure. The prevalence of the main clinical syndromes was different in the three age groups: Biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure in children was 5.7%, in adults was 12.5%, and in elderly increased significantly to 32.9%. The prevalence of biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure according to cause was as follows: Vasculitis, 23.3%; acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 11.3%; and crescentic glomerulonephritis types 1 and 2, 10.1%. The prevalence of the different causes differed significantly according to age group. Conclusions: The Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis provides useful information about renal histopathology in biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure. The prevalence of vasculitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis is high, especially in elderly patients. These data obtained from a national large registry highlight the value of renal biopsy in undetermined acute renal failure. PMID:18354075
Edelbaum, David N.; Sokol, Albert; Gaynor, Sanford; Rubini, Milton E.
The long-term results of intermittent peritoneal dialysis in long-term treatment of renal disease have yet to equal those of intermittent hemodialysis. However, further exploration and refinement of this technique is justified. Performed in acute stages of disease, both peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis relieve the symptoms of uremia and specifically “buy time” for the patient so that proper medical or surgical therapy may be instituted. In acute situations, peritoneal dialysis is the procedure of choice, and is an important adjunct to more conventional treatment for chronic renal disease. It may be useful sometimes even in chronically hemodialyzed patients—for example, when the hemodialysis cannula for one reason or another is inaccessible because of clots, replacement, or infection. It is especially valuable when the hemorrhagic complications of uremia contraindicate hemodialysis treatment. Its use in chronic uremia remains sharply limited in time, but for brief periods chronic peritoneal dialysis appears to be a reasonably satisfactory means of prolonging life while awaiting homotransplant or decision for maintenance hemodialysis therapy. PMID:5639945
Mata-Miranda, Monica Maribel; Delgado-Macuil, Raul Jacobo; Rojas-Lopez, Marlon; Martinez-Flores, Ricardo; Vazquez-Zapien, Gustavo Jesus
Kidney diseases are a public health problem worldwide; the mortality rate is between 50 and 80%. Available therapies include replacement function by dialysis or transplant, associated with a high morbidity and mortality; kidney transplantation is limited by the shortage of donor organs, immune rejection and lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive. Likewise, none of these treatments compensates all kidney functions. There is a great concern in developing more effective therapies with the ability to replace the wide range of renal functions, so that, new researches on developing therapeutic strategies have focused on regenerative medicine, science that includes artificial creation of tissues and organs, in order to repair or replace a tissue or organ function. The aim of this paper is to review the new advances in regenerative medicine strategies for treatment of renal failure. Generally, regenerative medicine comprises two therapeutic strategies: cell therapy and tissue engineering. Cell therapy techniques depend on cell and tissue culture, with the aim to grow specific cells that will replace morphological structures, tissues and functions. In this area, some investigations that include the use of stem cells have been carried out. Tissue engineering complements cell therapy combining techniques of biological sciences and engineering to create structures and devices as scaffolds, matrices or biocompatible materials, which alone or in combination will give support and facilitate the repair of damaged tissue. Even though there is a great advance in regenerative medicine strategies, we are far from using any of its techniques on health institutions, due to it is necessary to evaluate side effects, biodistribution, dosage, type of administration, vehicle of cell therapy, as well as the evaluation of response time and long-term studies, among other studies.
Lemos, Carla C S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Carvalho, Jorge J; Bregman, Rachel
Chronic renal failure is characterized by adaptive mechanisms secondary to the loss of functioning nephrons. Clinical and experimental studies suggest participation of gender-related hormones on renal function and progression of chronic renal failure. We evaluated the effect of castration on renal alterations in male and female Wistar control rats and after 30 days of chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. The CRF male group showed higher proteinuria. Glomerular hypertrophy was similar among groups. Podocyte morphology showed disorders of foot processes and thickening of the basement membrane in the CRF male group. The CRF female group showed fewer alterations compared to males. Castration changed the profile in CRF male animals and the filtration barrier was preserved. CRF males showed the presence of alfa-smooth muscle actin suggesting an early prefibrotic event in this group. After castration this phenomenon was not observed. Noteworthy, in females, castration exacerbated the presence of alfa-smooth muscle actin. In summary, proteinuria was higher in males and appeared early in the course of CRF, probably contributing to fibrotic events. Data were influenced by gender suggesting that male sex hormones aggravate renal alterations.
Toriihara, Akira; Kitazume, Yoshio; Nishida, Hidenori; Kubota, Kazunori; Nakadate, Masashi; Tateishi, Ukihide
The whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) distribution in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis would be different from that in subjects with normal renal function, because they lack urinary FDG excretion and remain in a constant volume overload. We evaluated the difference in the physiological uptake pattern of FDG between chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis and control subjects. The subjects for this retrospective study consisted of 24 chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis (HD group) and 24 age- and sex-matched control subjects (NC group). Standardized uptake values normalized by the body weight (SUVbw), ideal body weight (SUVibw), lean body mass (SUVlbm), and body surface area (SUVbsa) in the cerebellum, lungs, liver, gluteal muscles and subcutaneous fat, spleen, thoracolumbar spine, thoracic and abdominal aorta, and right atrium were calculated in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images. SUVbw in the gluteal muscles, subcutaneous fat, spleen and right atrium was significantly higher in the HD group as compared to that in the NC group (p < 0.05; unpaired t test). In addition, SUVibm, SUVlbm, as well as SUVbsa in the abdominal aorta were significantly higher in the HD group as compared to those in the NC group (p < 0.05; unpaired t test). In conclusion, as compared to normal subjects, chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis show significantly higher physiological FDG uptake in the soft tissues, spleen and blood pool.
Tremblay, R; Ethier, J; Quérin, S; Béroniade, V; Falardeau, P; Leblanc, M
From 1995 to 1998, 12 burned patients with acute renal failure (ARF) were treated by veno-venous continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) at the Burn Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. Their mean (+/-SD) age was 51+/-12 years, and the mean burned surface covered 48.6+/-15.8% of total body surface area. All patients were mechanically ventilated and presented evidence of sepsis. The mean delay before occurrence of ARF was 15+/-6 days and ARF was mainly related to sepsis and hypotension. Main reasons for CRRT initiation were azotemia and fluid overload. A total of 15 CRRT modalities were applied (12 continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration, CVVHDF; two continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, CVVH; and one continuous veno-venous hemodialysis, CVVHD) over 14+/-13 days. For CRRT, nine patients received heparin and three were not anticoagulated. Mean values for dialysate and reinjection flow rates were 1134+/-250 ml/h and 635+/-327 ml/h, respectively. Admission weight was 78.8+/-12.7 kg with a mean weight gain before CRRT initiation of 10.0+/-5.8 kg and a mean weight loss during CRRT of 8.9+/-5.5 kg. Nine patients received enteral plus parenteral nutrition, and three, parenteral nutrition only; the total caloric intake was 31.5+/-7.0 kcal/kg/day and protein intake, 1.8+/-0.4 g/kg/day. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was evaluated at 2.28+/-0.78 g/kg/day during CRRT. The mortality rate was 50%. The six survivors all recovered normal renal function with four of them requiring intermittent hemodialysis for short periods. In conclusion, veno-venous CRRT is particularly well suited for this selected population allowing smooth fluid removal and aggressive nutritional support.
Egom, Emmanuel E; Feridooni, Tiam; Hotchkiss, Adam; Kruzliak, Peter; Pasumarthi, Kishore B S
The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a member of the family of vasoactive peptides, is a potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory peptide that contributes to blood pressure and volume homeostasis. These attributes make BNP an ideal drug that could aid in diuresing a fluid-overloaded patient who had poor or worsening renal function. Despite the potential benefits of BNP, accumulating evidence suggests that simply increasing the amount of circulating BNP does not necessarily increase natriuresis in patients with heart failure (HF). Moreover, despite high BNP levels, natriuresis falls when HF progresses from a compensated to a decompensated state, suggesting the emergence of renal resistance to BNP. Although likely multifactorial, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain renal hyporesponsiveness in HF, including, but not limited to, decreased renal BNP availability, down-regulation of natriuretic peptide receptors, and altered BNP intracellular signal transduction pathways. Thus, a better understanding of renal hyporesponsiveness in HF is required to devise strategies to develop novel agents and technologies that directly restore renal BNP efficiency. It is hoped that development of these new therapeutic approaches will serve to limit sodium retention in patients with HF, which may ultimately delay the progression to overt HF.
Randeree, I G; Czarnocki, A; Moodley, J; Seedat, Y K; Naiker, I P
This study compares our experiences of the incidence and etiology of acute renal failure in pregnancy (ARF-P) in patients requiring hemodialysis, a decade after a previous publication from our institution. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 42 patients with a diagnosis of ARF-P during a 3-year period from 1990 to 1992 was undertaken [16% of the total number of acute renal failure (ARF) patients needing hemodialysis]. The incidence of ARF-P (expressed relative to all cases of acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis) decreased from 24.6% (1978) to 16% (1992: p = 0.03). Preeclampsia-eclampsia (PE:E) replaced septic abortion as the principal cause of ARF-P. In those patients with PE:E, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/L) occurred in all, while 33% developed the HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets). Ingestion of herbal toxins was noted mostly in patients with septic abortion. Maternal mortality was 5% and was due to multiorgan failure complicating septic abortion. The perinatal mortality of 55% occurred in women with early gestation, thrombocytopenia, and high serum creatinine levels. Acute renal failure in pregnancy continues to present a challenge in South Africa, a developing country. There were significantly more obstetric than gynecological causes in 1992 (p = 0.0003). This could be attributed to the steady decline in septic abortion since 1978. The main contributor to obstetric-related causes was PE:E. Greater emphasis should therefore be placed on detecting hypertension at antenatal visits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Makhoul, Imad R; Soudack, Michalle; Smolkin, Tatiana; Sujov, Polo; Epelman, Monica; Eisenstein, Israel; Magen, Daniela; Zelikovic, Israel
Sonographic findings of renal medullary hyperechogenicity have been observed in the neonate in association with severe perinatal renal injury, kidney malformations or nephrocalcinosis, and, rarely, in newborn infants with transient renal failure. The aim of the study was to describe the entity of neonatal transient renal failure with renal medullary hyperechogenicity (NTRFMH). We studied nine term neonates, born between August 1999 and February 2004 in our institution (0.1% of the live born infants), who developed transient renal dysfunction after birth, and in whom renal sonograms showed bilateral medullary hyperechogenicity. Seven of the infants (78%) had anuria until 30-45 hours of age, and two (22%) had oliguria. Peak serum creatinine levels ranged between 0.61 and 1.62 mg/dL (mean: 1.09+/-0.27 mg/dL) at 2-3 days of life. Additional findings included proteinuria in nine infants (100%), uric acid crystalluria in seven (78%), hyperuricemia in four (44%), and hypertension in one (11%). Hyperuricosuria was demonstrated in one out of the seven patients in whom this parameter was determined. Urinary excretion rates of calcium, phosphorus and oxalic acid were normal, as were urinary levels of amino acids and organic acids. Full clinical recovery accompanied by normalization of all laboratory parameters was observed in all infants by 4-6 days of life. Subsequent follow-up showed normal renal function, no urinary abnormalities, and normal renal sonograms in all infants. Our summary of the nine infants with NTRFMH reported on here and a review of 19 cases of this condition reported in the literature reveal a not-so-rare entity of unclear etiology, but excellent prognosis. Physicians caring for neonates should be aware of this benign and transient condition.
Noordzij, M J; Lefrandt, J D; Smit, A J
The article aims to present an overview of the existing knowledge on advanced glycation end products (AGE). They are moieties that bind to proteins, but also lipids and nuclear acids. AGE are formed during glycation and oxidative stress. Accumulation of AGE occurs especially in diabetes and chronic renal failure and plays a major pathogenetic role. The deleterious effects of AGE result from cross-linking of proteins and activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products. AGE accumulation can be noninvasively assessed by the skin autofluorescence reader. In diabetics, the skin autofluorescence predicts cardiac mortality and the occurrence of macro- and microvascular complications. In patients on haemodialysis, skin autofluorescence is highly elevated and predicts mortality. After renal transplantation AGE accumulation is lower than during haemodialysis, but still remains elevated and is a strong risk factor for chronic renal transplant dysfunction. Some of the potential methods to intervene with AGE accumulation are discussed in this article.
Beaudry, Claude; Laplante, Louis
We report two patients with terminal renal failure secondary to diabetic nephropathy treated with cadaveric kidney transplantation. Neither of these patients had peripheral vascular disease or peripheral neuropathy. There was a proliferative diabetic retinopathy with hemorrhages and exudates in one patient and only background diabetic changes in the ocular fundi of the other; there have been no significant changes in visual acuity or retinopathy in either patient following the transplantation. Both have good kidney function after 8 and 15 months and are completely rehabilitated. The requirement for insulin decreased in both patients during the period of renal insufficiency and increased following transplantation; this seemed to be related to the large dose of steroids given because now that a maintenance level of steroids has been established, both patients require the same dosage of insulin as they did before the onset of renal insufficiency. PMID:4574972
Patel, Ami M; Adeseun, Gbemisola A; Ahmed, Irfan; Mitter, Nanhi; Rame, J Eduardo; Rudnick, Michael R
Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used as a bridge to transplantation or as destination therapy in patients with end stage heart failure refractory to conventional medical therapy. A significant number of these patients have associated renal dysfunction before LVAD implantation, which may improve after LVAD placement due to enhanced perfusion. Other patients develop AKI after implantation. LVAD recipients who develop AKI requiring renal replacement therapy in the hospital or who ultimately require long-term outpatient hemodialysis therapy present management challenges with respect to hemodynamics, volume, and dialysis access. This review discusses the mechanics of a continuous-flow LVAD (the HeartMate II), the effects of continuous blood flow on the kidney, renal outcomes of patients after LVAD implantation, dialysis modality selection, vascular access, hemodynamic monitoring during the dialytic procedure, and other issues relevant to caring for these patients.
Chirmade, Rahul Arun; Baheti, Vidyasagar Hansraj; Tanwar, Harshawardhan Vedpalsingh; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh
Introduction India is the country with the highest burden of TB, an estimated incidence figure of 2.1 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9 million according to World Health Organization (WHO) statistics for 2013. Renal impairment in these patients is slow and due to continuous infection causing destruction of renal mass. Reconstruction of urinary tract which is frequently required for patients with Urinary TB poses significant challenges. This paper analyses these challenges. Aim To analyse challenges in reconstruction of urinary tract in patients with urinary tuberculosis and renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty-one patients with renal tuber-culosis were seen from August 2011 to August 2013. We faced major problem in outcomes of surgery in patients with multifocal disease. Results Out of 31 patients 18 patients were males and 13 were females. Total 11 patients had serum creatinine more than 2mg/dl (1.5 mg/dl being upper normal range of our laboratory) at the time of presentation. These patients had simultaneous kidney, ureter and bladder involvement or with bilateral disease. Four of these patients underwent uretero-calicostomy, five patients underwent augmentation cystoplasty with bilateral ureteric reimplantation and two patients underwent ileal conduit as they were having serum creatinine of more than 2.5 mg/dl. All patients who underwent ureterocalicostomy had re stricture and failure of surgery and augmentation cystoplasty had raised creatinine requiring second procedure in the form of percutaneous nephrostomy. Patients with ileal conduit remained stable with overnight bladder drainage at bed time. Conclusion Though renal failure is not considered contrain-dication for augmentation cystoplasty, reconstruction using large segment of bowel predisposes them to metabolic complications and sepsis. Use of short segment of ileal conduit with continued drainage at night in creatinine above 2.5 mg% is reasonable option for augmentation
Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.
Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with /sup 201/TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO/sup 4 +/, and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment.
Tagle, Martin; Barriga, Jose A; Gutierrez, Sussy; Valdez, Luis Manuel; Castle, James; Antunez De Mayolo, Antonio; Scavino Levy, Yolanda; León Barúa, Raúl; Mendoza, Carlos; Cajas, Lucy; Santibáñez, Vilma
We report the case of a 42-year old male with an episode of relapsing hepatitis A of cholestatic pattern, which clinic course was complicated by fever, anemia and renal failure, requiring hemodialysis. The occurrence of cryglobulins and diminished complement levels was detected. A kidney biopsy was performed showing evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy. The patient had a good therapeutic response to corticosteroids, although he developed recurrence of fever and a palpable purpuric rush over his lower extremities when dose was reduced. A skin biopsy found leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Symptoms and physical findings improved when therapy with cycloposphamide was started and the dose of corticosteroids was increased. Hepatitis A virus infection usually has a benign course, although complications may occasionally develop. The relapsing form can be seen in 3-20% of the case; it can appear with a cholestatic pattern and most of the time it has a mild clinic development. Unlike hepatitis B, extra-hepatic manifestations are unusual in hepatitis A, and renal manifestations are even more infrequent. Acute renal failure (ARF) in non-fulminating hepatitis A has been reported only occasionally and its etiology remains unclear. Several hypotheses have been proposed, including renal toxicity due to hyperuricemia or increased bilirrubin, cryoglobulinemia, alterations in the renal blood flow due to endotoxemia or peripheral immune complex-mediated damage when hypocomplementemia is found. Kidney biopsy showed evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy, which raised the hypothesis of a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). An association with HUS has been described in a patient with surface antigen for hepatitis B (HBsAg) and anomalies in the hepatic biochemical tests, but as far as we know this is the first case of relapsing hepatitis A associated with a confirmed microangiopathic renal involvement.
Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Barua, U K; Datta, N C; Debnath, C R; Hoque, M M; Hossain, A S; Haider, M S; Das, M
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequently associated with CKD, which is important because individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to develop kidney failure. CVD in CKD is treatable and potentially preventable and CKD appears to be a risk factor for CVD. In order of incidence and frequency systemic hypertension, left ventricular failure, congestive cardiac failure, ischemic heart disease, anaemic heart failure, rhythm disturbances, pericarditis with or without effusion, cardiac tamponade, uraemic cardiomyopathy are various cardiovascular complications encountered in patients with chronic renal failure. A patient may present with one or more complications of cardiovascular system. The survival rate and prognosis to a great extent depends on proper management of these complications. Use of regular dialysis and renal transplant has changed the death pattern in developed countries but it is still a major problem in developing country. The aim of this article is early detection of CKD and proper management of it thereby preventing the major cardiovascular complications.
Wood, A. J.; Ferry, D. G.; Bailey, R. R.
1 The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered labetalol were studied in four patients with severe renal failure and in three normal subjects. 2 A new and sensitive method for the assay of plasma labetalol concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography is described. 3 Labetalol has a relatively large apparent volume of distribution (3.3-7.9 l/kg, two-compartment open model) and a relatively high plasma clearance (0.3-1.6 1 h-1 kg-1). 4 There were no significant differences between the patients with severe renal failure and the controls for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters measured. 5 In the presence of renal functional impairment, no modification of labetalol dosage is required. 6 In another study of 31 patients, glomerular filtration rate was measured at 3-month intervals for 3-18 months. In ten patients there was no change, in ten there was an improvement and in 11 there was deterioration, but in only three was this attributable to treatment. 7 In our experience with over 300 patients, we conclude that labetalol plus diuretic treatment is efficacious and safe in all grades of hypertension including those with all degrees of renal insufficiency. PMID:7093103
Henning, P; Tomlinson, L; Rigden, S P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C
The most common causes of end stage renal failure in 46 children (mean age 11 years, range 4-14) treated between January 1972 and June 1977 were: reflux nephropathy (n = 12), cystinosis (n = 7), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 6), and Schönlein-Henoch disease (n = 5). The quality of life, degree of renal function, and height attainment of the 31 survivors were assessed in June 1985, when their mean age was 22 years (range 14-27), using hospital records and a questionnaire designed to highlight social and psychological problems. Twenty six patients had a functioning transplanted kidney. Average growth during treatment for all survivors was normal, but most were disappointed with their 'final height'. Though five patients had some form of disabling bone disease, all 31 could walk and 27 could run. Sixteen (67%) were in full or part time employment and nine were living independently. A group of 32 patients with juvenile onset diabetes treated at this hospital for at least five years were also asked to complete the questionnaire and of these, 17 responded. On average, their data could usefully be compared with those of cases of end stage renal failure. More of the diabetics had jobs, but most sexually mature patients with renal disease were concerned about their physical appearance and had not achieved any stable long term sexual relationships. We suggest that a poor body image resulting in low self esteem may be responsible for the deficiency and believe that further study in this group is warranted.
Ortiz, Alberto; Justo, Pilar; Sanz, Ana; Melero, Rosa; Caramelo, Carlos; Guerrero, Manuel Fernández; Strutz, Frank; Müller, Gerhard; Barat, Antonio; Egido, Jesus
Cidofovir is an antiviral drug with activity against a wide array of DNA viruses including poxvirus. The therapeutic use of cidofovir is marred by a dose-limiting side effect, nephrotoxicity, leading to proximal tubular cell injury and acute renal failure. Treatment with cidofovir requires the routine use of prophylactic measures. A correct knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cidofovir toxicity may lead to the development of alternative prophylactic strategies. We recently cared for a patient with irreversible acute renal failure due to cidofovir. Renal biopsy showed tubular cell apoptosis. Cidofovir induced apoptosis in primary cultures of human proximal tubular cells in a temporal (peak apoptosis at 7 days) and concentration (10-40 microg/ml) pattern consistent with that of clinical toxicity. Apoptosis was identified by the presence of hypodiploid cells, by the exposure of annexin V binding sites and by morphological features and was associated with the appearance of active caspase-3 fragments. Cell death was specific as it was also present in a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2), but not in a human kidney fibroblast cell line, and was prevented by probenecid. An inhibitor of caspase-3 (DEVD) prevented cidofovir apoptosis. The survival factors present in serum, insulin-like growth factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor, were also protective. The present data suggest that apoptosis induction is a mechanism contributing to cidofovir nephrotoxicity. The prophylactic administration of factors with survival activity for tubular epithelium should be further explored in cidofovir renal injury.
Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.
Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538
Lands, Harrison M; Drake, David B
The objective of this study was to review the investigation that uncovered the medical mystery of burn patients developing unexpected renal failure. The authors examined published and unpublished manuscripts and case reports, as well as conducted personal interviews with primary sources. In the late 1970s, emergence of resistant bacterial strains to the topical antimicrobial silver sulfadiazine occurred at the University of Virginia Medical Center. In the search for an alternative topical antimicrobial with known coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Furacin Soluble Dressing was substituted. However, Furacin Soluble Dressing produced an unexpected toxicity syndrome of hyperosmolality, metabolic gap acidosis, hypercalcemia, and ultimately renal failure. In a search for an antimicrobial with an improved spectrum against Pseudomonas, a Federal Drug Administration-approved product was used to treat large surface area burns. An unexpected toxicity syndrome developed which was traced to the polyethylene glycol base of Furacin Soluble Dressing. This substance was absorbed through the burn wounds, metabolized, and resulted in a toxicity syndrome leading to renal failure. The burn community should be cautious when using products that may be approved as nontoxic for small surface area application, as they may have unexpected medical side effects when used with large surface area burns.
Fagugli, R M; Gentile, G; Ferrara, G; Brugnano, R
Hyperuricemia is present in about 5% of the population, and allopurinol is frequently used to treat it. The use of this drug can be associated with a number of side effects, indicating allergic reactions, such as skin rash, reversible after its withdrawal. In some cases more severe hypersensitivity reactions may be seen, such as erythema multiforme exudativum, or Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS). Reversible clinical hepatotoxicity, as well as acute renal failure, may also develop after allopurinol therapy. We describe here the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic renal failure who was admitted to hospital after 1 week of sore throat and fever, presenting mucous membrane lesions, widespread blistering of the skin, evolving to flaccid vesicles and bullae, and extensive epidermal detachment associated with acute renal failure and cholestatic jaundice. A diagnosis of allopurinol-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was established. Allopurinol was discontinued, and intensive care management was required: the patient was successfully treated by using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), standard hemodialysis, and albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System - MARS, Teraklin AG, Rostock, Germany). Allopurinol-induced TEN is extremely rare, however, the survival rate is extremely low. Clinicians should be aware of this potentially severe adverse effect. This report emphasizes the importance of an aggressive pharmacological and dialysis treatment in the case of TEN.
Giamouzis, Gregory; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Butler, Javed; Karayannis, Georgios; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Skoularigis, John; Triposkiadis, Filippos
Renal dysfunction (RD) is a frequent comorbid condition and a major determinant of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). It is likely that the etiology of RD in patients with HF is much more complex than we first thought and represents a matrix of independent, albeit interacting, pathophysiological pathways with effects on both the kidney and the heart that share a common denominator: aging and inflammation. Renal dysfunction in HF has been attributed, among others, to biochemical, hormonal, and hemodynamic factors, coupled with pharmacological interventions. Regardless of the cause, the development of RD or worsening renal function is common in patients with HF, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence, however, that transient increases in creatinine in the setting of acute HF are not prognostically important, whereas persistent deterioration does portend a higher mortality in this patient population. In addition, congestion seems to play an important role in the course of renal deterioration, and the combination of congestion and worsening renal function is the most significant clinical prognosticator in HF patients. This review aims to provide an update on the epidemiology and prognostic significance of RD in HF patients, in both the acute and the chronic setting.
Suehiro, K; Shimizu, J; Yi, G H; Gu, A; Wang, J; Keren, G; Burkhoff, D
Renal failure is common in heart failure due to renovascular constriction and hypotension. We tested whether selective pharmacological renal artery vasodilation and active renal artery perfusion (ARP) could improve renal function without adverse effects on systemic blood pressure in a canine model of acute heart failure (AHF). AHF was induced by coronary microembolization in 16 adult mongrel dogs. In five dogs, selective intrarenal (IR) papaverine (1, 2, and 4 mg/min) was administered into the left renal artery. In six dogs, ARP was performed in the left renal artery to normalize mean renal arterial pressure followed by administration of IR papaverine (2 mg/min). In five dogs, ARP plus intravenous furosemide was tested. Urine output (UO) and cortical renal blood flow decreased during AHF and were restored by 2 mg/min IR papaverine (UO: baseline 4.2 +/- 0.6, AHF 1.6 +/- 1.3, IR papaverine 5.8 +/- 1.1 ml/15 min; cortical blood flow: baseline 4.3 +/- 0.2, AHF 2.4 +/- 0.6, IR papaverine 4.2 +/- 1.2 ml/min/g) with no significant change in aortic pressure. ARP also increased urine output and cortical renal blood flow (UO: baseline 5.0 +/- 1.1, AHF 0.5 +/- 0.4, ARP 3.8 +/- 3.1 ml/15 min; cortical blood flow: baseline 4.0 +/- 0.5, AHF 2.0 +/- 0.8, ARP 3.52 +/- 1.1 ml/min/g). A combination of these methods in AHF further increased urine output to twice the normal baseline (10.5 +/- 7.5 ml/15 min). Addition of furosemide synergistically increased UO above that achieved with ARP alone (5.5 +/- 2.6 versus 40.3 +/- 24.7 ml/15 min, p = 0.03). In conclusion, ARP and selective renal vasodilation may effectively promote salt and water excretion in the setting of heart failure, particularly when systemic blood pressure is low.
Sasaki, Tomohiko; Motoyama, Satoru; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yusuke; Yoshino, Kei; Wakita, Akiyuki; Saito, Hajime; Anbai, Akira; Jin, Mario; Minamiya, Yoshihiro
Introduction We experienced two esophageal cancer patients who developed severe acute renal failure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorourasil. Presentation of case After administration of cisplatin, their serum creatinine increased gradually until they required hemodialysis and their renal failure was permanent. In both cases, renal biopsy examination indicated partial recovery of the proximal tubule, but renal function did not recover. After these events, one patient underwent definitive radiotherapy and the other underwent esophagectomy for their esophageal cancers, while continuing dialysis. Both patients are alive without cancer recurrence. Discussion In these two cases of cisplatin-induced renal failure, renal biopsy examination showed only slight disorder of proximal tubules and tendency to recover. Conclusion Although cisplatin-related nephrotoxicity is a well-recognized complication, there have been few reports of renal failure requiring hemodialysis in cancer patients. In this report, we present their clinical courses and the pathological findings of cisplatin-related renal failure. PMID:26851395
van Welsem, M E; Lobatto, S
The case of a 41-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure and diabetes mellitus Type 1 who was being prepared for renal replacement therapy is described. After severe hypothyroidism was diagnosed, thyroid hormone substitution therapy was started. Subsequently, a substantial decline in serum creatinine was observed. Creatinine clearance rose from 19 to 40 ml/min and renal replacement therapy was no longer imminent. Several studies have described the pathophysiology of diminished renal function in hypothyroidism. Few studies or case reports have shown amelioration of end-stage renal failure as seen in our patient. The etiology is presumed to be multifactorial, in which hemodynamic effects and a direct effect of thyroid hormone on the kidney play an important role. Diagnosing signs of hypothyroidism and therapy with thyroid hormone in progressive renal failure could be very important in delaying the need for renal replacement therapy.
Strazdins, Vladimirs; Harvey, Ben
Acute renal failure (ARF) is uncommon in childhood and there is little consensus on the appropriate treatment modality when renal replacement therapy is required. Members of the European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group have produced the following guidelines in collaboration with nursing staff. Good practice requires early discussion of patients with ARF with pediatric nephrology staff and transfer for investigation and management in those with rapidly deteriorating renal function. Patients with ARF as part of multi-organ failure will be cared for in pediatric intensive care units where there should be access to pediatric nephrology support and advice. The choice of dialysis therapy will therefore depend upon the clinical circumstances, location of the patient, and expertise available. Peritoneal dialysis has generally been the preferred therapy for isolated failure of the kidney and is universally available. Intermittent hemodialysis is frequently used in renal units where nursing expertise is available and hemofiltration is increasingly employed in the intensive care situation. Practical guidelines for and the complications of each therapy are discussed. PMID:14685840
Patel, R; Das, M; Palazzolo, M; Ansari, A; Balasubramaniam, S
Eight cases of myoglobinuric acute renal failure that developed following exposure to phencyclidine were seen in the emergency department of the Martin Luther King Jr. General Hospital during a period of 36 months. All eight survived with complete recovery of renal function. Dialysis was necessary in three patients. Acute renal failure is an uncommon complication of phencyclidine abuse.
Altunbas, Gokhan; Yazc, Mehmet; Solak, Yalcin; Gul, Enes E; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kaya, Zeynettin; Akilli, Hakan; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Yazc, Raziye; Ozdemir, Kurtulus
It is of clinical importance to determine creatinine clearance and adjust doses of prescribed drugs accordingly in patients with heart failure to prevent untoward effects. There is a scarcity of studies in the literature investigating this issue particularly in patients with heart failure, in whom many have impaired kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of awareness of medication prescription as to creatinine clearance in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of heart failure were retrospectively evaluated. Among screened charts, patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≤50 mL/min were included in the analysis. The medications and respective doses prescribed at discharge were recorded. Medications requiring renal dose adjustment were determined and evaluated for appropriate dosing according to eGFR. A total of 388 patients with concomitant heart failure and renal dysfunction were included in the study. The total number of prescribed medications was 2808 and 48.3% (1357 medications) required renal dose adjustment. Of the 1357 medications, 12.6% (171 medications) were found to be inappropriately prescribed according to eGFR. The most common inappropriately prescribed medications were famotidine, metformin, perindopril, and ramipril. A significant portion of medications used in heart failure requires dose adjustment. Our results showed that in a typical cohort of patients with heart failure, many drugs are prescribed at inappropriately high doses according to creatinine clearance. Awareness should be increased among physicians caring for patients with heart failure to prevent adverse events related to medications.
Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel
Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the
Robinette, J B; Conger, J D
The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129
Mizuno, M; Nishikawa, K; Yuzawa, Y; Kanie, T; Mori, H; Araki, Y; Hotta, N; Matsuo, S
A 27-year-old man suffering from severe swelling and pain in his right arm was referred to our hospital. He showed signs of acute renal failure (ARF) with severe dermatitis of his right arm. Three days before being admitted, he accidentally touched some kind of marine organism with his right hand while snorkeling in the Sulu Sea around Cebu Island. Within a few minutes, he was experiencing severe pain in his right hand. Then his right hand gradually became swollen. The marine creature responsible for this injury was thought to have been a sea anemone, which is a type of coelenterate. Histologic findings of a renal biopsy indicated that acute tubular necrosis (ATN) had caused ARF in this patient's case. Supportive therapies improved renal function of this patient, and steroid pulse therapy attenuated the severe skin discoloration. The ATN was thought to have been caused by the poison from a sea anemone because there were no other conceivable reasons for the patient's condition. This is the first time that a marine envenomation case has been reported in which the sting of a sea anemone has caused ATN without the failure of any other organs.
Vargas, G A; Hoeflich, A; Jehle, P M
Can science discover some secrets of Greek mythology? In the case of Prometheus, we can now suppose that his amazing hepatic regeneration was caused by a peptide growth factor called hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Increasing evidence indicates that HGF acts as a multifunctional cytokine on different cell types. This review addresses the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the pleiotropic effects of HGF. HGF binds with high affinity to its specific tyrosine kinase receptor c-met, thereby stimulating not only cell proliferation and differentiation, but also cell migration and tumorigenesis. The three fundamental principles of medicine-prevention, diagnosis, and therapy-may be benefited by the rational use of HGF. In renal tubular cells, HGF induces mitogenic and morphogenetic responses. In animal models of toxic or ischemic acute renal failure, HGF acts in a renotropic and nephroprotective manner. HGF expression is rapidly up-regulated in the remnant kidney of nephrectomized rats, inducing compensatory growth. In a mouse model of chronic renal disease, HGF inhibits the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and kidney dysfunction. Increased HGF mRNA transcripts were detected in mesenchymal and tubular epithelial cells of rejecting kidney. In transplanted patients, elevated HGF levels may indicate renal rejection. When HGF is considered as a therapeutic agent in human medicine, for example, to stimulate kidney regeneration after acute injury, strategies need to be developed to stimulate cell regeneration and differentiation without an induction of tumorigenesis.
Lee, Young H; Sahu, Joya; O'Brien, Marie S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Jimenez, Sergio A
Scleromyxedema is a systemic disease characterized by lichenoid papules, nodules, and plaques on the skin and often diffuse skin induration resembling the cutaneous involvement of systemic sclerosis. The systemic involvement affects the musculoskeletal, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems, and the disorder is commonly associated with a paraproteinemia. Involvement of the kidney is rare and not considered a feature of the disease. Here, we describe an unusual case of scleromyxedema complicated by the development of scleroderma renal crisis-like acute renal failure with a marked intimal deposition of mucin, mucopolysaccharides, and hyaluronic acid in the intrarenal vessels.
Ramchandra, Rohit; Barrett, Carolyn J.
Heart failure (HF) is a serious debilitating condition with poor survival rates and an increasing level of prevalence. HF is associated with an increase in renal norepinephrine (NE) spillover, which is an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. The excessive sympatho-excitation that is a hallmark of HF has long-term effects that contribute to disease progression. An increase in directly recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) has also been recorded in animal models of HF. This review will focus on the mechanisms controlling sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the kidney during normal conditions and alterations in these mechanisms during HF. In particular the roles of afferent reflexes and central mechanisms will be discussed. PMID:26388778
Erucism is a skin reaction to envenomation from certain poisonous caterpillar bristles. In Brazil, most reports of erucism provoked by Lonomia caterpillars are from the southern region. Most manifestations of erucism are local and include burning pain, itching, local hyperthermia and, rarely, blisters (benign symptoms with spontaneous regression in a few hours). General symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, headache, fever, myalgia, abdominal pain and conjunctivitis may also occur. Uncommon symptoms include arthritis, coagulation disorders (manifested as bruising and bleeding), intracerebral hemorrhage and acute renal failure, which comprise serious complications. The present study reports the case of 60-year-old patient from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, who came into contact with a caterpillar and developed, a few days later, chronic renal disease. PMID:23849585
Peerce, B E; Weaver, L; Clarke, R D
Hyperhosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are common and severe complications of chronic renal failure. Therapies to reduce serum phosphate have been shown to reduce serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and slow the progression of renal failure. The effect of the inhibitor of intestinal phosphate absorption, 2'-phosphophloretin (2'-PP), on serum and urine chemistry, renal histology, and cardiac structure in the uremic rat model of renal failure, 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NX), was examined. The effect of 2'-PP on serum phosphate, serum PTH, serum total Ca(2+), and ionized Ca(2+), Ca(2+) x P(i) product, urine protein, urine osmolality, and creatinine clearance in 5/6 NX rats was examined. Uremic rats in chronic renal failure were gavaged daily with 25 microM 2'-PP. Over the course of a 5-wk experiment, serum chemistry in untreated uremic rats, 2'-PP-treated uremic rats, and age-matched control rats with normal renal function was determined twice a week. Urine creatinine, urine osmolality, urine phosphate, and urine protein were determined once a week from 24-h collections. 2'-PP reduced serum phosphate 40 +/- 3% compared with a 17% increase in untreated uremic control rats. 2'-PP did not alter total serum Ca(2+). During 5-wk experiments, serum PTH increased 65 +/- 25% in untreated uremic rats and decreased 70 +/- 7% in uremic rats treated with 25 microM 2'-PP. Creatinine clearance decreased 20% in untreated uremic rats compared with a 100% increase in 2'-PP-treated uremic rats. Urine protein decreased and urine osmolality increased in uremic rats treated with 2'-PP. The mechanism of the effect of 2'-PP on serum phosphate was inhibition of intestinal phosphate absorption. 2-PP inhibited intestinal phosphate absorption 50% without altering dietary protein absorption or intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Over the course of the 5-wk treatment with 2'-PP, uremic animals treated with 2'-PP had a 2-4% weight gain/wk, similar to the weight gain seen in age-matched control rats
Tinti, F; Umbro, I; Meçule, A; Rossi, M; Merli, M; Nofroni, I; Corradini, S Ginanni; Poli, L; Pugliese, F; Ruberto, F; Berloco, P B; Mitterhofer, A P
Renal dysfunction in cirrhotic patients is primary related to disturbances of circulatory function, triggered by portal hypertension with chronic intrarenal vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion. Pretransplant renal function is an important factor implicated in the development of acute renal failure (ARF) after liver transplantation (OLT), but other factors mostly related to liver function seem to influence the development of ARF. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup developed the RIFLE classification to define ARF. We sought to evaluate the incidence of ARF among patients undergoing OLT, to evaluate the association of ARF with pre-OLT renal and hepatic functions, and to evaluate the influence of ARF on chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 1 month post-OLT. Clinical, renal, hepatic function, and donor risk index data of 24 patients who underwent deceased donor OLT were collected before transplantation, in the perioperative period and in the first month post-OLT. ARF occurred in 37.5% of patients with 56% developing the R grade and 44% the I grade; no patient showed the F grade. An association was observed between ARF and a higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and between ARF and a reduced pre-OLT serum albumin. No association was noted between ARF and other pre-OLT parameters. In cirrhotic patients serum creatinine is a bias for renal function assessment and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula overestimates GFR. Post-OLT CKD was present in 6.7% of patients without ARF and in 44.4% of patients with ARF. The R grade developed more frequently among patients with viral cirrhosis. The association of ARF with MELD and hypoalbuminemia may be the result of a close relationship between renal and hepatic functions among cirrhotic patients. Post-OLT CKD may be the result of unrecognized, preexisting CKD and/or the effects of not fully resolved acute damage to an injured kidney.
Annema, Wijtske; Dikkers, Arne; Freark de Boer, Jan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are involved in the protection against cardiovascular disease by promoting cholesterol efflux, in which accumulated cholesterol is removed from macrophage foam cells. We investigated whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and graft failure in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (n=495, median follow-up 7.0 years). Cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline was quantified using incubation of human macrophage foam cells with apolipoprotein B–depleted plasma. Baseline efflux capacity was not different in deceased patients and survivors (P=0.60 or P=0.50 for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, respectively), whereas recipients developing graft failure had lower efflux capacity than those with functioning grafts (P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a lower risk for graft failure (P=0.004) but not cardiovascular (P=0.30) or all-cause mortality (P=0.31) with increasing gender-stratified tertiles of efflux capacity. Cox regression analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that efflux capacity was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.67 to 1.19; P=0.43). Furthermore, the association between efflux capacity and all-cause mortality (HR, .79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98; P=0.031) disappeared after further adjustment for potential confounders. However, efflux capacity at baseline significantly predicted graft failure (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64; P<0.001) independent of apolipoprotein A-I, HDL cholesterol, or creatinine clearance. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophage foam cells is not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality but is a strong predictor of graft failure independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels in renal transplant recipients. PMID:26319244
Esquerro, E; Rivas-Cabãnero, L; López-Novoa, J M
We evaluated the properties of glomerular angiotensin II receptors in renal glomeruli isolated from control rats and from rats with gentamicin-induced renal failure. There were no differences in the affinity of angiotensin II for its receptor between glomeruli from control and those from rats treated with gentamicin. Angiotensin II receptor density was lower in glomeruli from rats with renal failure than in those from control rats (985 +/- 71 in gentamicin treated rats vs. 1602 +/- 213 fmol/mg prot in controls). No significant differences were observed in renin activity in the supernatant from glomeruli isolated from control rats (3.74 +/- 0.29 ng angiotensin l/mL h) and those isolated from rats with gentamicin-induced renal failure (2.99 +/- 0.29 ng angiotensin l/mL h, p > 0.1). These findings do not support the contention of a role of angiotensin II in the development and maintenance of gentamicin-induced ARF.
Hausberg, M; Tokmak, F
Patients with chronic renal failure are characterized by a tonic elevation of sympathetic tone. This factor largely contributes to their increased cardiovascular risk. The increased sympathetic drive is caused by activiation of renal afferent fibers in the diseased kidneys. Therapeutic options for hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure with respect to their sympathetic overactivity are inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-system and central sympatholytic drugs. The role of catheter-based renal denervation in these patients is currently under investigation.
Löffler, Adrián Ignacio; Cappola, Thomas P; Fang, James; Hetzel, Scott J; Kadlec, Andrew; Astor, Brad; Sweitzer, Nancy K
Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to identify whether worsened or improved renal function during mid-term follow-up is associated with worsened outcomes in patients with chronic HF. A total of 892 participants from a multicenter cohort study of chronic HF were followed over 3.1 ± 1.9 years of enrollment. Worsened and improved renal functions were tested with multivariate models as independent predictors of HF hospitalization and mortality. Although 12% of subjects experienced a ≥25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 17% experienced a ≥25% increase in eGFR, and there was stability of kidney function observed in the cohort as a whole. The quartile with the worst RD at any point in time had increased risk of HF hospitalization and mortality. Worsened eGFR was associated with HF outcomes in the unadjusted (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.81, p = 0.035), but not the adjusted analysis. Improvement in eGFR was not associated with outcome (p = 0.453). In chronic HF, the severity of RD predicts risk of poor outcome better than changes in renal function during mid-term follow-up. This suggests that in patients with appropriately treated chronic HF, worsening renal function in itself does not yield useful prognostic information and may not reflect poor outcome.
Wilkinson, S P; Moodie, H; Stamatakis, J D; Kakkar, V V; Williams, R
An investigation into the possible role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of renal failure in cirrhosis and obstructive jaundice showed the two to be closely related. None of the patients with cirrhosis who had endotoxaemia had other evidence of Gram-negative infection at the time of the study, and the endotoxaemia was therefore probably due to impaired hepatic clearance of toxins normally absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, bacteriological evidence of Gram-negative infection was found in most of the patients with obstructive jaundice and endotoxaemia. PMID:795499
Martin, A M; Oduro-Dominah, A; Gibbins, J K; Devapal, D; Mitchell, D C
A study was made of thrice weekly haemodialysis of 3-3 1/2 hours' duration using a large surface area dialyser in patients with end-stage renal failure. Body water, potassium, and blood pressure control were satisfactory and comparable with the more widely used long dialysis schedules (6-9 hours thrice weekly). Patient rehabilitation was improved overall and the regimen enabled the dialysis unit to treat more patients despite a reduction in technical and nursing staff. The technique proved inadequate, however, in two patients with an intercurrent infection, and more intensive dialysis in recommended in such cases. PMID:1174885
IAD-A174 113 GLOMERULAR DYNAMIC STUDIES OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANOTE 1/1 RENAL FAILURE(U) VIRGINIA COMNWEALTH UNIV RICHMOND I D E OKEN 3e JUN 84...8217i1 . d /or 1 Special June 30, 1984 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 Contract...values might be underestimated by tubular inulin leakage if measured in the customary fashion.) Nephron filtration fraction was estimated from the
Issad, Belkacem; Rostoker, Guy; Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert
Acute renal failure (ARF) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often evolves in a context of multiple organ failure, which explains the high mortality rate and increase treatment needs. Among, two modalities of renal replacement therapy, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first modality used for the treatment of ARF in the 1950s. Today, while PD is generalized for chronic renal failure treatment, its use in the ICU is limited, particularly, due to the advent of new hemodialysis techniques and the development of continuous replacement therapy. Recently, a renewed interest in the use of PD in patients with ARF has manifested in several emerging countries (Brazil, Vietnam). A systematic review in 2013 showed a similar mortality in ARF patients having PD (58%) and those treated by hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration/hemofiltration (56.1%). In the International society of peritoneal dialysis (ISPD)'s guideline (2013), PD may be used in adult ARF as the other blood extracorporeal epuration technics (recommendation with grade 1B). PD is the preferred method in cardiorenal syndromes, in frailty patients with hemodynamic instability and those lacking vascular access; finally PD is also an option in elderly and patients with bleeding tendency. In industrial countries, high volume automated PD with a flexible catheter (usually Tenckhoff) is advocated.
Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub
The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.
El-Sisi, Alaa E; Sokar, Samia S; Abu-Risha, Sally E; Ibrahim, Hanaa A
Life threatening conditions characterized by renal ischemia/reperfusion (RIR) such as kidney transplantation, partial nephrectomy, renal artery angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic bypass surgery, continue to be among the most frequent causes of acute renal failure. The current study investigated the possible protective effects of tadalafil alone and in combination with diltiazem in experimentally-induced renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Possible underlying mechanisms were also investigated such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Rats were divided into sham-operated and I/R-operated groups. Anesthetized rats (urethane 1.3g/kg) were subjected to bilateral ischemia for 30min by occlusion of renal pedicles, then reperfused for 6h. Rats in the vehicle I/R group showed a significant (p˂0.05) increase in kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) content; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; TNF-α and IL-1β contents. In addition significant (p˂0.05) increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) content, BUN and creatinine levels, along with significant decrease in kidney superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In addition, marked diffuse histopathological damage and severe cytoplasmic staining of caspase-3 were detected. Pretreatment with combination of tadalafil (5mg/kg bdwt) and diltiazem (5mg/kg bdwt) resulted in reversal of the increased biochemical parameters investigated. Also, histopathological examination revealed partial return to normal cellular architecture. In conclusion, pretreatment with tadalafil and diltiazem combination protected against RIR injury.
Lusenti, T.; Fiorini, F.; Barozzi, L.
Introduction Obstructive uropathy caused by kidney stones is quite rare in transplant kidneys. Clinical case The authors report the case of a patient, previously gastrectomized for gastric carcinoma. He underwent renal transplantation using uretero-ureterostomy, and presented an episode of acute renal failure 7 years after surgery. Ultrasound (US) examination showed no sign of rejection but allowed detection of moderate hydronephrosis in the transplant kidney. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) revealed a kidney stone in the middle ureter at the crossing of the iliac vessels. The patient therefore urgently underwent percutaneous nephrostomy of the graft and recovered diuresis and renal function. The patient was transferred to the Transplant Center where he underwent ureterotomy with removal of the stone and subsequent ureteropyelostomy. Also transureteral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed due to urinary retention of prostatic origin. Histological examination showed prostate carcinoma, Gleason stage 3, which was treated conservatively using radiotherapy without suspension of the administered low dose of immunotherapy. Discussion Calculosis is one of the least common causes of obstructive uropathy in transplant kidneys. In the described case, US examination performed after onset of renal insufficiency led to subsequent radiological investigation and resulting interventional procedures (nephrostomy and surgical removal of the stone) with complete recovery of pre-existing renal function. PMID:23397045
Braam, Branko; Cupples, William A; Joles, Jaap A; Gaillard, Carlo
Heart and kidney interactions are fascinating, in the sense that failure of the one organ strongly affects the function of the other. In this review paper, we analyze how principal driving forces for glomerular filtration and renal blood flow are changed in heart failure. Moreover, renal autoregulation and modulation of neurohumoral factors, which can both have repercussions on renal function, are analyzed. Two paradigms seem to apply. One is that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and extracellular volume control are the three main determinants of renal function in heart failure. The other is that the classical paradigm to analyze renal dysfunction that is widely applied in nephrology also applies to the pathophysiology of heart failure: pre-renal, intra-renal, and post-renal alterations together determine glomerular filtration. At variance with the classical paradigm is that the most important post-renal factor in heart failure seems renal venous hypertension that, by increasing renal tubular pressure, decreases GFR. When different pharmacological strategies to inhibit the RAS and SNS and to assist renal volume control are considered, there is a painful lack in knowledge about how widely applied drugs affect primary driving forces for ultrafiltration, renal autoregulation, and neurohumoral control. We call for more clinical physiological studies.
Ahmed, Maimoona Mushtaq
Chronic renal failure is often associated with multiple organ co-morbidities, including thyroid dysfunction. This has been associated with poorer prognosis, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study aimed to examine the relationship between renal failure and thyroid dysfunction in an outpatient setting at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, from January 2011 to June 2012. Demographic and biochemical data were extracted from medical records. Differences in the levels of thyroid hormones and lipids between the four renal function groups were analyzed using the chi-square test for categorical variables and Kruskal- Wallis test for binomial variables. A total of 486 patients were included in the study population, of whom approximately half were female, and the median (range) age was 61 (17-90) years. According to creatinine measurements, renal function was normal in 48 participants, 290 had mild renal failure, 122 had moderate renal failure and 26 had severe renal failure. No significant relationships were observed between renal failure and cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels were significantly reduced (P = 0.005) and both free thyroxin (FT4; P = 0.034) and parathyroid hormone (PTH; P = 0.028) significantly increased with increasing severity of renal failure. Patients with moderate to severe renal failure displayed reduced hemoglobin levels and were significantly more likely to be anemic (P <0.001). Highly significant increases in alkaline phosphatase (P <0.001), uric acid (P <0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.014) levels were also observed with increasing renal dysfunction. To conclude, it was observed that renal dysfunction is associated with notable changes to other organ systems, including the thyroid. Further studies may investigate the association of multiple organ co-morbidities with prognosis in patients with chronic renal failure.
George, Sunil K.; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D.; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end
George, Sunil K; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end
Choker, G; Gouyon, J B
This study was designed to improve the definition of acute renal failure (ARF) in very preterm infants. Twenty-eight newborn infants with gestational age < or =32 weeks were prospectively studied in the first 5 days of life and made up a control group as they did not present risk factors for vasomotor renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency was defined as an increase in daily serum creatinine concentration above the 99th interval limit obtained in this control group, i.e., 43 micromol/l on day 1 and/or 21 micromol/l on day 2 and/or 14 micromol/l/day on day 3 and/or 22 micromol/l/day on day 4. According to this definition, 20 very preterm infants with ARF were identified. As compared with the control group, the ARF group showed more prolonged oliguric episodes, lower diuresis, insufficient weight loss (in spite of a reduction in water intake) and also more episodes with natremia <130 mEq/l (35 vs. 0%; p <0.05) and/or kalemia >6 mEq/l (40 vs. 11%; p <0.05). Therefore, assessment of daily changes in serum creatinine concentration in very preterm infants allows the diagnosis of clinically significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate.
Sobh, M A; Moustafa, F E; el-Housseini, F; Basta, M T; Deelder, A M; Ghoniem, M A
In this study 17 patients, 11 with end-stage renal failure and six with nephrotic syndrome were selected. The selection criteria were presence of active intestinal schistosomiasis and absence of any surgical or other medical disease which could explain the renal disease. When examined by light microscopy, kidney biopsies showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in nine, membranous in four, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in two, sclerosing glomerulonephritis in one case, and no changes in another case. Direct immunofluorescence showed IgG deposits in 13 cases, IgM in 10 and different complement components (C3, C1q) in eight cases. Eluates from the kidney biopsies of the 17 schistosomal as well as six control cases were examined by ELISA against schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA). This test showed the presence of antibodies against the AWA in 12 out of 17 of the schistosomal cases, and zero out of six of the controls. When examined by direct IFA using sheep anti-circulating anodic antigen/FITC and by indirect IFA using monoclonal antischistosomal CAA IgG3, kidney biopsies of the ELISA positive cases showed granular deposits of circulating anodic antigen (CAA). We conclude that schistosomal specific nephropathy does exist in the clinical settings and can lead to end-stage renal disease, with CAA probably being a major responsible antigen.
Guron, G; Holmdahl, J; Dotevall, L
A 20-year-old, previously healthy woman, presented with high fever, headache and myalgia 3 days after her return from a holiday in Southeast Asia. Laboratory data on admission demonstrated a pronounced increase in plasma creatinine, marked thrombocytopenia and moderately elevated liver aminotransferases. After having ruled out malaria, dengue fever was primarily suspected and supportive intravenous fluid therapy was initiated. Still, 1 day after admission, platelet counts dropped even further and she became anuric although she did not appear hypovolemic. On day 2 after admission, urine production commenced spontaneously and the patient slowly recovered. All laboratory test results had returned to normal approximately 2 months later. Serological analysis for dengue fever was negative. It turned out that the patient had been trekking in the jungle while in Thailand and we, therefore, analyzed serology for Leptospira spirochetes which was clearly positive. The patient was diagnosed with leptospirosis which is a serious condition associated with a high mortality when complicated by acute renal failure. Differential diagnoses in patients with acute renal failure and tropical infections are reviewed. The importance of early recognition of leptospirosis, and prompt treatment with antibiotics in suspected cases, is emphasized.
Graumann, Aaron; Zawada, Edward T
We report the case of an 87-year-old white woman with myasthenia gravis who presented with nausea, shortness of breath, azotemia, and hyperkalemia shortly after completing a course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). She had been receiving monthly transfusions of IVIG, but this time had received daily infusions for 5 days rather than 1 day. She had received this same dose in the past without incident. Her history was significant for coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, chronic steroid use, and recurrent urinary tract infection. On examination, she was slightly confused, mildly dehydrated, had a grade II systolic ejection murmur along the upper left sternal border, had bilateral and symmetric mild weakness of the upper and lower extremities, and exhibited mild edema of the lower extremities. Before transfer from the emergency room, she was found to have an elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine of 55 and 5.8 mg/dL (19.6 mmol/L and 512.7 micromol/L, respectively). Creatinine 8 days earlier was 0.9 mg/dL (79.6 micromol/L). The hospital course of the acute renal failure is presented with a review of the literature on cases of acute renal failure after IVIG.
Vujicić, Bozidar; Ruzić, Alen; Zaputović, Luka; Racki, Sanjin
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue, especially in the setting of critical care. It has been shown in multiple studies to be a key independent risk factor for mortality, even after adjustment for demographics and severity of illness. There is wide agreement that a generally applicable classification system is required for AKI which helps to standardize estimation of severity of renal disfunction and to predict outcome associated with this condition. That's how RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-End-stage renal disease), and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications for AKI were found in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In the clinical setting of heart failure, a positive fluid balance (often expressed in the literature as weight gain) is used by disease management programs as a marker of heart failure decompensation. Oliguria is defined as urine output less than 0,3 ml/kg/h for at least 24 h. Since any delay in treatment can lead to a dangerous progression of the AKI, early recognition of oliguria appears to be crucial. Critically ill patients with oliguric AKI are at increased risk for fluid imbalance due to widespread systemic inflammation, reduced plasma oncotic pressure and increased capillary leak. These patients are particulary at risk of fluid overload and therefore restrictive strategy of fluid administration should be used. Objective, rapid and accurate volume assessment is important in undiagnosed patients presenting with critical illness, as errors may result in interventions with fatal outcomes. The historical tools such as physical exam, and chest radiography suffer from significant limitations. As gold standard, radioisolopic measurement of volume is impractical in the acute care enviroment. Newer technologies offer the promise of both rapid and accurate bedside estimation of volume status with the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Blood assessment with bioimpendance vector analysis, and bedside ultrasound seem to be
Butani, Lavjay; Berg, Gerre; Makker, Sudesh P
Prolongation of the QTc interval, a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias, has been observed in adult hemodialysis patients; there are few data on the QTc interval in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) and following renal transplantation (Tx). The purpose of our study was to determine the QTc interval in children with CRF and post renal Tx. Twenty children with CRF and 16 children with renal Tx who were followed at the University of California, Davis, underwent prospective EKG monitoring. The mean QTc interval in the CRF and post-Tx cohorts was normal at 407.9 ms and 408.2 ms, respectively. None of the children with CRF had QTc prolongation. Two Tx recipients had QTc prolongation; both had cardiac dilatation on echocardiography (ECHO). There was no correlation between the QTc interval and the creatinine clearance in either group. However, a significant correlation was noted between QTc prolongation and cardiac dilatation on ECHO in the Tx group (P=0.02, Fisher's exact test). In conclusion, QTc prolongation is uncommon in children with CRF and following Tx, in the absence of cardiac dilatation. However, caution is still needed before prescribing medications known to cause QTc prolongation.
Takita, K; Goda, Y; Kemmotsu, O; Mashio, H; Okuyama, A; Ito, Y; Sakamoto, H; Kawahigashi, H
The authors studied the duration of action of vecuronium in 15 patients with normal renal function and 40 patients with chronic renal failure to evaluate the effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism on the action of vecuronium. The patients were divided into four groups: 15 patients with normal renal function (Group A); nine patients with chronic renal failure who did not need haemodialysis (Group B); 15 anephric patients who did not require parathyroidectomy (Group C); and 16 anephric patients who underwent parathyroidectomy because of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (Group D). The ratio of the height of the first twitch (T1) to the baseline value before vecuronium administration was measured by an electromyogram. Baseline T1 was obtained after anaesthesia induction with thiamylal iv. The time to 10% recovery of the first twitch (REC 10) after administration of vecuronium 0.12 mg.kg-1 iv was measured in each group. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen, and supplemented with fentanyl iv. Patients in Group D showed shorter REC 10 (51 +/- 4 min) than those in Groups B (71 +/- 6 min) and C (80 +/- 10 min) (P < 0.05), but similar REC 10 to patients in Group A (37 +/- 4 min). These results suggest that the duration of action of vecuronium in anephric patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism is shorter than in those without secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.
EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.
Zhu, Liangsong; Wu, Guangyu; Wang, Jianfeng; Huang, Jiwei; Kong, Wen; Chen, Yonghui; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jin
Abstract To investigate the feasibility of the noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) to evaluate renal arteries before partial nephrectomy (PN). Retrospective analyzed 479 patients who underwent renal surgery between January 2013 and December 2015 with NCE-MRA or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) renal artery image reconstruction preoperative in our department. The renal artery reconstruction score (RARS) was based on the level of artery visualization in a 4-class criterion, and the R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score (R.E.N.A.L), arterial based complexity (ABC) were also analyzed. Of the 479 patients, the overall-lever RARS was 3.62, and the average in 2 groups was no significant difference (NCE-MRA vs CTA, P = 0.072). The performance of NCE-MRA in PN group was similar with CTA. Further comparison demonstrated that the efficiency of NCE-MRA in moderate- or low-degree tumor according to the R.E.N.A.L and ABC complexity less than 3S was equal to CTA. However, high degree (P < 0.001), 3S (P = 0.027), or 3H (P < 0.001) would affect the imaging of renal artery. Intragroup analysis showed that tumor complexity such as max tumor size (r = −o.351, P < 0.001), R.E.N.A.L (r = −0.439, P < 0.001), and ABC (r = −0.619, P < 0.001) were closely correlated with the NCE-MRA performance. The images of 2 sides of the kidney were compared in single person as well, which was meaningful for NCE-MRA patients only (NCE-MRA, P < 0.001; CTA, P = 0.182). The renal artery reconstruction performed by NCE-MRA is feasible and has a similar achievement in the PN potential recipients, with a lower side effect, and meets the requirements for making surgical decision. It has a broad application prospect in clinical practice; however, it still needs to further improve the ability in more complex tumors. PMID:27759632
Bagalad, Bhavana S.; Mohankumar, K. P.; Madhushankari, G. S.; Donoghue, Mandana; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti
Background: The prevalence of chronic renal failure is increasing because of increase in chronic debilitating diseases and progressing age of population. These patients experience accumulation of metabolic byproducts and electrolyte imbalance, which has harmful effects on their health. Timely hemodialysis at regular intervals is a life-saving procedure for these patients. Salivary diagnostics is increasingly used as an alternative to the traditional methods. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of saliva in chronic renal failure patients. Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 82 individuals, of which 41 were chronic renal failure patients and 41 were age- and sex-matched controls. Blood and saliva were collected and centrifuged. Serum and supernatant saliva were used for biochemical analysis. Serum and salivary urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus were evaluated and correlated in chronic renal failure patients using unpaired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests, and receiver operative curve. Results: When compared to serum; salivary urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium showed diagnostic accuracy of 93%, 91%, 73%, and 89%, respectively, based on the findings of study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that salivary investigation is a dependable, noninvasive, noninfectious, simple, and quick method for screening the mineral and metabolite values of high-risk patients and monitoring the renal failure patients.
Kristoffersen, A H; Bjånes, T K; Jordal, S; Leh, S; Leh, F; Svarstad, E
Essentials Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT) were found in drug users with renal failure. An oral methadone solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) had been injected intravenously. Spiking normal plasma with increasing concentrations of PVP resulted in artifically prolonged APTT. APTT prolongation may indicate PVP deposits as underlying cause in patients with renal failure.
Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching
Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.
Sheerin, Noella J; Newton, Phillip J; Macdonald, Peter S; Leung, Dominic Y C; Sibbritt, David; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Johnson, Kay; Krum, Henry; Davidson, Patricia M
Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation. This is a period of vulnerability both in altered pathophysiology and also the potential for iatrogenesis due to therapeutic interventions. Renal dysfunction is often associated with heart failure and portends adverse outcomes. Identifying heart failure patients at risk of renal dysfunction is important in preventing progression to chronic kidney disease or worsening renal function, informing adjustment to medication management and potentially preventing adverse events. However, there is no working or consensus definition in international heart failure management guidelines for worsening renal function. In addition, there appears to be no concordance or adaptation of chronic kidney disease guidelines by heart failure guideline development groups for the monitoring of chronic kidney disease in heart failure. Our aim is to encourage the debate for an agreed definition given the prognostic impact of worsening renal function in heart failure. We present the case for the uptake of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for acute kidney injury with some minor alterations. This has the potential to inform study design and meta-analysis thereby building the knowledgebase for guideline development. Definition consensus supports data element, clinical registry and electronic algorithm innovation as instruments for quality improvement and clinical research for better patient outcomes. In addition, we recommend all community managed heart failure patients have their baseline renal function classified and routinely monitored in accordance with established renal guidelines to help identify those at increased risk for worsening renal function or progression to chronic kidney disease.
Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico
Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function.
Casson, I F; Lee, M R; Brownjohn, A M; Parsons, F M; Davison, A M; Will, E J; Clayden, A D
Eight patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and five age-matched normal volunteers were given additional sodium chloride by mouth under conditions of metabolic balance. Whereas in the normal volunteers plasma renin activity was suppressed and urinary excretion of free dopamine increased, in the patients dopamine was not mobilised and plasma renin activity was not completely suppressed. Abnormal retention of sodium and water in glomerulonephritis may be due partly to a failure to mobilise dopamine in the kidney. Specific renal dopamine agonists may be natriuretic and hypotensive in chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:6402127
Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Lima, Lourenço de Azevedo; Guedes, Juliana Chaves Ruiz; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antônio Macedo; Martins, Carlos José
Perforating dermatoses are a group of skin diseases characterized by transepidermal elimination of dermal material. The disease is divided into two groups: the primary group and the secondary group. The classical or primary perforating dermatoses are subdivided into four types according to the eliminated dermal materials: Kyrle disease, perforating reactive collagenosis, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and perforating folliculitis. The secondary form is known as acquired perforating dermatosis. The term was proposed in 1989 by Rapini to designate the perforating dermatoses affecting adult patients with systemic disease, regardless of the dermal materials eliminated. This report describes a case of the disease with elimination of collagen and elastic fibers in a patient with chronic renal failure. PMID:28300880
Stopper, Helga; Schupp, Nicole; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Heidland, August
In end-stage renal failure, genomic damage is enhanced. This has been shown both in the predialysis and dialysis phase by various biomarkers, such as micronuclei frequency and single cell gel electrophoresis in lymphocytes as well as with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in leukocytes. There are also data about mitochondrial DNA deletions and chromosomal abnormalities. Genomic damage may be induced by a multitude of toxic factors and mutagens, in particular via enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. In in vitro studies, incubation of tubular cells with various AGEs (carboxymethyllysine-BSA, AGE-BSA, and methylglyoxal-BSA) and angiotensin II resulted in a marked DNA damage. Coincubation with various antioxidants as well as the angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan, suppressed the toxic action. Moreover, an improved uremic state by daily hemodialysis ameliorated the genomic damage in lymphocytes, as compared to patients on conventional hemodialysis.
Bresolin, Nilzete L; Carvalho, Lígia C; Goes, Eduardo C; Fernandes, Regina; Barotto, Adriana M
Bee venom is a complex substance, which acts in several tissues. Although severe allergic reactions have occurred after one or more stings, several deaths have been reported without allergic manifestations, emphasizing the toxic effects of massive poisoning. A number of about 500 stings have been considered necessary to cause death by direct toxicity, but as few as 30-50 stings have proved fatal in children. Among the major toxic effects are hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure (ARF), and shock. ARF may be due to a common toxic-ischemic mechanism with hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, pigment tubulopathy (myoglobinuria and hemoglobinuria), or acute tubular necrosis (ATN) from a direct kidney toxicity of the venom. We present a case of rhabdomyolysis and hemolysis with consequent ARF which developed after about 800 bee stings. The patient recovered completely after peritoneal dialysis.
Saardi, Karl M; Schwartz, Robert A
Uremic frost is a striking cutaneous finding seen in patients with severe kidney disease. Familiarity with this condition can be a life-saving signal to initiate urgent dialysis. Uremic frost generally occurs at blood urea nitrogen levels of approximately 200 mg/dl, although it may arise with less severe uremia. Recently confirmed urea transporters in the skin may play a role in the development of uremic frost. Alternatively, damage to the cutaneous microvasculature and pilosebaceous units, as seen in chronic kidney disease, could account for the high levels of urea deposited outside the skin. The treatment of uremic frost is largely aimed at correcting the underlying cause of uremia and the other life-threatening conditions associated with renal failure.
Karki, Pragya; Malik, Sarthak; Mallick, Bipadabhanjan; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S
Abstract Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The patient experienced a long, protracted course of illness, requiring renal replacement therapy with other supportive management, which led to improvement over a period of four weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing associated hemolysis in a patient with viral hepatitis who presents with very high bilirubin levels or associated kidney injury. Such patients will require aggressive supportive care with prompt fluid and electrolyte management. PMID:28097104
Scheutzel, P; Ritter, W
Dental examination of 50 children with chronic renal failure revealed enamel hypoplasia in 26 (52%), retardation of dental age in 18 (36%) and delay of dental eruption in 16 (32%) cases. In comparison to normal children the prevalence of caries was significantly lower. Half of the children showed radiologic changes in the jaw-bones already during preterminal stage of renal insufficiency. The possible role of the dentist concerning early diagnosis of renal failure is discussed.
Simón, J; Mendizábal, S; Zamora, I; Roques, V; Orive, B
A retrospective study of 35 newborn with acute renal failure is presented. The main causes of renal failure were neonatal hypoxia by asfixia or hemorrhagic shock (eight), congenital malformations (two) and hypertonic dehydration (25). Mortality rate was 22% including two neonates with severe congenital malformations. Sepsis was considered as the main complicating factor and often as inducer of renal failure. It was present on 55% of cases and on 75% of the deceased newborn. Cerebral injury was frequent but a follow-up study is necessary to establish the rate of neurologic sequelae. Early diagnosis and treatment of renal failure will decrease complications with improvement in prognosis. Etiological analysis of neonatal renal failure shows the need of a better health education of people and also medical control of pregnancy and perinatal period.
Babaei, Mahin; Dashti, Nasrin; Lamei, Navid; Abdi, Khosrou; Nazari, Farhad; Abbasian, Sepideh; Gerayeshnejad, Siavash
It has been proved that hyperhomocysteinemia has a high prevalence in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which may contribute to the high cardiovascular risk in these patients. Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of high mortality rate in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to assess five important factors in patients with ESRD (the amount of homocysteine, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hs-CRP, and Total Antioxidant Capacity). These factors were surveyed in ESRD patients to compare with healthy subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 80 patients on maintenance hemodialysis and measured the inflammatory and oxidative stress indicators. The plasma samples were assayed for five above mentioned variables using standard protocols. Two-hour post hemodialysis plasma samples were also assayed for TAC. Plasma levels of inflammation markers, IL-6 and hs-CRP, homocysteine were significantly increased in ESRD group versus control group. This increase was also found in TNF-α levels as compared to the controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, the post dialysis samples had significantly lower levels of TAC as compared to predialysis ones.
Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices. PMID:26941817
Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices.
Rashed, A; Abboud, O; Addasi, A; Taha, M; El Sayed, M; Ashour, A
Over a period of six months, 55 patients out of 11,216 (0.49%) admitted to the hospital developed acute renal failure (ARF). The diagnosis of ARF was based on the usual criteria, a sudden rise in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with or without oliguria. Patients age ranged between 15 and 81 years with a mean of 51.9 years. Renal ischemia (69%) and nephrotoxic drugs (16.3%) were the two main etiologic factors. Among the causes of ischemia, septic shock was the commonest (29%), followed by severe hypotension due to several causes such as hemorrhage, burns, severe diarrhea and cardiogenic shock (25.4%), and ACE inhibitors (10.9%). ARF was associated with an average of 15.8 days stay in hospital versus 5.1 days for the overall hospital admissions. Immediate management of hypotension by intravenous fluid replacement, vasopressor agents and the necessary surgical intervention was appropriately considered. Intravenous frusemide was used for oliguric patients. Intermittent hemodialysis was used in 18 patients and continuous venovenous hemofiltration in six patients. Twelve patients with ARF due to ischemia died, while there were no deaths in the nephrotoxic group (p < 0.05). The overall mortality was (21.8%), which had no correlation with patient age. All non-oliguric patients survived with the mortality being exclusively in the oliguric group.
Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic failure as well as renal failure modified the pharmacokinetics of flunixin.
Amin, Hatem K; El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb; Leheta, Ola F
Glomerular filtration rate and/or creatinine are not accurate methods for renal failure prediction. This study tested homocysteine (Hcy) as a predictive and prognostic marker for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In total, 176 subjects were recruited and divided into: healthy normal group (108 subjects); mild-to-moderate impaired renal function group (21 patients); severe impaired renal function group (7 patients); and chronic renal failure group (40 patients) who were on regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were collected, and serum was separated for analysis of total Hcy, creatinine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, and calcium. Data showed that Hcy level was significantly increased from normal-to-mild impairment then significantly decreases from mild impairment until the patient reaches severe impairment while showing significant elevation in the last stage of chronic renal disease. Creatinine level was increased in all stages of kidney impairment in comparison with control. CRP level was showing significant elevation in the last stage. A significant decrease in both albumin and calcium was occurred in all stages of renal impairment. We conclude Hcy in combination with CRP, creatinine, albumin, and calcium can be used as a prognostic marker for ESRD and an early diagnostic marker for the risk of renal failure.
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD), a metabolic bone disease accompanying chronic renal failure (CRF), is a major clinical problem in pediatric nephrology. Growing and rapidly remodeling skeletal systems are particularly susceptible to the metabolic and endocrine disturbances in CRF. The pathogenesis of ROD is complex and multifactorial. Hypocalcemia, phosphate retention, and low levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) related to CRF result in disturbances of bone metabolism and ROD. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of bone lesions might result in severe disability. Based on microscopic findings, renal bone disease is classified into two main categories: high- and low-turnover bone disease. High-turnover bone disease is associated with moderate and severe hyperparathyroidism. Low-turnover bone disease includes osteomalacia and adynamic bone disease. The treatment of ROD involves controlling serum calcium and phosphate levels, and preventing parathyroid gland hyperplasia and extraskeletal calcifications. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels should be kept within the normal range. The calcium-phosphorus product has to be <5 mmol(2)/L(2) (60 mg(2)/dL(2)). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in children with CRF should be within the normal range, but in children with end-stage renal disease PTH levels should be two to three times the upper limit of the normal range. Drug treatment includes intestinal phosphate binding agents and active vitamin D metabolites. Phosphate binders should be administered with each meal. Calcium carbonate is the most widely used intestinal phosphate binder. In children with hypercalcemic episodes, sevelamer, a synthetic phosphate binder, should be introduced. In children with CRF, ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), colecalciferol (vitamin D(3)), and calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) should be used as vitamin D analogs. In children undergoing dialysis, active vitamin D metabolites alfacalcidol (1alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D(3)) and calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin
Mandal, A K; Baig, M; Koutoubi, Z
Renal changes that occur with aging mainly consist of impairment in the ability to concentrate urine and to conserve sodium and water. These physiological changes increase the risk of volume depletion and the prerenal type of acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly people. Bladder outlet obstruction caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy is a common cause of ARF in elderly men. Another frequent cause of ARF in the elderly is drug-induced nephropathy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics are most often implicated in the development of ARF in the elderly. However, considering the high usage of these drugs, the incidence of drug-induced nephropathy is relatively small. NSAIDs are more likely to cause ARF in patients with congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease (including diabetic nephropathy) or chronic liver disease than in otherwise healthy individuals. NSAID-induced ARF is often of the prerenal type, but may be caused by acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). The presence of heavy proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome differentiates NSAID-induced AIN from AIN caused by other drugs. Antibiotics, especially semisynthetic penicillins, more commonly give rise to AIN associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophiluria than NSAIDs. Ciprofloxacin is increasingly reported to cause AIN. Fever commonly accompanies AIN, especially when induced by antibiotics. Aminoglycosides produce ARF by inducing acute tubular necrosis (ATN), which results from the excessive accumulation of myeloid bodies in the tubules. In all cases of ARF it is essential to obtain a good history, to perform a through physical examination, with particular attention to skin turgor, and to measure blood pressure, pulse rate (supine and upright), urinary electrolyte and creatinine levels. Fractional excretion of sodium and the urine:plasma creatinine ratio are reliable indices that distinguish prerenal ARF from ATN. A prompt response to fluid challenge, with an increase in
Leduc, Martin; Hou, Xin; Hamel, David; Sanchez, Melanie; Quiniou, Christiane; Honoré, Jean-Claude; Roy, Olivier; Madaan, Ankush; Lubell, William; Varma, Daya R; Mancini, Joseph; Duhamel, François; Peri, Krishna G; Pichette, Vincent; Heveker, Nikolaus; Chemtob, Sylvain
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication characterized by an abrupt and sustained decline in renal function. Despite significant advances in supportive care, there is currently no effective treatment to restore renal function. PGE(2) is a lipid hormone mediator abundantly produced in the kidney, where it acts locally to regulate renal function; several studies suggest that modulating EP(4) receptor activity could improve renal function following kidney injury. An optimized peptidomimetic ligand of EP(4) receptor, THG213.29, was tested for its efficacy to improve renal function (glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and urine output) and histological changes in a model of ARF induced by either cisplatin or renal artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. THG213.29 modulated PGE(2)-binding dissociation kinetics, indicative of an allosteric binding mode. Consistently, THG213.29 antagonized EP(4)-mediated relaxation of piglet saphenous vein rings, partially inhibited EP(4)-mediated cAMP production, but did not affect Gα(i) activation or β-arrestin recruitment. In vivo, THG213.29 significantly improved renal function and histological changes in cisplatin- and renal artery occlusion-induced ARF models. THG213.29 increased mRNA expression of heme-oxygenase 1, Bcl2, and FGF-2 in renal cortex; correspondingly, in EP(4)-transfected HEK293 cells, THG213.29 augmented FGF-2 and abrogated EP(4)-dependent overexpression of inflammatory IL-6 and of apoptotic death domain-associated protein and BCL2-associated agonist of cell death. Our results demonstrate that THG213.29 represents a novel class of diuretic agent with noncompetitive allosteric modulator effects on EP(4) receptor, resulting in improved renal function and integrity following acute renal failure.
Hofmann, Jonathan N; Schwartz, Kendra; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Shuch, Brian M; Karami, Sara; Rothman, Nathaniel; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Colt, Joanne S; Purdue, Mark P
Purpose In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among blacks than among whites. Risk of RCC is elevated among end-stage renal disease patients, although no studies have looked at differences by race in the relationship between chronic renal failure and RCC. Methods We investigated RCC risk in relation to chronic renal failure in a population-based case-control study of blacks and whites in Chicago and Detroit. Data, including information on kidney disease, were collected from interviews with 1,217 RCC cases (361 blacks, 856 whites) and 1,235 controls (523 blacks, 712 whites). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results Risk of RCC was increased in relation to chronic renal failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.2–10.1) and dialysis (OR 18.0, 95% CI 3.6–91). The association remained after defining exposure as those who had chronic renal failure ≥10 years prior to RCC diagnosis. Chronic renal failure was more strongly associated with RCC among blacks than among whites (OR 8.7, 95% CI 3.3–22.9 and 2.0, 0.7–5.6 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03) and among those without a history of diabetes relative to diabetic subjects (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.1–22.7 and 1.9, 0.6–5.9 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03). Conclusions These results suggest that chronic renal failure is a strong risk factor for RCC, particularly among black and non-diabetic subjects. Our findings of differences in risk estimates by race, to our knowledge the first such report, require replication. PMID:23179659
Cetina, Lucely; Rivera, Lesbia; Candelaria, Myrna; de la Garza, Jaime; Dueñas-González, Alfonso
The prognosis of cervical cancer patients with renal failure secondary to obstructive uropathy is poor. Our objective was to analyze our experience in the management with chemoradiation of untreated cervical cancer patients complicated by obstructive nephropathy and kidney dysfunction. Untreated patients with cervical cancer and renal failure as manifested by raised serum creatinine were treated with pelvic radiotherapy concurrently with weekly gemcitabine at 300 mg/m2. Response, toxicity and renal function pre- and post-therapy were evaluated. Eight FIGO stage IIIB and one IVB patients were treated. Pre-treatment serum creatinine ranged from 1.6 to 18.5 mg/100 ml (median 3.3, mean 6.8) and creatinine clearance varied from 4 to 57 mg/ml/min (median 17, mean 22.1). Four patients had a percutaneous nephrostomy placed and four patients had symptoms from kidney failure. All patient completed chemoradiation. Most patients had grade 3 leukopenia and neutropenia. Dermatitis, colitis and proctitis were common. All patients had improvement in creatinine clearance (pre-therapy 22.78, post-therapy 54.3 mg/ml/min) (p=0.0058) and all but one normalized serum creatinine. Eight (89%) of nine patients achieved complete response and one patient had persistence. At a median follow-up of 11 months (range 6-14), all patients are alive, one with pelvic and another with systemic disease. Ureteral obstruction causing any degree of renal insufficiency should not be a contraindication to receive chemoradiation to attempt cure. In this setting where cisplatin-based therapy is contraindicated, the use of gemcitabine may be considered.
Beto, J A
This review describes categories of renal function (normal, renal insufficiency, end-stage renal failure), types of treatment modalities (renal insufficiency management, dialysis, transplantation), and corresponding dietary parameters (protein, energy, fiber, sodium, fluid, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, vitamins, minerals). The focus is directed toward general and nonrenal specialty practitioners, who are encountering a growing number of geriatric patients and patients who have undergone renal transplantation or are in early renal failure. The findings indicate that early intervention may delay or prevent rapid progression of renal disease in some patients, that treatment modalities continue to need individualized dietary support to maintain nutritional status, and that transplant goals should include control of obesity and hyperlipidemia to reduce cardiovascular mortality.
Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A C
The present study comprises of 10 dogs of either sex with primary indication of azotaemia. All the dogs were subjected to detailed clinical, haematobiochemical, urinalysis, and microbiological examination along with radiographical and ultrasonographical examination. Based on the ultrasonographic structural abnormalities, the different renal affections associated with CRF in majority of dogs were diagnosed. The different affections included "end-stage" kidneys (n = 4), hydronephrosis (n = 1), renomegaly (n = 1), nephritis (n = 1), nephrolithiasis (n = 1), nephrocalcinosis (n = 1), and renal cyst (n = 1). The significant ultrasonographic features in these affections included small kidneys with loss of corticomedullary demarcation ("end-stage" kidneys); increased cortical echogenicity (nephritis); dilation of the renal pelvis, separation of the central renal sinus with anechoic space, atrophy of renal medulla, (hydronephrosis); enlarged kidneys with increased overall echogenicity of renal cortex (renomegaly and associated nephritis); hyperechoic-mineralized structure with shadowing (nephrolithiasis); diffuse, small, multiple hyperechoic structures in the renal parenchyma with distal acoustic shadowing (nephrocalcinosis); small spherical intercortical anechoic structures fluid (renal cysts). In the present study, ultrasound proved to be a quick, convenient, and sensitive modality in detecting alterations in renal size and parenchymal architecture. All the dogs so diagnosed with CRF were rendered conservative medical treatment to control clinical signs of uraemia; maintain adequate fluid, electrolyte, and acid/base balance; provide adequate nutrition; minimize progression of renal failure.
Vesin, P.; Traverso, H.
The term ‘functional renal failure’ has been used to describe the renal failure developing in advanced cirrhosis in which tubular function and structure remain intact. It may develop spontaneously, in which case prognosis is poor, but may be secondary to gastro-intestinal haemorrhage or excessive use of diuretics, in which case correction of the precipitating factor leads to improvement in renal function. It is suggested that the renal failure is due to a reduction in effective circulating plasma volume. PMID:1234327
Torres, A.; Rubinstein, E.; Corey, G. R.; Stryjewski, M. E.; Barriere, S. L.
Objectives Telavancin is approved in Europe for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when other alternatives are not suitable. The approved European prescribing information contraindicates the use of telavancin in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min, including patients on haemodialysis) and pre-existing acute renal failure owing to the higher observed mortality in these patients. Data from the ATTAIN studies were reanalysed, excluding patients with these contraindicating conditions at baseline. (At the time of submission of this article, the European marketing authorization of telavancin for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia was suspended pending evidence of a new European Medicines Agency-approved supplier. Clinigen Healthcare Ltd, Theravance's commercialization partner for telavancin in Europe, is in the process of seeking approval of a new manufacturing source.) Methods A post hoc analysis of data from two Phase 3 ATTAIN trials of telavancin for the treatment of Gram-positive nosocomial pneumonia assessing clinical outcomes and safety. Results The all-treated population for this analysis represented 84.2% (1266/1503) of the ATTAIN all-treated population. The cure rates in the clinically evaluable population were similar in the telavancin (82.5%, 231/280) and vancomycin (81.3%, 243/299) groups [treatment difference (95% CI): 1.3% (−5.0% to 7.6%)], and were consistent with the overall ATTAIN study results. The cure rate was higher in the telavancin than the vancomycin treatment group in microbiologically evaluable patients with only Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline [85.0% (130/153) versus 75.2% (109/145), respectively; treatment difference (95% CI): 9.7% (0.6%–18.8%)]. The incidences of adverse events were similar between treatment groups and consistent with the overall findings of the ATTAIN study. Conclusions This analysis demonstrated that in the subset
Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando
Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery.
Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando
Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery.
Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar
A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455
Doumouchtsis, Konstantinos K; Perrea, Despoina N; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K
In chronic renal failure several factors affect bone homeostasis leading to the development of renal osteodystrophy. Common calcitropic hormone derangements in renal failure play a central role in bone structure and mineral defects, which in turn accompany osteodystrophy frequently resulting in low bone mineral density (BMD) values. However, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from several comorbidities, which may partly account for renal bone disease lesions. Hypogonadism in particular accompanies chronic renal failure frequently and exerts an additive effect on bone loss potential. Sex hormones contribute to the equilibrium of osteotropic hormones and cytokines, exerting a protective action on bone tissue. Estrogens have a regulatory effect on bone metabolism in women with renal failure as well. Hypogonadal ESRD women experience a higher bone turnover and more significant bone mass decrements than ESRD women with relatively normal hormone profile and menstrual habits. Female hemodialysis patients have lower BMD values than male patients on average, probably because of menstrual cycle irregularities. However, hypogonadal ESRD men may also experience bone mineral deficits and the severity of hypogonadism may correlate to their bone mineral status. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) appears to reverse bone mineral loss to some extent in both sexes. In conclusion hypogonadism in renal failure contributes to the bone structure and mineral defects as well as the low-energy fracture risk, reflected in BMD measurements. HRT in ESRD patients should therefore not be overlooked in these patients in the face of their significant comorbidities.
Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina
BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347
Nammas, Wail; Koistinen, Juhani; Paana, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Pasi P
Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF. This provided the rationale for trials that demonstrated survival benefit associated with the use of beta adrenergic blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the MOXCON trial demonstrated that rapid uptitration of moxonidine (inhibitor of central sympathetic outflow) in patients with heart failure was associated with excess mortality and morbidity, despite reduction of plasma norepinephrine. Interestingly, renal norepinephrine spillover was the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure, in multivariable analysis. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel approach for control of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This article summarizes the available evidence for the effect of renal sympathetic denervation in the setting of heart failure. Key messages Experimental studies supported a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical studies demonstrated improvement of symptoms, and left ventricular function. In heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, renal sympathetic denervation is associated with improvement of surrogate endpoints.
Park, Chang-Yong; Choi, Hyun-Yong; You, Nam-Kyu; Roh, Tae Hoon; Seo, Sook Jin
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on survival and relevant factors in patients who underwent CRRT after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the laboratory, clinical, and radiological data of 29 patients who underwent CRRT among 1,190 TBI patients treated at our institution between April 2011 and June 2015. There were 20 men and 9 women, and the mean age was 60.2 years. The mean initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 9.2, and the mean injury severity score was 24. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used for analysis of survival and relevant factors. Results The actuarial median survival time of the 29 patients was 163 days (range, 3-317). Among the above 29 patients, 22 died with a median survival time of 8 days (range, 3-55). The causes of death were TBI-related in 8, sepsis due to pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 4, and multi-organ failure in 10. Among the various factors, urine quantity of more than 500 mL for 24-hours before receiving CRRT was a significant and favorable factor for survival in the multivariate analysis (p=0.026). Conclusion According to our results, we suggest that early intervention with CRRT may be beneficial in the treatment of TBI patients with impending acute renal failure (ARF). To define the therapeutic advantages of early CRRT in the TBI patients with ARF, a well-designed and controlled study with more cases is required. PMID:27857914
Vieira, Paulo J C; Silva, Leonardo R; Maldamer, Vinicius Z; Cipriano, Gerson; Chiappa, Adriana M G; Schuster, Rodrigo; Boni, Victor H F; Grandi, Tatiani; Wolpat, Andiara; Roseguini, Bruno T; Chiappa, Gaspar R
The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion. Arterial pressure and HR responses during exercise and recovery were similar in two groups of subjects. In the control group, CVR increased during exercise and remained elevated during circulatory occlusion, whereas no significant change was seen in the patients. Thus, the index of the metaboreflex was 7·82 ± 9·57 in the patients versus16·52 ± 14 units in the controls. The findings demonstrate that patients with CRF have a decreased vascular resistance response in the calf during the handgrip exercise, which suggests that CRF condition attenuates this reflex.
Asanuma, Kentaro; Adachi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Chiba, Shuichi
This study investigates the effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure. Female dogs received a lysine hydrochloride (lysine) of 4500 mg/kg/day (3.75 ml/kg/hr) for 3 consecutive days. The dogs were observed for clinical signs. Body weights were recorded, food consumption and water consumption calculated, and urinalysis and blood biochemistry were performed daily. Plasma samples for amino acid determinations were obtained from all dogs, which were necropsied on Day 3. Histopathological examinations were done on all test animals. Compound-related findings include the following. Blood biochemistry results showed increases in ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, and creatinine. Urinary changes consisted of increases in urine volume, total protein, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. In addition, macroscopic findings consisted of pale, congested capsule; microscopic findings consisted of hypertrophy of proximal convoluted tubule (mainly S1 segment), and degeneration/desquamation of urinary tubule (mainly S3 segment with hyaline casts) in the kidney. From these findings, it can be concluded that lysine is nephrotoxic in dogs. Nephrotoxicity of lysine may relate to direct tubular toxicity and to tubular obstruction.
Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus
Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.
Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn.
Jae-Chen, Shin; Young-Joo, Jeon; Seon-Min, Park; Kang Seok, Seo; Jung-Hyun, Shim; Jung-Il, Chae
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections. Systemic candidiasis is encountered with increasing frequency in immunocompromised hosts, leading to renal failure that results in severe morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying kidney susceptibility following infection with several C. albicans strains, such as B311 and SC5314. Fungal growth of the highly virulent SC5314 strain was 10(3)-fold higher compared to the nonpathogenic B311 strain in the kidneys. An intravenous challenge of SC5314 in mice, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine levels, which resulted in mortality at 8 or 35 days after infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas all the B311-infected mice had BUN and creatinine levels in the normal range and survived. Whether virulent C. albicans may escape clearance by activating signaling pathways that lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, was investigated. B311 infections significantly elevated TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression in the kidneys, whereas the expression in SC5314-infected mice remained unchanged. Furthermore, B311 infection significantly elevated the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicated that the less virulent strains of C. albicans induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. These results determined that an impairment of the protective mechanisms occurred in the kidneys with virulent C. albicans infection.
Gupta, Pallav; Rana, D S; Bhalla, A K; Gupta, Ashwini; Malik, Manish; Gupta, Anurag; Bhargava, Vinant
Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of renal failure in both native and allograft renal biopsies. Drugs and sarcoidosis are the commonest causes of granulomatous interstitial nephritis as reported in Western countries. Unlike the west, tuberculosis is the commonest cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in Indian subcontinent. The etiological factors, clinical course, glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes associated with granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been analyzed in the present study along with the outcome in patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis.
Faulhaber-Walter, Robert; Scholz, Sebastian; Haller, Herrmann; Kielstein, Jan T; Hafer, Carsten
Background Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT) study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL). The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital). Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d). One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]). Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™) index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health). Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion Mortality after severe AKI is higher than short-term prospective studies show, and morbidity is significant. Kidney recovery as well as general health remains incomplete. Reduction of QoL is minor, and social rehabilitation is very good. Affectivity is heterogeneous, but most patients experience emotional well-being. In summary, AKI in critically ill patients leads to incomplete rehabilitation but acceptable QoL after 5 years. PMID:27284261
Trachtman, H.; Wilson, D.; Rao, P.S. )
This study examined whether there is increased production of oxygen free radicals during chronic renal failure. Rats subjected to 3/4 nephrectomy and sham operated controls were killed after 3 weeks. Lipid extracts of plasma and renal tissue were examined by HPLC and kidney specimens were also analyzed by EPR spectroscopy. The redox capacity of blood was assessed using nitroblue tetrazolium and plasma ascorbate levels were measured with HPLC. There was no detectable renal production of oxygen free radicals in rats with chronic renal failure. Kidney parenchymal content of other oxidants and the oxidant: reductant ratio were similar in control and uremic animals. The plasma redox capacity and ascorbate levels were elevated in uremic rats. The authors conclude that early in the course of chronic renal failure, there is not excessive production of oxygen free radicals. There is accumulation of reductants, primarily ascorbate, in the plasma of uremic animals.
Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.
Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699
Booth, Lindsea C; May, Clive N; Yao, Song T
Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF.
Lewis, Helen; Arber, Sara
Previous medical research has shown that children with end-stage renal failure experience delay or underachievement of key markers of transition to adulthood. This article analyses 35 qualitative interviews with end-stage renal failure patients, aged 20-30 years, first diagnosed at 0-19 years of age, to explore how far delayed or underachievement in education and employment is related to their age at onset of end-stage renal failure. This study shows how unpredictable failures of renal replacement therapies, comorbidities and/or side effects of treatment in the early life course often coincided with critical moments for education and employment. Entering school, college, work-related training or employment, and disclosing health status or educational underachievement to an employer, were particularly critical, and those who were ill before puberty became progressively more disadvantaged in terms of successful transition into full-time employment, compared with those first diagnosed after puberty.
Abedat, Suzan; Beeri, Ronen; Valitsky, Michael; Daher, Sameh; Kott-Gutkowski, Miriam; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sosna, Jacob; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Lotan, Chaim
Renal failure is associated with aortic valve calcification. Using our rat model of uremia-induced reversible aortic valve calcification, we assessed the role of apoptosis and survival pathways in that disease. We also explored the effects of raloxifene, an estrogen receptor modulator, on valvular calcification. Gene array analysis was performed in aortic valves obtained from three groups of rats (n = 7 rats/group): calcified valves obtained from rats fed with uremic diet, valves after calcification resolution following diet cessation, and control. In addition, four groups of rats (n = 10 rats/group) were used to evaluate the effect of raloxifene in aortic valve calcification: three groups as mentioned above and a fourth group fed with the uremic diet that also received daily raloxifene. Evaluation included imaging, histology, and antigen expression analysis. Gene array results showed that the majority of the altered expressed genes were in diet group valves. Most apoptosis-related genes were changed in a proapoptotic direction in calcified valves. Apoptosis and decreases in several survival pathways were confirmed in calcified valves. Resolution of aortic valve calcification was accompanied by decreased apoptosis and upregulation of survival pathways. Imaging and histology demonstrated that raloxifene significantly decreased aortic valve calcification. In conclusion, downregulation of several survival pathways and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of aortic valve calcification. The beneficial effect of raloxifene in valve calcification is related to apoptosis modulation. This novel observation is important for developing remedies for aortic valve calcification in patients with renal failure. PMID:21335463
Haburjak, J J; Spangler, W L
Isoniazid-induced seizures resulted in rhabdomyolysis and associated acute renal tubular necrosis in a dog. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric renal failure, although recognised in the dog, are reported infrequently as a consequence of seizures. The clinical presentation of isoniazid toxicity in a dog is described.
Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G
The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.
Chan, Kwok-Ying; Yip, Terence; Sham, Mau-Kwong; Cheng, Benjamin Hon-Wai; Li, Cho-Wing; Wong, Yim-Chi; Lau, Vikki Wai-Kee
People with intellectual disabilities are among the most disadvantaged groups in society. Here we report a mentally incompetent end stage renal failure (ESRF) patient with frequent emergency visits who made a significant improvement in symptoms control and reduction in casualty visits after introduction of renal palliative care service. Multidisciplinary approach would be useful in this case. PMID:25838954
Sathe, K; Ali, U; Ohri, A
Several traditional medicines contain potentially toxic heavy metals. Heavy metal poisoning is not an uncommon cause of renal damage, although the diagnosis can be easily missed. We report a case of chronic ingestion of an ayurvedic medicine containing mercury in a 2-year-old girl, resulting in anuric renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis.
Dai, Qiming; Lu, Jing; Wang, Benwen; Ma, Genshan
This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility and effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with heart failure. A total of 20 patients with heart failure were enrolled, aged from 47 to 75 years (63±10 years). They were divided into the standard therapy (n = 10), and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation groups (n = 10). There were 15 males and 5 female patients, including 8 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 8 dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8 hypertensive cardiopathy. All of the patients met the criteria of New York Heart Association classes III-IV cardiac function. Patients with diabetes and renal failure were excluded. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was performed on the renal artery wall under X-ray guidance. Serum electrolytes, neurohormones, and 24 h urine volume were recorded 24 h before and after the operation. Echocardiograms were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and 6 months. Heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea and edema were also monitored. After renal nerve ablation, 24 h urine volume was increased, while neurohormone levels were decreased compared with those of pre-operation and standard therapy. No obvious change in heart rate or blood pressure was recorded. Symptoms of heart failure were improved in patients after the operation. No complications were recorded in the study. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for the patients with severe congestive heart failure.
Kreiniz, Natalia; Khateeb, Ali; Gino-Moor, Sharon; Polliack, Aaron; Tadmor, Tamar
Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, the combination of lenalidomide-dexamethasone has become one of the cornerstone regimens for the treatment of MM. Impairment of renal function exacerbation is a rare, but potential, complication of lenalidomide therapy in plasma cell dyscrasias. We present two patients who developed exacerbation of renal function during their first cycle of therapy with lenalidomide. In the first case, we present a 76-year-old-male with MM and impaired renal function, who declined two weeks after initiation of second-line therapy with lenalidomide. His renal functions improved after discontinuation of lenalidomide and with supportive care. In the second case, we describe a 61-year-old woman who was started on lenalidomide for relapsed MM and admitted to intensive care unit three weeks later due to severe renal failure. Despite intensive supportive care, her renal function deteriorated even more and she died. We conclude that renal failure is an uncommon, but serious, potential complication of lenalidomide therapy in plasma cell dyscrasias, particularly MM. Close monitoring of renal function is clearly recommended during this treatment.
Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H
The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF.
Schiller, Alicia M.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.
The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF. PMID:26300788
Antonelli, A R; Bonfioli, F; Garrubba, V; Ghisellini, M; Lamoretti, M P; Nicolai, P; Camerini, C; Maiorca, R
The audiological results of 46 patients (m/f 27/19, mean age; 57.4 +/- 11.1) with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing dialysis were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 25). Mean pure tone average from 0.5 to 8 kHz was about 15 dB higher in CRF patients than in control subjects. The ABR parameters of the test group were then contrasted with those recorded in a second control group (n = 47, m/f 26/21, mean age: 56.1 +/- 11.4) matched by age, gender and degree of hearing loss (HL). After assessing the normality of the groups by the usual criteria, using the data of a sample of normal young adults, the ABR were found to be abnormal in 23.9% of the controls and in the 39.13% of the CRF patients. Wave V, I-III, III-V and I-V delays were significantly shorter in the females of the control group; in the CRF group, only the V and the I-V delays were shorter in females. The only age-dependent effect was found in the CRF sample, in which older patients had significantly longer I-III IPLD. The degree of HL influenced the latency of the waves in both groups but only the I-V IPLD was longer in CRF patients with pronounced high tone loss. The most distinguishing feature between the effects of CRF plus ageing and those of normal ageing was the lengthening of the I-III IPLD in the test group. This finding is likely to reflect a subclinical disorder of the VIII nerve function that is a part of the axonal uremic neuropathy.
Modi, Jwalant; Kamal, Jeanne; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) multiple myeloma (MM) is a very rare form of myeloma affecting less than 2% of all myeloma patients. It has a multiorgan involvement with renal failure being the key feature. We present here a case of IgD MM in a 62-year-old white male, smoker with past medical history of hypertension, who presented to emergency department with complaints of lower abdominal pain, constipation and decreased urination. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory investigation showed S.Cr 5.99 mg/dL, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and corrected S.Ca 10.6 mg/dL. Urine dipstick showed 100 protein and TP/Cr ratio was 23. Serology was positive for serum free lambda chain level of 8,947.6 mg/L as well with free κ/λ ratio < 0.01. The results of serum and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation were also supportive of diagnosis of IgD MM. IgD level was remarkably elevated (27,300 mg/L) too. CT scan of abdomen/pelvis was negative for obstructive uropathy. Skeletal survey showed a solitary lytic lesion in the iliac crest. His kidney function deteriorated next day requiring hemodialysis. The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell hypercellularity (70-80%) and flow cytometry showed 8% monoclonal IgD lambda plasma cells. The patient was started on bortezomib and dexamethasone and he underwent bone marrow transplant 6 months later. He is doing well hematologically now but he remains dialysis-dependent. IgD MM is a very rare disease affecting younger population with poor prognosis; patients often end up on hemodialysis despite better control of the hematological component. PMID:26124916
Modi, Jwalant; Kamal, Jeanne; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) multiple myeloma (MM) is a very rare form of myeloma affecting less than 2% of all myeloma patients. It has a multiorgan involvement with renal failure being the key feature. We present here a case of IgD MM in a 62-year-old white male, smoker with past medical history of hypertension, who presented to emergency department with complaints of lower abdominal pain, constipation and decreased urination. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory investigation showed S.Cr 5.99 mg/dL, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and corrected S.Ca 10.6 mg/dL. Urine dipstick showed 100 protein and TP/Cr ratio was 23. Serology was positive for serum free lambda chain level of 8,947.6 mg/L as well with free κ/λ ratio < 0.01. The results of serum and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation were also supportive of diagnosis of IgD MM. IgD level was remarkably elevated (27,300 mg/L) too. CT scan of abdomen/pelvis was negative for obstructive uropathy. Skeletal survey showed a solitary lytic lesion in the iliac crest. His kidney function deteriorated next day requiring hemodialysis. The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell hypercellularity (70-80%) and flow cytometry showed 8% monoclonal IgD lambda plasma cells. The patient was started on bortezomib and dexamethasone and he underwent bone marrow transplant 6 months later. He is doing well hematologically now but he remains dialysis-dependent. IgD MM is a very rare disease affecting younger population with poor prognosis; patients often end up on hemodialysis despite better control of the hematological component.
Sultana, S; Rahman, M H; Paul, S K; Hossain, M M
A prospective study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from October, 2001 to October, 2003 to find out the impact of different etiology of chronic renal failure on growth in children. Fifty children of both sexes under 15 years of age with clinical and biochemical evidence of chronic renal failure (CRF) with creatinine clearance (Ccr) of <75 ml/min/1.73m2 were included in the study. On the basis of underlying causes of CRF, the children were divided into congenital (n=30) and acquired (n=20) groups. All patients' height, weight, radiographs of different bones was obtained to evaluate the presence of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and for assessment of bone age. Serum intact parathormone (iPTH) level was also assayed in all patients. These parameters were evaluated in two groups. CRF children due to congenital anomalies had stunting and wasting in 23 (76.7%) and 20 (66.7%) cases respectively and the difference between two groups was highly significant (P<0.001). Alkaline phosphatase (467.70+/-218.55 U/L) and iPTH (91.43+/-33.42 pg/ml) were also significantly higher in the congenital group (P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively). Radiographic features of ROD were present in 15 (50%) cases in congenital group in comparison to 4 (20%) in acquired group and the growth zone lesion was the commonest type of ROD in congenital group (66.7%). CRF should be diagnosed as early as possible to maintain growth potential.
Cho, Hyungjin; Yu, Hoon; Shin, Eunhye; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Su-Kil; Jo, Min-Woo
Background Population aging is a major health concern in Asian countries and it has affected the age distribution of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a consequence, the need for kidney transplantation in the geriatric population has increased, but the shortage of donors is an obstacle for geriatric renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for graft failure and death in geriatric renal transplantation. Methods Kidney transplantations performed in a tertiary hospital in South Korea from May 1995 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Recipients younger than 60 years of age or who underwent other organ transplantations were excluded. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess patient and graft survival. A Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for graft failure and patient death. Results A total of 229 kidney transplantation patients were included. Graft survival at 1, 5, and 10 years were 93.2%, 82.9%, and 61.2% respectively. Patient survival at 1, 5, and 10 years were 94.6%, 86.9%, and 68.8%, respectively. According to the Cox multivariate analysis, ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio [HR] 3.91, p < 0.002), DGF (HR 3.544, p < 0.004), CMV infection (HR 2.244, p < 0.011), and HBV infection (HR 6.349, p < 0.015) were independent risk factors for graft survival. Recipient age (HR 1.128, p < 0.024), ABO incompatibility (HR 3.014, p < 0.025), CMV infection (HR 2.532, p < 0.010), and the number of HLA mismatches (HR 1.425, p < 0.007) were independent risk factors for patient death. Conclusion Kidney transplantation in the geriatric population showed good clinical outcomes. ABO incompatibility, DGF, CMV infection, and HBV infection were risk factors for graft failure and the recipient age, ABO incompatibility, CMV infection, and the number of HLA mismatches were risk factors for patient death in geriatric renal transplantation. PMID:27074003
Wang, Yunbo; Yan, Junling; Xi, Liang; Qian, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhenghong; Yang, Lina
Multiple organ failure is a common outcome of hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation, and the kidney is one of the prime target organs involved. The main objective of the study was to evaluate whether crocetin, a natural product from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has beneficial effects on renal dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Anesthetized rats were bled to reduce mean arterial blood pressure to 35 (SD, 5) mmHg for 60 min and then were resuscitated with their withdrawn shed blood and normal saline. Crocetin was administered via the duodenum at a dose of 50 mg/kg 40 min after hemorrhage. The increase in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen was significantly reduced at 2 h after hemorrhage and resuscitation in crocetin-treated rats. The increases in renal nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 were also attenuated by crocetin. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in a significant elevation in malondialdehyde production and was accompanied by a reduction in total superoxide dismutase activity, activation of nuclear factor κB, and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These changes were significantly attenuated by crocetin at 2 h after resuscitation. These results suggested that crocetin blocks inflammatory cascades by inhibiting production of reactive oxygen species and restoring superoxide dismutase activity to ameliorate renal dysfunction caused by hemorrhage shock and resuscitation.
Martínez Bernabé, E; Paluzie-Ávila, G; Terre Ohme, S; Ruiz Poza, D; Parada Aradilla, M A; González Martínez, J; Albertí Valmaña, R; Castellvi Gordo, M
Introducción: Los sistemas de soporte a la toma de decisiones clínicas utilizan característicasindividuales del paciente para generar recomendaciones a los clínicos.Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una herramienta de ajuste de fármacos en insuficienciarenal como sistema de soporte en la toma de decisiones clínicas encuanto al grado de aceptación de las intervenciones y el tiempo invertido por elfarmacéutico.Método: Estudio cuasi-experimental del tipo antes y después realizado en dos hospitalescomarcales. La intervención consistía en la incorporación de una alerta automatizadade función renal en la orden médica. Antes de la intervención (2007) semonitorizaron 40 fármacos. Se revisaron las analíticas de pacientes cuyo tratamientocontenía alguno de ellos. En caso de función renal alterada, se insertabauna recomendación de ajuste en la orden médica. Si el médico aceptaba, se considerabaéxito. El tiempo medio empleado fue 1 minuto/analítica consultada y 3minutos/recomendación. En 2008 se incorporó un sistema de recomendación automáticade ajuste según función renal de 100 fármacos con mensajes emergentes.En una fase posterior (2009) se evaluó y comparó el número de intervenciones y elporcentaje de éxito con la herramienta.Resultados: Fase previa: Se validaron 28.234 Ordenes Médicas Electrónicas, correspondientesa un promedio de 205 pacientes hospitalizados/día, y se revisaron 4.035analíticas. Se realizaron 121 intervenciones farmacéuticas (0,43% del total de órdenesmédicas). Se obtuvo éxito en el 33,06% de las intervenciones. El tiempo invertidopor el farmacéutico en consultar analíticas y realizar recomendaciones fue 73,3horas (67,25 horas correspondían a pacientes sin alteración de la función renal y enlos que no se realizó ninguna intervención). Fase posterior: Se validaron 26.584Ordenes Médicas Electrónicas, correspondientes a un promedio de 193 pacienteshospitalizados/día, y se realizaron 1.737 intervenciones
Watanabe, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Akio; Isono, Makoto; Sinchi, Masayuki; Masunaga, Ayako; Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko
A 64-year-old woman who has a history of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital with the exacerbation of exertional dyspnea and urinary retention due to severe gross hematuria. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor involving the inferior and middle poles of the right kidney with no nodal involvement, or distant metastases, but that was accompanied by markedly proliferated blood vessels around the inferior vena cava and right renal vein, seemingly a result of an arteriovenous fistula. After embolization of the right renal artery, right radical nephrectomy was performed via a thoracoabdominal incision. The histological diagnosis of the tumor was clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G2 > G3, Fuhrman nuclear grade3, pT2a. Although the presence of an arteriovenous fistula was not confirmed histologically, the severely condensed proliferation of the blood vessels in the renal hilum is consistent with the diagnosis of an arteriovenous fistula accompanying renal cell carcinoma. Immediately after the operation, her symptoms of congestive heart failure, including dyspnea, subsided and her serum BNP levels and CTR value returned to normal levels. Two years after the operation, she shows no signs of recurrence or metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, there have been 25 cases of arteriovenous fistulas accompanied by renal cell carcinoma but only a few in which the symptoms were those of severe congestive heart failure. Clinicians should be aware that renal cell carcinoima could be a cause of heart failure.
González de Molina, Francisco Javier; Ferrer, Ricard
Severe sepsis and septic shock cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Early appropriate empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and advanced resuscitation therapy are the cornerstones of treatment for these conditions. In prescribing an antibiotic regimen in septic patients with acute renal failure treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, several factors should be considered: pharmacokinetics, weight, residual renal function, hepatic function, mode of renal replacement therapy (membrane and surface area, sieving coefficient, effluent and dialysate rate, and blood flow rate), severity of illness, microorganism, minimum inhibitory concentration, and others. Studies that determine the serum antibiotic concentrations are very useful in establishing the correct dosage in critical patients.
Talaie, Haleh; Emam-Hadi, Mohammad; Panahandeh, Reyhaneh; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad
ABSTRACT The clinical syndrome of rhabdomyolysis is caused by injury of skeletal muscles resulting in release of intracellular muscle constituents. Drug poisoning is one of the causes of severe rhabdomyolysis. Severe electrolyte disorders and acute renal failure may occur in rhabdomyolysis, leading to life-threatening situations. Early initiation of renal replacement therapy can help improve outcome. In the present retrospective study, medical records of 181 patients suspected of rhabdomyolysis from Loghman-Hakim Hospital in the period of 2004 to 2005 were reviewed. A creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) value of greater than five times normal (>/=975 IU/L) was the basis for confirmation of a rhabdomyolysis diagnosis. An increased serum creatinine level of more than 30% was the basis for acute renal failure diagnosis. Out of 156 patients, 100 were male with an age range of 13 to 78 years. One hundred and two (92%) patients had CPK >975 U/L, and 36 patients (28.6%) had a 30% or more increase in their creatinine level during their admission days. Mean fluid intake was the same in patients with renal failure and those without renal failure. In 8.3% of the cases, multiple drug poisoning was observed. The most common compound overdose associated with rhabdomyolysis was opium. It is concluded that fluid therapy alone is not adequate in the management of acute renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Therefore, other etiological factors are involved that remain to be elucidated by further studies.
Burton, C J; Tomson, C R
The use of dopamine for the prevention and treatment of acute renal failure is widespread. Its use is based on physiology suggesting selective renal vasodilation when it is infused at low dose. This article reviews the available data on the clinical use of dopamine. When used to prevent acute renal failure in high-risk treatments there is no evidence of benefit of dopamine but, given the low incidence of significant renal failure, the studies are underpowered. In treatment of acute renal failure, the quality of the data is poor. Only in one small randomised trial of moderate acute renal failure in patients with malaria was a clinically significant benefit of dopamine shown. The rest of the data, in the form of case series, showed either no benefit of dopamine or small benefits of little clinical significance. Again, these studies are of insufficient power for conclusions to be drawn as to the overall benefits and risks. We conclude that benefits of dopamine use cannot be ruled out by currently available data but its use cannot be advised until trials examining clinically important endpoints in large numbers of patients have been performed.
Stewart, J H; McCarthy, S W; Storey, B G; Roberts, B A; Gallery, E; Mahony, J F
The nature of the original renal disease was determined in 403 consecutive cases of end-stage renal failure, in 317 of which the clinical diagnosis was corroborated by histological examination of the kidney. Five diseases accounted for 20 or more cases--glomerulonephritis (31% of the total), analgesic nephropathy (29%), primary vesicoureteral reflux (8%), essential hypertension (6%), and polycystic kidneys (5%). In only four cases did renal failure result from chronic pyelonephritis without a demonstrable primary cause. Greater use of micturating cystography and cystoscopy and routine urine testing for salicylate are advocated for earlier diagnosis of the major causes of "pyelonephritis". The incidence of end-stage renal failure in people aged 15-55 in New South Wales was estimated to be at least 34 new cases per million of total population each year. PMID:1090338
Mullens, Wilfried; Verbrugge, Frederik Hendrik; Nijst, Petra; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson
Increased neurohumoral stimulation resulting in excessive sodium avidity and extracellular volume overload are hallmark features of decompensated heart failure. Especially in case of concomitant renal dysfunction, the kidneys often fail to elicit effective natriuresis. While assessment of renal function is generally performed by measuring serum creatinine-a surrogate for glomerular filtration-, this only represents part of the nephron's function. Alterations in tubular sodium handling are at least equally important in the development of volume overload and congestion. Venous congestion and neurohumoral activation in advanced HF further promote renal sodium and water retention. Interestingly, early on, before clinical signs of heart failure are evident, intrinsic renal derangements already impair natriuresis. This clinical review discusses the importance of heart failure (HF) induced changes in different nephron segments. A better understanding of cardiorenal interactions which ultimately result in sodium avidity in HF might help to treat and prevent congestion in chronic and acute HF.
Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, GianLuca; Nait, Francesca; Pezzutto, Francesca; Martinis, Flavia; Sechi, Leonardo A
Patients with renal failure are at increased risk of cardiovascular events even at the earliest stages of disease. In addition to many classic cardiovascular risk factors, many conditions that are commonly identified as emerging risk factors might contribute to occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Changes in circulating levels of many of these emerging risk factors have been demonstrated in patients with early stages of renal failure caused by different types of renal disease and have been associated with detection of cardiovascular complications. However, for most of these factors evidence of benefits of correction on cardiovascular outcome is missing. In this article, we comment on the role of lipoprotein(a) and prothrombotic factors as potential contributors to cardiovascular events in patients with early renal failure.
Schmieder, Roland E; Mitrovic, Veselin; Hengstenberg, Christian
Renal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and an important prognostic factor for adverse outcomes. Worsening of renal function occurs in 30-50% of patients hospitalised for AHF, and is associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay and increased risk of readmission. Likely mechanisms involved in the decrease in renal function include impaired haemodynamics and activation of neurohormonal factors, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system and the arginine-vasopressin system. Additionally, many drugs currently used to treat AHF have a detrimental effect on renal function. Therefore, pharmacotherapy for AHF should carefully take into account any potential complications related to renal function. Serelaxin, currently in clinical development for the treatment of AHF is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, identical in structure to the naturally occurring human relaxin-2 peptide hormone that mediates cardiac and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Data from both pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate a potentially beneficial effect of serelaxin on kidney function. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and impact of impairment of renal function in AHF, and the potential benefits of new therapies, such as serelaxin, in this context.
Petrie, Colin J; Mark, Partick B; Weir, Robin A P
Renal dysfunction is a frequent and progressive complication of chronic heart failure and is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular mortality. It is intimately associated with cardiovascular disease even in its earliest stages. Although cardiovascular and renal disease share many risk factors, the prognostic implications do not simply reflect widespread atherosclerotic vascular disease as this appears to be as important in those with heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy as it is in those with coronary artery disease. There may be a role in the progression of heart failure, as the deleterious effects of even "mild" renal impairment seem to be borne out in predicting outcome, in a broad range of heart failure patients including those with heart failure and preserved systolic function. Renal dysfunction is both an indication for, as well as frequently limiting intervention with intensive disease modifying therapy. Although renal impairment is common in heart failure and these patients are at higher risk for adverse events including death, they are under represented in clinical trials.
Molnár, Márta; Szekeresné Izsák, Margit; Nagy, Judit; Figler, Mária
It is known that dietary protein restriction slows the progression of chronic renal disease. If daily protein intake is less than 0.5-0.6 g/kgbw, the diet has to be supplemented with essential aminoacids/ketoacids. In this study the authors evaluate the long-term effect of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids on the progression of chronic renal failure, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, nutritional status, the compliance of patients and the permanent dietary education for the compliance. 51 predialysis patients have been treated with ketoacids supplemented low-protein diet during 12-57 months (mean treatment period: 26 months). Serum creatinine raised from 349.72+/-78.04 micromol/l to 460.66+/-206.66 micromol/l (27 micromol/l/year or 2.3 micromol/l/month), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased from 21.52+/-7.84 ml/min to 18.22+/-7.76 ml/min (0.83 ml/min/year or 0.07 ml/min/month). The slope of 1/serum creatinine versus time was 0.0018 by linear regression analysis. Serum parathormon decreased significantly, but serum calcium and phosphorus did not change. Nutritional status of patients did not change significantly during the follow-up period. Protein intake decreased significantly and remained at this lower level during the treatment period. According to results: low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids was effective in slowing progression of chronic renal failure, decreased PTH, did not change nutritional status. With permanently and good education it was possible to keep patients on low-protein diet for a long period.
Nampoory, Naryanan; Gheith, Osama; Al-Otaibi, Torki; Halim, Medhat; Nair, Prasad; Said, Tarek; Mosaad, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Zakareya; Alsayed, Ayman; Yagan, Jude
We report a case of slow graft function in a renal transplant recipient caused by uremic acute pericardial effusion with tamponade. Urgent pericardiocentesis was done with an improvement in blood pressure, immediate diuresis, and quick recovery of renal function back to baseline. Pericardial tamponade should be included in consideration of causes of type 1 cardiorenal syndrome in renal transplant recipients.
Falconnier, Ariane D; Haefeli, Walter E; Schoenenberger, Ronald A; Surber, Christian; Martin-Facklam, Meret
OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of immediate concurrent feedback on dose adjustment in patients with renal failure. DESIGN Prospective 12-month study in patients with various degrees of renal failure, with comparison to a retrospective control group. SETTING A 39-bed unit of a university hospital providing primary and tertiary care. PATIENTS Patients with renal failure (estimated creatinine clearance ≤50 mL/min) receiving at least 1 pharmacologically active drug. INTERVENTIONS Education of physicians and immediate concurrent feedback on the ward giving estimated creatinine clearance and dose recommendations for renally eliminated drugs adjusted to individual renal function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The percentage of dosage regimens adjusted to renal function and cost assessment of drug therapy were calculated. Overall, 17% of the patients had at least 1 estimated creatinine clearance ≤50 mL/min. In the intervention group, the dose of 81% of renally eliminated drugs was adjusted to renal function, compared with 33% in the control group ( P < .001). The mean difference in cost between standard and adjusted dose of renally eliminated drugs in the intervention and control groups was 5.3 ± 12.3 and 0.75 ± 2.8 Swiss francs (approximately US$3.5 and US$0.5), respectively ( P < .001), accounting for 16.5% and 2.8%, respectively, of daily medication costs of all drugs. CONCLUSIONS The proportion of doses of renally eliminated drugs adjusted to renal function can be substantially increased by immediate concurrent feedback. This saves drug costs and has the potential to prevent adverse drug reactions. PMID:11422633
Kalliovalkama, J; Jolma, P; Tolvanen, J P; Kähönen, M; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Saha, H; Tuorila, S; Moilanen, E; Pörsti, I
Chronic renal failure is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and abnormal arterial tone, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the responses of isolated mesenteric arterial rings from Wistar-Kyoto rats in standard organ chambers 6 wk after subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy or sham operation. Subtotal nephrectomy resulted in a 1.7-fold elevation of plasma urea nitrogen, whereas blood pressure was not significantly affected. Endothelium-mediated relaxations of norepinephrine-precontracted rings to ACh were impaired in renal failure rats. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibited relaxations to ACh more effectively in the renal failure group, whereas the cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac did not significantly affect the response in either group. Inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels by charybdotoxin and apamin attenuated NO synthase- and cyclooxygenase-resistant relaxations to ACh in control but not renal failure rats and abolished the difference between these groups. Endothelium-independent relaxations to isoproterenol and cromakalim, vasodilators acting via beta-adrenoceptors and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, respectively, were impaired in the renal failure group, whereas relaxations to the NO donor nitroprusside were similar in both groups. In conclusion, endothelium-mediated relaxation in renal failure rats was impaired in the absence and presence of NO synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibition but not with prevented smooth muscle hyperpolarization. Endothelium-independent relaxations to isoproterenol and cromakalim were also attenuated after 5/6 nephrectomy. These results suggest that impaired vasodilatation in experimental renal failure could be attributed to reduced relaxation via arterial K(+) channels.
Coulthard, Malcolm G
Most babies with chronic renal failure are identified antenatally, and over half that are treated with peritoneal dialysis receive kidney transplants before school age. Most infants that develop acute renal failure have hypotension following cardiac surgery, or multiple organ failure. Sometimes the falls in glomerular filtration and urine output are physiological and reversible, and sometimes due to kidney injury, but (illogically) it is now common to define them all as having 'acute kidney injury'. Contrary to widespread opinion, careful interpretation of the plasma creatinine concentrations can provide sensitive evidence of early acute renal failure. Conservative management frequently leads to under-nutrition or fluid overload. Acute peritoneal dialysis is often technically fraught in very small patients, and haemotherapies have been limited by vascular access and anticoagulation requirements, the need to blood-prime circuits, and serious limitations in regulating fluid removal. Newer devices, including the Nidus, have been specifically designed to reduce these difficulties.
Kumar, Sachin; Taylor, David O
Over a million patients get hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure which poses an insurmountable financial burden on the health care system. Heart failure alone incurs over 30 billion dollars with half the cost spent towards acute hospitalizations. Majority of the treatment strategies have focused towards decongesting patients which often comes with the cost of worsening renal function. Renal dysfunction in the setting of acute decompensated heart failure portends worse morbidity and mortality. Recently, there has been a change in the focus with shift towards therapies attempting to conserve renal function. In the past decade, we have witnessed several large randomized controlled trials testing the established as well as emerging therapies in this subset of population with mixed results. This review intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacologic therapies commonly utilized in the management of acute decompensated heart failure and the body of evidence supporting these strategies.
Uechi, Masami; Sasaki, Takahiro; Ueno, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Taiji; Ishikawa, Yumi
To determine the acute effects of carvedilol (beta-blocker) on cardiovascular and renal function and its pharmacokinetics in dogs. Fifteen mature mongrel dogs (7-15 kg) of both sexes were used in these experiments. Eight dogs served as controls, and seven dogs served as iatrogenic mitral regurgitation (MR) experimental animals. Carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered, and the blood carvedilol concentration was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine was also evaluated. Isoproterenol (0.025 microg/kg/min) was infused via the saphenous vein for 5 min, and phenylephrine (5 microg/kg) was injected with carvedilol (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) or placebo for 4 days. The heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured, and LV fractional shortening was measured by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate and sodium para-aminohippurate. Carvedilol (0.2 mg/kg) decreased the heart rate, whereas renal function, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular contractile function were not affected. Carvedilol (0.4 mg/kg) decreased heart rate, blood pressure, and renal function. The tachycardic response to isoproterenol was significantly diminished for 36 hr by 0.4 mg/kg carvedilol. Carvedilol 0.2 mg/kg inhibited this effect for 24 hr. Thus, it is necessary to titrate the dosage of carvedilol, it should be initiated at less than 0.2 mg/kg and titrated up to 0.4 mg/kg for heart failure dogs.
Lim, Victoria S; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Crowley, Jan R; Fangman, Jerry; Flanigan, Michael
To examine the protein anabolic actions of insulin in chronic renal failure, the authors measured four sets of whole body leucine fluxes during insulin alone and insulin with amino acid infusion in nine uremic patients before hemodialysis (B-HD). Seven were restudied 8 wk after initiation of maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Six normal subjects served as control (N). All values ( micro mol/kg/h, mean +/- SEM) are presented in the sequence of B-HD, HD, and N, and only P < 0.05 are listed. During Flux 1 (baseline), D (leucine release from body protein degradation) were 114 +/- 7, 126 +/- 4, and 116 +/- 6, respectively. C (leucine oxidation rates) were 18 +/- 2, 17 +/- 2, and 21 +/- 3, respectively. S (leucine disappearance into body protein [index of protein synthesis]) were 96 +/- 6, 107 +/- 4, and 94 +/- 4, respectively, and balances (net leucine flux into protein [values were negative during fasting]) were -18 +/- 2, -17 +/- 2, and -21 +/- 3, respectively. During Flux 2 (low-dose insulin infusion), D were 89 +/- 3, 98 +/- 6, and 94 +/- 5, respectively; C were 12 +/- 1, 11 +/- 2, and 18 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.02); S were 77 +/- 4, 87 +/- 5, and 76 +/- 5, respectively, and balances were -12 +/- 1, -11 +/- 2, and -18 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.02). During Flux 3 (high-dose insulin infusion): D were 77 +/- 3, 82 +/- 7, and 84 +/- 5, respectively; C were 9 +/- 1, 8 +/- 1, and 14 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.005); S were 68 +/- 4, 74 +/- 6, and 70 +/- 5, respectively, and balances were -9 +/- 1, -8 +/- 1, and -14 +/- 1, respectively (P = 0.005). In Flux 4 (insulin infused with amino acids): D were 73 +/- 3, 107 +/- 18, and 85 +/- 7, respectively; C were 35 +/- 4, 29 +/- 5, and 39 +/- 3, respectively; S were 105 +/- 5, 145 +/- 15, and 113 +/- 6, respectively (P = 0.02), and balances were 32 +/- 4, 38 +/- 5, and 27 +/- 3, respectively. These data show that B-HD and HD patients were as sensitive as normal subjects to the protein anabolic actions of insulin. Insulin alone
Acute renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis after strenuous exercise is well known. We describe here a new type of acute renal failure with severe loin pain which develops after anaerobic exercise (ALPE), for example, 200-meter track racing. The patients complained of severe loin pain several hours after exercise and presented at the emergency room. Since our first description 118 cases have been reported. The serum creatinine concentration was 4.7 +/- 2.9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD) at the initial examination and 6.0 +/- 3.0 mg/dl at maximum. Forty-nine of 96 cases whose serum uric acid levels were described revealed renal hypouricemia (51.0%). A specific risk factor is suggested by the fact that acute renal failure recurred after exercise in 20 of 118 cases. The creatine phosphokinase and serum myoglobin concentrations were normal or only slightly elevated, suggesting damaged type 2 muscle fibers. Renal computed tomography scans, performed several hours to 1-2 days after contrast medium administration, revealed multiple wedge-shaped areas of contrast enhancement. Forty-six of 50 cases examined by delayed computed tomography scan revealed bilateral wedge-shaped contrast enhancement. Although less efficient, radioisotopic scans, such as a methylene diphosphonate bone scan, have also been employed to detect patchy accumulation of isotopes in the kidneys (12 of 19 cases). The pathogenesis of ALPE may be patchy vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, because of its wedge-shaped distribution and its reversibility. Such vascular spasm would account for the renal pain. The prognosis was good, although 20 of 109 cases required dialysis treatment. In conclusion, there are two types of exercise-induced acute renal failure: one is the well-known myoglobin-induced acute renal failure, and the other is ALPE that may be nonmyoglobin induced or induced by myolysis of type 2 muscle fibers due to anaerobic exercise. One hundred and eighteen cases of ALPE were collected from the
Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio
Background Acute renal failure is one of the most serious complications of envenoming resulting from Crotalus durissus terrificus bites. This study evaluated the relevance of hyperuricemia and oxidative stress and the effects of allopurinol and probenecid in renal dysfunction caused by direct nephrotoxicity of C. d. terrificus venom. Methodology/Principal Findings Hematocrit, protein, renal function and redox status were assessed in mice. High ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione and hyperuricemia induced by C. d. terrificus venom were ameliorated by both, allopurinol or probenecid, but only allopurinol significantly reduced the lethality caused by C. d. terrificus venom. The effectiveness of probenecid is compromised probably because it promoted hypercreatinemia and hypocreatinuria and worsed the urinary hypo-osmolality in envenomed mice. In turn, the highest effectiveness of allopurinol might be due to its ability to diminish the intracellular formation of uric acid. Conclusions/Significance Data provide consistent evidences linking uric acid with the acute renal failure induced by C. d. terrificus venom, as well as that this envenoming in mice constitutes an attractive animal model suitable for studying the hyperuricemia and that the allopurinol deserves to be clinically evaluated as an approach complementary to anti-snake venom serotherapy. PMID:21909449
Chronic illnesses can cause wide range of personality and behavioral disorders and require appropriate evaluation. Poor patient compliance with prescribed medications and other aspects of management can affect the outcome towards undesirable situation. The setting of renal transplantation presents a broad spectrum of problems and consequences. People involved (patients, their families or treating physicians) have lifelong commitment with evaluation and implementation of measures towards resolving the issues. Psychiatric evaluation is part of this scenario, which starts with evaluation of organ recipient along with donor and family as whole, right from time of diagnosis of end organ failure to transplant and then lifelong. This review highlights common issues faced at different stages of this lengthy pathway. PMID:26664203
Motoki, Takahiro; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Komaki, Hirofumi; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Oya, Yasushi; Takeshita, Eri; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Saito, Takashi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Murata, Miho; Sasaki, Masayuki
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscular disorder in which respiratory and heart failures are the main causes of death. Intensive intervention in respiratory and cardiac function has dramatically improved the prognosis; however, dysfunction in other multiple organs may emerge in the later stages of the disease. We report the case of four non-ambulatory DMD patients who presented with renal failure. Common findings included decreased fluid intake, use of diuretics, and presence of chronic heart failure. The levels of serum cystatin C (CysC), a marker of kidney function unaffected by reduced muscle mass, were elevated in all four patients. In two patients, renal failure improved by increasing fluid intake, and discontinuing or reducing the dose of diuretics. The findings suggest that non-ambulatory DMD patients are at a risk of reduced kidney perfusion, which potentially leads to prerenal failure. Therefore, in DMD patients, dehydration signs and CysC levels should be monitored.
Kar, Subrata; Chockalingam, Anand
Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) are associated with myopathy, myalgias, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdoymyolysis is a rare complication and may cause acute renal failure, which may be fatal. In such cases, alternative therapies should be considered. In this review, we attempted to elucidate the lipid management options in patients with rhabdomyolysis and coronary artery disease. We also describe a case report of a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis from dual antilipid therapy followed by acute renal failure and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Such a complex case has not been reported in the literature, and lipid management options may include niacin, omega 3-fatty acids, or bile acid sequestrants. Once alternative therapies are initiated, monitoring a patient closely with evaluation for associated adverse events should be performed.
Neven, Ellen; De Schutter, Tineke M; Dams, Geert; Gundlach, Kristina; Steppan, Sonja; Büchel, Janine; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; D'Haese, Patrick C; Behets, Geert J
The alternative phosphate binder calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate (CaMg) effectively reduces hyperphosphatemia, the most important inducer of vascular calcification, in chronic renal failure (CRF). In this study, the effect of low dose CaMg on vascular calcification and possible effects of CaMg on bone turnover, a persistent clinical controversy, were evaluated in chronic renal failure rats. Adenine-induced CRF rats were treated daily with 185 mg/kg CaMg or vehicle for 5 weeks. The aortic calcium content and area% calcification were measured to evaluate the effect of CaMg. To study the effect of CaMg on bone remodeling, rats underwent 5/6th nephrectomy combined with either a normal phosphorus diet or a high phosphorus diet to differentiate between possible bone effects resulting from either CaMg-induced phosphate deficiency or a direct effect of Mg. Vehicle or CaMg was administered at doses of 185 and 375 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Bone histomorphometry was performed. Aortic calcium content was significantly reduced by 185 mg/kg/day CaMg. CaMg ameliorated features of hyperparathyroid bone disease. In CRF rats on a normal phosphorus diet, the highest CaMg dose caused an increase in osteoid area due to phosphate depletion. The high phosphorus diet combined with the highest CaMg dose prevented the phosphate depletion and thus the rise in osteoid area. CaMg had no effect on osteoblast/osteoclast or dynamic bone parameters, and did not alter bone Mg levels. CaMg at doses that reduce vascular calcification did not show any harmful effect on bone turnover.
Cecere, Nicolas; Goffette, Pierre; Deprez, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Morelle, Johann
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones is considered a safe and efficient method to facilitate fragmentation and stone removal. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with a solitary functioning kidney who presented an acute-onset anuria and renovascular renal failure the day after ESWL. We speculate that vascular calcifications in the area targeted by shock waves played a critical role in renal artery obstruction in the present case. PMID:26251710
Tarrass, Faissal; Koenig, Jean Louis; Leroy, Fanny; Mackaya, Léandre; Colomb, Henri
In 1997, a new DNA virus, designated TTV "Transfusion Transmitted Virus", was isolated and seemed to be associated with non A-G post-transfusion hepatitis. The virus infects mainly patients at risk for parenteral exposure and hence, prone to develop chronic liver disease, as well as healthy populations worldwide. Few reports, however, have been published on the epidemiology and potential significance of TTV infection in patients with renal disease. This paper reviews, characterization of the virus, the history of its discovery, taxonomy and identification. Current status of TTV infection in patients with renal diseases are also summarised.
Oe, Shinji; Shibata, Michihiko; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Hiura, Masaaki; Abe, Shintaro; Harada, Masaru
A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data showed severe liver injury and that the patient was positive for immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies. He was also complicated with severe renal dysfunction and had an extremely high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Therefore, he was diagnosed with severe acute liver failure with acute renal failure (ARF) caused by HAV infection. Prognosis was expected to be poor because of complications by ARF and high serum HGF. However, liver and renal functions both improved rapidly without intensive treatment, and he was subsequently discharged from our hospital on the 21(st) hospital day. Although complication with ARF and high levels of serum HGF are both important factors predicting poor prognosis in acute liver failure patients, the present case achieved a favorable outcome. Endogenous HGF might play an important role as a regenerative effector in injured livers and kidneys.
Müller-Wiefel, D E; Schärer, K; Fischer, W; Michalk, D
Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG ) and adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) levels were determined in 43 children with chronic renal failure on conservative treatment (CT), and 12 children on regular hemodialysis (HD) immediately before and after a HD session. The results were compared to non-anemic and anemic controls. In spite of anemia, erythrocyte 2,3-DPG in renal failure was similar to non-anemic controls at normal blood pH, but rose during dialysis as a result of alkalosis. In contrast, ATP levels were high already at a normal blood pH. 2,3-DPG correlated with packed cell volume (PCV) in children with renal failure but at lower concentrations compared to controls. Both organic phosphates in the erythrocytes showed a significant correlation with blood pH. The poor increase of 2,3-DPG, in combination with elevated ATP levels, suggests uremia-induced inhibition of 2,3-DPG synthesis.
Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.
The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.
Yamamoto, Rie; Morita, Seiji; Aoki, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Inokuchi, Sadaki
Most of the reports of oxalic acid intoxication are in cases of ethylene glycol intoxication. These symptoms are known to be central nerve system manifestations, cardiopulmonary manifestations and acute renal failure. There have been only a few reports of direct oxalic acid intoxication. However, there have been a few recent reports of oxalic acid intoxication due to the ingestion of star fruit and ascorbic acid. We herein report the case of a patient with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis caused directly by consumption of oxalic acid. During the initial examination by the physician at our hospital, the patient presented with tachypnea, a precordinal burning sensation, nausea and metabolic acidosis. After admission, the patient developed renal failure and anion gap high metabolic acidosis, but did not develop any CNS or cardio-pulmonary manifestations in the clinical course. The patient benefitted symptomatically from hemodialysis.
Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Ornelas-Arroyo, Sofía; Pérez-Bustos, Estela; Sánchez-Zúñiga, Jesús; Uribe-Esquivel, Misael
Rabdomiolysis and acute renal failure secondary to influenza infection are rare. Up to now, few cases have been reported and most of them are primarily among children. Myositis associated to influenza infection is caused by the toxic effect of the virus in the muscular fiber, dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and a cross reaction between the muscle fiber and the viral particles. We present the case of a 57 year old male with a diagnosis of H1N1 influenza who developed polyuria, oligoanuria, elevation of lactic dehydrogenase, myoglobin, creatinin phosphokinase and an electromyography with a myopathic pattern. The diagnosis of rabdomyolisis and acute renal failure were made, hemodyalisis was started and the patient improved satisfactorily. This is the first report of a patient with radmoyolisis and acute renal failure secondary to A H1N1 influenza treated during the Mexico epidemic.
The majority of outpatients with heart failure (HF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) as an important comorbidity. Both glomerular filtration rate and abnormal urinary albumin excretion are major predictors of outcome in HF patients. Despite this, patients with renal dysfunction have been systematically excluded from the large randomized HF trials. There is lack of evidence for optimal treatment in these cardiorenal patients and treatment nihilism may account in part for their bad prognosis. Identifying and monitoring the progression of renal disease and making an effort to preserve renal function should be an important task in the management of all patients with HF. In this review, the current understanding of the pathophysiology of renal dysfunction in outpatients with HF will be summarized. Furthermore, important principles of the identification and management of cardiorenal patients will be described in order to make the physician more capable of managing outpatients with HF and renal dysfunction.
Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Narinder Pal; Mittal, Amit; Valson, Anna T; Hira, Harmanjeet Singh
Peripartum acute renal failure is an important complication related to pregnancy leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma, with formation of gas within the collecting system, renal parenchyma, or perirenal tissues. EPN is common in persons with diabetes or urinary tract obstruction. Herein we report a case of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in a postpartum lady who had no evidence of diabetes or urinary tract obstruction. Management of this condition has traditionally been aggressive, and surgery has been considered mandatory. Our patient was managed successfully with antibiotics and supportive measures alone.
Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X
The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (P<0.05) and improve renal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.
Ambapkar, Sachinkumar N.; Shetty, Naresh; Dwivedy, Arpita; Malve, Harshad Onkarrao
Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis which causes the release of myoglobin into the bloodstream. The manifestations of this syndrome range from asymptomatic elevation of serum muscle enzymes to life-threatening cases associated with extremely high enzyme levels, electrolyte imbalance, and acute renal failure. Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis include dark urine, muscle weakness, and fatigue. Statins are commonly used drugs for the prevention and management of dyslipidemia. We present an interesting and critical case on statin-induced rhabdomyolysis with renal failure and previously undiagnosed idiopathic hypothyroidism. PMID:27275082
Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.
Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.
Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Martelo Villar, F
Necrotizing fascitiis due to Streptococcus Pyogenes has a high mortality rate. Detection of the infection before it developes to the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is quite challenging and its one of the main goals of its management because at this final stage the treatment is in most of the cases ineffective. In a secuence of events of the progression of the infection to shock, renal failure occurs before hipotension very often. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient affected by a fulminant necrotizing fascitiis by Streptococcus Pyogenes which presented at admission with lower leg cellulitis and acute renal failure.
Madanieh, Raef; El-Hunjul, Mohammed; Alkhawam, Hassan; Kosmas, Constantine E; Madanieh, Abed; Vittorio, Timothy J
Medical therapy has indisputably been the mainstay of management for chronic congestive heart failure. However, a significant percentage of patients continue to experience worsening heart failure (HF) symptoms despite treatment with multiple therapeutic agents. Recently, catheter-based interventional strategies that interrupt the renal sympathetic nervous system have shown promising results in providing better symptom control in patients with HF. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of HF for better understanding of the interplay between the cardiovascular system and the kidney. Subsequently, we will briefly discuss pivotal renal denervation (RDN) therapy trials in patients with resistant hypertension and then present the available evidence on the role of RDN in HF therapy.
Popa, C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Dumitras, D. C.
In recent years there has been a large increase in the areas related to developments in the prevention of diseases, especially in explaining the role of oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress contributes to morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It is therefore relevant to analyze the impact of oxidative stress and its related species (ethylene) immediately after dialysis treatment in order to prevent trauma in the renal failure of elderly patients. In this paper we describe recent progress in laser photoacoustic spectroscopy detection of ethylene in renal failure patients. We have found that HD treatment increases ethylene concentration in the exhaled breath of elderly patients and may intensify oxidative stress.
Curran, B J; Havill, J H
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inherited metabolic disorder. Although fructose intolerance usually presents in the paediatric age group, individuals can survive into adulthood by self.manipulation of diet. Hospitalisation can become a high.risk environment for these individuals because of loss of control of their strict dietary constraints and the added danger of administration of medications containing fructose, sucrose and sorbitol. We report a case of hereditary fructose intolerance in an adult presenting with hepatic and renal failure associated with an amiodarone infusion and explore the possibility of polysorbate 80 as a cause of this patient's hepatic and renal failure.
Pye, I F; Aber, G M
The concentrations of inorganic ions and glucose in the plasma and CSF of 11 patients with "steady-state" chronic renal failure have been measured and their CSF: plasma interrelations studied. The results have been compared with the corresponding data from 34 control subjects. In the patients with renal failure, there was a positive correlation between raised CSF and plasma potassium concentrations. In contrast to the impaired potassium homeostasis, normal CSF magnesium and calcium concentrations were observed despite wide variations in the plasma concentrations of these ions. PMID:7085915
Borrego, F J; Viedma, G; Pérez del Barrio, P; Gil, J M; de Santis-Scoccia, C; Ramírez Huerta, J M; Alcalá, A; Pérez Bañasco, V
Acute renal failure following bone marrow transplantation is a frequent complication with an incidence ranging 15-30% and with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Numerous potential etiologies can be implicated as chemotherapy regimen, use of nephrotoxic antibiotics, sepsis-induced damage, cyclosporine toxicity and other especific pathologies as graft-v-host disease or veno-occlusive disease of the liver. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and developed and acute renal failure secondary to a fatal veno-occlusive disease of the liver. Incidence, potential predisposing factors, outcome and possibilities of treatment are reviewed.
Brisco, Meredith A.; Cheng, Susan J.; Laur, Olga; Kula, Alexander J.; Testani, Jeffrey M.
Background In decompensated heart failure (HF), reversible renal dysfunction (RD) is more frequently observed in patients with mild liver dysfunction likely due to the shared pathophysiologic factors involved. The objective of this study was to determine if these findings also apply to stable HF outpatients. Methods Patients in the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) were studied. Improvement in renal function (IRF) was defined as a 20% improvement in the estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 3 months. Results Elevated bilirubin (BIL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly associated with signs of congestion or poor perfusion. IRF occurred in 12.0% of all patients and was more common in those with elevated BIL (OR = 1.5, p = 0.003), ALT (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), and AST (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01). In a model containing all 3 liver parameters and baseline characteristics, including markers of congestion/poor perfusion, BIL (OR = 1.6, p = 0.001) and ALT (OR = 1.7, p < 0.001) were independently associated with IRF. Conclusions Biochemical evidence of mild liver dysfunction is significantly associated with IRF in stable HF outpatients. Given the widespread availability and low cost of these markers, additional research is necessary to determine the utility of these parameters in identifying patients with reversible RD who may benefit from cardiorenal interventions. PMID:26195975
Eerike, Madhavi; Raghuraman, Lakshmipathy Prabhu; Rajamanickam, Maignana Kumar
Aim The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and nephroprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root (EEAHR) in glycerol induced acute renal failure (ARF) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods In vitro antioxidant activity of EEAHR was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay), nitric oxide radical scavenging (NO assay), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) scavenging activity assays. In vivo study, rats were divided into four groups of six each for assessing the nephroprotective activity. Group-1 received normal saline, group-2 received 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg) alone, group-3 received glycerol and 250 mg/kg of EEAHR and group-4 received glycerol and 500 mg/kg of EEAHR. The renal injury and recovery was measured by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total proteins, albumin, urine output and histopathological changes. Results In vitro antioxidant activity of root extract was found to be equal to Vitamin C and in an in vivo study root extract treated animals showed significant attenuation of biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the kidney compared to glycerol treated group and it was found to be more significant with the extract at 500 mg/kg than 250mg/kg. Conclusion The present study revealed that Aconitum heterophyllum root has shown antioxidant and nephroprotective activities. PMID:27134892
Vercauteren, Sven R; Ysebaert, Dirk K; Van Rompay, An R; De Greef, Kathleen E; De Broe, Marc E
The influence of chronic renal failure on renal susceptibility to an acute ischemic insult was evaluated. Recipient Lewis rats were randomly assigned to undergo 5/6 nephrectomy (chronic renal failure, CRF) or sham operation (normal renal function, NRF). After 11 weeks, normal kidneys of Lewis donor rats were transplanted in the recipients. The outcome of the isografts was assessed. Filtration capacity of the isografts in the CRF rats was preserved to approximately one-quarter of its normal capacity on the 1st day post-transplantation, whereas it fell to 0 in the NRF rats. This was reflected by a significantly higher increase in serum creatinine in the latter group. The isografts in the CRF rats had a significantly lower degree of acute tubular necrosis and no increase in the number of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the first 24 h in contrast to the NRF rats. Epithelial regeneration and repair started earlier in the CRF group. In conclusion, the present study indicated that CRF blunted ischemia/reperfusion injury of a transplanted kidney, and that its regeneration capacity was certainly not hampered by the presence of chronic uremia. These results will be the basis for studies on modulation of early leukocyte-endothelial interactions resulting from immunological disturbances inherent to the uremic environment.
Indraprasit, S; Charoenpan, P; Suvachittanont, O; Mavichak, V; Kiatboonsri, S; Tanomsup, S
Severe falciparum malaria complicated by acute renal failure resulted in very high mortality. Ten patients with acute renal failure from falciparum malaria (infected rbc up to 80%) were continuously dialysed using Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter. Five were oliguric and BUN was maintained between 60 to 80 mg/dl (21.4 to 28.6 mmol/l) by hourly 1 to 1.5 liter dialysate exchange during the acute phase. The peritoneal urea clearance (mean +/- SD) was 12.1 +/- 1.2 ml/min with urea nitrogen removal of 13.4 +/- 2.3 g/day. In nonoliguric cases dialysis was also needed for additional removal of waste products since the remaining renal function could not cope with the hypercatabolic state. Peritoneal glucose absorption (135 to 565 g/day) gave considerable caloric supply without volume load and also contributed to the prevention of hypoglycemia. Varying degree of acute respiratory failure developed in all patients with 5 cases (2 oliguric and 3 nonoliguric) progressing to pulmonary edema. Swan-Ganz catheterization and hemodynamic study suggested the role of increased capillary permeability and volume overload from endogenous water formation in the development of pulmonary complication. Continuous removal of fluid and waste products minimized these problems and may prevent the progression of respiratory failure. One patient died of severe sepsis and the other nine survived. This study showed the beneficial contribution of continuous peritoneal dialysis in the management of acute renal failure from severe falciparum malaria.
Wu, Gang-Yong; Xu, Bai-Da; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gang-Jun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients without renal failure, as well as to determine independent risk factors of CAC score (CACS). A total of 157 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiographic examination at the 101th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between December 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The correlation between PTH levels and CACS was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the best cutoff PTH level for prediction of CAC. The independent association between serum PTH levels and CAC was analyzed by using a logistic regression analysis model with the response variable Be binary class. The results revealed that PTH levels in patients in the CAC group were significantly higher than those of patients in the non-calcification group. PTH levels were positively correlated with CACS (r=0.288, P<0.001). The ROC curve suggested that a PTH level of ≥31.05 pg/ml was the best cut-off point for the prediction of CAC, with a sensitivity of 80.88%, specificity of 60.67% and an area under the curve of 0.761. After including predictive factors for CAC (gender, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate and calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, magnesium, PTH, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels), the odds ratio of the serum PTH levels regarding the prediction of CAC was 1.050 (95% confidence interval, 1.027–1.074; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study suggested that serum PTH levels are correlated with CAC in patients without renal failure and may thus be used as a reliable predictor of CAC. PMID:27882224
Wu, Gang-Yong; Xu, Bai-Da; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gang-Jun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients without renal failure, as well as to determine independent risk factors of CAC score (CACS). A total of 157 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiographic examination at the 101th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between December 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The correlation between PTH levels and CACS was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the best cutoff PTH level for prediction of CAC. The independent association between serum PTH levels and CAC was analyzed by using a logistic regression analysis model with the response variable Be binary class. The results revealed that PTH levels in patients in the CAC group were significantly higher than those of patients in the non-calcification group. PTH levels were positively correlated with CACS (r=0.288, P<0.001). The ROC curve suggested that a PTH level of ≥31.05 pg/ml was the best cut-off point for the prediction of CAC, with a sensitivity of 80.88%, specificity of 60.67% and an area under the curve of 0.761. After including predictive factors for CAC (gender, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate and calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, magnesium, PTH, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels), the odds ratio of the serum PTH levels regarding the prediction of CAC was 1.050 (95% confidence interval, 1.027-1.074; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study suggested that serum PTH levels are correlated with CAC in patients without renal failure and may thus be used as a reliable predictor of CAC.
Dozier, Kristopher C; Yeung, Louise Y; Miranda, Marvin A; Miraflor, Emily J; Strumwasser, Aaron M; Victorino, Gregory P
Although renal trauma is increasingly managed nonoperatively, severe renovascular injuries occasionally require nephrectomy. Long-term outcomes after trauma nephrectomy are unknown. We hypothesized that the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is minimal after trauma nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the following: 1) our university-based, urban trauma center database; 2) the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); 3) the National Inpatient Sample (NIS); and 4) the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were compiled to estimate the risk of ESRD after trauma nephrectomy in the United States. Of the 232 patients who sustained traumatic renal injuries at our institution from 1998 to 2007, 36 (16%) underwent a nephrectomy an average of approximately four nephrectomies per year. The NTDB reported 1780 trauma nephrectomies from 2002 to 2006, an average of 356 per year. The 2005 NIS data estimated that in the United States, over 20,000 nephrectomies are performed annually for renal cell carcinoma. The USRDS annual incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis is over 90,000, of which 0.1 per cent (100 per year) of renal failure is the result of traumatic or surgical loss of a kidney. Considering the large number of nephrectomies performed for cancer, we estimated the risk of trauma nephrectomy causing renal failure that requires dialysis to be 0.5 per cent. National data regarding the etiology of renal failure among patients with ESRD reveal a very low incidence of trauma nephrectomy (0.5%) as a cause; therefore, nephrectomy for trauma can be performed with little concern for long-term dialysis dependence.
Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Komaba, Hirotaka; Sato, Tadatoshi; Erben, Reinhold G; Baron, Roland; Olauson, Hannes; Larsson, Tobias E; Lanske, Beate
Circulating levels of bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increase early during acute and chronic kidney disease and are associated with adverse outcomes. Membrane-bound Klotho acts as a permissive coreceptor for FGF23, and its expression was recently found in osteoblasts/osteocytes. We hypothesized that Klotho in bone cells is part of an autocrine feedback loop that regulates FGF23 expression during renal failure. Thus, we induced renal failure in mice with targeted deletion of Klotho in long bones. Uremic wild-type (KL(fl/fl) ) and knockout (Prx1-Cre;KL(fl/fl) ) mice both responded with reduced body weight, kidney atrophy, hyperphosphatemia, and increased bone turnover. Importantly, long bones of Prx1-Cre;KL(fl/fl) mice but not their axial skeleton failed to increase FGF23 expression as observed in uremic KL(fl/fl) mice. Consequently, Prx1-Cre;KL(fl/fl) mice had significantly lower serum FGF23 and parathyroid hormone levels, and higher renal 1-α-hydroxylase expression, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels than KL(fl/fl) mice. These results were confirmed in two independent models of renal failure, adenine diet induced and 5/6 nephrectomy. Moreover, FGF23-treated bone cells required Klotho to increase FGF23 mRNA and ERK phosphorylation. In summary, our novel findings show that Klotho in bone is crucial for inducing FGF23 production upon renal failure. We propose the presence of an autocrine feedback loop in which Klotho senses the need for FGF23.-Kaludjerovic, J., Komaba, H., Sato, T., Erben, R. G., Baron, R., Olauson, H., Larsson, T. E., Lanske, B. Klotho expression in long bones regulates FGF23 production during renal failure.
Introduction Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease. Renal involvement is a rare initial presentation of this disease. Few articles on renal involvement as an initial presentation of sarcoidosis have been published in the literature. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute renal failure as an initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. Conclusions Renal involvement is an uncommon feature of sarcoidosis and it is essential to establish a fast and correct diagnosis because early therapy avoids progression to terminal renal failure. PMID:25124289
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies demonstrate that in a significant part of diabetic patients the renal insufficiency is frequently caused by non-diabetic kidney diseases, so that an effective clarification of untypical clinical courses is mandatory. Important cornerstones of DKD therapy are an optimized glycaemic management as well as a good blood pressure control. Although the prognosis of DKD has been improved in the last years, it is, even with novel therapy approaches, not possible to prevent the development of DKD. It remains to hope that with extended knowledge, intensified preclinical studies and well-defined clinical trials novel nephroprotective therapies become available in the next years.
Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 hour urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes.
Ruggenenti, P.; Gaspari, F.; Perna, A.; Remuzzi, G.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a reliable indicator of 24 hour urinary protein excretion and predicts the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate and progression to end stage renal failure in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cross sectional correlation between the ratio and urinary protein excretion rate. Univariate and multivariate analysis of baseline predictors, including the ratio and 24 hour urinary protein, of decline in glomerular filtration rate and end stage renal failure in the long term. SETTING: Research centre in Italy. SUBJECTS: 177 non-diabetic outpatients with chronic renal disease screened for participation in the ramipril efficacy in nephropathy study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of decline in filtration rate evaluated by repeated measurements of unlabelled iohexol plasma clearance and rate of progression to renal failure. RESULTS: Protein:creatinine ratio was significantly correlated with absolute and log transformed 24 hour urinary protein values (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively.) Ratios also had high predictive value for rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate (univariate P = 0.0003, multivariate P = 0.004) and end stage renal failure (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04). Baseline protein:creatinine ratios and rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate were also significantly correlated (P < 0.0005). In the lowest third of the protein:creatinine ratio (< 1.7) there was 3% renal failure compared with 21.2% in the highest third (> 2.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a precise indicator of proteinuria and a reliable predictor of progression of disease in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathies and represents a simple and inexpensive procedure in establishing severity of renal disease and prognosis. PMID:9501711
Liss, P; Persson, P B; Hansell, P; Lagerqvist, B
We compared the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry with the Swedish 'Hospital Discharge Register' to assess contrast media (CM)-induced renal failure. Hospitals used only one type CM. From 2000 to 2003, iodixanol (iso-osmolar) was used in 45 485 patients, ioxaglate (low osmolar) in 12 440 subjects. To include the earlier used CM iohexol (low osmolar), analysis extended back to 1990 (86 334 patients). Incidence of clinically significant renal failure was greatest for patients receiving the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol (1.7%). Ioxaglate-treated patients had a significantly lower renal failure incidence (0.8%, P<0.001). The odds ratio for iodixanol-treated patients was significantly higher than for ioxaglate (1 vs 0.48, P<0.001). In subsets of either diabetic patients or patients with previous renal failure, odds ratios for renal failure remained greater in the iodixanol groups (P<0.01). Hospitals switching CM to iodixanol experienced a doubling in clinically significant renal failure after cardiac procedures. Dialysis was required in 0.2% of patients receiving iodixanol, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than for ioxaglate-treated patients (0.1%). Iohexol-treated patients had a similar low risk for developing clinically significant renal failure (0.9%) as ioxaglate. In conclusion, risk of developing renal failure and required dialysis after coronary procedures is higher when patients received iodixanol than ioxaglate or iohexol.
Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Nguy, Lisa; Mikkelsen, Minne Line Nedergaard; Marcussen, Niels; Guron, Gregor
This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous BRS was reduced by ∼50% in ACRF animals. High-NaCl diet significantly increased transfer function fractional gain values between arterial pressure and RBF in the frequency range of the myogenic response (0.06-0.09 Hz) only in ACRF animals (0.3 ± 4.0 vs. -4.4 ± 3.8 dB; P < 0.05). Similarly, a high-NaCl diet significantly increased SAPV in the low-frequency range only in ACRF animals. To conclude, a 2-wk period of a high-NaCl diet in ACRF rats significantly impaired dynamic RBFA in the frequency range of the myogenic response and increased SAPV in the low-frequency range. These abnormalities may increase the susceptibility to hypertensive end-organ injury and progressive renal failure by facilitating pressure transmission to the microvasculature.
Lee, Y-J; Chang, C-C; Chan, J P-W; Hsu, W-L; Lin, K-W; Wong, M-L
A retrospective case-series study evaluated the prognosis of 853 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure) criteria, derived from human medicine. The 30-day mortality of dogs with AKI in each class was found to be 23.8 per cent (40 of 168) dogs for Risk, 41.0 per cent (107 of 261) dogs for Injury and 78.5 per cent (333 of 424) dogs for Failure. Using the dogs in the Risk class as the reference, the mortality of dogs in either the Injury or Failure class was significantly higher than that of dogs in the Risk class (P<0.05). The longest median survival time was observed in the Risk class (nine days) and the shortest median survival time was observed in the Failure class (three days). Using a multiple logistic regression model, a new score that simultaneously considered RIFLE class, diarrhoea status and serum phosphorus level was calculated to predict prognosis. Evaluation using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) indicated that the new scoring method (AUROC 0.80) was a better prognostic indicator than using RIFLE criteria alone (AUROC 0.73).
Sacks, S H; Aparicio, S A; Bevan, A; Oliver, D O; Will, E J; Davison, A M
Nineteen patients presenting with late renal failure due to prostatic outflow obstruction (mean age 68.7 years; mean serum creatinine concentration 1158 mumol/l) were identified from the admission records of two renal units. As late renal failure secondary to prostatic enlargement is preventable case records were analysed retrospectively in an attempt to identify aspects of management in which preventive efforts might be of value. Delays in referral were common, with a mean of 2.8 years between the onset of prostatic symptoms and time of referral, six patients being referred who had had symptoms for more than three years. Four of five patients who had had a prostatectomy were known to be in renal failure at the time of operation but were not referred until 2-13 years later, when prostatic symptoms had recurred and there was evidence of progressive nephropathy with dilatation of the upper urinary tract. Two patients died on admission and eight (47% of survivors) required long term dialysis, most patients (80%) requiring some dialysis support during the initial period. These findings suggest that progressive nephropathy caused by prostatic outflow obstruction might, in part, be averted by more adequate screening of renal function in men with untreated prostatism and closer follow up of patients with uraemia at the time of prostatectomy.
Mong Hiep, Tran Thi; Janssen, Françoise; Ismaili, Khalid; Khai Minh, Dang; Vuong Kiet, Doan; Robert, Annie
The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and treatment modalities and to determine mortality risks in hospitalized children with chronic renal failure (CRF) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We reviewed the records of 310 children with CRF hospitalized in Ho Chi Minh City from January 2001 to December 2005. The average annual number cases was 4.8 per million child population native to Ho Chi Minh City. Median age was 14 years; 85% of patients were in end-stage renal failure. Associated illnesses were anemia (96%), hypertension (74%), and cardiopulmonary diseases (39%). Causes of included glomerulonephritis (30%) and congenital/hereditary anomalies (20%), but in 50% of children, the etiology was unavailable. Seventy-three percent of cases with end-stage renal failure did not benefit from renal replacement therapy. During hospitalization, 47 patients (15%) died. Mortality risks were higher in young children (1-4 years), in boys, and in patients with acquired pathologies. Severe metabolic acidosis was the main predictive factor of mortality by multivariate regression analysis. Our data shows a poor outcome due to late referral and limited facilities for renal replacement therapy in children with CRF hospitalized in Ho Chi Minh City.
Pawlak, D; Tankiewicz, A; Matys, T; Buczko, W
We investigated L-kynurenine distribution and metabolism in rats with experimental chronic renal failure of various severity, induced by unilateral nephrectomy and partial removal of contralateral kidney cortex. In animals with renal insufficiency the plasma concentration and the content of L-tryptophan in homogenates of kidney, liver, lung, intestine and spleen were significantly decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase activity of liver tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, the rate-limiting enzyme of kynurenine pathway in rats, while indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was unchanged. Conversely, the plasma concentration and tissue content of L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and anthranilic, kynurenic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids in the kidney, liver, lung, intestine, spleen and muscles were increased. The accumulation of L-kynurenine and the products of its degradation was proportional to the severity of renal failure and correlated with the concentration of renal insufficiency marker, creatinine. Kynurenine aminotransferase, kynureninase and 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase activity was diminished or unchanged, while the activity of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase was significantly increased. We conclude that chronic renal failure is associated with the accumulation of L-kynurenine metabolites, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain uremic syndromes.
Webb, N.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Hughes, D.; Brocklebank, T.; Judd, B.; Lewis, M.; Postlethwaite, R.; Smith, P.; Corbitt, G.
OBJECTIVES—To investigate the seroconversion rate and duration of persistence of protective antibody titres after varicella immunisation in children with renal failure. DESIGN—32 children (25 end stage and 7 pre-end stage renal failure) were immunised using 2 × 2000 plaque forming unit doses of varicella vaccine 3 months apart. Varicella antibody titres were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS—All children initially seroconverted after immunisation. At a mean follow up of 20.3 months, 23 of 28 had protective antibody titres, 4 children having died of unrelated causes. Two children required a third booster dose. 11 children underwent renal transplantation; 10 had protective titres at the time of transplantation and, at a mean of 23.4 months after immunisation, 6 currently have protective titres. Minor side effects occurred after 11 vaccine doses in 9 children. No child developed varicella, despite 10 clear episodes of exposure to the wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS—Varicella immunisation in children with end stage and pre-end stage renal failure results in a high rate of seroconversion and persistence of protective antibody titres. More widespread use of the vaccine before renal transplantation is recommended. PMID:10648369
Haffner, D; Wühl, E; Nissel, R; Schaefer, F; Mehls, O
Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has proven effective in improving growth in short prepubertal children with chronic renal failure (CRF) before and after renal transplantation. However, its effect in pubertal patients is still doubtful. We report the case of a boy with nephropathic cystinosis and persistent growth failure despite successful renal transplantation who was treated with rhGH (30 i.u./m2 body surface area/week sc) from early puberty up to final height.
Takamura, Akiteru; Sangen, Ryusho; Furumura, Yoshiki; Usuda, Daisuke; Kasamaki, Yuji; Kanda, Tsugiyasu
Myxedema coma, caused by severe lack of thyroid hormone, is characterized by deterioration of mental status, hypothermia, hypotension, hyponatremia, and hypoventilation. We describe an 84-year-old woman who presented with renal failure and new onset severe hypothyroidism leading to challenges in the recognition of myxedema coma.
Chamorro, Manuel F.; Passler, Thomas; Joiner, Kellye; Poppenga, Robert H.; Bayne, Jenna; Walz, Paul H.
Two adult llamas (Lama glama) previously exposed to oak trees (Quercus spp.) were presented with a history of depression and anorexia. Clinicopathological abnormalities included severe gastroenteritis, acute renal failure, and increased liver enzymes. This is believed to be the first report of oak toxicosis in South American camelids. PMID:23814303
Holowaychuk, Marie K.
A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. PMID:16933558
Chamorro, Manuel F; Passler, Thomas; Joiner, Kellye; Poppenga, Robert H; Bayne, Jenna; Walz, Paul H
Two adult llamas (Lama glama) previously exposed to oak trees (Quercus spp.) were presented with a history of depression and anorexia. Clinicopathological abnormalities included severe gastroenteritis, acute renal failure, and increased liver enzymes. This is believed to be the first report of oak toxicosis in South American camelids.
Diggle, Peter J; Sousa, Inês; Asar, Özgür
Chronic renal failure is a progressive condition that, typically, is asymptomatic for many years. Early detection of incipient kidney failure enables ameliorative treatment that can slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure, at which point expensive and invasive renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) is required. We use routinely collected clinical data from a large sample of primary care patients to develop a system for real-time monitoring of the progression of undiagnosed incipient renal failure. Progression is characterized as the rate of change in a person's kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, an adjusted version of serum creatinine level in a blood sample. Clinical guidelines in the UK suggest that a person who is losing kidney function at a relative rate of at least 5% per year should be referred to specialist secondary care. We model the time-course of a person's underlying kidney function through a combination of explanatory variables, a random intercept and a continuous-time, non-stationary stochastic process. We then use the model to calculate for each person the predictive probability that they meet the clinical guideline for referral to secondary care. We suggest that probabilistic predictive inference linked to clinical criteria can be a useful component of a real-time surveillance system to guide, but not dictate, clinical decision-making.
Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.
Can, C; Sen, S; Boztok, N; Tuglular, I
We investigated the effects of orally supplemented L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor in gentamicin-induced renal failure. Rats were given gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day s.c.), gentamicin and L-arginine (2 g/l, drinking water), gentamicin and L-NAME (100 mg/l, drinking water) or gentamicin plus L-arginine and L-NAME. After 8 days, the gentamicin group developed marked renal failure, characterized by a significantly decreased creatinine clearance and increased blood creatinine, fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, urine gamma glutamyl transferase, systolic blood pressure and daily urine volume when compared to controls. Renal histological analysis confirmed tubular necrosis. L-arginine administration caused normalization of these parameters, whereas L-NAME led to aggravation of the failure. Concomitant administration of L-NAME and L-arginine to gentamicin-treated rats caused no significant changes when compared to the rats receiving gentamicin alone. We conclude that L-arginine supplementation has beneficial effects in gentamicin-induced renal failure in rats and that these effects are reversed by the NO-synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.
Abraham, L A; Hinkley, C J; Tatarczuch, L; Holloway, S A
Acute renal failure was diagnosed in a German Short Haired Pointer bitch and a Kelpie cross-bred dog following envenomation by Bull ants. Both dogs had been tethered over a Bull ant nest and had experienced mass envenomation. There was local reaction at the envenomation sites and each dog had experienced vomiting that was poorly controlled by symptomatic therapy. Intensive treatment of renal failure was successful in the German Short Haired Pointer and the bitch remains well 19 months after envenomation. The Kelpie cross-bred deteriorated despite intensive treatment and was euthanased 36 hours after presentation. Necropsy examination revealed haemorrhage and necrosis of the small intestine and myocardium, bilateral nephrosis with tubular necrosis, and patchy haemorrhage of the lung alveoli, pancreas and adrenal cortices. Electron microscopy revealed necrosis of the small intestine and hydropic swelling of proximal renal tubules with necrosis of medullary tubules.
Chang, Peter M S; Ng, Yee-Yung
The overall incidence of amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction ranges from 2% to 24%. One third to half of patients with hypothyroidism have anemia due to some decrease in normal red blood cell mass and erythropoietin (EPO) resistance. Therefore, for patients with chronic renal disease under medication with amiodarone, early regular thyroid function test should be checked in order to avoid amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and EPO-resistant anemia. If amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism and EPO-resistant anemia occur in patients with chronic renal failure, early thyroxine should be given instead of waiting for spontaneous recovery by amiodarone discontinuation only. Here, we report a patient with chronic renal failure who developed EPO-resistant anemia after amiodarone treatment for arrhythmia. The hemoglobin level responded to EPO therapy rapidly after thyroxine administration and amiodarone discontinuation.
Sahin, Osman Zikrullah; Ayaz, Teslime; Yuce, Suleyman; Sumer, Fatih
Introduction. Acute renal failure (ARF) develops in 33% of the patients with rhabdomyolysis. The main etiologic factors are alcoholism, trauma, exercise overexertion, and drugs. In this report we present a rare case of ARF secondary to probably donepezil-induced rhabdomyolysis. Case Presentation. An 84-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of generalized weakness and reduced consciousness for two days. He had a history of Alzheimer's disease for one year and he had taken donepezil 5 mg daily for two months. The patient's physical examination revealed apathy, loss of cooperation, and decreased muscle strength. Laboratory studies revealed the following: urea: 128 mg/dL; Creatinine 6.06 mg/dL; creatine kinase: 3613 mg/dL. Donepezil was discontinued and the patient's renal function tests improved gradually. Conclusion. Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure may develop secondary to donepezil therapy. PMID:24864216
Sahin, Osman Zikrullah; Ayaz, Teslime; Yuce, Suleyman; Sumer, Fatih; Sahin, Serap Baydur
Introduction. Acute renal failure (ARF) develops in 33% of the patients with rhabdomyolysis. The main etiologic factors are alcoholism, trauma, exercise overexertion, and drugs. In this report we present a rare case of ARF secondary to probably donepezil-induced rhabdomyolysis. Case Presentation. An 84-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with a complaint of generalized weakness and reduced consciousness for two days. He had a history of Alzheimer's disease for one year and he had taken donepezil 5 mg daily for two months. The patient's physical examination revealed apathy, loss of cooperation, and decreased muscle strength. Laboratory studies revealed the following: urea: 128 mg/dL; Creatinine 6.06 mg/dL; creatine kinase: 3613 mg/dL. Donepezil was discontinued and the patient's renal function tests improved gradually. Conclusion. Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure may develop secondary to donepezil therapy.
García-Miguel, F J; Mirón Rodríguez, M F; Alsina Aser, M J
Acute renal failure is a serious complication of pregnancy associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality; the incidence is currently 1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The most common causes are gestational hypertension, bleeding, sepsis, and intrinsic renal disease. Other less common pregnancy-related syndromes, such as HELLP syndrome or thrombotic microangiopathy, may also lead to kidney failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are forms of thrombotic microangiopathy and although neither is specific to pregnancy, the incidence of these entities rises during gestation. The classic symptoms are fever, hemolytic microangiopathic anemia, thrombopenia, neurologic dysfunction, and kidney abnormalities. When renal involvement is the predominant manifestation, the diagnosis is usually hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Renal denervation in heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Rationale and design of the DIASTOLE (DenervatIon of the renAl Sympathetic nerves in hearT failure with nOrmal Lv Ejection fraction) trial.
Verloop, Willemien L; Beeftink, Martine M A; Nap, Alex; Bots, Michiel L; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Appelman, Yolande E; Cramer, Maarten-Jan; Agema, Willem R P; Scholtens, Asbjorn M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Allaart, Cor P; Voskuil, Michiel
Aim Increasing evidence suggests an important role for hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the clinical phenomena of heart failure with normal LVEF (HFNEF) and hypertension. Moreover, the level of renal sympathetic activation is directly related to the severity of heart failure. Since percutaneous renal denervation (pRDN) has been shown to be effective in modulating elevated SNS activity in patients with hypertension, it can be hypothesized that pRDN has a positive effect on HFNEF. The DIASTOLE trial will investigate whether renal sympathetic denervation influences parameters of HFNEF. Methods DIASTOLE is a multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Sixty patients, diagnosed with HFNEF and treated for hypertension, will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to undergo renal denervation on top of medical treatment (n = 30) or to maintain medical treatment alone (n = 30). The primary objective is to investigate the efficacy of pRDN by means of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic parameters. Secondary objectives include safety of pRDN and a comparison of changes in the following parameters after pRDN: LV mass, LV volume, LVEF, and left atrial volume as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Also, MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) uptake and washout, BNP levels, blood pressure, heart rate variability, exercise capacity, and quality of life will be assessed. Perspective DIASTOLE is a randomized controlled trial evaluating renal denervation as a treatment option for HFNEF. The results of the current trial will provide important information regarding the treatment of HFNEF, and therefore may have major impact on future therapeutic strategies. Trail registration NCT01583881.
Knight, R. J.; Collis, M. G.; Yates, M. S.; Bowmer, C. J.
1. The effect of the selective adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX), on the development of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure was investigated in the rat. 2. CPX at doses of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1, i.v. caused increasing degrees of antagonism of adenosine-induced bradycardia in anaesthetized rats. The magnitude of antagonism was not directly proportional to the increment in dose, but for each dose, it was similar in rats injected with either saline or cisplatin. CPX at a dose of 0.03 mg kg-1 significantly antagonized adenosine-induced bradycardia for up to 2.5 h, while doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1 produced significant blockade for periods longer than 5 h. 3. Administration of cisplatin (6 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused acute renal failure characterized by decreased inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, increased urine volume but decreased excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions and by increased plasma levels of urea and creatinine. Kidney weight was increased in cisplatin-treated rats and renal tubule necrosis occurred. 4. Administration of CPX (0.03 mg kg-1, i.v.; twice daily for two days) to rats given cisplatin did not reduce the severity of the resultant renal failure. However, treatment with 0.1 mg kg-1 CPX attenuated the increases in plasma creatinine/urea levels observed in rats on days 3 and 7 after induction of renal failure. In addition, this dose significantly reduced renal tubule damage and increased inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances. A similar pattern of protection was noted with CPX at a dose of 0.3 mg kg-1 although the increase in inulin clearance was not statistically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810593
Grossman, E; Shenkar, A; Peleg, E; Thaler, M; Goldstein, D S
We examined whether low-dose L-DOPA treatment induces natriuresis and diuresis in patients with congestive heart failure who have cardiac decompensation despite treatment with digoxin, a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and who respond acutely to intravenously infused dopamine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 11 patients with severe congestive heart failure received L-DOPA (0.10 g, p.o., t.i.d., for 1 day and then 0.25 g, p.o., t.i.d., for 2 days after a washout period of > or = 1 day), with assessments of plasma and urinary levels of catechols, urinary volume, and sodium content, and clinical and laboratory measures of improvement of congestive heart failure. L-DOPA elicited short-term, dose-related increases in urinary volume and sodium excretion. At the 0.10-g dose, L-DOPA increased plasma L-DOPA levels and urinary L-DOPA excretion by about fivefold, whereas at the 0.25-g dose, L-DOPA increased plasma and urinary L-DOPA by >50-fold. Twenty-four-hour urinary dopamine excretion increased by about fivefold after the low dose of L-DOPA and approximately 50-fold after the high dose. The results demonstrate that oral L-DOPA treatment can produce beneficial natriuretic and diuretic effects in selected patients with congestive heart failure. The bioavailability of oral L-DOPA appears to vary with the dose. These results support findings from previous studies about beneficial cardiac functional effects of L-DOPA in patients with refractory heart failure.
Jang, Liuna; Herbort, Carl P
Management of diabetic retinopathy should follow more strict and aggressive rules in patients at risk for severe acute renal impairment. Such patients should be identified and possibly prophylactically laser treated to avoid the severe consequences demonstrated in this case report. A 34-year-old type 2 diabetes patient with a stabilized diabetic retinopathy developed acute and severe retinal decompensation within weeks after acute renal failure complicated his chronic stable renal impairment. Fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic illustrations of the rapid evolution of the retinal condition are presented. The patient had previously been treated with panretinal photocoagulation in his left eye. After 8 years of regular 6-monthly checked stability, he developed rapid-onset proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in his right eye within 3 months of his last ocular check-up. Fluorescein angiography showed neovessels and major ischemic areas. Emergency panretinal photocoagulation and a sub-Tenon's injection were necessary to achieve control of the situation with regression of neovessels and complete regression of macular edema. This case shows that it is imperative for nephrologists to be well informed about a patient's ocular situation in order to give timely information to the ophthalmologist who can intervene to protect the retina in case of renal failure. On the other hand, the ophthalmologist should be familiar with the renal function of his patient with renal impairment so that he can decide to perform prophylactic retinal panphotocoagulation that should be imperatively considered even without strict indications in patients with renal impairment at risk for further deterioration of renal function, in order to prevent such explosive ischemic and proliferative retinopathy putting vision at risk.
Jaenke, R.S.; Phemister, R.D.; Norrdin, R.W.
The renal effects of whole body irradiation in the perinatal period were studied in the dog. Ninety-three dogs received a single sublethal exposure in the range of 270 to 435 R in either late gestation (55 days postcoitus) or early postnatal life (2 days postpartum) and were sacrificed at 70 days, 2, or 4 years of age. Early renal lesions in 70-day-old irradiated dogs were characterized by arrested glomerular maturation and degeneration resulting in reduced functional renal mass. Mature glomeruli exhibited mesangial proliferation. At 2 and 4 years of age, surviving irradiated dogs exhibited sever renal disease associated with progressive glomerular damage which was characterized by mesangial proliferation and compression of capillary lumina, epithelial degeneration and focal capsular adhesions, and ultimately obliterative glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-one of the 93 irradiated dogs died in renal failure before 4 years of age with advanced glomerulosclerosis. The phatogenesis of this progressive renal lesion may be related to the interaction of three specific factors. These include (1) the effect of direct radiation damage to mature kidney components; (2) the loss of outer cortical nephrons resulting in increased work load of the surviving nephrons; and (3) the effect of compensatory hypertrophy related to the loss of renal parenchyma as the rapid growth rates associated with kidney maturation.
Su, Zhengxiu; Zhu, Hongguo; Zhang, Menghuan; Wang, Liangliang; He, Hanchang; Jiang, Shaoling; Hou, Fan Fan; Li, Aiqing
Heart damage is widely present in patients with chronic kidney disease. Salt diet is the most important environmental factor affecting development of chronic renal failure and cardiovascular diseases. The proteins involved in chronic kidney disease -induced heart damage, especially their posttranslational modifications, remain largely unknown to date. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (chronic renal failure model) or sham operation were treated for 2 weeks with a normal-(0.4% NaCl), or high-salt (4% NaCl) diet. We employed TiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for phosphoproteomic profiling of left ventricular free walls in these animals. A total of 1724 unique phosphopeptides representing 2551 non-redundant phosphorylation sites corresponding to 763 phosphoproteins were identified. During normal salt feeding, 89 (54%) phosphopeptides upregulated and 76 (46%) phosphopeptides downregulated in chronic renal failure rats relative to sham rats. In chronic renal failure rats, high salt intake induced upregulation of 84 (49%) phosphopeptides and downregulation of 88 (51%) phosphopeptides. Database searches revealed that most of the identified phospholproteins were important signaling molecules such as protein kinases, receptors and phosphatases. These phospholproteins were involved in energy metabolism, cell communication, cell differentiation, cell death and other biological processes. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes analysis revealed functional links among 15 significantly regulated phosphoproteins in chronic renal failure rats compared to sham group, and 23 altered phosphoproteins induced by high salt intake. The altered phosphorylation levels of two proteins involved in heart damage, lamin A and phospholamban were validated. Expression of the downstream genes of these two proteins, desmin and SERCA2a, were also analyzed.
Kon, V; Yared, A; Ichikawa, I
To evaluate the pathophysiologic importance of renal nerves in regulating the renal vasomotor tone, we measured several parameters of renal cortical microcirculation before and after acute renal denervation (DNx) in the following three groups of anesthetized Munich-Wistar rats: (group 1) congestive heart failure after surgically induced myocardial infarction (n = 10), (group 2) acute extracellular fluid volume depletion after deprivation of drinking water for 48 h (n = 8), and (group 3) sham or nontreated controls (n = 6). In the myocardial-infarcted rats, DNx led to a uniform increase in glomerular plasma flow rate of, on average, 36%. Single nephron glomerular filtration rate of myocardial-infarcted rats also increased despite a reduction in glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure. These changes were associated with a fall in arteriolar resistances, particularly in the efferent arteriole. The glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient rose in all but one myocardial-infarcted animal. A similar hemodynamic pattern was seen after DNx in water-deprived animals. In every water-deprived animal, glomerular plasma flow rate and single nephron GFR increased on average by 28 and 14%, respectively. Again, afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances decreased significantly. Furthermore, the ultrafiltration coefficient increased uniformly and substantially with DNx. To ascertain the potential importance of the interaction between the renal nerves and angiotensin II in these circumstances, we compared the renal cortical hemodynamics in additional groups of water-deprived rats (group 4) after DNx (n = 15), (group 5) during inhibition of angiotensin II with saralasin (n = 15), and (group 6) during treatment with both saralasin and DNx (n = 15). No appreciable difference was detected between group 4 vs. 6. In contrast, substantial differences were noted between group 5 vs. 6: on average, the glomerular plasma flow rate was 26% higher and the afferent and efferent
A 73-year-old man was transferred to the emergency department (ED). He was found unconscious in his house along with an empty 200-mL bottle of Basta(™), a herbicide containing 18% glufosinate. He was comatose with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3. As his blood pressure dropped to 60/30 mmHg despite fluids and norepinephrine, 20% intravenous fat emulsion product was injected. He experienced repeated cardiopulmonary arrests during his first 4 h in the ED. When the arrests occurred, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed, and boluses of fat emulsion were given. He was given a total of 1500 mL of 20% fat emulsion. In an attempt to correct the acidosis, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was started. Within 5 min of starting CRRT, the transmembrane pressure increased sharply and the machine stopped.
Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Amteshwar Jaggi; Singh, Nirmal
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential and possible mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were subjected to rhabdomyolytic ARF by single intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol (50% v/v; 8 ml/kg) and the animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of glycerol injection. The plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and histopathological studies were performed to assess the degree of renal injury. Results: Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum (125 and 250 mg/kg p.o. twice daily for 3 days) significantly attenuated hypertonic glycerol-induced renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. BADGE (Bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) (30 mg/kg), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ antagonist, and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were employed to explore the mechanism of renoprotective effects of Punica granatum. Administration of BADGE (30 mg/kg) and L-NAME (40 mg/kg) abolished the beneficial effects of P. granatum in glycerol-induced renal dysfunction. Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum has ameliorative potential in attenuating myoglobinuric renal failure and its renoprotective effects involve activation of PPAR-γ and nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:22021999
Clemente, C; Bosch, J; Rodés, J; Arroyo, V; Mas, A; Maragall, S
Forty-three patients with cirrhosis and ascites, 21 with normal renal function, 10 with a progressive functional renal failure (FRF), and 12 with a steady FRF, were investigated for the presence of endotoxaemia by the Limulus lysate test. Endotoxaemia was found in nine patients with FRF and in none of the 21 with normal renal function (P less than 0-01). A positive Limulus test was almost exclusively associated with a progressive FRF (eight of 10 patients) and all but one of them died. Renal function improved as endotoxaemia disappeared in the survivor. Endotoxaemia was also associated with haemorrhage due to acute erosions of the gastric mucosa, being present in six of the seven patients who had this complication. Intravascular coagulation was not found in any patient. The Limulus test was positive in the ascitic fluid in 18 of 21 patients tested, although only two of them had peritonitis. These results suggest that endotoxaemia may play a critical role in the development of progressive renal failure and haemorrhagic gastritis in cirrhosis, and emphasise the potential risk of procedures involving reinfusion of ascitic fluid. PMID:301485
Zeleniuk, V H; Zamors'kyĭ, I I; Horoshko, O M
The effect of three statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) on the renal function under conditions of experimental acute renal failure in rats was studied. The relatively effective doses were found to possess the most considerable renoprotective properties. All the statins were established to cause the restoration of functional activity of the kidneys under conditions of experimental rhabdomyolytic acute renal failure at various doses, but with the dose of 20 mg/kg they showed the most significant improvement in key indices of kidney function: an increase in diuresis by an average of 32% and glomerular filtration rate by an average of 90%, reduction of proteinuria in more than twice. At the same time, in the animals with acute renal failure the level of creatine phosphokinase was increased by 141%. However, the activity of blood plasma creatine phosphokinase of all animals treated with statins was 14% higher than in the intact control, indicating the minor myotrphic activity of statins in selected mode of administration. Thus, the use of 20 mg/kg dose is the most reasonable from the standpoint of renoprotective efficacy and safety.
Mekeel, K L; Moss, A A; Mulligan, D C; Chakkera, H A; Hamawi, K; Mazur, M J; Heilman, R L; Reddy, K S
With the current shortage of solid organs for transplant, the transplant community continues to look for ways to increase the number of organ donors, including extending the criteria for donation. In rhabdomyolysis, the byproducts of skeletal muscle breakdown leak into the circulation resulting in acute renal failure in up to 30% of patients. In nonbrain dead patients, this condition is reversible and most patients recover full renal function. Seven potential donors had rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure as evidenced by the presence of urine hemoglobin, plasma creatinine kinase levels of greater than five times the normal and elevated creatinine. One donor required dialysis. At our institution, 10 kidneys were transplanted from the seven donors. Two grafts had immediate function, five grafts experienced slow graft function and three grafts had delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis. At a mean of 8.7 months posttransplant (2.4-25.2 months), all patients have good graft function, are off dialysis and have a mean creatinine of 1.3 (0.7-1.8). In conclusion, our experience suggests that rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure should not be a contraindication for donation, although recipients may experience slow or delayed graft function.
Kurt-Sukur, E D; Özçakar, Z B; Fitöz, S; Yilmaz, S; Hoppe, B; Yalçinkaya, F
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal-recessive disease caused by the deficient activity of the liver specific enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. Increased endogenous oxalate production induces severe hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, progressive nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. Here we report a 6 month old boy who presented with vomiting and decreased urine volume. He was diagnosed with chronic kidney failure at 4 months of age and peritoneal dialysis was introduced at a local hospital. His parents were third degree cousins and family history revealed 2 maternal cousins who developed end stage renal disease during childhood. When he was admitted to our hospital, laboratory studies were consistent with end stage renal disease, ultrasound showed bilateral massive nephrocalcinosis. As clinical presentation was suggestive for primary hyperoxaluria type 1, plasma oxalate was determined and found extremely elevated. Genetic testing proved diagnosis by showing a disease causing homozygous mutation (AGXT-gene: c.971_972delT). The patient was put on pyridoxine treatment and aggressive dialysis programme. In conclusion; progressive renal failure in infancy with massive nephrocalcinosis, especially if accompanied by consanguinity and family history, should always raise the suspicion of PH type 1. Increased awareness of the disease would help physicians in both treating the patients and guiding the families who have diseased children and plan to have further pregnancies.
Katai, Kanako; Iwamoto, Aya; Kimura, Yuka; Oshima, Yuki; Arioka, Saori; Morimi, Yuki; Omuro, Ayaka; Nakasa, Teruko
In chronic renal failure, inorganic phosphate (Pi) retention speeds up the progression to end-stage renal disease. The current therapy for hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic renal failure consists of dietary Pi restriction combined with administration of Pi binders, but each therapy has practical problems. Thus, the discovery of foods or nutrients that inhibit Pi absorption may be useful for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. In the present study, we investigated whether wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) is a useful food for the prevention of hyperphosphatemia in a rat model of renal failure. Feeding a diet containing 5% wakame significantly decreased plasma and urinary Pi levels and increased the amount of fecal Pi. In addition, wakame significantly reduced plasma blood urea nitrogen and plasma Pi levels in 5/6 nephrectomized rats fed a high-Pi diet. Biochemical analyses showed that the reduction of intestinal Pi absorption is the main reason for the decrease in plasma Pi levels in rats fed a diet containing wakame. In addition, feeding alginic acid and fucoidan, major components of wakame fiber, was effective in reducing plasma Pi levels in normal rats. Finally, we concluded that wakame may be a useful food for the prevention of hyperphosphatemia in rodents.
Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian
A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.
Brown, Cathy A; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Poppenga, Robert H; Puschner, Birgit; Miller, Doris M; Ellis, Angela E; Kang, Kyung-Il; Sum, Steffen; Cistola, Alexis M; Brown, Scott A
Sixteen animals affected in 2 outbreaks of pet food-associated renal failure (2 dogs in 2004; 10 cats and 4 dogs in 2007) were evaluated for histopathologic, toxicologic, and clinicopathologic changes. All 16 animals had clinical and laboratory evidence of uremia, including anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, polyuria, azotemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Where measured, serum hepatic enzyme concentrations were normal in animals from both outbreaks. All animals died or were euthanized because of severe uremia. Distal tubular lesions were present in all 16 animals, and unique polarizable crystals with striations were present in distal tubules or collecting ducts in all animals. The proximal tubules were largely unaffected. Crystals and histologic appearance were identical in both outbreaks. A chronic pattern of histologic change, characterized by interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, was observed in some affected animals. Melamine and cyanuric acid were present in renal tissue from both outbreaks. These results indicate that the pet food-associated renal failure outbreaks in 2004 and 2007 share identical clinical, histologic, and toxicologic findings, providing compelling evidence that they share the same causation.
Sakthirajan, R.; Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Murugan, S.; Balasubramaniyan, T.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the commonest rheumatological diseases. Renal involvement is not common but can occur as a result of chronic inflammation as part of disease process or drug toxicity. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ failure of variable severity. Only a few cases of TMA in patients with RA were reported to date. We describe a 45-year-old female patient with RA who presented with oliguria and edema. Renal biopsy showed TMA with patchy cortical necrosis. She improved with hemodialysis and plasmapheresis. PMID:28182045
Khor, Lih Kin; Tan, Kong Bing; Loi, Hoi Yin; Lu, Suat-Jin
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been linked to utilization of gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with renal impairment. We present a 19-year-old female patient with end-stage renal failure presenting with joint pains and subcutaneous nodules. She had a prior gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography when she was 14 years old. Clinical findings revealed firm subcutaneous nodules in both thighs. Whole-body bone scan demonstrates tracer uptake predominantly in the soft tissues and muscles of the extremities with minimal bony uptake. Incisional biopsy of the left thigh nodule revealed features of NSF with a total pathological score of 4, highly consistent with NSF.
Mois, Emil Ioan; Graur, Florin; Sechel, Roxana; Al-Hajjar, Nadim
Giant tubular-villous adenoma of the rectum can determine secretory diarrhea, associated with a depleting syndrome of prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia. These symptoms are known as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, and there are about 50 cases reported in literature. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, prerenal azotemia, and electrolyte disturbances with a background of chronic diarrhea, caused by a giant rectal tumor. Conservative therapy initially improved and normalized renal function, and made surgical resection of the tumor possible.
MOIS, EMIL IOAN; GRAUR, FLORIN; SECHEL, ROXANA; AL-HAJJAR, NADIM
Giant tubular-villous adenoma of the rectum can determine secretory diarrhea, associated with a depleting syndrome of prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia. These symptoms are known as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, and there are about 50 cases reported in literature. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, prerenal azotemia, and electrolyte disturbances with a background of chronic diarrhea, caused by a giant rectal tumor. Conservative therapy initially improved and normalized renal function, and made surgical resection of the tumor possible. PMID:27152085
Israel, Nejla; Markova, Tsveti
Calciphylaxis is a lethal disorder seen in patients with end-stage renal disease and is characterized by painful necrotic skin lesions. The pathophysiology is still unknown. Elevated calcium, phosphorous and parathormone appear to play a role in causing small and medium sized vasculopathy. Diagnosis is delayed, prognosis is poor and mortality remains high. In this article we describe the case of calciphylaxis in a patient with chronic renal failure and multiple medical comorbidities, and discuss diagnostic management, prognosis and treatment options. PMID:19830094
Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Açai berry extract (ABE) on glycerol-induced ARF in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral ABE in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days before or 7 days after induction of ARF by a single intramuscular glycerol injection reported a significant improvement in kidney functions tests [decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] when compared to the ARF model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers [renal catalase (CAT), renal reduced glutathione (GSH)] and renal histopathological changes in the ABE-treated groups when compared to ARF model groups. The most significant improvement was reported in the groups where ABE was administered in a dose 200 mg/kg/day. These results indicate that ABE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF.
Lu, Yimin; Vakilzadeh, Nima; Teta, Daniel
The optimal diet for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an issue frequently brought up by patients and/or their relatives during outpatient visits. For patients without malnutrition who are motivated and supported by an experienced multidisciplinary team, the optimal protein intake of 0,6 g/kg of ideal body weight/day is recommended to halt the progression of CKD. A calorie intake of 30 to 35 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day is necessary to reduce the risk of malnutrition from a low protein diet and to maintain a neutral nitrogen balance. A low-salt diet, namely 5 to 6 g/d, is useful to optimize the treatment of hypertension associated with CKD and to limit fluid overload. At the advanced stage of CKD, it is also necessary to restrict the intake of phosphorus and sometimes potassium. Given the complexity of optimal renal diet, coordination between general practitioners, nephrologists and dietitians is essential to foster optimal care.
Sell, L L; Cullen, M L; Whittlesey, G C; Lerner, G R; Klein, M D
We use extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to treat respiratory and cardiac failure in children who are unresponsive to standard ventilator and pharmacologic management. All patients have cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography prior to ECMO to identify major structural anomalies and anatomically normal kidneys. Despite this, oliguric renal failure is seen in a number of patients. Acute renal failure (ARF) developed in two of the first 20 patients we placed on ECMO and both of these patients died. Six of the last 27 patients (22%) also developed ARF and were treated with continuous hemofiltration (CH) placed in-line with the extracorporeal circuit. The technique of CH removes plasma water and dissolved solutes while retaining proteins and cellular components of the intravascular space. The duration of CH ranged from 9 to 112 hours (mean 57.5 hours). Indications for CH were hypervolemia, hyperkalemia, and azotemia. The mean serum potassium prior to CH was 5.6 (range 4.3 to 7.0) compared with 4.5 after filtration. We filtered 5 to 10 mL/kg/h and replaced it with crystalloid chosen on the basis of serum and filtrate electrolytes. These six patients had a 33% mean weight gain prior to CH. We were able to remove as much as 2,200 g in the most edematous patient with significant improvement in cardiopulmonary status. Four of the patients on CH died of their primary pulmonary or cardiac disease without specific problems related to ARF. The other two patients were successfully weaned from ECMO, extubated, and have not needed further therapy for renal failure. We conclude that CH is useful in managing the complications of oliguric renal failure during ECMO.
Gilbert, Cameron; Cherney, David Z I; Parker, Andrea B; Mak, Susanna; Floras, John S; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Parker, John D
Abnormal renal function is common in acute and chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and is related to the severity of congestion. However, treatment of congestion often leads to worsening renal function. Our objective was to explore basal determinants of renal function and their response to hemodynamic interventions. Thirty-seven patients without CHF and 59 patients with chronic CHF (ejection fraction; 23 ± 8%) underwent right heart catheterization, measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin) and renal plasma flow (RPF; para-aminohippurate), and radiotracer estimates of renal sympathetic activity. A subset (26 without, 36 with CHF) underwent acute pharmacological intervention with dobutamine or nitroprusside. We explored the relationship between baseline and drug-induced hemodynamic changes and changes in renal function. In CHF, there was an inverse relationship among right atrial mean pressure (RAM) pressure, RPF, and GFR. By contrast, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), and measures of renal sympathetic activity were not significant predictors. In those with CHF there was also an inverse relationship among the drug-induced changes in RAM as well as pulmonary artery mean pressure and the change in GFR. Changes in MAP and CI did not predict the change in GFR in those with CHF. Baseline values and changes in RAM pressure did not correlate with GFR in those without CHF. In the CHF group there was a positive correlation between RAM pressure and renal sympathetic activity. There was also an inverse relationship among RAM pressure, GFR, and RPF in patients with chronic CHF. The observation that acute reductions in RAM pressure is associated with an increase in GFR in patients with CHF has important clinical implications.
Konrad, Martin; Schaller, André; Seelow, Dominik; Pandey, Amit V.; Waldegger, Siegfried; Lesslauer, Annegret; Vitzthum, Helga; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Luk, John M.; Becker, Christian; Schlingmann, Karl P.; Schmid, Marcel; Rodriguez-Soriano, Juan; Ariceta, Gema; Cano, Francisco; Enriquez, Ricardo; Jüppner, Harald; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A.; Hediger, Matthias A.; Gallati, Sabina; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.; Nürnberg, Peter; Weber, Stefanie
Claudins are major components of tight junctions and contribute to the epithelial-barrier function by restricting free diffusion of solutes through the paracellular pathway. We have mapped a new locus for recessive renal magnesium loss on chromosome 1p34.2 and have identified mutations in CLDN19, a member of the claudin multigene family, in patients affected by hypomagnesemia, renal failure, and severe ocular abnormalities. CLDN19 encodes the tight-junction protein claudin-19, and we demonstrate high expression of CLDN19 in renal tubules and the retina. The identified mutations interfere severely with either cell-membrane trafficking or the assembly of the claudin-19 protein. The identification of CLDN19 mutations in patients with chronic renal failure and severe visual impairment supports the fundamental role of claudin-19 for normal renal tubular function and undisturbed organization and development of the retina. PMID:17033971
Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Sweet, Douglas H.; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Hou, Yu-Chi
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are highly protein-bound nephro-cardiovascular toxins, which are not efficiently removed through hemodialysis. The renal excretions of IS and PCS were mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and OAT3. Green tea (GT) is a popular beverage containing plenty of catechins. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of teas have shown that the major molecules present in the bloodstream are the glucuronides/sulfates of tea catechins, which are putative substrates of OATs. Here we demonstrated that GT ingestion significantly elevated the systemic exposures of endogenous IS and PCS in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). More importantly, GT also significantly increased the levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in CRF rats. Mechanism studies indicated that the serum metabolites of GT (GTM) inhibited the uptake transporting functions of OAT1 and OAT3. In conclusion, GT inhibited the elimination of nephro-cardiovascular toxins such as IS and PCS, and deteriorated the renal function in CRF rats. PMID:26552961
Adeb, Melkamu; Darge, Kassa; Dillman, Jonathan R; Carr, Michael; Epelman, Monica
Duplex renal collecting systems are common congenital anomalies of the upper urinary tract. In most cases they are incidental findings and not associated with additional pathologies. They demonstrate, however, higher incidences of hydroureteronephrosis, ureteroceles, and ectopic ureters. The most comprehensive morphologic and functional evaluation of duplex systems can be achieved using magnetic resonance urography. Functional magnetic resonance urography allows better separation of the renal poles, thus more accurate calculation of the differential renal functions compared with renal scintigraphy. Magnetic resonance urography is the study of choice when upper urinary tract anatomy is complex or when functional evaluation is needed.
Chávez-Velásquez, M; Pons, H; Medina, M; Quiroz, Y; Parra, G; Herrera, J
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a purine synthesis inhibitor commonly used as immunosupresive agent in transplantation. Kidney grafts undergo more or less prolonged cold ischemia after harvesting which results in variable degrees of ischemia reperfusion injury. To determine whether the inhibition of early events of cellular infiltration may influence the severity of damage induced by ischemic acute renal failure, 45 Sprague Dawley rats were given MMF at a dose of 20mg/kg/day (MMF-rats) by gavage 2 days before (pre-MMF group, n=15) or after (post-MMF group, n=15) clamping the left renal artery for 40 minutes followed by rigt-sided nephrectomy. (control group, n=15) received vehicle. Serum Creatinine (Screat) was measured daily in all groups. On the 2nd post-ischemic day Screat was significantly lower (p=0.001) in pre-MMF group compared with post-MMF group and control group (4 +/- 2mg/dl post-MMF group vs 1.7 +/- 1.2 mg/dl pre-MMF group, control group 5+/-2, p< 0.05). Kidney biopsies shown that the histologic damage was 54 +/- 28% in post-MMF group vs 34+/- 22% in pre-MMF group and 61 +/- 25% in control group (pre-MMF vs post-MMF, p NS). On the 5th day post-ischemic, MMF-rats showed more severe tubulointerstitial necrosis (pre-MMF group: 17 +/- 20 %, post-MMF group: 33 +/- 27%) than controls (4 +/- 5%). The severity of ATN was significantly higher in post-MMF group compared with controls (p=0.01). Tubulointersticial T-lymphocyte (T CD 5) and monocyte (ED 1) infiltration evaluated on the 2nd post-ischemic day was less intense in group I (T CD5: 3 +/- 3, ED 1: 10 +/- 9, cel/mm2) compared to post-MMF group (T CD 5: 10 +/- 4, ED 1: 55 +/- 40) and to control group (T CD 5: 10+/- 4, ED 1: 64 +/- 46). However, on the 5th post-ischemia day, ED 1 infiltration was significantly higher in post-MMF group (24 +/- 18%) compared to pre-MMF group (5 +/- 5, p NS) and also in pre-MMF group vs control group (31 +/- 33, p< 0.05). Our results suggest that MMF given before a renal ischemic
Marshall, F F; Smolev, J K; Spees, E K; Jeffs, R D; Burdick, J F
Previously, patients with chronic renal failure and major congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (often with urinary diversion) were thought to be poor candidates for renal transplantation. Pre-transplant evaluation and possible urinary reconstruction are essential in these patients to achieve successful renal transplantation. Ten patients, including 7 adults, presented with congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract that were responsible for renal failure. Percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy aided in the assessment of bladder function. Undiagnosed posterior urethral valves were found in 2 adults. Patients with exstrophy, neurogenic bladder or a contracted bladder (with augmentation cystoplasty) had urinary drainage into the bladder at the time of renal transplantation. Sometimes an imperfect bladder can be used for urinary drainage with transplantation but, otherwise, intestinal conduits are still a viable alternative.
Stepien, Karolina M.; Prinsloo, Peter; Hitch, Tony; McCulloch, Thomas A.; Sims, Rebecca
A 29-year old female presented with a one-week history of vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and headache. On admission, she had acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Tests revealed a hemolytic anemia with thrombocytopenia. An initial diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic microangiopathy was made and plasma exchange was instigated. However, renal biopsy did not show thrombotic microangiopathy but instead revealed acute kidney injury with mild tubulointerstitial nephritis and numerous oxalate crystals, predominantly in the distal tubules. The patient had been taking large doses (>1100 mg daily) of vitamin C for many months. She also gave a history of sclerotherapy using injections of an ethylene glycol derivative for superficial leg veins. The patient completed five sessions of plasma exchange and was able to discontinue dialysis. She eventually achieved full renal recovery. She has now discontinued sclerotherapy and vitamin supplementation. PMID:21785726
Tobimatsu, M; Ueda, Y; Saito, S; Tsumagari, T; Konomi, K
The effect of OP-41483, a stable prostacyclin (PGI2) analog, on ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) was investigated in dogs. Administration of OP-41483 for three days after ischemia significantly increased renal cortical blood flow (RCBF) when compared with dogs treated with the saline vehicle. In the OP-41483-treated group, serum creatinine levels remained relatively low during postoperative days 1-3 and mean survival time was prolonged. Injection of a silicone rubber vascular casting compound (Microfil) revealed increased numbers of visible renal cortical glomeruli and microvessels compared to the saline vehicle group. Histologic sections showed only very limited tubular necrosis, whereas sections of kidneys treated with saline showed extensive tubular necrosis. In conclusion, this stable prostacyclin analog provided a significant degree of protection for the kidneys from ischemic injury and may be useful in a clinical setting. Images Figs. 3A-D. Figs. 4A-D. PMID:3291800
Brown, E D; Chen, M Y; Wolfman, N T; Ott, D J; Watson, N E
Following renal transplantation, patients are often evaluated with ultrasonography (US) or radionuclide imaging to assess renal function and the presence of possible complications. Both modalities are inexpensive, noninvasive, and nonnephrotoxic. A basic understanding of the surgical techniques commonly used for renal transplantation is useful when imaging these patients in order to recognize complications and to direct further imaging or intervention. The most frequent complications of renal transplantation include perinephric fluid collections; decreased renal function; and abnormalities of the vasculature, collecting system, and renal parenchyma. Perinephric fluid collections are common following transplantation, and their clinical significance depends on the type, location, size, and growth of the fluid collection, features that are well-evaluated with US. Causes of diminished renal function include acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and toxicity from medications. Radionuclide imaging is the most useful modality for assessing renal function. Vascular complications of transplantation include occlusion or stenosis of the arterial or venous supply, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Although the standard for evaluating these vascular complications is angiography, US is an excellent noninvasive method for screening. Other transplant complications such as abnormalities of the collecting system and renal parenchyma are well-evaluated with both radionuclide imaging and US.
Tachtsi, Maria D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Atmatzidis, Stefanos K; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios K; Atmatzidis, Konstantinos S
Compressive myopathy syndrome (SCM) is a syndrome characterized by the lesion of skeletal muscle resulting in subsequent release of intracellular contents (myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, potassium, etc.) into the circulatory system, which can cause potentially lethal complications. There are numerous causes that can lead to SCM resulting to acute rhabdomyolysis, and many patients present with multiple causes. The most common potentially lethal complication is acute renal failure. The occurrence of acute rhabdomyolysis should be considered as a possibility in any patient who can remain stationary for long periods, or is in a coma, or is intoxicated in any form. We report the rare case of a 26-year-old patient who developed SCM caused by ischemia reperfusion, with subsequent acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after prolonged compression of the right upper extremity.
Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling
Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns. PMID:27210744
Palmer, Russell A.
Twenty-three patients with end-stage chronic renal failure have been treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis employing an in-lying silicone rubber catheter of original design. The mean duration of treatment was 13.8 months and the longest was over four years. Biochemical and symptomatic results were satisfactory. Rehabilitation was only fairly good, but this was largely determined by the extent of the pre-existing extra-renal disease. Thirteen of the patients were able to manage a major portion of their therapy at home. The main complication was infection which occurred in 85% of cases, but at a mean interval of 10.6 months. There are seven survivors, but only one death was attributed to failure of the system. It is a method that can be used in community hospitals and requires a minimum amount of equipment and experience. PMID:5128710
Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling
Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns.
Hase, Isano; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Ohara, Tetsuya; Takizawa, Hidenori; Furihata, Tomoe; Yamada, Issei; Fukushima, Yasutugu; Ishii, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Takeshi; Koide, Michio; Saitou, Atsushi
A 77-year-old man who had fever and chest pain was admitted to a neighboring hospital on a diagnosis of pneumonia. Chest X-ray film finding deteriorated despite treatment with 2 g cefotaxime per day. Because of accompanying acute renal failure, he was transferred to our hospital. Hemodialysis with intravenous administration of erythromycin and meropenem resulted in recovery from acute renal failure, and his general condition improved. Because of liver dysfunction, erythromycin was changed to pazufloxacin. Although he was negative for Legionella urinary antigen determined with a rapid assay kit, Binax NOW, his serum titer for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 4 was elevated. Finally, a diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 4 was established.
Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney (SPK) transplantation in the 21st century is a proven therapeutic intervention for diabetes with renal failure. Although it is a major invasive procedure, successful transplantation leads to an overall improvement in the quality of life of the recipient, freedom from insulin and dialysis, along with stabilisation and improvement in several of the multi-system complications associated with long-term diabetes. It is also associated with improved longevity when compared to diabetics who have had a kidney transplant alone. The combined transplant could be considered a curative procedure albeit at the expense of long-term immunosuppression. In essence, successful SPK transplantation may be considered the gold standard against which all other therapeutic interventions may be measured in diabetes with end-stage renal failure.
Depace, N L; Rohrer, A H; Kotler, M N; Brezin, J H; Parry, W R
Calcification of the mitral annulus developed in a patient while undergoing dialysis. The rapid onset of events corresponded to the onset of end-stage renal failure and uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sequential echocardiograms verified the progression of calcification of the annulus as well as the valve. A new systolic and diastolic murmur and reduced valve orifice on two-dimensional echocardiography suggested acquired nonrheumatic mitral stenosis and insufficiency. We propose that metastatic calcium deposition rather than long-term hypertensive and degenerative effects was the predominant mechanism for massive calcification of the annulus and valve. It is suggested that M-mode echocardiography be used sequentially to follow both the occurrence and progression of calcification of the mitral annulus or valve in patients with chronic renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism, or both.
Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja
We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment.
Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja
We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment. PMID:24179353
Re, Richard N
Chronic neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as various forms of chronic renal disease and systolic congestive heart failure, are among the most common progressive degenerative disorders encountered in medicine. Each disease follows a nearly relentless course, albeit at varying rates, driven by progressive cell dysfunction and drop-out. The neurologic diseases are characterized by the progressive spread of disease-causing proteins (prion-like proteins) from cell to cell. Recent evidence indicates that cell autonomous renin angiotensin systems operate in heart and kidney, and it is known that functional intracrine proteins can also spread between cells. This then suggests that certain progressive degenerative cardiovascular disorders such as forms of chronic renal insufficiency and systolic congestive heart failure result from dysfunctional renin angiotensin system intracrine action spreading in kidney or myocardium.
Nair, Pragya A.; Jivani, Nidhi B.; Diwan, Nilofar G.
Kyrle's disease (KD) is an acquired perforating dermatosis associated with an underlying disorder such as diabetes mellitus or chronic renal failure. It presents as multiple discrete, eruptive papules with a central crust or plug, often on the lower extremities. A keratotic plug is seen histologically in an atrophic epidermis and may penetrate the papillary dermis with transepidermal elimination of keratotic debris without collagen or elastic fibers. Various therapies have been reported that include cryotherapy, laser therapy, narrow-band ultraviolet B and use of topical or systemic retinoids. Hereby a case of 64-year-old male, a known case of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic renal failure who developed KD is presented. PMID:25949985
Treatment of kidney failure varies greatly in the United Kingdom, since area health authorities determine allocation of funds. Patients in end-stage renal failure are frequently denied treatment in some regions, and pleas to expand hemodialysis and transplant programs have been unsuccessful. Brahams argues that, since a doctor has a duty of care toward his patients, individual doctors and the Secretary of State for Social Services could conceivably be guilty of manslaughter when treatment "necessary to meet all reasonable requirements" is not readily available. Patients denied treatment could apply for judicial review and an order of mandamus to force the Secretary to enforce the duty to treat.
Holmes, Ian; Berman, Nathaniel; Domingues, Vinicius
Phenazopyridine is a commonly used urinary analgesic available throughout the United States. Ingestion of large quantities can lead to methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute renal failure. We report a case of a 78-year-old male with previously normal renal function who developed acute renal failure and jaundice without methemoglobinemia or hyperbilirubinemia after taking nearly 8 g of phenazopyridine over the course of 4 days. Initially presenting with oliguria, the urine output began to increase by day 2 of his admission, and the creatinine peaked 11 days after he began taking phenazopyridine, and he was discharged safely soon after. To our knowledge, this is the first such case of renal failure and jaundice without methemoglobinemia or hemolytic anemia in an adult patient with normal renal function.
Twenty-two patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were investigated. The patients were mainly administered decoctions of rhubarb (symbol in text) for 4 weeks. After that, traditional Chinese (Kampo) prescriptions, most of them involving Wen-Pi-Tang were given for another 4 weeks. Following administration of these prescriptions, the levels of serum methylguanidine (MG), blood urea nitrogen and serum inorganic phosphorus improved significantly, although the values of serum creatinine (Cr) were not changed remarkably. The fact that the serum MG/Cr ratio was reduced after the therapy suggested that rhubarb possessed the potential to scavenge hydroxyl radicals by which MG was produced from Cr through creatol, as reported recently. The serum Cr concentration was determined over an observation period of more than 40 weeks in each of the 7 cases. Evaluation of the progression rate of CRF was made from the slopes of the regression lines. After analysis, 5 of the 7 cases showed significant retardation of progression after the administration of Kampo prescriptions during 106 ± 32 (mean ± SD) weeks. Of the 5 cases, 2 were prescribed Wen-Pi-Tang, another 2 cases were treated with Wen-Pi-Tang and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and the last was treated with Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. This study demonstrated that the traditional Chinese prescriptions, most of them comprising Wen-Pi-Tang and/or Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang, retarded the progression of CRF.
Friedmann Angeli, Jose Pedro; Schneider, Manuela; Proneth, Bettina; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Tyurin, Vladimir A; Hammond, Victoria J; Herbach, Nadja; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Eggenhofer, Elke; Basavarajappa, Devaraj; Rådmark, Olof; Kobayashi, Sho; Seibt, Tobias; Beck, Heike; Neff, Frauke; Esposito, Irene; Wanke, Rüdiger; Förster, Heidi; Yefremova, Olena; Heinrichmeyer, Marc; Bornkamm, Georg W; Geissler, Edward K; Thomas, Stephen B; Stockwell, Brent R; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Kagan, Valerian E; Schick, Joel A; Conrad, Marcus
Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by small molecules in specific tumour types, and in engineered cells overexpressing oncogenic RAS. Yet, its relevance in non-transformed cells and tissues is unexplored and remains enigmatic. Here, we provide direct genetic evidence that the knockout of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) causes cell death in a pathologically relevant form of ferroptosis. Using inducible Gpx4(-/-) mice, we elucidate an essential role for the glutathione/Gpx4 axis in preventing lipid-oxidation-induced acute renal failure and associated death. We furthermore systematically evaluated a library of small molecules for possible ferroptosis inhibitors, leading to the discovery of a potent spiroquinoxalinamine derivative called Liproxstatin-1, which is able to suppress ferroptosis in cells, in Gpx4(-/-) mice, and in a pre-clinical model of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced hepatic damage. In sum, we demonstrate that ferroptosis is a pervasive and dynamic form of cell death, which, when impeded, promises substantial cytoprotection.
Pieniazek, Anna; Gwozdzinski, Krzysztof
The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of internal components of erythrocytes in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in comparison to control subjects. For investigation of conformational state of hemoglobin and nonheme proteins (NHP) the maleimide spin label (MSL) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was applied. The studies were performed using MSL in whole cells and hemolysate as well as proteins separated by ion exchange chromatography and checked by electrophoresis. Additionally the level of -SH groups in hemolysate and isolated internal proteins of CRF erythrocytes was determined using 4,4'-dithiodipyridine. All measurements were performed before and after hemodialysis. Oxidative stress accompanying CRF/hemodialysed patients caused a significant decrease in the mobility of internal components inside erythrocytes indicated by MSL (P < 0.02). The significant decrease in mobility of spin labeled HbA1c and HbA both before and after HD (P < 0.0002) as well as in nonheme proteins before hemodialysis (P < 0.05) versus control was indicated. Decrease in mobility of internal components of erythrocytes was accompanied by loss of thiols before and after hemodialysis versus control in NHP (P < 0.05), HbA1c (P < 0.0002), and HbA (P < 0.0005). These findings showed oxidative influence of hemodialysis on hemoglobins and internal nonheme proteins in erythrocytes of CRF patients.
Torregrosa, José-Vicente; Fuster, David; Peris, Pilar; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Solà, Oriol; Domenech, Beatriz; Martín, Gloria; Casellas, Joan; Pons, Francisca
Background and objectives: Hemodialysis needs an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that may influence the structure and growth of nearby bone and affect bone mass measurement. The study analyzed the effect of AVF in the assessment of forearm bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examined its influence on the final diagnosis of osteoporosis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Forty patients (52 ± 18 yr) in hemodialysis program (12 ± 8 yr) with permeable AVF in forearm were included. Patients were divided in two groups (over and under 50 yr). BMD of both forearms (three areas), lumbar spine, and femur was measured by DXA. Forearm measurements in each arm were compared. Patients were diagnosed as normal only if all territories were considered nonpathologic and osteoporosis/osteopenia was determined by the lowest score found. Results: Ten patients were excluded and 30 patients were analyzed. BMD in the forearm with AVF was significantly lower than that observed in the contralateral forearm in both groups of patients and in all forearm areas analyzed. When only lumbar spine and femur measurements were considered, 70% of patients were nonpathologic and 30% were osteoporotic. However, inclusion of AVF forearm classified 63% as osteoporotic and a further 27% as osteopenic, leaving only 10% as nonpathologic. Conclusions: Forearm AVF affects BMD measurements by decreasing their values in patients with end-stage renal failure. This may produce an overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, which should be taken into account when evaluating patients of this type. PMID:19713298
Siqueira, Mariana Alves de Sá; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Pereira, Natália Rodrigues; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Moss, Monique Bandeira; Santos, Sérgio F; Lugon, Jocemir R; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio C
Nitric oxide (NO) production occurs through oxidation of the amino acid L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS). NO inhibits platelet activation by increasing the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), thus maintaining vascular homeostasis. Our group previously demonstrated (da Silva et al. 2005) an enhancement of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway in platelets taken from chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on haemodialysis associated with reduced platelet aggregation. We investigate the platelet L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, platelet function, and inflammation from patients in CRF on conservative treatment. A total of 42 CRF patients and 42 controls (creatinine clearance = 27 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 1 mL per min per 1.73 m2, respectively) participated in this study. NOS activity and expression and cGMP concentration were measured in platelets. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP was evaluated and plasma levels of fibrinogen were determined by the Clauss method. A marked increase in basal NOS activity was seen in undialysed CRF patients compared with controls, accompanied by an elevation of fibrinogen plasma levels. There were no differences in expression of NOS and in cGMP levels. In this context, platelet aggregation was not affected. We provide the first evidence of increased intraplatelet NO biosynthesis in undialysed CRF patients, which can be an early marker of future haemostatic abnormalities during dialysis treatment.
Deshmukh, Supriya P.; Sharma, Yugal K.; Dash, Kedarnath; Chaudhari, Nitin C.; Deo, Kirti S.
Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with a variety of cutaneous manifestations as a result of underlying etiology as well as the various treatment modalities. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various dermatoses in patients with CRF on hemodialysis and to study the effect of hemodialysis on the intensity of pruritus. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients of CRF on hemodialysis having at least one cutaneous manifestation were included in the study. Results: Twenty-four (68.71%) cases in our study belonged to the age group of 50-69 years, out of which 16 cases were in the sixth decade. Xerosis and pruritus occurred in 80% and 65.71% of cases, respectively. Other common findings included pallor (68.57%), dyspigmentation (34.29%), cutaneous infections (34.39%), acquired perforating dermatosis (17.4%), and nail changes (60%). Hemodialysis failed to improve pruritus in 17 (73.9%) of our patients. Twenty-six patients (74.28%) suffered from hypertension, 13 of them also were known cases of type II diabetes mellitus. Five patients suffered exclusively from type II diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: In our small study, xerosis was the commonest finding and pruritus, the commonest symptom. The intensity of pruritus was largely unaffected by hemodialysis. PMID:23439945
Feest, T G; Dunn, E J; Burton, C J
Diabetic nephropathy is now the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world, and is associated with a higher patient morbidity and mortality than other causes of renal failure, largely because of associated cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have elucidated the factors which influence its onset and progression. The St Vincent Declaration in 1994 proposed standards for the appropriate management of patients with diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether referral to a nephrology clinic attempting to apply these standards influenced the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The results show a significant improvement in blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin and serum cholesterol following referral. There was a significant reduction in the rate of decline of renal function following referral in 39% of patients. With the possible exception of diabetic control there were no significant differences in the management of those that did and did not show improvement. The results show that with intensive out-patient clinic monitoring it is possible to improve the quality of patient care, and that even in established diabetic nephropathy it is possible to slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure.
Dervisoglu, Erkan; Dikmen, Emre; Filinte, Deniz; Yilmaz, Ahmet
A 70-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with acute obstructive non-oliguric renal failure. Abdominal CT revealed obstructive hydronephrosis and irregular thickening of the bladder wall. Upon cystoscopy, samples of tissue were taken and found to be positive for Aspergillus spp. on histology, indicating infection of the bladder wall. The patient was treated successfully by means of a percutaneous nephrostomy and a 30-day course of caspofungin.
Sandler, B; Aronson, P
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid obtained from the yohimbe tree, a common tree in West Africa. We describe a forty-two-year black man in whom a generalized erythrodermic skin eruption, progressive renal failure, and lupus-like syndrome developed following treatment with the drug, yohimbine. A literature review failed to reveal any reported association of these side effects. We review current information on yohimbine's use in male impotence, reported side effects, and its role as a drug allergen.
Gulia, S; Gota, V; Kumar, Sangita D; Gupta, Sudeep
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients is widely prevalent and often underreported. Advanced stage of disease is significantly associated with CAM use. The concurrent use of alternative medicines and chemotherapy drugs has the potential to lead to toxicities as well as altered therapeutic activity due to unknown interactions. We report a case of early breast cancer who presented to us with non-oliguric acute renal failure related concurrent use of Ayurvedic medicines and adjuvant anthracycline based.
Marchetto, Luca; Sordino, Desiree; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Trevisanuto, Daniele
Maternal hypertensive treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) during the second and third trimester of pregnancy is associated with several fetal and neonatal complications, and potential adverse outcomes. We report a neonate presenting with transient renal acute failure during the first days of life after maternal treatment with ARBs. Women who became pregnant while taking one of these drugs must modify antihypertensive therapy with a different class drug as soon as pregnancy is recognised.
Soltani, Parvin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Pirasteh, Shadi
We report a case of acute renal failure related to rhabdomyolysis in a patient with Sheehan syndrome, while other diseases that could cause rhabdomyolysis were excluded. The patient's kidney function completely recovered with 3 sessions of intermittent hemodialysis. After thyroxine replacement therapy, musculoskeletal symptoms disappeared and creatine kinase concentrations decreased. Steroid replacement therapy was also administered. The present case suggests that rhabdomyolysis could occur in a patient with Sheehan syndrome without other precipitating factors.
Rivera, M; Lucero, J; Guerrero, A; Márquez, J L; Montes, R; Suñer, M; Ruiz, A; Valdivia, M A; Mateos, J
Angiodysplasia is an important cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with chronic renal failure. Octreotide, a long-acting synthetic somatostatin analogue that reduces splachnic blood flow have been used to treat esophageal varicose hemorrhage, but its efficacy for bleeding vascular ecstasies is awaiting support. We present three patients with chronic renal failure (two with diabetic nephropaty and the third with mesangiocapilar glomerulonephritis and hepatic cirrosis), seric creatinine 3-4,5 mg/dl, and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding due to diffuse angiodysplasia and vascular ecstasies, diagnosed by oral endoscopy, colonoscopy and video capsule. They all were treated with octreotide, administered subcutanesly 0.1 mg twice a day for six months, with significantly decreased blood requirements in all of them, as well as the occurrence of bleeding episodes. It was well tolerated and none side-effects occurred in any subject. In our experience, octreotide is an effective and safe drug in bleeding angiodysplasia and ecstasies vascular of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic renal failure, and it may be a good option especially in patients who are not candidates for surgery or endoscopic treatment due to inaccessible sites, spread of the lesion, old age and/or concomitant disorders.
Gacka, M; Adamiec, R
Chronic lower limb ischemia diminishes the quality of life and is associated with a higher risk of limb amputation and cardiovascular mortality. Coexisting chronic renal disease can modulate the response to pharmacotherapy and revascularization, and thus influence prognosis. This paper reviews current literary evidence regarding therapeutic problems observed in patients with obliterative atherosclerosis and renal failure. We reviewed articles from peer-reviewed medical journals which were published between 2000 and 2011. The poorer clinical response in the discussed patients is not only connected with the direct failure of surgical and endovascular procedures, but first of all with the high mortality of the patients. There is still a lack of sufficient evidence on the effectiveness of currently used anti-atherosclerotic agents in patients with end-stage renal failure. A certain priority is the search for an effective therapeutic strategy that would reduce mortality associated with cardiovascular conditions in this particular group of patients. Identifying patients who can benefit most from costly endovascular procedures is another vital issue.
de Gómez Dumm, Nelva T; Giammona, Ana M; Touceda, Luis A
Background Hyperhomocysteinemia and lipid abnormalities are commonly found in patients with chronic renal failure; both are recognized as risk factors for atherosclerosis. The homocysteine-lowering effect of pyridoxine is controversial. This study was performed to determine the effect of a high dose of pyridoxine (300 mg i.v. three times a week) on plasma and red blood cell lipid profile and plasma homocysteine concentration in twelve chronic renal failure patients on regular hemodialysis. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study (basal 1), after 30 and 60 days of treatment and 4 months after withdrawal (basal 2). Results Pyridoxine supplementation induced a significant decrease in total plasma homocysteine level and also a lowering effect in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides. These biochemical data increased when the samples were taken at basal 2, reaching the levels obtained at the beginning of the experiment. LDL cholesterol increased whereas HDL cholesterol was reduced during the treatment. In erythrocyte membranes vitamin B6 therapy enhanced the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio as well as the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenyl-hexatriene. Conclusions We conclude that high doses of pyridoxine represent an effective strategy to ameliorate both plasma homocysteine levels and lipid profiles in chronic renal failure patients, protecting them from atherosclerosis. Further research using a long-term treatment would be necessary in an attempt to restore the fatty acid pattern and the fluidity of red cell membranes. PMID:14575530
Chang, Yongen; Lau, Wei Ling; Jo, Hyunil; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Gewin, Leslie; Reed, Nilgun Isik; Atakilit, Amha; Nunes, Ane Claudia Fernandes; DeGrado, William F; Sheppard, Dean
Activated fibroblasts are deemed the main executors of organ fibrosis. However, regulation of the pathologic functions of these cells in vivo is poorly understood. PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is highly expressed in activated pericytes, a main source of fibroblasts. Studies using a PDGFRβ promoter-driven Cre system to delete αv integrins in activated fibroblasts identified these integrins as core regulators of fibroblast activity across solid organs, including the kidneys. Here, we used the same PDGFRβ-Cre line to isolate and study renal fibroblasts ex vivo We found that renal fibroblasts express three αv integrins, namely αvβ1, αvβ3, and αvβ5. Blockade of αvβ1 prevented direct binding of fibroblasts to the latency-associated peptide of TGF-β1 and prevented activation of the latent TGF-β complex. Continuous administration of a recently described potent small molecule inhibitor of αvβ1, compound 8, starting the day of unilateral ureteral obstruction operation, inhibited collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice 14 days later. Compound 8 also effectively attenuated renal failure, as measured by BUN levels in mice fed an adenine diet known to cause renal injury followed by fibrosis. Inhibition of αvβ1 integrin could thus hold promise as a therapeutic intervention in CKD characterized by renal fibrosis.
Zakeri, Rosita; Burnett, John C; Sangaralingham, S Jeson
The public health and economic burden of heart failure (HF) is staggering and the need for relevant pathophysiologic and clinical biomarkers to advance the field and improve HF therapy remains high. Renal dysfunction is common among HF patients and is associated with increased HF hospitalization and mortality. It is widely recognized that mechanisms contributing to HF pathogenesis include a complex bidirectional interaction between the kidney and heart, encompassed by the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Among a new wave of urinary biomarkers germane to CRS, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has emerged as an innovative biomarker of renal structural and functional impairment in HF and chronic renal disease states. CNP is a hormone, synthesized in the kidney, and is an important regulator of cell proliferation and organ fibrosis. Hypoxia, cytokines and fibrotic growth factors, which are inherent to both cardiac and renal remodeling processes, are among the recognized stimuli for CNP production and release. In this review we aim to highlight current knowledge regarding the biology and pathophysiological correlates of urinary CNP, and its potential clinical utility as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HF and renal disease states.
Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Yoshioka, Chihiro; Minami, Koji; Okawa, Takumi; Fujisaki, Yuka; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru
We performed continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on clinically healthy dogs to evaluate the effects of CRRT on hemodynamics. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure of the dogs (n=6) were recorded during the procedure, which was performed under general anesthesia. Throughout the CRRT, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were stable. Central venous pressure increased after CRRT termination but returned to the basal level within 30 min. In this study, hemodynamic alterations, including hypotension, hypertension, and arrhythmias, were not observed during CRRT. These observations suggest that the CRRT protocol used in the present study can be safely applied to clinical cases with acute renal failure.
Ruilope, L M; Campo, C; Rodicio, J L
The presence of proteinuria has been shown to be an excellent predictor for a worse outcome of renal function. Both proteinuria and arterial hypertension often coexist in the same patient, and therapy must be directed at decreasing protein excretion in the urine as well as lowering the blood pressure. Any antihypertensive agent has the capacity to lower proteinuria simply by lowering blood pressure. Furthermore, the antiproteinuric capacity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be equalized by other agents or their combination, provided that the fall in blood pressure is great enough. For this reason studies are needed in which the strict control of arterial hypertension combined with a decrease in proteinuria are considered.
Sturiale, Alessio; Campo, Susanna; Crascì, Eleonora; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele
The kidney can achieve a structural and functional recovery after the damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion. This is due to the regeneration of epithelial tubular cells, the intervention of immature cells mainly localized in the medulla, and a small number of bone marrow-derived stem cells. In many instances, however, recovery is delayed or does not occur at all. The mechanisms allowing the renal cells to de-differentiate still need to be clarified in order to find a therapeutic approach that can amplify this ability and then stop the fibroid involution and the progression toward renal failure. Several authors have hypothesized a protective effect of EPO against ischemic and cytotoxic renal damage and observed that patients precociously treated with EPO showed a slower progression of renal failure. EPO has been demonstrated to have proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects in ischemia-reperfusion models in the brain and cell cultures. Moreover, EPO can mobilize stem cells and increase the plasmatic levels and the renal expression of VEGF. These effects seem to be dose-dependent and could be due to the activation of signal transduction systems, like Jak and STAT. In the presence of high doses of exogenous EPO or during the treatment with long-acting EPO-like molecules, non-specific receptors may be activated through a low-affinity link. Further investigations are needed to determine new therapeutic applications for EPO and other analogous hormones. Very long-acting molecules or molecules with cyto-protective but no erythropoietic effect may represent useful tools in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPO's action and may have a rapid and safe therapeutic application.
Lai, Allen Yu-Hung; Kuo, Yuh-Chen
We present a 69-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain. Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) scout film showed a huge, 320-g triangular pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results. Bladder stone is a common disease, but it is rare for such a calculus to be so large as to cause bilateral hydronephrosis. Surgical intervention by cystolithotomy or endoscopic cystolithotripsy can achieve satisfactory results. Bladder outlet obstruction should be treated simultaneously. Close follow-up, however, is mandatory because the recurrence of urolithiasis is high in those patients with voiding problems and recurrent urinary infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest bladder stone in a human male. This case report also illustrates the importance of radiologic evaluation of patients with repeated urinary infections.
Salvadori, C; Merdjan, H; Brouard, R; Baumelou, A; Nicot, G; Friès, D
The disposition of the antidepressant tianeptine and its MC5 metabolite (pentanoic acid analogue of tianeptine) was studied following a single 12.5 mg oral dose of tianeptine sodium salt in 20 patients with chronic renal failure. In 12 patients (group I) having a creatinine clearance of less than 19 ml.min-1 the pharmacokinetics parameters for tianeptine and MC5 metabolite were determined and compared with those obtained in a matched control group (group II). The other 8 patients (group III) were functionally anephric and were studied during 1 dialysis to assess the haemodialysis clearances of tianeptine and MC5 metabolite. The comparison between groups I and II showed that renal failure did not appear to affect the disposition of parent tianeptine. However, the MC5 metabolite terminal half-life was found to be increased in renal patients compared to controls (14.2 +/- 9.3 h vs 4.9 +/- 1.7 h). Due to a large interindividual variability the difference did not reach a significant level (P = 0.054). According to the antidepressant activity of the MC5 metabolite in pharmacological tests, the sustained rise in its plasma level suggests that a reduced daily dose should be administered and 12.5 mg of tianeptine should be given twice daily to patients with chronic renal failure. In patients from group III elimination of the compounds by haemodialysis was found to be low. The dialysis clearances were 3.9 +/- 9.9 ml.min-1 and 19.2 +/- 8.6 ml.min-1 for tianeptine and its MC5 metabolite respectively. This low dialysability has 2 clinical implications. Firstly, patients currently undergoing haemodialysis and treated by tianeptine could be given the drug without taking dialysis into account. Secondly, haemodialysis does not appear to be an effective method for tianeptine elimination in cases of overdosage.
Purkait, Bimalesh; Kumar, Manoj; Bansal, Ankur; Sokhal, Ashok Kumar; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Singh, Kawaljit
Objective Endoscopic procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) needs continuous irrigation for better vision and to wash away stone fragments and blood clots. Systemic absorption of irrigation fluids may lead to fluid overload and electrolyte disequilibrium. Renal failure patients are more prone to these electrolyte disturbances. We have evaluated the outcomes of normal saline as irrigation solution to be used in renal failure patient in comparison to distilled water. Methods Seventy-six patients with renal calculi were enrolled in this study between September, 2014, and December, 2015. All patients have compromised renal functions (creatinine >1.6 mg/dL). All patients were randomized into two groups as Group A (normal saline irrigation), and Group B (distilled water irrigation). Serum electrolytes, hemogram were measured pre- and post operatively. Results The mean duration of irrigation was 53.34 min in Group A and 52.80 min in Group B (p=0.12). Serum sodium, potassium and hematocrit levels were changed significantly after the PCNL in Group B (p=0.03, 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The most significant drop was observed in sodium level (139.21±3.65 vs. 136.20±4.10 mEq/L) in Group B. Though Hemoglobin drop was similar in both groups, there was a significant drop in hematocrit value in Group B (p=0.02). Conclusion Distilled water is associated with hyponatremia and drop in hematocrit level in renal failure patients. Serum potassium level may be significantly altered during distilled water irrigation. Normal saline is safe for PNCL in renal failure patient and its use should be recommended for this purpose. PMID:27909620
Bergström, G; Herlitz, H; Himmelmann, A; Ljungman, S; Aurell, M
One hundred years ago, in 1898, Professor Robert Tigerstedt, Karolinska institutet, Sweden, discovered renin. The subsequent elaboration in 1960 of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system signalled the start of modern hypertension research. The kidney takes part in blood pressure regulation in a number of ways. Indications are that increased renovascular resistance due to increased renin-angiotensin activity is of importance for the barostatic function of the kidneys and for the pathogenesis of human hypertension. Several commonly used, efficacious and well tolerated antihypertensive agents act by blocking the renin-angiotensin system, thus normalising kidney function. A number of current large-scale trials--utilising ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists--will, it is hoped, elucidate the proper role of 'anti-renin therapy' in the treatment of hypertension. Thanks to effective modern management of hypertension, renal failure due to hypertensive kidney disease is rare in Sweden today.
Johnson, D W; Pat, B; Vesey, D A; Guan, Z; Endre, Z; Gobe, G C
Administration of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) at time of acute ischemic renal injury (IRI) inhibits apoptosis, enhances tubular epithelial regeneration, and promotes renal functional recovery. The present study aimed to determine whether darbepoetin-alfa (DPO) exhibits comparable renoprotection to that afforded by EPO, whether pro or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are involved, and whether delayed administration of EPO or DPO 6 h following IRI ameliorates renal dysfunction. The model of IRI involved bilateral renal artery occlusion for 45 min in rats (N = 4 per group), followed by reperfusion for 1-7 days. Controls were sham-operated. Rats were treated at time of ischemia or sham operation (T0), or post-treated (6 h after the onset of reperfusion, T6) with EPO (5000 IU/kg), DPO (25 mug/kg), or appropriate vehicle by intraperitoneal injection. Renal function, structure, and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax were analyzed. DPO or EPO at T0 significantly abrogated renal dysfunction in IRI animals (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.04 +/- 0.01 mmol/l, P = 0.01). Delayed administration of DPO or EPO (T6) also significantly abrogated subsequent renal dysfunction (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.06 +/- 0.01 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.03 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, P = 0.01). There was also significantly decreased tissue injury (apoptosis, P < 0.05), decreased proapoptotic Bax, and increased regenerative capacity, especially in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, with DPO or EPO at T0 or T6. These results reaffirm the potential clinical application of DPO and EPO as novel renoprotective agents for patients at risk of ischemic acute renal failure or after having sustained an ischemic renal insult.
Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Wei, Feng; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Zhao, Ying-Yong
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major public health problem worldwide. Earlier studies have revealed salutary effects of rhubarb extracts in CRF. In this study, we employed lipidomic and metabolomic approaches to identify the plasma biomarkers and to determine the effect of treatment with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of rhubarb in a rat model of CRF with adenine-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. In addition, clinical biochemistry, histological evaluation and pro-fibrotic protein expression were analyzed. Significant changes were found between the CRF and control groups representing characteristic phenotypes of rats with CRF. Treatment with the three rhubarb extracts improved renal injury and dysfunction, either fully or partially reversed the plasma metabolites abnormalities and attenuated upregulation of pro-fibrotic proteins including TGF-β1, α-SMA, PAI-1, CTGF, FN and collagen-1. The nephroprotective effect of ethyl acetate extract was better than other extracts. The differential metabolites were closely associated with glycerophospholipid, fatty acid and amino acid metabolisms. The results revealed a strong link between renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glycerophospholipid metabolism and L-carnitine metabolism in the development of CRF. Amelioration of CRF with the three rhubarb extracts was associated with the delayed development and/or reversal the disorders in key metabolites associated with adenine-induced CRF. PMID:26903149
Gu, Sing-Yi; Yeh, Ti-Yen; Lin, Shih-Yi; Peng, Fu-Chuo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of unfractionated bone marrow cells (BMCs) in attenuating acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by paraquat (PQ) in a mouse model. PQ (55 mg/kg BW) was intraperitoneally injected into C57BL/6 female mice to induce AKI, including renal function failure, glomerular damage and renal tubule injury. Glomerular podocytes were the first target damaged by PQ, which led to glomerular injury. Upon immunofluorescence staining, podocytes depletion was validated and accompanied by increased urinary podocin levels, measured on days 1 and 6. A total of 5.4 × 106 BMCs obtained from the same strain of male mice were injected into AKI mice through the tail vein at 3, 24, and 48 hours after PQ administration. As a result, renal function increased, tubular and glomerular injury were ameliorated, podocytes loss improved, and recipient mortality decreased. In addition, BMCs co-treatment decreased the extent of neutrophil infiltration and modulated the inflammatory response by shifting from pro-inflammatory Th1 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 profile, where IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels declined and IL-10 and IL-4 levels increased. The present study provides a platform to investigate PQ-induced AKI and repeated BMCs injection represents an efficient therapeutic strategy. PMID:26988026
Ibraheem, Zaid O.; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Abdullah, Nor A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Johns, Edward J.
The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFD)received an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat) for the same period. The third group (HFDG) was given 80 mg/kg (body weight)/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure. PMID:22364300
Lucas, Victoria S; Roberts, Graham J
As a consequence of chronic renal failure (CRF) and its treatment, a number of oro-dental changes occur that persist after the end-stage is reached. An early effect is enamel hypoplasia due to a defect of enamel development and mineralisation. This is usually reparable to a high aesthetic standard using dental composite filling material. Children with CRF have significantly less dental caries than healthy children due to the inhibitory effect of increased salivary urea levels. Grafted patients frequently develop gingival enlargement as a result of immunosuppression with cyclosporine A, which is further exacerbated by the additional use of antihypertensive calcium-blocking agents. Surgical reduction of gingival hyperplasia is effective and is required in approximately one third of adolescents. A very high standard of home care should be encouraged for all children with CRF in the form of thorough mechanical tooth cleaning and plaque inhibition through the use of an antibacterial mouthwash. In transplanted children presenting an increased risk of infection, antibiotic prophylaxis may be indicated for dental treatment procedures. The drug dosage should be adapted to the reduced renal function. Pediatric nephrologists should be aware that dental surgeons can make a considerable contribution to the general health and well-being of children with CRF. Thus, only oro-dental problems that are mainly encountered and treated by dental surgeons are reviewed.
Schiller, Alicia M; Haack, Karla K V; Pellegrino, Peter R; Curry, Pamela L; Zucker, Irving H
A hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an increased sympathetic tone resulting in autonomic imbalance. Renal denervation (DNx) in CHF patients has resulted in symptomatic improvement, but the protective mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized in CHF, unilateral renal DNx would improve cardiac autonomic balance. The present study used conscious, chronically instrumented New Zealand White rabbits undergoing renal DNx prior to pacing-induced CHF. Four treatment groups were used: nonpace, non-DNx [Sham-Innervated (Sham-INV)], nonpace DNx (sham-DNx), pace non-DNx (CHF-INV) or pace DNx (CHF-DNx). We examined several markers indicative of autonomic balance. Baroreflex sensitivity and time domain heart rate variability (HRV) were both decreased in the CHF-INV group compared with sham-INV and were restored to sham levels by renal DNx. Power spectral analysis indicated an increase in low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio in the CHF-INV compared with the sham-INV, which was normalized to sham levels by DNx. To assess whether this was due to a withdrawal of sympathetic tone or an increase in parasympathetic tone, the heart rate response was measured after an intravenous bolus of metoprolol or atropine. Bradycardia induced by intravenous metoprolol (indicative of cardiac sympathetic tone) was exacerbated in CHF-INV rabbits compared with sham-INV but was normalized in CHF-DNx. Conversely, the tachycardia in response to intravenous atropine (indicative of cardiac vagal tone) was not improved in CHF-DNx vs. CHF-INV animals. Renal DNx also prevented the increase in circulating plasma NE seen in CHF-INV rabbits. These results suggest renal DNx improves cardiac autonomic balance in CHF by a reduction of sympathetic tone.
Kelly, Katherine J; Zhang, Jizhong; Han, Ling; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Dominguez, Jesus H
Diabetic nephropathy, the most common cause of progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease, has now reached global proportions. The only means to rescue diabetic patients on dialysis is renal transplantation, a very effective therapy but severely limited by the availability of donor kidneys. Hence, we tested the role of intravenous renal cell transplantation (IRCT) on obese/diabetic Zucker/SHHF F1 hybrid (ZS) female rats with severe ischemic and diabetic nephropathy. Renal ischemia was produced by bilateral renal clamping of the renal arteries at 10 wk of age, and IRCT with genetically modified normal ZS male tubular cells was given intravenously at 15 and 20 wk of age. Rats were euthanized at 34 wk of age. IRCT with cells expressing serum amyloid A had strong and long-lasting beneficial effects on renal function and structure, including tubules and glomeruli. However, donor cells were found engrafted only in renal tubules 14 wk after the second infusion. The results indicate that IRCT with serum amyloid A-positive cells is effective in preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats with diabetic and ischemic nephropathy.
Hartopo, Anggoro Budi; Wijisaksono, Doni Priambodo
Acute renal failure associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection is already well recognized. Nevertheless, end-stage chronic renal failure and falciparum malaria comorbidity is a rare condition. We report a case of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a young male Javanese patient with end-stage chronic renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis. This rare comorbidity led to rapid deterioration of consciousness and metabolic disturbances which had already existed in end-stage renal failure. Because of the immunosuppressive condition due to organ failure, the patient did not survive despite anti-malarial chemotherapy.
Heller, J; Bosward, K L; Hodgson, D R; Pottie, R
A case of Red-bellied Black snake envenomation resulting in intravascular haemolytic anaemia, rhabdomyolysis and anuric renal failure is described in the dog. A 12-year-old female desexed Golden Retriever was presented with a 15 hour history of profuse salivation, progressive lethargy, obtundence, inappetence and collapse. Significant findings on clinical examination were pallor, icterus, tachypnoea and dyspnoea with increased respiratory sounds and crackles in all lung fields. Generalised abdominal and muscular pain was apparent and dark red-brown urine was present around the perineal region. A diagnosis of Red-bellied Black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation was made and the dog was treated with intravenous fluid therapy, Tiger/Brown snake antivenom, packed red cell transfusions and Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation. Continued clinical deterioration occurred and a diagnosis of acute renal failure secondary to myohaemoglobinuric pigmenturia was made 12 hours after admission. Intensive treatment was attempted with diuresis and volume expansion. Oliguria and subsequent anuria ensued and the dog was euthanased due to a grave prognosis and lack of clinical response to treatment. Necropsy examination revealed muscular necrosis, accumulation of fluid in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, and marked renal tubular necrosis with intraluminal occlusion secondary to pigmentary casts.
Imai, Norihiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Seko, Yuya; Kawamura, Yusuke; Sezaki, Hitomi; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Kumada, Hiromitsu
Miriplatin is a novel lipophilic platinum complex that was developed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although HCC patients frequently have coexisting chronic renal failure, little prospective data are available regarding the clinical toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents used to treat HCC patients with chronic renal failure. In a phase II study, the plasma concentration of total platinum in patients who received miriplatin was very low, and no severe renal toxicity caused by miriplatin injection was reported. Here, we present three cases of HCC with stage 4 chronic renal failure who received transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin. All cases were male, ages 72, 84, and 83 years, and had serum creatinine levels of 2.3, 1.6, and 1.9 mg/dL, respectively. Their estimated glomerular filtration rates were 21.9, 20.3, and 22.2 mL/min, respectively. All cases were treated for unresectable HCC with transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin. No serious adverse events were observed, and serum creatinine levels did not elevate, even in the patient who experienced renal failure caused by cisplatin administration. These results might suggest that transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin can be safely used in HCC patients with chronic renal failure.
Henderson, C. S.; Mackey, Thomas C.
The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.
Metabolic effects of long-term growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with chronic renal failure and after kidney transplantation. The German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.
Haffner, D; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Schaefer, F; Bettendorf, M; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O
To evaluate the metabolic effects of long-term treatment with recombinant human (rh) GH in short children with chronic renal failure (CRF), annual oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT) during rhGH therapy for up to 5 y in 53 prepubertal children with CRF on conservative treatment, dialysis, and after renal transplantation were compared with that of 12 age-matched children treated with rhGH for idiopathic short stature. At the start of rhGH treatment, fasting values of glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb A (HbA1C), triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin responses during oGTT were significantly elevated in all patient groups compared with control subjects (p < 0.001). In the total population, fasting and 2-h postprandial glucose concentrations were inversely correlated with GFR and positively with age and methylprednisolone dosage in transplanted patients. Fasting insulin levels were positively correlated with body mass index and inversely with GFR. RhGH treatment was not associated with a change in fasting or stimulated glucose concentrations in any treatment group throughout the observation period. In contrast, serum insulin levels increased during the first treatment year in all groups, resulting in a more marked elevation of integrated insulin levels in transplant (1402 +/- 179 pM) and dialysis (1025 +/- 114 pM) patients compared with conservatively treated patients (829 +/- 94 pM), and control subjects (719 +/- 89 pM) (p < 0.01). Hyperinsulinemia persisted in all treatment groups for up to 5 y of follow-up. In conclusion, age, renal function, and obesity are the major independent predictors of glucose tolerance in children with CRF. Long-term rhGH treatment does not affect glucose tolerance, but aggravates the preexisting hyperinsulinemia in children with end-stage renal disease. In concert with the dyslipidemia of uremia, the rhGH-promoted hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the long-term risk for premature atherosclerosis in patients with childhood onset
Altieri, P; Piredda, G; Murgia, M G; Onano, B; Meloni, F
Results from recent studies have demonstrated that kidney-transplanted patients have better expectation and quality of life than dialysis patients on a waiting list for kidney transplant. Moreover, the scientific literature has conclusively shown that the survival of the patient and of the kidney graft are better in patients who received a kidney from a living donor, than in patients who received a cadaveric kidney. The main factors that may have a negative influence on the kidney transplant are: the recipient's age, diabetes mellitus, smoking and the time spent on dialysis before the transplant. The shortage of cadaveric kidneys and the small number of living kidney transplant are the main obstacles to a more widespread use of kidney transplantation. Kidney transplant from living donors needs to be implemented because it represents the best treatment for patients with kidney failure and it can decrease or even avoid the need for dialysis before kidney transplantation.
Antonucci, Elio; Lamanna, Irene; Fagnoul, David; Vincent, Jean-Louis; De Backer, Daniel; Silvio Taccone, Fabio
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients treated with veno-arterial (VA-) or veno-venous (VV-) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In this setting, the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) can help to optimize fluid status but may also negatively impact on patients' outcome. In contrast, the relationship between AKI, CRRT, and survival in critically ill adult patients receiving ECMO is not well defined. The institutional ECMO database (n = 162) from November 2008 to December 2013, excluding patients with ICU survival <24 hours was reviewed. Demographics, co-morbidities, and concomitant therapies for all patients were collected. AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. ICU mortality was noted. Data were retrieved for 135 patients (79 with VA-ECMO and 56 with VV-ECMO). Of these, 95 developed AKI, 63 (47%) of whom required CRRT; thus three groups of patients were identified: (a) no AKI; (b) AKI without CRRT (AKINOCRRT ); and (c) CRRT with AKI (AKICRRT ). AKINOCCRT patients were more likely to have preexisting heart disease, to be more severely ill, and to be treated with VA-ECMO than those without AKI. AKICRRT patients were also more likely to be treated with VA-ECMO, had more organ dysfunction at the time of ECMO insertion, and needed more transfusions and inotropic agents than patients without AKI. ICU mortality was 53% (72/135) and was similar in the three groups, even when different AKI stages or VA/VV-ECMO were analyzed separately. In this study, the use of CRRT was not associated with an increased mortality in an adult population of patients treated with ECMO, even after adjustment for confounders.
Vivier, P-H; Dolores, M; Le Cloirec, J; Beurdeley, M; Liard, A; Elbaz, F; Roset, J-B; Dacher, J-N
The kidney performs multiple functions. Glomerular filtration is the most studied of these functions. In clinical practice, the surgical indication for patients with unilateral uropathy is frequently based on the split renal function as demonstrated by scintigraphy. MRI is not yet validated as a technique but nonetheless offers an interesting non-radiating alternative to achieve both morphological and functional renal evaluation. Recent pulse sequences such as diffusion, arterial spin labeling, and blood oxygenation dependent imaging may also provide additional information. CT and US remain of limited value for the evaluation of renal function.
Shavelle, H S; Parke, R
Metabolic alkalosis secondary to chloride depletion, especially following gastrointestinal surgery and associated with acute renal failure, is a frequent clinical occurrence. Management of the resultant acid-base disturbance mandates chloride replacement. The presence of oliguria limits the choice of accompanying cation. The use of intravenous hydrochloric acid to correct and maintain proper chloride balance, secondary to external gastric fluid losses, is recommended as a straightforward approach. Two brief case synopses are presented. Both patients, florid examples of profound chloride depletion, required large amounts of intravenous hydrochloric acid. The options regarding the choice of chloride solution, hazards involved, and a simplified schema of replacement therapy are presented. Combined gastrointestinal and renal dysfunction create unusual biochemical and clinical alterations and may result in a complex management problem.
Galabada, Dinith P; Nazar, Abdul L M
We report the case of a 45-year-old chronic smoker who presented with acute paraplegia occurring during coitus and subsequently developed acute renal failure (ARF) requiring dialysis. He had absent peripheral pulses in the lower limbs with evidence of acute ischemia. Doppler study showed dissecting aneurysm of thoracic aorta, thrombotic occlusion of the distal aorta from L1 level up to bifurcation and occlusion of the right renal artery by a thrombus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. He was not subjected to any vascular intervention as his lower limbs were not salvageable due to delay in the diagnosis. Post-coital aortic dissection and aortic dissection presenting with acute paraplegia and ARF are very rare. This is probably the first case report with post-coital acute aortic dissection presenting with paraplegia and ARF. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful examination of peripheral pulses in patients presenting with ARF and paraplegia.
Tokarz, D; Poppenga, R; Kaae, J; Filigenzi, M; Lowenstine, L J; Pesavento, P
Amanitin is a toxic cyclopeptide present in several species of poisonous mushrooms. Amanitin toxicosis was diagnosed in 2 cats from separate premises. Both cats initially had lethargy and vomiting, and they rapidly developed depression and neurological signs over 24-48 hours. Marked elevation of alanine aminotransferase was the primary finding, with subsequent serum chemistry values compatible with hepatic and renal failure. Histopathological findings consisted of submassive to massive acute hepatic necrosis, renal proximal tubular epithelial necrosis, and foci of necrosis and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Amanitin exposure was confirmed postmortem by detection of α-amanitin in the kidney by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A similar clinical course and pathological changes are reported in human and canine amanitin intoxication; however, gastrointestinal lesions are not typically described.
Ishikawa, Atsuko; Kono, Kentaro; Sakae, Rie; Aiba, Tetsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Kurosaki, Yuji
The altered electrolyte handling of the choroid plexus was investigated in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) using lithium and rubidium as surrogate markers for sodium and potassium, respectively. Firstly, the transport of these two markers from the plasma to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was evaluated after they were concurrently injected into the femoral vein. As a result, their disposition from the plasma to CSF was shown to decrease in ARF rats, but the relationship profile between those two markers was not different from that observed in normal rats, indicating that the decreased disposition of lithium and rubidium occurs without affecting the stoichiometric balance. To clarify the mechanisms accounting for the decreased disposition, an inhibition study was then performed. When bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl(-) co-transporter, was directly introduced into the cerebroventricle prior to lithium and rubidium being intravenously administered, a marked increase in the markers' disposition was observed. However, such an increased disposition did not occur when bumetanide was injected into the femoral vein. Other inhibitors, such as amiloride for the Na(+) /H(+) exchanger and ouabain for Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, did not show any effects on marker disposition regardless of the inhibitor being administered into either the cerebroventricle or femoral vein. These findings suggest that the decreased marker disposition in ARF rats is due to an increased efflux process of the choroid plexus mediated by the Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl(-) co-transporter. That is, electrolyte efflux from the CSF to plasma increases, and thereby the electrolyte influx from the plasma to CSF is counteracted.
Mendoza-Guevara, L; Cervantes, A; Aguilar-Kitsu, A; Rendon, E; Morales, A; Rodriguez, F; Castro, F; Flores, M; Jaramillo, R M; Garcia-Lopez, E
Uremic polyneuropathy (UPNP) is a serious complication of chronic renal failure (CRF) in adults; however, its prevalence is unknown in the pediatric population. An easy-to-perform maneuver for its detection in children is the evaluation of "H" reflex. The objective of this study was to validate the usefulness of the "H" reflex maneuver for the diagnosis of UPNP in pediatric dialysis patients for CRF. Thirty-seven CRF patients were paired with healthy controls by age and sex. The patients were being treated with dialysis or one of its variants. Information was obtained regarding diagnosis, duration, and control of dialysis. Neurological examination was performed, conduction velocities in sensory and motor nerves were measured, and "H" reflex elicited bilaterally. Peripheral polyneuropathy was determined by the presence of at least two nerves with alterations in latency and/or conduction velocities. It was found that 59.4% (22/37) of the children with CRF treated with dialysis developed UPNP, 17 with ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and 5 with hemodialysis. There was no difference in diagnosis, duration of dialysis, or control of the same in these patients from other CRF patients who did not have UPNP. All patients were clinically asymptomatic. "H" reflex showed a sensibility of 44%, a specificity of 87%, a predictive value positive of 66%, and a predictive value negative of 76%, when measured to 28 msec. With a 30 msec duration specificity rises to 95%. UPNP presents asymptomatically in pediatric patients. "H" reflex is an adequate screening test for the selection of pediatric patients to be tested further.
Goncarovs, G. )
Radiochemical trends and anomalies experienced during cycle 15 of the Haddam Neck nuclear power plant, as a result of > 450 debris-induced fuel rod failures, presented a situation previously unreported in the nuclear industry. These data, along with shutdown and depressurization spiking data, needed to be evaluated against ultrasonic fuel assembly examination results to derive a predictive model, called the xenon pin equivalent (XPE), to be used for cycle 16. During the development of the model, a fission product release mechanism for this particular type of failure needed to be postulated based on cycle 15 data. The predictive model was tested during cycle 16, which presented similar but more subtle radiochemical trends than cycle 15. Several operational events affected the XPE model, including use of degasification and down-power maneuvers. After the cycle 16 shutdown, the XPE model results were reviewed and evaluated against ultrasonic testing results. Although expected to be conservative, this evaluation proved encouraging in that the model performed more accurately than expected. Additionally, these data helped confirm the postulated release mechanism and its contribution to the XPE model.
Singh, Pooja; Filippone, Edward J; Colombe, Beth W; Shah, Ashesh P; Zhan, Tingting; Harach, Mary; Gorn, Chad; Frank, Adam M
Sensitization following renal allograft failure (AF) is highly variable. Some patients remain non-sensitized (NS), while others become highly sensitized (HS). We studied 66 NS patients who experienced AF after initial kidney transplantation. Post-failure, two main groups of NS panel reactive antibody (PRA) class I and II <10% and HS patients (PRA class I or II ≥80%) were identified. The impact of acute rejection (AR), immunosuppression withdrawal (ISW) at AF, allograft nephrectomy, graft intolerance syndrome (GIS), and both standard serologic and eplet-based mismatches (MM) in inducing HS status after failure was examined. Late PRA testing post-failure revealed 18 patients remained NS and 34 patients became HS. African American recipients, ISW at AF, DQB1 eplet MM, and presence of GIS were associated with becoming HS. Presence of total zero eplet MM, zero DQA1/B1 eplet MM, continuation of immunosuppression after failure, and a hyporesponsive immune status characterized by recurrent infections were features of NS patients. DQ eplet MM represents a significant risk for becoming HS after AF. Studies comparing ISW vs. continuation in re-transplant candidates with high baseline DQ eplet MM burden should be performed. This may provide insights if sensitization post-AF can be lessened.
Rigatto, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Maura S.; Perdigão-Neto, Lauro V.; Levin, Anna S.; Carrilho, Claudia M.; Tanita, Marcos Toshiyuki; Tuon, Felipe F.; Cardoso, Douglas E.; Lopes, Natane T.
Nephrotoxicity is the main adverse effect of colistin and polymyxin B (PMB). It is not clear whether these two antibiotics are associated with different nephrotoxicity rates. We compared the incidences of renal failure (RF) in patients treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS) or PMB for ≥48 h. A multicenter prospective cohort study was performed that included patients aged ≥18 years. The primary outcome was renal failure (RF) according to Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Multivariate analysis with a Cox regression model was performed. A total of 491 patients were included: 81 in the CMS group and 410 in the PMB group. The mean daily doses in milligrams per kilogram of body weight were 4.2 ± 1.3 and 2.4 ± 0.73 of colistin base activity and PMB, respectively. The overall incidence of RF was 16.9% (83 patients): 38.3% and 12.7% in the CMS and PMB groups, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CMS therapy was an independent risk factor for RF (hazard ratio, 3.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.05 to 5.48; P < 0.001) along with intensive care unit admission, higher weight, older age, and bloodstream and intraabdominal infections. CMS was also independently associated with a higher risk of RF in various subgroup analyses. The incidence of RF was higher in the CMS group regardless of the patient baseline creatinine clearance. The development of RF during therapy was not associated with 30-day mortality in multivariate analysis. CMS was associated with significantly higher rates of RF than those of PMB. Further studies are required to confirm our findings in other patient populations. PMID:26856846
Williams, Judson B.; Peterson, Eric D.; Wojdyla, Daniel; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Smith, Peter K.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Lopes, Renato D.
Background While hemodynamic monitoring is often performed following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the relationship between postoperative central venous pressure (CVP) measurement and clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods Detailed clinical data were analyzed from 2,390 randomly selected patients undergoing high risk CABG or CABG/valve at 55 hospitals participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' National Cardiac Surgery Database from 2004 to 2005. Eligible patients underwent elective/urgent isolated CABG with an ejection fraction < 40%, or elective/urgent CABG at age ≥65 years with diabetes or a glomerular filtration rate 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Correlation between post-operative CVP and in-hospital / 30-day mortality and renal failure was assessed as a continuous variable, both unadjusted and after adjusting for important clinical factors using logistic regression modeling. Results Mean age was 72 years, 54% of patients had diabetes mellitus, 49% were urgent procedures, and mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 105 minutes. Patients’ CVP 6 hours post-operation was strongly associated with in-hospital and 30 day mortality: odds ratio (OR) 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23, 1.87) for every 5 mmHg increase in CVP, p<0.0001. This association remained significant after risk-adjustment for cardiac index: adjusted OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.10, 1.89), p<0.01. A model adjusting for cardiac index also revealed increased incidence of mortality or renal failure: adjusted OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.28, 1.86) for every 5 mmHg increase in CVP, p<0.0001. Conclusion Patients’ central venous pressure at 6 hours following CABG surgery was highly predictive of operative mortality or renal failure, independent of cardiac index and other important clinical variables. Future studies will need to assess whether post-operative CVP can be used to guide intervention and improve outcomes. PMID:25035048
Reubi, F C; Vorburger, C; Tuckman, J
The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [(51)Cr]EDTA, and (24)Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of (24)Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase.
Reubi, F. C.; Vorburger, C.; Tuckman, J.
The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of 24Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase. PMID:4630601
Aymard, Bernadette; Beghoura, Rachid; Molina, Thierry Jo
We report the case of a 55-year-old male with renal failure as the initial manifestation of interstitial and focal infiltration of the kidneys by a small B-cell lymphoma. Since three years, this patient had a history of CLL with plasmocytic differentiation and was left untreated owing to stade A Binet classification. After chemotherapy, the lymphocytosis and the adenopathies disappear and the renal function improve. Infiltration of the kidneys by non-Hodgkin small B-cell lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), is usually asymptomatic, fortuitously discovered at the time of an X-ray examination or at autopsy. Association with renal failure is extremely rare. We review the reported cases of renal failure associated with lymphomatous infiltration (13 cases of CLL and five cases of lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma kappa or lambda IgM), with the following conclusions: in most cases, renal insufficiency appears in a few months and significantly disappears after chemotherapy; the renal infiltrate is usually focal in lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma and rather massive and diffuse in CLL; the neoplastic feature of a small B-cell lymphoïd infiltrate may be difficult to determine: a poorly limited, monomorphous, CD20+ CD5+ lymphoid infiltrate is lymphomatous. In case of plasmocytic differentiation, it must be looked for kappa or lambda monotypy; the type of the lymphomatous infiltrate according to the WHO 2008 classification may be difficult to determine in a small sampling of renal tissue: the renal infiltrate must be compared, if possible, with a lymph node infiltrate. Owing to its bad prognosis, mantle cell lymphoma must be distinguished from other small B-cell lymphoma like CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma and lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma.
Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Sharma, Neeru M.; Li, Yulong; Pliquett, Rainer U; Patel, Kaushik P.
One of the key mechanisms involved in renal Na+ retention in chronic heart failure (CHF) is activation of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) in collecting tubules. Proteolytic cleavage has an important role in activating ENaC. We hypothesized that enhanced levels of proteases in renal tubular fluid activate ENaC resulting in renal Na+ retention in rats with CHF. CHF was produced by left coronary artery ligation in rats. By immunoblotting, we found that several urinary serine proteases were significantly increased in CHF rats compared to sham rats (fold increases: furin 6.7, prostasin 23.6, plasminogen 2.06 and plasmin 3.57 vs. sham). Similar increases were observed in urinary samples from patients with CHF. Whole-cell patch-clamp was conducted in cultured renal collecting duct M-1 cells to record Na+ currents. Protease-rich urine (from rats and patients with CHF) significantly increased the Na+ inward current in M-1 cells. Two weeks of protease inhibitor treatment significantly abrogated the enhanced diuretic and natriuretic responses to ENaC inhibitor benzamil in rats with CHF. Increased podocyte lesions were observed in the kidneys of rats with CHF by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with these results, podocyte damage markers desmin and podocin expressions were also increased in rats with CHF (increased ~2 folds). These findings suggest that podocyte damage may lead to increased proteases in the tubular fluid which in turn contributes to the enhanced renal ENaC activity, providing a novel mechanistic insight for Na+ retention commonly observed in CHF. PMID:26628676
Lou, L M; Boned, B; Gimeno, J A; Beguer, P; Cruz, A; Telmo, S; Lou, M T; Gómez Sánchez, R
We studied the features of acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly patients treated in a hospital, without an intensive care unit, to identify etiological factors and establish adequate preventive measures and treatment. During twelve consecutive months we studied prospectively 99 patients with ARF diagnosed by conventional criteria, an incidence of 1,238 cases per million per year. ARF affected 1.78% of patients admitted to hospital. We analyzed age, sex, serum creatinine, diuresis, etiology, type of ARF, preexisting chronic diseases, treatment, complications and outcome. Preexisting chronic diseases were common, the most frequent being hypertension (54%) and diabetes (39%). Previous treatments for cardiovascular diseases were frequent (angiotensin-renin system blockade 35.4%, diuretics 50.5%). 79% of ARF arose in hospital, 21% outside hospital. ARF was pre-renal in 60%, renal in 31% and post-renal in 9%. 34.7% were caused by volume depletion, 23.4% by low cardiac output and 23.4% by infection. 44.4% of ARF patients had oliguria or anuria latrogenic factors contributed to the ethiology of ARF in 35.3% of patients. Hospital stay was doubled by ARF the presence of ARF and the mortality was 36.4%. The rate was higher in ARF arising in hospital than in ARF acquired before admission. Factors that had a significant influence on the mortality rate were comorbid conditions, oliguroanuria, ARF of renal origin and serum albumin. We conclude that ARF has a high incidence, morbidity and mortality in this elderly population. Volume depletion, associated cardiovascular pathology and pharmacological treatment are important etiological factors in those with ARF outside hospital. Adequate treatment of ARF and avoidance of nephrotoxic medications are necessary in hospital.
Medrano-Juarez, R. M.; Sotello, D.; D'Cuhna, L.; Payne, J. D.
We present a case of acute hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and Clostridium perfringens bacteremia in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The high fatality of C. perfringens bacteremia requires that clinicians recognize and rapidly treat patients at risk for this infection. Although other hemolytic processes are in the differential diagnosis of these events, the presence of high fever, chills, and rapidly positive blood cultures may help narrow the diagnosis. Most cases of C. perfringens bacteremia have a concomitant coinfection, which makes broad spectrum empiric therapy essential. There is a high mortality rate of C. perfringens infections associated with leukemia. PMID:27774325
Bac, Arnaud; Ramadan, Ahmed Sabry; Youatou, Pierre; Mols, Pierre; Cerf, Dominique; Ngatchou, William
Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial disease of the respiratory system caused by a gram-negative germ whose clinical manifestation can be benign limiting to flu-like syndrome or can be more severe being characterized by pneumonia which may be complicated by multisystem disease that can lead to death. We report the case of a 48 year-old patient with rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure following Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. We here highlight the pathophysiological aspects and treatment of this rare complication during Legionella infection.
Allinson, J; Topping, W; Edwards, S G; Miller, R F
A patient with newly-diagnosed HIV infection and biopsy-proven cerebral toxoplasmosis was treated with sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine. Despite adequate hydration and daily examination of urine for sulphadiazine crystals obstructive uropathy due to bilateral ureteric stones with hydronephrosis occurred, resulting in rapid onset renal failure. Sulphadiazine was discontinued and clindamycin was substituted. With intravenous fluid hydration and bilateral nephrostomies the urolithiasis resolved. This case serves to remind clinicians of the need for vigilance when treating cerebral toxoplasmosis with sulphadiazine, in order to avoid this potentially serious complication of treatment.
Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Graziani, Giorgio; Reggiani, Francesco; Buemi, Michele; Badalamenti, Salvatore; Ponticelli, Claudio
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by infiltrates of lipid-laden CD68+/CD1a− histiocytes, affecting heart, lungs, central nervous system, and bones. Kidney and adjacent structures can also be affected, leading to renal failure in about 30% of cases. The diagnosis is challenging, and treatment is generally based on administration of interferon-alpha (IFNα), but preliminary results also showed the therapeutic efficacy of anakinra, an antagonist of the receptor of interleukin-1 (IL-1). We report the case of an elderly patient with ECD and severe involvement of the heart and kidneys who was successfully treated with anakinra. PMID:26877969
Podestà, Manuel Alfredo; Graziani, Giorgio; Reggiani, Francesco; Buemi, Michele; Badalamenti, Salvatore; Ponticelli, Claudio
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by infiltrates of lipid-laden CD68(+)/CD1a(-) histiocytes, affecting heart, lungs, central nervous system, and bones. Kidney and adjacent structures can also be affected, leading to renal failure in about 30% of cases. The diagnosis is challenging, and treatment is generally based on administration of interferon-alpha (IFNα), but preliminary results also showed the therapeutic efficacy of anakinra, an antagonist of the receptor of interleukin-1 (IL-1). We report the case of an elderly patient with ECD and severe involvement of the heart and kidneys who was successfully treated with anakinra.
Krishnan, Prashant V; Feng, Zhen-Zhou; Gordon, Stuart C
The illegal enrichment of anabolic androgenic steroids in over-the-counter dietary supplements is well documented, but the health consequences have not been widely recognized. Three recent reports document cholestatic jaundice and nephropathy due to these compounds. We present 3 additional cases of anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplement-induced hepatotoxicity and 1 case of renal failure, and we review the literature and the relevant features of this growing health concern. Recognition of this entity could obviate the need for invasive diagnostic testing and hospitalization and facilitate diagnosis and appropriate counseling.
Bonkain, Florence; Ena, Graziella; Depierreux, Michel; Debelle, Frédéric D.; Nortier, Joëlle L.
Glomerular diseases may occur as primary manifestation of cancer, especially in patients older than 60 years. Among glomerulopathies, membranous nephropathy is preferentially associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas, whereas minimal change disease is most often seen in haematological malignancies. Though breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in women, paraneoplastic glomerular disease is rarely observed. We describe the case of a 79-year-old female patient who presented with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. Breast cancer was found. Pathological studies of kidney and breast biopsy revealed a minimal change disease and an infiltrating ductal carcinoma, respectively. PMID:25949405
Mishina, Mika; Watanabe, Toshifumi
In order to determine whether hypertension would develop in dogs with chronic renal failure, we performed 7/8 renal ablation in 6 healthy dogs and compared pre- and post-ablation blood pressures determined by telemetry. One month after the renal ablation, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly increased (p<0.05), creatinine clearance was decreased (p<0.05), and blood pressure was increased significantly (p<0.05). Simultaneously, plasma renin activity, angiotensin I and II, and aldosterone were elevated significantly (p<0.05) compared with the values obtained from 11 healthy dogs with intact renal function. The dogs with induced renal failure and hypertension were administered an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril hydrochloride, once daily for 2 weeks at 2 mg/kg body weight, and changes in blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system were determined. During the administration of benazepril hydrochloride, blood pressure, angiotensin II and aldosterone decreased significantly (p<0.05) and, upon discontinuation of administration, increased to the pre-administration levels (p<0.05). Plasma renin activity and angiotensin I showed no significant changes throughout the administration study. These results provide experimental evidence that hypertension develops in dogs with chronic renal failure through mechanisms involving the RAA system and demonstrate that benazepril hydrochloride improves renal hypertension in dogs.
Zhu, Lan; Lee, Po-Chang; Everly, Matthew J; Terasaki, Paul I
This is a long-term retrospective case-control study. Serial sera were collected over 17 years (1991-2008) from two groups comprised of 29 patients with allograft failure (250 sera) and 25 controls with functioning grafts (305 sera), each control matched by transplant date to one failure-group patient, and all patients tested with single antigen beads. The median follow-up for failure-group patients was 7.3 +/- 4.7 years and 11.8 +/- 4.4 years for controls. HLA alloantibodies appeared in 28 of the 29 failure-group patients (97%) and in 12 of the 25 controls (48%) (p < 0.0001). DSA and non-DSA that appeared alone--without any DSA detected-were both associated with graft failure (p = 0.001, p = 0.01). DSA against HLA-DQ antigen was found in 13 of 17 graft-failed patients who had received DQ-incompatible transplants (76%) compared with only one of 11 similarly DQ-mismatched control patients (9%) (p < 0.001). The strength of strong DSA (defined as MFI > 5000) was higher in graft-failed patients than in graft-functioning patients. The time it took for antibodies to develop also differed between groups. HLA antibodies were formed sooner in the failure group compared with the controls (1.7 versus 3.7 years, P < 0.01). Fifteen of the failure group patients developed antibodies within one year while none in the control group did. In conclusion, our study reinforces the observation that circulating de novo HLA alloantibodies predict adverse long-term kidney allograft outcomes. The significant negative impact of all alloantibodies calls for clinicians to monitor patients and implement removal therapy when alloantibody is first detected. This may prove a key step in the ongoing attempt to prevent chronic rejection and prolonging renal allograft survival.
Ghasemian, Roya; Shokri, Mehran; Makhlough, Atieh; Suraki-Azad, Mohammad Amin
Background: Renal complication of leptospirosis is common and its clinical manifestations vary from urinary sediment changes to acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the final outcome of renal involvement in leptospirosis. Methods: This longitudinal prospective study included all serologically confirmed cases of leptospirosis with evidence of renal failure. All patients were followed for three months while all patients with renal failure were followed-up for one year. Results: Fifty-one patients, 53.5±14.8 years (82.4% males) with acute renal failure were studied. Over the hospitalization period, 28 patients recovered, and seven (13.72%) patients died of multiple organ failure. At the time of discharge, 16 patients had mild renal failure. Over the follow-up period, all patients recovered but in two patients renal failure persisted at creatinine level of 1.5 mg/dl. Conclusion: Development of renal failure in leptospirosis is not rare. Recovery of renal function may last several months. However, most patients recover completely at least after one year. PMID:26958326
Orzel, J A; Jaffers, G J
Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.
Orzel, J.A.; Jaffers, G.J.
Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.
Vayre, P; Chambraud, E; Fredj, G; Thuillier, A
The main pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide and pyrazinoïc acid (its major metabolite) were determined after oral administration of 1,500 mg/d in 10 patients with normal renal function and of 1,000 mg/d in 10 patients with impaired renal function (renal insufficiency). This study shows that, with these dosage regimens, almost all the pharmacokinetic parameters are identical for pyrazinamide and pyrazinoic acid in patients with normal renal function and patients with impaired renal function. Comparison of results between patients allows us to propose a dosage regimen of 1,000 mg/d as maintenance in patients with renal insufficiency.
Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling.
From 1984 to 1990, 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed before and after nephrolithotomy (15 cases), pyelolithotomy (15 cases), percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL: 15 cases) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL: 16 cases, 17 kidneys) in order to evaluate of influences of renal stone surgeries on split renal function. DMSA renal uptake change ratio of treated kidneys of nephrolithotomy (-24.94 +/- 5.60%) was significantly lower than that of PNL (-0.06 +/- 3.92%), pyelolithotomy (-4.08 +/- 4.79%) (p less than 0.01) and ESWL (-7.72 +/- 3.87%) (p less than 0.05). The average change ratios of contralateral kidneys were as follows: PNL 4.80 +/- 4.21% nephrolithotomy 4.67 +/- 4.73%, pyelolithotomy -1.46 +/- 5.39% and ESWL -2.02 +/- 4.44%. One to 3 weeks after PNL, the cold area on the renal image was found in 10 (66.7%) of 15 cases. In cases of ESWL, DMSA renal uptake decreased even 4-10 weeks (mean 7 weeks) after treatment. In conclusion, possivility of deterioration of renal function after ESWL was suggested.
Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Lo Forti, Bruno; Savica, Vincenzo; Favazzi, Pietro; Magaudda, Ludovico; Cohen, Arthur H
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and often distressing side effect of renal failure. Uremic men of different ages report a high variety of sexual problems, including sexual hormonal pattern alterations, reduced or loss of libido, infertility, and impotence, thereby influencing their well-being. The pathogenic mechanisms include physiologic, psychologic, and organic causes. To determine the contribution of morphologic factors to impotence we studied the ultrastructure of the corpora cavernosa in 20 patients with end-stage renal disease who were treated with chronic dialysis and compared the findings with 6 individuals with no clinical history of impotence. Our results indicated that in male uremic patients with sexual disturbances there were major changes in smooth muscle cells. This was characterized by reduction of dense bodies in the cytoplasm, thick basement membranes, and increased interstitial collagen fibers with resultant reduction of cell-to-cell contact. In addition, there was thickening and lamination of basement membranes of endothelial cells and increased accumulation of collagen between nerve fibers. These alterations were more evident in patients with longer time on dialysis and were independent of type of primary renal disease. We hypothesize that ED in dialysis patients is not related to the primary disease but to the uremic state.
Ali, Badreldin H; Alza'abi, Mohamed; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa I; Beegam, Sumaya; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Brand, Susanne; Schupp, Nicole
Activated charcoal (AC) is a sorbent that has been shown to remove urinary toxins like urea and indoxyl sulfate. Here, the influence of AC on kidney function of rats with experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) is investigated. CRF was induced in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%) for four weeks. As an intervention, AC was added to the feed at concentrations of 10%, 15% or 20%. Adenine treatment impaired kidney function: it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vanin-1. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, phosphate and uric acid. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were adversely affected. Most of these changes were significantly ameliorated by dietary administration of AC at a concentration of 20%, while effects induced by lower doses of dietary AC on adenine nephrotoxicity were not statistically significant. The results suggest that charcoal is a useful sorbent agent in dietary adenine-induced CRF in rats and that its usability as a nephroprotective agent in human kidney disease should be studied.
Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Araujo, Magali; Borges, Sergio Murilo Mello; de Tolosa, Erasmo Magalhães C; Seguro, Antonio Carlos
The aging process causes progressive deterioration in kidney structure and function. Aberrant generation of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in both age-related and ischemia-related tissue injury. Vitamin E (VE), one of the most powerful and effective exogenous antioxidants, prevents lipid peroxidation and protects against the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age and VE on post-ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). Young adult, middle-aged and aged male Wistar rats were maintained on three different 30-day diets: Normal, VE absent and VE supplemented. On day 30, urinary protein and serum cholesterol and VE were measured. On day 31, rats were subjected to 60' clamping of the left renal artery plus right nephrectomy. Inulin clearance (InCl) was performed 48 h after renal ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the cortex of normal and 48-h post-ischemic kidneys. Urinary protein and serum cholesterol were higher in aged rats than in other rats. With aging, InCl decreased progressively. Vitamin E deficiency aggravated ARF. In middle-aged and aged rats, VE supplementation protected against ARF. In the absence of VE, MDA increased with age. In conclusion, our data suggest that ARF becomes more severe with age and that ischemia/reperfusion injury is exacerbated when antioxidant-scavenging ability of the kidney is impaired by VE deficiency. Supplementation with VE is essential for protecting aging kidneys against ischemic ARF.
James, Alexia; Larson, Trent
High-dose antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) spacers are commonly used to treat prosthetic joint infections following total hip and knee arthroplasties. This methodology can provide high local antibiotic concentrations while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is rarely reported. Available literature suggests that the rate may be higher than previously thought. We report a case of significant systemic tobramycin absorption with concomitant acute renal failure in a 69-year-old female following the implantation of a high-dose ALBC spacer containing both tobramycin and vancomycin. The tobramycin level 24 h post-surgery was 5.8 mcg/mL. Due to concomitant renal failure, antibiotic clearance was poor and resulted in prolonged exposure to elevated aminoglycoside levels. Recovery of renal function occurred, but clinicians should be vigilant in considering the potential impact ALBC spacers can have on post-operative renal function if antibiotic elution is higher than expected.
QIN, Hong Yan; JIA, Ping; LIU, Hui
Background: We aimed to analyze the effect of nursing strategies on patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment by puncturing on arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Methods: Ninety-two patients with chronic renal failure undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) between Jan 2014 and Jan 2015 were included in the study (all undergoing AVF, dialysis for 2–3 sessions per week, 4–5 h per session) and randomly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in control group were given standard nursing care and patients in observation group were given professional nursing of internal fistula. The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period, fistula usage time and effect on life quality of patients of these two groups were compared (during 18-month follow-up). Results: The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median time of internal fistula usage was significantly prolonged, and the health index, emotion index and psychology index quality-of-life in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Professional nursing strategies of internal fistula can prolong service time, decrease complications and improve life quality for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment via arteriovenous fistula. PMID:27957433
Cohen, Eric P. Irving, Amy A. B.A.; Drobyski, William R.; Klein, John P.; Passweg, Jakob; Talano, Julie-An M.; Juckett, Mark B.; Moulder, John E.
Purpose: To test whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril was effective in mitigating chronic renal failure after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 55 subjects undergoing total body irradiation (TBI)-HSCT were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Captopril or identical placebo was started at engraftment and continued as tolerated until 1 year after HSCT. Results: The baseline serum creatinine and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) did not differ between groups. The 1-year serum creatinine level was lower and the GFR higher in the captopril compared with the placebo group (p = 0.07 for GFR). Patient survival was higher in the captopril compared with the placebo group, but this was also not statistically significant (p = 0.09). In study subjects who received the study drug for more than 2 months, the 1-year calculated GFRs were 92 mL/min and 80 mL/min, for the captopril and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.1). There was no adverse effect on hematologic outcome. Conclusions: There is a trend in favor of captopril in mitigation of chronic renal failure after radiation-based HSCT.
Kalyanaraman, Meena; McQueen, Derrick; Sykes, Joseph; Phatak, Tej; Malik, Farhaan; Raghava, Preethi S
Plastibell is one of the three most common devices used for neonatal circumcision in the United States, with a complication rate as low as 1.8%. The Plastibell circumcision device is commonly used under local anesthesia for religious circumcision in male neonates, because of cosmetic reasons and ease of use. Occasionally, instead of falling off, the device may get buried under the skin along the shaft of the penis, thereby obstructing the normal flow of urine. Furthermore, the foreskin of neonates is highly vascularized, and hence, hemorrhage and infection are possible when the skin is cut. Necrosis of penile skin, followed by urethral obstruction and renal failure, is a serious surgical mishap requiring immediate corrective surgery and medical attention. We report a case of fulminant urosepsis, acute renal failure, and pyelonephritis in a 4-day-old male neonate secondary to impaction of a Plastibell circumcision device. Immediate medical management was initiated with fluid resuscitation and mechanical ventilation; thereby correcting life threatening complications. Pediatricians and Emergency Department physicians should be cognizant of the complications from Plastibell circumcision device in order to institute appropriate and timely management in neonates.
Desseix, Aurélie; Merville, Pierre; Couzi, Lionel
Hemodialysis and kidney transplant are two treatments for renal failure, which lead to numerous changes in the patients' way of life. We have questioned ourselves on the different ways they could deal with those changes by studying the representations and the ritualisation that surrounds the sick. From 2005 to 2007, qualitative interviews, based on the method of life stories, were conducted with 35 patients with chronic renal failure in three Aquitaine's centres. The results show three main groups of representation both in pre-transplant and in post-transplant. Specific behaviours are tied to each group of representation that are beneficial or deleterious with respect to treatment or the patient's social life. We will show that, on the one hand, the patients who see the hemodialysis treatment as a traditional rite of passage cope with the situation more easily and on the other hand, we will stress that this representation is closely linked to how the patients will later accept the kidney transplant. So, we have been able to link the representations of hemodialysis patients and transplant experience. Then these results have a practical consequence for the caregivers who can use the tools of anthropology (the interview guide, analysis grid) through a program of therapeutic education, to precociously take care of patients who are likely to come up against issues after their kidney transplant.
Kontomanolis, E N; Panagoutsos, S; Pasadakis, P; Koukouli, Z; Liberis, A
This case report highlights on a child-bearer with chronic renal failure and diabetes mellitus type-II. Chronic renal failure (CRF) with diabetes mellitus (DM) type I in gestation is a rare case of a high-risk pregnancy. What is of significance though in this gestation, is that conception was achieved with the patient treated by a dialysis program. Furthermore, neither hypertension nor intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were detected and the patient was normotensive throughout gestation with no clinical signs of anemia. Strict and frequent application of the dialysis programs eradicates the uremic intrauterine environment, reduces the amniotic fluid volume, eliminates the chances of uterine rupture, leads to a longer gestation, increases the newborn's birth weight, and offers an optimal fetal survival rate; this is of note mainly in patients with cesarean sections reported in their medical history. To eliminate the complications of a premature delivery, the present authors had to find the right time point to give birth to this baby taking into account lung maturity, amniotic fluid volume, and preservation of the anatomical uterine integrity.
Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi
A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000cm(-)(1) spectral region with 3.85cm(-1) data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.
Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi
A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000 cm-1 spectral region with 3.85 cm-1 data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.
Cianciolo, Rachel E; Rhodes, James L; Haskins, Mark E; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E
Renal failure was diagnosed in an 11-mo-old male domestic shorthair cat from a colony with mucopolysaccharidosis type I lysosomal storage disease. Grossly, the kidneys were enlarged and bulged on cut section. Histology revealed tubular necrosis and regeneration with severe interstitial macrophage accumulation. Tubular epithelial cells and interstitial macrophages were distended by abundant, large cytoplasmic vacuoles. Electron microscopy demonstrated severe tubular epithelial vacuolar degeneration with lysosomes distended by granular debris and mineral precipitates. Interstitial macrophages contained similarly distended lysosomes. Although the initial cause of the tubular injury was not identified, the presence of macrophages laden with storage product most likely exacerbated the disease. The macrophage infiltrate may have caused tubular ischemia by compressing peritubular capillaries and separating tubules from their blood supply. Because the kidney is not normally affected in MPS I, this case is an unusual presentation of a well-characterized disease. Furthermore, this report documents the diagnostic workflow used to investigate a single case of feline acute renal failure in the setting of numerous at-risk laboratory animals. PMID:22330352
Vaboe, A L; Leh, S; Forslund, T
This is the first report from Norway of a patient with interstitial nephritis and renal failure due to non-fulminant hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. HAV infection was confirmed by positive anti-HAV IgM serology. All tests for other virus infections were negative. At admittance serum creatinine (s-Creat) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were 539 microlmol/l and 32.6 mmol/l increasing the following days to 890 micromol/l and 39.9 mmol/l, respectively. Nine courses of hemodialysis had to be given. Kidney biopsy specimen showed interstitial edema, lymphocytic cell infiltration and acute tubular injury with normal glomeruli. Examination with immunohistochemistry was negative. In contrast to the findings associated with HBV and HCV infection in which glomerular disease is predominantly found, the HAV infection in our patient was associated with interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. The prognosis of the renal failure due to HAV infection was good although the recovery was substantially delayed.
Gabbay, Ezra; Hersch, Moshe; Shavit, Linda; Shmuelevitz, Lev; Helviz, Yigal; Shapiro, Henry; Slotki, Itzchak
While dialysis historically began as treatment intended for younger patients, it has, over time, increasingly been extended to treat elderly patients with a high comorbidity burden. Data on the outcomes of dialysis in these patients show that in some cases it confers no benefit and may be associated with functional decline. We describe a 101-year-old male patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD), admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with exacerbation of heart failure and sepsis. He experienced acute deterioration of renal function, with oliguria and acidosis. The patient's healthcare proxy insisted that dialysis be initiated despite his extremely advanced age, citing the patient's devout religious beliefs. He underwent 56 dialysis treatments over the course of ∼4 months after which he died as a result of septic and cardiogenic shock. Our case is unique, in that it may represent the oldest individual ever reported to start haemodialysis. It illustrates the ever-growing clinical and ethical challenges posed by the treatment of renal failure in the geriatric population.
Ozyurt, Hüseyin; Yildirim, Zeki; Kotuk, Mahir; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Yağmurca, Murat; Iraz, Mustafa; Söğüt, Sad; Gergerlioglu, Serdar
The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum dosage of erdosteine to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Three different doses of erdosteine at 25, 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) were studied in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of 7 mg kg(-1) cisplatin led to acute renal failure, as indicated by kidney histology and increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. At 5 days after cisplatin injection the BUN level was increased significantly from 15.1 +/- 4.3 to 126.7 +/- 152.6 mg dl(-1) and plasma creatinine levels increased from 0.37 +/- 0.005 to 1.68 +/- 1.9 mg dl(-1). When the rats were administered 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) erdosteine 24 h before cisplatin injection that was continued until sacrifice (total of 6 days), the BUN and creatinine levels remained similar to control levels and the grade of histology was similar. Erdosteine at doses of 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal failure. The optimum dose of erdosteine may be 50 mg kg(-1) in this study.
Ferramosca, Emiliana; Serra, Carla; Di Felice, Antonio; Mandreoli, Marcora; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Santoro, Antonio
A patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the right renal artery underwent treatment with percutaneous approach. No complications were observed. Based on the experience described in this report, a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach can be proposed in selected patients. Renal insufficiency and allergic reactions are potential contraindications to angiography with conventional ionic iodinated contrast dye in patients who need endovascular stent-graft placement. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided endovascular procedures may provide an alternative to overcome these limitations. We report an endovascular renal artery repair in a solitary kidney patient with an asymptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and renal insufficiency due to phenacetin abuse. The precise placement of the stent-graft was performed with CEUS and intraprocedural angiographic fluoroscopy without the use of any nephrotoxic contrast dye. During follow-up, CEUS was used to exclude endoleaks, stent-graft failure or malposition.
Satomura, Atsushi; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Kusano, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Eiichi; Hamada, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Toshiharu
A 66-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with interstitial nephritis on a renal biopsy at 45 years of age and began to receive hemodialysis at 65 years of age. He was suspected of having Fabry disease as a result of a screening study for Fabry disease performed in hemodialysis patients. He had an E66Q mutation in the α-galactosidase A gene. We conducted an electron microscopic examination of a renal biopsy specimen obtained when the patient was diagnosed with chronic renal failure at 45 years of age in order to elucidate the pathogenicity of the E66Q mutation. Interestingly, an electron microscopic examination of the renal biopsy specimen indicated no characteristic findings of Fabry disease.
Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham; Goodman, Robert M.; Griffin, Sarah; Wilson, Dawn K.; Schillaci, Michael
Historically, there has been considerable variability in how formative evaluation has been conceptualized and practiced. FORmative Evaluation Consultation And Systems Technique (FORECAST) is a formative evaluation approach that develops a set of models and processes that can be used across settings and times, while allowing for local adaptations and innovations. FORECAST integrates specific models and tools to improve limitations in program theory, implementation, and evaluation. In the period since its initial use in a federally funded community prevention project in the early 1990s, evaluators have incorporated important formative evaluation innovations into FORECAST, including the integration of feedback loops and proximal outcome evaluation. In addition, FORECAST has been applied in a randomized community research trial. In this article, we describe updates to FORECAST and the implications of FORECAST for ameliorating failures in program theory, implementation, and evaluation. PMID:23624204
Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham; Goodman, Robert M; Griffin, Sarah; Wilson, Dawn K; Schillaci, Michael
Historically, there has been considerable variability in how formative evaluation has been conceptualized and practiced. FORmative Evaluation Consultation And Systems Technique (FORECAST) is a formative evaluation approach that develops a set of models and processes that can be used across settings and times, while allowing for local adaptations and innovations. FORECAST integrates specific models and tools to improve limitations in program theory, implementation, and evaluation. In the period since its initial use in a federally funded community prevention project in the early 1990s, evaluators have incorporated important formative evaluation innovations into FORECAST, including the integration of feedback loops and proximal outcome evaluation. In addition, FORECAST has been applied in a randomized community research trial. In this article, we describe updates to FORECAST and the implications of FORECAST for ameliorating failures in program theory, implementation, and evaluation.
Witherspoon, L.; Shuler, S.; Alvea, K.; Figueroa, J.; Neely, H.
Digoxin-like substance (DLS) is detected in term mothers, newborns, and in patients with renal failure. The authors made ''digoxin'' measurements in such patients using three RIA kits (Nuclear Medical Laboratories (N), Clinical Assay (C), Corning MAGIC (M)). We first defined zero concentration and demonstrated quantitative recoveries. We estimated DLS in 28 at-term mothers, cord blood of 23 unrelated newborns, 25 infants 2-3d of age and sequentially in 10 additional mothers and their infants using C only; and in 35 renal failure patients pre- and post-dialysis, 12 of whom were receiving digoxin. At-term mother DLS (..mu..g/L digoxin) was 0-0.19 (N), 0.09-0.24 (C), 0.07-0.24 (M); cord blood DLS was 0.35-0.75 (N), 0.46-0.90 (C), 0.42-0.90 (M); infant DLS was 0.5-1.1 (N), 0.28-0.98 (C). DLS was detected in mothers at term but not 24h post delivery. Cord levels fell in 8 of 10 infants in 48h. Dilutions of cord blood yielded similar results by N, nonlinear decreases by C and more nearly parallel decreases by M. DLS in renal patients not receiving digoxin was 0.04-.41 (N), 0.01-0.34 (C), 0.03-0.40 (M). Post-dialysis levels by N were lower than pre-dialysis, but higher by C and M. In patients receiving digoin, pre- and post-dialysis levels were similar except for digoxin > 1.0 ..mu..g/L, which fell. Dilutions yielded similar results by N but nonparallel results by M. DLS assay effects must be characterized for these patient populations in order to avoid errors in digoxin estimation.
Morath, M A; Okun, J G; Müller, I B; Sauer, S W; Hörster, F; Hoffmann, G F; Kölker, S
In the last decades the survival of patients with methylmalonic aciduria has been improved. However, the overall outcome of affected patients remains disappointing. The disease course is often complicated by acute life-threatening metabolic crises, which can result in multiple organ failure or even death, resembling primary defects of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Biochemical abnormalities during metabolic derangement, such as metabolic acidosis, ketonaemia/ketonuria, lactic acidosis, hypoglycaemia and hyperammonaemia, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, long-term complications such as chronic renal failure and neurological disease are frequently found. Neuropathophysiological studies have focused on various effects caused by accumulation of putatively toxic organic acids, the so-called 'toxic metabolite' hypothesis. In previous studies, methylmalonate (MMA) has been considered as the major neurotoxin in methylmalonic aciduria, whereas more recent studies have highlighted a synergistic inhibition of mitochondrial energy metabolism (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, tricarboxylic acid cycle, respiratory chain, mitochondrial salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP)) induced by propionyl-CoA, 2-methylcitrate and MMA as the key pathomechanism of inherited disorders of propionate metabolism. Intracerebral accumulation of toxic metabolites ('trapping' hypothesis') is considered a biochemical risk factor for neurodegeneration. Secondary effects of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as oxidative stress and impaired mtDNA homeostasis, contribute to pathogenesis of these disorders. The underlying pathomechanisms of chronic renal insufficiency in methylmalonic acidurias are not yet understood. We hypothesize that renal and cerebral pathomechanisms share some similarities, such as an involvement of dicarboxylic acid transport. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview on recent pathomechanistic concepts for methylmalonic acidurias.
V, Sathyanarayana; Patel, Maulik Tulsibhai; S, Raghavan; D, Naresh
Introduction: Pathological bilateral femoral neck fracture due to renal osteodystrophy is rare. This is a report of a chronic renal failure patient who had sustained bilateral intra-capsular displaced fracture neck of femur following an episode of convulsion and the difficulties encountered in early diagnosis and treatment. The pathophysiology of renal osteodystrophy and the treatment of hip fractures in patients with renal failure are also discussed. Case Report: A 23 years old male patient admitted with h/o dysuria, pyuria and loss of appetite since 3 months. He was a known case of chronic renal failure and reflux nephropathy. On investigating, patient’s renal parameters were high and he was started with haemodialysis. The next day patient had c/o bilateral hip pain and inability to move bilateral lower limbs following an episode of seizure. Radiograph of pelvis showed vertical sub capital fractures of bilateral neck of femur. In this patient, considering his age, general condition & prognosis, an elective surgery in the form of bilateral uncemented modular bipolar hemiarthroplasty was done. Conclusion: Overall risk of hip fracture among patients with chronic renal failure is considerably higher than in the general population, independent of age and gender. Simultaneous spontaneous bilateral fractures of the femoral neck are rare and a delayed diagnosis is usual. The study of etiological factors of these fractures is essential to guide us in choosing the treatment of choice. Obviously patient’s age, life expectancy as well as renal co morbidity has an influence over deciding treatment and outcome. PMID:27299091
Fernández Lorente, Loreto; Álvarez, Dolores López; López, Virginia García; Kollros, Vesna Abujder; Ariza, Aurelio; Gálvez, Alejandro; Bonet, Josep
This is a case report of a 73-year-old man with new-onset acute renal failure while being investigated for pulmonary infiltrates and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Urine tests showed tubular range proteinuria with no microhaematuria. Immunology tests showed elevated serum IgG and hypocomplementaemia (classical pathway activation). Renal biopsy and clinical-pathological correlation were crucial in this case, reinforcing their important role in the final diagnosis of acute kidney injury.
Argan, Onur; Ural, Dilek; Kozdag, Guliz; Sahin, Tayfun; Bozyel, Serdar; Aktas, Mujdat; Karauzum, Kurtulus; Yılmaz, Irem; Dervis, Emir; Agir, Aysen
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) and renal dysfunction are two common comorbidities in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study evaluated the effect of permanent AF on renal function in HFrEF and investigated the associations of atrial fibrillation, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with adverse clinical outcome. Material/Methods Serum NGAL levels measured by ELISA and NLR were compared between patients with sinus rhythm (HFrEF-SR, n=68), with permanent AF (HFrEF-AF, n=62), and a healthy control group (n=50). Results Mean eGFR levels were significantly lower, and NLR and NGAL levels were significantly higher in the HFrEF patients than in the control patients but the difference between HFrEF-SR and HFrEF-AF was not statistically significant (NGAL: 95 ng/mL in HFrEF-SR, 113 ng/mL in HFrEF-AF and 84 ng/mL in the control group; p<0.001). Independent associates of baseline eGFR were age, hemoglobin, NLR, triiodothyronine, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. In a mean 16 months follow-up, adverse clinical outcome defined as progression of kidney dysfunction and composite of all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization were not different between HFrEF-SR and HFrEF-AF patients. Although NGAL was associated with clinical endpoints in the univariate analysis, Cox regression analysis showed that independent predictors of increased events were the presence of signs right heart failure, C-reactive protein, NLR, triiodothyronine, and hemoglobin. In ROC analysis, a NLR >3 had a 68% sensitivity and 75% specificity to predict progression of kidney disease (AUC=0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.85, p=0.001). Conclusions Presence of AF in patients with HFrEF was not an independent contributor of adverse clinical outcome (i.e., all-cause death, re-hospitalization) or progression of renal dysfunction. Renal dysfunction in HFrEF was associated with both NLR and NGAL levels, but systemic
Agarwal, R. K.; Moudgil, A.; Kishore, K.; Srivastava, R. N.; Tandon, R. K.
Five patients with acute viral hepatitis developed severe intrasvascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of serum bilirubin (427 to 1368 mumol/l). All 5 had high fever, marked anaemia, reticulocytosis and neutrophilic leucocytosis. Three of them developed acute renal failure, which was of non-oliguric type in 2. The clinical course was protracted, but complete recovery occurred in 4 patients between 4 to 10 weeks. One patient with hepatic coma and oliguric renal failure died. Deficiency of the enzyme G-6-PD was confirmed in 4 cases. Massive haemolysis in the patients was probably induced by the administration of chloroquine and other drugs. Intravascular haemolysis should be suspected in patients with acute viral hepatitis, if they show unexplained anaemia and very high serum bilirubin levels, and measures to prevent renal failure should be instituted in such cases. PMID:4070114
Bass, J Kirk; Faix, Roger G
The fetotoxic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors when used during the second half of pregnancy are well known. The more recently developed angiotensin II receptor antagonists appear to yield similar fetal abnormalities. We report a premature infant born to a 41-year-old mother with a long history of infertility who had received losartan therapy for hypertension throughout an undetected pregnancy. Ultrasound examination 2 days prior to delivery identified a single fetus at 29 weeks gestation, anhydramnios, and an empty fetal bladder. The neonatal course was complicated by oliguria, hyperkalemia, marked renal dysfunction, respiratory failure, joint contractures, and a large anterior fontanelle with widely separated sutures. Hypotension (mean arterial pressure<25 torr) on day 1 responded to volume expansion, dopamine, and hydrocortisone. Serum creatinine reached a maximum of 2.7 mg/dL on day 6 and decreased to 0.4 by day 56. No formal urinalysis was performed, but the urine was reported to be visually clear throughout the course. Although a renal ultrasound on day 2 was normal, a follow-up study at 7 months revealed bilateral generalized parenchymal echogenicity, consistent with medical renal disease. Since then, weight and length have been at the 5th percentile or less, with apparent renal tubular acidosis necessitating the addition of sodium citrate supplements. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for potential pregnancy when contemplating the use of a drug of this class, and considering serial testing for pregnancy when using such drugs, even in patients with a longstanding history of infertility.
Yhee, J-Y; Brown, C A; Yu, C-H; Kim, J-H; Poppenga, R; Sur, J-H
In early 2007, American pet food ingredients leading to nephrotoxic renal failure of dogs and cats raised serious concerns about the safety of pet foods. Major pet food companies recalled more than 1,000 commercial pet foods in consideration of pet safety. A similar pet food-associated outbreak of nephrotoxic renal failure occurred in Asia, in late 2003 and 2004, resulting in a similar extensive pet food recall. At that time, contamination of ingredients with a nephrotoxin-producing fungus at a pet food production facility was suspected. However, toxicologic evidence to substantiate a mycotoxicosis was lacking. Moreover, the renal lesions were not typical of those reported with fungal nephrotoxins. During 2003 and 2004, 14 dogs were presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea, with renal failure and distinctive renal pathologic findings. Grossly, the kidneys were greenish in color with greenish uroliths in the renal pelvis or bladder. Histologically, characteristic crystals with pinwheel radiating striations were present in distal tubular segments. Toxicologic analysis identified melamine, cyanuric acid, and ammelide in deparaffinized formalin-fixed kidney samples.
Bots, Michiel L; Blankestijn, Peter J
It is well established that the presence of impaired renal function is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Irrespective of the starting level of renal function, a decline in renal function over two years is a relevant and strong risk factor for end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality. Even a decline of 20 to 30 per cent is associated with to a considerable increased risk and requires further attention.
Sivakumar, Kothandam; Bhagyavathy, Anpon; Gnanapragasam, Francis
Large patent ductus arteriosus with large left-to-right shunt results in heart failure, and if untreated, leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Use of radiographic iodinated contrast media for angiogram during transcatheter duct closure may aggravate preexistent renal dysfunction. Aortogram with contrast media was avoided in a patient with renal failure, and echocardiogram guided deployment of duct occluder device in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for closure of a large duct. This article highlights use of a nitinol-based occluder that employs nonporous polytetrafluoroethylene fabric to aid in instantaneous duct closure.
Successful adalimumab treatment of a psoriasis vulgaris patient with hemodialysis for renal failure: A case report and a review of the previous reports on biologic treatments for psoriasis patients with hemodialysis for renal failure.
Kusakari, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Toshiya; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Shimada-Omori, Ryoko; Nasu-Tamabuchi, Mei; Aiba, Setsuya
The efficacy and safety of biologic treatments have been established in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but there are few reports on biologic therapy for patients with psoriasis complicated by end-stage renal failure on hemodialysis (HD). In this report, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of adalimumab for patients with severe psoriasis on HD. A 46-year-old Japanese man with a 14-year history of psoriasis was referred to our clinic in September 2009. He had developed hypertension and renal failure during a 7-year history of cyclosporin treatment. With the infliximab treatment, he achieved 75% improvement of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score within 3 months from the PASI of 42.3 before the treatment. However, his renal failure gradually deteriorated, and HD was initiated at 1 year after the introduction of infliximab. Because of hydration during the i.v. injection of infliximab, he developed pulmonary edema with every infliximab treatment after starting HD. We switched to ustekinumab treatment, but his psoriasis was not improved. Then, we switched to adalimumab and achieved a PASI-100 response within 2 months. The patient received adalimumab treatment for more than a year without any adverse effects. In addition to our case, five articles reported cases of psoriasis patients with renal failure on HD who were treated with biologics. The psoriatic lesions were improved by biologics in these cases, and no severe adverse effects on the renal function were reported. Thus, biologics are a reasonable treatment option for patients with severe psoriasis with renal failure on HD.
Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Simon, Valeska; Pardo, Fabian; Yañez, Alejandro; Carpio, Daniel; Conget, Paulette
Twenty-five to 40% of diabetic patients develop diabetic nephropathy, a clinical syndrome that comprises renal failure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It represents the major cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with premature morbimortality of diabetic patients. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) contribute to the regeneration of several organs, including acutely injured kidney. We sought to evaluate if MSC protect kidney function and structure when endovenously administered to mice with severe diabetes. A month after nonimmunologic diabetes induction by streptozotocin injection, C57BL/6 mice presented hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hypoinsulinemia, massive beta-pancreatic islet destruction, low albuminuria, but not renal histopathologic changes (DM mice). At this stage, one group of animals received the vehicle (untreated) and other group received 2 doses of 0.5 x 10(6) MSC/each (MSC-treated). Untreated DM mice gradually increased urinary albumin excretion and 4 months after diabetes onset, they reached values 15 times higher than normal animals. In contrast, MSC-treated DM mice maintained basal levels of albuminuria. Untreated DM mice had marked glomerular and tubular histopathologic changes (sclerosis, mesangial expansion, tubular dilatation, proteins cylinders, podocytes lost). However, MSC-treated mice showed only slight tubular dilatation. Observed renoprotection was not associated with an improvement in endocrine pancreas function in this animal model, because MSC-treated DM mice remained hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic, and maintained few remnant beta-pancreatic islets throughout the study period. To study MSC biodistribution, cells were isolated from isogenic mice that constitutively express GFP (MSC(GFP)) and endovenously administered to DM mice. Although at very low levels, donor cells were found in kidney of DM mice 3 month after transplantation. Presented preclinical results support MSC administration as a cell
Chawla, Lakhmir S; Herzog, Charles A; Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Tumlin, James; Kellum, John A; McCullough, Peter A; Ronco, Claudio
Structural heart disease is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis. More than 80% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are reported to have cardiovascular disease. This observation has enormous clinical relevance because the leading causes of death for patients with ESRD are of cardiovascular disease etiology, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. The 2 systems most commonly used to classify the severity of heart failure are the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification and the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) staging system. With rare exceptions, patients with ESRD who do not receive renal replacement therapy (RRT) develop signs and symptoms of heart failure, including dyspnea and edema due to inability of the severely diseased kidneys to excrete sodium and water. Thus, by definition, nearly all patients with ESRD develop a symptomatology consistent with heart failure if fluid removal by RRT is delayed. Neither the AHA/ACC heart failure staging nor the NYHA functional classification system identifies the variable symptomatology that patients with ESRD experience depending upon whether evaluation occurs before or after fluid removal by RRT. Consequently, the incidence, severity, and outcomes of heart failure in patients with ESRD are poorly characterized. The 11th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative has identified this issue as a critical unmet need for the proper evaluation and treatment of heart failure in patients with ESRD. We propose a classification schema based on patient-reported dyspnea assessed both pre- and post-ultrafiltration, in conjunction with echocardiography.
Kim, Chang Seong; Kim, Min Jee; Kang, Yong Un; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Soo Wan
The clinical course and medical treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not well established, especially in patients with concomitant renal dysfunction. We performed a retrospective analysis of the prospective Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry to assess the medical treatments and clinical outcomes of patients with CHF (Killip classes II or III) complicated by AMI, in the presence or absence of renal dysfunction. Of 13,498 patients with AMI, 2769 (20.5%) had CHF on admission. Compared to CHF patients with preserved renal function, in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiac events were increased both at 1 month and at 1 year after discharge in patients with renal dysfunction (1154; 41.7%). Postdischarge use of aspirin, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins significantly reduced the 1-year mortality rate for CHF patients with renal dysfunction; such reduction was not observed for those without renal dysfunction, except in the case of aspirin. Patients with CHF complicating AMI, which is accompanied by renal dysfunction, are at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes than patients without renal dysfunction. However, they receive fewer medications proven to reduce mortality rates.
Kato, Taiki; Hamano, Atsushi; Kawamura, Hideki
We report a 35 month-old boy with acute renal failure caused by an obstructive ureteral stone associated with norovirus gastroenteritis. He visited his family physician because of fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. He was diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis. The symptoms relieved once, but abdominal pain and vomiting recurred two days after the visit and the volume of urine decreased. He was diagnosed as norovirus gastoenteritis and acute renal failure which was unresponsive to fluid replacement. Ultrasound study of the abdomen showed a solitary kidney with mild hydronephrosis. He was then admitted to our hospital. He was finally diagnosed as acute postrenal failure due to obstructive ureteral stone with left solitary kidney by abdominal computer tomography (CT). We performed transurethral catheterization immediately. The creatinine and blood urea nitrogen returned to normal level in 2 days. The CT performed on the 28th day post operation showed disappearance of the stone after uric alkalization. Recently, some cases of postrenal failure due to bilateral obstructive ureteral stones, mainly ammonium acid urate stones, associated with viral gastroenteritis were reported. As clinical features, they are common in boys three years or younger after an episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high uric acid concentration. By far, the most common cause of acute renal failure in patients with severe gastroenteritis is prerenal failure resulting from hypovolemia. But postrenal cause due to bilateral obstructive stones should be taken in a consideration.
Karaolanis, Georgios; Lionaki, Sophia; Moris, Demetrios; Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Vernadakis, Spiridon
Secondary hyperoxaluria is a multifactorial disease affecting several organs and tissues, among which stand native and transplanted kidneys. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis may lead to renal insufficiency. Patients suffering from secondary hyperoxaluria, should be promptly identified and appropriately treated, so that less renal damage occurs. The aim of this review is to underline the causes of hyperoxaluria and the related pathophysiologic mechanisms, which are involved, along with the description of seven cases of irreversible renal graft injury due to secondary hyperoxaluria.
Dou, Xianrui; Hu, Haitang; Ju, Yongle; Liu, Yongdong; Kang, Kaifu; Zhou, Shufeng; Chen, Wenfang
Kidney injury associated with lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically caused by direct tumor infiltration which occasionally results in acute renal failure. Glomerular involvement presenting as proteinuria or even nephrotic syndrome is exceptionally rare. Here we report a case of 54-year-old male CLL patient with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. The lymph node biopsy confirmed that the patients had CLL with remarkable immunoglobulin light chain amyloid deposition. The renal biopsy demonstrated the concurrence of AL amyloidosis and neoplastic infiltration. Combined treatment of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab resulted in remission of CLL, as well as the renal disfunction and nephrotic syndrome, without recurrence during a 12-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CLL patient showing the nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure caused by AL amyloidosis and neoplastic infiltration. Though AL amyloidosis caused by plasma cell dyscrasia usually responses poorly to chemotherapy, this patient exhibited a satisfactory clinical outcome due to successful inhibition of the production of amylodogenic light chains by combined chemotherapy.
Kralova, Simona; Leva, Lenka; Toman, Miroslav
Chronic renal failure (CRF) causes immunosuppresion in humans and is thought to be one of the causes of noninfectious secondary immunosuppression in dogs. Hematological, biochemical, and immunological examinations were performed on blood samples obtained from dogs in various stages of CRF. The number of dogs with lymphopenia increased with the progression of clinical signs. All main subsets of lymphocytes were decreased, but more considerable reduction was detected in B-cells, Tc-cells, and NK cells. Depressed lymphocyte response to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen was found in dogs with severe clinical signs and lymphopenia. Our results, showing impaired immunological functions, are similar to results obtained from uremic humans, suggesting that infection may be an important complication in dogs with CRF.
Boucree, Michael C.
A case report is presented of a young man admitted to a general hospital with leukocytosis, elevated temperature, right lower lobe infiltrate, and confusion. A diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and Legionnaire's disease was made. The patient subsequently had a respiratory arrest and died on the 29th hospital day. This triad is currently an enigma in the field of internal medicine. The diagnosis of each entity is elusive, and in many cases must be made by the astute clinician. Diagnostic features along with early intervention measures and their expected outcomes are discussed. Recognition of the interrelationship of these diseases, risk factors, and vague clinical presentations might allow further prospective intervention methods and diagnostic procedures to be undertaken to avoid the fatal consequences seen in this disease triad. PMID:3074172
Gudsoorkar, Vineet S.; Perez, Jose A.
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are herbal blends that use plant material with varying concentrations of synthetic analogues of cannabinoids. These products are sold as incense or potpourri and are labeled “Not for human use.” Even so, rates of abuse are rapidly increasing worldwide, especially in the young adult population. An extensive network of users exists, and the products can easily be ordered on the Internet under various brand names, including the most popular ones, “K2” and “Spice.” Not much is known about their spectrum of toxicity and no specific antidote is available at present. Renal failure is a rare complication associated with SC abuse. We describe a case of acute kidney injury associated with use of SCs and present a review of the current literature, including the history and some key pharmacologic and epidemiologic findings related to synthetic cannabinoid compounds. PMID:26634029
Karimi, Zynab; Malekmakan, Leila; Farshadi, Maryam
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a major complication during pregnancy and is associated with high mortality rate in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of pregnancy-related ARF in Asia. This study is a systematic review Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline databases were searched for all papers in English on pregnancy related ARF (PR-ARF) in Asian countries that were published between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Of all the articles published in that period, 19 were selected - 17 were original articles and two were cases reports. We gathered information on the prevalence of PR-ARF, parity, duration of pregnancy when PR-ARF developed, etiology of PR-ARF, common clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings in PR-ARF.
Pastoris, O; Aquilani, R; Foppa, P; Bovio, G; Segagni, S; Baiardi, P; Catapano, M; Maccario, M; Salvadeo, A; Dossena, M
Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on 12 healthy sedentary subjects and on 22 non-dyalized chronic renal failure patients (CRF) on a free diet and after overnight fasting. Parathormone, glucagon and insulin were determined at the same time of biopsies. CRF patients showed significantly low ATP and creatine phosphate levels. Regarding enzyme activities, a high hexokinase Vmax was found, while the pyruvate kinase activity was lower than in the control group. For the tricarboxylic acid cycle, citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities were higher; total NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was also high, while cytochrome oxidase activity was slightly lower. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were considerably high in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, our study revealed a hypermetabolic TCA cycle, but impaired oxidative phosphorylation, which partly explained the reduced ATP concentration. Excessive protein intake and hormonal derangements may play a role in these metabolic changes.
Shindo, K; Kosaki, G
Incisional wounds of the abdominal skin, aponeurosis, stomach and colon were investigated microscopically for a comparison of the findings between uremic and normal rats. The grade of edema and number of inflammatory cells were increased in the rats with uremia and the granulation zone was also larger in the uremics. Hydroxyproline was assayed in the wound tissues by a modification of the technique of Stegemann and Stalder. The hydroxyproline level was lower in the uremics (p less than 0.05) only in the aponeurosis of the 5th postoperative day and in the colon of the 3.5th to 7th day. The correlation coefficient calculated for the blood urea level, biomechanical strength and hydroxyproline level was nil. If these results can validly be extrapolated to patients with chronic renal failure, careful management and avoidance of possible wound infections is of the greatest importance for surgical patients.
Alston, Charlotte L; Morak, Monika; Reid, Christopher; Hargreaves, Iain P; Pope, Simon A S; Land, John M; Heales, Simon J; Horvath, Rita; Mundy, Helen; Taylor, Robert W
Isolated complex I deficiency is the most commonly reported enzyme defect in paediatric mitochondrial disorders, and may arise due to mutations in nuclear-encoded structural or assembly genes, or the mitochondrial genome. We present the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data in a young girl whose clinical picture is dominated by chronic renal failure, myopathy and persistent lactic acidosis. An isolated complex I deficiency in muscle was identified due to a novel mutation (m.12425delA) in the MTND5 gene. This single nucleotide deletion is heteroplasmic and detectable in several tissues from the proband but not her mother, suggesting a de novo mutation event. The description of the first frameshift mutation in a mitochondrial complex I gene affirms mitochondrial DNA mutations as an important cause of isolated complex I deficiency in children and the importance of whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality and provide important genetic advice.
Brown, Patricia A; Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Pope, Melissa A; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra
Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg) and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg) received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2%) compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH) levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency. PMID:19149896
Camacho, Angel Tomas; Guitian, Francisco Javier; Pallas, Estrella; Gestal, Juan Jesus; Olmeda, Sonia; Goethert, Heidi; Telford, Sam; Spielman, Andrew
Babesia annae piroplasms have recently been recognised as a cause of infection and disease among dogs in Europe. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of this emerging disease remain poorly understood. We conducted this study to describe the electrophoretic profiles associated with the infection and to determine if B. annae associated azotaemia is caused by renal failure. We examined by microscopy 2,979 canine blood samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in NW Spain between September 2001 and April 2002. Small ring-shaped piroplasms were detected in blood smears of 87 samples and the identity of 58 of these presumptive cases were confirmed by PCR. This group of 58 infected dogs and a reference group of 15 healthy non-infected dogs were our study population. For all the dogs, serum protein response to -albumin, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin- was measured by capillary electrophoresis. The response of infected and non-infected dogs was compared and within infected dogs, the response of those with azotaemia (19) was compared with that of non-azotaemic dogs (39). Infected dogs presented a significant elevation of total proteins and all the different globulin fractions, and significantly lower levels of albumin compared to non-infected dogs. Among infected dogs, those presenting azotaemia had significantly lower concentrations of total proteins, albumin, beta and gamma globulins, and significantly higher values of alpha-2 globulin. Specific gravity was below the threshold of 1,025 for all dogs with azotaemia for which a urine sample was available (7) suggesting that azotaemia, in these dogs was of renal origin. Azotaemic dogs had higher concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides, probably as a result of a liver compensatory response to the loss of proteins. We conclude that serum protein response in B. annae infected dogs corresponds to the pattern of a haemolytic syndrome with intense inflammatory reaction and that
Tirapelli, L F; Barione, D F; Trazzi, B F M; Tirapelli, D P C; Novas, P C; Silva, C S; Martinez, M; Costa, R S; Tucci, S; Suaid, H J; Cologna, A J; Martins, A C P
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the frequent causes of acute renal failure (ARF) due to the complex, interrelated sequence of events, that result in damage to and death of kidney cells. Cells of the proximal tubular epithelium are especially susceptible to I/R injury, leading to acute tubular necrosis, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ARF. Several models have been explicated to assess morphological changes, including those of Jabonski et al. and Goujon et al. We compared the 2 models for histopathological evaluation of 30- or 120-minute periods of renal ischemia followed by 24-hour reperfusion in rats. Several changes were observed after application of the 2 models: proximal tubular cell necrosis, loss of brush border, vacuolization, denudation of tubular basement membrane as a consequence of flattening of basal cells, and presence of intratubular exfoliated cells in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules at various stages of degeneration (karyorexis, kariopyknosis and karyolysis). Evaluating tubular lesions after 2 periods of experimental ischemia with light microscopy allowed us to conclude that the Goujon classification better characterized the main changes in cortical renal tubules after ischemia.
Palazzuoli, Alberto; Lombardi, Carlo; Ruocco, Gaetano; Padeletti, Margherita; Nuti, Ranuccio; Metra, Marco; Ronco, Claudio
Nearly a third of patients with acute heart failure experience concomitant renal dysfunction. This condition is often associated with increased costs of care, length of hospitalisation and high mortality. Although the clinical impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been well established, the exact clinical significance of worsening renal function (WRF) during the acute and post-hospitalisation phases is not completely understood. Therefore, it is still unclear which of the common laboratory markers are able to identify WRF at an early stage. Recent studies comparing CKD with WRF showed contradictory results; this could depend on a different WRF definition, clinical characteristics, haemodynamic disorders and the presence of prior renal dysfunction in the population enrolled. The current definition of acute cardiorenal syndrome focuses on both the heart and kidney but it lacks precise laboratory marker cut-offs and a specific diagnostic approach. WRF and CKD could represent different pathophysiological mechanisms in the setting of acute heart failure; the traditional view includes reduced cardiac output with systemic and renal vasoconstriction. Nevertheless, it has become a mixed model that encompasses both forward and backward haemodynamic dysfunction. Increased central venous pressure, renal congestion with tubular obliteration, tubulo-glomerular feedback and increased abdominal pressure are all potential additional contributors. The impact of WRF on patients who experience preserved renal function and individuals affected with CKD is currently unknown. Therefore it is extremely important to understand the origins, the clinical significance and the prognostic impact of WRF on CKD.
Damman, Kevin; Tang, W H Wilson; Felker, G Michael; Lassus, Johan; Zannad, Faiez; Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J V
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly prevalent in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Therefore, evidence-based therapies are more and more being used in patients with some degree of renal dysfunction. However, most pivotal randomized clinical trials specifically excluded patients with (severe) renal dysfunction. The benefit of these evidence-based therapies in this high-risk patient group is largely unknown. This paper reviews data from randomized clinical trials in systolic heart failure and the interactions between baseline renal dysfunction and the effect of randomized treatment. It highlights that most evidence-based therapies show consistent outcome benefit in patients with moderate renal insufficiency (stage 3 CKD), whereas there are very scarce data on patients with severe (stage 4 to 5 CKD) renal insufficiency. If any, the outcome benefit might be even greater in stage 3 CKD compared with those with relatively preserved renal function. However, prescription of therapies should be individualized with consideration of possible harm and benefit, especially in those with stage 4 to 5 CKD where limited data are available.
Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina
Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.
Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Danial, Khurram
Present study assesses the therapeutic effectiveness of Hijama (blood letting) inpatients of chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis for past several years with almost no urinary output.24 patients from Sindh Government Qatar Hospital Karachi were selected randomly under going dialysis 2-3 times/week for an average of 3 years under supervision of Dr. Khurram Danial, in-charge nephrologist at dialysis Centre Sindh Government Qatar Hospital Karachi after the written consent from patients. Each patient was subjected to Hijama session once a week after dialysis for a period of one year in a nearby hospital Aligarh Shifa with the consent of the ethical committee of the hospital. Serum urea, creatinine, complete blood count and electrolytes were determined prior to Hijama as baseline values and were again recorded on monthly basis for twelve months of Hijama sessions. The patient's feedback regarding quality of life after each Hijama session shows that almost all the patients reported a significant recovery from severe fatigue which they used to face during the interval between the dialysis sessions. There was significant recovery in all patients from anorexia and insomnia with the improvement in quality of life as compared to patients not undergoing Hijama. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were shifted towards normal in almost all patients after Hijama. Serum Creatinine level was declined significantly, while electrolyte and hematological parameters were also improved significantly. The hemoglobin of all patients undergoing Hijama was maintained near normal without any blood transfusion, which was frequently needed in patients not unde