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Sample records for renal insufficiency

  1. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  2. Renal insufficiency and cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Janus, Nicolas; Deray, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Renal insufficiency has been shown to be highly prevalent in patients with cancer. This renal insufficiency has been reported to be associated with reduced overall survival and increased cancer-related mortality. Therefore, it is important to screen patients with cancer for renal insufficiency, using an adequate and reliable method of estimation of the renal function. Renal insufficiency may influence 1 or several of the 4 pharmacokinetic phases (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination/excretion), potentially resulting in marked modifications of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug in patients with renal insufficiency. Consequently, it is potentially necessary to adjust the dosage of anticancer drugs in case of renal insufficiency in order to avoid drug accumulation and in order to reduce overdosage-related side effects. This dosage adjustment of anticancer drugs should be performed according to the level of renal function and with an appropriate and validated method. It is not always easy to find clear information on anticancer drug handling in these patients. However, several guidelines, publications and handbooks are available on how to adjust anticancer drug dosages in patients with renal insufficiency and will help practitioners to manage anticancer drugs in such patients.

  3. Transient renal insufficiency following dipyrone overdose.

    PubMed

    Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Goldman, Michael; Mordish, Yair; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Kozer, Eran

    2010-03-01

    To describe the incidence of acute renal insufficiency after dipyrone overdose in children. The medical records of all patients < or =18 years of age during a 3-year period presenting at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center due to toxic exposure were retrospectively reviewed. Patients suffering from dipyrone overdose were compared with all the other patients. 235 cases were included in the final analysis. Of these, 26 (11%) patients were exposed to dipyrone (median age 15 years). Three of the 26 patients (12%) had transient non-oliguric renal insufficiency. One other patient who did not receive dipyrone also developed transient renal insufficiency. Dipyrone overdose is frequent and may cause acute non-oliguric renal insufficiency. Renal function should be monitored in such patients.

  4. [Acute renal insufficiency and fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Ohresser, P; Sainty, J M; Belnet, M; Cano, N

    1975-10-01

    The authors report ten cases of renal insufficiency observed among a series of 43 cases of fat embolism. It is a matter of eraly oligoanuria (starting beween the 2nd and the 4th day). Its severity depends on the lesions involved : prolonged cardio-vascular collapse - cranio-encephalic lesion. The renal insufficiency does not seem typical of fat embolism. It must be essentially linked to a cardio-vascular collapse and/or to a disseminated intra-vascular coagulation.

  5. Acute renal insufficiency in ibuprofen overdose.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Gazarian, M; Verjee, Z; Johnson, D

    1995-04-01

    Since the introduction of ibuprofen as a nonprescription drug in the US, there have been reports of significant toxicity associated with large ingestions (> 400 mg/kg) in both children and adults. Acute renal insufficiency is a rare, reversible effect of ibuprofen overdose documented in adults, but we could find no published pediatric cases. We report a case of a healthy two-year-old boy, without a previous history of renal problems, who developed reversible acute renal insufficiency after a toxic ingestion of approximately 640 mg/kg ibuprofen. By 11 hours, his initially normal creatinine began to rise, reaching a peak value of 181 mmol/L (2.1 mg/dl) by 27 hours. His urinalysis showed moderate microscopic hematuria without the presence of casts or proteinuria. No problems arose with fluid management. Normalization of his renal function occurred by 72 hours. A serum ibuprofen concentration obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography and drawn approximately four hours after ingestion was 1724 mumol (therapeutic serum concentration, 50-250 mumol). This case demonstrates that acute, reversible renal insufficiency can occur in healthy children after a severe overdose of ibuprofen; hence, renal function should be monitored in such instances.

  6. Cefazolin in children with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hiner, L B; Baluarte, H J; Polinsky, M S; Gruskin, A B

    1980-02-01

    Cefazolin (7 mg/kg) were administered to 11 children with renal insufficiency and to ten children on hemodialysis. The serum half-life of the drug was progressively prolonged as glomerular filtration rate fell. The serum half-life of cefazolin was variably prolonged in those children on hemodialysis, but their serum levels of cefaxolin had dropped by 35 to 65% during dialysis. Most had no measurable level prior to the next dialysis. Dosage recommendations are made for both groups of patients.

  7. [Pharmaceutical care in renal insufficiency inpatients].

    PubMed

    Devesa García, C; Matoses Chirivella, C; Peral Ballester, L; Sanz Tamargo, G; Murcia López, A C; Navarro Ruiz, A

    2012-01-01

    To asses the outcomes of posological adjust program in renal impairment inpatients, describe the drugs more usually involved, and determine the degree of acceptance of the pharmaceutical intervention made. A fifteen months-prospective study, in renal insufficiency inpatients (serum creatinine > 1,4 mg/dL) treated with drugs that needs posological adjustment. The primary outcome was the ratio of adequate dosage of the treatment, according with the glomerular filtration rate. We also evaluated the global acceptation rate, the drugs inadequate prescribed more frequently, phamacokinetic analysis derived from the pharmaceutical intervention and its educative character. 384 patients were identified, and 341 of them presented a glomerular filtration rate between 10-50 ml/min. 2.807 prescribed drugs were reviewed, and 2.052 of them didn%#39;t require posological adjustment in renal insufficiency, 508 prescribed drugs were correctly adjusted. 247 pres - criptions were susceptible of posological adjustment and 164 of them, needed a concrete posological adjustment. We performed 200 posological recommendations, and 131 were accepted. The drugs with a higher number of interventions were enoxaparine, levofloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic and digoxin. The implementation of the pharmaceutical care program was accepted between physicians, being antibiotics the group more susceptible of doing a posological adjustment in most patients with renal impairment. Copyright © 2012 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Trimethoprim pharmacokinetics in children with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, K; Koskimies, O; Tuomisto, J

    1987-08-01

    We studied the pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim in 14 children (two neonates) with renal insufficiency. They were 1 week to 16.4 years old and had glomerular filtration rates (GFR) between 10.8 to 72.3 ml/min/1.73 m2. The half-life (t1/2) of trimethoprim was inversely related to the GFR. The relation followed a power curve (correlation of t1/2 with GFR: r = -0.86; P less than 0.001). The slower elimination rate was mainly the result of lowered renal clearance of trimethoprim. The volume of distribution (Varea) was, in most patients, in the upper normal range for children. In some of the patients, chiefly infants with severe renal insufficiency, the Varea was larger than normal. In some individuals the pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim deviated from that to be expected from the GRF. We recommend reduced daily doses of trimethoprim if the GFR is less than 30 ml/min/1.73 m2. The reduction should be proportional to the reduction in GFR and primarily take the form of a prolonged dose interval.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of pefloxacin in renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Montay, G; Jacquot, C; Bariety, J; Cunci, R

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of pefloxacin has been studied after a single intravenous infusion of 8 mg X kg-1 in 15 male patients with various degrees of renal failure. No difference in distribution or elimination of the drug was observed between patients with mild or severe renal impairment. The mean volume of distribution (Vd area) and the mean plasma clearance were 2.03 l X kg-1 and 121.3 ml X min-1, respectively. The mean apparent elimination half-life was 13.5 h. These values are close to those observed in healthy subjects. No accumulation of the active N-desmethylmetabolite was observed in cases of severe failure as compared to mild impairment; its apparent elimination half-life was about twice that of the parent drug. The efficacy of a 4 haemodialysis in 6 additional anuric subjects done to remove pefloxacin from the body was poor.

  10. Lung cancer and renal insufficiency: prevalence and anticancer drug issues.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Etessami, Reza; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert; Morere, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study reported the high prevalence of renal insufficiency in cancer patients. In this special report, we focused on patients with lung cancer, emphasizing some specific findings in this population of patients. Data on patients with lung cancer who were in the IRMA study were analyzed. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulas to estimate the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI) according to the KDOQI-KDIGO definition. Anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and need for dosage adjustment. Of the 445 IRMA lung cancer patients, 14.4% had a serum creatinine (SCR) level > or =110 micromol/L. However, when they were assessed using the formulas, 62.1 and 55.9% had abnormal renal function. Of the 644 anticancer drug prescriptions, 67.5% required dose adjustments for RI or were drugs with no available data, and 78.3% of the patients received at least one such drug. Furthermore, 71.6% received potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Seventy percent of the patients had anemia but prevalence was not significantly associated with the existence of associated renal insufficiency. In the 445 IRMA patients with lung cancer, the prevalence of RI was high in spite of a normal SCR in most cases. Some anticancer drugs such as platinum salts may be nephrotoxic and need dosage adjustment. However, other important drugs such as gemcitabine do not require dose reduction and do not present with a high potential for nephrotoxicity. Lung cancer patients often present with anemia, which was not associated with the presence of RI.

  11. [Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Leray-Moragués, Hélène; Chenine-Koualef, Leila; Patrier, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the most advanced form of artificial renal support. It ensures the survival of almost 2 million patients wordwide. Considerable progress has been made in recent years thanks to a better understanding of uremia, optimization of treatment modalities and more personalized treatment schedules. Increase of uremic toxins removal, improvement of hemodynamic tolerance of the sessions, reduction of proinflammatory reactions due to the bioincompatibility system are major advances that may explain the reduction of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. New technologies (nanotechnology, biotechnology, microelectronics) are now expected to introduce further progresses by miniaturizing devices and providing them with an "artificial intelligence" capable of interacting with the patient. The main obstacle remains ageing of uremic patients, increasing prevalence of comorbidities and shortage of social resources that are not conducive to innovation. By promoting a more physiological, longer and more effective hemodialysis performed at home with help of teledialysis monitoring that would probably be an interesting option to evaluate on a medico-economical point of view.

  12. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Bertholf, R.L.; Wills, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the hemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and hemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's -bloodstream during hemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind eluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide safe and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. 136 references.

  13. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ebbert, Kirsten; Chow, Josephine; Krempien, Jennifer; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Dionne, Janis

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric CKD population. Recognizing that renal transplant recipients have CKD, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in pediatric renal transplant recipients, compared to a healthy pediatric population. We prospectively studied 25(OH)D levels in 29 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 45 control patients over one yr. The overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was common in both populations, at 76% (95% CI: 61, 87%) in the pediatric renal transplant recipients and 91% (95% CI: 80, 98%) in the control group. In the paired renal transplant samples, the mean 25(OH)D level was 52.3 ± 17.9 nmol/L in the winter and 65.6 ± 18.8 nmol/L in the summer (95% CI diff.: 3.9, 22.7), in keeping with a significant seasonal difference. The mean dietary intake of vitamin D in the renal transplant recipients, assessed by three-day dietary record, was 5.7 μg/day, with a vitamin D intake below the EAR in the majority. We did not find an association between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D levels in this study, likely due to the low dietary intake of vitamin D within the transplant population, identifying a potential area for intervention and improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Acute renal insufficiency and toxic hepatitis following scorpions sting.

    PubMed

    Krkic-Dautovic, Sajma; Begovic, Begler

    2007-01-01

    Scorpion sting is a huge medical problem in countries of South America, Arabian Peninsula and Africa. In countries of Mediterranean region, where Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs, this problem is sporadic. Following the sting of very poisonous red scorpions, death may occur inside of 48 hours by reason of cardiac arrest and acute renal insufficiency (ARI). In our work we represent a case of 54-years old man. In his case, ARI and toxic hepatitis developed inside of 24 hours after the scorpion sting. Applied conservative therapy was not sufficient enough to solve ARI, so patient needed haemodialysis. With intensive conservative therapy and haemodialysis applied every other day, ARI and toxic hepatitis were solved within 25 days. After that, patient was released from hospital for ambulant treatment.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of roxatidine in patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Gladziwa, U; Wagner, S; Sieberth, H G; Klotz, U

    1995-01-01

    1. Roxatidine acetate, a new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, was administered in the evening (75 mg p.o.) to eight patients with renal insufficiency (CLCR 8-17 ml min-1) for 12 days and plasma drug concentrations were measured. 2. Ambulatory intragastric pH was monitored following the last dose and values were compared with those on day 1 when all patients received a placebo. 3. The terminal elimination half-life (mean +/- s.d.) of roxatidine was 10.8 +/- 2.4 h and its oral clearance was 178 +/- 43 ml min-1. 4. During roxatidine treatment gastrin levels increased slightly (median 189 vs 289 ng l-1) and the hyperparathyroid status of the patients was almost normalized (parathyroid hormone levels: median 199 vs 132 ng l-1). 5. The mean latency to a gastric pH of at least 4 was 4.3 +/- 1.4 h. The duration of action (intragastric pH > 4) was 10.6 +/- 3.9 h. 6. As in a pilot study with six patients (CLCR < or = 17 ml min-1) the recommended dosage regimen (75 mg 48 h-1) was unable to maintain gastric pH > 4 for more than 6 h, daily nocturnal intake of 75 mg roxatidine acetate appears appropriate to elevate gastric pH > 4 for a sufficient period of time. PMID:7742154

  16. Amantadine neurotoxicity in a pediatric patient with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Strong, D K; Eisenstat, D D; Bryson, S M; Sitar, D S; Arbus, G S

    1991-11-01

    Amantadine hydrochloride, a dopamine agonist with antiviral and antiparkinsonism properties, is used for the prevention and treatment of influenza A respiratory infections in high-risk populations. The occurrence of amantadine-induced hallucinations and tremors is described in a young, renal transplant patient with declining renal function. Following discontinuation of amantadine, plasma amantadine concentrations were correlated with central nervous system toxicity. In view of the usage of amantadine in renal transplant recipients and the elderly, clinicians must be alert to the possibility of amantadine-induced neurotoxicity in patients with changing renal function.

  17. Effects of chronic and acute protein administration on renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Schaap, G H; Blaak, E; Gans, R O; Oe, P L; Donker, A J

    1989-01-01

    In 6 volunteers with normal renal function, we investigated the effects of various kinds of protein (soy, lactoprotein and beef) and various amounts of an intravenously administered amino acid solution on glomerular filtration (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). As for the protein-induced changes in renal function, rises in GFR and ERPF were lowest with soy protein, and highest with beef (baseline GFR, 110 +/- 5; soy, 122 +/- 5; beef, 131 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2; mean +/- SEM). High doses of intravenous amino acids induced a rise in GFR comparable to that after beef (132 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2). In a combined test a liquid mixed meal together with intravenously administered amino acids induced a comparable increase of the GFR (baseline 114 +/- 5 versus 129 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2). When investigating 9 patients with chronic renal insufficiency after 4 weeks of low protein intake (LP) and after 4 weeks of high protein intake (HP), GFR and ERPF rose significantly under baseline conditions (GFR-LP41 +/- 9 versus GFR-HP 45 +/- 9 ml/min/1.73 m2, p less than 0.02; ERPF-LP 169 +/- 39 versus ERPF-HP 180 +/- 40 ml/min/1.73 m2, p less than 0.02; paired Wilcoxon). At the end of both dietary periods a comparable rise in renal function could be induced through acute stimulation (GFR-LP 20 +/- 5, GFR-HP 16 +/- 4; ERPF-LP 23 +/- 7, ERPF-HP 22 +/- 3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. [Vegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system in patients with chronic heart failure with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, T E; Borovkova, N Iu

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and signs of chronic renal insufficiency. CHF is currently regarded as a disturbance of neurohumoral mechanisms controlling blood circulation. At the same time, both prognosis and outcome of CHF depend on the presence of chronic renal insufficiency whose pathogenesis is poorly understood The authors emphasize the importance of elucidation of common pathogenetic mechanisms of these mutually complicating conditions.

  19. Congenital hypothyroidism and concurrent renal insufficiency in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Kin; Rosa, Chantal T; de Witt, Yolanda; Schoeman, Johan P

    2014-11-14

    A 3-month-old male domestic short-hair kitten was presented with chronic constipation and disproportionate dwarfism. Radiographs of the long bones and spine revealed delayed epiphyseal ossification and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Diagnosis of congenital primary hypothyroidism was confirmed by low serum total thyroxine and high thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. Appropriate supplementation of levothyroxine was instituted. The kitten subsequently developed mild renal azotaemia and renal proteinuria, possibly as a consequence of treatment or an unmasked congenital renal developmental abnormality. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are vital as alleviation of clinical signs may depend on the cat's age at the time of diagnosis.

  20. [Dietetic therapy of diabetes and renal insufficiency (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Canzler, H

    1977-04-15

    Coincidence of chronic renal failure and diabetes mellitus brings with it serious therapeutic problems, especially in dietetic treatment. It is not possible to wish to do justice to all the therapeutic principles of the text books to the same extent. The condition of renal failure with its demands takes precedence in all cases. But if the renal disease has not yet led to a perceptible retention of normal urinary constituents in the serum, no specific dietary measures are necessary. In these cases, the diabetic diet is proceded with in the usual manner.

  1. [Shall we recognize chronic renal insufficiency as a pediatric controversy?].

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Miklaszewska, Monika; Drozdz, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    Introduction in 2002 the new, 5 - degree classification of chronic renal disease which has been based upon calculation of glomerularfiltration rate (eGFR)--on the one hand took note of the problem of kidney injury and decrease of active nephrons' number which may accompany various renal diseases--on the other--allowed to define the risk factors, which include first of all--hypertension and persistent proteinuria. Chronic renal disease is diagnosed in each clinical case, where a decrease of glomerular filtration rate below 90 ml/min/1.73m2 had occurred with or without kidney injury or when a decrease of glomerular filtration rate maintains for at least 3 months on the level < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Delayed diagnosis of chronic kidney disease leads to manifestation of chronic renal failure symptoms and excludes an effective nephroprotective treatment. In the face of a large number of potential causes of chronic renal disease which may be encountered by a pediatrician, all children which are numbered among the high risk group--should have eGFR calculated--initially according to the simplest Schwartz formula. Setting of a diagnosis of chronic renal failure only on the basis of serum creatinine concentration doesn't allow to notice hyper-filtration phenomenon and should not be a daily clinical practice. Fundamental approach of therapeutical management in in children with chronic renal disease is slowing down the disease progression and/or elimination or modification of some risk factors. Each child with diagnosed chronic renal disease should be referred to specialist outpatient pediatric nephrology clinic.

  2. Prevalence of Renal Insufficiency in cancer patients and implications for anticancer drug management: the renal insufficiency and anticancer medications (IRMA) study.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Oudard, Stéphane; Janus, Nicolas; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Rixe, Olivier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert

    2007-09-15

    The Renal Insufficiency and Cancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national observational study. The results from this study of nearly 5,000 patients demonstrated the high prevalence of renal impairment in a population of patients with solid tumors. Every cancer patient who presented at oncology departments that participated in the study over at least 1 of 2 predefined periods during 2004 were included. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulae to estimate the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI) according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative-Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definition and stratification. Anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and dosage adjustment. Of the 4,684 patients from the 15 centers, 7.2% had serum creatinine levels >110 micromol/L. However, when they were assessed using Cockcroft-Gault and aMDRD formulae, 57.4% and 52.9% of patients had abnormal renal function or RI, respectively. Of the 7,181 anticancer drug prescriptions, 53.4% required dose adjustments for RI. Of the patients treated, 79.9% received at least 1 such drug. And 80.1% received potentially nephrotoxic drugs. RI was common in patients with cancer, and drug dosage adjustments often were necessary. Renal function should be evaluated in all cancer patients using either the Cockcroft-Gault formula or the aMDRD formula, including patients with normal serum creatinine levels. In patients who are at high risk for drug toxicity, the dosage should be adapted to renal function, and the use of nephrotoxic therapies should be avoided whenever possible. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  3. Osteoporosis biomarkers act as predictors for diagnosis of chronic renal insufficiency in elder patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Xin; Xu, Chen; Li, Yan-Chun; Sun, Qian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency and osteoporosis have become very common among old people in China. Hyperparathyroidism caused by renal insufficiency would result in turbulence of bone metabolism and unbalance between serum calcium and phosphorus. The aim of this study is to investigate the BMD, PTH, CT and 25(OH)-Vit's significance for screening and diagnosing chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, seventy cases with chronic renal insufficiency from Jun. 2010 to Oct. 2013 were selected as the observation group. Meanwhile, another 70 volunteers with normal renal functions were set as the control group. The level of BMD, PTH, CT and 25(OH)-Vit were detected by using ELISA assay. DPX bone density meters (UNIGAMMA X-RAY PLUS) were used for the detection of BMD. The results indicated that BMD levels of the proximal femur (include Troch, Shaft, Total, Neck, Ward) and lumbar vertebra in the observation group were significantly lower while the PTH and CT were significantly higher compared with the control group (P<0.05). A positive correlation was identified between the serum creatinine (Scr) concentrations and CT, PTH, while the correlation with 25(OH)-Vit was considered to be negative. In conclusion, the BMD, PTH, CT, and 25 (OH)-Vit would provide reference in diagnosing and treatment for chronic renal insufficiency. These indexes would be important clinical significance for screening and early diagnose of osteoporosis in these patients.

  4. Renal insufficiency and anticancer drugs in elderly cancer patients: a subgroup analysis of the IRMA study.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Janus, Nicolas; Gligorov, Joseph; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national, observational study which demonstrated the high prevalence of abnormal renal function in a population of 4684 solid tumor patients. Among them, 50-60% had decreased renal function, and 80% were treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment in case of renal insufficiency (RI) or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Since elderly patients are well-known to have reduced renal function, either due to physiological aging or their disease/medication history, a subgroup analysis of this particular population of patients was performed. In 1553 IRMA patients whose age was > or =65 years, the prevalence of RI was very high in spite of normal serum creatinine values in most cases. Anticancer drugs used may be nephrotoxic or need dosage adjustment in a high number of cases.

  5. Parathyroid function in uremic children during periods of renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, A B; Root, A W; Duckett, G E; Baluarte, H J

    1976-11-01

    Function of the parathyroid gland was evaluated in children with renal insufficiency prior to and after imitation of hemodialysis, and again following renal transplantation. Serum levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone responded appropriately to increases or decreases of serum calcium concentrations in the three groups. Functional and histologic studies in the children with renal insufficiency demonstrated the cause of their elevated circulating levels of iPTH to be diffuse parathyroid hyperplasia. During hemodialysis, the serum concentration of calcium rose and that of iPTH decreased, when the calcium gradient between the dialysate and the blood favored movement of calcium into the body. During treatment with prednisolone (20 mg/kg intravenously) for reversal of renal transplant rejection, the serum concentration of calcium decreased and that of iPTH increased. These observations suggest that autonomy of the parathyroid gland rarely occurs in children with renal insufficiency, and that hemodialysis using a dialysate with a high concentration of calcium might assist in retarding the progression of renal osteodystrophy. Furthermore, if hyperparathyroidism contributes in part to growth failure in children with chronic renal disease, steroid-induced changes in cirulating iPTH following renal transplantation may inhibit growth.

  6. [Acute renal insufficiency: nutrition disorders and therapeutic consequences].

    PubMed

    Canaud, B; Leblanc, M; Leray-Moragues, H; Delmas, S; Klouche, K; Vela, C; Béraud, J J

    1998-01-01

    Catabolism is usually enhanced in acute renal failure (ARF). Its magnitude varies from one patient to another and can change significantly in the same patient from day to day, reflecting its clinical course. It depends on the severity of the ARF, the underlying process, the associated co-morbidity, and therapeutic approach. The detection of patients at high risk for malnutrition is extremely important; nutritional markers and indexes of caloric and protein requirements are useful to adapt renal replacement and nutritional support to ARF patients. Various biochemical parameters (namely, serum albumin and prealbumin), anthropometic measures, indirect calorimetry, urea and creatinine kinetics are all useful tools to evaluate metabolic status and requirements nutritional. Commonly, the caloric requirements are nearly 35 kcal/kg/24 h with correction factors applied for certain clinical situations: carbohydrates account for 50 to 60% of those needs whereas lipids account for the rest. The total amount of fluid administered has to be adapted to the possible ultrafiltration achieved by dialysis. Daily dialysis sessions and continuous renal replacement therapy allow larger volumes and thus facilitate nutritional support. Protein needs frequently exceed 1.2 g/kg/24 h to maintain the nitrogen balance, with a calorie to protein ration close to 150 kcal per g of nitrogen. Sufficient amounts of vitamins and oligo-elements are necessary. Stimulating anabolism by exogenous mediators, such as androgenic hormones or growth factors (rh-IGF1, rh-GH) is an avenue that deserves better definition in critically ill ARF patients.

  7. [Physical exercise and serum potassium in renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lens, X M; Oliva, J A; Codinach, P; Pascual, R; Carrió, J; Mallafré, J M

    1989-04-01

    In order to study the effect of physical exercise on serum potassium in renal failure, twelve patients currently on chronic dialysis were subjected to physical exercise by means of an ergometric bicycle. The initial serum potassium was 5.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l and after the performance of 3.304 +/- 1.583 kilopondimeters of total work, serum potassium was not modified: 5.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/l (p = NS). With regard to the parameters that regulate the intra-cellular distribution of serum potassium, physical exercise aggravated metabolic acidosis, decreasing the blood pH: from 7.33 +/- 0.05 to 7.23 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01) and plasma bicarbonate: from 19 +/- 3 mmol/l to 14 +/- 4 mmol/l (p less than 0.01); this was accompanied by a significant and percentage-wise similar increase in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. Patients with end-stage renal failure can perform moderate physical exercise, since this does not produce significant changes in serum potassium.

  8. Effects of flurbiprofen on renal function in patients with moderate renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, M D; Greene, P K; Brater, D C; Manatunga, A K; Hall, S D

    1992-01-01

    1. Renal function was assessed in eight patients with chronic renal insufficiency following the administration of flurbiprofen 50 mg as a single dose and after chronic administration of 50 mg four times daily for 8 and 27 days. Diet and fluid intake were controlled. 2. Inulin and creatinine clearances and urinary excretion of sodium were measured at baseline and every 20 min for at least 3 h after dosing. The time of the mean peak concentration of (S)-flurbiprofen was used to guide the analysis of the clearances. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of sodium, and serum sodium and potassium were also assessed for 24 h after the dose and on a daily basis. Body weight and blood pressure were measured on a daily basis. 3. Decrements in inulin and creatinine clearances were small and reversible within 3 h of an oral dose of flurbiprofen. Comparison of baseline clearances for the three study periods (first dose and at 8 and 27 days of chronic dosing) revealed a lack of chronic effect on glomerular filtration rate. 4. In contrast, flurbiprofen caused a substantial (73 to 86%) and progressive decrease in the urinary excretion of sodium that reached a nadir within 4-5 h after drug administration. However, comparison of baseline values did not differ, indicating that balance conditions had been re-established. 5. Results of 24 h assessments were in agreement with the clearance study results. Reduced urinary excretion of sodium appeared to be limited to the first few days of flurbiprofen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1576067

  9. Stratifying Risk for Renal Insufficiency Among Lithium-Treated Patients: An Electronic Health Record Study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Victor M; Roberson, Ashlee M; McCoy, Thomas H; Wiste, Anna; Cagan, Andrew; Smoller, Jordan W; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Ostacher, Michael; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Although lithium preparations remain first-line treatment for bipolar disorder, risk for development of renal insufficiency may discourage their use. Estimating such risk could allow more informed decisions and facilitate development of prevention strategies. We utilized electronic health records from a large New England health-care system between 2006 and 2013 to identify patients aged 18 years or older with a lithium prescription. Renal insufficiency was identified using the presence of renal failure by ICD9 code or laboratory-confirmed glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. Logistic regression was used to build a predictive model in a random two-thirds of the cohort, which was tested in the remaining one-third. Risks associated with aspects of pharmacotherapy were also examined in the full cohort. We identified 1445 adult lithium-treated patients with renal insufficiency, matched by risk set sampling 1 : 3 with 4306 lithium-exposed patients without renal insufficiency. In regression models, features associated with risk included older age, female sex, history of smoking, history of hypertension, overall burden of medical comorbidity, and diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p<0.01 for all contrasts). The model yielded an area under the ROC curve exceeding 0.81 in an independent testing set, with 74% of renal insufficiency cases among the top two risk quintiles. Use of lithium more than once daily, lithium levels greater than 0.6 mEq/l, and use of first-generation antipsychotics were independently associated with risk. These results suggest the possibility of stratifying risk for renal failure among lithium-treated patients. Once-daily lithium dosing and maintaining lower lithium levels where possible may represent strategies for reducing risk.

  10. Stratifying Risk for Renal Insufficiency Among Lithium-Treated Patients: An Electronic Health Record Study

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Victor M; Roberson, Ashlee M; McCoy, Thomas H; Wiste, Anna; Cagan, Andrew; Smoller, Jordan W; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Ostacher, Michael; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-01-01

    Although lithium preparations remain first-line treatment for bipolar disorder, risk for development of renal insufficiency may discourage their use. Estimating such risk could allow more informed decisions and facilitate development of prevention strategies. We utilized electronic health records from a large New England health-care system between 2006 and 2013 to identify patients aged 18 years or older with a lithium prescription. Renal insufficiency was identified using the presence of renal failure by ICD9 code or laboratory-confirmed glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. Logistic regression was used to build a predictive model in a random two-thirds of the cohort, which was tested in the remaining one-third. Risks associated with aspects of pharmacotherapy were also examined in the full cohort. We identified 1445 adult lithium-treated patients with renal insufficiency, matched by risk set sampling 1 : 3 with 4306 lithium-exposed patients without renal insufficiency. In regression models, features associated with risk included older age, female sex, history of smoking, history of hypertension, overall burden of medical comorbidity, and diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p<0.01 for all contrasts). The model yielded an area under the ROC curve exceeding 0.81 in an independent testing set, with 74% of renal insufficiency cases among the top two risk quintiles. Use of lithium more than once daily, lithium levels greater than 0.6 mEq/l, and use of first-generation antipsychotics were independently associated with risk. These results suggest the possibility of stratifying risk for renal failure among lithium-treated patients. Once-daily lithium dosing and maintaining lower lithium levels where possible may represent strategies for reducing risk. PMID:26294109

  11. Effectiveness of theophylline prophylaxis of renal impairment after coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Schipek, Chrysantha; Ilgmann, Kathrin; Page, Michael; Hennig, Michael; Wacker, Annette; Schweigart, Ursula; Lutilsky, Leopoldo; Valina, Christian; Seyfarth, Melchior; Schömig, Albert; Classen, Meinhard

    2003-05-15

    Contrast media can lead to renal impairment that results in longer hospitalization and increased mortality. Adenosine is a crucial mediator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN; an increase in serum creatinine of >or=0.5 mg/dl within 48 hours). Therefore, it was the purpose of our study to investigate whether the adenosine antagonist theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN after coronary angiography. We also characterized risk factors for CIN after coronary angiography. One hundred patients with serum creatinine concentrations of >or=1.3 mg/dl randomly received 200 mg IV theophylline or placebo 30 minutes before coronary angiography (amount of contrast medium >or=100 ml). Patients who received theophylline and the controls were comparable with regard to baseline creatinine levels (means +/- SD) (1.65 +/- 0.41 vs 1.72 +/- 0.69 mg/dl) and the amount of contrast medium received (235 +/- 89 vs 261 +/- 139 ml). Theophylline significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (4% vs 20%, p = 0.0138). With placebo, creatinine significantly increased at 12 (1.82 +/- 0.79 mg/dl, p = 0.0057), 24 (1.90 +/- 0.86 mg/dl, p = 0.0001), and 48 hours (1.90 +/- 0.89 mg/dl, p = 0.0007) after administration of contrast medium. With pretreatment with theophylline, mean creatinine only increased 24 hours after contrast medium administration (1.70 +/- 0.40 mg/dl, p = 0.029), but was stable 12 hours (1.65 +/- 0.43 mg/dl, p = 0.99) and 48 hours after contrast medium administration (1.65 +/- 0.41 mg/dl, p = 0.99). The following parameters were significantly associated with contrast-induced renal impairment: Cigarroa quotient >5 (contrast medium [milliters] x serum creatinine/body weight [kg]), elevated troponin T, >300 ml of contrast medium, and emergency angiography. In conclusion, theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography. It should be used especially in patients receiving large amounts of contrast medium, and in

  12. Dietary supplements of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene reduce oxidative stress in cats with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Paetau-Robinson, I

    2006-05-01

    Oxidative stress may contribute to the progression of chronic renal failure. In this study, cats with spontaneous renal insufficiency were fed a dry cat food supplemented with the antioxidants vitamins E and C, and beta-carotene for 4 weeks. When compared with healthy cats, cats with renal insufficiency had a tendency to oxidative stress. The antioxidant supplements significantly reduced DNA damage in cats with renal insufficiency as evidenced by reduced serum 8-OHdG and comet assay parameters. Therefore, supplements of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene as antioxidants may be beneficial to cats with renal disease.

  13. [Hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal insufficiency. Physiopathology, clinicoradiological aspects and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, F; Ghazali, A; Boudzernidj, M; Amar, M; Morinière, P; Westeel, P; Fournier, A

    1994-01-01

    Stimulation of PTH secretion and synthesis in chronic renal failure involves direct and indirect factors. The indirect ones are those contributing to a decrease of plasma ionized calcium concentration which stimulates the release of PTH (1) primarily the negative calcium balance due to the iatrogenic reduction of dietary calcium intake associated with an inadequate synthesis of calcitriol, this latter being explained by a reduction in the nephronic mass, the phosphate retention, the acidosis and the retention of uremic toxins (2) more accessorily, the physicochemical dysequilibrium induced by the late occurring hyperphosphatemia. The factors acting directly on the parathyroid gland stimulating synthesis of prepro PTH at its transcription level: not only hypocalcitriolemia but also hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The clinicoradiological manifestations appear late, mostly only after the patient has been put on dialysis. The most precocious sign is the subperiosteal resorption assessed on the hand X-rays. Therefore diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism relies mainly on the measurement of plasma concentration of intact PTH. In dialysis patients the optimal range corresponding to the best bone histology is between 1 an 3 times the upper limit of normal. No such data exist for predialysis patients. Medical treatment of hyperparathyroidism should primarily be preventive, probably in predialysis lipin patient as soon as plasma intact PTH is greater than the normal upper limit. This treatment is based primarily on the prevention of phosphate retention, of negative calcium balance and acidosis by the use of oral alkaline salts of calcium given with the meals in association with appropriate dietary protein and phosphate restriction. Native vitamin D depletion should also be prevented but use of 1 alpha OH vitamin D3 metabolites in controversial: it is reasonable to administer them only when plasma intent PTH is above 3-7 the normal upper limit and when plasma phosphate is

  14. Assessment of renal insufficiency in patients with normal serum creatinine levels undergoing angiography.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Syed Hasnain; Ashraf, Tariq; Mahmood, Sumbal Nasir; Anjum, Qudsia

    2010-11-01

    To determine the frequency of patients with underlying renal insufficiency having normal serum creatinine level proceeding for coronary angiography. A total of 693 patients from September 2009 to February 2010 undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD) with normal serum creatinine < 1.5 mg/dl were selected. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated for each patient using the Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) equation and a GFR < 80 ml/min was labeled as renal insufficiency. The mean age of males was 51.86 +/- 10.19 years and 51.52 +/- 9.80 years for females. Almost one-third (n=236, 34.1%) of patients had GFR <80 ml/min; comparison between male (n=168, 31.2%) and female (n=68, 43.9%) was significant (p-value 0.003). Age group breakdown showed majority of patients (n=196; 83.05%) with GFR <80 ml/min ranged between 40-69 years (p-value 0.001). This study has shown that most of the patients with normal serum creatinine have abnormal GFR. Serum creatinine, which is considered to be an important screening test in patients with renal impairment, might remain in the normal range despite the renal function being significantly impaired. Therefore, GFR should be considered as an estimate of renal insufficiency, regardless of serum creatinine levels being in normal range.

  15. Anaemia in heart failure: a common interaction with renal insufficiency called the cardio-renal anaemia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palazzuoli, A; Gallotta, M; Iovine, F; Nuti, R; Silverberg, D S

    2008-02-01

    Although many studies have found a high prevalence of anaemia in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), few have carefully examined the relationship between the CHF and the prevalence of anaemia and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Patients with advanced renal failure, significant anaemia, diffuse atherosclerosis, respiratory disease and more elderly patients have been systematically excluded from the great majority of the randomised clinical trials. Both anaemia and renal insufficiency are very common associated diseases associated with increased mortality, morbidity and rate of hospitalisation in CHF patients. Impaired renal function is associated with adverse outcomes because it represents a marker of coexistent disease and more diffuse atherosclerosis. In patients with CHF, progressive renal dysfunction leads to a decrease in erythropoietin (EPO) levels with reduced erythrocyte production from bone marrow. This may explain the common association between CHF, anaemia and CRI in clinical practice. The normalisation of haemoglobin concentration by EPO in patients with CHF and CRI results in improved exercise capacity by increasing oxygen delivery and improving cardiac function. In this review, we describe the mechanisms linking anaemic status, CRI and CHF, the prognostic relevance of each disease, treatment implications, and potential benefit of EPO administration.

  16. Rapid deterioration of preexisting renal insufficiency after autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Seop; Lee, Jong-Hak; Kwon, Owen; Cho, Jang-Hee; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2017-06-01

    Administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to improve renal function and histological findings in acute kidney injury (AKI) models. However, its effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear, particularly in the clinical setting. Here, we report our experience with a CKD patient who was treated by intravenous infusion of autologous MSCs derived from adipose tissue in an unknown clinic outside of Korea. The renal function of the patient had been stable for several years before MSC administration. One week after the autologous MSC infusion, the preexisting renal insufficiency was rapidly aggravated without any other evidence of AKI. Hemodialysis was started 3 months after MSC administration. Renal biopsy findings at dialysis showed severe interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, with a few cells expressing CD34 and CD117, 2 surface markers of stem cells. This case highlights the potential nephrotoxicity of autologous MSC therapy in CKD patients.

  17. Safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide and intravascular ultrasound-guided stenting for renal artery stenosis in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Daizo; Fujii, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Masashi; Fukuda, Nobuhisa; Masuyama, Tohru; Ohkubo, Nobukazu; Kato, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of renal artery stenting using carbon dioxide (CO₂) digital subtraction angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for patients with renal insufficiency and significant atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS). Eighteen consecutive patients with chronic renal insufficiency underwent renal artery stenting under the guidance of CO₂ angiography and IVUS without contrast media. Renal function and blood pressure were assessed pre- and postintervention. A total of 27 de novo RAS in 18 patients (15 males; mean age: 72 ± 9 years) with renal insufficiency were treated by renal artery stenting with the combined use of the CO₂ angiography and IVUS without any procedural complications. Although the mean serum creatinine concentration preprocedure and 6 months after treatment did not change (2.7 ± 1.0-2.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL), blood pressure significantly decreased 6 months after stenting (158 ± 10-147 ± 11 mm Hg, P < .01).

  18. Uremic Leontiasis Ossea in a Patient With Chronic Renal Insufficiency Demonstrated on Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee

    2016-08-01

    A 37-year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency underwent bone scintigraphy to evaluate renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Markedly increased uptakes were shown in the maxilla and the mandible, which suggested extensive maxillary and mandibular hypertrophy. CT image revealed that diffuse bony thickening and ground-glass appearance in the skull, maxilla, and mandible with poor distinction of the corticomedullary junction. Whole-body bone scintigraphy images also demonstrated various skeletal characteristics of ROD. This case emphasizes the utility of bone scintigraphy for the surveillance of the whole body in ROD.

  19. [Chronic renal insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in rats. Biochemical and histological evaluation].

    PubMed

    Virgós, M J; Menéndez-Rodríguez, P; Serrano, M; González-Carcedo, A; Braga, S; Cannata, J B

    1993-12-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats (surgical nephrectomy, 5/6) as well as its derived bone lesions have been studied. Eighty-five male Wistar rats were used, to which chronic renal failure was induced in 1 or 2 surgical times, the parameters of renal function in basal conditions and at different times after surgery being determined. With the method used chronic renal failure is induced with values of creatinine clearance 2/3 times lower than the initial ones (p < 0.05), which stabilize at the 7th week. On the other hand the parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) in serum triple (from 125 +/- 49 to 395 +/- 191, p < 0.05), and a decrease in the tubular phosphate reabsorption is produced (p < 0.001). In bone histology an increase in resorption and bone formation is observed as well as paratrabecular fibrosis, all of which is compatible with the histological diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism. The model of surgical renal insufficiency with ablation of 5/6 of the renal mass, reduces renal function to 1/3 of the initial values after 7 weeks, this procedure having a 20% global mortality without differences being observed between the carrying out of nephrectomies in 1 or 2 surgical times. This degree of CRF was accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism both at the biochemical and histological levels, findings which are of great usefulness for future experimental studies.

  20. Lithium-induced renal insufficiency: a longitudinal study of creatinine increases in intellectually disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Buneviciute, Juste; Hu, Qiaoyan; Davis, John M

    2011-12-01

    Lithium has been shown to increase serum creatinine levels in a subgroup of patients. However, lithium-induced increases in serum creatinine have not been well studied with regard to timing, trajectory, or predictability. The medical records of 16 intellectually disabled individuals treated with lithium between 1980 and 2010 in whom serum creatinine levels peaked at 1.5 mg/100 mL or higher (ie, who developed renal insufficiency) were reviewed. These individuals were compared with a group of 36 similar lithium-treated individuals in whom serum creatinine did not reach 1.5 mg/100 mL. The 16 lithium-treated individuals who developed renal insufficiency had a mean peak serum creatinine level of 1.8 ± 0.3 mg/100 mL while on lithium. The mean time from institution of lithium until the 1.5 mg/100 mL serum creatinine level was first reached was 7.9 years. After lithium was discontinued, overall mean serum creatinine levels did not significantly change. Reaching a serum creatinine level of 1.3 or 1.4 mg/100 mL predicted reaching a 1.5 mg/100 mL level or higher. No significant differences in the age lithium was started, baseline serum creatinine levels, years receiving lithium, sex, or race differentiated those who developed renal insufficiency. Prescribing lithium led to elevated serum creatinine levels in some individuals. A serum creatinine level of 1.3 and/or 1.4 mg/100 mL predicted renal insufficiency. Clinical implications of this study are that if 1 serum creatinine result reaches 1.3 mg/100 mL or more, intensive monitoring for further increases is indicated.

  1. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in a tertiary cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Lucíola de Barros; Antunes, Yuri Philippe Pimentel Vieira; Bugano, Diogo Diniz Gomes; Karnakis, Theodora; del Giglio, Auro; Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with solid tumors. Methods A retrospective study with patients aged >65 years diagnosed with solid tumors between January 2007 and December 2011 in a cancer center. The following data were collected: sex, age, serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis and type of tumor. Renal function was calculated using abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae and then staged in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines published by the Working Group of the National Kidney Foundation. Results A total of 666 patients were included and 60% were male. The median age was 74.2 years (range: 65 to 99 years). The most prevalent diagnosis in the study population were colorectal (24%), prostate (20%), breast (16%) and lung cancer (16%). The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine (>1.0mg/dL) was 30%. However, when patients were assessed using abbreviated MDRD formulae, 66% had abnormal renal function, stratified as follows: 45% with stage 2, 18% with stage 3, 3% with stage 4 and 0.3% with stage 5. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to estimate the frequency of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in Brazil. The prevalence of abnormal renal function among our cohort was high. As suspected, the absolute creatinine level does underestimate renal function impairment and should not be used as predictor of chemotherapy metabolism, excretion and consequent toxicity. PMID:25295449

  2. Sevelamer hydrochloride, a phosphate binder, protects against deterioration of renal function in rats with progressive chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nobuo; Miyata, Sonoe; Obana, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Nami; Fukushima, Naoshi; Burke, Steven K; Wada, Michihito

    2003-10-01

    Dietary phosphate restriction prevents renal function deterioration in animal models. This study examined whether sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel(R); 'sevelamer' hereafter), a non-calcaemic phosphate binder could slow deterioration of renal function in rats with progressive renal insufficiency. Wistar Kyoto male rats were singly injected with normal rabbit serum or rabbit anti-rat glomerular basement membrane serum. Three days later, rats were fed a powder diet containing 0, 1 or 3% sevelamer for 58 days. Time course changes of serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured throughout, and creatinine clearance (CCr), kidney calcium content and renal histology examined at the end of the study. Sevelamer partially inhibited elevation of BUN and serum creatinine, and completely inhibited increases in serum phosphorus, PTH and calcium xphosphorus product. Sevelamer significantly prevented the decrease in CCr and kidney calcium content elevation. Kidney calcium content and BUN and serum creatinine were strongly positively correlated, and kidney calcium content and CCr strongly negatively correlated. Kidney calcium content correlated well with serum phosphorus, serum calcium x phosphorus product and PTH, but not serum calcium. Sevelamer treatment partly prevented histological deterioration of both glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions of the kidney. The results suggest that sevelamer protects against renal function deterioration by maintaining kidney calcium at a low level as a result of reducing serum phosphorus and PTH.

  3. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  4. Drug management of prostate cancer: prevalence and consequences of renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Ayllon, Jorge; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert; Oudard, Stéphane

    2009-10-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study reported a renal insufficiency (RI) prevalence of 50%-60% in a population of almost 5000 patients with solid tumors, 80% of whom were being treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. A national multicenter study from 15 cancer centers in France analyzed IRMA data on patients with prostate cancer. Data on patients with prostate cancer from the IRMA study were analyzed. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulas to estimate the prevalence of RI. Anticancer drugs' potential renal toxicity and need for dosage adjustment were detailed. Of the 222 IRMA patients with prostate cancer, 14.9% had a serum creatinine (SCr) level of > 110 micromol/L. When using Cockcroft-Gault and aMDRD formulas, 62.6% and 55.9%, respectively, of the patients had RI. Of the 228 anticancer drug prescriptions, 82.9% required dose adjustments for RI or were drugs with no available data on their administration in patients with RI. Of the patients treated, 86.9% received >or= 1 such drug, but only 29.1% received nephrotoxic drugs. The prevalence of RI in patients with prostate cancer was very high in spite of a normal SCr level in most cases. Some anticancer drugs, particularly some bisphosphonates and platinum salts, might be nephrotoxic and/or need dosage adjustment. However, other important drugs in prostate cancer, such as docetaxel, neither require dose reduction nor present with potential nephrotoxicity. Both issues were significantly more important in the patients with bone metastases compared with those with nonmetastatic disease.

  5. Renal outcome in adults with renal insufficiency and irregular asymmetric kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Guy H; Thomson, Gill; Nitsch, Dorothea; Woolfson, Robin G; Connolly, John O; Woodhouse, Christopher RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background The commonest cause of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in children and young adults is congenital malformation of the kidney and urinary tract. In this retrospective review, we examine whether progression to ESRF can be predicted and whether treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) can delay or prevent this. Methods We reviewed 78 patients with asymmetric irregular kidneys as a consequence of either primary vesico-ureteric reflux or renal dysplasia (Group 1, n = 44), or abnormal bladder function (Group 2, n = 34). Patients (median age 24 years) had an estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with at least 5 years of follow up (median 143 months). 48 patients received ACEI. We explored potential prognostic factors that affect the time to ESRF using Cox-regression analyses. Results At start, mean (SE) creatinine was 189 (8) μmol/l, mean eGFR 41 (1) ml/min 1.73 m2, mean proteinuria 144 (14) mg/mmol creatinine (1.7 g/24 hrs). Of 78 patients, 36 (46%) developed ESRF, but none of 19 with proteinuria less than 50 mg/mmol and only two of 18 patients with eGFR above 50 ml/min did so. Renal outcome between Groups 1 and 2 appeared similar with no evidence for a difference. A benefit in favour of treatment with ACEI was observed above an eGFR of 40 ml/min (p = 0.024). Conclusion The similar outcome of the two groups supports the nephrological nature of progressive renal failure in young men born with abnormal bladders. There is a watershed GFR of 40–50 ml/min at which ACEI treatment can be successful at improving renal outcome. PMID:15462683

  6. Antithrombin III/SerpinC1 insufficiency exacerbates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Guangyuan; Lu, Zeyuan; Geurts, Aron M; Usa, Kristie; Jacob, Howard J; Cowley, Allen W; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Antithrombin III, encoded by SerpinC1, is a major anti-coagulation molecule in vivo and has anti-inflammatory effects. We found that patients with low antithrombin III activities presented a higher risk of developing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. To study this further, we generated SerpinC1 heterozygous knockout rats and followed the development of acute kidney injury in a model of modest renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Renal injury, assessed by serum creatinine and renal tubular injury scores after 24 h of reperfusion, was significantly exacerbated in SerpinC1+/− rats compared to wild-type littermates. Concomitantly, renal oxidative stress, tubular apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration following this injury were significantly aggravated in SerpinC1+/− rats. However, significant thrombosis was not found in the kidneys of any group of rats. Antithrombin III is reported to stimulate the production of prostaglandin I2, a known regulator of renal cortical blood flow, in addition to having anti-inflammatory effects and to protect against renal failure. Prostaglandin F1α, an assayable metabolite of prostaglandin I2, was increased in the kidneys of the wild-type rats at 3 h after reperfusion. The increase of prostaglandin F1α was significantly blunted in SerpinC1+/− rats, which preceded increased tubular injury and oxidative stress. Thus, our study found a novel role of SerpinC1 insufficiency in increasing the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26108065

  7. Use of Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman A.; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Holmes, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Renal insufficiency (RI) has been shown to be associated with increased major adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. We reviewed the impact of RI on the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in the form of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in these high-risk patients. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus, and EBSCO Host research databases from 1990 through January 2009, using as search terms coronary revascularization, drug-eluting stent, and renal insufficiency. Studies that assessed DES implantation in patients with various degrees of RI were selected for review. Most of the available data were extracted from observational studies, and data from randomized trials formed the basis of a post hoc analysis. The outcomes after coronary revascularization were less favorable in patients with RI than in those with normal renal function. In patients with RI, DES implantation yielded better outcomes than did use of bare-metal stents. Randomized trials are needed to define optimal treatment of these high-risk patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:20118392

  8. Venous thromboembolism in patients with renal insufficiency: findings from the RIETE Registry.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Manuel; Falgá, Conxita; Valle, Reina; Barba, Raquel; Bosco, Juan; Beato, José Luís; Maestre, Ana

    2006-12-01

    Current guidelines make no specific recommendations for venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment in patients with renal insufficiency, but some experts recommend some reduction in heparin dose. Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) is an ongoing, prospective registry of consecutively enrolled patients with objectively confirmed, symptomatic, acute VTE. In this analysis we retrospectively analyzed the effect of renal insufficiency on the incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) and fatal bleeding within 15 days of diagnosis. Up to March 2005, 10,526 patients with acute VTE were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 9234 (88%) had a creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 60 mL/min, 704 (6.7%) had a CrCl 30 to 60 mL/min, and 588 (5.6%) had a CrCl less than 30 mL/min. The incidence of fatal PE during the study period was 1.0%, 2.6%, and 6.6%, respectively. Fatal bleeding occurred in 0.2%, 0.3%, and 1.2% of the patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with a CrCl less than 30 mL/min were independently associated with an increased risk for fatal PE and fatal bleeding. In addition, initial diagnosis of PE, immobility for 4 days or more, cancer, and initial therapy with unfractionated heparin were independent predictors of fatal PE; whereas immobility for 4 days or more and cancer were independent predictors of fatal bleeding. Patients with VTE who have renal insufficiency had an increased incidence of both fatal PE and fatal bleeding, but the risk of fatal PE far exceeded that of fatal bleeding. Our data support the use of full-dose anticoagulant therapy, even in patients with a CrCl less than 30 mL/min.

  9. [Cardiac effects of fenibut in development of experimental chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, A V; Barabanova, T A; Penchul, N A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fenibut on the mechanical activity of myocardium was studied in vitro and in vivo in rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) in a regime of physiologically alternating load simulating the intact heart function. The administration of fenibut (10 mg/kg) in rats after nephrectomy prevents the development of myocardial hyperfunction (characteristic of the animals with CRI in stage 1). In in vitro experiments on isolated myocardium fenibut also decreased the myocardial hyperfunction and reduced contractility to a control level, which was accompanied by accelerated relaxation in all finite systolic lengths.

  10. Treatment of pain in patients with renal insufficiency: the World Health Organization three-step ladder adapted.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Karie, Svetlana; Fau, Jean-Baptiste; Izzedine, Hassane; Deray, Gilbert

    2005-03-01

    The World Health Organization established official recommendations for managing pain in cancer patients. Since then, this stepladder approach has been widely adopted as a conceptual framework to treat all types of pain. However, those guidelines have not been critically evaluated for use in patients with renal insufficiency. In these patients, the questions of drug dosage adjustment and renal toxicity must be considered. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of major analgesic drugs and data on their use and/or behavior in renal failure and considers their potential nephrotoxicity. Finally, according to available data in the international literature on pharmacokinetics, recommendations for dosage adjustment in patients with renal failure, and their potential nephrotoxicity, the World Health Organization three-step ladder for the treatment of pain was modified and adapted for patients with impaired renal function. Perspective This well-known treatment strategy now adapted for use in patients with renal insufficiency should secure and rationalize pain treatment in those patients.

  11. Renal ammonia and glutamine metabolism during liver insufficiency-induced hyperammonemia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Dejong, C H; Deutz, N E; Soeters, P B

    1993-01-01

    Renal glutamine uptake and subsequent urinary ammonia excretion could be an important alternative pathway of ammonia disposal from the body during liver failure (diminished urea synthesis), but this pathway has received little attention. Therefore, we investigated renal glutamine and ammonia metabolism in midly hyperammonemic, portacaval shunted rats and severely hyperammonemic rats with acute liver ischemia compared to their respective controls, to investigate whether renal ammonia disposal from the body is enhanced during hyperammonemia and to explore the limits of the pathway. Renal fluxes, urinary excretion, and renal tissue concentrations of amino acids and ammonia were measured 24 h after portacaval shunting, and 2, 4, and 6 h after liver ischemia induction and in the appropriate controls. Arterial ammonia increased to 247 +/- 22 microM after portacaval shunting compared to controls (51 +/- 8 microM) (P < 0.001) and increased to 934 +/- 54 microM during liver ischemia (P < 0.001). Arterial glutamine increased to 697 +/- 93 microM after portacaval shunting compared to controls (513 +/- 40 microM) (P < 0.01) and further increased to 3781 +/- 248 microM during liver ischemia (P < 0.001). In contrast to controls, in portacaval shunted rats the kidney net disposed ammonia from the body by diminishing renal venous ammonia release (from 267 +/- 33 to -49 +/- 59 nmol/100 g body wt per min) and enhancing urinary ammonia excretion from 113 +/- 24 to 305 +/- 52 nmol/100 g body wt per min (both P < 0.01). Renal glutamine uptake diminished in portacaval shunted rats compared to controls (-107 +/- 33 vs. -322 +/- 41 nmol/100 g body wt per min) (P < 0.01). However, during liver ischemia, net renal ammonia disposal from the body did not further increase (294 +/- 88 vs. 144 +/- 101 nmol/100 g body wt per min during portacaval shunting versus liver ischemia). Renal glutamine uptake was comparable in both hyperammonemic models. These results indicate that the rat kidney plays

  12. [A case of sarcoidosis with hypercalcemia, urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Nunohiro, T; Aoi, W; Kadota, J; Ueda, Y; Takahara, O; Yura, M

    1992-08-01

    A sixty nine-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of further examination of hypercalcemia. On July 1990, she complained of general fatigue and loss of appetite. She was pointed out to have hypercalcemia (15.1mg/dl), urolithiasis, and renal insufficiency. CT films of the chest showed swelling of the mediastinal lymphnodes and CT of the abdomen nephrocalcinosis. Ga-scintigraphy demonstrated an abnormal accumulation of gallium in the mediastinum. Levels of the parathyroid hormone was normal. Levels of the serum calcium (13.7mg/dl), angiotensin converting enzyme (30.4IU/L) and 1.25 (OH)2D (87PG/ml) were elevated. Giant cells were found in the biopsy specimen of the lung. A significant relationship between the serum calcium and creatinine were observed (r = 0.76, p < 0.02). Proximal fractional reabsorption of sodium showed to be suppressed (47.7%), and distal fractional reabsorption of sodium showed to be normal (88.4%). From these findings hypercalcemia and urolithiasis was suggested to result from sarcoidosis. The hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency improved with corticosteroid therapy.

  13. Improved growth in young children with severe chronic renal insufficiency who use specified nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Parekh, R S; Flynn, J T; Smoyer, W E; Milne, J L; Kershaw, D B; Bunchman, T E; Sedman, A B

    2001-11-01

    Growth in children with chronic renal failure caused by polyuric, salt-wasting diseases may be hampered if ongoing sodium and water losses are not corrected. Twenty-four children were treated with polyuric chronic renal insufficiency (CRI; creatinine clearance <65 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) with low-caloric-density, high-volume, sodium-supplemented feedings. Subsequent growth was compared with that of children in two control groups: a national historic population control from the US Renal Data System database (n = 42), and a literature control (n = 12). Members of the three groups were 81 to 96% white, and 58 to 70% were boys. Obstructive uropathy and dysplasia were the cause of CRI in 92% of the treatment group, 75% of the literature control group, and 30% of the population control group. Treatment effect was assessed in a multivariate, retrospective analysis of the height standard deviation score (SDS), simultaneously controlling for the severity of disease by renal replacement therapy, primary cause of CRI, and initial height SDS. The change in SDS (Delta SDS) for height by regression analysis at 1 yr was significantly greater by +1.37 in the treatment group versus the population control (P = 0.017). The 2-yr height Delta SDS by regression analysis adjusted for creatinine clearance was significantly greater by +1.83 in the treatment group versus the literature control (P = 0.003). Nutritional support with sodium and water supplementation can maintain or improve the growth of children with polyuric, salt-wasting CRI. This inexpensive intervention may delay the need for renal replacement therapy, growth hormone treatment, or both in many of these children and may be used in any clinical setting.

  14. Prognostic Value of Pre-operative Renal Insufficiency in Urothelial Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Zhao, Xiaokun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xuan; Xu, Ran

    2016-01-01

    The effect of pre-operative renal insufficiency on urothelial carcinoma (UC) prognosis has been investigated by numerous studies. While the majority report worse UC outcomes in patients with renal insufficiency, the results between the studies differed wildly. To enable us to better estimate the prognostic value of renal insufficiency on UC, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on the published literature. A total of 16 studies which involved 5,232 patients with UC, investigated the relationship between pre-operative renal insufficiency and disease prognosis. Estimates of combined hazard ratio (HR) for bladder urothelial carcinoma recurrence, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.65 (95% CI, 1.11–2.19), 1.59 (95% CI, 1.14–2.05) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19–1.71), respectively; and for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma recurrence, CSS and OS were 2.27 (95% CI, 1.42–3.12), 1.02 (95% CI, 0.47–1.57) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.05–1.99), respectively. Our results indicate that UC patients with pre-operative renal insufficiency tend to have higher recurrence rates and poorer survival compared to those with clinically normal renal function, thus renal function should be closely monitored in these patients. The impact of intervention for renal insufficiency on the prognosis of UC needs to be further studied. PMID:27725745

  15. Retinopathy and Chronic Kidney Disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Alexander, Judith; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; McWilliams, Kathleen; Lo, Joan C.; Go, Alan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Lash, James P.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Xie, Dawei; Jaar, Bernard G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Retinal vascular and anatomic abnormalities caused by diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions can be observed directly in the ocular fundus and may reflect severity of chronic renal insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between retinopathy and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, 2605 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multi-center study of CKD, were offered participation. Non-mydriatic fundus photographs of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained in 1936 of these subjects. Photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center using standard protocols. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed by trained graders and a retinal specialist using protocols developed for large epidemiologic studies. Kidney function measurements and information on traditional and non-traditional risk factors for decreased kidney function were obtained from the CRIC study. Results Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower eGFR. We found no strong direct relationship between eGFR and average arteriolar or venular calibers. Conclusions Our findings show a strong association between severity of retinopathy and its features and level of kidney function after adjustment for traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CKD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease. PMID:22965589

  16. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in breast cancer patients and related pharmacological issues.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Gligorov, Joseph; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Deray, Gilbert; Beuzeboc, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study is a French national, observational study which demonstrated the high prevalence of abnormal renal function in a population of 4,684 solid tumour patients. Among them, 50-60% had decreased renal function defined as CrCl below 90 and 80% were treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment in case of RI or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Since patients and drugs used differ depending on the type of tumour, the IRMA Study Group started analyses in different subgroups of patients. In the 1898 IRMA patients with breast cancer, the prevalence of RI was still very high in spite of a normal serum creatinine in almost all cases. Some anticancer drugs, as in particular some bisphosphonates, capecitabine and platinum salts, may be nephrotoxic and/or need dosage adjustment. However other important drugs in breast cancer do not require dose reduction, and do not present with potential nephrotoxicity (anthracyclines, taxanes, trastuzumab). Both issues seem to be slightly but significantly more important in patients with bone metastases as compared to patients with a non-metastatic disease.

  17. Baseline renal insufficiency and risk of death among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Kruse, Gina; Lakhi, Shabir; Cantrell, Ronald A.; Reid, Stewart E.; Zulu, Isaac; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Krishnasami, Zipporah; Mwinga, Alwyn; Saag, Michael S.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between baseline renal insufficiency and mortality among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in urban African setting. Design Open cohort evaluation Methods We examined mortality according to baseline renal function among adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Renal function was assessed by the Cockcroft-Gault method, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, and serum creatinine. Results From April 2004 to September 2007, 25,779 individuals started ART with an available creatinine measurement at baseline. When creatinine clearance was calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault method, 8,456 (33.5%) had renal insufficiency: 73.5% were mild (60-89 mL/min), 23.4% moderate (30-59 mL/min), and 3.1% severe (<30 mL/min). Risk for mortality at or before 90 days was elevated for those with mildly (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.7; 95%CI=1.5-1.9), moderately (AHR=2.3; 95%CI=2.0-2.7), and severely (AHR=4.1; 95%CI=3.1-5.5) reduced creatinine clearance. Mild (AHR=1.4; 95%CI=1.2-1.6), moderate (AHR=1.9; 95%CI=1.5-2.3), and severe (AHR=3.6; 95%CI=2.4-5.5) insufficiency were also associated with increased mortality after 90 days, when compared to those with normal renal function. Trends were similar when renal function was estimated with MDRD or serum creatinine. Conclusions Renal insufficiency at time of ART initiation was prevalent and associated with increased mortality risk among adults in this population. These results have particular relevance for settings like Zambia, where tenofovir - a drug with known nephrotoxicity - has been adopted as part of first-line therapy. This emphasizes the need for resource-appropriate screening algorithms for renal disease, both as part of ART eligibility and pre-treatment assessment. PMID:18753939

  18. Subjective global assessment of nutritional status of patients with chronic renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tapiawala, Shruti; Vora, H; Patel, Zamrud; Badve, S; Shah, B

    2006-12-01

    (1)To assess the nutritional status of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and dialysis patients using the subjective global assessment (SGA) method. (2) To validate SGA in assessing the nutritional status of this group of patients. The nutritional status of 81 patients was evaluated using dietary recall, anthropometry, biochemical parameters and SGA. There were 51 males and 30 females. Their mean +/- SD age was 53.8 +/- 14.3 years. There were 27 patients with (CRI) on conservative management, 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 16 patients with ESRD on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). SGA was done using seven variables derived from medical history and physical examination. Each variable was scored from 1-7 depending on the severity. The SGA scores were correlated with the standard methods. Thirteen (48%) patients with CRI, 22 (58%) patients on HD and 8 (50%) patients on CAPD were malnourished. It was seen that the dietary protein & calorie intake and serum albumin level did not correlate well with the SGA scores. The anthropometric measures correlated with the SGA scores (Skinfolds and SGA r = 0.2, MAC and SGA r = 0.5 and MAMC and SGA r = 0.5). Malnutrition is an important complication in CRI patients and ESRD patients on dialysis. SGA is a reliable method of assessing nutritional status. Most important is the fact that it can detect the changing trend of nutritional status, which may be missed by one-time anthropometry and biochemical methods.

  19. [Care in situation of severe renal insufficiency: social representations elaborated by adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Islane Costa; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in relation to care in situation of Severe Renal Insufficiency. It was applied the test of free association of words to 70 teenagers and interview semi-structured with eight teenagers. It was evoked 1630 words from the stimulus disease, health, dialysis, care of oneself, professional care and familiar care. From the interviews it was constructed two thematic cores that bring meanings about the familiar care and professional care that influence in ways of notice and act in relation to care to health. It concluded that social representation of teenager focuses the meanings of sickening and care, marked by linking among the practices of care and psycho-affective and social relations impregnated in their living.

  20. Usefulness of rotational spin for coronary angiography in patients with advanced renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Niederst, Pierre N; Dahm, Johannes B

    2002-08-15

    Coronary angiography in patients with advanced renal insufficiency is typically restricted to cases of life-threatening circumstances such as acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina. To gather a large amount of visual information with a minimum number of cine runs, and consequently, with a minimum volume of contrast medium, we rotated the gantry at 40 degrees /s throughout an angle of 120 degrees, from the right toward the left anterior oblique positions. This technique of rotational spin during cinegraphic runs has not yet become established in invasive cardiology. Three experienced cardiologists independently evaluated all coronary segments in rotational versus standard coronary angiography modes for 15 patients, on the basis of an 11-point scale (0 = cardiac spin far better to 10 = standard mode far better). A score of 5 signified that there was no difference in quality between the 2 modes. The arithmetic mean of the assessment values was 4.9 +/- 0.3 for coronary segments, 5.4 +/- 1.3 for coronary lesions, 5.1 +/- 1.4 for bifurcations, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 for coronary flow. The arithmetic means for the volume of contrast medium (25 +/- 4 ml), for the overall dose area product (8.6 +/- 4.5 Gy x cm(2)), and for the number of cine graphic frames (203 +/- 65) for a diagnostic cardiac spin were significantly below published typical values in standard mode. Cardiac spin enables 3-dimensional coronary impression under conditions of adequate image quality and represents a new, useful, and beneficial method in invasive cardiology for applications involving the special indication of advanced renal insufficiency.

  1. Role of Soluble ST2 as a Prognostic Marker in Patients with Acute Heart Failure and Renal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seok; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Han, Seung-Bong; Min, Won-Ki; Kim, Jae-Joong

    2015-05-01

    This study sought to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of the soluble ST2 (sST2) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and investigate the role of sST2 as a prognosticator in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) and renal insufficiency. sST2 was measured at admission and discharge in 66 patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) using a high sensitivity immunoassay. BNP was sampled at the same time and compared to sST2. Demographical, biochemical, and echocardiographic data were also obtained during hospitalization.There were positive correlations between sST2 and BNP levels at admission (r = 0.330, P = 0.007) and at discharge (r = 0.320, P = 0.009) in overall patients. However, there was no correlation between them at each timepoint in patients with severe renal insufficiency (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), n = 17). sST2 level was not changed with the degree of renal function, even though BNP level was much higher in patients with severe renal insufficiency. During 3 month follow-up, 9 (13.6%) died and 16 (24.2%) were readmitted due to HF aggravation.On multivariate analysis, sST2 at discharge was independently associated with death or HF readmission during 3 months after discharge (hazard ratio, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.066, P = 0.006). In conclusion, sST2 is not affected by renal function compared with BNP in acute HF patients. The measurement of predischarge sST2 can be helpful in predicting short-term outcomes in acute decompensated HF patients with renal insufficiency.

  2. Influence of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cicletanine and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and prostanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, N; Geoffroy, J; Pozet, N; Cuisinaud, G; Benzoni, D; Zech, P Y; Sassard, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The kinetics of a single oral dose (300 mg) of cicletanine a new antihypertensive drug with diuretic properties, and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and of the major stable metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were studied in patients with normal renal function (n = 6), mild (n = 9) and severe (n = 10) renal insufficiency. 2. In normotensive subjects with normal renal function, cicletanine was rapidly and regularly absorbed, its apparent elimination half-life established around 7 h, and both its renal clearance (0.4 ml min-1) and its cumulative renal excretion (0.85% of the administered dose), were low. Mild renal insufficiency did not significantly alter these parameters, while severe renal impairment reduced the renal clearance and the cumulative urinary excretion of cicletanine and increased its apparent elimination half-life (31 h). However the area under the plasma curve was not changed due to reduced plasma concentrations in these patients. 3. Cicletanine induced a rapid and marked (four fold as a mean) increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and potassium which lasted for 6 to 10 h, in subjects with normal renal function. Renal insufficiency did not alter the slope of the calculated plasma concentration-effects curves but reduced the maximum effect observed for water, sodium and potassium. 4. A single oral dose of cicletanine did not change the urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the three groups of patients studied, the basal values of which being found to be closely related to the creatinine clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358898

  3. Retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Alexander, Judith; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; McWilliams, Kathleen; Lo, Joan C; Go, Alan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Lash, James P; Fink, Jeffrey C; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei; Jaar, Bernard G

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association between retinopathy and chronic kidney disease. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 2605 patients of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multicenter study of chronic kidney disease, were offered participation. Nonmydriatic fundus photographs of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained in 1936 of these subjects. The photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center using standard protocols. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed by trained graders and a retinal specialist using protocols developed for large epidemiologic studies. Kidney function measurements and information on traditional and nontraditional risk factors for decreased kidney function were obtained from the CRIC study. Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate after adjustment for traditional and nontraditional risk factors. The presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. We found no strong direct relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate and average arteriolar or venular calibers. Our findings show a strong association between severity of retinopathy and its features and level of kidney function after adjustment for traditional and nontraditional risk factors for chronic kidney disease, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease.

  4. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of benazepril in the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency in cats.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Hisashi; Koyama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Nakano, Masakazu; Kajiwara, Keita; King, Jonathan N

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is a common disease in cats. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have beneficial effects in humans with CRI by reducing the loss of protein in the urine and increasing life expectancy. The ACEI benazepril has beneficial effects on survival, clinical variables, or both as compared with placebo in cats with CRI. 61 cats with naturally occurring CRI. The cats were enrolled into a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cats received placebo or 0.5-1 mg/kg benazepril once daily for up to 6 months. Urine protein/urine creatinine ratios were significantly (P < .05) lower with benazepril as compared with placebo at days 120 and 180. Three cats with placebo and 1 cat with benazepril were removed prematurely from the study because of deterioration of CRI or death. Cats were classified into 4 stages of CRI according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) classification scheme. Incidence rates of cats with IRIS classification stage 2 or stage 3 that remained in stage 2 or 3 without progressing to stage 4 were higher with benazepril (93 +/- 5%) as compared with placebo (73 +/- 13%). These results suggest a potential for benazepril to delay the progression of disease, extend survival time, or both in cats with CRI.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous cefetamet and oral cefetamet pivoxil in patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kneer, J; Tam, Y K; Blouin, R A; Frey, F J; Keller, E; Stathakis, C; Luginbuehl, B; Stoeckel, K

    1989-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefetamet after a short intravenous infusion of cefetamet (515 mg) and oral administration of 1,000 mg of cefetamet pivoxil were studied in 9 healthy subjects and in 38 patients with various degrees of renal impairment. The results showed that cefetamet elimination was dependent on renal function. After intravenous dosing, total body (CLS), renal (CLR), and nonrenal (CLNR) clearances were linearly related to creatinine clearance (CLCR; r = 0.95, 0.92, and 0.59, respectively). Elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) was prolonged from 2.46 +/- 0.33 h in normal subjects to 29.1 +/- 13.9 h in patients with CLCR of less than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Correspondingly, CLS and CLR decreased from 1.77 +/- 0.27 and 1.42 +/- 0.25 ml/min per kg to 0.14 +/- 0.04 and 0.04 +/- 0.03 ml/min per kg, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state (0.298 +/- 0.049 liter/kg) for cefetamet was not altered by renal insufficiency (P greater than 0.05). After oral administration, the elimination parameters, t1/2 beta and CLR, were insignificantly different from the intravenous data (P greater than 0.05). Furthermore, the bioavailability (F) of cefetamet pivoxil (45 +/- 13%) was not altered by renal failure (P greater than 0.05). However, maximum concentration in plasma and the time to achieve this value were significantly increased (5.86 +/- 0.74 versus 14.8 +/- 6.14 micrograms/ml and 3.9 +/- 1.1 versus 8.4 +/- 1.7 h, respectively; P less than 0.05). Based on these observations, it is recommended that patients with CLcr of <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and between 10 and 39 ml/min per 1.73 m2 be given one-quarter of the normal daily dose either once or twice daily. Patients with CLcr between 40 and 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2 should receive one-half of the normal dose twice daily. For patients with CLcr of <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2, it would be recommended that they receive a normal standard dose as a loading dose on day 1 of treatment.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous cefetamet and oral cefetamet pivoxil in patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, J; Tam, Y K; Blouin, R A; Frey, F J; Keller, E; Stathakis, C; Luginbuehl, B; Stoeckel, K

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefetamet after a short intravenous infusion of cefetamet (515 mg) and oral administration of 1,000 mg of cefetamet pivoxil were studied in 9 healthy subjects and in 38 patients with various degrees of renal impairment. The results showed that cefetamet elimination was dependent on renal function. After intravenous dosing, total body (CLS), renal (CLR), and nonrenal (CLNR) clearances were linearly related to creatinine clearance (CLCR; r = 0.95, 0.92, and 0.59, respectively). Elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) was prolonged from 2.46 +/- 0.33 h in normal subjects to 29.1 +/- 13.9 h in patients with CLCR of less than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Correspondingly, CLS and CLR decreased from 1.77 +/- 0.27 and 1.42 +/- 0.25 ml/min per kg to 0.14 +/- 0.04 and 0.04 +/- 0.03 ml/min per kg, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state (0.298 +/- 0.049 liter/kg) for cefetamet was not altered by renal insufficiency (P greater than 0.05). After oral administration, the elimination parameters, t1/2 beta and CLR, were insignificantly different from the intravenous data (P greater than 0.05). Furthermore, the bioavailability (F) of cefetamet pivoxil (45 +/- 13%) was not altered by renal failure (P greater than 0.05). However, maximum concentration in plasma and the time to achieve this value were significantly increased (5.86 +/- 0.74 versus 14.8 +/- 6.14 micrograms/ml and 3.9 +/- 1.1 versus 8.4 +/- 1.7 h, respectively; P less than 0.05). Based on these observations, it is recommended that patients with CLcr of <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and between 10 and 39 ml/min per 1.73 m2 be given one-quarter of the normal daily dose either once or twice daily. Patients with CLcr between 40 and 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2 should receive one-half of the normal dose twice daily. For patients with CLcr of <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2, it would be recommended that they receive a normal standard dose as a loading dose on day 1 of treatment. PMID:2610506

  8. Blood pressure control in patients with chronic renal insufficiency in Spain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marín, Rafael; Fernández-Vega, Francisco; Gorostidi, Manuel; Ruilope, Luis M; Díez, Javier; Praga, Manuel; Herrero, Pablo; Alcázar, Jose M; Laviades, Concepción; Aranda, Pedro

    2006-02-01

    Despite therapeutic advances, strict control of hypertension remains elusive in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). The present study was designed for assessment of control rates of blood pressure in patients with CRI. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the control rates of proteinuria and cardiovascular comorbidities. A multicenter and cross-sectional survey of unselected patients with CRI attending outpatient nephrology clinics in Spain between April and September 2003 was performed. Fifty-two centers recruited 2501 patients with a mean age 64.8 years (65.7% men). The prevalence of previous cardiovascular disease was 55%. The two most prevalent renal diseases were vascular (38.9%) and diabetic nephropathy (20.1%). Blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg was observed in 435 patients (17.4%). A poor blood pressure control was associated with older age, greater proteinuria and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Proteinuria less than 0.5 g/day was observed in 1209 cases (48.3%). A total of 1899 patients (75.9%) were receiving drugs suppressing the activity of the renin-angiotensin system and 1048 patients (41.9%) were being treated with three or more antihypertensive drugs. Lipid-lowering agents and antiplatelet therapy were used in 49.3 and 38.1% of patients, respectively. The control rate of blood pressure in patients with CRI is inadequate despite frequent use of combination therapy that most commonly included an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Greater emphasis should be made to increase the number and dose of antihypertensive drugs and the need for using a statin as well as antiplatelet therapy in order to improve renal and cardiovascular outcomes.

  9. Association of Chronic Renal Insufficiency With In-Hospital Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tanush; Paul, Neha; Kolte, Dhaval; Harikrishnan, Prakash; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Wilbert S; Mujib, Marjan; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Sule, Sachin; Jain, Diwakar; Ahmed, Ali; Cooper, Howard A; Frishman, William H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of chronic renal insufficiency with outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the current era of drug-eluting stents and modern antithrombotic therapy has not been well characterized. Methods and Results We queried the 2007–2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years who underwent PCI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital outcomes among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and those without CKD or ESRD. Of 3 187 404 patients who underwent PCI, 89% had no CKD/ESRD; 8.6% had CKD; and 2.4% had ESRD. Compared to patients with no CKD/ESRD, patients with CKD and patients with ESRD had higher in-hospital mortality (1.4% versus 2.7% versus 4.4%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio for CKD 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.19, P<0.001; adjusted odds ratio for ESRD 2.29, 95% CI 2.19 to 2.40, P<0.001), higher incidence of postprocedure hemorrhage (3.5% versus 5.4% versus 6.0%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio for CKD 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.23, P<0.001; adjusted odds ratio for ESRD 1.27, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.32, P<0.001), longer average length of stay (2.9 days versus 5.0 days versus 6.4 days, respectively; P<0.001), and higher average total hospital charges ($60 526 versus $77 324 versus $97 102, respectively; P<0.001). Similar results were seen in subgroups of patients undergoing PCI for acute coronary syndrome or stable ischemic heart disease. Conclusions In patients undergoing PCI, chronic renal insufficiency is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, higher postprocedure hemorrhage, longer average length of stay, and higher average hospital charges. PMID:26080814

  10. Clinical effect of trimetazidine on prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Haili; Su, Qiang; Guo, Wenqin; Dai, Weiran; Li, Hongqing; Yang, Huafeng; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: With the continuous development of cardiac interventional medicine, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is increasing every year, which is a serious threat to people's physical and mental health. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a type of anti-ischemic drug developed in recent years, which can significantly reduce the incidence of CIN. At present, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical effect of TMZ on prevention of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency. However, the study did not include patients from other countries and speaking different languages. So we conducted this study to update the previous meta-analysis that investigated the effects of TMZ on prevention of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency, and provided some theoretical reference for clinical. Methods: By searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, VIP database, and Wang Fang database for randomized controlled trial, which is comparing TMZ versus conventional hydration for prevention of CIN. Two researchers independently screened literature, and then evaluated the quality of literature and extracted the relevant data. Stata 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Finally, this updated review showed that 3 studies that were not included in the previous meta-analysis were included in our study (3 articles were published in the Chinese Journal, 1 study for CIN, 1 study for CIN, serum creatinine (Scr), and superoxide dismutase, 1 study for CIN and Scr), and 1 outcome (Scr) reflecting the change of renal function was additionally included in our study. Of the 932 studies, 6 randomized controlled trials met the criteria, including 377 patients in TMZ group and 387 patients in control group. This meta-analysis for all studies showed that TMZ can significantly reduce the incidence of CIN (relative risk 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16, 0.46, P = 0.000), and can decrease the level

  11. Nitrofurantoin safety and effectiveness in treating acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency: antibiotic stewardship implications.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Cunha, C B; Lam, B; Giuga, J; Chin, J; Zafonte, V F; Gerson, S

    2017-02-02

    Nitrofurantoin remains a key oral antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) option in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli (GNB). However, there have been concerns regarding decreased nitrofurantoin efficacy with renal insufficiency. In our experience over the past three decades, nitrofurantoin has been safe and effective in treating AUC in hospitalized adults with renal insufficiency. Accordingly, we retrospectively reviewed our recent experience treating AUC in hospitalized adults with decreased renal function (CrCl < 60 ml/min) with nitrofurantoin. Excluded were complicated urinary tract infections. Urinary isolated susceptibility testing was done by micro broth dilution (MBD). Treatment duration was 5-7 days. Cure was defined as eradication of the uropathogen and failure was defined as minimal/no decrease in urine colony counts. Of 26 evaluable patients with renal insufficiency (CrCl < 60 ml/min), nitrofurantoin eradicated the uropathogen in 18/26 (69%) of patients, and failed in 8/26 (31%). Of the eight failures, five were due to intrinsically resistant uropathogens, e.g., Proteus sp., and one failure was related to an alkaline urine. Of the treatment failures, only two were due to renal insufficiency, i.e., CrCl < 30 ml/min. Since there are few oral antibiotics available to treat AUC due to MDR GNB uropathogens, these results have important ASP implications. Currently, nitfurantoin is not recommended if CrCl < 60 ml/min. In our experience, used appropriately against susceptible uropathogens, nitrofurantoin was highly effective in nearly all patients with CrCl = 30-60 ml/min., and only failed in two patients due to renal insufficiency (CrCl < 30 ml/ml).

  12. Assessment of renal insufficiency in gestational proteinuric hypertension in third trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Khatun, A; Latifa, S; Shahla, K; Anowara, B; Suhrab, A; Rashid, H U; Ullah, Sakhawat

    2003-12-01

    This prospective study on assessment of renal insufficiency in pregnancy induced proteinuric hypertension was carried out on 104 cases, in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (former IPGM&R), Dhaka during period of August 1997 to September 1998. The objective of this study, to find out the impairment of renal function in mild (<110 mmHg) and severe (>110 mmHg) hypertension. The frequency of mild hypertension was 96.29% and severe hypertension was 3.71% in third trimester of pregnancy. In this study mean age of the patient was 26.53+/-3.9 years, mean gestional age was 36.46+/-1.93 weeks and mean diastolic BP was 99.07 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was more in primigravida which was (72.23%) than multigravida (27.77%). Proteinuria was diagnosed as quantitative measurement of 24 hour urinary protein in photometric colorometer. The mean value of total urinary protein was 335+/-74.14 mg/24 hour (range 280-800 mg/24) hour). 1+Oedema was present in 48.14%, 2+ was 12.96% and 3+ was 14.81% of cases. There is a correlation of proteinuric hypertension with renal function which was done on the basis of laboratory investigations. Findings of parameters of renal function found to declined: Serum creatinine mean value 1.0+/-0.14 (P<0.001) (normal range 0.6-0.8 mg/dl.), Urinary creatinine mean 57.69+/-12 mg/dl., Creatinine clearance mean 53.72+/-11.63 ml/min, Total urinary protein mean 335.52+/-74.14 mg/24 hour. Total urinary volume mean 2985+/-49 ml/24 hr. All the patients and their babies were followed up till discharge from hospital. Cesarean section was done in 76% of cases and vaginal delivery was done in 24% cases. Mean hospital stay was prolonged in proteinuric hypertension 7+/-1 days than non proteinuric normotensive goup 3+/-1 days. All of those were average socio-economic status. Extreme low birth weight was 14.81% in 50% of IUGR cases.

  13. [Vitamin D-related progressive renal insufficiency in an elderly patient with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism associated with extensive brain calcification].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    We present a 76-year-old female patient with dementia who has postsurgical hypoparathyroidism associated with extensive brain calcification and progressive renal insufficiency. She had been treated with vitamin D combined with calcium or vitamin D alone due to hypoparathyroidism for 8 years. However, intermittent hypercalcemia including hypercalcemic crisis (serum Ca 15.2 mg/dL) and progressive renal dysfunction had developed. This patient was transferred to our long-term care hospital because of worsening dementia. Since laboratory data at admission revealed hypercalcemia and azotemia, alfacalcidol (1 microg/day) was discontinued. However, severe hypocalcemia (3.9 mg/dL) occurred later, while her azotemia was improved. With a low dose of alfacalcidol(0.25 microg/day), the serum calcium level is now below normal (approximately 7.0 mg/dL). There is neither hypocalcemic symptom nor exacerbation of renal insufficiency. From the clinical history of recurrent hypercalcemic episodes and renal calculi observed on computed tomography, the progression of renal insufficiency was considered to be related to persistent hypercalciuria caused by vitamin D and calcium, especially vitamin D therapy.

  14. Genome-Wide Association of CKD Progression: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Afshin; Kanetsky, Peter A; Xiao, Rui; Gupta, Jayanta; Mitra, Nandita; Limou, Sophie; Xie, Dawei; Xu, Huichun; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Ojo, Akinlolu; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang; Sandholm, Niina; Jeff, Janina; Raj, Dominic E; Böger, Carsten A; Bottinger, Erwin; Salimi, Shabnam; Parekh, Rulan S; Adler, Sharon G; Langefeld, Carl D; Bowden, Donald W; Groop, Per-Henrik; Forsblom, Carol; Freedman, Barry I; Lipkowitz, Michael; Fox, Caroline S; Winkler, Cheryl A; Feldman, Harold I

    2017-03-01

    The rate of decline of renal function varies significantly among individuals with CKD. To understand better the contribution of genetics to CKD progression, we performed a genome-wide association study among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Our outcome of interest was CKD progression measured as change in eGFR over time among 1331 blacks and 1476 whites with CKD. We stratified all analyses by race and subsequently, diabetes status. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed a significance threshold of P<1×10(-6) for association with eGFR slope were selected as candidates for follow-up and secondarily tested for association with proteinuria and time to ESRD. We identified 12 such SNPs among black patients and six such SNPs among white patients. We were able to conduct follow-up analyses of three candidate SNPs in similar (replication) cohorts and eight candidate SNPs in phenotype-related (validation) cohorts. Among blacks without diabetes, rs653747 in LINC00923 replicated in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort (discovery P=5.42×10(-7); replication P=0.039; combined P=7.42×10(-9)). This SNP also associated with ESRD (hazard ratio, 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.7); P=4.90×10(-6)). Similarly, rs931891 in LINC00923 associated with eGFR decline (P=1.44×10(-4)) in white patients without diabetes. In summary, SNPs in LINC00923, an RNA gene expressed in the kidney, significantly associated with CKD progression in individuals with nondiabetic CKD. However, the lack of equivalent cohorts hampered replication for most discovery loci. Further replication of our findings in comparable study populations is warranted.

  15. Phosphate Binding with Sevelamer Preserves Mechanical Competence of Bone Despite Acidosis in Advanced Experimental Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jokihaara, Jarkko; Pörsti, Ilkka H.; Sievänen, Harri; Kööbi, Peeter; Kannus, Pekka; Niemelä, Onni; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Järvinen, Teppo L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phosphate binding with sevelamer can ameliorate detrimental histomorphometric changes of bone in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Here we explored the effects of sevelamer-HCl treatment on bone strength and structure in experimental CRI. Methods Forty-eight 8-week-old rats were assigned to surgical 5/6 nephrectomy (CRI) or renal decapsulation (Sham). After 14 weeks of disease progression, the rats were allocated to untreated and sevelamer-treated (3% in chow) groups for 9 weeks. Then the animals were sacrificed, plasma samples collected, and femora excised for structural analysis (biomechanical testing, quantitative computed tomography). Results Sevelamer-HCl significantly reduced blood pH, and final creatinine clearance in the CRI groups ranged 30%-50% of that in the Sham group. Final plasma phosphate increased 2.4- to 2.9-fold, and parathyroid hormone 13- to 21-fold in CRI rats, with no difference between sevelamer-treated and untreated animals. In the femoral midshaft, CRI reduced cortical bone mineral density (-3%) and breaking load (-15%) (p<0.05 for all versus Sham), while sevelamer increased bone mineral density (+2%) and prevented the deleterious changes in bone. In the femoral neck, CRI reduced bone mineral density (-11%) and breaking load (-10%), while sevelamer prevented the decrease in bone mineral density (+6%) so that breaking load did not differ from controls. Conclusions In this model of stage 3–4 CRI, sevelamer-HCl treatment ameliorated the decreases in femoral midshaft and neck mineral density, and restored bone strength despite prevailing acidosis. Therefore, treatment with sevelamer can efficiently preserve mechanical competence of bone in CRI. PMID:27658028

  16. Evaluation of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of bilastine in subjects with various degrees of renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Lasseter, Kenneth C; Sologuren, Ander; La Noce, Anna; Dilzer, Stacy C

    2013-09-01

    Bilastine is a novel second-generation H1 antihistamine, which has not shown sedative or cardiotoxic effects in clinical trials and in post-marketing experience so far, developed for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It has recently been granted marketing authorization for these therapeutic indications in adults and adolescents at a once-daily oral dose of 20 mg in several European countries. This study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics of bilastine at a single oral dose of 20 mg in renally impaired subjects. The need for a dose adjustment in patients with renal insufficiency was assessed by comparing the exposure to bilastine in these subjects with the estimated exposure of a dose corresponding to the safety margin. The study was an open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study of the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of bilastine. The study was conducted as an in-patient setting at a clinical pharmacology facility. A total of 24 male or female subjects aged 18-80 years were to be enrolled in four groups of six subjects each. The groups were as follows: (1) healthy [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]; (2) mild renal insufficiency (GFR 50-80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); (3) moderate renal insufficiency (GFR 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); and (4) severe renal insufficiency (GFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). A single 20 mg bilastine tablet was administered in a fasted state. Blood and urine samples were collected from pre-dose up to 72 h post-dose for bilastine pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic results were summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. There was a clear trend of increasing area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) through the groups 1-4. The mean AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) ranged from 737.4 to 1708.5 ng·h/mL in healthy subjects and severely impaired subjects, respectively. No significant differences among

  17. Current evidence on treatment of patients with chronic systolic heart failure and renal insufficiency: practical considerations from published data.

    PubMed

    Damman, Kevin; Tang, W H Wilson; Felker, G Michael; Lassus, Johan; Zannad, Faiez; Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J V

    2014-03-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly prevalent in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Therefore, evidence-based therapies are more and more being used in patients with some degree of renal dysfunction. However, most pivotal randomized clinical trials specifically excluded patients with (severe) renal dysfunction. The benefit of these evidence-based therapies in this high-risk patient group is largely unknown. This paper reviews data from randomized clinical trials in systolic heart failure and the interactions between baseline renal dysfunction and the effect of randomized treatment. It highlights that most evidence-based therapies show consistent outcome benefit in patients with moderate renal insufficiency (stage 3 CKD), whereas there are very scarce data on patients with severe (stage 4 to 5 CKD) renal insufficiency. If any, the outcome benefit might be even greater in stage 3 CKD compared with those with relatively preserved renal function. However, prescription of therapies should be individualized with consideration of possible harm and benefit, especially in those with stage 4 to 5 CKD where limited data are available.

  18. Depressive Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Chronic Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Edith G.; Loza, Reyner; Vargas, Horacio; Jara, Mercedes F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive study, using the Birleson Scale to determine the frequency of depressive symptomatology in children and adolescents with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). There were 67 patients (40 female and 27 male) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 2.71 years, duration of illness ≥3 months, 43 (64.18%) patients with CPD and 24 (35.82%) undergoing HD. The frequency of high occurrence, low occurrence, and absence of depressive symptomatology was 10.45% (n = 7), 43.28% (n = 29), and 46.27% (n = 31), respectively; all of the seven (100%) patients with high occurrence of depressive symptomatology were female (P = 0.04), and none of these (0%) had a friend to confide in (P = 0.03). Depressive symptomatology in patients with CPD was associated with a lower weekly K t/V compared to those without depressive symptomatology (2.15 ± 0.68 versus 2.52 ± 0.65; P = 0.01). There was no association with patient age, caregiver, time and dialysis type, anemia, bone disease, nutritional or financial status, origin, schooling, or employment. PMID:21941654

  19. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC): Overview and Summary of Selected Findings

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Matthew; Boyle, Suzanne; Anderson, Amanda H.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Jing; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Flack, John; Go, Alan S.; Horwitz, Edward; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Navaneethan, Sankar; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study is a United States multicenter, prospective study of racially and ethnically diverse patients with CKD. Although the original aims of the study were to identify novel predictors of CKD progression and to elucidate the risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease among nearly 4000 individuals with CKD, the CRIC Study has evolved into a national resource for investigation of a broad spectrum of CKD-related topics. The study has produced >90 published scientific articles, promoted many young investigative careers in nephrology, and fostered international collaborations focused on understanding the global burden of CKD. The third phase of the CRIC Study will complete enrollment of 1500 additional study participants in 2015 and is designed to answer questions regarding morbidity and mortality in mild-to-moderate CKD and to assess the burden of CKD in older persons. This review highlights some of the salient findings of the CRIC Study in the areas of race and ethnicity, CKD progression, CKD and cognition, and cardiovascular disease outcomes; it also outlines the ongoing and forthcoming opportunities for the global nephrology community to enhance its understanding of CKD and related complications through the study. PMID:26265715

  20. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study (CRIC): Overview and Summary of Selected Findings.

    PubMed

    Denker, Matthew; Boyle, Suzanne; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Chen, Jing; Fink, Jeffrey C; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Horwitz, Edward; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Lash, James P; Navaneethan, Sankar; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Feldman, Harold I

    2015-11-06

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study is a United States multicenter, prospective study of racially and ethnically diverse patients with CKD. Although the original aims of the study were to identify novel predictors of CKD progression and to elucidate the risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease among nearly 4000 individuals with CKD, the CRIC Study has evolved into a national resource for investigation of a broad spectrum of CKD-related topics. The study has produced >90 published scientific articles, promoted many young investigative careers in nephrology, and fostered international collaborations focused on understanding the global burden of CKD. The third phase of the CRIC Study will complete enrollment of 1500 additional study participants in 2015 and is designed to answer questions regarding morbidity and mortality in mild-to-moderate CKD and to assess the burden of CKD in older persons. This review highlights some of the salient findings of the CRIC Study in the areas of race and ethnicity, CKD progression, CKD and cognition, and cardiovascular disease outcomes; it also outlines the ongoing and forthcoming opportunities for the global nephrology community to enhance its understanding of CKD and related complications through the study.

  1. Renal insufficiency predicts mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubian, Arezou; Ge, Phillip; Tolan, Amy; Saltmarsh, Guy; Kaji, Amy H; Neville, Angela L; Bricker, Scott; De Virgilio, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Clinical predictors of perioperative mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients and factors associated with mortality. A retrospective review of patients 65 years of age or older undergoing emergent general surgery at a public teaching hospital was performed over a 7-year period. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, laboratory studies, perioperative morbidities, and mortality. Descriptive statistics and predictors of morbidity and mortality are described. The mean age was 74 years. Indications for surgery included small bowel obstruction (24%), diverticulitis (20%), perforated viscous (16%), and large bowel obstruction (9%). The overall complication rate was 41 per cent with six cardiac complications (14%) and seven perioperative (16%) deaths. Mean admission serum creatinine was significantly higher in patients who died (3.6 vs 1.5 mg/dL, P = 0.004). Mortality for patients with an admission serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dL was 42 per cent (5 of 12) compared with 3 per cent (2 of 32) for those 2.0 mg/dL or less (OR, 10.7; CI, 1.7 to 67; P = 0.01). Morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergency surgery remains high with the most significant predictor of mortality being the presence of renal insufficiency on admission.

  2. Preprocedural evaluation and endovascular treatment of iliofemoral artery disease without contrast media for patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Daizo; Fujii, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Masashi; Fujii, Naohiko; Masutani, Motomaru; Kawabata, Masaaki Lee; Tsujino, Takeshi; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    Generally, both the preprocedural evaluation and endovascular therapy (EVT) for lower limb arteries require contrast media that is harmful for patients with chronic renal insufficiency. In the present study these procedures were performed without using nephrotoxic contrast media in patients with preexisting renal insufficiency and iliofemoral artery disease. The 36 consecutive patients with chronic renal insufficiency underwent preprocedural evaluation with duplex examination, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) without contrast media, and plain computed tomography (CT). A total of 51 lesions were treated using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) without contrast media. The overall technical success was 100% without any complications. Pre- and postprocedural ankle-brachial indices changed from 0.59 ± 0.23 to 0.92 ± 0.14. The mean serum creatinine concentration before and after treatment, and 3 months after treatment did not change (2.1 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 1.4, and 2.1 ± 1.6 mg/dl, respectively). The overall 3-month survival rate and limb salvage rate was 100%. EVT comprising duplex, MRA, and CT for preprocedural evaluation and IVUS-guided procedure is feasible and may avoid intra-arterial contrast injection in selected patients deemed at high risk for renal failure from nephrotoxic contrast material.

  3. Diuretics, calciuria and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    PubMed

    Isakova, Tamara; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Leonard, Mary B; Xie, Dawei; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Rosen, Leigh K; Theurer, Jacquie; Bellovich, Keith; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Tang, Ignatius; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Townsend, Raymond R; He, Jiang; Feldman, Harold I; Wolf, Myles

    2011-04-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is associated with bone disease, cardiovascular disease and death. Pathophysiological factors that maintain secondary hyperparathyroidism in advanced CKD are well-known, but early mechanisms of the disease that can be targeted for its primary prevention are poorly understood. Diuretics are widely used to control volume status and blood pressure in CKD patients but are also known to have important effects on renal calcium handling, which we hypothesized could alter the risk of secondary hyperparathyroidism. We examined the relationship of diuretic treatment with urinary calcium excretion, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (PTH ≥ 65 pg/mL) in a cross-sectional study of 3616 CKD patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Compared with no diuretics, treatment with loop diuretics was independently associated with higher adjusted urinary calcium (55.0 versus 39.6 mg/day; P < 0.001), higher adjusted PTH [67.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 65.2-70.7 pg/mL, versus 52.8, 95% CI 51.1-54.6 pg/mL, P < 0.001] and greater odds of secondary hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.7-2.6). Thiazide monotherapy was associated with lower calciuria (25.5 versus 39.6 mg/day; P < 0.001) but only modestly lower PTH levels (50.0, 95% CI 47.8-52.3, versus 520.8, 95% CI 51.1-54.6 pg/mL, P = 0.04) compared with no diuretics. However, coadministration of thiazide and loop diuretics was associated with blunted urinary calcium (30.3 versus 55.0 mg/day; P <0.001) and odds of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 1.3 versus 2.1; P for interaction = 0.05) compared with loop diuretics alone. Loop diuretic use was associated with greater calciuria, PTH levels and odds of secondary hyperparathyroidism compared to no treatment. These associations were attenuated in patients who were coadministered thiazides. Diuretic choice is a potentially modifiable

  4. Diuretics, calciuria and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Isakova, Tamara; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Leonard, Mary B.; Xie, Dawei; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Rosen, Leigh K.; Theurer, Jacquie; Bellovich, Keith; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Tang, Ignatius; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Townsend, Raymond R.; He, Jiang; Feldman, Harold I.; Wolf, Myles

    2011-01-01

    Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is associated with bone disease, cardiovascular disease and death. Pathophysiological factors that maintain secondary hyperparathyroidism in advanced CKD are well-known, but early mechanisms of the disease that can be targeted for its primary prevention are poorly understood. Diuretics are widely used to control volume status and blood pressure in CKD patients but are also known to have important effects on renal calcium handling, which we hypothesized could alter the risk of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Methods. We examined the relationship of diuretic treatment with urinary calcium excretion, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (PTH ≥ 65 pg/mL) in a cross-sectional study of 3616 CKD patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Results. Compared with no diuretics, treatment with loop diuretics was independently associated with higher adjusted urinary calcium (55.0 versus 39.6 mg/day; P < 0.001), higher adjusted PTH [67.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 65.2–70.7 pg/mL, versus 52.8, 95% CI 51.1–54.6 pg/mL, P < 0.001] and greater odds of secondary hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.7–2.6). Thiazide monotherapy was associated with lower calciuria (25.5 versus 39.6 mg/day; P < 0.001) but only modestly lower PTH levels (50.0, 95% CI 47.8–52.3, versus 520.8, 95% CI 51.1–54.6 pg/mL, P = 0.04) compared with no diuretics. However, coadministration of thiazide and loop diuretics was associated with blunted urinary calcium (30.3 versus 55.0 mg/day; P <0.001) and odds of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 1.3 versus 2.1; P for interaction = 0.05) compared with loop diuretics alone. Conclusions. Loop diuretic use was associated with greater calciuria, PTH levels and odds of secondary hyperparathyroidism compared to no treatment. These associations were attenuated in patients who were coadministered

  5. Estimating GFR among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M; Leonard, Mary B; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Lash, James P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-08-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (ie, the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split-sample approach. Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. CRIC GFR estimating equation. Urinary (125)I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR [mGFR]). Laboratory measures, including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics. In the validation data set, the model that included serum creatinine level, serum cystatin C level, age, sex, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared with a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, root mean square errors for the separate models were 0.207 versus 0.202, respectively. Performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate for the subgroups of younger participants, men, nonblacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m(2), those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and those with higher mGFRs. Urinary clearance of (125)I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C level is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts mGFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C levels, age, sex, and race. Its performance was best in younger and healthier participants. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Lora, Claudia M.; Budoff, Matthew; Keane, Martin G.; Kusek, John W.; Martinez, Monica; Nessel, Lisa; Stamos, Thomas; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Yang, Wei; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about its prevalence among Hispanics with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted cross-sectional analyses of prevalent self-reported clinical and subclinical measures of CVD among 497 Hispanics, 1638 non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 1650 non-Hispanic African Americans, aged 21 to 74 years, with mild-to-moderate CKD at enrollment in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic CRIC (HCRIC) studies. Measures of subclinical CVD included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and ankle-brachial index. Results Self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) was lower in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (18% versus 23%, P = 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians, Hispanics had a lower prevalence of CAC >100 (41% versus 34%, P = 0.03) and CAC >400 (26% versus 19%, P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, these differences were no longer significant. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher odds of LVH compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 3.17, P = 0.005), and a higher odds of CAC >400 compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (odds ratio, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.58, P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was not independently associated with any other CVD measures. Conclusions Prevalent LVH was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Caucasians, and elevated CAC score was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic African Americans. Understanding reasons for these racial/ethnic differences and their association with long-term clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:21896829

  7. Cardiovascular disease among hispanics and non-hispanics in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana C; Lash, James P; Fischer, Michael J; Lora, Claudia M; Budoff, Matthew; Keane, Martin G; Kusek, John W; Martinez, Monica; Nessel, Lisa; Stamos, Thomas; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Yang, Wei; Feldman, Harold I; Go, Alan S

    2011-09-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about its prevalence among Hispanics with CKD. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of prevalent self-reported clinical and subclinical measures of CVD among 497 Hispanics, 1638 non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 1650 non-Hispanic African Americans, aged 21 to 74 years, with mild-to-moderate CKD at enrollment in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic CRIC (HCRIC) studies. Measures of subclinical CVD included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and ankle-brachial index. Self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) was lower in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (18% versus 23%, P = 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians, Hispanics had a lower prevalence of CAC >100 (41% versus 34%, P = 0.03) and CAC >400 (26% versus 19%, P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, these differences were no longer significant. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher odds of LVH compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 3.17, P = 0.005), and a higher odds of CAC >400 compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (odds ratio, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.58, P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was not independently associated with any other CVD measures. Prevalent LVH was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Caucasians, and elevated CAC score was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic African Americans. Understanding reasons for these racial/ethnic differences and their association with long-term clinical outcomes is needed.

  8. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  9. Estimating GFR Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M.; Leonard, Mary B.; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Lash, James P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Study Design Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (i.e., the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split sample approach. Setting & Participants Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. Index Test CRIC GFR estimating equation Reference Test or Outcome Urinary 125I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR) Other Measurements Laboratory measures including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics Results In the validation dataset, the model that included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, age, gender, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared to a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, the root mean square errors for the separate model were 0.207 vs. 0.202, respectively. The performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate among the subgroups of younger participants, men, non-blacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m2, those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and those with higher mGFR. Limitations Urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. Conclusions The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts measured GFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C, age, gender, and race. Its performance was best among younger and healthier

  10. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ballester, O F; Tummala, R; Janssen, W E; Fields, K K; Hiemenz, J W; Goldstein, S C; Perkins, J B; Sullivan, D M; Rosen, R; Sackstein, R; Zorsky, P; Saez, R; Elfenbein, G J

    1997-10-01

    Six patients with multiple myeloma and chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dl), including four on dialysis, received high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BUCY) followed by autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after priming with cyclophosphamide, etoposide and G-CSF. Patterns of engraftment and toxicities were not apparently different from those seen in myeloma patients with normal renal function. There was one toxicity-related death, resulting from a massive spontaneous subdural hematoma. One patient died of disease progression 6 months after transplant, while the remaining four patients are alive and free of myeloma progression 6 to 39 months after high-dose therapy. Two of these patients have remained in complete remission for 28 and 39 months. Our experience suggests that high-dose therapy with BUCY and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue is feasible in patients with multiple myeloma and renal failure.

  11. CERTIFY: prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, R; Schellong, S M; Haas, S; Tebbe, U; Gerlach, H-E; Abletshauser, C; Sieder, C; Melzer, N; Bramlage, P; Riess, H

    2011-06-01

    Patients with severe renal insufficiency (sRI) have been suggested to be at an increased risk of bleeding with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH). We aimed at assessing the benefits and risks of certoparin in comparison to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in these patients. In this subgroup analysis of the CERTIFY trial, acutely ill, non-surgical patients ≥70 years received certoparin 3,000U aXa o.d. or UFH 5,000 IU t.i.d. One hundred eighty-nine patients had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m2, 3,050 patients served as controls. Patients with sRI had a mean age of 85.9 ± 6.6 years (controls 78.4 ± 6.0) and were treated for a mean of 9.3 ± 3.7 days (9.9 ± 4.3). Thromboembolic event rates were comparable (4.55 vs. 4.21%; OR1.08; 95%CI 0.5-2.37) but bleeding was increased in sRI (9.52 vs. 3.54%; OR2.87; 95%CI 1.70-4.83). The incidence of the combined end-point of proximal DVT, symptomatic non-fatal PE and VTE related death was 6.49% with certoparin and 2.60% with UFH (OR2.60; 95%CI 0.49-13.85). There was a decrease in total bleeding with certoparin (OR0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.97), which was non-significant in patients with GFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m2. In two multivariable regression models certoparin and immobilisation <10 days were associated with less bleeding while a GFR ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m2 was associated with increased bleeding. A total of 11.3% of certoparin- and 18.5% of UFH-treated patients experienced serious adverse events (14.8 in patients with a GFR ≤30 vs. 5.6% vs. >30 ml/min/1.73 m2). In conclusion, certoparin 3,000U anti Xa o.d. was as efficacious as 5,000 IU UFH t.i.d. in patients with sRI but had a reduced risk of bleeding.

  12. Associations of Conventional Echocardiographic Measures with Incident Heart Failure and Mortality: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth F; Deo, Rajat; Bansal, Nisha; Anderson, Amanda H; Yang, Peter; Go, Alan S; Keane, Martin; Townsend, Ray; Porter, Anna; Budoff, Matthew; Malik, Shaista; He, Jiang; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright, Jackson; Cappola, Thomas; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Roy, Jason; Sha, Daohang; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-01-06

    Heart failure is the most frequent cardiac complication of CKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy is common and develops early in CKD, but studies have not adequately evaluated the association of left ventricular mass index with heart failure incidence among men and women with CKD. We evaluated echocardiograms of 2567 participants without self-reported heart failure enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed at the year 1 study visit and interpreted at a central core laboratory. Left ventricular mass index was calculated using the linear method, indexed to height(2.7), and analyzed using sex-specific quartiles. The primary outcomes of incident heart failure and all-cause mortality were adjudicated over a median of 6.6 (interquartile range, 5.7-7.6) years. Among 2567 participants, 45% were women, and 54% were nonwhite race; mean (SD) age was 59±11 years old, and mean eGFR was 44±17 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). During a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, 262 participants developed heart failure, and 470 participants died. Compared with participants in the first quartile of left ventricular mass index, those in the highest quartile had higher rates of incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 3.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 8.02) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 2.85), even after adjustment for B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T, mineral metabolism markers, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Those in the lowest quartile of ejection fraction had higher rates of incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.94 to 4.67) but similar mortality rates (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.57) compared with those in the highest quartile. Diastolic dysfunction was not significantly associated with heart failure or death. Among persons with CKD and without history of cardiovascular disease, left ventricular mass index is

  13. Association between retinopathy and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort [CRIC] Study).

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Daniel, Ebenezer; Alexander, Judith; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan Chia-Mei; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John Walter; Xie, Dawei; Coleman, Martha; Keane, Martin Gerard

    2012-07-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease experience co-morbid illnesses, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between retinopathy and self-reported CVD in a subgroup of the participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. For this observational, ancillary investigation, 2,605 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants were invited to participate in the present study, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs in both eyes were obtained for 1,936 subjects. The photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center. The presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed using standard protocols by trained graders who were masked to the information about the study participants. A history of self-reported CVD was obtained using a medical history questionnaire. Kidney function measurements and traditional and nontraditional risk factors for CVD were obtained from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. A greater severity of retinopathy was associated with a greater prevalence of any CVD, and this association persisted after adjustment for the traditional risk factors for CVD. The presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with increased prevalence of CVD. We found a direct relation between CVD prevalence and mean venular caliber. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with CVD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology might indicate macrovascular disease, even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. This would make the assessment of retinal morphology a valuable tool in CKD studies of CVD outcomes.

  14. Efficacious response with low-dose indapamide therapy in the treatment of type II diabetic patients with normal renal function or moderate renal insufficiency and moderate hypertension.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Hosameldin; Ali, Kareim; Nosrati, Saeid; Massry, Shaul G

    2002-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of low daily dose (1.25 mg/day) of indapamide in the treatment of high blood pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus with normal renal function and those with moderate renal insufficiency (serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dl). The study was an open label one of four months duration. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study and only 15 completed it. Within 2 weeks of therapy, systolic blood pressure fell from 173 +/- 4.5 to 144 +/- 2.0 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure from 96 +/- 2.1 to 80 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (p < 0.01) and blood pressure remained at these levels throughout the study. The results show that low dose indapamide is effective in the treatment of moderate hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus who have normal renal function or moderate renal insufficiency. Therefore, this dose of 1.25 mg/day is recommended for the treatment of such patients.

  15. Indapamide is superior to thiazide in the preservation of renal function in patients with renal insufficiency and systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Madkour, H; Gadallah, M; Riveline, B; Plante, G E; Massry, S G

    1996-02-22

    The long-term effects of indapamide or hydrochlorothiazide on blood presssure and renal function were examined in patents with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension. Both drugs controlled hypertension and blood pressure remained normal during the 2 years of the study. Despite this comparable control of hypertension, indapamide therapy was associated with a 28.5 +/- 4.4% increase in creatinine clearance, whereas treatment with hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a 17.4 +/- 3.0% decrease in creatinine clearance. The results of the study indicate that indapamide is superior to hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of patients with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension.

  16. N-acetylcysteine versus Dopamine to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery in Patients with Preexisting Moderate Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Savluk, Omer Faruk; Guzelmeric, Fusun; Yavuz, Yasemin; Cevirme, Deniz; Gurcu, Emre; Ogus, Halide; Orki, Tulay; Kocak, Tuncer

    2017-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity. Therefore, strategies to prevent acute kidney injury are very important. The aim of this placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study was to compare the prophylactic efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine and dopamine administration in patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods This study included 135 patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Serum creatinine and GFR were recorded preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. Results On the first and second postoperative days, the drugs used showed statistically significant differences among the creatinine groups (P<0.001). According to Tukey’s HSD, on the first and second PO, the creatinine of Group N, D and P were significantly different (P<0.001). On the first and second PO, the used drugs showed statistically significant differences among the effects of eGFR (P<0.001). According to Tukey’s HSD on the first postoperative day, the average eGFR score of Group N compared to D and P were significantly difference (P<0.001). On the second postoperative day, the eGFR of Group N and D showed no difference (P=0.37), but P showed a difference (P<0.001). Conclusion We found that the prophylactic use of intravenous N-Acetylcysteine had a protective effect on renal function, whereas the application of renal dose dopamine did not have a protective effect in patients with pre-existing moderate renal failure.

  17. [The application of artificial protein premixes for nutritive support of patients with chronic renal insufficiency, being treated by perinateal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Pichugina, I S; Vetchinnikova, O N; Vereshchagina, V M; Gapparov, M M; Vatazin, A V

    2008-01-01

    As a result of a survey of 56 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, who undergone hemodialysis, it was established, that clinical condition of patients, biochemical and hematological blood indices as well as results of anthropometric research improve upon application of artificial balanced high-protein premixes -"Nutrinil" and "Nutrien-Nefro". Irrespective of way of administration - introperitoneal ("Nutrinil" solution) or enteral ("Nutrien-Nefro" mixture) protein-energetic insufficiency diminishes or totally disappears, body weight, fat and muscle content of the body weight, as well as indices of whole protein, albumine, lymphocytes, haemoglobin, pH approache the norm. Intraperitoneal way of administration of artificial protein premixes increase patients adherence to this procedure, though enteral way of their administration is more preferable from economic point of view.

  18. Prevalence of anemia and renal insufficiency in non-hospitalized patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Reis, Francisco José Farias Borges dos; Fernandes, André Maurício Souza; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Neves, Flávia Branco Cerqueira Serra; Kuwano, André Yoichi; França, Victor Hugo Pinheiro; Macedo, Cristiano Ricardo Bastos de; Cruz, Cristiano Gonçalves da; Sahade, Viviane; Aras Júnior, Roque

    2009-09-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a common disease with a high rate of mortality. Anemia and renal failure (RF) are often found in patients with HF associated with higher severity of the heart disease and a worse prognosis. To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and RF, as well as the association between these two conditions, in non-hospitalized patients with HF. Patients treated at the HF Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital were followed from July 2003 to November 2006. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 13 mg/dl for men and 12 mg/dl for women. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), calculated by the simplified formula of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) study. Of the 345 patients included in this study, 26.4% (n = 91) had anemia and 29.6% had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR < 60 ml/min). The association between anemia and a higher prevalence of renal failure was statistically significant (41.8% vs. 25.2%; p = 0.005). The patients at functional class III and IV presented a higher incidence of anemia (39.0% vs. 19.4%; p <0.001) and renal failure (38.2% vs. 24.8%; p = 0.007). No association was observed between anemia or renal failure and history of hypertension, diabetes, systolic function or etiology of HF. The prevalence of anemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV).

  19. Proteinuria, but Not eGFR, Predicts Stroke Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sandsmark, Danielle K; Messé, Steven R; Zhang, Xiaoming; Roy, Jason; Nessel, Lisa; Lee Hamm, Lotuce; He, Jiang; Horwitz, Edward J; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Kusek, John W; Mohler, Emile R; Porter, Anna; Seliger, Stephen L; Sozio, Stephen M; Townsend, Raymond R; Feldman, Harold I; Kasner, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the impact of chronic kidney disease on cerebrovascular disease is less well understood. We hypothesized that renal function severity would be predictive of stroke risk, independent of other vascular risk factors. The study population included 3939 subjects enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a prospective observational cohort. Stroke events were reported by participants and adjudicated by 2 vascular neurologists. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare measures of baseline renal function with stroke events. Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for key covariates. In 3939 subjects, 143 new stroke events (0.62 events per 100 person-years) occurred over a mean follow-up of 6.4 years. Stroke risk was increased in subjects who had worse baseline measurements of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate and total proteinuria or albuminuria). When adjusted for variables known to influence stroke risk, total proteinuria or albuminuria, but not estimated glomerular filtration rate, were associated with an increased risk of stroke. Treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system did not decrease stroke risk in individuals with albuminuria. Proteinuria and albuminuria are better predictors of stroke risk in patients with chronic kidney disease than estimated glomerular filtration rate. The impact of therapies targeting proteinuria/albuminuria in individuals with chronic kidney disease on stroke prevention warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of triptorelin after intravenous bolus administration in healthy males and in males with renal or hepatic insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F. O.; Terblanchè, J.; Schall, R.; van Zyl Smit, R.; Tucker, T.; Marais, K.; Groenewoud, G.; Porchet, H. C.; Weiner, M.; Hawarden, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Triptorelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue with enhanced affinity for GnRH receptors and a prolonged half-life due to its resistance to enzymatic degradation. The sustained-release formulation of this molecule is advantageous in conditions requiring chronic hormone suppression. Methods This was an open study to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single i.v. bolus dose of 0.5 mg triptorelin acetate in four groups of six male subjects; namely in healthy subjects (Group I), in patients with varying degrees of renal insufficiency (Groups II and III), and in patients with hepatic insufficiency (Group IV). Results The maximum concentrations of triptorelin were found to be similar for all four study groups (geometric mean Cmax between 41.6 mg ml−1 and 53.9 mg ml−1 ). The total clearance of triptorelin decreased with increasing renal impairment, and was even lower in patients with hepatic insufficiency (geometric mean CLtot: 210 ml min−1, 113 ml min−1, 86.8 ml min−1 and 57.3 ml min−1 for Groups I, II, III and IV, respectively). Serum triptorelin concentrations in all four groups were adequately described by a three-compartment model. The elimination half-life for patients with hepatic impairment was similar to that of patients with renal impairment (geometric mean t1/2, z: 6.6 h, 7.7 h and 7.6 h for Groups II, III and IV, respectively), but significantly longer than in healthy volunteers (2.8 h for Group I). The first and second distribution half-lives were similar for the four groups studied, with geometric mean distribution half-lives of about 0.1 h (6 min) and 0.75 h (45 min), respectively. Conclusions Although both renal and hepatic function are important for the clearance of triptorelin, the liver plays the predominant role in subjects suffering from some degree of renal impairment. PMID:9354307

  1. Pre-terminal renal insufficiency in a patient with enteric hyperoxaluria: effect of medical management on renal function.

    PubMed

    Pipeleers, L; Wissing, K M; Pirson, Y; Cosyns, J P; Geers, C; Tielemans, C

    2012-01-01

    Enteric hyperoxaluria causes tubular deposition calcium oxalate crystals and severe chronic interstitial nephritis. We describe a patient with pre-terminal renal failure due to oxalate nephropathy after ileal resection. Increased oral hydration, low oxalate diet, and oral calcium carbonate and potassium citrate supplements resulted in a significant improvement of renal function. During the three-year follow-up, urinary oxalate concentration was repeatedly reduced below the crystallization threshold and serum creatinine decreased from 4.5 to 1.7 mg/dL. This case illustrates the benefit of combining and optimizing dietary and medical management in enteric hyperoxaluria, even in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  2. Frequency of anaemia and renal insufficiency in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Jehangir, Waqas; Daood, Muhammad Salman; Khan, Ahmad; Mallick, Nadeem Hayat

    2010-01-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a common disease with a high mortality rate. Anaemia and renal failure (RF) are often present in patients with HF and associated with worse prognosis. Objective of study was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and RF in patients with HF. Patients admitted in Punjab institute of cardiology Lahore with diagnosis of heart failure were enrolled from February, 2008 to December, 2008. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin levels < 13 mg/dl for men and 12 mg/dl for women. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), calculated by the simplified formula of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) study. Of the 276 patients included in this study, 42.03% (116) had anaemia and 38.40% (106) had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR < 60 ml/min). The prevalence of anaemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV).

  3. Temporary balloon occlusion of the common hepatic artery for yttrium-90 glass microspheres administration in a patient with hepatocellular cancer and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Murthy, Ravi; Lahoti, Amit; Odisio, Bruno; Avritscher, Rony; Chasen, Beth; Mahvash, Armeen

    2013-01-01

    The most severe complication of yttrium-90 therapy is gastrointestinal ulceration caused by extrahepatic dispersion of microspheres. Standard pretreatment planning requires extensive angiographic evaluation of the hepatic circulation and embolization of hepatoenteric collaterals; however, in patients with severe renal insufficiency, this evaluation may lead to acute renal failure. In order to minimize iodinated contrast utilization in a patient with preexisting severe renal insufficiency, the authors describe the use of a balloon catheter for temporary occlusion of the common hepatic artery to induce transient redirection of flow of the hepatoenteric arteries towards the liver, in lieu of conventional coil embolization.

  4. Immediate financial impact of computerized clinical decision support for long-term care residents with renal insufficiency: a case study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sujha; Hoover, Sonja; Wagner, Joann L; Donovan, Jennifer L; Kanaan, Abir O; Rochon, Paula A; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Field, Terry S

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized trial of a clinical decision support system for drug prescribing for residents with renal insufficiency in a large long-term care facility, analyses were conducted to estimate the system's immediate, direct financial impact. We determined the costs that would have been incurred if drug orders that triggered the alert system had actually been completed compared to the costs of the final submitted orders and then compared intervention units to control units. The costs incurred by additional laboratory testing that resulted from alerts were also estimated. Drug orders were conservatively assigned a duration of 30 days of use for a chronic drug and 10 days for antibiotics. It was determined that there were modest reductions in drug costs, partially offset by an increase in laboratory-related costs. Overall, there was a reduction in direct costs (US$1391.43, net 7.6% reduction). However, sensitivity analyses based on alternative estimates of duration of drug use suggested a reduction as high as US$7998.33 if orders for non-antibiotic drugs were assumed to be continued for 180 days. The authors conclude that the immediate and direct financial impact of a clinical decision support system for medication ordering for residents with renal insufficiency is modest and that the primary motivation for such efforts must be to improve the quality and safety of medication ordering.

  5. Possible involvement of circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kazama, Junichiro James; Yamashita, Takeyoshi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Gejyo, Fumitake; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2004-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a recently identified polypeptide that promotes renal phosphate excretion and decreases serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels. Serum FGF-23 levels are extraordinarily elevated in patients with end-stage renal failure. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 62 predialysis patients (age, 51.3 +/- 14.0 years; range, approximately 18 to 76 years; 32 men, 30 women). Serum FGF-23 levels were determined by means of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using 2 kinds of monoclonal antibodies that does not detect biologically inactive N-terminal and C-terminal fragments derived from an identified internal cleavage site to date. Serum FGF-23 levels increased with the decrease in creatinine clearance (Ccr). Both intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1-84 PTH levels correlated closely with FGF-23 levels (r2 = 0.857; r2 = 0.860). A negative correlation between serum concentrations of FGF-23 and 1,25D (r2 = 0.255) was found. The maximum tubular reabsorptive rate of phosphate correlated negatively with serum FGF-23 concentrations (r2 = 0.460). However, the amount of daily urinary phosphate excretion was significantly less in patients with a Ccr less than 30 mL/min (<0.50 mL/s; P < 0.01), whereas their circulating FGF-23 levels were significantly greater (P < 0.001). Circulating FGF-23 levels increase with the decrease in renal function. FGF-23 is a likely candidate to lead the reduction in serum 1,25D levels. FGF-23 becomes a potential uremic toxin to decrease 1,25D levels when it loses its hypophosphatemic action because of a decreased number of viable nephrons in patients with advanced renal failure. As such, FGF-23 may be an important determinant in the regulation of mineral metabolism with renal insufficiency.

  6. Transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis with recurrent vomiting and renal insufficiency as the initial presentation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Yang, Meng; Pan, Xiaoxia; Yu, Xialian; Xie, Jingyuan; Ren, Hong; Li, Xiao; Chen, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hereditary amyloidosis is diagnosed worldwidely with an increasing incidence. As the most common form, transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease due to mutations of TTR. Over the past several decades, more than 130 mutations have been reported. Previous studies suggested that ATTR amyloidosis initially showed polyneuropathy and autonomic dysfunction but later involving many visceral organs, such as kidney. Patient concerns: A young proband carrying TTR p.Leu75Pro mutation, a reported aggressive variant, initially presenting repeat vomiting and impaired renal function was described in a Chinese family. Diagnoses: ATTR amyloidosis patient was diagnosed by renal biopsy and gene sequencing. Interventions: Allograft liver transplantation (LT). Outcomes: Symptom relief but serum creatinine increased. Lessons subsections: This case illustrated the clinical and pathologic phenotype of an ATTR amyloidosis patient who initially presented impaired renal function and p.Leu75Pro variant was found by sequencing the coding region of TTR gene. Kidney is one of the most common and vulnerable organs of amyloidosis, and renal function should be closely monitored. PMID:28272196

  7. [Relationship between Stress and Resources in Patients Waiting for Organ Transplantation: Comparison of Patients with Renal and Liver Insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Wick, Katharina; Bauer, Stephanie; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz; Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation are exposed to different stress factors and use individual resources for coping. The present study examines these factors in the context of health-related quality of life in different patient groups (patients with renal vs. liver insufficiency) and attachment pattern. The following variables were measured by questionnaire in a clinical sample of 103 patients waiting for a liver or kidney transplant in Thuringia: Physical complaints (GBB), Depression and Anxiety (HADS-D), Coping (EFK), Self-efficacy expectations (SWE), Resilience (RS-13), Social support (F-SozU-K-14), Health-related quality of life (SF-8) and Attachment style (BFPE). Patients with liver insufficiency have a higher level of anxiety and show more often an insecure attachment style as renal failure patients. Differences between secure and insecure attached patients waiting for a kidney transplant are found in physical complaints, depression, depressive coping and self-efficacy, resilience, social support, active coping and mental health, in favor of secure attachment. Insecure attachment in patients with liver insufficiency leads to a less frequent usage of active coping strategies. Furthermore, the variables anxiety, depression, resilience, social support and dysfunctional coping mediate the relationship between attachment and mental health completely. RESULTS suggest that psychological interventions should specifically consider the variables anxiety, depression, resilience, self-efficacy, social support, coping and attachment. The gained insights of this study make it possible to derive implications for interventions to reduce risk factors for the development of co-morbid mental disorders and to strengthen protective factors and thus improve the well-being and quality of life of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of fosinoprilat with enalaprilat and lisinopril in patients with congestive heart failure and chronic renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, R; Zucchelli, P; Caspi, A; Nouriel, H; Paz, R; Sclarovsky, S; O'Grady, P; Yee, K-F; Liao, W-C; Mangold, B

    2000-01-01

    Aims To compare the serum pharmacokinetics of fosinoprilat with enalaprilat and lisinopril after 1 and 10 days of dosing with fosinopril, enalapril and lisinopril. Methods Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF, NYHA Class II–IV) and chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance ≤30 ml min−1) were randomized to receive fosinopril, enalapril or lisinopril in two parallel-group studies. In the first study 24 patients were treated with 10 mg fosinopril (n = 12 patients) or 2.5 mg enalapril (n = 12) every morning for 10 consecutive days. In the second study 31 patients were treated with 10 mg fosinopril (n = 16 patients) or 5 mg lisinopril (n = 15) every morning for 10 consecutive days. Samples of blood were collected for determination of pharmacokinetic parameters. The area under the curve (AUC) between the first and last days of treatment and the accumulation index (AI) were the primary outcome measures. Results All three angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors exhibited a significant increase in AUC between the first and last days of treatment in both studies. The difference between the AI for fosinoprilat (1.41) and enalaprilat (1.96) was statistically significant (95% CI: 1.05, 1.84). Similarly, the difference between the AI for fosinoprilat (1.21) and lisinopril (2.76) was statistically significant (95% CI: 1.85, 2.69). All three ACE inhibitors completely inhibited serum ACE for 24 h. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Fosinoprilat exhibits significantly less accumulation than enalaprilat or lisinopril in patients with CHF and renal insufficiency, most probably because fosinoprilat is eliminated by both the kidney and liver, and increased hepatic elimination can compensate for reduced renal clearance in patients with kidney dysfunction. PMID:10606834

  9. Serum aldosterone and death, end-stage renal disease, and cardiovascular events in blacks and whites: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rajat; Yang, Wei; Khan, Abigail M; Bansal, Nisha; Zhang, Xiaoming; Leonard, Mary B; Keane, Martin G; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond R; Shlipak, Michael G; Feldman, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that elevated aldosterone concentrations are an independent risk factor for death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Limited studies, however, have evaluated systematically the association between serum aldosterone and adverse events in the setting of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the association between serum aldosterone and death and end-stage renal disease in 3866 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. We also evaluated the association between aldosterone and incident congestive heart failure and atherosclerotic events in participants without baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate independent associations between elevated aldosterone concentrations and each outcome. Interactions were hypothesized and explored between aldosterone and sex, race, and the use of loop diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. During a median follow-up period of 5.4 years, 587 participants died, 743 developed end-stage renal disease, 187 developed congestive heart failure, and 177 experienced an atherosclerotic event. Aldosterone concentrations (per SD of the log-transformed aldosterone) were not an independent risk factor for death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.12), end-stage renal disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.17), or atherosclerotic events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.18). Aldosterone was associated with congestive heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35). Among participants with chronic kidney disease, higher aldosterone concentrations were independently associated with the development of congestive heart failure but not for death, end-stage renal disease, or atherosclerotic events. Further studies should evaluate whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may reduce adverse events in individuals with

  10. A systematic review on the accumulation of prophylactic dosages of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) in patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Atiq, Ferdows; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Leebeek, Frank W G; van Gelder, Teun; Versmissen, Jorie

    2015-08-01

    Although therapeutic dosages of most low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are known to accumulate in patients with renal insufficiency, for the lower prophylactic dosages this has not been clearly proven. Nevertheless, dose reduction is often recommended. We conducted a systematic review to investigate whether prophylactic dosages of LMWH accumulate in renal insufficient patients. A comprehensive search was conducted on 17 February 2015 using Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar. The syntax emphasized for LMWHs, impaired renal function, and pharmacokinetics. The search yielded 674 publications. After exclusion by reading the titles, abstracts, and if necessary the full paper, 11 publications remained. For dalteparin and tinzaparin, no accumulation was observed. Enoxaparin, on the other hand, did lead to accumulation in patients with renal insufficiency, although not in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. Bemiparin and certoparin also did show accumulation. No data were available for nadroparin. In this systematic review, we show that prophylactic dosages of tinzaparin and dalteparin are likely to be safe in patients with renal insufficiency and do not need dose reduction based on the absence of accumulation. However, prophylactic dosages of enoxaparin, bemiparin, and certoparin did show accumulation in patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) below 30 ml/min, and therefore, dose reduction is required. The differences in occurrence of accumulation seem to depend on the mean molecular weight of LMWHs.

  11. Bisphosphonates for Osteoporosis in Patients with Renal Insufficiency: Pharmacists’ Practices and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Cheryl A; Lyder, Catherine; Yuksel, Nesé

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinicians often face challenges in deciding how to treat osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease. As background to offering guidance to health care providers, it is important to understand their practices and beliefs. Objectives: To describe the practices and beliefs of pharmacists regarding use of bisphosphonates for patients with osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacists working in hospitals and related health care settings was conducted. A 34-item online questionnaire was developed consisting of 4 sections: demographic characteristics, practices, beliefs, and comfort level with making decisions about osteoporosis treatment. An e-mail invitation was sent to members of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (n = 2499) in November 2012. Results: A total of 367 pharmacists completed the survey. Most of the respondents were women (258 [70%]), had more than 10 years in practice (213 [58%]), and were providing care to 1 or more osteoporosis patients per week (212 [58%]). Over one-third (150 [41%]) stated that they would use a bisphosphonate for patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 15–30 mL/min, but more than half (207 [56%]) stated that they would avoid a bisphosphonate (and recommend another medication) for patients with CrCl below 15 mL/min. Forty-eight percent (176/363) agreed that oral bisphosphonates could be used for patients with renal failure (defined as CrCl < 30 mL/min), so long as dosage adjustments are made. More than half (206/363 [57%]) believed that the adverse effects of oral bisphosphonates increase for patients with renal failure. Respondents expressed a low level of comfort in assessing and initiating osteoporosis treatment for patients with renal failure. Conclusions: Pharmacists had varying beliefs about managing osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study highlights the need for practice tools and targeted education addressing the use of

  12. Retrospective study of the survival of cats with acquired chronic renal insufficiency offered different commercial diets.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, E A; Everts, H; Kastelein, A M C; Beynen, A C

    2005-08-13

    A retrospective study was carried out on the efficacy of seven commercial diets designed to be fed to cats with chronic renal failure. The median survival time of 175 cats that received conventional diets was seven months, whereas the median survival time of 146 cats given one of the seven diets was 16 months. The cats on the most effective of the diets had a median survival time of 23 months and those on the least effective diet had a median survival time of 12 months. The composition of the seven diets was comparable, except that the most effective diet had a particularly high content of eicosapentaenoic acid.

  13. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with heart failure and renal insufficiency: how concerned should we be by the rise in serum creatinine?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ali

    2002-07-01

    To determine the association between the early rise in serum creatinine levels associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and the long-term renoprotective properties of these drugs in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated survival benefits of ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure. In patients with renal insufficiency, whether associated with diabetes mellitus or not, use of ACE inhibitors is associated with slowing in the progression of renal disease. In fact, patients who have the most advanced renal insufficiency at baseline are the ones who show the maximum slowing of the disease progression, but these patients are also more likely to show an early rise in serum creatinine levels after ACE inhibitor therapy. There is evidence that patients with renal insufficiency often do not receive ACE inhibitors. There is also evidence that patients with heart failure are not receiving this life-saving drug or are receiving it at dosages lower than that used in the clinical trials. One of the main reasons for this underutilization of ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure is the underlying renal insufficiency or the rise in serum creatinine level after initiation of therapy with an ACE inhibitor. The authors reviewed 12 randomized clinical trials of ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy in patients with preexisting chronic renal insufficiency, with or without diabetes mellitus or heart failure. Studies were included for review if they met the following criteria: subjects were randomized to receive ACE inhibitor; subjects were followed up for a minimum of 2 years; and most of the subjects had baseline chronic renal insufficiency (>or=25% loss of renal function), irrespective of cause. Of the 12 studies that met these criteria, six were multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled studies. The other six were smaller randomized studies. The studies had

  14. The deadly triangle of anemia, renal insufficiency, and cardiovascular disease: implications for prognosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A; Lepor, Norman E

    2005-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in the associations between blood hemoglobin (Hb) level, renal function, and cardiovascular disease. Anemia is a common feature of end-stage renal disease, but it also accompanies lesser degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The degree of anemia roughly approximates the severity of CKD. Anemia seen in diabetes has been linked to diabetic nephropathy; however, diabetes itself affects the hematologic system in several ways. Anemia is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiovascular morbidity, progressive loss of kidney function, and poor quality of life. Anemia seems to act as a mortality multiplier; that is, at every decrease in Hb below 12 g/dL, mortality increases in patients with CKD, cardiovascular disease, and those with both. Unlike blood transfusion, treatment of anemia with exogenous erythropoietin in patients with cardiorenal disease has shown promise in reducing morbidity and in improving survival and quality of life. Increasing the Hb level from less than 10 g/dL to 12 g/dL has resulted in favorable changes in left ventricular remodeling, improved ejection fraction, improved functional classification, and higher levels of peak oxygen consumption with exercise testing. Clinical trials are underway to test the role of erythropoietin in patients with CKD and in patients with heart failure.

  15. [Interrelation between the degree of a chronic renal insufficiency and/or systemic hypertension and ocular changes in cats].

    PubMed

    Karck, J; von Spiessen, L; Rohn, K; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the degree of renal insufficiency and/or high blood pressure in cats with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is related to the degree of change in the fundus and whether there are differences in blood pressure between the different accompanying diseases. In cats with CRI and/or hypertensive retinopathy and healthy cats, the following examinations were carried out: physical examination, ophthalmic examination, measurement of the blood pressure using Doppler ultrasonography, complete blood count, serum biochemical analyses, including serum thyroxine (T4) concentration, urinalysis and ultrasonography of the heart and abdomen. A total of 69 diseased and 24 healthy cats were examined. 53/69 cats displayed changes of the fundus, 17/69 cats had uveitis and 4/69 had hyphaema. Cats of the control group had no ocular changes and a mean systolic blood pressure of 13 ± 6.7 mmHg, which was not related to age. The degree of the CRI was negligibly negatively correlated with the degree of fundic changes and blood pressure. The blood pressure was significantly positively correlated with the degree of fundus changes and age. Cats with systemic hypertension, which only suffered from CRI, had a significantly lower blood pressure than cats with an additional left ventricular hypertrophy or only a left ventricular hypertrophy, hyperthyroidism or primary hypertension. According to the results of the present study, the degree of the CRI is not a reliable prognostic factor for the development and the degree of fundic change. The blood pressure in hypertensive cats with CRI without additional diseases is lower compared to hypertensive cats with CRI and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular hypertrophy alone, hyperthyroidism or primary hypertension.

  16. High-calcium vs high-phosphate intake and small artery tone in advanced experimental renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kööbi, Peeter; Vehmas, Tuija I; Jolma, Pasi; Kalliovalkama, Jarkko; Fan, Meng; Niemelä, Onni; Saha, Heikki; Kähönen, Mika; Ylitalo, Pauli; Rysä, Jaana; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2006-10-01

    Disturbed calcium-phosphorus balance significantly contributes to uraemic changes in large arteries. We examined the influences of high-calcium and high-phosphate intake on small artery tone in experimental renal insufficiency. Sixty-five rats were assigned to 5/6 nephrectomy (NTX) or sham operation. After 15 week disease progression, NTX rats were given high-calcium (3%), high-phosphate (1.5%) or control diet (0.3% calcium, 0.5% phosphate) for 12 weeks. Then isolated segments of small mesenteric arteries were studied using wire and pressure myographs. Subtotal nephrectomy reduced creatinine clearance by 60% and increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) and phosphate 12-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively. High-phosphate intake further elevated PTH and phosphate (33-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively), while the calcium diet suppressed them (to 3.5 and 62% vs sham, respectively). Ventricular B-type natriuretic peptide synthesis was increased, and blood pressure was 27 and 18 mmHg higher in NTX rats on control and phosphate diet, respectively, than in calcium-fed rats. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was impaired by approximately 50% in uraemic rats, and was further deteriorated by high-phosphate intake, whereas the calcium diet improved endothelium-mediated relaxation via nitric oxide and potassium channels. Small arteries of all NTX groups featured eutrophic inward remodelling: wall-to-lumen ratio was increased 1.3-fold without change in cross-sectional area. High-phosphate intake had a detrimental influence on secondary hyperparathyroidism and vasodilatation, whereas high-calcium intake reduced blood pressure and PTH, alleviated volume overload and improved vasorelaxation in experimental renal insufficiency. Therefore, alterations in the calcium-phosphorus balance can significantly modulate small artery tone during impaired kidney function.

  17. Rapid, enhanced, and persistent protection of patients with renal insufficiency by AS02(V)-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Surquin, Murielle; Tielemans, Christian L; Kulcsár, Imre; Ryba, Miroslav; Vörös, Péter; Mat, Olivier; Treille, Serge; Dhaene, Michel; Stolear, Jean-Claude; Kuriyakose, Sherine O; Leyssen, Maarten X; Houard, Sophie A

    2010-02-01

    The adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine, HB-AS04, elicits more rapid and persistent protective antibody concentrations than double doses of conventional recombinant vaccines in patients with renal insufficiency. We compared the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the AS02(V)-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine HB-AS02 with that of HB-AS04. In this phase III, open, randomized study, 151 hepatitis B vaccine-naïve pre-dialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis patients aged 15 years and older received three doses of HB-AS02 at 0, 1, and 6 months. Another 149 similar patients received four doses of HB-AS04 at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months, and all were followed up for 12 months. HB-AS02 elicited more rapid and persistent seroprotection than HB-AS04, with rates of 77 and 39%, respectively, 1 month after the second vaccine dose, and 94 and 79%, respectively, at 12 months. Superiority of HB-AS02 over HB-AS04 in anti-hepatitis B geometric mean concentrations was found at all time points. HB-AS02 was more reactogenic than HB-AS04, but adverse events were mainly transient, of mild to moderate intensity with no reportable vaccine-related serious events. We conclude that a three-dose primary course of HB-AS02 induced more rapid, enhanced, and persistent protection in patients with renal insufficiency than the licensed four-dose primary schedule of HB-AS04. This adjuvanted vaccine affords greater protection with reduced need for booster doses in patients at high risk of hepatitis B infection.

  18. Restricted Crystalloid Fluid Therapy during Orthotopic Liver Transplant Surgery and its Effect on Respiratory and Renal Insufficiency in the Early Post-operative Period: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sahmeddini, M A; Janatmakan, F; Khosravi, M B; Ghaffaripour, S; Eghbal, M H; Nickeghbalian, S; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and renal insufficiencies are common dysfunctions during post-liver transplantation period that increase post-operative mortality and morbidity rates. Intra-operative fluid therapy is an important factor associated with pulmonary and renal insufficiency. To evaluate the relation between intra-operative fluid therapy and early renal and respiratory insufficiency after liver transplantation. In this randomized clinical study, 67 adult patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation were randomly allocated into two groups. The restricted fluid group, which received a controlled fluid administration of normal saline, 5 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia, and non-restricted fluid group received a controlled infusion of normal saline 10 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia. Early post-operative respiratory and renal insufficiency in both groups were assessed. The patients were monitored during the three stages of liver transplantation for their hemodynamic indices. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013101811662N4. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both studied groups. The prevalence of respiratory insufficiency in the non-restricted fluid group (15%) significantly (p=0.01) higher than that in the restricted fluid group (0%). The post-operative mean±SD serum creatinine was 1.0±0.1 mg/dL in the non-restricted fluid group and 1.1±0.2 in the restricted fluid group (p=0.43). No patients in the studied groups required post-operative continuous renal replacement therapy. Restricted crystalloid fluid administration during orthotropic liver transplantation though decreased post-operative chance of pulmonary insufficiency, did not increase renal dysfunction.

  19. Restricted Crystalloid Fluid Therapy during Orthotopic Liver Transplant Surgery and its Effect on Respiratory and Renal Insufficiency in the Early Post-operative Period: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sahmeddini, M. A.; Janatmakan, F.; Khosravi, M. B.; Ghaffaripour, S.; Eghbal, M. H.; Nickeghbalian, S.; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Respiratory and renal insufficiencies are common dysfunctions during post-liver transplantation period that increase post-operative mortality and morbidity rates. Intra-operative fluid therapy is an important factor associated with pulmonary and renal insufficiency. Objective: To evaluate the relation between intra-operative fluid therapy and early renal and respiratory insufficiency after liver transplantation. Methods: In this randomized clinical study, 67 adult patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation were randomly allocated into two groups. The restricted fluid group, which received a controlled fluid administration of normal saline, 5 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia, and non-restricted fluid group received a controlled infusion of normal saline 10 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia. Early post-operative respiratory and renal insufficiency in both groups were assessed. The patients were monitored during the three stages of liver transplantation for their hemodynamic indices. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013101811662N4. Results: The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both studied groups. The prevalence of respiratory insufficiency in the non-restricted fluid group (15%) significantly (p=0.01) higher than that in the restricted fluid group (0%). The post-operative mean±SD serum creatinine was 1.0±0.1 mg/dL in the non-restricted fluid group and 1.1±0.2 in the restricted fluid group (p=0.43). No patients in the studied groups required post-operative continuous renal replacement therapy. Conclusions: Restricted crystalloid fluid administration during orthotropic liver transplantation though decreased post-operative chance of pulmonary insufficiency, did not increase renal dysfunction. PMID:25184031

  20. Characteristics and Outcomes Among Heart Failure Patients With Anemia and Renal Insufficiency With and Without Blood Transfusions (Public Discharge Data from California 2000–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Kao, David P.; Kreso, Elma; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Krantz, Mori J.

    2013-01-01

    Renal insufficiency and anemia are increasingly recognized as predictors of adverse events in heart failure. The impact of blood transfusion on mortality in patients with heart failure has not been previously characterized. We examined temporal changes in admissions and in-hospital mortality using public discharge data from California (2000 to 2006) and then evaluated the impact of renal insufficiency, anemia, and transfusion on in-hospital mortality in univariate and multivariate analyses. In total 596,456 unique patient admissions for heart failure were recorded. Renal insufficiency and anemia were common co-morbidities (27.4% and 27.1%, respectively) and 6.2% of patients received a transfusion of red blood cells. Renal insufficiency and anemia were associated with increased mortality (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39 to 2.52, and 1.27, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.30, respectively). After adjustment, renal insufficiency (OR 2.54, 95% CI 2.46 to 2.62) and anemia (OR 1.12 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17) remained significant; however, transfusion emerged as the strongest single predictor (OR 3.81, 95% CI 3.51 to 4.13) of mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that anemia and renal insufficiency are independently associated with mortality in an unselected heart failure population. This is the first study to demonstrate that transfusion magnifies this effect and is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. PMID:21146689

  1. Characteristics and outcomes among heart failure patients with anemia and renal insufficiency with and without blood transfusions (public discharge data from California 2000-2006).

    PubMed

    Kao, David P; Kreso, Elma; Fonarow, Gregg C; Krantz, Mori J

    2011-01-01

    Renal insufficiency and anemia are increasingly recognized as predictors of adverse events in heart failure. The impact of blood transfusion on mortality in patients with heart failure has not been previously characterized. We examined temporal changes in admissions and in-hospital mortality using public discharge data from California (2000 to 2006) and then evaluated the impact of renal insufficiency, anemia, and transfusion on in-hospital mortality in univariate and multivariate analyses. In total 596,456 unique patient admissions for heart failure were recorded. Renal insufficiency and anemia were common co-morbidities (27.4% and 27.1%, respectively) and 6.2% of patients received a transfusion of red blood cells. Renal insufficiency and anemia were associated with increased mortality (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39 to 2.52, and 1.27, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.30, respectively). After adjustment, renal insufficiency (OR 2.54, 95% CI 2.46 to 2.62) and anemia (OR 1.12 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17) remained significant; however, transfusion emerged as the strongest single predictor (OR 3.81, 95% CI 3.51 to 4.13) of mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that anemia and renal insufficiency are independently associated with mortality in an unselected heart failure population. This is the first study to demonstrate that transfusion magnifies this effect and is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [20 years' experience in the treatment of children with terminal renal insufficiency in Yugoslavia].

    PubMed

    Peco-Antić, A; Popović-Rolović, M; Jovanović, O; Marsenić, O; Babić, D; Kostić, M; Kruscić, O; Culić, D; Trajković, D

    2000-01-01

    The first specialized haemodialysis (HD) paediatric centre in former Yugoslavia was established at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in January 1980. A total of 194 children (F: 98, M: 96), aged less than 19 years (10.12 +/- 4.23), were treated for renal replacement therapy (RRT) over 20 years. Average annual incidence rate was 1.59 per million of child population (pmcp) aged less than 19 years for the period 1980-1990 (former Yugoslavia) and 2.85 pmcp aged less than 19 years for the period 1990-2000 (present Yugoslavia). Reflux nephropathy was the most frequent underlying disease and accounted for 37.06% of total cases, while other primary renal diseases were: glomerulonephritis (GN) 17.26%, cystic/hereditary familial nephropathy 12.69%, congenital disease 11.68%, interstitial nephritis 5.58%, non-recovered tubular necrosis 3.55%, secondary GN 1.52% and 10.66% remained with doubtful diagnosis. HD was the first RRT in 84.02%, peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 14.43% and pre-emptive transplantation in 1.55% of all patients. A total of 53 patients (27.3% of total terminal renal failure (TRF) patients) received 56 kidney transplants (58.93% live related, 37.50% cadaveric, 3.57% live-non related). Actual survival in RRT was 64.53% 5 in years; 51.68% in 10 and 48.23% in 15 years. Patient survival in HD was significantly better over the last ten-year period than in the first ten-year period (35.88% vs. 75.75%; p < 0.005) as well as the survival of transplanted patients in the same two periods (67.62% vs. 95.45%). Graft survival was 79.85% in 5 and 70.50% in 10 years. Cardiovascular complications were the most common cause of death of patients on RRT (56.10 posto) followed by infection (24.39). On December 31, 1999, 54 patients on RRT were alive less than 19 years: 75.92% in HD; 22.22% with functioning graft and 1.85% on automatic PD. This is the first national-wide long-term study of incidence and aetiology of paediatric TRF and outcome of paediatric RRT in

  3. [Efficacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in treatment of children with end-stage renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Sahapozova, E; Ruso, B; Kuzmanovska, D; Tasić, V; Ristoska-Bojkoviska, N

    1998-01-01

    Three children (2 girls and 1 boy) with end-stage renal failure were put in program of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the period of 2.5 years (January 1995-September 1997). The age of the children at the treatment onset was 5-12 years. One of three children died due to cardiovascular failure after six-month treatment. Two out of three children had a total of 8 episodes of peritonitis in the period of 37 months during the treatment with peritoneal dialysis. The incidence of peritonitis occurrence in our patients was one episode in 4 patients/months. Most frequent cause for peritonitis occurrence was Staphylococcus aureus in 50% of isolated bacteria. Obtained results in peritoneal equilibration test revealed that the transport and ultrafiltration rate of peritoneal membrane decreased after recurrent peritonitis episodes.

  4. Sublethal exposure from microcystins to renal insufficiency patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Raquel M; Yuan, Moucun; Servaites, Jerome C; Delgado, Alvimar; Magalhães, Valéria F; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Carmichael, Wayne W; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2006-04-01

    In November 2001, a cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis and Anabaena occurred in the Funil Reservoir and the Guandu River, both of which supply drinking water to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using ELISA, microcystins were detected at a concentration of 0.4 microg/L in the drinking water, whereas a concentration of 0.32 microg/L was detected in activated carbon column-treated water for use at the renal dialysis center of Clementino Fraga Filho Hospital (HUCFF) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 44 hemodialysis patients who received care at this center were believed to be exposed. Initial ELISA analyses confirmed the presence of serum microcystin concentrations > or = 0.16 ng/mL in 90% of serum samples collected from these patients. Twelve patients were selected for continued monitoring over the following 2-month period. Serum microcystin concentrations ranged from < 0.16 to 0.96 ng/mL during the 57 days after documented exposure. ELISA-positive samples were found throughout the monitoring period, with the highest values detected 1 month after initial exposure. ESI LC/MS analyses indicated microcystins in the serum; however, MS/MS fragmentation patterns typical of microcystins were not identified. LC/MS analyses of MMPB for control serum spiked with MCYST-LR. and patient sera revealed a peak at retention time of 8.4 min and a mass of 207 m/z. These peaks are equivalent to the peak observed in the MMPB standard analysis. Taken together ELISA, LC/MS, and MMPB results indicate that these renal dialysis patients were exposed to microcystins. This documents another incident of human microcystin exposure during hemodialysis treatment.

  5. Retinopathy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study).

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C; Townsend, Raymond R; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei

    2015-11-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2,605 participants of the CRIC study were invited to participate, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1,936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant's information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and nontraditional risk factors, for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relation between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relation was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings.

  6. Association Between Retinopathy and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort [CRIC] Study)

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Daniel, Ebenezer; Alexander, Judith; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Chia-Mei Lo, Joan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John Walter; Xie, Dawei; Coleman, Martha; Keane, Martin Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience co-morbid illneses including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between retinopathy and self reported CVD in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this observational, ancillary investigation, 2605 CRIC participants were invited to participate in this study, and non-mydriatic fundus photographs in both eyes were obtained in 1936 subjects. Photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed using standard protocols by trained graders masked to information about study participants. History of self-reported cardiovascular disease was obtained using a medical history questionnaire. Kidney function measurements, traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD were obtained from the CRIC study. Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with higher prevalence of any cardiovascular disease and this association persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. Presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with increased prevalence of CVD. We found a direct relationship between CVD prevalence and mean venular caliber. In conclusion, presence of retinopathy was associated with CVD, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. This would make assessment of retinal morphology a valuable tool in chronic kidney disease studies of CVD outcomes. PMID:22516527

  7. Association of Serum Bicarbonate With Risk of Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in CKD: A Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Drawz, Paul; Hamm, L. Lee; Horwitz, Edward; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard; Lora, Claudia M; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Scialla, Julia; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum bicarbonate as a risk factor for renal outcomes, cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study Design Observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 3939 participants with CKD stages 2-4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) between June 2003 - December 2008. Predictor Serum bicarbonate. Outcomes Renal outcomes, defined as end-stage renal disease (either initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation) or 50% reduction in eGFR; atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease); congestive heart failure events; and death. Measurements Time to event. Results The mean eGFR was 44.8 ± 16.8 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median serum bicarbonate was 24 (IQR, 22-26) mEq/L. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 374 participants died, 767 had a renal outcome, and 332 experienced an atherosclerotic event and 391 had a congestive heart failure event. In adjusted analyses, the risk of developing a renal endpoint was 3% lower per mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; p=0.01). The association was stronger for participants with eGFR> 45ml/min/1.73m2 (HR, 0.91; 95%CI, 0.85-0.97; p=0.004). The risk of heart failure increased by 14% (HR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.03-1.26; p=0.02) per mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate over 24 mEq/L. Serum bicarbonate was not independently associated with atherosclerotic events (HR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.95-1.03; p=0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.95-1.02; p=0.3). Limitations Single measurement of sodium bicarbonate. Conclusions In a cohort of participants with CKD, low serum bicarbonate was an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression, particularly for participants with preserved kidney function. The risk of heart failure was higher at the upper extreme of serum bicarbonate. There was no association between serum bicarbonate and all

  8. Association of serum bicarbonate with risk of renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD: a report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Drawz, Paul; Hamm, L Lee; Horwitz, Edward; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard; Lora, Claudia M; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Scialla, Julia; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum bicarbonate level as a risk factor for renal outcomes, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Observational cohort study. 3,939 participants with CKD stages 2-4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) between June 2003 and December 2008. Serum bicarbonate level. Renal outcomes, defined as end-stage renal disease (either initiation of dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation) or 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease); congestive heart failure events; and death. Time to event. Mean eGFR was 44.8 ± 16.8 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median serum bicarbonate level was 24 (IQR, 22-26) mEq/L. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 374 participants died, 767 had a renal outcome, 332 experienced an atherosclerotic event, and 391 had a congestive heart failure event. In adjusted analyses, the risk of developing a renal end point was 3% lower per 1-mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate level (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; P = 0.01). The association was stronger for participants with eGFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97; P = 0.004). The risk of heart failure increased by 14% (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; P = 0.02) per 1-mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate level over 24 mEq/L. Serum bicarbonate level was not associated independently with atherosclerotic events (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03; P = 0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.02; P = 0.3). Single measurement of sodium bicarbonate. In a cohort of participants with CKD, low serum bicarbonate level was an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression, particularly for participants with preserved kidney function. The risk of heart failure was higher at the upper extreme of serum bicarbonate levels. There was no association between serum bicarbonate level and all

  9. Linear growth and anthropometric and nutritional measurements in children with mild to moderate renal insufficiency: a report of the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Study.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C L; Warady, B A; Massie, M D; Baluarte, H J; Fleischman, L E; Geary, D F; Kaiser, B A; McEnery, P T; Chan, J C

    1990-02-01

    During the control period of the Growth Failure in Children With Renal Diseases Study, investigators at 23 centers were able to observe and characterize growth and to make anthropometric and nutritional measurements in 82 children with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. As a multicenter, controlled clinical trial designed to study the relative efficacy of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dihydrotachysterol in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy, no prior vitamin D exposure and a creatinine clearance of 25 to 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 were criteria for entrance into the clinical trial. Ages ranged from 18 months to 11 years (mean 5.6 +/- 3.1 years), and distribution by age category was as follows: 38%, 1 to 3 years; 28%, 4 to 6 years; and 34%, 7 to 10 years. There was a 3:1 male/female ratio; 72% of the patients had congenital disease by the International Classification of Diseases (ninth revision). Mean creatinine clearance was 49.5 +/- 20 ml/min/1.73 m2. The C-terminal parathyroid hormone values (1121 +/- 1562 pg/ml) were well above 2 SD of the mean of a normal growing population of similar age. Parathyroid hormone values correlated with degree of renal insufficiency (r = -0.57) and with height by bone age but not with chronologic height or growth velocity. The bone age/height age ratio, a predictor of growth potential in normal children, was low for the entire series of patients (0.88 +/- 0.35) but failed to correlate with growth velocity and was negatively correlated with rising parathyroid hormone levels. Average values for height, weight, triceps skin fold, mid-arm muscle circumference, and body mass index were within 2 SD of the mean of the normal population, although measurements for the 1- to 3-year age group were significantly less than those of the older patients. Total energy intake averaged less than 86% of the recommended dietary allowances; total protein intake was more than 161% of the allowance. Nitrogen balance in 23 patients was positive and correlated

  10. Catch-up growth follows an abnormal pattern in experimental renal insufficiency and growth hormone treatment normalizes it.

    PubMed

    Molinos, I; Santos, F; Carbajo-Perez, E; Garcia, E; Rodriguez, J; Garcia-Alvarez, O; Gil, H; Ordoñez, F A; Loredo, V; Mallada, L

    2006-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine if the ability to undergo catch-up growth following a transient injury is preserved in an experimental model of moderate chronic renal failure (CRF) and the effect of growth hormone (GH) administration on such phenomenon. Young rats were subtotally nephrectomized (days 0 and 4) (Nx). From days 11 to 13, food intake was restricted in subgroups of Nx and control (C) rats (NxR and CR). After refeeding, subgroups of NxR and CR rats received GH from days 14 to 20 (NxRGH and CRGH). Rats were killed on days 14 (C, CR, Nx, NxR), 17 and 21 (C, CR, CRGH, Nx, NxR, NxRGH), and 36 (C, CR, Nx, NxR). Longitudinal growth rate was measured by osseous front advance in the proximal tibiae. With refeeding, growth rate of CR, NxR, and NXrGH rats became significantly greater than that of C, indicating catch-up growth. This occurred later and with lower growth rate in NxR than in CR rats, whereas the characteristics of catch-up growth in CR and NxRGH animals were similar. Changes in growth rate were associated with modifications in the morphology and proliferative activity of growth cartilage. We conclude that catch-up growth occurs in renal insufficiency but follows a different pattern from that observed with normal renal function. GH treatment normalizes the pattern of catch-up growth in CRF. Changes in growth velocity are associated to modifications in the structure and dynamics of growth cartilage.

  11. Prevalence and severity of anaemia in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy and different degrees of chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Li Vecchi, Maurizio; Fuiano, Giorgio; Francesco, Marino; Mancuso, Domenico; Faga, Teresa; Sponton, Andrea; Provenzano, Rossana; Andreucci, Michele; Tozzo, Carmela

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the single most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however its real impact on renal anaemia has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether onset, severity, and prevalence of anaemia during the course of CKD is different between type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. We enrolled 281 patients with: (1) type 2 diabetes and no CKD (n = 75); (2) type 2 diabetes plus CKD (n = 106), and (3) CKD without type 2 diabetes (n = 100). According to K/DOQI guidelines, the patients with renal insufficiency (i.e., those with a glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min) were subgrouped into three tertiles of CKD: (1) stage 3 (creatinine clearance 60-30 ml/min); (2) stage 4 (creatinine clearance 29-15 ml/min), and (3) stage 5 (creatinine clearance <15 ml/min). Anaemia was observed in 16% of the diabetic patients without CKD; it was more frequent in the diabetic patients with CKD than in the non-diabetic patients with CKD (61.7 vs. 52%, p < 0.05). The comparison among the tertiles showed that the prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher only in diabetic CKD patients of stages 4 and 5. The prevalence was higher in females independently of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics with a normal renal function, the haemoglobin levels were higher than in diabetics and non-diabetics with CKD, but the diabetics showed lower levels of haemoglobin than non-diabetics at stage 3 and stage 4 of CKD. Diabetic patients with CKD of stages 4 and 5 have a higher prevalence of anaemia than non-diabetic patients with comparable glomerular filtration rate. A higher awareness of this risk will allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [Oxidative stress and chronic renal insufficiency: what can be a prophylactic approach?].

    PubMed

    Cristol, J P; Maggi, M F; Bosc, J Y; Badiou, S; Delage, M; Vernet, M H; Michel, F; Castel, J; Canaud, B; Descomps, B

    1997-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the first cause of mortality in chronic renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis. Alterations in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress are recognized as vascular risk factors. Their corrections could be of interest for atherosclerosis prevention. In order to evaluate interest of an therapeutic intervention, we have analyzed oxidative metabolism in hemodialysis patients by determining the production of oxygen reactive species (ROS), the level of defense mechanisms, and the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and ROS, responsible for anti- or proxidant effects of NO. During dialysis sessions performed with cellulosic membrane (Cuprophan) an increase in hydroperoxide production by platelets was noted (12 HETE) (5.62 +/- 0.94 pg); similarly, superoxide anion (O2(0)-) production by monocytes (fluorescence index: 115 +/- 24) and by polynuclear cells (fluorescence index: 115 +/- 24) was enhanced. On the other hand, anti-oxidant defenses were significantly reduced with a decrease in RBC SOC activity (0.92 +/- 0.06 U/mg Hg) and in RBC vitamin E (0.7 +/- 0.07 mg/l) concentration. We have demonstrated a profound alteration in the L-arginine/NO pathway consequently to an accumulation of NO synthases inhibitors or activators. The necessity to reduce the production of ROS during dialysis sessions justifies the use of more biocompatible membranes, such as modified cellulosic or synthetic membranes, decreasing leucocyte activation. In addition, NO synthetase inhibitors can be preferentially eliminated by convection. Finally, a supplementation with an exogenous anti-oxidant, such as oral vitamin E (500 mg/day for 6 months) normalizes RBC vitamin E levels and concomitantly allows a decrease in MDA concentrations In conclusion, oxidative metabolism alterations observed in hemodialysis are multifactorial: preventive measures include the use of a more biocompatible material, the reequilibrium of the NO/ROS balance, and supplementation with

  13. Embryonic pathogenesis of hypogonadism and renal hypoplasia in hgn/hgn rats characterized by male sterility, reduced female fertility and progressive renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Yagi, Mio; Saito, Kenichi; Suzuki, Katsushi

    2007-03-01

    Congenital hypoplasia and dysplasia affect the postnatal development of organs, their physiological functioning in adulthood and the incidence of related diseases at an advanced age. Hypogonadic (hgn/hgn) rats are characterized by male sterility, reduced female fertility, progressive renal insufficiency and growth retardation, all controlled by a single recessive allele (hgn) located on chromosome 10. Since our previous studies indicated that the hypoplasia (dysplasia) of the affected organs was present at birth, we examined the embryonic pathogenesis. We mated hgn/hgn females to Brown Norway males and backcrossed F(1) males to hgn/hgn females. The resulting N(1) fetuses were genotyped using a hgn-linked microsatellite. Both sexes of hgn/hgn fetuses showed low body weight after embryonic day (ED) 15.5 and renal hypoplasia after ED 17.5. Their kidneys contained a reduced number of nephrons in a poorly formed nephrogenic zone and renal cortex. The hgn/hgn ovaries contained a small number of oogonia at ED 15.5 and oocytes after ED 17.5. Testicular growth defects were obvious after ED 17.5, and reduced numbers of Sertoli cells were detected at ED 19.5 and 21.5. The seminiferous cords in hgn/hgn testes contained more apoptotic and mitotic cells than those in +/hgn testes. These findings suggest that the phenotypes described in adult hgn/hgn rats result from embryonic hypogenesis, which continues to early postnatal stage and causes a reduction in functional tissues and cells. Since hgn/hgn rats have an insertion mutation in the microtubule-associated protein Spag5 gene, the embryonic hypogenesis described in hgn/hgn rats might result from defective cell proliferation.

  14. Preventive effect of oral nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanming; Wei, Qingmin; Cai, Junna; Shi, Yongtang; Zhang, Youliang; Yao, Limei; Wang, Xiaogang; Lin, Shupo; Li, Yilin; Lv, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Du, Ruijuan

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the preventive effect of oral nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. A total of 240 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min or less, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization, were randomly assigned to nicorandil group (n = 120, 10 mg nicorandil, three times daily from 2 days before to 3 days after procedure) or control group (n = 120, matching placebo as the same method). The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIN defined as 25 % increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or 44 μmol/L (0.5 mg/dL) increase in absolute value within 72 h after exposure to contrast medium. The secondary endpoints were: (1) the changes of SCr, Cystatin-C (Cys-C) and eGFR within 72 h; (2) major adverse events (MACE) occurring within 30 days. Baseline characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in nicorandil group compared with control group (6.67 vs. 17.5 %, P = 0.017). Compared with the control group, nicorandil group tended to have a lower SCr and Cys-C levels as well as a higher eGFR at 48 h after the procedure (all P < 0.05). There was no difference about the incidence of MACE within 30 days between nicorandil group and control group (4.16 vs. 5.83 %, P = 0.767). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that nicorandil was an independent protective factor against CIN (OR = 0.260, 95 % CI = 0.1-0.676, P = 0.006). Therefore, we concluded that oral nicorandil was associated with a decline in the incidence of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.

  15. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive function in older adults: findings from the chronic renal insufficiency cohort cognitive study.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Kristine; Ackerson, Lynn; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Le Blanc, Patti; Kusek, John W; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Cohen, Debbie; Anderson, Cheryl; Appel, Lawrence; Desalvo, Karen; Ojo, Akinlolu; Seliger, Stephen; Robinson, Nancy; Makos, Gail; Go, Alan S

    2010-02-01

    To investigate cognitive impairment in older, ethnically diverse individuals with a broad range of kidney function, to evaluate a spectrum of cognitive domains, and to determine whether the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive function is independent of demographic and clinical factors. Cross-sectional. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Eight hundred twenty-five adults aged 55 and older with CKD. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) was estimated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Cognitive scores on six cognitive tests were compared across eGFR strata using linear regression; multivariable logistic regression was used to examine level of CKD and clinically significant cognitive impairment (score < or =1 standard deviations from the mean). Mean age of the participants was 64.9, 50.4% were male, and 44.5% were black. After multivariable adjustment, participants with lower eGFR had lower cognitive scores on most cognitive domains (P<.05). In addition, participants with advanced CKD (eGFR<30) were more likely to have clinically significant cognitive impairment on global cognition (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI=1.1-3.9), naming (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.0-3.3), attention (AOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3-4.5), executive function (AOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.9-4.4), and delayed memory (AOR=1.5, 95% CI=0.9-2.6) but not on category fluency (AOR=1.1, 95% CI=0.6-2.0) than those with mild to moderate CKD (eGFR 45-59). In older adults with CKD, lower level of kidney function was associated with lower cognitive function on most domains. These results suggest that older patients with advanced CKD should be screened for cognitive impairment.

  16. Relation of Aortic Valve Calcium to Chronic Kidney Disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort [CRIC] Study)

    PubMed Central

    Guerraty, Marie A.; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Yenchih; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2015-01-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relationship between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relationship of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relationship of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relationship between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11 ml/min/1.73m2, 44.17 ml/min/1.73m2, and 39 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively, p< 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and non-black patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25791240

  17. The value of a formula including haematocrit, blood urea and gender (HUGE) as a screening test for chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gregori, J A; Robles, N R; Mena, C; Ardanuy, R; Jauregui, R; Macas-Nu Nunez, J F

    2011-06-01

    Despite increasing use in clinical practice, an estimated glomerular filtration rate value (eGFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 does not necessarily indicate the existence of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and this may lead to an over-estimate of CRI particularly in persons seventy years or older. To find a screening test able to differentiate CRI from the decrease in GFR normally associated with the renal ageing process. Medical information of 487 individuals of both sexes aged 16-102 was obtained from nephrologists, internal medicine physicians, cardiologists, geriatricians, family and nuclear medicine doctors from Argentina, Portugal and Spain. Data were assessed and statistically analysed using logistic regression techniques. From the discriminative variables it was derived the HUGE formula. A formula including haematocrit , blood urea, and gender (HUGE), diagnoses CRI regardless of the variables of age, blood creatinine, creatinine clearance, or other eGFR. The HUGE formula is: L = 2.505458 - (0.264418 x Hematocrit) + (0.118100 x Urea) [+ 1.383960 if male]. If L is a negative number the individual does not have CRI; if L is a positive number, CRI is present. Our data demonstrate that the HUGE formula is more reliable than MDRD and CKD-EPI, particularly in persons aged over 70. Our HUGE screening formula offers a straightforward, easily available and inexpensive method for differentiating between CRI and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 that will prevent a considerable number of aged healthy persons, as much as 1.700.000 in Spain and 2.600.000 in U.K., to be excluded from clinical assays or treatments contraindicated in CRI.

  18. Pregnancy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency at Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Glaucia; Ramos, José Geraldo Lopes; Martins-Costa, Sérgio; Barros, Elvino José Guardão

    2004-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) decreases reproductive capability. The biggest challenge in monitoring pregnant women with renal disease is to keep the intrauterine environment favorable to the fetus. One of the common prognosis in this kind of pregnancy involves premature birth, restricted growth and mental retardation. Also, the risk of developing complications is higher for the mother. This study focuses on evaluating CRI patients' clinical conditions during pregnancy, checking fetal development and birth and verifying the prevalence of CRI in pregnant women attended at Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre-Brazil (HCPA). This is a retrospective study with both a control and an case group of pregnant women with CRI who delivered their babies at HCPA from 1989 to 1999. The case group is composed of pregnant women with CRI, while the control group was paired according to maternal and gestational ages and to the time of the delivery, which should be the same both in the experimental and in the control group. Among the criteria usually used to identify CRI, we chose the creatinine level higher than 1.5 mg/dL. Significance was established in 0.05%. Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of CRI was 6/10,000 births. Average maternal age was 28. Sixty five per cent of the patients, in both the groups, underwent prenatal monitoring, 40% presented preeclampsia, 48% presented urinary infection. Among the CRI complications, 48% of the cases presented anemia and 56% presented systemic hypertension. Average hematocrit was 24% while hemoglobin was 6.7 g/dL, which leads us to the conclusion that patients presented anemia during pregnancy. Average creatinine was 4.61 mg/dL. It is relevant that 64% of the CRI cases migrated to a substitutive renal therapy method. As for the fetus evolution in the case group, we confirmed the findings of previous studies, such as larger number of premature births (newborns younger than 36 weeks in 60% of the cases), larger number of

  19. Insufficient renal 1-alpha hydroxylase and bone homeostasis in aged rats with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chang-Quan, Huang; Bi-Rong, Dong; Ping, He; Zhen-Chan, Lu

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between insufficient renal 1-alpha hydroxylase (IRH) and bone homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or insulin resistance (IR) and to investigate whether IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both IRH and bone loss in T2DM. The experimental animal models of T2DM, IR, IR treated with vitamin D (VD), IR treated with 1-alpha hydroxyvitamin D (1alpha(OH) D, the product of renal 1-alpha hydroxylase), T2DM treated with VD, and T2DM treated with 1alpha(OH) D were established on 18-month-old male Wistar rats. For rats in each animal model and normal control rats, IR was detected by euglycemic insulin clamp technique (EICT) and glucose infusion rate (GIR, an index of IR) was calculated. Levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and 1,25(OH)(2)D/25(OH)D ratio (1,25-25-R, an index of renal 1-alpha hydroxylase activity in vivo) was calculated; and bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral bone and lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). No significant difference was observed among the levels of 25(OH)D in all the rats. In IR rats, 1,25(OH)(2)D level, 1,25-25-R, and BMD level were significantly higher than those in T2DM rats and were lower than those in normal control rats. In the aged rats with T2DM or IR, administration of VD had no effect on 25(OH)D level, 1,25(OH)(2)D level, 1,25-25-R, and BMD level. Administration of 1alpha(OH) D had also no effect on 25(OH)D level but increased 1,25(OH)(2)D level, 1,25-25-R, and BMD level. For the aged rats with T2DM or IR, GIR positively correlated with both levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D and BMD, and 1,25-25-R positively and significantly correlated with levels of BMD. In T2DM or IR, IRH is a precipitating factor for bone loss. IR seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of both IRH and bone loss in T2DM.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome, Components, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Raymond R.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Chen, Jing; Gadebegku, Crystal A.; Feldman, Harold I.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Go, Alan S.; Joffe, Marshall; Nessel, Lisa A.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Teal, Valerie; Teff, Karen; Wright, Jackson T.; Xie, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Metabolic syndrome may increase the risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. It is unclear whether, and to what degree, metabolic syndrome is associated with CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined metabolic syndrome prevalence among individuals with a broad spectrum of kidney dysfunction, examining the role of the individual elements of metabolic syndrome and their relationship to prevalent CVD. Methods We evaluated four models to compare metabolic syndrome or its components to predict prevalent CVD using prevalence ratios in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Results Among 3,939 CKD participants, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 65% and there was a significant association with prevalent CVD. Metabolic syndrome was more common in diabetics (87.5%) compared with non-diabetics (44.3%). Hypertension was the most prevalent component, and increased triglycerides the least prevalent. Using the bayesian information criterion, we found that the factors defining metabolic syndrome, considered as a single interval-scaled variable, was the best of four models of metabolic syndrome, both for CKD participants overall and for diabetics and non-diabetics separately. Conclusion The predictive value of this model for future CVD outcomes will subsequently be validated in longitudinal analyses. PMID:21525746

  1. Predictors of ertapenem therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized adults: the importance of renal insufficiency and urinary pH.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Giuga, J; Gerson, S

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized adults acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and catheter associated bacteriuria (CAB) may be treated with oral antibiotics. With AUC or CAB due to extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) + Gram negative bacilli (GNB) physicians often use intravenous therapy, e.g., ertapenem. We reviewed our recent experience in hospitalized adults with AUC and CAB treated with ertapenem. Therapeutic efficacy of ertapenem was assessed by decreased pyuria/bacteriuria, and elimination of the uropathogen. The effectiveness of ertapenem in the presence of renal insufficiency (CrCl < 50 ml/min) and acid and alkaline urinary pH were evaluated. In addition, rapidity of eradication of bacteriuria was assessed by time to negative urine cultures (TTNC). In those with an acid urinary pH ertapenem was highly effective in eliminating bacteriuria (TTNC < 3 days). TTNC was prolonged ( >3 days) in patients with decreased renal function and alkaline urinary pH. We reviewed 45 hospitalized adults with AUC or CAB to determine if renal insufficiency and or alkaline urinary pH affected ertapenem efficacy. In the 33 adult hospitalized patients with AUC and 12 with CAB, we found that ertapenem was consistently effective in eliminating the GNB bacteriuria. In hospitalized adults, the presence of renal insufficiency and acid urine, bacteriuria was eliminated in < 3 days. However, in those with renal insufficiency and an alkaline urine pH, the rapidity of cure, i.e., time to negative cultures (TTNC) was prolonged, i.e., > 3 days which has not been previously reported.

  2. Renal insufficiency is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ping; Momin, Mohetaboer; Huo, Yong; Wang, Chun-yan; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Yan-jun; Liu, Zhao-ping; Wang, Xin-gang; Zheng, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between renal function and clinical outcomes among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI), who were treated with emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: 420 patients hospitalized in Peking University First Hospital, diagnosed with ASTEMI treated with emergency (PCI) from January 2001 to June 2011 were enrolled in this study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used as a measure of renal function. We compared the clinical parameters and outcomes between ASTEMI patients combined renal insufficiency and the patients with normal renal function. Results: There was a significant increase in the concentrations of fibrinogen and D-Dimer (P<0.05) and a much higher morbidity of diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<60 ml/(min·1.73 m2)) (P<0.01). CKD (eGFR<60 ml/(min·1.73 m2)) was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients hospitalized with ASTEMI receiving PCI therapy rapidly (P=0.032, odds ratio (OR) 4.159, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.127–15.346). Conclusions: Renal insufficiency is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients hospitalized with ASTEMI treated with primary PCI. PMID:22843184

  3. Sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel), a non-calcaemic phosphate binder, arrests parathyroid gland hyperplasia in rats with progressive chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagano, N; Miyata, S; Obana, S; Ozai, M; Kobayashi, N; Fukushima, N; Burke, S K; Wada, M

    2001-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that dietary phosphate restriction suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and parathyroid cell proliferation in experimental animals with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) independently of serum calcium and 1,25(OH)(2)D3 levels. This study was conducted to examine whether sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel); hereafter referred to as sevelamer), a non-calcaemic phosphate binder could inhibit the parathyroid gland (PTG) hyperplasia in rats with progressive CRI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice with low doses of adriamycin (ADR). Two weeks after the last injection of ADR, rats were fed a diet containing 1 or 3% sevelamer for 84 days. Time course changes of serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH were measured. At the end of study, serum 1,25(OH)(2)D3 levels were measured and the maximal two-dimension area of the PTG in paraffin section was calculated using an imaging analyser. Dietary sevelamer treatment inhibited the elevations of serum phosphorus, calciumxphosphorus product, and PTH levels that occurred as the study progressed. Sevelamer also suppressed maximal PTG area and there existed positive strong correlation between maximal PTG area and serum PTH levels at the end of the study. Serum phosphorus levels positively correlated well with serum PTH levels and maximal PTG area. In contrast, serum calcium or 1,25(OH)(2)D3 levels did not show any correlation with serum PTH levels and maximal PTG area. Sevelamer treatment arrested hyperphosphataemia and PTG hyperplasia accompanied by the elevation of serum PTH levels. The correlation analysis suggests that reduced serum phosphorus levels contributed to the suppression of PTG hyperplasia and resulted in the reduction of PTH levels in this animal model after the sevelamer treatment. The management of phosphorus control started from early stage of CRI could prevent PTG hyperplasia and facilitate later management of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  4. Sex Differences in the Incidence of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Grace J.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Xie, Dawei; Wang, Xue; Nessel, Lisa C.; Mohler, Emile R.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Chen, Jing; Wright, Jackson; Taliercio, Jonathan J.; Ojo, Akinlolu; C.Ricardo, Ana; Lustigova, Eva; Fairman, Ronald M.; Feldman, Harold I.; Ky, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Background To define how the incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) differs according to sex and age. Methods and Results The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) is a multi-center, prospective cohort study of CKD participants. Fine and Gray methods were used to determine the cumulative incidence of PAD, defined by an ankle brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 or a confirmed PAD event, with death as a competing event. Adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios from the Fine and Gray model determined the risk of PAD according to sex. A priori, we hypothesized that the relationship between sex and cumulative incidence of PAD differed according to age. The mean age of the 3,174 participants in this study was 56.6 years and consisted of 55% males. Over a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 17.8% developed PAD, 13.0% were lost to followup and 11.1% died. Females had a 1.53-fold greater adjusted PAD risk compared to men (95% CI 1.27-1.84, p<0.001). These sex-related differences in PAD risk also differed by age (p=0.013). Women, compared to men, were at a markedly increased risk for PAD at younger ages; however, at ages greater than 70 years, the risk was similar across both sexes. Older men had a substantially greater PAD risk compared to younger men. In women, PAD risk did not vary with age. Conclusions Females with CKD have a higher PAD risk compared to males at younger ages. There is an important need to improve our understanding of the biological and clinical basis for these differences. PMID:26908866

  5. The effect of preoperative renal insufficiency on postoperative outcomes after major hepatectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 1,170 patients.

    PubMed

    Squires, Malcolm H; Lad, Neha L; Fisher, Sarah B; Kooby, David A; Weber, Sharon M; Brinkman, Adam; Scoggins, Charles R; Egger, Michael E; Cardona, Kenneth; Cho, Clifford S; Martin, Robert C G; Russell, Maria C; Winslow, Emily; Staley, Charles A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2014-11-01

    Renal insufficiency adversely affects outcomes after cardiac and vascular surgery. The effect of preoperative renal insufficiency on outcomes after major hepatectomy is unknown. All patients who underwent major hepatectomy (≥3 segments) at 3 institutions from 2000 to 2012 were identified. Resections were performed using low central venous pressure anesthesia. Renal function was analyzed by preoperative serum creatinine (sCr) level. Primary outcomes were major complications (Clavien grade III to V), respiratory failure, renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and 90-day mortality. One thousand one hundred and seventy patients had preoperative sCr levels available. Renal function was analyzed using sCr dichotomized at 1.8 mg/dL, 1 SD higher than the mean value (0.97 ± 0.79 mg/dL) for the cohort. Twenty-two patients had sCr ≥1.8 mg/dL. Major complications occurred in 279 patients (23.8%), respiratory failure in 62 (5.3%), and renal failure in 31 (2.6%). Ninety-day mortality rate was 5.4%. On multivariate analysis, patients with sCr ≥1.8 mg/dL remained at significantly increased risk for major complications (hazard ratio = 3.94; 95% CI, 1.48-10.49; p = 0.006), respiratory failure (hazard ratio = 4.43; 95% CI, 1.33-14.80; p = 0.014), and renal failure (hazard ratio = 4.75; 95% CI, 1.19-18.97; p = 0.028). Serum Cr ≥1.8 mg/dL was not independently associated with 90-day mortality on multivariate analysis (p = 0.27). Preoperative serum creatinine ≥1.8 mg/dL identifies patients at significantly increased risk of postoperative major complications, respiratory failure, and renal failure requiring dialysis. Patients are well selected for major hepatectomy, and few patients with substantial renal insufficiency are deemed operative candidates. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility of three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography-fluoroscopy image fusion technique in guiding complex endovascular aortic procedures in patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Schwein, Adeline; Chinnadurai, Ponraj; Shah, Dipan J; Lumsden, Alan B; Bechara, Carlos F; Bismuth, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional image fusion of preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography with fluoroscopy using intraoperative noncontrast cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been shown to improve endovascular procedures by reducing procedure length, radiation dose, and contrast media volume. However, patients with a contraindication to CT angiography (renal insufficiency, iodinated contrast allergy) may not benefit from this image fusion technique. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and fluoroscopy image fusion using noncontrast CBCT as a guidance tool during complex endovascular aortic procedures, especially in patients with renal insufficiency. All endovascular aortic procedures done under MRA image fusion guidance at a single-center were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had moderate to severe renal insufficiency and underwent diagnostic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after gadolinium or ferumoxytol injection. Relevant vascular landmarks electronically marked in MRA images were overlaid on real-time two-dimensional fluoroscopy for image guidance, after image fusion with noncontrast intraoperative CBCT. Technical success, time for image registration, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) acquisitions before stent deployment or vessel catheterization, and renal function before and after the procedure were recorded. The image fusion accuracy was qualitatively evaluated on a binary scale by three physicians after review of image data showing virtual landmarks from MRA on fluoroscopy. Between November 2012 and March 2016, 10 patients underwent endovascular procedures for aortoiliac aneurysmal disease or aortic dissection using MRA image fusion guidance. All procedures were technically successful. A paired t-test analysis showed no difference between preimaging and postoperative renal function (P = .6). The mean time required for MRA-CBCT image

  7. Drug-eluting vs. bare-metal stents for treatment of acute myocardial infarction with renal insufficiency. Results from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Hui; Lim, Sang Yup; Choi, Young Hwan; Suh, Sang Heon; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Park, Jeong Woo; Ma, Seong Kwon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have had conflicting results between drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether DES is preferable for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with renal insufficiency, and to elucidate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes of each stent. As a part of the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR), 2,175 AMI patients with renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate <60ml/min) comprising 208 patients with BMS and 1,967 DES implantation were selected. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiac event (MACE), defined as a composite of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. In the overall population, the MACE rate at 1 year was significantly higher in the BMS group than that of DES (44% vs. 26%, P<0.05), which was mainly due to death rather than repeat intervention (44% vs. 26%, P<0.05). In the diabetic group with DES implantation, the MACE rate was higher compared with the DES group without DM, mainly due to repeat intervention (5% vs. 8%, P<0.05). In AMI patients with renal insufficiency, DES implantation exhibits a favorable 1-year clinical outcome than BMS implantation, and subgroup analysis for diabetic subjects showed worse outcomes in the DM group with implanted DES.

  8. Utility of radioisotopic filtration markers in chronic renal insufficiency: Simultaneous comparison of sup 125 I-iothalamate, sup 169 Yb-DTPA, sup 99m Tc-DTPA, and inulin. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study

    SciTech Connect

    Perrone, R.D.; Steinman, T.I.; Beck, G.J.; Skibinski, C.I.; Royal, H.D.; Lawlor, M.; Hunsicker, L.G. )

    1990-09-01

    Assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with inulin is cumbersome and time-consuming. Radioisotopic filtration markers have been studied as filtration markers because they can be used without continuous intravenous (IV) infusion and because analysis is relatively simple. Although the clearances of 99mTc-DTPA, 169Yb-DTPA, and 125I-iothalamate have each been compared with inulin, rarely has the comparability of radioisotopic filtration markers been directly evaluated in the same subject. To this purpose, we determined the renal clearance of inulin administered by continuous infusion and the above radioisotopic filtration markers administered as bolus injections, simultaneously in four subjects with normal renal function and 16 subjects with renal insufficiency. Subjects were studied twice in order to assess within-study and between-study variability. Unlabeled iothalamate was infused during the second half of each study to assess its effect on clearances. We found that renal clearance of 125I-iothalamate and 169Yb-DTPA significantly exceeded clearance of inulin in patients with renal insufficiency, but only by several mL.min-1.1.73m-2. Overestimation of inulin clearance by radioisotopic filtration markers was found in all normal subjects. No differences between markers were found in the coefficient of variation of clearances either between periods on a given study day (within-day variability) or between the two study days (between-day variability). The true test variability between days did not correlate with within-test variability. We conclude that the renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA, 169Yb-DTPA, or 125I-iothalamate administered as a single IV or subcutaneous injection can be used to accurately measure GFR in subjects with renal insufficiency; use of the single injection technique may overestimate GFR in normal subjects.

  9. Association of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 With Atrial Fibrillation in Chronic Kidney Disease, From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rupal; Cai, Xuan; Lee, Jungwha; Scialla, Julia J.; Bansal, Nisha; Sondheimer, James H.; Chen, Jing; Hamm, L. Lee; Ricardo, Ana C.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Deo, Rajat; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.; Isakova, Tamara; Wolf, Myles

    2016-01-01

    Importance Levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and strongly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and death. Whether FGF23 is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation in CKD is unknown. Objective To investigate the association of FGF23 with atrial fibrillation in CKD. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study of 3876 individuals with mild to severe CKD who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study between June 19, 2003, and September 3, 2008, and were followed up through March 31, 2013. Exposures Baseline plasma FGF23 levels. Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent and incident atrial fibrillation. Results The study cohort comprised 3876 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 57.7 (11.0) years, and 44.8% (1736 of 3876) were female. Elevated FGF23 levels were independently associated with increased odds of prevalent atrial fibrillation (n = 660) after adjustment for cardiovascular and CKD-specific factors (odds ratio of highest vs lowest FGF23 quartile, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.69-3.13; P < .001 for linear trend across quartiles). During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 6.3-8.6 years), 247 of the 3216 participants who were at risk developed incident atrial fibrillation (11.9 events per 1000 person-years). In fully adjusted models, elevated FGF23 was independently associated with increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation after adjustment for demographic, cardiovascular, and CKD-specific factors, and other markers of mineral metabolism (hazard ratio of highest vs lowest FGF23 quartile, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.53; P = .02 for linear trend across quartiles). The results were unchanged when further adjusted for ejection fraction, but individual adjustments for left ventricular mass index, left atrial area, and interim heart failure events partially attenuated the association of elevated FGF23 with incident atrial fibrillation. Conclusions and

  10. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline characteristics from the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Go, Alan S; Lora, Claudia M; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John W; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C; Rosen, Leigh K; Tao, Kaixiang; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold I; Lash, James P

    2011-08-01

    Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were aged 21-74 years with CKD using age-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008, whereas CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at 7 clinical centers in 2003-2007. Race/ethnicity. Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, and CKD-associated complications. Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols. Of H-CRIC/CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1,650 were non-Hispanic black, and 1,638 were non-Hispanic white. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (P < 0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks (51%) and whites (40%; P < 0.01). Blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg was more common in Hispanics (62%) than blacks (57%) and whites (35%; P < 0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (P < 0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs among the high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg. Mean eGFR was lower in Hispanics (39.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) than in blacks (43.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and whites (46.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), whereas median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (protein excretion, 0.72 g/d) than in blacks (0.24 g/d) and whites (0.12 g/d; P < 0.01). Generalizability; observed associations limited

  11. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline Characteristics From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Go, Alan; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C.; Rosen, Leigh; Tao, Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Setting and Participants Participants were aged 21–74 years with CKD using age-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois from 2005–2008 while CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at seven clinical centers from 2003–2007. Factor Race/ethnicity Outcomes Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, CKD-associated complications Measurements Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols Results Among H-CRIC/ CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1650 non-Hispanic Black, and 1638 non-Hispanic White. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (p<0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic Blacks (51%) and Whites (40%) (p<0.01). Blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg was more common in Hispanics (62%) compared with Blacks (57%) and Whites (35%) (p<0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (p<0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest receipt of ACE inhibitor/ARB among high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR (ml/min/m2) was lower in Hispanics (39.6) than in Blacks (43.7) and Whites (46.2), while median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (0.72 g/d) than in Blacks (0.24 g/d) and Whites (0.12 g/d) (p<0.01). Limitations Generalizability; observed

  12. Phosphate, fibroblast growth factor 23 and retinopathy in chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rupal; Ying, Gui Shuang; Houston, Samuel; Isakova, Tamara; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Go, Alan; Lash, Jim; Kusek, John; Grunwald, Juan; Wolf, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated circulating concentrations of phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Retinopathy is a common manifestation of microvascular disease in CKD, but its associations with phosphate and FGF23 have not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that higher serum phosphate is associated with more severe retinopathy in individuals with CKD, independent of FGF23 and known risk factors for retinopathy. Methods We tested the associations of serum phosphate and plasma FGF23 with retinopathy in a cross-sectional analysis of 1800 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study who underwent fundus photography. Retinopathy severity was graded according to the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Severity score, and retinal venous and arterial diameters were measured. Results Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 46.5 ± 15.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, mean serum phosphate was 3.7 ± 0.6 mg/dl and median plasma C-terminal FGF23 was 133 RU/mL (interquartile range 87.2, 217.8 RU/mL). In multivariable ordinal logistic regression models, higher serum phosphate was associated with greater retinopathy severity independent of hypertension, diabetes, CKD severity and FGF23 [adjusted odds ratio of being in one higher category of retinopathy severity: 1.19 per 1 standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 1.36; P = 0.007]. Presence of diabetes or hypertension did not modify the results. Higher serum phosphate was also independently associated with greater retinal venous diameter (multivariable-adjusted 1.70 µm increase per 1 standard deviation increase in phosphate; 95% CI 0.46, 2.93; P = 0.007). FGF23 levels were not independently associated with retinopathy severity or retinal venous diameter, and neither FGF23 nor phosphate was associated with retinal arterial diameter. Conclusions Among individuals with moderate-to-severe CKD

  13. Blood Pressure and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nisha; McCulloch, Charles E; Lin, Feng; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda H; Cuevas, Magda; Go, Alan S; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Lustigova, Eva; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Townsend, Raymond R; Wright, Jackson; Xie, Dawei; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported a linear association between higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients when SBP is measured outside of the dialysis unit (out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP), despite there being a U-shaped association between SBP measured at the dialysis unit (dialysis-unit-SBP) with risk of mortality. Here, we explored the relationship between SBP with cardiovascular events, which has important treatment implications but has not been well elucidated. Among 383 hemodialysis participants enrolled in the prospective CRIC study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort), multivariable splines and Cox models were used to study the association between SBP and adjudicated cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease), controlling for differences in demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and dialysis parameters. Dialysis-unit-SBP and out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP were modestly correlated (r=0.34; P<0.001). We noted a U-shaped association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular events, with the nadir risk between 140 and 170 mm Hg. In contrast, there was a linear stepwise association between out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular events. Participants with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≥128 mm Hg (top 2 quartiles) had >2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≤112 mm Hg (3rd SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.87] and fourth SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.76 [95% confidence interval, 1.42-5.33]). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients, although there is a U-shaped (paradoxical) association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular disease, there is a linear association of out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular disease. Out-of-dialysis-unit blood pressure provides key information and may be an important therapeutic target.

  14. Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Humayun, Mohammad A; Turner, Justine M; Rafii, Mahroukh; Langos, Veronika; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2017-08-30

    Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown.Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI.Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) with 21 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]Phe to (13)CO2 (F(13)CO2). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F(13)CO2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F(13)CO2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites.Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) and 7.3 and 10.9 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) and 5.8 and 7.3 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences.Conclusion: These results suggest that children with CRI have a similar mean and population-safe TSAA to that of healthy children, suggesting adequate Cys synthesis via transsulfuration, but higher minimum Met requirement, suggesting

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA-B5801 genotyping in the treatment of gout patients with chronic renal insufficiency in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook; Park, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Shin-Seok

    2015-02-01

    Allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are relatively rare but cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that the HLA-B5801 allele and renal impairment are strongly associated with SCARs. Recent American College of Rheumatology guidelines recommend that, prior to treatment with allopurinol, the HLA-B5801 genotype of gout patients at high risk for SCARs, including Korean patients with chronic renal insufficiency, should be determined. However, whether such genotyping is cost-effective is unknown. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B5801 genotyping for the treatment of gout in patients with chronic renal insufficiency in Korea. A decision analytical model over a time period of 12 months was employed to compare the cost and outcomes of treatment informed by HLA-B5801 genotyping with that of a conventional treatment strategy using a hypothetical cohort of gout patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Direct medical costs were obtained from real patients with SCARs from 2 tertiary hospitals. Outcomes were measured as a total expected cost and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. In the base model, the total expected cost and probability of continuation of gout treatment without SCARs for the conventional and HLA-B5801 screening strategies were $1,193 and 97.8% and $1,055 and 100%, respectively. The results were robust according to sensitivity analyses. Our model suggests that gout treatment informed by HLA-B5801 genotyping is less costly and more effective than treatment without genotyping, and HLA-B5801 genotyping could considerably reduce the occurrence of allopurinol-induced SCARs and related deaths. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Association of TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 gene polymorphisms in type-2 diabetes and renal insufficiency among Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pushplata; Tiwari, Arun K; Kumar, KM Prasanna; Ammini, AC; Gupta, Arvind; Gupta, Rajeev; Thelma, BK

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytokines play an important role in the development of diabetic chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1) induces renal hypertrophy and fibrosis, and cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated upon activation and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) mediate macrophage infiltration into kidney. Over expression of these chemokines leads to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. The effect of MCP-1 and RANTES on kidney is conferred by their receptors i.e., chemokine receptor (CCR)-2 and CCR-5 respectively. We tested association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes among individuals with type-2 diabetes with and without renal insufficiency. Methods Type-2 diabetes subjects with chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine ≥ 3.0 mg/dl) constituted the cases, and matched individuals with diabetes of duration ≥ 10 years and normoalbuminuria were evaluated as controls from four centres in India. Allelic and genotypic contributions of nine SNPs from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes to diabetic CRI were tested by computing odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sub-analysis of CRI cases diabetic retinopathy status as dependent variable and SNP genotypes as independent variable in a univariate logistic regression was also performed. Results SNPs Tyr81His and Thr263Ile in TGF β1 gene were monomorphic, and Arg25Pro in TGF β1 gene and Δ32 polymorphism in CCR5 gene were minor variants (minor allele frequency <0.05) and therefore were not considered for case-control analysis. A significant allelic association of 59029G>A SNP of CCR5 gene has been observed and the allele 59029A seems to confer predisposition to development of diabetic CRI (OR 1.39; CI 1.04–1.84). In CRI subjects a compound group of genotypes "GA and AA" of SNP G>A -800 was found to confer predisposition for proliferative

  17. Renal insufficiency and the risk of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS).

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Ann M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Hsia, Judith; Shlipak, Michael G

    2004-04-01

    Renal insufficiency is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, but whether it predicts lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is unknown. The authors evaluated was the association of baseline renal insufficiency with future PAD events in the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and follow-up study (HERS II). A total of 2763 postmenopausal women with known coronary heart disease were enrolled in HERS and randomly assigned to receive hormone therapy with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate or placebo and followed for up to 8 yr for clinical end points. The outcome was time from randomization to first occurrence of either a lower extremity amputation, revascularization (surgical or percutaneous), or lumbar sympathectomy during follow-up. Incident lower extremity PAD event rates among women with creatinine clearances > or =60, 30 to 59, and < 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were, respectively, 0.55%, 0.92%, and 2.73% per year. After multivariable proportional-hazard adjustment for potential confounders and other known risk factors for PAD, women with a creatinine clearance 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.54, P = 0.032) and <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.78, P = 0.021) had a significantly increased risk of PAD compared with participants with a creatinine clearance > or =60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Renal insufficiency was independently associated with future PAD events among postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease. Future studies should determine whether this association is present in other populations and investigate its potential mechanisms.

  18. Polypharmacy and Renal Failure in Nursing Home Residents: Results of the Inappropriate Medication in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in Nursing Homes (IMREN) Study.

    PubMed

    Dörks, Michael; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Schmiemann, Guido; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Polypharmacy has become an emerging public health issue in recent years, since use of multiple medications or polypharmacy is beneficial for many conditions, but may also have negative effects like adverse drug reactions. The risk further increases in patients with chronic renal failure, a comorbidity very frequent in nursing home residents. Since more than 50% of all drugs were renally excreted, dose adjustments in patients with renal failure are required. To assess polypharmacy in German nursing homes, in particular in residents with renal failure. Multi-center cross-sectional study in 21 nursing homes in Bremen and Lower Saxony/Germany. Baseline data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariable logistic regression model and 95% confidence intervals were used to study the association of renal failure and polypharmacy. Of all 852 residents, the analysis comprised those 685 with at least one serum creatinine value so that the estimated creatinine clearance could be calculated. Of those, 436 (63.6%) had a severe or moderate renal failure, defined as estimated creatinine clearance <60 mL/min. Polypharmacy (5-9 drugs) was found in 365 (53.3%) and excessive polypharmacy (≥10 drugs) in 112 (16.4%) residents. Diuretics and psycholeptics were the most commonly used drug classes. Severe renal failure (estimated creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) was associated with polypharmacy (OR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.7). Both, polypharmacy and renal failure are common in German nursing home residents and an association of both could be found. Further studies are needed to assess the appropriateness of polypharmacy in these patients.

  19. Atorvastatin improves sodium handling and decreases blood pressure in salt-loaded rats with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Juncos, Luis I; Martín, Fernando L; Baigorria, Sandra T; Pasqualini, María E; Fiore, María C; Eynard, Aldo R; Juncos, Luis A; García, Néstor H

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to mediate the cardiovascular risks associated with salt sensitivity. Because hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors decrease oxidation and increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, we examined the effects of atorvastatin (ator) on tissue injury in rats with a reduced renal mass produced by 5/6 nephrectomy. This salt-sensitive hypertension model causes kidney and cardiovascular injuries. After undergoing 5/6 nephrectomy or sham surgery, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: sham, reduced renal mass and a normal salt diet (NNaD), NNaD+ator (50 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)), reduced renal mass and a high salt diet (HNaD), and HNaD+ator. After assessing the sodium balance for 7 d, we measured blood pressure (BP), creatinemia, proteinuria, nitrites, and 12(S)-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid, the renal cortical expression of endothelial NO synthase, and the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight. In NNaD rats, creatinine, proteinuria, and 12(S)-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid increased, renal NO indices decreased, but the Na(+) balance, BP, and the left ventricular weight/body weight ratio remained unchanged. In the NNaD group, atorvastatin normalized the NO indices and decreased BP and proteinuria, although the remaining parameters continued unchanged. In contrast, HNaD increased creatinemia, proteinuria, and 12(S)-hydroxy 5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid excretion rates and decreased renal endothelial NO synthase. Salt retention was accompanied by increased BP and ventricular weight. In this HNaD group, atorvastatin prevented a BP increase, partly decreased sodium retention, but failed to improve NO indices, proteinuria, oxidant stress, and the left ventricular weight/body weight ratio. Atorvastatin exerts beneficial effects on renal function, injury, and salt sensitivity in rats with a reduced renal mass on an NNaD. The HNaD hampers these beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  20. Persistent High Serum Bicarbonate and the Risk of Heart Failure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J.; Ham, L. L.; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Scialla, Julia J.; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time‐updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long‐term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end‐stage renal disease), and mortality. Methods and Results Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time‐dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow‐up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person‐years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person‐years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow‐up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co‐morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L had almost a 2‐fold increased risk of renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. Conclusion In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:25896890

  1. Persistent high serum bicarbonate and the risk of heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): A report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J; Ham, L L; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Rosas, Sylvia E; Scialla, Julia J; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-04-20

    Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time-updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long-term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end-stage renal disease), and mortality. Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time-dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow-up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person-years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person-years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L had almost a 2-fold increased risk of renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Predictors of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T in chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac troponin T is independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) reflect subclinical myocardial injury in ambulatory patients. We sought to determine the distribution and predictors of hs-TnT in CKD patients without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We studied 2464 participants within the multi-ethnic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) who did not have self-reported CVD. We considered renal and non-renal factors as potential determinants of hs-TnT, including demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular (LV) mass, serologic factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin to creatinine ratio. Results Hs-TnT was detectable in 81% of subjects, and the median (IQR) hs-TnT was 9.4 pg/ml (4.3-18.3). Analysis was performed using Tobit regression, adjusting for renal and non-renal factors. After adjustment, lower eGFR was associated with higher expected hs-TnT; participants with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 had 3-fold higher expected hs-TnT compared to subjects with eGFR > 60. Older age, male gender, black race, LV mass, diabetes and higher blood pressure all had strong, independent associations with higher expected hs-TnT. Conclusions Knowledge of the determinants of hs-TnT in this cohort may guide further research on the pathology of heart disease in patients with CKD and help to stratify sub-groups of CKD patients at higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:24148285

  3. Impact of age, body mass index, insulin resistance and proteinuria on the kidney function in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Koch, M; Beien, A; Fusshã Ller, A; Zitta, S; Haastert, B; Trapp, R

    2008-01-01

    To date, several different equations to predict the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with renal insufficiency have been developed for different patients groups. Our aim was to determine the prognostic factors of GFR in our homogenous patient group of obese, water-loaded patients with Type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency, since we assumed that the endogenous creatinine clearance (ECC) alone may not be an accurate method to predict GFR. We recruited 46 obese patients (37 men) with Type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency in our nephrology center in Mettmann (Germany). However, two male patients were excluded from the analysis due to an outlying insulin level or low inulin clearance. The inulin clearance as a measure of renal function performed by the single shot method was compared with the GFR estimated by ECC, Cystatin C, and MDRD formula. Several multiple regression models were built to test the impact of the prognostic factors age, sex, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), body water (TBW), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and proteinuria on the inulin clearance. In the main regression model to predict the inulin clearance by ECC, only the statistically significant prognostic factors of these models were selected, as well as the interaction between GFR predicted by ECC (GFR_ECC) and BMI. The prognostic factors GFR_ECC, age, BMI, HOMA and proteinuria had a statistically significant impact on the inulin clearance (the gold standard of the GFR) in our patient population (p < 0.05). However, the interaction of GFR_ECC and BMI was not significant (p = 0.06) in our model. The model was validated and considered well-fitted with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.69. The independent prognostic factors to determine GFR in obese, water-loaded diabetic patients are GFR_ECC, age, BMI, HOMA and proteinuria. However, our model should be revalidated and tested in a larger sample size to probably

  4. Effect of preoperative renal insufficiency on postoperative outcomes after pancreatic resection: a single institution experience of 1,061 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Squires, Malcolm H; Mehta, Vishes V; Fisher, Sarah B; Lad, Neha L; Kooby, David A; Sarmiento, Juan M; Cardona, Kenneth; Russell, Maria C; Staley, Charles A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to adversely affect cardiac and vascular surgery outcomes. We examined the effect of preoperative renal insufficiency on postoperative outcomes after pancreatic resection. All patients who underwent pancreatic resection between January 2005 and July 2012 were identified. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Severe CKD (stages 4-5) was defined as eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Renal function also was analyzed using serum creatinine (sCr) dichotomized at 1.8 mg/dL. Primary outcomes were any complication, major complications, and respiratory failure. Multivariate models for each endpoint were constructed by including all variables with p value ≤ 0.10 on univariate analysis. There were 1,061 patients identified; 709 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, 307 distal pancreatectomy, and 45 central or total pancreatectomy. Median sCr value was 0.86 mg/dL (range 0.30 to 14.1 mg/dL). Eighteen patients (1.7%) had severe CKD and 31 (2.9%) had sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL. Complications occurred in 622 patients (58.6%), major complications in 198 (18.7%), and respiratory failure in 48 (4.5%). Both severe CKD and sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL were associated with any complication, major complications, and respiratory failure on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, severe CKD was associated with increased complications (odds ratio [OR] 5.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 25.5; p = 0.02) and respiratory failure (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.8 to 20.5; p = 0.03), but not major complications. Using sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL as a surrogate marker for renal insufficiency, patients with sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL had increased risk of any complication (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 9.3; p = 0.01), major complications (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.04 to 4.8; p = 0.04), and respiratory failure (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.8 to 12.6; p = 0.002). Few patients with significant renal insufficiency are candidates for pancreatic resection. Severe CKD (stages 4-5) is associated with

  5. Cisplatin Induced Renal Insufficiency Measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate with 99mTc-DTPA and by using Serum Creatinine based Formulae: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Deswal, Satyawati; Prakash, Chandra; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cisplatin also known as Cis-Diammine-Dichloroplatinum (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic alkylating nephrotoxic agent. Thus, it is necessary to know if renal function is normal before starting chemotherapy. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) can be assessed directly by using a radiopharmaceutical (dGFR). Estimated GFR (eGFR) method use, Serum Creatinine (SCR) levels in mathematical formulae such as Cockroft-Gault (CG) and abbreviated. Modified Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD). The serum creatinine level is a function of GFR but is relatively insensitive for detecting early renal insufficiency. Aim We aimed to correlate the incidence of Renal Insufficiency (RI) before and one month after completion of chemotherapy treatment by various methods. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, we examined 64 patients with locally advanced head neck and uterine cervix cancers, before and one month after chemotherapy treatment with CDDP. Single agent CDDP was used with dose range between 35mg/m2 as concurrent weekly chemotherapy. Results Baseline RI was seen in 9.3% of patients by SCR levels, in 21.8% by the dGFR method, in 43.75% by the GFR-CG method and in 25% by the GFR-aMDRD formula. We considered GFR of <60 ml/min and SCR >1.5mg% as RI. After completion of treatment, the median RI was seen in 12.5% by SCR levels, 34.38% by dGFR method, 53.13% by GFR-CG method and 40.63% by GFR-aMDRD formula. None of the methods of GFR estimation showed statistically significant increase in RI one month after CDDP infusion. Only a weak correlation was seen between dGFR and eGFR based on SCR value (p=0.006). Conclusion Baseline RI was detected in 12% more cases when measured by dGFR as compared with SCR level. However, mathematical formulae overestimated baseline RI as compared to dGFR. One month after completion of treatment with CDDP chemotherapy, RI increased in 10%-15% cases as detected by all the four evaluated methods. There is weak correlation between SCR and dGFR thus

  6. [Hyperkalemia during prolonged use of angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitors in end-stage renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Mooser, V; Fellay, G; Regamey, C

    1992-12-12

    Hyperkalemia is a severe complication of end-stage renal failure. To evaluate whether ACE inhibitors may even worsen the propensity to develop hyperkalemia in this condition, we have analyzed retrospectively pre-dialytic blood pressure and serum potassium in 15 patients on chronic hemodialysis before and during long-term ACE inhibition. This treatment induced a significant drop in blood pressure (from 173 +/- 3/90 +/- 2 to 159 +/- 5/85 +/- 2 mm Hg [p < 0.05]), whereas serum potassium increased from 4.9 +/- 0.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.2 mM (p < 0.05), irrespective of the dosage of ACE inhibitor and of the residual diuresis. Hyperkalemia was well tolerated and was corrected in all patients by dialysis; treatment was discontinued in only one case. In conclusion, ACE inhibitors represent effective antihypertensive treatment in end-stage renal failure. However, long-term ACE inhibition may be accompanied by a worsening of hyperkalemia, which could be accounted for by a reduced effect of aldosterone on extrarenal potassium homeostasis.

  7. Blood pressure and risk of all-cause mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis: the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nisha; McCulloch, Charles E; Rahman, Mahboob; Kusek, John W; Anderson, Amanda H; Xie, Dawei; Townsend, Raymond R; Lora, Claudia M; Wright, Jackson; Go, Alan S; Ojo, Akinlolu; Alper, Arnold; Lustigova, Eva; Cuevas, Magda; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of hemodialysis patients have shown a U-shaped association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality. These studies have largely relied on dialysis-unit SBP measures and have not evaluated whether this U-shape also exists in advanced chronic kidney disease, before starting hemodialysis. We determined the association between SBP and mortality at advanced chronic kidney disease and again after initiation of hemodialysis. This was a prospective study of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants with advanced chronic kidney disease followed through initiation of hemodialysis. We studied the association between SBP and mortality when participants (1) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n=1705), (2) initiated hemodialysis and had dialysis-unit SBP measures (n=403), and (3) initiated hemodialysis and had out-of-dialysis-unit SBP measured at a Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study visit (n=326). Cox models were adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and dialysis parameters. A quadratic term for SBP was included to test for a U-shaped association. At advanced chronic kidney disease, there was no association between SBP and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.07] per every 10 mm Hg increase). Among participants who started hemodialysis, a U-shaped association between dialysis-unit SBP and mortality was observed. In contrast, there was a linear association between out-of-dialysis-unit SBP and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.26 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.40] per every 10 mm Hg increase). In conclusion, more efforts should be made to obtain out-of-dialysis-unit SBP, which may merit more consideration as a target for clinical management and in interventional trials.

  8. Convergence Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... report of improvement in symptoms. What is the method of treatment for convergence insufficiency? Convergence insufficiency can ... be brought in to the office visit. Which method of treatment will be used for an individual ...

  9. The CECARI Study: Everolimus (Certican®) Initiation and Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in Maintenance Heart Transplant Recipients with Renal Insufficiency: A Multicenter, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Derthoo, David; Van Caenegem, Olivier; De Pauw, Michel; Nellessen, Eric; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Droogne, Walter; Vörös, Gábor; Meyns, Bart; Belmans, Ann; Janssens, Stefan; Vanhaecke, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In this 3-year, open-label, multicenter study, 57 maintenance heart transplant recipients (>1 year after transplant) with renal insufficiency (eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were randomized to start everolimus with CNI withdrawal (N = 29) or continue their current CNI-based immunosuppression (N = 28). The primary endpoint, change in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) from baseline to year 3, did not differ significantly between both groups (+7.0 mL/min in the everolimus group versus +1.9 mL/min in the CNI group, p = 0.18). In the on-treatment analysis, the difference did reach statistical significance (+9.4 mL/min in the everolimus group versus +1.9 mL/min in the CNI group, p = 0.047). The composite safety endpoint of all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, or treated acute rejection was not different between groups. Nonfatal adverse events occurred in 96.6% of patients in the everolimus group and 57.1% in the CNI group (p < 0.001). Ten patients (34.5%) in the everolimus group discontinued the study drug during follow-up due to adverse events. The poor adherence to the everolimus therapy might have masked a potential benefit of CNI withdrawal on renal function. PMID:28316834

  10. Renal insufficiency is the leading cause of double maintenance (bevacizumab and pemetrexed) discontinuation for toxicity to advanced non-small cell lung cancer in real world setting.

    PubMed

    Sassier, Marion; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Lesueur, Paul; Avrillon, Virginie; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Auliac, Jean-Bernard; Kaluzinski, Laure; Tillon, Julie; Robinet, Gilles; Le Caer, Hervé; Monnet, Isabelle; Madroszyk, Anne; Boza, Gabriella; Falchero, Lionel; Fournel, Pierre; Egenod, Thomas; Toffart, Anne-Claire; Leiber, Nathalie; Do, Pascal; Gervais, Radj

    2015-08-01

    In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), maintenance therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic reference for patients with non-progressive disease after platinum-based induction chemotherapy. However, the use of double maintenance (DM) with pemetrexed and bevacizumab is still being evaluated in terms of its clinical benefits and safety profile. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the reasons for DM discontinuation in a real-world setting. Patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC were eligible if they had received at least 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy, followed by at least 1 cycle of DM. They were identified by using the oncology pharmacy database of 17 French centers. Eighty-one patients who began a DM after induction chemotherapy were identified from September 2009 to April 2013. Among the 78 patients who had stopped DM at the time of the analysis, the main reasons for discontinuation were disease progression (42%), adverse events (33%), and personal preference (8%). The most frequent toxicity responsible for DM discontinuation was renal insufficiency (54%). For patients with advanced NSCLC eligible for DM therapy, a particular attention should be paid to potential renal failure. Kidney function should be monitored carefully before and during DM to detect and manage early this adverse event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Retinopathy and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study [CRIC])

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Juan E.; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W.; Xie, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2605 CRIC participants were invited to participate and non-mydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant’s information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relationship between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relationship was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings. PMID:26409637

  12. Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M; Miller, Edgar R; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-02-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease.

  13. Distinct impact of vitamin D insufficiency on calcitriol levels in chronic renal failure and renal transplant patients: a role for FGF23.

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, Sandro; Pasquali, Marzia; Pugliese, Francesco; Citterio, Franco; Gargiulo, Antonio; Rotondi, Silverio; Tartaglione, Lida; Conte, Carmina; Pirrò, Giuliana; Taggi, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency contributes to calcitriol (1,25D) reduction in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since CKD patients on conservative therapy (CRF) mostly develop, whereas transplant (TX) patients possibly recover from, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH), we hypothesized a different efficiency of vitamin D hydroxylation in these 2 clinical conditions. We compared the impact of reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) on circulating 1,25D in 111 CRF (mean age 63 ± 15 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 36.4 ± 22.0 ml/min) and in 136 TX patients (mean age 50 ± 11 years; eGFR 47 ± 19.0 ml/min). Vitamin D insufficient patients (69.1% in TX vs. 82% in CRF; p<0.005), compared with those without insufficiency, had lower values of 1,25D in CRF (24.5 ± 17.4 vs 35.8 ± 17.8 pg/mL; p<0.01) but not in TX (42.7 ± 23.8 vs. 50.1 ± 25.4 pg/mL; p=n.s.). Serum 25D and 1,25D were correlated in both CRF (r=0.387, p<0.0001) and TX (r=0.240, p0<.005) groups, but 1,25D values were higher in the TX group in any of the 4 ranges for 25D considered. Serum calcitriol correlated with eGFR (CRF: r=0.641, p<0.0001; TX: r=0.426, p<0.0001), but again with higher values in the TX group, in any of the CKD stages considered, except stage 2. In both conditions, the most predictive parameter of 1,25D levels was eGFR, together with phosphate and 25D in the CRF group (r2=0.545; p<0.0001), and with Ca and 25D in the TX group (r2=0.345; p<0.0001). In 2 subgroups, comparable for eGFR and 25D, levels of FGF23 were lower in the TX group, in agreement with higher values of 1,25D. A 25D deficit more significantly affects calcitriol concentrations in CRF as compared with TX. Efficiency of vitamin D hydroxylation should be considered when planning vitamin D replacement strategies.

  14. Ciliopathies with Skeletal Anomalies and Renal Insufficiency due to Mutations in the IFT-A Gene WDR19

    PubMed Central

    Bredrup, Cecilie; Saunier, Sophie; Oud, Machteld M.; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Hoischen, Alexander; Brackman, Damien; Leh, Sabine M.; Midtbø, Marit; Filhol, Emilie; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Gilissen, Christian; Haugen, Olav H.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Mans, Dorus A.; Steenbergen, Eric J.; Hamel, Ben C.J.; Matignon, Marie; Pfundt, Rolph; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Boman, Helge; Rødahl, Eyvind; Veltman, Joris A.; Knappskog, Per M.; Knoers, Nine V.A.M.; Roepman, Ronald; Arts, Heleen H.

    2011-01-01

    A subset of ciliopathies, including Sensenbrenner, Jeune, and short-rib polydactyly syndromes are characterized by skeletal anomalies accompanied by multiorgan defects such as chronic renal failure and retinitis pigmentosa. Through exome sequencing we identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR19 in a Norwegian family with Sensenbrenner syndrome. In a Dutch family with the clinically overlapping Jeune syndrome, a homozygous missense mutation in the same gene was found. Both families displayed a nephronophthisis-like nephropathy. Independently, we also identified compound heterozygous WDR19 mutations by exome sequencing in a Moroccan family with isolated nephronophthisis. WDR19 encodes IFT144, a member of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex A that drives retrograde ciliary transport. We show that IFT144 is absent from the cilia of fibroblasts from one of the Sensenbrenner patients and that ciliary abundance and morphology is perturbed, demonstrating the ciliary pathogenesis. Our results suggest that isolated nephronophthisis, Jeune, and Sensenbrenner syndromes are clinically overlapping disorders that can result from a similar molecular cause. PMID:22019273

  15. Ciliopathies with skeletal anomalies and renal insufficiency due to mutations in the IFT-A gene WDR19.

    PubMed

    Bredrup, Cecilie; Saunier, Sophie; Oud, Machteld M; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Hoischen, Alexander; Brackman, Damien; Leh, Sabine M; Midtbø, Marit; Filhol, Emilie; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Gilissen, Christian; Haugen, Olav H; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Mans, Dorus A; Steenbergen, Eric J; Hamel, Ben C J; Matignon, Marie; Pfundt, Rolph; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Boman, Helge; Rødahl, Eyvind; Veltman, Joris A; Knappskog, Per M; Knoers, Nine V A M; Roepman, Ronald; Arts, Heleen H

    2011-11-11

    A subset of ciliopathies, including Sensenbrenner, Jeune, and short-rib polydactyly syndromes are characterized by skeletal anomalies accompanied by multiorgan defects such as chronic renal failure and retinitis pigmentosa. Through exome sequencing we identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR19 in a Norwegian family with Sensenbrenner syndrome. In a Dutch family with the clinically overlapping Jeune syndrome, a homozygous missense mutation in the same gene was found. Both families displayed a nephronophthisis-like nephropathy. Independently, we also identified compound heterozygous WDR19 mutations by exome sequencing in a Moroccan family with isolated nephronophthisis. WDR19 encodes IFT144, a member of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex A that drives retrograde ciliary transport. We show that IFT144 is absent from the cilia of fibroblasts from one of the Sensenbrenner patients and that ciliary abundance and morphology is perturbed, demonstrating the ciliary pathogenesis. Our results suggest that isolated nephronophthisis, Jeune, and Sensenbrenner syndromes are clinically overlapping disorders that can result from a similar molecular cause.

  16. Renal toxicity evaluation and comparison between visipaque (iodixanol) and hexabrix (ioxaglate) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography: the RECOVER study: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sang-Ho; Youn, Tae-Jin; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Park, Jin-Shik; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Cho, Young-Seok; Chung, Woo-Young; Joo, Gwon-Wook; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Mook; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2006-09-05

    This study sought to compare the nephrotoxicity of iodixanol and ioxaglate in patients with renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography. Iodixanol, a nonionic, dimeric, iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM), may be less nephrotoxic than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in high-risk patients. In a prospective, randomized trial in 300 adults with creatinine clearance (CrCl) < or =60 ml/min, patients received either iodixanol or ioxaglate and underwent coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point was the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) (an increase in serum creatinine [SCr] > or =25% or > or =0.5 mg/dl [> or =44.2 mumol/l]). The incidence of CIN in patients with severe renal impairment at baseline (CrCl <30 ml/min) or diabetes and in those receiving large doses (> or =140 ml) of contrast medium was also determined. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower with iodixanol (7.9%) than with ioxaglate (17.0%; p = 0.021), corresponding to an odds ratio (OR) of CIN of 0.415 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.194 to 0.889) for iodixanol. The incidence of CIN was also significantly lower with iodixanol in patients with severe renal impairment (p = 0.023) or concomitant diabetes (p = 0.041), or in patients given > or =140 ml of contrast media (p = 0.038). Multivariate analysis identified use of ioxaglate (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11 to 6.33, p = 0.028), baseline SCr, mg/dl (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.85, p = 0.038), and left ventricular ejection fraction, % (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99, p = 0.019) as independent risk factors for CIN. The IOCM iodixanol was significantly less nephrotoxic than ioxaglate, an ionic, dimeric LOCM. (The RECOVER Trial; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00247325).

  17. Effect of a keto acid-amino acid supplement on the metabolism and renal elimination of branched-chain amino acids in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Horácková, M; Skibová, J; Holecek, M

    2000-10-27

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids-amino acids on renal function and urinary excretion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). In a prospective investigation 28 patients with CRI (16 male, 12 female, aged 28-66 yrs, CCr 18.6 +/- 10.2 ml/min) on a low-protein diet (0.6 g of protein /kg BW/day and energy intake 140 kJ/kg BW/day) for a period of one month were included. Subsequently, this low protein diet was supplemented with keto acids-amino acids at a dose of 0.1 g/kg BW/day orally for a period of 3 months. Examinations performed at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period revealed significant increase in the serum levels of BCAA leucine (p < 0.02), isoleucine (p < 0.03), and valine (p < 0.02) while their renal fractional excretion declined (p < 0.02, p < 0.01 resp.). Keto acid-amino acid administration had no effect on renal function and on the clearance of inulin, para-aminohippuric acid. Endogenous creatinine and urea clearance remained unaltered. A significant correlation between fractional excretion of sodium and leucine (p < 0.05) and a hyperbolic relationship between inulin clearance and fractional excretion of BCAA (p < 0.01) were seen. Moreover, a significant decrease in proteinuria (p < 0.02), plasma urea concentration and renal urea excretion and a rise in albumin level (p < 0.03) were noted. We conclude that in patients with CRI on a low protein diet the supplementation of keto acids-amino acids does not affect renal hemodynamics, but is associated--despite increases in plasma concentrations--with a reduction of renal amino acid and protein excretion suggesting induction of alterations in the tubular transport mechanisms.

  18. Leptin and resistin levels and their relationships with glucose metabolism in children with chronic renal insufficiency and undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Buyan, Necla; Necla, Buyan; Bideci, Aysun; Aysun, Bideci; Ozkaya, Ozan; Ozan, Ozkaya; Ortac, Erol; Erol, Ortac; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan; Sevcan, Bakkaloglu; Gonen, Sevim; Sevim, Gonen; Peru, Harun; Harun, Peru; Soylemezoglu, Oğuz; Oğuz, Soylemezoglu; Cinaz, Peyami; Peyami, Cinaz

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study is: (i) to evaluate the serum concentrations of leptin and resistin in the paediatric patients with chronic renal impairment (CRI), on haemodialysis (HD) and on peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment; (ii) to examine the relationship between these hormones; and (iii) to investigate the possible influence of these hormones on the insulin resistance and sensitivity indexes as well as on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. In total, 52 patients (15 patients with CRI, 24 PD patients and 13 HD patients) and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the present study. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher than 2.5 in 47.1% of the patients. IGF-1 levels of patients with CRI, PD and HD patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The leptin levels of patients with CRI and on PD and HD treatment were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.002, P = 0.006, respectively). Similarly, serum resistin levels of patients with CRI and those of PD and HD patients were higher when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.037, P < 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). Leptin and resistin levels were increased in the children with CRF; however, this elevation was not found to be associated with hyperinsulinism. Further studies to explain the mechanisms and consequences of the accumulation of these hormones in CRF may provide the therapeutical approach aiming to normalize their circulating levels.

  19. Nadroparine calcium or enoxaparine in acute coronary syndrome patients suffering renal insufficiency: The nadroparin versus enoxaparin (NaVe) study design

    PubMed Central

    Gurfinkel, Enrique P; Perel, Cecilia; Pombo, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    In the general population, mild renal impairment is associated with increases risk for coronary artery disease and stroke, suggesting that cardiovascular disease begins to develop early in the natural history of renal dysfunction. Patients with renal failure are known to be at increased risk of death following acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure. In such sense, anticoagulation in addition to antiplatelet inhibitor drugs became the standard of care, particularly, among high risk unstable angina patients associated with a scarce side effects. The Nadroparin calcium Versus Enoxaparin (NaVe) Study will evaluate in a head to head basis the anti Xa activity reached by nadroparine or enoxaparine, both low molecular weight heparins, in patients at high risk for ischemic episodes, and renal insufficiency to eventually be undergone to angiographic diagnosis studies, and in consequence proposing the best anticoagulant strategies for these patients before being invasively treated. Patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups: Group 1: thirty patients will be given with subcutaneous enoxaparine injections into the abdominal wall in a dose of 0,85 mg/kg every 12 hours for a maximum of 48 hours. A saline infusion dose will be given in between. Total number of injections: 6. Group 2:Thirty patients will be receiving subcutaneous injections into the abdominal wall in a doses of 30% less in relationship with his / her body weight every 8 hours for a maximum of 48 hours. In order to achieve the goal of the study, the antiXa activity will be measure using venous blood samples taken as follows: Group 1:*Within 3rd and 4 hour of the second doses of HBPM for enoxaparine.*Within 11 th and 12 th hour next to fourth doses of enoxaparine. Group 2: *Within 3rd and 4 th hour next to 3rd doses of HBPM for the nadroparine.*Within 7th and 8th hour next to 4th doses HBPM for the nadroparine. The primary end point is to analyze during the in-hospital stay phase

  20. Influence of Renal Insufficiency on the Prescription of Evidence-Based Medicines in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Its Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-li; Huang, Fang-yang; Huang, Bao-tao; Liu, Wei; Chai, Hua; Zhao, Zhen-gang; Zhang, Chen; Liao, Yan-biao; Pu, Xiao-bo; Chen, Shi-jian; Li, Qiao; Xu, Yuan-ning; Luo, Yang; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to discuss the present situation of discharge medications in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different levels of renal function and assess the potential impact of these medications on the prognosis of this patient population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. From July 2008 to Jan 2012, consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography of West China Hospital were enrolled and were grouped into 3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories: ≥60, 30 to 60, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality. There are 3002 patients according to the inclusion criteria and follow-up requirement. The mean follow-up time was 29.1 ± 12.5 months. CAD patients with worse renal function included more cardiovascular risk factors (advanced age, history of hypertension or diabetes, and diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction). The cumulative survival curves of the patients according to renal function showed that the eGFR <30 mL/min and 30 mL/min ≤ eGFR <60 mL/min groups had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death than the group with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min. The prescription of evidence-based medicines (EBMs) at discharge (antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] or angiotensin-receptor blockers [ARBs]) was a factor in reducing the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death. However, EBMs prescribed at discharge revealed an obvious underuse in renal insufficiency (RI) patients. The results of Cox regression showed that irrespective of the eGFR level, greater use of EBMs resulted in a greater reduction in the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death. A higher percentage of patients with CAD and concomitant RI suffered from cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, whereas a lower percentage of these patients used EBMs to prevent CVD events

  1. Imaging of insufficiency fractures.

    PubMed

    Krestan, Christian R; Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    This review article focuses on occurrence, imaging, and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence and the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures are due to normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Most commonly postmenopausal osteoporosis is the cause for insufficiency fractures. Additional conditions affecting bone turnover include osteomalacia, chronic renal failure, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures as well as to differentiate them from malignant fractures. Radiographs are the basic modality used for screening of insufficiency fractures, yet depending on the location of the fractures, sensitivity is limited. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures and allows differentiation of benign versus malignant fractures. Thin section multidetector computed tomography (CT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Dedicated Mikro-CTs (Xtreme-CT) can detect subtle fractures reaching an in-plane resolution of 80 μm. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but unsatisfactory specificity. Positron emission tomography-CT with hybrid-scanners has been the upcoming modality for the differentiation of benign from malignant fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical fracture history may determine the future risk of possible insufficiency fractures. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. Lipoprotein(a) and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Archna; Damrauer, Scott M; Anderson, Amanda H; Xie, Dawei; Budoff, Matthew J; Go, Alan S; He, Jiang; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Post, Wendy S; Rahman, Mahboob; Reilly, Muredach P; Saleheen, Danish; Townsend, Raymond R; Chen, Jinbo; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of LPA gene variants and renal function on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in people with chronic kidney disease and determine the association between elevated Lp(a) and myocardial infarction and death in this setting. The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) is an ongoing prospective study of 3939 participants with chronic kidney disease. In 3635 CRIC participants with genotype data, carriers of the rs10455872 or rs6930542 variants had a higher median Lp(a) level (mg/dL) compared with noncarriers (73 versus 23; P<0.001 and 56 versus 22; P<0.001, respectively). The 3744 participants (55% male and 41% non-Hispanic White) with available baseline Lp(a) levels were stratified into quartiles of baseline Lp(a) (mg/dL): <9.8, 9.8 to 26.0, 26.1 to 61.3, and >61.3. There were 315 myocardial infarctions and 822 deaths during a median follow-up of 7.5 years. The second quartile had the lowest event rate. After adjusting for potential confounders and using a Cox proportional hazards model, the highest quartile of Lp(a) was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.11), death (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.57), and the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.56) compared with the second quartile of Lp(a). Among adults with chronic kidney disease, elevated Lp(a) is independently associated with myocardial infarction and death. Future studies exploring pharmacological Lp(a) reduction in this population are warranted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Healthy lifestyle and risk of kidney disease progression, atherosclerotic events, and death in CKD: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Cheryl A; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Fischer, Michael J; Dember, Laura M; Fink, Jeffrey C; Frydrych, Anne; Jensvold, Nancy G; Lustigova, Eva; Nessel, Lisa C; Porter, Anna C; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Daviglus, Martha L; Lash, James P

    2015-03-01

    In general populations, healthy lifestyle is associated with fewer adverse outcomes. We estimated the degree to which adherence to a healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of renal and cardiovascular events among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. 3,006 adults enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. 4 lifestyle factors (regular physical activity, body mass index [BMI] of 20-<25kg/m(2), nonsmoking, and "healthy diet"), individually and in combination. CKD progression (50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate or end-stage renal disease), atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease), and all-cause mortality. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards. During a median follow-up of 4 years, we observed 726 CKD progression events, 355 atherosclerotic events, and 437 deaths. BMI≥25kg/m(2) and nonsmoking were associated with reduced risk of CKD progression (HRs of 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.97] and 0.61 [95% CI, 0.45-0.82] for BMIs of 25 to <30 and ≥30kg/m(2), respectively, versus 20 to <25kg/m(2); HR for nonsmoking of 0.68 [95% CI, 0.55-0.84] compared to the current smoker reference group) and reduced risk of atherosclerotic events (HRs of 0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.96] for BMI of 25-<30 vs 20-<25kg/m(2) and 0.55 [95% CI, 0.40-0.75] vs current smoker). Factors associated with reduced all-cause mortality were regular physical activity (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.79] vs inactive), BMI≥30kg/m(2) (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.96] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)), and nonsmoking (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.34-0.60] vs current smoker). BMI<20kg/m(2) was associated with increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.13-3.93] vs 20-<25kg/m(2)). Adherence to all 4 lifestyle factors was associated with a 68% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to adherence to no lifestyle factors (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.89). Lifestyle factors were measured only once. Regular physical activity, nonsmoking

  4. Placental insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... due date High blood pressure during pregnancy (called preeclampsia ) Medical conditions that increase the mother's chances of ... have any symptoms. However, certain diseases, such as preeclampsia, which can be symptomatic, can cause placental insufficiency.

  5. Adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Auron, Moises; Raissouni, Nouhad

    2015-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening condition that occurs secondary to impaired secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. This condition can be caused by primary destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal glands or impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In children, the most common causes of primary adrenal insufficiency are impaired adrenal steroidogenesis (congenital adrenal hyperplasia) and adrenal destruction or dysfunction (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome and adrenoleukodystrophy), whereas exogenous corticosteroid therapy withdrawal or poor adherence to scheduled corticosteroid dosing with long-standing treatment constitute the most common cause of acquired adrenal insufficiency. Although there are classic clinical signs (eg, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, hyperpigmentation, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypoglycemia) of adrenal insufficiency, its early clinical presentation is most commonly vague and undefined, requiring a high index of suspicion. The relevance of early identification of adrenal insufficiency is to avoid the potential lethal outcome secondary to severe cardiovascular and hemodynamic insufficiency. The clinician must be aware of the need for increased corticosteroid dose supplementation during stress periods.

  6. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  7. Effect of Hemoglobin Target on Progression of Kidney Disease: A Secondary Analysis of the CHOIR (Correction of Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Renal Insufficiency) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inrig, Jula. K.; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Reddan, Donal; Patel, Uptal D.; Sapp, Shelly; Califf, Robert M.; Singh, Ajay K.; Szczech, Lynda A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflicting relationships have been described between anemia correction using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study was undertaken to examine the impact of target hemoglobin on progression of kidney disease in the CHOIR (Correction of Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Renal Insufficiency) trial. Study design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial Setting and participants 1432 participants with CKD and anemia Intervention Participants were randomized to target hemoglobin of 13.5 vs 11.3 gm/dL with the use of epoetin-alfa. Outcomes and measurements Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for progression of CKD (a composite of doubling of creatinine, initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT), or death). Interactions between hemoglobin target and select baseline variables (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, diabetes, heart failure, and smoking history) were also examined. Results Participants randomized to higher hemoglobin targets experienced a shorter time to progression of kidney disease in both univariate (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03–1.52; p=0.02) and multivariable models (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00–1.48; p=0.05). These differences were attributable to higher rates of RRT and death among participants in the high hemoglobin arm. Hemoglobin target did not interact with eGFR, proteinuria, diabetes, or heart failure (p>0.05 for all). In the multivariable model, hemoglobin target interacted with tobacco use (p=0.04) such that the higher target had a greater risk of CKD progression among participants that currently smoked (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.23–5.09; p=0.01) which was not present among those who did not currently smoke (HR, 1.15; 95% CI 0.93–1.41; p=0.2). Limitations A post-hoc analysis and thus cause- effect cannot be determined. Conclusions These results suggest that high hemoglobin target is associated with a greater risk of progression of CKD. This

  8. Race/Ethnicity and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With CKD: Findings From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Lash, James P; Ricardo, Ana C; Roy, Jason; Deo, Rajat; Fischer, Michael; Flack, John; He, Jiang; Keane, Martin; Lora, Claudia; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Tao, Kaixiang; Wolf, Myles; Wright, Jackson T; Go, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with end-stage renal disease have a lower risk for death than non-Hispanic whites, but data for racial/ethnic variation in cardiovascular outcomes for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease are limited. Prospective cohort. 3,785 adults with entry estimated glomerular filtration rates of 20 to 70mL/min/1.73m(2) enrolled in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). Cardiovascular outcomes (atherosclerotic events [myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease] and heart failure) and a composite of each cardiovascular outcome or all-cause death. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, we observed 506 atherosclerotic events, 551 heart failure events, and 692 deaths. In regression analyses, there were no significant differences in atherosclerotic events among the 3 racial/ethnic groups. In analyses stratified by clinical site, non-Hispanic blacks had a higher risk for heart failure events (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.95), which became nonsignificant after adjustment for demographic factors and baseline kidney function. In contrast, Hispanics had similar risk for heart failure events as non-Hispanic whites. In analyses stratified by clinical site, compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were at similar risk for atherosclerotic events or death. However, after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and mineral metabolism markers, non-Hispanic blacks had 17% lower risk for the outcome (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) than non-Hispanic whites, whereas there was no significant association with Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanics were largely recruited from a single center, and the study was underpowered to evaluate the association between Hispanic ethnicity and mortality. There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in adjusted risk for atherosclerotic or heart

  9. The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods We searched PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Library from 1 January 2004 to 1 August 2014. The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled OR with 95% CI, using the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results 20 randomised controlled trials (n=4280) were identified. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; p=0.027). However, moderate heterogeneity was noted across trials (I2=48%; p=0.008). Subgroup analyses indicated a better effect of sodium bicarbonate in studies using low-osmolar (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93; p=0.024) compared with iso-osmolar contrast agents (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.34; p=0.351). The odds of CIN with sodium bicarbonate were lower in studies including only patients undergoing emergency (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.51; p=0.002) compared with elective procedures (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.06; p=0.105). Sodium bicarbonate was more beneficial in patients given a bolus injection before procedures (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.004) compared with continuous infusion (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05; p=0.091). Sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.79; p=0.024) was better than sodium bicarbonate alone (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03; p=0.071). The effect of sodium bicarbonate was considered greater in papers published before (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.41; p=0.000) compared with after 2008 (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16; p=0.302). However, no significant differences were found in mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.32; p=0.263) or requirement for dialysis (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.25; p=0.841). Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. However, it fails to lower the risks of

  10. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal insufficiency (AI), the cortex does not make enough steroid hormones. ... unlike “adrenal fatigue.” There are two kinds of AI: • Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease. In this ...

  11. The effect of chronic renal insufficiency by use of glomerular filtration rate versus serum creatinine level on late clinical outcome of carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    AbuRahma, Ali F; Srivastava, Mohit; Stone, Patrick A; Chong, Benny; Jackson, Will; Dean, L Scott; Mousa, Albeir Y

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have reported mixed results after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), and we previously reported the perioperative outcome in patients with CRI by use of serum creatinine (Cr) level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, only a few of these studies used GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation in their analysis of long-term outcome. During the study period, 1000 CEAs (926 patients) were analyzed; 940 of these CEAs had Cr levels and 925 had GFR data. Patients were classified into normal (GFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or Cr <1.5 mg/dL), moderate CRI (GFR ≥30-59 or Cr ≥1.5-2.9), and severe CRI (GFR <30 or Cr ≥3). At a mean follow-up of 34.5 months and a median of 34 months (range, 1-53 months), combined stroke and death rates for Cr levels (867 patients) were 9%, 18%, and 44% for Cr <1.5, ≥1.5 to 2.9, and ≥3 (P = .0001) in contrast to 8%, 14%, and 26% for GFR (854 patients) of >60, ≥30 to 59, and <30, respectively (P = .0003). Combined stroke and death rates for asymptomatic patients were 8%, 17%, and 44% (P = .0001) for patients with Cr levels of <1.5, ≥1.5 to 2.9, and ≥3, respectively, vs 7%, 13%, and 24% for a GFR of ≥60, ≥30 to 59, and <30 (P = .0063). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, stroke-free survival rates at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were 97%, 94%, and 92% for Cr <1.5; 92%, 85%, and 81% for Cr ≥1.5 to 2.9; and 56%, 56%, and 56% for Cr ≥3 (P < .0001); vs 98%, 95%, and 93% for a GFR ≥60; 93%, 90%, and 86% for a GFR of ≥30 to 59; and 86%, 77%, and 73% for a GFR <30 (P < .0001). These rates for asymptomatic patients at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were 97%, 95%, and 93% for Cr <1.5; 94%, 87%, and 82% for Cr ≥1.5 to 2.9; and 56%, 56%, and 56% for Cr ≥3 (P < .0001); vs 98%, 95%, and 94% for a GFR ≥60; 95%, 91%, and 86% for a GFR of ≥30 to 59; and 84%, 80%, and 75% for a GFR <30 (P = .0026). A univariate regression analysis for asymptomatic patients

  12. Factors associated with depressive symptoms and use of antidepressant medications among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Xie, Dawei; Jordan, Neil; Kop, Willem J; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Kusek, John W; Ford, Virginia; Rosen, Leigh K; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie L; Yaffe, Kristine; Powe, Neil R; Lash, James P

    2012-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are correlated with poor health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, severity, and treatment of depressive symptoms and potential risk factors, including level of kidney function, in diverse populations with CKD have not been well studied. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants at enrollment into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies. CRIC enrolled Hispanics and non-Hispanics at 7 centers in 2003-2007, and H-CRIC enrolled Hispanics at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008. Depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Demographic and clinical factors. Elevated depressive symptoms (BDI score ≥11) and antidepressant medication use. Of 3,853 participants, 27.4% had evidence of elevated depressive symptoms and 18.2% were using antidepressant medications; 31.0% of persons with elevated depressive symptoms were using antidepressants. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms varied by level of kidney function: 23.6% for participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 33.8% of those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Lower eGFR (OR per 10-mL/min/1.73 m(2) decrease, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17), and non-Hispanic black race (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16-1.74) were each associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms after controlling for other factors. In regression analyses incorporating BDI score, whereas female sex was associated with greater odds of antidepressant use, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and higher urine albumin levels were associated with decreased odds of antidepressant use (P < 0.05 for each). Absence of clinical diagnosis of depression and use of nonpharmacologic treatments. Although elevated depressive symptoms were common in individuals with CKD, use of antidepressant medications is low. Individuals of racial and ethnic minority background and with more advanced CKD had a

  13. Plant protein intake is associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 and serum bicarbonate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M; Miller, Edgar R; Bazzano, Lydia A; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Porter, Anna C; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2012-07-01

    Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of the lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Observational cross-sectional study. A total of 2,938 participants with CKD and information on their dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Percentage of total protein intake from plant sources (percent plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items using the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO₃), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin levels. We modeled the association between percent plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes status, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, income, smoking status, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24-hour urinary sodium concentration, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and use of diuretics. Higher percent plant protein was associated with lower FGF-23 (P = .05) and higher HCO₃ (P = .01) levels, but not with serum phosphate or parathyroid hormone concentrations (P = .9 and P = .5, respectively). Higher percent plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (P = .2), lower serum albumin (P = .2), or lower hemoglobin (P = .3) levels. The associations of percent plant protein with FGF-23 and HCO₃ levels did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5), or total protein intake (≤0.8 g/kg/day vs. >0.8 g/kg/day; P-interaction >.10 for each). This is a cross-sectional study; determination of percent plant protein using the Diet History Questionnaire has not been validated. Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF-23 and

  14. Factors Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Use of Antidepressant Medications Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Xie, Dawei; Jordan, Neil; Kop, Willem J.; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Kusek, John W.; Ford, Virginia; Rosen, Leigh K.; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Powe, Neil R.; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are correlated with poor health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, severity, and treatment of depressive symptoms and potential risk factors, including level of kidney function, in diverse populations with CKD have not been well studied. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Settings and Participants Participants at enrollment into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies. CRIC enrolled Hispanics and non-Hispanics at seven centers from 2003-2007, and H-CRIC enrolled Hispanics at the University of Illinois from 2005-2008. Measurement Depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Predictors Demographic and clinical factors Outcomes Elevated depressive symptoms (BDI >= 11) and antidepressant medication use Results Among 3853 participants, 28.5% had evidence of elevated depressive symptoms and 18.2% were using antidepressant medications; 30.8% of persons with elevated depressive symptoms were using antidepressants. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms varied by level of kidney function: 25.2% among participants with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2, and 35.1% of those with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2. Lower eGFR (OR per 10 ml/min/1.73m2 decrease, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16), Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12-2.45), and non-Hispanic black race (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.74) were each associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms after controlling for other factors. In regression analyses incorporating BDI score, while female sex was associated with a greater odds of antidepressant use, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and higher levels of urine albumin were associated with decreased odds of antidepressant use (p<0.05 for each). Limitations Absence of clinical diagnosis of depression and use of non-pharmacologic treatments Conclusions Although elevated depressive symptoms were common in individuals with CKD, use of

  15. Higher plasma CXCL12 levels predict incident myocardial infarction and death in chronic kidney disease: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nehal N.; Matthews, Gregory J.; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Shah, Rhia; McLaughlin, Catherine; Patel, Parth; Budoff, Matthew; Chen, Jing; Wolman, Melanie; Go, Alan; He, Jiang; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Master, Stephen R.; Rader, Daniel J.; Raj, Dominic; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Shah, Rachana; Schreiber, Marty; Fischer, Michael J.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Kusek, John; Feldman, Harold I.; Foulkes, Andrea S.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Genome-wide association studies revealed an association between a locus at 10q11, downstream from CXCL12, and myocardial infarction (MI). However, the relationship among plasma CXCL12, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, incident MI, and death is unknown. Methods and results We analysed study-entry plasma CXCL12 levels in 3687 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study, a prospective study of cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Mean follow-up was 6 years for incident MI or death. Plasma CXCL12 levels were positively associated with several cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and higher inflammatory cytokine levels (P < 0.05). In fully adjusted models, higher study-entry CXCL12 was associated with increased odds of prevalent CVD (OR 1.23; 95% confidence interval 1.14, 1.33, P < 0.001) for one standard deviation (SD) increase in CXCL12. Similarly, one SD higher CXCL12 increased the hazard of incident MI (1.26; 1.09,1.45, P < 0.001), death (1.20; 1.09,1.33, P < 0.001), and combined MI/death (1.23; 1.13–1.34, P < 0.001) adjusting for demographic factors, known CVD risk factors, and inflammatory markers and remained significant for MI (1.19; 1.03,1.39, P = 0.01) and the combined MI/death (1.13; 1.03,1.24, P = 0.01) after further controlling for eGFR and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio. Conclusions In CKD, higher plasma CXCL12 was associated with CVD risk factors and prevalent CVD as well as the hazard of incident MI and death. Further studies are required to establish if plasma CXCL12 reflect causal actions at the vessel wall and is a tool for genomic and therapeutic trials. PMID:24306482

  16. Growth hormone and the kidney: the use of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in growth-retarded children with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Fine, R N

    1991-04-01

    Hypothalamic production of growth hormone releasing hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release growth hormone (GH). The clinical manifestations of GH on tissues are either direct or are mediated by insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Both the somatic effects of GH and the renal manifestations of an increase in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow are mediated by IGF. The increase in glomerular filtration rate/renal plasma flow that occurs with either exogenous or endogenous GH is not apparent in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF); therefore, it is unlikely that recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment of patients with CRF will result in glomerular hyperfiltration. Longitudinal studies are required to determine if the glomerulosclerosis and renal functional impairment occurring in GH and growth hormone releasing hormone transgenic mice occurs after rhGH treatment of growth-retarded uremic rats with GH resulted in an improvement in growth velocity. This led to preliminary studies in growth-retarded children with CRF by using rhGH. The acceleration of growth velocity was dramatic despite the fact that GH levels are elevated in uremia. The elevated IGF carrier proteins in uremic children may contribute to the growth retardation. Treatment with rhGH may be efficacious by stimulating a net increase in the free (unbound) IGF levels. Hyposecretion of GH may contribute to the failure to achieve optimal growth after successful renal transplantation. Treatment with rhGH may be efficacious in improving the growth velocity of renal allograft recipients.

  17. Increased expression of HIF-1α, VEGF-A and its receptors, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the venous stenosis of arteriovenous fistula in a mouse model with renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sanjay; Shergill, Uday; Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Misra, Khamal D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A mouse model of renal insufficiency with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and venous stenosis was created. We tested the hypothesis that there is increased gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor- A (VEGF-A) and its receptors (VEGFR-1, -2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin-1 (ADAMTS-1) at the venous stenosis. Materials and methods Nineteen male C57BL/6 mice underwent a left nephrectomy and a surgical occlusion of the right upper pole to induce renal insufficiency and characterized in eight mice. Twenty eight days later, an AVF (n=11) was created from the right carotid artery to ipsilateral jugular vein and the mice were sacrificed at day 7 (n=4) and day 14 (n=4). The outflow and control veins were removed for gene expression. Three mice were sacrificed at day 28 for histologic analysis. Results The mean serum blood urea nitrogen remained significantly elevated for 8 weeks when compared to baseline (P<0.05). By day 7, there was a significant increase in the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with HIF-1α and TIMP-1 being significantly elevated at day 14 (P<0.05). By day 28, the venous stenosis was characterized by a thickened vein wall and neointima. Conclusions A mouse model of renal insufficiency with AVF was developed which had increased expression of HIF-1α, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with venous stenosis by day 28. PMID:20598569

  18. Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes. PMID:21220750

  19. [Evaluation of the cost of treatment for terminal chronic renal insufficiency. Thoughts on the value of this type of study and the role of the nephrologist].

    PubMed

    Pollini, J; Soutif, C; Barnouin, F; Briat, C; Meulders, Q; Teissier, M

    1998-01-01

    To assess the cost of end stage renal failure treatment was the target of studies we achieved during the last ten years. We showed how much the global cost was favourably influenced by the number of available therapeutic methods. In a recent study, reported here, we followed a new methodology more often used today in our public hospitals. The comparison of analytical accountancy data with computerized medical informations as given by identification of Diagnosis Related Groups probably allows better assessment of "real cost". But is this approach really useful for nephrologists? These frequently asked questions cannot be performed without the participation of physicians. The question remains whether or not these studies will contribute to improve the quality of care and to allow some saving. We also hope sharing with readers of "Nephrologie" these kinds of considerations as well as our opinions and doubts.

  20. Two-step transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria: a winning strategy to prevent progression of systemic oxalosis in early onset renal insufficiency cases.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Uchida, Hajime; Shigeta, Takanobu; Matsunami, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Sato, Mai; Ito, Shuichi; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoi, Tadashi; Azuma, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Mureo

    2015-02-01

    Several transplant strategies for PH1 have been proposed, and LT is performed to correct the metabolic defects. The patients with PH1 often suffer from ESRD and require simultaneous LKT, which leads to a long wait due to the shortage of suitable organ donors. Five patients with PH1 underwent LDLT at our institute. Three of the five patients were under dialysis before LDLT, while the other two patients were categorized as CKD stage 3. An isolated LDLT was successfully performed in all but our first case, who had complicated postoperative courses and consequently died due to sepsis after retransplantation. The renal function of the patients with CKD stage 3 was preserved after LDLT. On the other hand, our second case with ESRD underwent successful LDKT six months after LDLT, and our infant case is waiting for the subsequent KT without any post-LDLT complications after the early establishment of PD. In conclusion, a two-step transplant strategy may be needed as a life-saving option for patients with PH1 and may be possible even in small infants with systemic oxalosis. While waiting for a subsequent KT, an early resumption of PD should be considered from the perspective of the long-term requirement of RRT.

  1. Metabolic effects of keto acid--amino acid supplementation in patients with chronic renal insufficiency receiving a low-protein diet and recombinant human erythropoietin--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Votruba, M; Poledne, R; Kazdová, L; Skibová, J; Malý, J

    2001-09-17

    Supplement with keto acids/amino acids (KA) and erythropoietin can independently improve the metabolic sequels of chronic renal insufficiency. Our study was designed to establish whether a supplementation with keto acids/amino acids (KA) exerts additional beneficial metabolic effects in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRF) treated with a low-protein diet (LPD) and recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO). In a prospective randomized controlled trial over a period of 12 months, we evaluated a total of 38 patients (20 M/18 F) aged 32-68 years with a creatinine clearance (CCr) of 20-36 ml/min. All patients were receiving EPO (40 U/kg twice a week s.c.) and a low-protein diet (0.6 g protein/kg/day and 145 kJ/kg/day). The diet of 20 patients (Group I) was supplemented with KA at a dosage of 100 mg/kg/day while 18 patients (Group II) received no supplementation. During the study period, the glomerular filtration rate slightly decreased (CCr from 28.2 +/- 3.4 to 26.4 +/- 4.1 ml/min and 29.6 +/- 4.8 to 23.4 +/- 4.4 ml/min in groups I and II, respectively and Cin); this however was more marked in Group II (Group I vs. Group II, p < 0.01). The serum levels of urea also declined (p < 0.01), more pronouncedly in Group I (p < 0.025). In Group I, there was a significant rise in the levels of leucine (p < 0.01), isoleucine (p < 0.01), valine (p < 0.02) and albumin (p < 0.01) and a decrease in protein-uria (p < 0.01). Analysis of the lipid spectrum revealed a mild yet significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02), more pronounced in Group I. In Group I, there was a decrease in plasma triglycerides (from 4.2 +/- 0.8 down to values a low as 2.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L; p < 0.01) whereas HDL-cholesterol levels increased (from 0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/L, p < 0.01). A further remarkable finding was a reduction in the serum concentration of free radicals (p < 0.01). We conclude that a KA supplementation in patients with CRF receiving LPD and EPO

  2. Serum β-Trace Protein and β2-Microglobulin as Predictors of ESRD, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Meredith C.; Coresh, Josef; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Xie, Dawei; Levey, Andrew S.; Nelson, Robert G.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Schelling, Jeffrey; Simonson, Michael; Sondheimer, James H.; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Akkina, Sanjeev; Feldman, Harold I.; Kusek, John W.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Inker, Lesley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum β-trace protein (BTP) and β2-microglobulin (B2M) are independently associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in the general population and high-risk groups with diabetes or advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Less is known about their associations with outcomes and predictive ability in adults with moderate CKD. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 3613 adults from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (45% women; mean age, 57.9 years; 41.0% non-Hispanic black; 51.9% with diabetes). Predictors BTP and B2M with a reciprocal transformation to reflect their associations with filtration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcr), measured GFR (mGFR) and a 4-marker composite score combining BTP, B2M, creatinine, and cystatin C. Predictors were standardized as z scores for comparisons across filtration markers. Outcomes ESRD, all-cause mortality, and new-onset cardiovascular disease. Results: Over a six-year median follow-up, 755 (21%) participants developed ESRD, 653 died, and 292 developed new-onset cardiovascular disease. BTP, B2M, and the 4-marker composite were independent predictors of ESRD and all-cause mortality, and B2M and the 4-marker composite of cardiovascular events, after multivariable adjustment. These associations were stronger than those observed for eGFRcr (p vs. eGFRcr ≤0.02). The 4-marker composite led to improvements in the C statistic and 2.5 year risk reclassification beyond eGFRcr for all outcomes. Limitations Filtration markers measured at one time point; mGFR available in subset of cohort. Conclusions BTP and B2M may contribute additional risk information beyond eGFRcr and the use of multiple-markers may improve risk prediction beyond this well-established marker of kidney function among persons with moderate CKD. PMID:26948990

  3. The relationship between calcium, phosphorus, and sodium intake, race, and blood pressure in children with renal insufficiency: a report of the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases (GFRD) Study.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, H; Chan, J C; Boyle, R; Farina, D; Baluarte, H J; Chinchilli, V M; Dresner, I G; Feld, L G

    1995-07-01

    Nutritional data compiled during the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Clinical Trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between the dietary intake of divalent minerals and sodium, nutritional status, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and blood pressure in black versus white children. One hundred eighteen patients are included in this report; 25 were black (21%) and 93 were white (79%). Although more of the blacks were male, the age distribution, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, blood pressure, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations were comparable in the two groups. Phosphorus intake was within the recommended daily allowance in both groups; in contrast, calcium intake was inadequate in all patients: 81% of the recommended daily allowance in whites, and 74% in blacks. Sixteen children were noted to be hypertensive during the observation period; six patients were receiving a variety of antihypertensive medications, including diuretics in two children. Linear regression analysis revealed that systolic and diastolic blood pressures were directly related to calcium and phosphorus intake in black patients. In white children, only dietary phosphorus intake and diastolic blood pressure were directly related. There was no relationship between sodium intake or GFR and blood pressure in the white or black children. PTH levels were directly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all children. The correlations between PTH and blood pressure were stronger in white versus black patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C L; Lucas, M J

    2001-09-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue a pregnancy are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Risk is inversely related to the degree of renal insufficiency. Pregnancy-induced changes in the urinary tract can temporarily increase renal function compromise, such as nephrosis, but most often results in no net increase in dysfunction. Common complications of pregnancy--such as hypertension and hypovolemia--can be associated with acute renal injury or aggravation of pre-existing disease.

  5. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... Ovarian Insufficiency (POI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is POI? ...

  6. [Ischaemic mitral insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Messas, E

    2004-06-01

    Ischaemic mitral insufficiency (IMI) due to regurgitation of an anatomically normal valve, due to dysfunction directly related to myocardial ischaemia, is observed in over 20% of post-infarction patients and is associated with a doubling of the risk of death. The responsibility of ventricular remodelling with displacement of the papillary muscles in the genesis of IMI has been demonstrated experimentally. 3-D echocardiography has improved our understanding of the central role of geometrical changes of the subvalvular apparatus. The inconsistent results of surgery using an undersized mitral annulus have led to the search for alternative techniques. The correction of mitral insufficiency at coronary bypass surgery is a current topic of research. The application of new techniques of mitral valvuloplasty seems more effective and should provide an answer to this problem.

  7. [Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)].

    PubMed

    Renner, R; Simon, J

    2009-10-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is an important and frequent disease for dermatologists, phlebologists and general practitioners. There are various hypotheses for the ethiopathology in CVI, e. g. hormone receptors and impairments concerning the venous contraction or relaxation of the vessel wall and the venous valves might play an important role. At the moment, colour doppler-duplex sonography seems to be the diagnostic method of choice. Modern therapeutic options include compression systems alone or in combination with topical or systemic treatment including minimal invasive methods like endovenous laser or radiofrequency obliteration or foam sclerotherapy.

  8. Mesenteric Artery Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Coles, John C.; Walker, John B.; Gergely, N. F.; Buttigliero, Jorge

    1963-01-01

    The syndromes of superior mesenteric artery insufficiency are briefly reviewed. Three cases associated with infarction of bowel which were treated with restoration of arterial flow and resection of residual irretrievable bowel are reported. In two patients an embolectomy and in one patient a bypass graft were used to restore arterial continuity. The importance of the recognition and removal of irretrievable bowel at the time of vascular reconstruction is emphasized. Success is not necessarily predicated by the time factor alone, although the importance of early diagnosis and surgical intervention cannot be denied. PMID:14042788

  9. Addison, pernicious anemia and adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Graner, John L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1849 Thomas Addison described the clinical entity now known as pernicious anemia. In 1855 he reported several cases of adrenal insufficiency, or Addison's disease. Considering the importance of these works, there remains a great deal of confusion about them. Contrary to what many historians have written, a review of Addison's original publications demonstrates a firm appreciation of the distinction between pernicious anemia and adrenal insufficiency, based particularly on the discoloration of the skin in these conditions. Three major sources of possible confusion for historians who are attempting to understand Addison's views include Addison's early attempts to link pernicious anemia with disease of the supra-renal capsules, Addison's redefinition of pernicious anemia in his monograph on adrenal disease, and several confusing statements made by Wilks and Daldy in the first reprint of Addison's monograph. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3902186

  10. Vitamin D Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Tom D.; Clarke, Bart L.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, which classically manifests as bone disease (either rickets or osteomalacia), is characterized by impaired bone mineralization. More recently, the term vitamin D insufficiency has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with other disease outcomes. Reliance on a single cutoff value to define vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is problematic because of the wide individual variability of the functional effects of vitamin D and interaction with calcium intakes. In adults, vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of fractures and falls. The evidence for other purported beneficial effects of vitamin D is primarily based on observational studies. We selected studies with the strongest level of evidence for clinical decision making related to vitamin D and health outcomes from our personal libraries of the vitamin D literature and from a search of the PubMed database using the term vitamin D in combination with the following terms related to the potential nonskeletal benefits of vitamin D: mortality, cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, allergy, asthma, infection, depression, psychiatric, and pain. Conclusive demonstration of these benefits awaits the outcome of controlled clinical trials. PMID:21193656

  11. Betahistine in vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak, Henryk; Pawlak-Osińska, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the usefulness of betahistine dihydrochloride--Betaserc--in therapy for vestibular disorders in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Two groups of patients, in each of which were 150 patients (mean age, 52.2 years), were tested on the basis of videonystagmography and stabilometry. Betaserc was administrated in two separate doses: 8 mg three times daily and 16 mg three times daily for 120-180 days (mean, 132 days). In every case before and after therapy, visuo-oculomotor and vestibulo-oculomotor reflexes were tested, and amplitude and velocity of the sway were measured during dynamic posturographic testing. After Betaserc treatment, pathological visuo-oculomotor reactions and pathological cervical test results disappeared in most cases: Smooth pursuit improved in 59.9% of cases and saccadic movements in 55.9% of patients, and cervical nystagmus disappeared in 62.2% of tested people. During stabilometry, mean and maximal platform amplitude and mean head velocity decreased as compared with results from tests performed before treatment. These observations were significant after the greater dose of Betaserc; nonetheless, improvement was noted after both doses. The usefulness of Betaserc in vertebrobasilar insufficiency was proved, 4-6 months' therapy was sufficient, and the effect on central compensation seemed to be most probable.

  12. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  13. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P

    1987-08-01

    Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.

  14. Budesonide-related adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Arntzenius, Alexander; van Galen, Louise

    2015-10-01

    Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency is a potential harmful side effect of treatment with corticosteroids. It manifests itself when an insufficient cortisol response to biological stress leads to an Addisonian crisis: a life-threatening situation. We describe a case of a patient who developed an Addisonian crisis after inappropriate discontinuation of budesonide (a topical steroid used in Crohn's disease) treatment. Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency due to budesonide use has been rarely reported. Prescribers should be aware of the resulting risk for an Addisonian crisis.

  15. Renal tubule cell repair following acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Humes, H D; Lake, E W; Liu, S

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data suggests the recovery of renal function after ischemic or nephrotoxic acute renal failure is due to a replicative repair process dependent upon predominantly paracrine release of growth factors. These growth factors promote renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and a differentiation phase dependent on the interaction between tubule cells and basement membrane. These insights identify the molecular basis of renal repair and ischemic and nephrotoxic acute renal failure, and may lead to potential therapeutic modalities that accelerate renal repair and lessen the morbidity and mortality associated with these renal disease processes. In this regard, there is a prominent vasoconstrictor response of the renal vasculature during the postischemic period of developing acute renal failure. The intravenous administration of pharmacologic doses of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the postischemic period have proven efficacious by altering renal vascular resistance, so that renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate improve. ANF also appears to protect renal tubular epithelial integrity and holds significant promise as a therapeutic agent in acute renal failure. Of equal or greater promise are the therapeutic interventions targeting the proliferative reparative zone during the postischemic period. The exogenous administration of epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-1 in the postischemic period have effectively decreased the degree of renal insufficiency as measured by the peak serum creatinine and has hastened renal recovery as measured by the duration of time required to return the baseline serum creatinine values. A similarly efficacious role for hepatocyte growth factor has also been recently demonstrated.

  16. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Kim, Tong Yoon; Lee, Sangmin; Jeong, Jeong Yeon; Shim, Hojoon; Han, Yu min; Choi, Kyu Eun; Shin, Seok Joon; Yoon, Hye Eun

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia and not easily considered as an etiology of adrenal insufficiency in clinical practice, as not all cases of adrenal insufficiency manifest as hypercalcemia. We report a case of secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury in a 66-year-old female. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with general weakness and poor oral intake. Hypercalcemia (11.5 mg/dL) and moderate renal dysfunction (serum creatinine 4.9 mg/dL) were shown in her initial laboratory findings. Studies for malignancy and hyperparathyroidism showed negative results. Basal cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. With the administration of oral hydrocortisone, hypercalcemia was dramatically resolved within 3 days. This case shows that adrenal insufficiency may manifest as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury, which implicates that adrenal insufficiency should be considered a cause of hypercalcemia in clinical practice. PMID:27536162

  17. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  18. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Götze, H

    1980-12-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency usually does not develop before reduction of enzyme output by more than 90%. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency have a ravenous appetite but fail to thrive from malnutrition. The caloric deprivation is primarily due to fat malabsorption, recognized by the passage of bulky foul smelling greasy stools. Several isolated enzyme deficiencies can be separated from diseases with generalised pancreatic insufficiency. Under replacement therapy with pancreatic enzyme supplements most patients improve and gain weight, although fat and bile acid malabsorption are not abolished.

  19. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Cervera, Ricard

    2014-02-01

    Renal involvement can be a serious problem for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, this complication has been poorly recognized and studied. It can be present in patients who have either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus-associated APS. Clinical and laboratory features of renal involvement in APS include hypertension, hematuria, acute renal failure, and progressive chronic renal insufficiency with mild levels of proteinuria that can progress to nephrotic-range proteinuria. The main lesions are renal artery stenosis, venous renal thrombosis, and glomerular lesions (APS nephropathy) that may be acute (thrombotic microangiopathy) and/or chronic (arteriosclerosis, arterial fibrous intimal hyperplasia, tubular thyroidization, arteriolar occlusions, and focal cortical atrophy). APS can also cause end-stage renal disease and allograft vascular thrombosis. This article reviews the range of renal abnormalities associated with APS, and their diagnosis and treatment options.

  20. Early origin of adult renal disease.

    PubMed

    Maringhini, Silvio; Corrado, Ciro; Maringhini, Guido; Cusumano, Rosa; Azzolina, Vitalba; Leone, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animals have clearly shown that renal failure may start early in life. 'Fetal programming' is regulated by adaptations occurring in uterus including maternal nutrition, placental blood supply, and epigenetic changes. Low birth weight predisposes to hypertension and renal insufficiency. Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, adverse postnatal events, wrong nutritional habits may produce renal damage that will become clinically relevant in adulthood. Prevention should start early in children at risk of renal disease.

  1. [Adrenal mass and adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Martínez Albaladejo, M; García López, B; Serrano Corredor, S; Alguacil García, G

    1996-12-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a non frequent disease, that is declared in young adults and in the most of the cases is produced from an autoimmune mechanism or a tuberculous disease. The incidence of these forms in the different geographic areas is dependent of degree of irradication of the tuberculosis. We report the case of a patient with latent chronic adrenal insufficiency of tuberculous origin who was affected for an addisonian crisis during an intercurrent infectious disease, which permitted the diagnosis of the addisonian crisis, and Mal of Pott was moreover detected. Evolution with corticosteroid and specific treatment was very favorable.

  2. Neonatal Sepsis and Neutrophil Insufficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Bagby, Gregory J.; Welsh, David A.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis has continuously been a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite current advances in chemotherapy and patient intensive care facilities. Neonates are at high risk for developing bacterial infections due to quantitative and qualitative insufficiencies of innate immunity, particularly granulocyte lineage development and response to infection. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment, adjuvant therapies enhancing immune function have shown promise in treating sepsis in neonates. This chapter reviews current strategies for the clinical management of neonatal sepsis and analyzes mechanisms underlying insufficiencies of neutrophil defense in neonates with emphasis on new directions for adjuvant therapy development. PMID:20521927

  3. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  4. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Leticia; Liu, James H

    2014-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition. PMID:24591848

  5. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... used if the diagnosis remains unclear. What other tests might a health care provider perform after diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency? After ... skin. A nurse or lab technician performs the test in a health care provider’s office; a patient does not need anesthesia. ...

  6. [Assessment and characteristics of chronic renal insufficiency in France].

    PubMed

    Bongard, V; Dallongeville, J; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J-B; Cottel, D; Wagner, A; Ferrières, J

    2012-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue. In France, few studies have evaluated CKD prevalence. The objective of the MONA LISA study was to estimate and to characterize CKD in three representative cross-sectional surveys in subjects aged 35-74.9 years. CKD was defined as subjects having MDRD glomerular filtration rate lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Prevalence of CKD in MONA LISA was standardized according to the French population. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to find independent factors associated to CKD. The French estimate of CKD prevalence was 8.2% (95% confidence interval: 7.4-8.9%), that is 2,454,548 (95% confidence interval: 2,215,080-2,664,082) subjects aged 35-74.9 years. Factors significantly and independently associated to CKD were older age, hypertension and dyslipidemias. In conclusion, the MONA LISA study evaluated for the first time in France CKD prevalence in subjects aged 35-74.9 years. This prevalence probably underestimates the real CKD size due to selection bias present in every representative cross-sectional survey. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediabetes in a nursing facility patient with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Shane-McWhorter, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Prediabetes encompasses a variety of abnormalities, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and metabolic syndrome. Prediabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by 3- to 10-fold, but the complications associated with hyperglycemia begin early in the patient's progression from normal glucose levels to diabetes. Early identification and treatment of prediabetes has the potential to reduce or delay progression to overt diabetes, to preempt related cardiovascular and microvascular disease, and to significantly improve morbidity and mortality. This clinical review provides a vehicle to examine management of prediabetes in patients 65 years of age and older, including diagnostic criteria and recommendations for management. Live symposium presentation based on clinical practice and research, medical literature, and studies published between May 1999 and March 2010 on managing diabetes in older adults, government statistics, and medical society guidelines. Effective prediabetes management is important to reducing the risk of progression to T2DM. Recommended first-line therapy is lifestyle modification that may include exercise, nutritional therapy, and weight loss. Pharmacological therapies, when indicated, can aid in improving glucose, blood pressure, and lipid parameters in this patient subgroup.

  8. [Pharmacokinetic study of pyrazinamide and pyrazinoic acid in subjects with normal renal function and patients with renal failure].

    PubMed

    Vayre, P; Chambraud, E; Fredj, G; Thuillier, A

    1989-01-01

    The main pharmacokinetic parameters of pyrazinamide and pyrazinoïc acid (its major metabolite) were determined after oral administration of 1,500 mg/d in 10 patients with normal renal function and of 1,000 mg/d in 10 patients with impaired renal function (renal insufficiency). This study shows that, with these dosage regimens, almost all the pharmacokinetic parameters are identical for pyrazinamide and pyrazinoic acid in patients with normal renal function and patients with impaired renal function. Comparison of results between patients allows us to propose a dosage regimen of 1,000 mg/d as maintenance in patients with renal insufficiency.

  9. Renal Manifestations in Scleroderma: Evidence for Subclinical Renal Disease as a Marker of Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Steen, Virginia D.

    2010-01-01

    Scleroderma is a disease characterized by immune activation, vasculopathy, fibroblast stimulation, and connective tissue fibrosis. End-organ damage occurs due to progressive tissue fibrosis and vasculopathy. Markers of incipient vasculopathy have not been well studied in scleroderma. However, reduced renal functional reserve and proteinuria are common indicators of progressive vasculopathy in diabetic and hypertensive vasculopathy. Recent studies suggest a strong association between renal involvement and outcomes in scleroderma, with a threefold increased risk of mortality from pulmonary hypertension if renal insufficiency is present. We review the types of renal involvement seen in scleroderma and the data to support the use of renal parameters including proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and renal vascular dynamics measured with Doppler ultrasound to identify subclinical renal insufficiency. Further studies are warranted to investigate the use of renal parameters as prognostic indicators in scleroderma. PMID:20827302

  10. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard; Gagnon, Robert; Delisle, Marie-France

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide a framework that clinicians can use to determine which women are at greatest risk of having cervical insufficiency and in which set of circumstances a cerclage is of potential value. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., uterine cervical incompetence) and key words (e.g., cervical insufficiency, cerclage, Shirodkar, cerclage, MacDonald, cerclage, abdominal, cervical length, mid-trimester pregnancy loss). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to January 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. Women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy should be evaluated for risk factors for cervical insufficiency. A thorough medical history at initial evaluation may alert clinicians to risk factors in a first or index pregnancy. (III-B) 2. Detailed evaluation of risk factors should be undertaken in women following a mid-trimester pregnancy loss or early premature delivery, or in cases where such complications have occurred in a preceding pregnancy. (III-B) 3. In women with a history of cervical insufficiency, urinalysis for culture and sensitivity and vaginal cultures for bacterial vaginosis should be taken at the first obstetric visit and any infections so found should be treated. (I-A) 4. Women

  11. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P

    1992-01-01

    1. By means of a critical review we tried to establish whether there is evidence from controlled trials in humans on the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extracts in cerebral insufficiency. 2. The methodological quality of 40 trials on Ginkgo and cerebral insufficiency was assessed using a list of predefined criteria of good methodology, and the outcome of the trials was interpreted in relation to their quality. A comparison of the quality was made with trials of co-dergocrine, which is registered for the same indication. 3. There were eight well performed trials out of a total of 40. Shortcomings were limited numbers of patients included, and incomplete description of randomization procedures, patient characteristics, effect measurement and data presentation. In no trial was double-blindness checked. Virtually all trials reported positive results, in most trials the dosage was 120 mg Ginkgo extract a day, given for at least 4-6 weeks. For the best trials, there were no marked differences in the quality of the evidence of the efficacy of Ginkgo in cerebral insufficiency compared with co-dergocrine. The results of the review may be complicated by a combination of publication bias and other biases, because there were no negative results reported in many trials of low methodological quality. 4. Positive results have been reported for Ginkgo biloba extracts in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency. The clinical evidence is similar to that of a registered product which is prescribed for the same indication. However, further studies should be conducted for a more detailed assessment of the efficacy. PMID:1457269

  12. Prosthodontics rehabilitation in velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    When surgical correction is less than successful or when children are poor candidates for surgery due to a large gap, a neuromuscular cause of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), a strong gag reflex, or unfavorable anatomy, prosthetic intervention can result in the elimination of VPI. Surgery is ideal and best suited for long-term results; however, if needed, prosthetic correction can resolve VPI and is presented here. Indications for obturators, various designs, and clinical pearls when managing a child with an obturator are discussed. Correction of VPI must always be considered a multidisciplinary approach involving multiple modalities of treatment and specialties. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Convergence insufficiency and vision therapy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Mary Lou

    2014-06-01

    There is no standard meaning of the term "vision therapy", and for this reason it is often a controversial topic between some members of the ophthalmic and optometric community. Most pediatric ophthalmologists avoid using the term because it is nonspecific. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a binocular visual problem that causes problems and symptoms with near fixation. There is consensus among eye care professionals that convergence therapy is effective in treating CI. Convergence therapy is not effective in treating learning disabilities, but can sometimes relieve symptoms that might be a barrier to reading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Posterior Glottic Insufficiency in Children.

    PubMed

    Padia, Reema; Smith, Marshall E

    2017-04-01

    Dysphonia secondary to posterior glottic insufficiency (PGI) can be difficult to identify and correct. Inadequate arytenoid approximation from medial arytenoid erosion results in a breathy, soft voice. The anatomical location of the gap is difficult to correct by vocal fold injection laryngoplasty. This study reviews the presentation, evaluation, and treatment for pediatric patients who were identified with PGI. An Institutional Review Board-approved chart review was performed on all patients who were diagnosed with PGI at our institution from 2013 to 2015. We studied the presentation, workup, and treatment for these patients, including laryngoscopy, parent or patient-based voice impairment ratings, and response to treatment. Seven patients were identified. Erosion of the medial arytenoid was identified on microlaryngoscopy for all of these patients. The patients had suboptimal improvement from injection laryngoplasty. Three patients underwent surgical correction with an endoscopic posterior cricoid reduction laryngoplasty (EPCRL) with significant improvement in voice, assessed by perceptual, laryngoscopic, and patient-based measures. The key diagnostic procedures to identify posterior glottic insufficiency include laryngoscopic findings of a posterior glottal gap, microlaryngoscopy with close inspection of the posterior glottis and medial arytenoids, and suboptimal response to injection laryngoplasty. The EPCRL is an effective procedure to treat dysphonia from PGI.

  15. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    PubMed

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Premature ovarian insufficiency - fertility challenge.

    PubMed

    Check, J H

    2014-04-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency, defined as amenorrhea with estrogen deficiency in a woman younger than 40 associated with a serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >35 mIU/mL, can be temporarily reversed with ovulation achieved resulting in live delivered pregnancies. Though this may occur spontaneously the frequency of ovulation can be considerably increased by various techniques of lowering the elevated serum FSH level and thus up-regulate down-regulated FSH receptors in the granulosa-theca cells. This can be accomplished by either suppressing FSH release from the pituitary by negative feedback through high dose estrogen or by suppressing FSH production by inhibiting the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by either using GnRH agonists or antagonists. The estrogen method is the technique of choice because it is much less expensive than GnRH analogues, and helps stimulate cervical mucus and endometrial development. Ethinyl estradiol is the preferred estrogen because it does not contribute to the measurement of serum estradiol and thus allows proper monitoring of follicular maturation. Sometimes exogenous gonadotropins are needed as a boost but the dosage should be low so as not to down-regulate FSH receptors again. The technique is referred to as the FSH receptor restoration technique. Progesterone should be supplemented in the luteal phase. Physicians should be cognizant of trying to help prevent premature ovarian insufficiency by judiciously choosing less gonadotoxic cancer treatment alternatives that are equally efficacious. Also surgery for ovarian endometriomas should be performed only when absolutely necessary.

  17. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters.

  18. Future of the Renal Biopsy: Time to Change the Conventional Modality Using Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Khosroshahi, Hamid Tayebi; Sarbaz, Yashar; Shakeri Bavil, Abolhassan

    2017-01-01

    At the present time, imaging guided renal biopsy is used to provide diagnoses in most types of primary and secondary renal diseases. It has been claimed that renal biopsy can provide a link between diagnosis of renal disease and its pathological conditions. However, sometimes there is a considerable mismatch between patient renal outcome and pathological findings in renal biopsy. This is the time to address some new diagnostic methods to resolve the insufficiency of conventional percutaneous guided renal biopsy. Nanotechnology is still in its infancy in renal imaging; however, it seems that it is the next step in renal biopsy, providing solutions to the limitations of conventional modalities. PMID:28316612

  19. Velopharyngeal insufficiency: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Shprintzen, Robert J.; Marrinan, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of Review Journal articles relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) were reviewed. All articles ascertained by PubMed search were included. Recent Findings Articles reported on the application of magnetic resonance scanning, reliability tests of the International Working Group diagnostic protocol, the use of nasometry, and techniques designed to assess the function of the velopharyngeal mechanism. Treatment papers focused on outcomes in small samples of cases and complication rates from pharyngeal flap. One paper discussed ineffective speech therapy procedures. Summary There were relatively few papers this past year. Those that were published were hindered by small and heterogeneous sample sizes, and occasionally by inappropriate methods for assessing outcomes. None of the findings will have a major impact on the current state-of-the-art for diagnosis of VPI. The speech therapy paper has a very important message that should be taken to heart by all clinicians involved in the management of children with clefts and craniofacial disorders. PMID:19448542

  20. [Adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Orozco, Federico; Anders, María; Mella, José; Antinucci, Florencia; Pagano, Patricia; Esteban, Paula; Cartier, Mariano; Romero, Gustavo; Francini, Bettina; Mastai, Ricardo

    Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is a common finding in cirrhotic patients with severe sepsis, and increased mortality. Its significance is unknown in stable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of RAI in stable cirrhotic patients at different stages of the disease. Also, the impact of RAI on the survival was evaluated and basal cortisol levels between plasma and saliva was correlated in control subjects and cirrhotic patients. Forty seven ambulatory patients and 16 control subjects were studied. RAI was defined as a serum cortisol increase of less than 9 υg/dl from baseline after the stimulation with 250 mg of synthetic ACTH. Twenty two had Child-Pugh = 8 and 25 = 9. The prevalence of RAI in patients with stable cirrhosis was 22%. A higher incidence of RAI was observed in patients with a Child-Pugh = 9 (8/32) than in those with = 8 (3/13, p < 0.05). A correlation between salivary cortisol and basal plasma cortisol (r = 0.6, p < 0.0004) was observed. Finally, survival at 1 year (97%) and 3 years (91%) was significantly higher without RAI than those who developed this complication (79% and 51%, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the prevalence of RAI is frequent in patients with stable cirrhosis and that it is related to the severity of liver diseaseand increased mortality.

  1. Ureteral obstruction of renal transplant due to ureteral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Y; Bear, R A

    1983-03-01

    In a diabetic renal transplant recipient a nephrocutaneous fistula developed after percutaneous renal graft biopsy, and ureteral obstruction due to Candida albicans fungus balls was demonstrated. Local irrigation with amphotericin B, systemic antifungal therapy, and rigid blood sugar control led to rapid clearing of the fungal infections. This cause of renal transplant insufficiency should be considered prior to renal biopsy in diabetic patients with yeast forms in the urine.

  2. Velopharyngeal insufficiency on videofluoroscopy: comparison of projections

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, D.A.; Witzel, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective study of multiview videofluoroscopy was performed on 50 patients with clinically suspected velopharyngeal insufficiency to determine which views are helpful, so that radiation dosage might be reduced. The lateral view alone was insufficient: In 11 patients, velopharyngeal insufficiency was demonstrated on the basal or Towne view when the lateral view appeared normal. The Towne view demonstrated the velopharyngeal portal better than the basal projection when the adenoids were large. The basal view should be reserved for the few cases in which the Towne and lateral projections give insufficient information.

  3. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency following esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Huddy, J R; Macharg, F M S; Lawn, A M; Preston, S R

    2013-08-01

    Weight loss following esophagectomy is a management challenge for all patients. It is multifactorial with contributing factors including loss of gastric reservoir, rapid small bowel transit, malabsorption, and adjuvant chemotherapy. The development of a postoperative malabsorption syndrome, as a result of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), is recognized in a subgroup of patients following gastrectomy. This has not previously been documented following esophageal resection. EPI can result in symptoms of flatulence, diarrhea, steatorrhea, vitamin deficiencies, and weight loss. It therefore has the potential to pose a significant level of morbidity in postoperative patients. There is some evidence that patients with proven EPI (fecal elastase-1 < 200 μg/g) may benefit from a trial of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT). We observed symptoms compatible with EPI in a subgroup of patients following esophagectomy. We hypothesized that this was contributing to malabsorption and malnutrition in these patients. To investigate this, fecal elastase-1 was measured in postoperative patients, and in those with proven EPI, a trial of PERT was commenced in combination with specialist dietary education. At routine postoperative follow-up, which included assessment by a specialist dietitian, those patients with symptoms suggestive of malabsorption were given the opportunity to have their fecal elastase-1 measured. PERT was then offered to patients with fecal elastase-1 less than 200 μg/g (EPI) as well as those in the 200-500 μg/g range (mild EPI) with more severe symptoms. Fecal elastase-1 was measured in 63 patients between June 2009 and January 2011 at a median of 4 months (range 1-42) following surgery. Ten patients had fecal elastase-1 less than 200 μg/g, and all had failed to maintain preoperative weight. All accepted a trial of PERT. Nine (90%) had symptomatic improvement, and seven (70%) increased their weight. Thirty-nine patients had a fecal elastase-1 in

  4. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Yes or no?

    PubMed

    Edipidis, K

    2011-01-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue pregnancy, are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Although advances in antenatal and neonatal care continue to improve these outcomes, the risks remain proportionate to the degree of underlying renal dysfunction.The aim of this article, is to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome, in women with chronic renal disease and to provide if possible, useful conclusions whether and when, a woman with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), should decide to get pregnant.This article, reviews briefly the normal physiological changes of renal function during pregnancy, and make an attempt to clarify the nature and severity of the risks, in the settings of chronic renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease, including dialysis patients and transplant recipients.

  5. 45 CFR 152.35 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Funding § 152.35 Insufficient funds. (a) Adjustments by a PCIP to eliminate... such insufficiency to HHS, and identify and implement necessary adjustments to eliminate such deficit... right to make such adjustments as are necessary to eliminate such deficit. ...

  6. 45 CFR 152.35 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Funding § 152.35 Insufficient funds. (a) Adjustments by a PCIP to eliminate... such insufficiency to HHS, and identify and implement necessary adjustments to eliminate such deficit... right to make such adjustments as are necessary to eliminate such deficit. ...

  7. 45 CFR 152.35 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insufficient funds. 152.35 Section 152.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Funding § 152.35 Insufficient funds. (a) Adjustments by a PCIP to eliminate...

  8. 33 CFR 125.29 - Insufficient information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insufficient information. 125.29... VESSELS § 125.29 Insufficient information. (a)(1) If, in the judgment of the Commandant, an application does not contain sufficient information to enable him to satisfy himself that the character and habits...

  9. 33 CFR 125.29 - Insufficient information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insufficient information. 125.29... VESSELS § 125.29 Insufficient information. (a)(1) If, in the judgment of the Commandant, an application does not contain sufficient information to enable him to satisfy himself that the character and habits...

  10. Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

  11. [Addison's disease, primary adrenal insufficiency in adults].

    PubMed

    Krikke, Maaike; ten Wolde, Marije; Smit, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare but fatal disease if left unrecognized. Symptoms often mimic more prevalent diseases. We discuss three patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. These cases illustrate that presenting symptoms such as syncope, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and hypoglycemia are often non-specific and, therefore, often not immediately recognized. When an adrenal crisis is suspected, glucocorticoids should be given promptly. The symptoms are caused by insufficient production of adrenal hormones due to destruction of the adrenal glands by auto-immune adrenalitis. An ACTH stimulation test should confirm the diagnosis when primary adrenal insufficiency is suspected. Treatment consists of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement. Primary adrenal insufficiency is a 'master of disguise'. Unexplained syncope, vomiting, weight loss or hypoglycemia should prompt suspicion of this disease.

  12. [Successful maintenance hemodialysis therapy with supplemented growth hormone in a diabetic patient with growth hormone insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomomi; Yoshida, Sayaka; Nishigaki, Keisuke; Kuyama, Tamaki; Maeda, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) insufficiency is difficult to identify especially in adults, because its clinical manifestations overlap with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. We experienced a case of a 38-year-old woman who abruptly gained weight from the age of five, and was diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) during her 20s. When the patient visited JA Toride Medical Center at age 38, her renal function had been severely damaged, and caused congestive heart failure. Hemodialysis (HD) therapy was introduced, and GH insufficiency was identified, based on her obesity profile since her childhood and hormone surveillance. GH supplementation was initially avoided, because of her concurrent problems of DM and advanced renal failure. However, because of her restricted activities in daily living (ADL) and frequent hypotension episodes, a decision was taken to start supplementary administration of GH, which consequently succeeded in stabilizing blood pressure and extended her ADL. Although GH supplementation has recently been reported to be effective in improving protein energy malnutrition in dialysis patients without GH insufficiency, there is no report concerning GH insufficiency in dialysis patients. This is the first case report of GH insufficiency, in which GH supplementation enabled the patient to continue HD.

  13. Neurosarcoidosis-associated central diabetes insipidus masked by adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Non, Lemuel; Brito, Daniel; Anastasopoulou, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is an infrequent complication of neurosarcoidosis (NS). Its presentation may be masked by adrenal insufficiency (AI) and uncovered by subsequent steroid replacement. A 45-year-old woman with a history of NS presented 2 weeks after abrupt cessation of prednisone with nausea, vomiting, decreased oral intake and confusion. She was diagnosed with secondary AI and intravenous hydrocortisone was promptly begun. Over the next few days, however, the patient developed severe thirst and polyuria exceeding 6 L of urine per day, accompanied by hypernatraemia and hypo-osmolar urine. She was presumed to have CDI due to NS, and intranasal desmopressin was administered. This eventually normalised her urine output and serum sodium. The patient was discharged improved on intranasal desmopressin and oral prednisone. AI may mask the manifestation of CDI because low serum cortisol impairs renal-free water clearance. Steroid replacement reverses this process and unmasks an underlying CDI. PMID:25612752

  14. Neurosarcoidosis-associated central diabetes insipidus masked by adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Non, Lemuel; Brito, Daniel; Anastasopoulou, Catherine

    2015-01-22

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is an infrequent complication of neurosarcoidosis (NS). Its presentation may be masked by adrenal insufficiency (AI) and uncovered by subsequent steroid replacement. A 45-year-old woman with a history of NS presented 2 weeks after abrupt cessation of prednisone with nausea, vomiting, decreased oral intake and confusion. She was diagnosed with secondary AI and intravenous hydrocortisone was promptly begun. Over the next few days, however, the patient developed severe thirst and polyuria exceeding 6 L of urine per day, accompanied by hypernatraemia and hypo-osmolar urine. She was presumed to have CDI due to NS, and intranasal desmopressin was administered. This eventually normalised her urine output and serum sodium. The patient was discharged improved on intranasal desmopressin and oral prednisone. AI may mask the manifestation of CDI because low serum cortisol impairs renal-free water clearance. Steroid replacement reverses this process and unmasks an underlying CDI.

  15. Renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present review was to summarize and discuss previous findings concerning renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders (MIDs). A literature review was performed using frequently used databases. The study identified that primary MIDs frequently present as mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS) at onset or in the later course of the MID. Occasionally, the kidneys are affected in MIDs. Renal manifestations of MIDs include renal insufficiency, nephrolithiasis, nephrotic syndrome, renal cysts, renal tubular acidosis, Bartter-like syndrome, Fanconi syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrocalcinosis, and benign or malign neoplasms. Among the syndromic MIDs, renal involvement has been most frequently reported in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Leigh syndrome and mitochondrial depletion syndromes. Only in single cases was renal involvement also reported in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, Pearson syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, coenzyme-Q deficiency, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia, myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, growth retardation, aminoaciduria, cholestasis, iron overload, lactacidosis, and early death, and hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure in infancy and alkalosis syndrome. The present study proposes that the frequency of renal involvement in MIDs is probably underestimated. Diagnosis of renal involvement follows general guidelines and treatment is symptomatic. Thus, renal manifestations of primary MIDs require recognition and appropriate management, as they determine the outcome of MID patients.

  16. Renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Scorza, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review was to summarize and discuss previous findings concerning renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders (MIDs). A literature review was performed using frequently used databases. The study identified that primary MIDs frequently present as mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS) at onset or in the later course of the MID. Occasionally, the kidneys are affected in MIDs. Renal manifestations of MIDs include renal insufficiency, nephrolithiasis, nephrotic syndrome, renal cysts, renal tubular acidosis, Bartter-like syndrome, Fanconi syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrocalcinosis, and benign or malign neoplasms. Among the syndromic MIDs, renal involvement has been most frequently reported in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Leigh syndrome and mitochondrial depletion syndromes. Only in single cases was renal involvement also reported in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, Pearson syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, coenzyme-Q deficiency, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia, myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, growth retardation, aminoaciduria, cholestasis, iron overload, lactacidosis, and early death, and hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure in infancy and alkalosis syndrome. The present study proposes that the frequency of renal involvement in MIDs is probably underestimated. Diagnosis of renal involvement follows general guidelines and treatment is symptomatic. Thus, renal manifestations of primary MIDs require recognition and appropriate management, as they determine the outcome of MID patients. PMID:28515908

  17. [Diagnostic imaging of peripheral renal vascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Hélénon, O; Correas, J M; Eiss, D; Khairoune, A; Merran, S

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disorders of the kidney involve the intrarenal branches of the renal vascular tree. It include occlusive (infarction and cortical necrosis) and non-occlusive vascular lesions (acquired arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous malformation, false aneurysms and microaneurysms). Initial diagnosis relies on color Doppler US and CT angiography. Angiography plays a therapeutic role. MR imaging provides useful diagnostic information on perfusion disorders especially in patients with renal insufficiency.

  18. Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... suffer from chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, and obesity, as well as from cancer, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life and productivity. 1 Sleep insufficiency may be caused ...

  19. Preoperative nuclear renal scan underestimates renal function after radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Laurie; Negron, Edris; Liu, Joceline S; Su, Yu-Kai; Paparello, James J; Eggener, Scott; Kundu, Shilajit D

    2014-12-01

    To compare expected and actual renal function after nephrectomy. Nuclear renal scan estimates differential kidney function and is commonly used to calculate expected postoperative renal function after radical nephrectomy. However, the observed postoperative renal function is often different from the expected. A retrospective review was performed on 136 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy or nephroureterectomy and had a preoperative renal scan with calculated differential function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values, preoperative and postoperative, were calculated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The expected postoperative GFR based on renal scan was compared with the actual postoperative GFR. The average age of patients undergoing surgery was 58.6 years, and the indication for surgery was for benign causes in 59 (44%) patients and cancer in 76 (56%) patients. The average preoperative creatinine and estimated GFR were 1.0 mg/dL and 69.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a median follow-up of 3.3 months, the actual postoperative GFR exceeded the expected GFR by an average of 12.1% (interquartile range, 2.6%-25.2%). When stratified by preoperative GFR >90, 60-90, and <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, the observed GFR exceeded the expected GFR by 4.3%, 12.6%, and 14.9%, respectively (P = .16). This trend was maintained when GFR was plotted over time. After nephrectomy, the remaining kidney exceeded the expected postoperative GFR by 12% in this cohort of patients with preoperative renal scans. Patients with existing renal insufficiency had the greatest compensatory response, and this was durable over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Renal medullary ''rings'': possible CT manifestation of hypercalcemia

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, N.S.; Gordon, L.; Gobien, R.P.; Lott, M.

    1984-01-01

    Bilateral dense rings in the renal medulla were found on noncontrasted computed tomography in a patient with marked hypercalcemia and suspected primary hyperparathyroidism. The rings were not present on plain radiographs and were obscured on contrasted scans, and may represent occult nephrocalcinosis. Associated findings--renal insufficiency induced by hypercalcemia and interstitial nephritis--may be reversible with early recognition of this CT finding.

  1. Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  2. [Membranous nephropathy associated to autoimmune thyroiditis, chronic pancreatitis and suprarrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Merino, J L; Fernández Lucas, M; Teruel, J L; Valer, P; Moreira, V; Arambarri, M; Ortuño, J

    2004-01-01

    A 33 year old female was admitted to the hospital to study aedema and bocio, A nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed and the renal biopsy demonstrated membranous glomerulonephritis, stage II. She was also diagnosed of Hashimoto's autoinmmune thyroiditis: TSH (41.5 uUl/ml), T4 (0.07 ng/dl), antithyroglobuline (1/2560) and antimicrosome (1/6400). Four year latter she was diagnosed of autoinmmune pancreatitis, without evidence of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Eight years latter she was diagnosed of primary autoimmune suprarrenal insufficiency: basal cortisol: 2.7 mcg/dl, post ACTH estimulated cortisol: 5.6 mcg/dl, antinuclear antibody (1/160) and antiparietal (1/320). We present a pluriglandular autoimmune syndrome with membranous glomerulonephritis, thyroiditis, pancreatitis and suprarrenal insufficiency. To the best of our knowledge this complex syndrome has not been previously described.

  3. Secondary hyperoxaluria: a risk factor for kidney stone formation and renal failure in native kidneys and renal grafts.

    PubMed

    Karaolanis, Georgios; Lionaki, Sophia; Moris, Demetrios; Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2014-10-01

    Secondary hyperoxaluria is a multifactorial disease affecting several organs and tissues, among which stand native and transplanted kidneys. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis may lead to renal insufficiency. Patients suffering from secondary hyperoxaluria, should be promptly identified and appropriately treated, so that less renal damage occurs. The aim of this review is to underline the causes of hyperoxaluria and the related pathophysiologic mechanisms, which are involved, along with the description of seven cases of irreversible renal graft injury due to secondary hyperoxaluria.

  4. Management of renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Peco-Antic, Amira

    2005-01-01

    Normochromic normocytic anemia is common in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) when their glomerular filtration rate is below 35 ml/min/1.73 m2 BSA, but it may develop earlier in some forms of renal disease. An inadequate erythropoiesis due to insufficient erythropoietin synthesis in the kidneys is the main cause of renal anemia. Other reasons include reduced red blood cell lifespan, chronic blood loss, iron deficiency, inhibitors of erythropoiesis, and malnutrition. The presence of anemia contributes to many of the symptoms of uremia, including decreased appetite, decreased energy, poor cardiac function, and poor school performance. Therefore, correction of anemia dramatically improves the life of the child with CRF. Presently, the goal of anemia management is to maintain hematocrit concentrations at 33% to 36% and a hemoglobin concentration of at least 11 g/L. This can be accomplished by intravenous or subcutaneous administration of recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO, 100-300 U/kg/week) and iron preparations. If adequate iron stores cannot be maintained with oral therapy (2-3, max 6 mg/kg/day), intravenous iron should be administered. In order to optimize anemia management in children with CRF, future research should be concentrated on the normalization of hemoglobin early in the course of CRF, and the long-term effects on the child's development.

  5. Occult adrenal insufficiency in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hubay, C A; Weckesser, E C; Levy, R P

    1975-01-01

    Eight patients admitted to a University hospital with acute surgical problems and related adrenal insufficiency were reviewed and three are presented in detail. Surgical stress and continued sepsis played major roles in the lack of responsiveness to usual modes of therapy until the adrenal insufficiency was corrected. The patients fell into three major clinical categories of adrenal insufficiency. Chronic illness and sepsis are shown to affect steroid production and metabolism, as well as adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Pharmacologic amounts of steroids are often needed in patients with shock, gram negative sepsis and prolonged illnesses, even if normal or elevated serum cortisols are present. Therapeutic trials of cortisol administration are shown to be confusing when not accompanied by easily performed diagnostic tests of adrenal function. It is emphasized that a pretreatment serum cortisol should be obtained whenever possible. The evaluation of adrenal function is of lifelong importance to the patient. PMID:165792

  6. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Valente, Roberto; Del Chiaro, Marco; Permert, Johan; Löhr, J-Matthias

    2017-02-23

    Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor's metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion. This, in turn, contributes to malnutrition, specifically a lack of fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, and other micronutrients. Patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency have, overall, an extremely poor prognosis with regard to surgical outcome and overall survival. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the mechanisms involved in the disease, to be able to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency early on, and to treat malnutrition appropriately, for example, with pancreatic enzymes.

  7. Prevalence, Cause, and Treatment of Respiratory Insufficiency After Orthotopic Heart Transplant.

    PubMed

    Savaş Bozbaş, Şerife; Ulubay, Gaye; Öner Eyüboğlu, Füsun; Sezgin, Atilla; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Heart transplant is the best treatment for end-stage heart failure. Respiratory insufficiency after heart transplant is a potentially serious complication. Pulmonary complications, pulmonary hypertension, allograft failure or rejection, and structural heart defects in the donor heart are among the causes of hypoxemia after transplant. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of hypoxemia and respiratory insufficiency in patients with orthotopic heart transplant during the early postoperative period. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 45 patients who had received orthotopic heart transplant at our center. Clinical and demographic variables and laboratory data were noted. Oxygen saturation values from patients in the first week and the first month after transplant were analyzed. We also documented the cause of respiratory insufficiency and the type of treatment. Mean age was 35.3 ± 15.3 years (range, 12-61 y), with males comprising 32 of 45 patients (71.1%). Two patients had mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1 had asthma. Twenty-five patients (55.6%) had a history of smoking. Respiratory insufficiency was noted in 9 patients (20%) during the first postoperative week. Regarding cause, 5 of these patients (11.1%) had pleural effusion, 2 (4.4%) had atelectasis, 1 (2.2%) had pneumonia, and 1 (2.2%) had acute renal failure. Therapies administered to patients with respiratory insufficiency were as follows: 5 patients had oxygen therapy with nasal canula/mask, 3 patients had continuous positive airway pressure, and 1 patient had mechanical ventilation. One month after transplant, 2 patients (4.4%) had respiratory insufficiency 1 (2.2%) due to pleural effusion and 1 (2.2%) due to atelectasis. Respiratory insufficiency is a common complication in the first week after orthotopic heart transplant. Identification of the underlying cause is an important indicator for therapy. With appropriate care, respiratory insufficiency can be treated

  8. [Pregnancy in patients with underlying renal disease].

    PubMed

    Golshayan, D; Mathieu, C; Burnier, M

    2007-03-07

    Pregnancy has generally been regarded as very high risk in women with chronic renal insufficiency. In this review, we describe the physiologic changes in systemic and renal haemodynamics during pregnancy, as well as the nature and severity of possible maternal and foetal complications in the setting of underlying renal disease. The risks are proportional to the degree of functional renal impairment, the presence or not of proteinuria and/or arterial hypertension at the time of conception, and are related to the type of underlying nephropathy or systemic disease in the mother. Furthermore, if the renal disease has been diagnosed before pregnancy, a better planning of the moment of conception, as well as a tight follow-up, allow for a better maternal and obstetrical outcome.

  9. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  10. [Association between Williams syndrome and adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Rchachi, Meryem; Larwanou, Maazou Mahamane; El Ouahabi, Hanan; Ajdi, Farida

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder including dysmorphia, cardiovascular malformations and a specific neuropsychological profile together with other associated disorders. We report the case of a 17-year old girl, born of a non-inbred marriage, with Williams syndrome discovered during an assessment of degree of failure to thrive. Its association with primary adrenal insufficiency makes it unique. Diagnosis is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Its management consists of the implementation of treatment for adrenal insufficiency associated with a clinico-biological monitoring.

  11. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  12. Severe hyponatremia caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Oeda, T; Saito, Y

    1999-05-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with severe hyponatremia. Basal values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid hormone and cortisol were normal on admission. Impairment of water diuresis was observed by water loading test. Initially, we diagnosed her condition as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). By provocation test, we finally confirmed that the hyponatremia was caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. The basal values of ACTH and cortisol might not be sufficient to exclude the possibility of adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate adrenal function by provocation test or to re-evaluate it after recovery from hyponatremia.

  13. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Gokhan; Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-12-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease.

  14. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  15. [Problems with immunosuppressive agents in nephropathies with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Savoldi, S; Mesiano, P; Rocchietti, M

    2008-01-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment is widely used in transplant patients, who often have chronic renal failure, while its use in nephropathies of native kidneys with chronic renal insufficiency is still limited. In recent years a number of papers have reported advantages of its use also in this setting. A prerequisite for immunosuppression in this condition is accurate renal histology, in order to define the etiology, activity/chronicity index and prognosis. Although clinicians agree on the use of aggressive treatment for secondary nephropathies, the approach to primary forms in the presence of chronic renal failure remains controversial, as does the definition of a ''point of no return'' beyond which treatment could be ineffective or unsafe. Nonrandomized studies found that immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide can be useful in membranous nephropathy with renal insufficiency. The use of immunosuppressive drugs in IgA nephropathy in the presence of established renal insufficiency seems to improve renal survival with a limited occurrence of side effects. Since the pharmacokinetics of the current immunosuppressive agents (steroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, mycophenolate mofetil) is modified by renal insufficiency, attention should be paid to reducing drug doses and monitoring toxicity. Immunosuppressive treatment is a critical procedure in patients with chronic renal failure, in whom an increased risk of infection is already present. In conclusion, on the basis of the data of the literature, we can hypothesize that the ''point of no return'' exceeds the threshold generally considered safe by clinicians. Nevertheless, a strict definition of a cutoff value for renal function to establish whether or not a certain treatment should be given is not applicable in clinical practice, where the choice of an immunosuppressive approach must be tailored to the individual patient based on a global evaluation including renal histology, clinical conditions

  16. Treatment of Coagulopathy Related to Hepatic Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Barton, Cassie A

    2016-10-01

    To provide a concise review of the medical management of coagulopathy related to hepatic insufficiency. This review will focus on prevention and management of bleeding episodes in patients with hepatic insufficiency. The treatment and prevention of thromboembolic complications will also be addressed. Electronic search of PubMed database using relevant search terms, including hepatic coagulopathy, hemorrhage, liver diseases, blood coagulation disorders, blood transfusion, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver failure. Subsequent searches were done on specific issues. Articles considered include original articles, review articles, guidelines, consensus statements, and conference proceedings. A detailed review of scientific, peer-reviewed data was performed. Relevant publications were included and summarized. Available evidence is used to describe and summarize currently available tests of hemostasis, utilization of prohemostatic agents, transfusion strategies, use of prophylactic anticoagulation and treatment of thromboembolic events in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Dynamic changes to hemostasis occur in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Routine laboratory tests of hemostasis are unable to reflect these changes and should not be used exclusively to evaluate coagulopathy. Newer testing methods are available to provide data on the entire spectrum of clotting but are not validated in acute bleeding. Prohemostatic agents utilized to prevent bleeding should only be considered when the risk of bleeding outweighs the risk of thrombotic complications. Restrictive transfusion strategies may avoid exacerbation of acute bleeding. Prophylaxis against and treatment of thromboembolic events are necessary and should consider patient specific factors.

  17. Tarlov Cyst Causing Sacral Insufficiency Fracture.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Ross C; Gates, Marcus J; Copeland, William; Krauss, William E; Fogelson, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg. There was no recent history of spine or pelvic trauma. These symptoms prompted her initial emergency department evaluation, and imaging demonstrated a large Tarlov cyst with an associated sacral insufficiency fracture. She was noted to have a normal neurological examination notable only for an antalgic gait. She was taken to surgery via a posterior approach and the cyst was identified eccentric to the left. The cyst was fenestrated and the nerve roots identified. Given her large area of bone erosion and insufficiency fractures, fixation of the sacroiliac joints was deemed necessary. Fusion was extended to the L5 vertebral body to buttress the fixation. She tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 3. Tarlov cysts of the sacrum can lead to significant bone erosion and subsequent insufficiency fractures, requiring fenestration and in some cases, complex sacropelvic fixation.

  18. 20 CFR 618.940 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Allocation of Training Funds to States § 618.940 Insufficient... costs of approved training will exceed the training cap under § 618.900, the Department will decide how...

  19. 20 CFR 618.940 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Allocation of Training Funds to States § 618.940 Insufficient... costs of approved training will exceed the training cap under § 618.900, the Department will decide how...

  20. 20 CFR 618.940 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Allocation of Training Funds to States § 618.940 Insufficient... costs of approved training will exceed the training cap under § 618.900, the Department will decide how...

  1. 20 CFR 618.940 - Insufficient funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED Allocation of Training Funds to States § 618.940 Insufficient... costs of approved training will exceed the training cap under § 618.900, the Department will decide how...

  2. Genetics of primary ovarian insufficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Fortuño, Cristina; Labarta, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency is one of the main causes of female infertility owing to an abnormal ovarian reserve. Its relevance has increased in more recent years due to the fact that age of motherhood is being delayed in developed countries, with the risk of having either primary ovarian insufficiency or less chances of pregnancy when women consider the option of having their first baby. Several exogenous factors can lead to this event, such us viral infections, metabolomic dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and environmental or iatrogenic factors, although in most cases the mechanism that leads to the disorder is unknown. Genetic factors represent the most commonly identified cause and the impact of sex chromosome abnormalities (e.g., Turner syndrome or X structural abnormalities), autosomal and X-linked mutations on the genesis of primary ovarian insufficiency has also been well described. Yet in most cases, the genetic origin remains unknown and there are multiple candidate genes. This review aims to collect all the genetic abnormalities and genes associated with syndromic and non syndromic primary ovarian insufficiency that have been published in the literature to date using the candidate-gene approach and a genome-wide analysis.

  3. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Renal Scintigraphy Sponsored by ...

  4. Renal abnormalities in the Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tieder, M; Levy, M; Gubler, M C; Gagnadoux, M F; Broyer, M

    1982-09-01

    Four cases of BARDET-Biedl syndrome (BBS) are described which all suffer from renal abnormalities. Polyuria or polydipsia with impairment of renal concentration capacity were the earliest signs of renal dysfunction. Renal insufficiency developed in 3 cases and hypertension in two. Urographic abnormalities were demonstrated in all patients. The most remarkable features were cystic spaces communicating with the calices and lobulation of kidney. Caliceal clubbing and caliectasis surrounded by narrowed, unscarred parenchyma were frequent findings. Previous investigators reported various renal histological pictures in BBS. We found tubulo- interstitial lesions in all cases. Features of dysplasia and cystic formations were less frequent. Mesangial proliferation was not noted. Ultra-structural changes in the glomerular basement membrane were not observed in this study. Thirty-one of 32 recently reported cases of BBS included renal lesions which are the major cause of death. It is therefore suggested that renal abnormalities are accepted as the cardinal feature of this syndrome.

  5. [The use of Phonagel in glottic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Motta, G; Cesari, U

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe their experience concerning collagen implantation in case of glottic insufficiency after cordectomy by the CO2 Laser. Three different kinds of injection are indicated as follows: injection of 3/4 of collagen in the site responding to vocal fold removal on 1/4 in the survival fold after cordectomy with conservation of the thyroarytenoid muscle; implantation of 1/2 in the new fold and 1/2 in the surviving one after cordectomy with removing of the cricoarytenoid muscle; infiltration of the whole material in the residual vocal fold after cordectomy enlarged to the false vocal fold and the ventricule as well. Video laryngoscopic and spectrographic examinations documented good phonatory results after collagen implantation in 19 cases over 21; two cases had a persisting insufficiency depending on the fact they had been previously operated of enlarged cordectomy and the scar tissue was not sufficient for measures and consistency to obtain a satisfactory injection of collagen.

  6. Allgrove Syndrome: Adrenal Insufficiency with Hypertensive Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Sommayya; Manzoor, Jaida; Talat, Nabila; Khan, Hafiz Sajid; Subhanie, Maroof; Khalid, Nauman Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Allgrove syndrome or triple-Asyndrome is a rare familial multisystem autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterised by triad of alacrima, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) resistance. If it is associated with autonomic dysfunction, it is termed as 4-Asyndrome. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the Achalasia - Addisonism - Alacrima (AAAS) gene on chromosome 12q13 encoding the nuclear pore protein ALADIN. A5-year boy presented with history of fits and altered sensorium for one day. He also had increased pigmentation of body and persistent vomiting since six months of age. Laboratory investigations and imaging revealed alacrimia, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency due to ACTH resistance. He had episodes of hypertensive crises, for which he was thoroughly investigated and it was found to be due to autonomic instability. Based on clinical findings and investigations he was diagnosed as case of Allgrove syndrome or 4-Asyndrome with autonomic dysfunction.

  7. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the cat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-08-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by an insufficient amount of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the small intestine. Clinical signs most commonly reported in cats with EPI are weight loss, loose and voluminous stools, steatorrhea, polyphagia, and in some cases a greasy soiling of the hair coat in the perianal region. Serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration is the diagnostic test of choice for the diagnosis of affected cats. Treatment of cats with EPI consists of enzyme supplementation with either a powdered pancreatic extract or raw pancreas. Most cats with EPI also have severely decreased serum cobalamin concentrations and may require lifelong parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Most cats respond well to therapy and can have a normal life expectancy and quality of life.

  8. [Orthoptic treatment efficiency in convergence insufficiency treatment].

    PubMed

    Dragomir, M; Truş, L; Chirilă, D; Stîngu, C

    2001-01-01

    We studied a group of 162 patients(89 females, 73 males), with ages between 15-30 years, who complained of blurred vision at near work. 98 patients(60.4%) were diagnosed with convergence insufficiency (C.I.), the rest of 64 patients(39.6%) had: low refractive errors, heterophoria and intermittent heterotropia. Patients with convergence insufficiency were divided in 3 groups: group 1(34 patients--34.6%) were treated with orthoptic exercises and near point exercises at home, group 2 (34 patients--34.6%) were treated with only near point exercises at home and control group 3 (30 patients--30.8%) without treatment. The result of the treatment of C.I. was good at 25 patients(73.5%) of group 1, at 8 patients(23.5%) of group 2 while in group 3 at only one patient the symptoms disappeared.

  9. Feedback Error Learning with Insufficient Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Basel; Hirata, Kentaro; Sugimoto, Kenji

    This letter studies the tracking error in Multi-input Multi-output Feedback Error Learning (MIMO-FEL) system having insufficient excitation. It is shown that the error converges to zero exponentially even if the reference signal lacks the persistently excitation (PE) condition. Furthermore, by making full use of this fast convergence, we estimate the plant parameter while in operation based on frequency response. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to a conventional approach.

  10. Zinc insufficiency during pregnancy. A review.

    PubMed

    Lemasters, G K

    1981-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been found to cause problems in parturition and in the growth and development of the offspring. There are several groups of pregnant women at known risk of developing a zinc insufficiency; these include vegetarians, alcoholics, teenagers, women with multiple pregnancies, and women with impaired intestinal absorption of zinc. Nurses need to be able to identify the population at risk and to offer dietary counseling.

  11. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Valente, Roberto; Del Chiaro, Marco; Permert, Johan; Löhr, J.-Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor’s metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion. This, in turn, contributes to malnutrition, specifically a lack of fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, and other micronutrients. Patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency have, overall, an extremely poor prognosis with regard to surgical outcome and overall survival. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the mechanisms involved in the disease, to be able to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency early on, and to treat malnutrition appropriately, for example, with pancreatic enzymes. PMID:28241470

  12. The rise, fall, and possible resurrection of renal denervation.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rajiv; Raphael, Claire E; Negoita, Manuela; Pocock, Stuart J; Gersh, Bernard J

    2016-04-01

    Renal denervation has a chequered history. Dramatic reductions in blood pressure after denervation of the renal arteries were observed in early trials, but later trials in which denervation was tested against a sham procedure produced neutral results. Although a sound pathophysiological basis exists for interruption of the renal sympathetic nervous system as a treatment for hypertension, trial data to date are insufficient to support renal denervation as an established clinical therapy. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the currently available trial data, device development, and trials in progress, and provide recommendations for future trial design.

  13. Crystalloid glomerulopathy in monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS).

    PubMed

    Vankalakunti, Mahesha; Bonu, Ravishankar; Shetty, Shilpa; Siddini, Vishwanath; Babu, Kishore; Ballal, Sudarshan H

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance in a 63-year-old man who presented with nephrotic-range proteinuria and renal insufficiency. The kidney biopsy showed a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis pattern with extensive crystalloid deposits in the glomerular capillary endothelial cells and very few in the tubular epithelial cells. The immunoperoxidase staining showed kappa light chain restriction. Subsequently, the bone marrow showed 6% plasma cells which confirmed the diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. He responded well to bortezomib treatment with resolution of the nephrotic syndrome and normalization of renal function after 7 months.

  14. LMWH in cancer patients with renal impairment - better than warfarin?

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, Rupert M

    2016-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients, which are known to have a 5- to 7-fold increased risk for VTE. The anticoagulant treatment of VTE in cancer patients is less effective with a three-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared to non-cancer patients, and it is less safe with more than double rates of major bleeding. Compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKA), long-term secondary prevention with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), and therefore, current international guidelines recommend the use of LMWH over VKA. With increasing age, cancer prevalence and VTE incidence increase while renal function decreases. Anti-cancer treatment may impair renal function additionally. Therefore, renal insufficiency is a frequent challenge in CAT patients, which is associated with a higher risk of both bleeding and recurrent VTE. Both VKA and LMWH may be associated with less efficacy and higher bleeding risk in renal insufficiency. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective data on renal insufficiency and CAT. A recent sub-analysis from a large randomized controlled trial shows that the bleeding risk in patients with severe renal insufficiency in CAT is not elevated with the use of LMWH compared to VKA while efficacy is maintained. In addition, LMWH treatment has several practical advantages over VKA, particularly in patients with CAT while they are receiving anti-cancer treatment.

  15. Subtrochanteric Femoral Insufficiency Fracture Following Bisphosphonate Therapy for Osseous Metastases.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth A; Chew, Felix S

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of an insufficiency fracture of the femoral shaft in a 61-year-old man who had received bisphosphonate therapy to reduce the fracture risk from lytic renal cell carcinoma metastases to the spine. Approximately 1.5 years after beginning monthly intravenous infusions of zoledronic acid (Zometa), the patient complained of persistent thigh pain. Radionuclide bone scan showed mildly increased activity in the lateral subtrochanteric cortex of the right femur, where there was focally increased T2 signal on MRI and a small, triangular ridge or cortical beak on radiographs. The lesion was initially thought to represent a metastasis, but after the patient returned with a transverse femoral shaft fracture through the ridge following minimal trauma, MRI and biopsy of the lesion failed to show any evidence of tumor. We suggest that this fracture is similar to the low-energy proximal femoral shaft fractures recently reported in postmenopausal women who have received oral bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Suppression of bone turnover may play a role in the development of these fractures.

  16. Renal mass biopsy--a renaissance?

    PubMed

    Lane, Brian R; Samplaski, Mary K; Herts, Brian R; Zhou, Ming; Novick, Andrew C; Campbell, Steven C

    2008-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the natural history and limited aggressive potential of many small renal masses, expanding treatment options and the integration of molecular factors into prognostic and therapeutic algorithms have stimulated renewed interest in percutaneous renal mass biopsy. A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed to evaluate the indications, techniques, complications and efficacy of renal mass biopsy. Reported techniques of renal mass biopsy vary widely with different modes of radiographic guidance, needle size, number of cores and pathological analyses. Percutaneous renal mass biopsy with 2 or 3 cores using 18 gauge needles may improve diagnostic accuracy without increasing morbidity. Serious complications of percutaneous biopsy are rare and the minor complication rate in recent series has been less than 5%. The reported rate of technical failure of renal mass biopsy due to insufficient material was about 9% before 2001 and 5% in more recent studies. The likelihood of indeterminate or inaccurate pathological findings has decreased from 10% to 4% when comparing clinical studies before and since 2001. Currently a total success rate of greater than 90% is attainable using renal mass biopsy with standard histopathological analysis. Recent studies demonstrated that combining immunohistochemical and molecular analyses may further improve renal mass biopsy accuracy. Research on expanded analysis of percutaneous renal mass biopsy specimens should remain a top priority. Enhanced renal mass biopsy should not change treatment in most patients with small renal masses, who should be treated with surgical excision. However, future clinical algorithms will likely incorporate enhanced biopsy in situations in which decision making is more challenging.

  17. Spectrum of renal disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jessie; Dwyer, Karen M; Hill, Prue; See, Emily; Ekinci, Elif I; Jerums, George; MacIsaac, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    The spectrum of renal disease in patients with diabetes encompasses both diabetic kidney disease (including albuminuric and non-albuminuric phenotypes) and non-diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic kidney disease can manifest as varying degrees of renal insufficiency and albuminuria, with heterogeneity in histology reported on renal biopsy. For patients with diabetes and proteinuria, the finding of non-diabetic kidney disease alone or superimposed on the changes of diabetic nephropathy is increasingly reported. It is important to identify non-diabetic kidney disease as some forms are treatable, sometimes leading to remission. Clinical indications for a heightened suspicion of non-diabetic kidney disease and hence consideration for renal biopsy in patients with diabetes and nephropathy include absence of diabetic retinopathy, short duration of diabetes, atypical chronology, presence of haematuria or other systemic disease, and the nephrotic syndrome.

  18. [Treatment of renal anemia with erythropoietin].

    PubMed

    Spustova, V; Kovac, A

    1999-08-01

    During the last decade, a considerable amount of new information has accumulated regarding therapy optimalization of renal anaemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO). Key question involved is EPO hyporesponsiveness caused by absolute or functional iron deficiency. Most controversial issue in the treatment of renal anaemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency is the definition of optimal target haemoglobin. Many questions about optimizing EPO therapy were considered at the 2nd European Epoetin Symposium which was held in April 1998 on Crete. Discussion was devoted also to revision of a draft version of the European Best Practice Guidelines for the Management of Anaemia in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure. The presented review is on summary of new insights presented at the symposium. (Ref. 85.)

  19. Which diet for which renal failure: making sense of the options.

    PubMed

    Beto, J A

    1995-08-01

    This review describes categories of renal function (normal, renal insufficiency, end-stage renal failure), types of treatment modalities (renal insufficiency management, dialysis, transplantation), and corresponding dietary parameters (protein, energy, fiber, sodium, fluid, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, vitamins, minerals). The focus is directed toward general and nonrenal specialty practitioners, who are encountering a growing number of geriatric patients and patients who have undergone renal transplantation or are in early renal failure. The findings indicate that early intervention may delay or prevent rapid progression of renal disease in some patients, that treatment modalities continue to need individualized dietary support to maintain nutritional status, and that transplant goals should include control of obesity and hyperlipidemia to reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  20. Genetics of Cleft Palate and Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Walter M.; Lanier, Steve T.; Purnell, Chad A.; Gosain, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) can occur in the setting of an unrepaired or repaired cleft lip and palate. The rate of VPI has been documented as high as 33% in some studies with higher rates of recurrences following surgery associated with genetic syndromes such as 22q11.2 deletions. The primary cause of VPI in these groups is still identified as the anatomic abnormalities of the velum. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of the velum are discussed along with genetic mutations associated with VPI. PMID:27617110

  1. Radiocontrast-Induced Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Misson, Robert T.; Cutler, Ralph E.

    1985-01-01

    Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretic advantages over the presently used agents. PMID:4013281

  2. Molecular mechanisms of renal aging.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Roland; Melk, Anette

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular evidence suggest that aging is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The aging kidney undergoes complex changes that predispose to renal pathology. The underlying molecular mechanisms could be the target of therapeutic strategies in the future. Here, we summarize recent insight into cellular and molecular processes that have been shown to contribute to the renal aging phenotype.The main clinical finding of renal aging is the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and its structural correlate is the loss of functioning nephrons. Mechanistically, this has been linked to different processes, such as podocyte hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, and gradual microvascular rarefaction. Renal functional recovery after an episode of acute kidney injury is significantly worse in elderly patients. This decreased regenerative potential, which is a hallmark of the aging process, may be caused by cellular senescence. Accumulation of senescent cells could explain insufficient repair and functional loss, a view that has been strengthened by recent studies showing that removal of senescent cells results in attenuation of renal aging. Other potential mechanisms are alterations in autophagy as an important component of a disturbed renal stress response and functional differences in the inflammatory system. Promising therapeutic measures to counteract these age-related problems include mimetics of caloric restriction, pharmacologic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition, and novel strategies of senotherapy with the goal of reducing the number of senescent cells to decrease aging-related disease in the kidney. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Membranous nephritis after renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Robles, N R; Gómez Campdera, F; Anaya, F; Niembro, E; Junco, E; Valderrábano, F

    1991-02-01

    8 cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MG) after renal transplants (RT) are presented; one being a recurrence of the original disease and the other 7 due to a different cause of renal insufficiency. The total incidence of MG after transplantation was 1.63%; 1.39% being the incidence of MG of new cases. Only 1 patient showed decrease of renal function and in this case the MG was accompanied by chronic rejection lesions. There was no sign of neoplasias nor drugs producing MG. As far as chronic infections are concerned, only one patient showed B antigen and it was not observed during the immunofluorescent test in the biopsy. 6 patients had urological complications after the renal transplant (3 cases of urinary fistula; 2 cases of obstructive uropathy; 1 case of short ureter). 2 patients experienced the start of hemodialysis due to focal and segmentary glomerulosclerosis. The beginning of proteinuria commences between 2 and 23 months after the RT (median 13,0 +/- 7,5 moths); with a range of between 2.0 and 12.0 gr/day (median: 6.8 +/- 3,2 Z gr/day), this being nephrotic in 4 cases. Proteinuria improved 1 case, and persisted in the other patients at the same level registered previous to the diagnosis. MG is a non-frequent complication or RT and is usually benign. Patients with post-transplant urologic complications could be considered to have a higher risk of developing a MG "de novo".

  4. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  5. Varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H

    2009-11-01

    Varicose veins are a very frequent disorder with prevalence in our adult population between 14% for large varices and 59% for small teleangiectasias. Subjective symptoms may be very non-specific. The term "chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)" defines functional abnormalities of the venous system producing advanced symptoms like oedema, skin changes or leg ulcers. Both entities, varicose veins and CVI, may be summarized under the term "chronic venous disorders" which includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system. A classification system to describe chronic venous disorders regarding clinical appearance, etiology, anatomical distribution and pathophysiology has been proposed under the acronym of CEAP. The revised version of the CEAP classification contains also definitions of clinical signs and suggests three levels of apparative investigations adjusted to the clinical stage. Concerning the etiology of venous disorders controversial theories exist leading to different therapeutic concepts. As a matter of fact there is a vicious circle between structural changes in valves and venous wall and hemodynamic forces leading to reflux and venous hypertension. Different methods for treating varicose veins are available producing satisfactory early outcome in most cases, but followed by a high recurrence rate after years. Chronic venous insufficiency requires "chronic management". Compression therapy by bandages for initial treatment of severe stages and maintenance therapy using medical compression stockings is essential. In addition correction of venous refluxes by surgery or endovenous procedures including echo-guided foam sclerotherapy should be considered in every single case.

  6. Update on Energy Homeostasis and Insufficient Sleep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands and opportunities of modern life, many people habitually sleep less than 6 h a night. In the sleep clinic, chronic sleep restriction is recognized by the diagnosis of insufficient sleep syndrome (ICSD-9, 307.49-4), which is receiving increased scrutiny as a potential risk to metabolic health. Its relevance for the practicing endocrinologist is highlighted by a stream of epidemiological data that show an association of insufficient sleep with increased incidence of obesity and related morbidities. A central theme of this update is the notion that sleep loss incurs additional metabolic cost, which triggers a set of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and behavioral adaptations aimed at increasing food intake and conserving energy. Although this coordinated response may have evolved to offset the metabolic demands of extended wakefulness in natural habitats with limited food availability, it can be maladaptive in the context of a modern environment that allows many to overeat while maintaining a sedentary lifestyle without sufficient sleep. Importantly, such sleep loss-related metabolic adaptation may undermine the success of behavioral interventions based on reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity to lower metabolic risk in obesity-prone individuals. This emerging perspective is based on data from recently published human interventional studies and requires further experimental support. Nevertheless, it now seems prudent to recommend that overweight and obese individuals attempting to reduce their caloric intake and maintain increased physical activity should obtain adequate sleep and, if needed, seek effective treatment for any coexisting sleep disorders. PMID:22442266

  7. [Adrenal gland insufficiency secondary to paracoccidioidomycosis].

    PubMed

    Oñate, José M; Tobón, Angela María; Restrepo, Angela

    2002-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is regularly associated with adrenal insufficiency in 10-15% of symptomatic cases, and in some instances, diagnosis of the mycosis precedes the adrenal manifestation. To establish the frequency of this association, records were reviewed of 207 cases diagnosed with mycosis at the Mycology Service of the Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas. Six cases (2.9%) were found to have adrenal insufficiency. Patients were all males with a mean age of 67.2 years (range 48-75) and most worked in agriculture. The duration of the symptoms of adrenal damage was 4.1 months (range 2-6). All patients experienced weight loss and malaise; all had abnormal lung X-rays. Major clinical improvement was recorded after initiation of the specific treatments consisting of itraconazole, prednisolone and fluorcortisone. Diminished antibody titers against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were also recorded after treatment. Prompt treatment re-established adrenal function and effected recovery of normal gland morphology. Consequently, early detection of hypoadrenalism in patients living in the endemic areas is necessary to avoid further adrenal damage and permits a shorter hormonal treatment period in patients afflicted by the mycosis.

  8. Proteasome functional insufficiency in cardiac pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Hanqiao; Su, Huabo; Powell, Saul R.

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the degradation of most cellular proteins. Alterations in cardiac UPS, including changes in the degradation of regulatory proteins and proteasome functional insufficiency, are observed in many forms of heart disease and have been shown to play an important role in cardiac pathogenesis. In the past several years, remarkable progress in understanding the mechanisms that regulate UPS-mediated protein degradation has been achieved. A transgenic mouse model of benign enhancement of cardiac proteasome proteolytic function has been created. This has led to the first demonstration of the necessity of proteasome functional insufficiency in the genesis of important pathological processes. Cardiomyocyte-restricted enhancement of proteasome proteolytic function by overexpression of proteasome activator 28α protects against cardiac proteinopathy and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Additionally, exciting advances have recently been achieved in the search for a pharmacological agent to activate the proteasome. These breakthroughs are expected to serve as an impetus to further investigation into the involvement of UPS dysfunction in molecular pathogenesis and to the development of new therapeutic strategies for combating heart disease. An interplay between the UPS and macroautophagy is increasingly suggested in noncardiac systems but is not well understood in the cardiac system. Further investigations into the interplay are expected to provide a more comprehensive picture of cardiac protein quality control and degradation. PMID:21949118

  9. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty of Dysplastic Stenoses of the Renal Artery: Results on 70 Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Fraissinette, Bruno de; Garcier, Jean Marc; Dieu, Valerie; Mofid, Reza; Ravel, Anne; Boire, Jean Yves; Boyer, Louis

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the dilatation (PTRA) of renal arterial dysplastic stenosis (RADS). Methods: Seventy patients suffering from hypertension (87RADS) were treated at our institution for medial (83%) or non-classified fibrodysplasias (17%). Four patients suffered from renal insufficiency. Two endoprostheses were implanted. We evaluated blood pressure with the USCSRH criteria and renal insufficiency with the Martin criteria. Results: Ninety-five percent technical success and 87.9% clinical success for blood pressure were obtained, with worse results for patients older than 57 years or with a history of hypertension greater than 9 years. Results were better when the RADS was responsible for an ipsilateral renal atrophy or for poorly controlled hypertension. No renal insufficiency worsened during the follow-up. Conclusion: PTRA is a first-line treatment for renovascular hypertension caused by RADS. The results were encouraging despite a high average age of the subjects and frequent associated extrarenal vascular lesions.

  10. Renal Biopsy Findings in Acute Renal Failure in the Cohort of Patients in the Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Juan M.; Rivera, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Renal biopsy in acute renal failure of unknown origin provides irreplaceable information for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This study analyzed the frequency and clinicopathologic correlations of renal native biopsied acute renal failure in Spain during the period 1994 through 2006. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Acute renal failure was defined as a rapid deterioration of glomerular filtration rate, with or without oligoanuria or rapidly progressive renal insufficiency, including acute-on-chronic renal failure. Patients who were younger than 15 yr were considered children, those between 15 and 65 yr adults, and those >65 elderly. Results: Between 1994 and 2006, data on 14,190 native renal biopsies were collected from 112 renal units in Spain. Of these, 16.1% (2281 biopsies) were diagnosed with acute renal failure. The prevalence of the main clinical syndromes was different in the three age groups: Biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure in children was 5.7%, in adults was 12.5%, and in elderly increased significantly to 32.9%. The prevalence of biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure according to cause was as follows: Vasculitis, 23.3%; acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 11.3%; and crescentic glomerulonephritis types 1 and 2, 10.1%. The prevalence of the different causes differed significantly according to age group. Conclusions: The Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis provides useful information about renal histopathology in biopsy-confirmed acute renal failure. The prevalence of vasculitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis is high, especially in elderly patients. These data obtained from a national large registry highlight the value of renal biopsy in undetermined acute renal failure. PMID:18354075

  11. Treatment of acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Bear, R A; Cole, E H; Lang, A; Johnson, M

    1980-01-01

    Severe renal insufficiency is considered to indicate a poor prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, their reported median survival being approximately 2 months. In five consecutive patients with severe renal failure secondary to acute myeloma kidney early aggressive therapy, including chemotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, led to a significant improvement in the renal function of four; the fifth patient received a cadaveric renal transplant after 1 year of peritoneal dialysis. After a median follow-up period of 12 months all the patients were alive and had improved renal function. This experience contrasts with that previously reported and suggests that aggressive management may improve the survival of patients with acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney. PMID:7004618

  12. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ELEMENTS OF THE MULTIORGAN INSUFFICIENCY SYNDROME AND ESTIMATION OF THE PATIENTS STATE SEVERITY IN ACCORDANCE TO INTEGRAL SCALES IN AN ACUTE NECROTIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Khomyak, I V; Rotar, O V; Rotar, V I; Petrovskiy, G G

    2015-09-01

    There were examined 113 patients, in whom an acute necrotic pancreatitis was diagnosed. While admittance to hospital a constant organ insufficiency was revealed in 50 (44%), a transient one--in 63 (56%) patients. In total 31 (27.4%) patients died. Respiratory insufficiency have occurred in 67% patients, and almost with similar rate--cardio-vascular (in 59%), renal (in 56%) and enteral (in 54%), dominating in the lethality structure. The BISAP (Bedcide Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis) scales applied permit with high probability to prognosticate the organ insufficiency and lethality in patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions FXPOI fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency Enable Javascript to view ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency ( FXPOI ) is a condition ...

  14. Apparent insufficiency of iodine supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Eschler, Deirdre Cocks; Pozharny, Zhenya; Davies, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant woman are at increased risk for iodine deficiency, which may induce thyroid insufficiency and have damaging effects not only on the mother but also the fetus. We hypothesize that iodine supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk for iodine deficiency. Cross-sectional study to assess iodine levels in random urine specimens during pregnancy in New York City. One hundred eighty-two women visited a clinic where free iodine supplementation was offered (150 μg of potassium iodide daily; Group A), and 183 women were seen at a practice at which no supplementation was offered (Group B). Overall, more than one out of two pregnant women in New York City were at risk for iodine deficiency with a spot urinary iodine (UI) level less than 150 μg/L and could be defined as at risk for iodine deficiency. The median urine iodine concentration for the entire group was 152.5 μg/L, but there was considerable variation from 10.9 to 1210 μg/L. The median UI level of the supplemented Group A (169.8 μg/L) was significantly greater than that of Group B (128.4 μg/L; p<0.01). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, 38.9% of Group B women were at risk for mild, moderate, or severe iodine deficiency, compared with 22.8% of Group A women. New York City pregnant women were significantly less prone to iodine deficiency when provided with iodine supplementation. Nevertheless, when spot UI levels were used to estimate iodine sufficiency, more than 20% of supplemented women were still at risk for iodine deficiency according to WHO guidelines, suggesting that current supplementation practices remain insufficient.

  15. Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture after Ipsilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Shin, Sung Jin; Kang, Byoung Youl

    2016-01-01

    Insufficiency fracture of the calcaneus is a rare entity. In the absence of trauma, evaluating a painful ankle in an elderly patient can be difficult and also it might be overlook the insufficiency fracture. We experienced a case of insufficiency calcaneus fracture that occurred after ipsilateral total knee arthroplasty. Here, we report our case with a review of literatures. PMID:26981521

  16. 29 CFR 541.2 - Job titles insufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job titles insufficient. 541.2 Section 541.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND... General Regulations § 541.2 Job titles insufficient. A job title alone is insufficient to establish the...

  17. 29 CFR 541.2 - Job titles insufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job titles insufficient. 541.2 Section 541.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND... General Regulations § 541.2 Job titles insufficient. A job title alone is insufficient to establish the...

  18. 29 CFR 541.2 - Job titles insufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job titles insufficient. 541.2 Section 541.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND... General Regulations § 541.2 Job titles insufficient. A job title alone is insufficient to establish the...

  19. 29 CFR 541.2 - Job titles insufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job titles insufficient. 541.2 Section 541.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND... General Regulations § 541.2 Job titles insufficient. A job title alone is insufficient to establish the...

  20. 29 CFR 541.2 - Job titles insufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job titles insufficient. 541.2 Section 541.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND... General Regulations § 541.2 Job titles insufficient. A job title alone is insufficient to establish the...

  1. Renal Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal calculi is reviewed in general terms followed by the results of investigation of 439 patients with renal calculi studied by the author at Toronto General Hospital over a 13-year period. Abnormalities of probable pathogenetic significance were encountered in 76% of patients. Idiopathic hypercalciuria was encountered in 42% of patients, primary hyperparathyroidism in 11%, urinary infection in 8% and miscellaneous disorders in 8%. The incidence of uric acid stones and cystinuria was 5% and 2% respectively. In the remaining 24% of patients in whom no definite abnormalities were encountered the mean urinary magnesium excretion was less than normal. Of 180 patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, only 24 were females. In the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, the importance of detecting minimal degrees of hypercalcemia is stressed; attention is also drawn to the new observation that the upper limit of normal for serum calcium is slightly lower in females than in males. The efficacy of various measures advocated for the prevention of renal calculi is also reviewed. In the author's experience the administration of thiazides has been particularly effective in the prevention of calcium stones. Thiazides cause a sustained reduction in urinary calcium excretion and increase in urinary magnesium excretion. These agents also appear to affect the skeleton by diminishing bone resorption and slowing down bone turnover. PMID:5438766

  2. Rifampicin-Induced Concomitant Renal Injury and Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chogtu, Bharti; Surendra, Vyshak Uddur; Acharya, Preetam Rajgopal; Yerrapragada, Devesh Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are not unusual during Anti-Tubercular Therapy (ATT). One of the common complications of anti-tubercular treatment is drug induced hepatitis and renal insufficiency has also been reported. Renal failure and/or hepatitis encountered during treatment of tuberculosis can have varied aetiologies: drug induced, concomitant viral infection, pre-existing co-morbidities or a combination of these. Since, hepatitis and/or renal insufficiency can be life threatening a prompt diagnosis is warranted, where drugs should be kept as one of the important cause. Identifying the drug helps in treating hepatitis and/or renal insufficiency along with helping the physician to change the combination of ATT regimen. Rifampicin is one of the most important first line drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis. Hepatitis, epigastric distress, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and interstitial nephritis are reported adverse drug reactions to rifampicin. As per literature rifampicin induced renal toxicity is usually seen on rifampicin re-exposure, or rifampicin administration on alternate days, both being present in this case. Here we are reporting a case of ATT induced renal failure with concomitant hepatitis where rifampicin was suspected to be the cause. PMID:27790502

  3. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet) Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Righi, Samuel; Krieg, Richard; Kang, Le; Carl, Daniel; Wang, Jing; Massey, H. Davis; Sica, Domenic A.; Gehr, Todd W. B.; Ghosh, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD), exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx) or WD (Nx+WD). The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control) and WD (WD). To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM), a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU), a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively). Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency. PMID:26580567

  4. Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Gwiazda, Jane; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergence insufficiency is a common eye muscle co-ordination problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) when reading or doing close work. Symptoms may include eye strain, headaches, double vision, print moving on the page, frequent loss of place when reading, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. Objectives To systematically assess and synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency. Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 7 October 2010. We manually searched reference lists and optometric journals. Selection criteria We included RCTs examining any form of non-surgical intervention against placebo, no treatment, sham treatment, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. Main results We included six trials (three in children, three in adults) with a total of 475 participants. We graded four trials at low risk of bias. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism reading glasses was no more effective than placebo reading glasses in improving clinical signs or symptoms in children. Evidence from one trial (graded at high risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism glasses using a progressive addition lens design was more effective than progressive addition lens alone in decreasing symptoms in adults. At three weeks of therapy, the mean difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) score was −10.24 points (95% confidence interval (CI) −15.45 to −5.03). Evidence from two trials (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that outpatient (or office-based as used in the

  5. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase mutations cause primary adrenal insufficiency and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rathi; Hadjidemetriou, Irene; Meimaridou, Eirini; Buonocore, Federica; Saleem, Moin; Hurcombe, Jenny; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Barbagelata, Eliana; Bergadá, Ignacio; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Das, Urmi; Krone, Ruth; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Sari, Erkan; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Storr, Helen L.; Clemente, Maria; Fernandez-Cancio, Monica; Camats, Nuria; Ram, Nanik; Achermann, John C.; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Guasti, Leonardo; Braslavsky, Debora; Guran, Tulay; Metherell, Louise A.

    2017-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is life threatening and can present alone or in combination with other comorbidities. Here, we have described a primary adrenal insufficiency syndrome and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome caused by loss-of-function mutations in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 executes the final decisive step of the sphingolipid breakdown pathway, mediating the irreversible cleavage of the lipid-signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Mutations in other upstream components of the pathway lead to harmful accumulation of lysosomal sphingolipid species, which are associated with a series of conditions known as the sphingolipidoses. In this work, we have identified 4 different homozygous mutations, c.665G>A (p.R222Q), c.1633_1635delTTC (p.F545del), c.261+1G>A (p.S65Rfs*6), and c.7dupA (p.S3Kfs*11), in 5 families with the condition. In total, 8 patients were investigated, some of whom also manifested other features, including ichthyosis, primary hypothyroidism, neurological symptoms, and cryptorchidism. Sgpl1–/– mice recapitulated the main characteristics of the human disease with abnormal adrenal and renal morphology. Sgpl1–/– mice displayed disrupted adrenocortical zonation and defective expression of steroidogenic enzymes as well as renal histology in keeping with a glomerular phenotype. In summary, we have identified SGPL1 mutations in humans that perhaps represent a distinct multisystemic disorder of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:28165343

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase mutations cause primary adrenal insufficiency and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rathi; Hadjidemetriou, Irene; Maharaj, Avinaash; Meimaridou, Eirini; Buonocore, Federica; Saleem, Moin; Hurcombe, Jenny; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Barbagelata, Eliana; Bergadá, Ignacio; Cassinelli, Hamilton; Das, Urmi; Krone, Ruth; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Sari, Erkan; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Storr, Helen L; Clemente, Maria; Fernandez-Cancio, Monica; Camats, Nuria; Ram, Nanik; Achermann, John C; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Guasti, Leonardo; Braslavsky, Debora; Guran, Tulay; Metherell, Louise A

    2017-03-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is life threatening and can present alone or in combination with other comorbidities. Here, we have described a primary adrenal insufficiency syndrome and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome caused by loss-of-function mutations in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 executes the final decisive step of the sphingolipid breakdown pathway, mediating the irreversible cleavage of the lipid-signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Mutations in other upstream components of the pathway lead to harmful accumulation of lysosomal sphingolipid species, which are associated with a series of conditions known as the sphingolipidoses. In this work, we have identified 4 different homozygous mutations, c.665G>A (p.R222Q), c.1633_1635delTTC (p.F545del), c.261+1G>A (p.S65Rfs*6), and c.7dupA (p.S3Kfs*11), in 5 families with the condition. In total, 8 patients were investigated, some of whom also manifested other features, including ichthyosis, primary hypothyroidism, neurological symptoms, and cryptorchidism. Sgpl1-/- mice recapitulated the main characteristics of the human disease with abnormal adrenal and renal morphology. Sgpl1-/- mice displayed disrupted adrenocortical zonation and defective expression of steroidogenic enzymes as well as renal histology in keeping with a glomerular phenotype. In summary, we have identified SGPL1 mutations in humans that perhaps represent a distinct multisystemic disorder of sphingolipid metabolism.

  7. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Kasper; Ostergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-12-01

    Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) (1)H-MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization and metabolic fluxes during conditions of poor glycemic control. The study demonstrates that poor glycemic control in combination with suboptimal insulin administration accelerates metabolic alterations by increasing both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism resulting in increased utilization of energy substrates. The results demonstrate the importance of tight glycemic control in insulinopenic diabetes, and that insulin, when administered insufficiently, adds an additional burden on top of poor glycemic control.

  8. Convergence Insufficiency/Divergence Insufficiency Convergence Excess/Divergence Excess: Some Facts and Fictions.

    PubMed

    Khawam, Edward; Abiad, Bachir; Boughannam, Alaa; Saade, Joanna; Alameddine, Ramzi

    2015-01-01

    Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies of the fusional amplitudes. Our purpose is to show that numerous factors, other than anomalies in the AC/A ratio or anomalies in the fusional conv. or divergence amplitudes, can contaminate either the distance or the near deviations. This results in significant discrepancies between the distance and the near deviations despite a normal AC/A ratio and normal fusional amplitudes, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment models.

  9. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Clodi, Martin; Zlamal-Fortunat, Sandra; Hammer, Heinz F

    2016-04-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in diabetic patients is frequent. Studies based on fecal elastase-1 measurement give prevalence rates of 10‒30 % of severe and 22‒56 % of moderate EPI in type 1 and rates of 5‒46 % in type 2 diabetic patients. Nevertheless, not all patients report typical symptoms like diarrhea, steatorrhea and weight loss. For noninvasive testing the determination of fecal elastase-1 has the highest sensitivity and specificity. This test should be performed at least in all symptomatic patients. As differential diagnosis celiac disease (with a prevalence of about 3-5 % of type 1 diabetic patients), autonomic neuropathy, but also diseases like irritable bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal tumors have to be taken into account. Patients with symptoms and a fecal elastase-1 < 100 µg/g should be treated with pancreatic enzymes in adequate daily doses administered at main meals. Treatment improves symptoms significantly, supply with fat soluble vitamins is normalised, risk for osteoporosis is reduced. However, improvement of glucose metabolism has not been demonstrated consistently. A pancreatogenic diabetes, also termed as type 3c diabetes, has not necessarily to be treated with insulin, often-at least initially-treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs is sufficient.

  10. Classification of chronic venous insufficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Antignani, P L

    2001-08-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a very variable and complex entity that has stimulated different attempts at classification. Several proposals have been made in recent years, based on objective and anatomical criteria, most of them incomplete and unsatisfactory. Finally the CEAP classification was presented in 1994. This certainly is the most nearly complete classification, since it takes into consideration not only the main aspects of CVI: Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, and Pathophysiological, but also the degrees of severity, reported in the form of scores. It is now accepted internationally although it still has some flaws (such as the absence of the corona phlebectactica sign) and inaccuracies (above all in the clinical part and the scoring). Recently, some members of the Promoting Committee proposed a substantial modification of the part on scores, coming closest to the clinical reality, instrumental diagnosis, and current therapies. The characteristics of CEAP enable us to affirm that this represents the most original and useful classification, not only for clinical studies, but also in the assessment of therapeutic results and in patient follow-up. Like all classifications, CEAP also needs to be validated by means of clinical studies in order to demonstrate its applicability. For this purpose, a European Working Group was set up in 1997. The first interesting results of 872 dossiers collected by means of a computerized program (European Phlebological File) were presented at several international congresses and concentrated on the consistency and reproducibility of the clinical part of the CEAP classification in different clinical settings.

  11. [Almitrine bismesylate treatment in chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    González Ruiz, J M; Villamor León, J; García-Satué, J L; Sánchez Agudo, L; Calatrava, J M; Carreras, J

    1994-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the gasometric and functional respiratory responses in chronic bronchitic patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) under ambulatory oxygen therapy (AOT) with almitrine bismesylate (AB). It was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, prospective study which lasted three months and with a dosage regime of 50-100 mg/day of AB. Fiftyfour patients completed the study (28 in AB and 24 in the placebo (P) groups, respectively). All patients were males, with a mean age or 65 +/- 6.1 years. In the study of pulmonary function only airway resistance (Raw) was changed, with a significant decrease at the third month in the AB group compared with the P group (0.83 +/- 0.31 vs. 1.07 +/- 0.46 kpa/L.S), with a p value of 0.05 (mean +/- SD) and PaO2 which improved from 8.15 +/- 0.88 to 8.81 +/- 2.3 kpa (61.17 +/- 6.6 to 66.10 +/- 10 mmHg), with a p value of 0.05. AB therapy was well tolerated.

  12. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R

    2017-02-17

    Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

  13. Pregnancies associated with primary adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Fux Otta, Carolina; Szafryk de Mereshian, Paula; Iraci, Gabriel Santino; Ojeda de Pruneda, María Rosa

    2008-10-01

    To provide a framework for the clinical presentation, evolution, treatment, and outcome of the unusual association between primary adrenal insufficiency (AI) during pregnancy and life-threatening complications for the mother and fetus. Case reports. Pregnant women with AI treated in the Endocrine and Diabetes Department, Hospital Universitario de Maternidad y Neonatología, Córdoba, Argentina. Three pregnant women with AI. Review of hospital records. Clinical, laboratory features, treatment, and outcome. Two women with AI were diagnosed before conception, and one was diagnosed during gestation. Two of the cases were associated with other autoimmune diseases. Two newborns were born with signs of fetal distress, and one passed away hours later. Poor outcome was related to low compliance with treatment. AI is often overlooked during pregnancy because of its rarity and pregnancy-like symptoms. Nevertheless, other autoimmune diseases, hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, nausea and vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension that does not improve with usual treatment or persists after first trimester should evoke a diagnosis of AI. If diagnosis and treatment are properly managed, pregnancy, labor, and delivery may occur without complications. If not, AI is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

  14. Nationwide Trends and Variations in Urological Surgical Interventions and Renal Outcome in Patients with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Lloyd, Jessica C; Wiener, John S; Routh, Jonathan C

    2016-04-01

    Bladder dysfunction in patients with spina bifida can lead to significant morbidity due to renal insufficiency. Indications for surgery vary among institutions and the impact is unclear. We examined trends and variations in urological interventions and chronic renal insufficiency in patients with spina bifida. We reviewed NIS (Nationwide Inpatient Sample) for all patients with spina bifida treated from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological surgery and chronic renal insufficiency. We calculated the Spearman correlation coefficients between rates of spina bifida related bladder surgeries and rates of chronic renal insufficiency outcomes by state. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the associations between rates of spina bifida related surgery and chronic renal insufficiency across treatment years. We identified 427,616 spina bifida hospital admissions. Mean patient age was 26 years and 56% of patients were female. Of the admissions 35,249 (8%) were for chronic renal insufficiency and 11,078 (3%) were for surgery. During the study period chronic renal insufficiency rates doubled from 6% to 12% and surgery rates decreased from 2.0% to 1.8%. There was a moderately weak inverse association between surgery and chronic renal insufficiency rates with time (r = -0.3, p = 0.06) and by state (r = -0.3, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis higher rates of surgery were associated with the state in which the patient was treated (p <0.001), and with younger age (p <0.001) and hospital teaching status (p <0.001). In contrast, chronic renal insufficiency was not associated with spina bifida related surgery (p = 0.67). We observed a temporal and geographic trend toward decreasing urological surgery and increasing chronic renal insufficiency rates in spina bifida and a wide variation in urological surgical rates among states. Further study is needed to determine the factors behind these trends and variations in spina bifida management

  15. [Alterations of teeth and jaws in children with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Scheutzel, P; Ritter, W

    1989-02-01

    Dental examination of 50 children with chronic renal failure revealed enamel hypoplasia in 26 (52%), retardation of dental age in 18 (36%) and delay of dental eruption in 16 (32%) cases. In comparison to normal children the prevalence of caries was significantly lower. Half of the children showed radiologic changes in the jaw-bones already during preterminal stage of renal insufficiency. The possible role of the dentist concerning early diagnosis of renal failure is discussed.

  16. Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, M G

    2014-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus and Its Renal Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Latt, Nyan; Alachkar, Nada

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic systemic infection, primarily affecting the liver. Although HCV mainly causes hepatitis, a significant portion of chronic HCV patients manifests with at least 1 extrahepatic involvement during the course of their illness. Chronic HCV infection can cause various types of renal diseases. The most common renal manifestations of HCV infection are essential mixed cryoglobulinemia leading to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), MPGN without cryoglobulinemia, and membranous glomerulonephritis. On the other hand, patients with end-stage kidney disease are at an increased risk of acquiring HCV due to their frequent exposure to potentially contaminated devices in dialysis units and their long-term use of vascular access. Among dialysis patients or patients undergoing renal transplantation, the presence of HCV is associated with higher rates of mortality. The optimal antiviral therapy in patients with severe renal insufficiency is not yet well established and, in most cases, is associated with serious adverse effects. Randomized controlled trials looking at treatment options are lacking. This article reviews the pathophysiology of renal manifestations of chronic HCV infection, discusses recent insights into diagnostic and treatment options for HCV-induced glomerulopathies and HCV-infected dialysis patients, and describes the work-up of HCV-positive renal transplant candidates. PMID:23293553

  18. Encephalopathy in children with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B; Hiner, L B; Foley, C M; Grover, W D

    1977-01-01

    The progressive encephalopathy observed in 5 children with chronic renal failure was clinically similar to the so-called dialysis encephalopathy of adults, except that it was not related to dialysis therapy. Renal osteodystrophy is more prevalent in children than in adults and often more severe. The attempt to control the crippling deformities of renal osteodystrophy in growing children with renal insufficiency has led to the use of large quantities of aluminum containing antacids. The encephalopathy observed in children with chronic renal failure may be related to the oral ingestion of aluminum containing compounds in the presence of persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism. We suggest that alternative methods for the adequate control of serum phosphorus levels should be sought and indications for parathyroidectomy in children reevaluated. During the past 18 mos we have lowered the dose of aluminum containing compounds to 50 to 100 mg/Kg/day in our patients with progressive renal failure and recommend parathyroidectomy. No new cases of the encephalopathy have occurred.

  19. Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Students

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Miller, Joseph M.; Campus, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd–8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00 D, moderate: 1.00 D to <3.00 D, and high: ≥3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 ± 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI. PMID:27525112

  20. Aliskiren-associated acute renal failure with hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Venzin, R M; Cohen, C D; Maggiorini, M; Wüthrich, R P

    2009-03-01

    We report the first case of acute renal failure with hyperkalemia associated with the recently marketed direct renin inhibitor aliskiren. To optimize blood pressure control, the antihypertensive medication of a 76-year-old hypertensive female patient was changed from the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan to aliskiren. Spironolactone was continued, as serum creatinine and potassium levels were initially normal. Two weeks later the patient presented with acute oliguric renal failure, symptomatic hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, necessitating emergency dialytic treatment. Unrecognized pre-existing renal insufficiency (CKD Stage 2 - 3) and the continuation of spironolactone were identified as predisposing risk factors.

  1. Cutaneous and Systemic Plasmacytosis Associated with Renal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek Geun; Jeong, Woo Seok; Moon, Seung Hyun; Hwangbo, Hyun; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kwon, Tae Gwang

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis (CSP) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by cutaneous polyclonal plasma cell infiltrates associated with various extracutaneous involvement and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Here, we report on a 54-year-old male patient with chronic renal insufficiency who presented with disseminated reddish-brown macules and plaques on the face and trunk. In our evaluation, he was found to have lymphadenopathy, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia; benign plasma cell infiltration involving the skin, bone marrow, and retroperitoneal area; and renal amyloidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CSP associated with renal amyloidosis. PMID:26719649

  2. /sup 97/Ru-DMSA for delayed renal imaging. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Gil, M.C.; Goldman, A.G.; Fairchild, R.G.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was labeled with /sup 97/Ru both with and without the addition of SnCl.2H/sub 2/O. The tin-containing preparation was found to induce higher cortical deposition of /sup 97/Ru-DMSA than the tin-free preparation. Visualization of the renal cortex was excellent 4 to 48 hours after injection in normal dogs with renal insufficiency. It is concluded that /sup 97/Ru-(Sn+/sup 2/)-DMSA is a potentially useful renal imaging agent when delayed scintigraphy is necessary because of decompensaton of the kidneys.

  3. /sup 97/Ru-DMSA for delayed renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Gil, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was labeled with /sup 97/Ru both with and without the addition of SnCl-2H/sub 2/O. The tin-containing preparation was found to induce higher cortical deposition of /sup 97/Ru-DMSA than the tin-free preparation. Visualization of the renal cortex was excellent 4 to 48 hours after injection in normal dogs and in dogs with renal insufficiency. It is concluded that /sup 97/Ru-(SN/sup 2 +/)-DMSA is a potentially useful renal imaging agent when delayed scintigraphy is necessary because of decompensation of the kidneys.

  4. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The term “ultima ratio” has multiple, though related, meanings. The motto “ultima ratio regum,” cast on the cannons of the French army of King Louis XIV, meant that war is the last argument of kings, that is, the one to be used after all diplomatic arguments have failed. Along similar lines, we propose that, given the current evidence, renal denervation should be used as a last resort, after state-of-the-art drug treatment optimized at expert centers failed to control blood pressure. PMID:22851728

  5. P2 Receptors in Renal Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhengrong; Fellner, Robert C.; Van Beusecum, Justin; Inscho, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate is an essential function of the renal microcirculation. While the existence of this phenomenon has been known for many years, the exact mechanisms that underlie this unique regulatory capability remain poorly understood. The work of many investigators has provided insights into many aspects of the autoregulatory mechanism, but many critical components remain elusive. This review is intended to update the reader on the role of P2 purinoceptors as a postulated mechanism responsible for renal autoregulatory resistance adjustments. It will summarize recent advances in normal function and it will touch on more recent ideas regarding autoregulatory insufficiency in hypertension and inflammation. Current thoughts on the nature of the mechanosensor responsible for myogenic behavior will be discussed as well as current thoughts on the mechanisms involved in ATP release to the extracellular fluid space. PMID:24066935

  6. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  7. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  8. Vitamin D insufficiency in internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Haney, E M; Stadler, D; Bliziotes, M M

    2005-01-01

    Medical residents may be vulnerable to low vitamin D status because of long work hours and lack of sun exposure. We conducted a prospective cohort study to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among internal medicine residents, document seasonal variation in vitamin D status, and assess risk factors for inadequate vitamin D stores. Dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, lifestyle characteristics, and serum concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured in 35 resident volunteers before and after the winter season. A total of 63-69% of medical residents consumed <400 IU/day of vitamin D; 61-67% consumed <1000 mg/day of calcium. Twenty-five (74%) had lower serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations and 23 (68%) had higher serum iPTH in the spring than in the fall. Nine (26%) residents had serum concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D of <20 ng/mL in the fall; and sixteen (47%) in the spring. Seven residents (20%) had serum concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D of <20 ng/mL at both time-periods; Eighteen residents (51.4%) had 25(OH)-vitamin D levels of <20 ng/mL for at least one of the time-periods. Medical residents are at risk for hypovitaminosis D, particularly during the winter months and should be aware of the need to supplement their vitamin D stores. Insufficient vitamin D status and inadequate vitamin D intake may have long-term implications for bone health in these individuals. Increased educational efforts to promote healthy dietary and lifestyle choices that allow attainment and maintenance of skeletal health are appropriate in this population.

  9. Obesity-Mediated Autophagy Insufficiency Exacerbates Proteinuria-induced Tubulointerstitial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamahara, Kosuke; Kume, Shinji; Koya, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Morita, Yoshikata; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Isshiki, Keiji; Araki, Shin-ichi; Haneda, Masakazu; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction in patients with CKDs, including diabetic nephropathy, but the mechanism underlying this connection remains unclear. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that maintains intracellular homeostasis by removing damaged proteins and organelles, and autophagy insufficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. We therefore examined the role of autophagy in obesity-mediated exacerbation of proteinuria-induced proximal tubular epithelial cell damage in mice and in human renal biopsy specimens. In nonobese mice, overt proteinuria, induced by intraperitoneal free fatty acid–albumin overload, led to mild tubular damage and apoptosis, and activated autophagy in proximal tubules reabsorbing urinary albumin. In contrast, diet-induced obesity suppressed proteinuria-induced autophagy and exacerbated proteinuria-induced tubular cell damage. Proximal tubule-specific autophagy-deficient mice, resulting from an Atg5 gene deletion, subjected to intraperitoneal free fatty acid–albumin overload developed severe proteinuria-induced tubular damage, suggesting that proteinuria-induced autophagy is renoprotective. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a potent suppressor of autophagy, was activated in proximal tubules of obese mice, and treatment with an mTOR inhibitor ameliorated obesity-mediated autophagy insufficiency. Furthermore, both mTOR hyperactivation and autophagy suppression were observed in tubular cells of specimens obtained from obese patients with proteinuria. Thus, in addition to enhancing the understanding of obesity-related cell vulnerability in the kidneys, these results suggest that restoring the renoprotective action of autophagy in proximal tubules may improve renal outcomes in obese patients. PMID:24092929

  10. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level Increased the Risk of Early Renal Impairment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjuan; Li, Guode; Xu, Zuohang; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Xie, Haiqun; Shao, Yan; Peng, Lingmei; Lu, Jiancong; Yuan, Dahua

    2017-03-08

    Renal insufficiency is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. This study investigated the association between plasma Hcy levels and renal insufficiency in patients with AIS. A total of 987 patients with AIS who had been treated at the First People's Hospital of Foshan between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Based on their cystatin C (Cys C) levels, the patients were divided into the normal renal function group (Cys C ≤ 1.25 mg/L) or the renal impairment group (Cys C > 1.25 mg/L). Multivariate regression analysis was applied to reveal the association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and renal impairment. The renal impairment group showed more advanced age of onset, higher percentage of prior stroke and hypertension, higher baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher Hcy levels compared with the normal renal function group. A multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between early renal impairment and Hcy levels: an increase of Hcy by 1 μmol/L was associated with an increase of 12-18% of the risk of renal impairment among patients with AIS and HHcy. Patients with AIS and HHcy had a 2.42-3.51 fold increase of the risk of renal impairment compared with patients with normal Hcy level (P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with stroke and HHcy could be more prone to renal impairment.

  11. "Petrified ears" with idiopathic adult-onset pituitary insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Yashpal; Gangadhar, Prathosh; Walia, Rama R; Bhansali, Anil

    2012-09-01

    "Petrified ears" or calcification of auricular cartilage is an uncommonly reported condition. The most common causes of this phenomenon are local trauma, frost bite, and inflammation. Adrenal insufficiency is the most frequent systemic disease associated with auricular calcification. We present a case of idiopathic adult-onset pituitary insufficiency with hypocortisolism and bilateral auricular calcification. Recognition of the association between auricular calcification and adrenal insufficiency can be an important step toward the identification of a life-threatening cortisol deficiency.

  12. Renal outcome of children with unilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Çağla Serpil; Torun Bayram, Meral

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate associated urological anomalies and renal outcome in children with unilateral renal agenesis (URA). Medical records of 51 cases of URA followed at Şanlıurfa Children 's Hospital between January 2009 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, diagnosis was made by abdominal ultrasound (US) and confirmed by a radionuclide scan. The children were between 3 months and 17 years of age (median age: 5 years). There were 31 males (60.8%) and 20 females (39.2%). In 33 patients (67.3%), the left kidney was absent. Urological anomalies were found in 12/51 patients (23.5%), including ureterovesical junction obstruction in 4 (7.8%), bladder dysfunction in 2 (3.9%), and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), ureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureterovesical and ureteropelvic junction obstruction, duplicated collecting system plus grade IV VUR, ectopic kidney plus grade V VUR, and ectopic kidney in 1 patient (2%) each. Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) developed in 5/51 patients (9.8%) (stage III in 3 patients and stage IV in 2), 4 of whom had additional urological anomaly; in the remaining 1 patient, a 17-year-old female, imaging studies were normal except for a small and hyperechogenic solitary kidney determined on US. A total of 3 patients (5.8%) developed hypertension, and all except one had an associated urological anomaly. Proteinuria was seen in 2 patients (3.8%) with stage IV CRI, one of whom was also hypertensive. In conclusion, urological anomalies usually accompany URA and should be followed closely to decrease the risk of renal failure.

  13. Lanthanum carbonate stimulates bone formation in a rat model of renal insufficiency with low bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-09-01

    Control of phosphate is important in the management of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), for which lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate-binding agent, has recently been introduced; however, it remains to be determined whether it has any beneficial or deleterious effect on bone remodeling. In the present study, the effects of lanthanum carbonate were examined in an animal model that mimics low turnover bone disease in CKD, i.e., thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats undergoing a constant infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroxine injections (TPTX-PTH-5/6NX). Bone histomorphometry at the second lumbar vertebra and tibial metaphysis revealed that both bone formation and resorption were markedly suppressed in the TPTX-PTH-5/6NX model compared with the sham-operated control group, and treatment with lanthanum carbonate was associated with the stimulation of bone formation but not an acceleration of bone resorption. Lanthanum treatment caused a robust stimulation of bone formation with an activation of osteoblasts on the endosteal surface of femoral diaphysis, leading to an increase in cortical bone volume. Thus, lanthanum carbonate has the potential to stimulate bone formation in cases of CKD-MBD with suppressed bone turnover.

  14. Abnormal Carbohydrate Metabolism in Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Garber, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively. These results in patients with chronic renal failure demonstrate (a) increased glucose production and utilization, (b) increased gluconeogenesis from alanine, (c) increased alanine production and utilization, and (d) a relative impairment to glucose disposal. We conclude that

  15. Treatment of renal failure from diabetic nephropathy with cadaveric homograft

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, Claude; Laplante, Louis

    1973-01-01

    We report two patients with terminal renal failure secondary to diabetic nephropathy treated with cadaveric kidney transplantation. Neither of these patients had peripheral vascular disease or peripheral neuropathy. There was a proliferative diabetic retinopathy with hemorrhages and exudates in one patient and only background diabetic changes in the ocular fundi of the other; there have been no significant changes in visual acuity or retinopathy in either patient following the transplantation. Both have good kidney function after 8 and 15 months and are completely rehabilitated. The requirement for insulin decreased in both patients during the period of renal insufficiency and increased following transplantation; this seemed to be related to the large dose of steroids given because now that a maintenance level of steroids has been established, both patients require the same dosage of insulin as they did before the onset of renal insufficiency. PMID:4574972

  16. Sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency due to a mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder in the absence of mtDNA deletion

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, Michael J; Monavari, Ahmad A; Cotter, Melanie; Murphy, Nuala P

    2015-01-01

    A fatigued 8-year-old boy was found to have sideroblastic anaemia (haemoglobin 7.8 g/dL) which over time became transfusion dependent. Subtle neurological dysfunction, initially manifesting as mild spastic diplegia, was slowly progressive and ultimately led to wheelchair dependence. Elevated plasma lactate and urinary 3-methylglutaconate led to a muscle biopsy which confirmed partial complex IV deficiency. PCR in leucocytes and muscle was negative for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Faltering growth prompted an insulin tolerance test which confirmed growth hormone sufficiency and adrenal insufficiency. Plasma renin was elevated and adrenal androgens were low, suggesting primary adrenal insufficiency. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy was initiated. A renal tubular Fanconi syndrome and diabetes mellitus developed subsequently. Sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency, both individually and collectively, are associated with mtDNA deletion; however, absence of the same does not exclude the possibility that sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency are of mitochondrial origin. PMID:25721834

  17. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  18. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  19. [THERAPY OF TRANSIENT LACTASE INSUFFICIENCY OF CHILDREN IN PECTORAL AGE].

    PubMed

    Marushko, Yu V; Iovitsa, T V

    2015-01-01

    Thus, we have discovered that the children of the first half-year of life have different degrees of severity of transient lactase insufficiency basing on the results of hydrogen respiratory test. It was set that the starting dose of enzyme lactase must depend on the degree of severity of displays of transient lactase insufficiency, taking into account the indexes of hydrogen respiratory test.

  20. 26 CFR 7.465-4 - Insufficient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insufficient records. 7.465-4 Section 7.465-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.465-4 Insufficient records. If...

  1. Renal failure in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Y; Elliott-Mills, D; Powars, D

    1996-12-01

    ESRD is a major complication in young adults with sickle cell anemia. As more patients with sickle cell anemia reach the third and fourth decades of life, the incidence of clinically apparent renal insufficiency will increase. As we understand the pathophysiology of renal damage and the effects of various therapies on the sickle renal vasculature, we can tailor specific management without further compromising already impaired renal function. Diagnostic clues must be recognized prior to the onset of irreversible damage, with appropriate intervention initiated at each age group. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the only available cure for SCA at the present time. The demonstration that several distinct haplotypes of the beta s gene cluster on chromosome 11 influence the clinical expression of sickle cell anemia may be useful in delineating children who are at high risk for severe disease, and hence candidates for such hazardous therapeutic interventions as BMT prior to onset of clinically discernable disease. Current BMT preparative regimens can produce renal cortical and pulmonary toxicity, posing a patient selection problem in those cases in which the vasculopathy of the major organs is at an early stage and might be potentially repairable. Gene therapy without toxic preparative regimens is the ultimate answer. The challenge for the near future is the development of effective early therapeutic intervention during childhood and young adulthood.

  2. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as bilateral rigid auricles: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stiff ears appear to be a warning sign for adrenal insufficiency. This remarkable and rare sign has not been described to present in adrenal insufficiency in the setting of critical care. Case presentation We present the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian male who underwent a thymoma resection and suffered from preoperative weight loss and lack of strength. The perioperative phase was characterised by hypotension and sputum stasis due to muscle weakness, which caused two readmissions to the intensive care unit. His physical examination showed two fully rigid auricles. In retrospect, our patient suffered from secondary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism. Conclusions The bilateral rigid auricles appeared to be a warning sign for adrenal insufficiency. This remarkable sign is easily checked, and should prompt a higher index of suspicion towards adrenal insufficiency and other hormonal deficiencies. PMID:25209544

  3. Renal failure in fulminant hepatic failure and terminal cirrhosis: a comparison between incidence, types, and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ring-Larsen, H; Palazzo, U

    1981-01-01

    Forty patients with terminal cirrhosis and 40 patients with fulminant hepatic failure-all consecutively admitted-were studied with regard to incidence, types, and prognosis of complicating renal insufficiency. Renal failure was considered present when the serum creatinine was greater than 0.20 mmol/l. Of the patients with cirrhosis 26 (65%) developed renal failure. In 15 the type was functional, in three due to acute tubular necrosis, and in eight indeterminable. Of the patients with fulminant hepatic failure 22 (55%) had renal insufficiency; of these 13 had functional renal failure, five acute tubular necrosis, and in four the type was indeterminable. In both categories of patients, renal failure was equally frequent among patients with or without gastrointestinal bleeding and with or without ascites or diuretic therapy. The biochemical tests of liver function were similar in patients with or without renal failure in both categories. The mean renal blood flow in seven unselected patients with fulminant hepatic failure was reduced in the same order as previously observed in patients with cirrhosis. In terminal cirrhosis the mortality rate was 88% in the presence of renal failure, 71% in its absence (p greater than 0.05), while the same figures in fulminant hepatic failure were 100% and 67% (p less than 0.05). The incidence, relative frequency, and prognosis of renal failure were not different in the two conditions, indicating identical pathophysiological circumstances. PMID:7262632

  4. Glucose-Induced Down Regulation of Thiamine Transporters in the Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelium Produces Thiamine Insufficiency in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, James R.; Zhang, Fang; Godfrey, Lisa; Molostvov, Guerman; Zehnder, Daniel; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased renal clearance of thiamine (vitamin B1) occurs in experimental and clinical diabetes producing thiamine insufficiency mediated by impaired tubular re-uptake and linked to the development of diabetic nephropathy. We studied the mechanism of impaired renal re-uptake of thiamine in diabetes. Expression of thiamine transporter proteins THTR-1 and THTR-2 in normal human kidney sections examined by immunohistochemistry showed intense polarised staining of the apical, luminal membranes in proximal tubules for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the cortex and uniform, diffuse staining throughout cells of the collecting duct for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the medulla. Human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells were incubated with low and high glucose concentration, 5 and 26 mmol/l, respectively. In high glucose concentration there was decreased expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 (transporter mRNA: −76% and −53% respectively, p<0.001; transporter protein −77% and −83% respectively, p<0.05), concomitant with decreased expression of transcription factor specificity protein-1. High glucose concentration also produced a 37% decrease in apical to basolateral transport of thiamine transport across cell monolayers. Intensification of glycemic control corrected increased fractional excretion of thiamine in experimental diabetes. We conclude that glucose-induced decreased expression of thiamine transporters in the tubular epithelium may mediate renal mishandling of thiamine in diabetes. This is a novel mechanism of thiamine insufficiency linked to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23285265

  5. Renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, M; Obialo, C; Hruska, K A

    1990-12-01

    Renal tubular acidosis refers to a group of disorders that result from pure tubular damage without concomitant glomerular damage. They could be hereditary (primary) or acquired (secondary to various disease states like sickle cell disease, obstructive uropathy, postrenal transplant, autoimmune disease, or drugs). The hallmark of the disorder is the presence of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with, or without, associated defects in potassium homeostasis, a UpH greater than 5.5 in the presence of systemic acidemia, and absence of an easily identifiable cause of the acidemia. There are three physiologic types whose basic defects are impairment of or a decrease in acid excretion, i.e., type 1 (dRTA); a failure in bicarbonate reabsorption, i.e., type 2 (pRTA); and deficiency of buffer or impaired generation of NH4+, i.e., type 4 RTA. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for these various types. pRTA is the least common of all in the adult population. It rarely occurs as an isolated defect. It is frequently accompanied by diffuse proximal tubule transport defects with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and so forth (Fanconi syndrome). dRTA is associated with a high incidence of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, osteodystrophy, and growth retardation (in children). Osteodystrophy also occurs in pRTA to a lesser degree and is believed to be secondary to hypophosphatemia. Patients with type 4 RTA usually have mild renal insufficiency from either diabetes mellitus or interstitial nephritis. Acute bicarbonate loading will result in a high fractional excretion of bicarbonate greater than 15% (FEHCO3- greater than 15%) in patients with pRTA, but FEHCO3- less than 3% in patients with dRTA. Type I patients will also have a low (U - B) PCO2 with bicarbonate loading. They are also unable to lower their urine pH to less than 5.5 with NH4Cl loading. The treatment of these patients involves avoidance of precipitating factors when possible, treatment

  6. A design thinking approach to primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lisa A; Porter, Alison G; Pelligrini, Vincent A; Schnatz, Peter F; Jiang, Xuezhi; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Hall, Janet E; Verbiest, Sarah; Olmstead, Jill; Fair, Ryan; Falorni, Alberto; Persani, Luca; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Mehta, Khanjan; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2017-03-01

    Most clinicians are not prepared to provide integrated personal care to address all the clinical needs of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Design thinking is an engineering methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems operation. Here we articulate the need for a seamlessly integrated mobile health system to support genomic research as well as patient care. We also review the pathophysiology and management of primary ovarian insufficiency. Molecular understanding regarding the pathogenesis is essential to developing strategies for prevention, earlier diagnosis, and appropriate management of the disorder. The syndrome is a chronic disorder characterized by oligo/amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years. There may be significant morbidity due to: 1) depression and anxiety related to the loss of reproductive hormones and infertility; 2) associated autoimmune adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism; and 3) reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of cardiovascular disease related to estrogen deficiency. Approximately 5% to 10% of women with primary ovarian insufficiency conceive and have a child. Women who develop primary ovarian insufficiency related to a premutation in FMR1 are at risk of having a child with fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. In most cases of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency no environmental exposure or genetic mechanism can be identified. As a rare disease, the diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency presents special challenges. Connecting patients and community health providers in real time with investigators who have the requisite knowledge and expertise would help solve this dilemma.

  7. ACCESSORY RENAL VESSELS

    PubMed Central

    Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed; Elseed Abdalrasol, Rami Gusm; Alamin Abdalhai, Khatim; Gommaa Hamad, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radiologic techniques performing in recent years. We report the presence of unilateral doubled renal vessels, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver, on the right side; additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta. In addition the right suprarenal gland received arteries from right renal and inferior phrenic arteries only. The right inferior phrenic originated from the right renal artery. PMID:23322980

  8. The evaluation of saphenofemoral insufficiency in primary adult varicocele.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Hakan; Ergenoglu, Mehmet; Yencilek, Faruk; Gulcan, Nilay; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Esin; Sarica, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between varicocele and saphenofemoral insufficiency in patients diagnosed with primary varicocele. A total of 70 patients with the primary diagnosis of varicocele were included into the study. A total of 30 age-matched healthy adults were also included in the study as a control group. Varicocele was diagnosed by palpation and observation of each spermatic cord in standing position before and during a valsalva maneuver. Additionally, scrotal Doppler and lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Patients who were with spermatic varicose vein larger than 3.0 mm were included in the study group as a varicocele patient. At the lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasonography, a retrograde flow lasting longer than 0.5 seconds during normal breathing or at the valsalva maneuver was considered to be meaningful for saphenofemoral junction insufficiency. Thirty-six (51.35%) patients had insufficiency in saphenofemoral junction in the study group (6 [8.5%] bilateral, 30 [42.85%] unilateral) whereas 8 (26.6%) had insufficiency in the control group (2 [6.6%] bilateral, 6 [20%] unilateral insufficiency). The patients with primary varicocele had a statistically significant (P = .02) higher rate of venous insufficiency in their saphenofemoral junctions when compared with the control group. In the present study, the rate of saphenofemoral insufficiency has been found to be statistically higher in patients with primary varicocele compared with healthy men. Depending on the common presence of valvular insufficiency, we believe that the presence of varicocele should be investigated in the young population suffering from saphenofemoral junction insufficiency.

  9. [Impact of lung cancer treatments on renal function].

    PubMed

    Toffart, A-C; Belaiche, S; Moro-Sibilot, D; Couraud, S; Sakhri, L

    2014-12-01

    Renal failure in patients with lung cancer may be multifactorial: related to the patients and their comorbidities, direct tumor compression or the toxicity of cancer treatments and other associated medications. This literature review is intended to describe the state of knowledge regarding the nephrotoxicity of treatments used in thoracic oncology. The majority of chemotherapy treatments are potentially nephrotoxic. Cisplatin and pemetrexed exhibit mainly renal tubular toxicity, while vascular renal impairment is found with gemcitabine and bevacizumab. Cisplatin results in acute renal failure in 30% of patients. Renal protective strategies (compliance with recommendations, limitation of nephrotoxic treatments, hydration, magnesium supplementation) must be employed systematically. Targeted therapies do not require any adjustment of the dosage in case of moderate or severe renal insufficiency but adapting the doses of biphosphonates to renal function is necessary. This review highlights the need for monitoring of renal function in patients with lung cancer during treatment with chemotherapy or biphosphonates. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  11. Renal Function Recovery with Total Artificial Heart Support.

    PubMed

    Quader, Mohammed A; Goodreau, Adam M; Shah, Keyur B; Katlaps, Gundars; Cooke, Richard; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna F; Wolfe, Luke G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients requiring total artificial heart (TAH) support often have concomitant renal insufficiency (RI). We sought to quantify renal function recovery in patients supported with TAH at our institution. Renal function data at 30, 90, and 180 days after TAH implantation were analyzed for patients with RI, defined as hemodialysis supported or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Between January 2008 and December 2013, 20 of the 46 (43.5%) TAH recipients (age 51 ± 9 years, 85% men) had RI, mean preoperative eGFR of 48 ± 7 ml/min/1.73 m. Renal function recovery was noted at each follow-up interval: increment in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m) at 30, 90, and 180 days was 21 ± 35 (p = 0.1), 16.5 ± 18 (p = 0.05), and 10 ± 9 (p = 0.1), respectively. Six patients (30%) required preoperative dialysis. Of these, four recovered renal function, one remained on dialysis, and one died. Six patients (30%) required new-onset dialysis. Of these, three recovered renal function and three died. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of patients' renal function improved with TAH support. Total artificial heart support improved renal function in 75% of patients with pre-existing significant RI, including those who required preoperative dialysis.

  12. Ultrasound-guided trans-hepatic embolization of a renal artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with acquired solitary kidney and with chronic renal failure secondary to phenacetin abuse.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Emiliana; Serra, Carla; Di Felice, Antonio; Mandreoli, Marcora; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the right renal artery underwent treatment with percutaneous approach. No complications were observed. Based on the experience described in this report, a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach can be proposed in selected patients. Renal insufficiency and allergic reactions are potential contraindications to angiography with conventional ionic iodinated contrast dye in patients who need endovascular stent-graft placement. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided endovascular procedures may provide an alternative to overcome these limitations. We report an endovascular renal artery repair in a solitary kidney patient with an asymptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and renal insufficiency due to phenacetin abuse. The precise placement of the stent-graft was performed with CEUS and intraprocedural angiographic fluoroscopy without the use of any nephrotoxic contrast dye. During follow-up, CEUS was used to exclude endoleaks, stent-graft failure or malposition.

  13. Cigarette smoking and cardio-renal events in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Wencan; Ren, Kaili; Xie, Yanmei; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Haller, Steven T.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Dworkin, Lance D.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Murphy, Timothy P.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Henrich, William L.; Tian, Jiang; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Cooper, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and is associated with poor kidney function in individuals with diabetes mellitus and primary kidney diseases. However, the association of smoking on patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis has not been studied. The current study utilized data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL, NCT00081731) clinical trial to evaluate the effects of smoking on the risk of cardio-renal events and kidney function in this population. Baseline data showed that smokers (n = 277 out of 931) were significantly younger at enrollment than non-smokers (63.3±9.1 years vs 72.4±7.8 years; p<0.001). In addition, patients who smoke were also more likely to have bilateral renal artery stenoses and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Longitudinal analysis showed that smokers experienced composite endpoint events (defined as first occurrence of: stroke; cardiovascular or renal death; myocardial infarction; hospitalization for congestive heart failure; permanent renal replacement; and progressive renal insufficiency defined as 30% reduction of GFR from baseline sustained for ≥ 60 days) at a substantially younger age compared to non-smokers (67.1±9.0 versus 76.1±7.9, p<0.001). Using linear regression and generalized linear modeling analysis controlled by age, sex, and ethnicity, smokers had significantly higher cystatin C levels (1.3±0.7 vs 1.2±0.9, p<0.01) whereas creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were not different from non-smokers. From these data we conclude that smoking has a significant association with deleterious cardio-renal outcomes in patients with renovascular hypertension. PMID:28306749

  14. Cigarette smoking and cardio-renal events in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher A; Brewster, Pamela S; He, Wencan; Ren, Kaili; Xie, Yanmei; Tuttle, Katherine R; Haller, Steven T; Jamerson, Kenneth; Dworkin, Lance D; Cutlip, Donald E; Murphy, Timothy P; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Henrich, William L; Tian, Jiang; Shapiro, Joseph I; Cooper, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and is associated with poor kidney function in individuals with diabetes mellitus and primary kidney diseases. However, the association of smoking on patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis has not been studied. The current study utilized data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL, NCT00081731) clinical trial to evaluate the effects of smoking on the risk of cardio-renal events and kidney function in this population. Baseline data showed that smokers (n = 277 out of 931) were significantly younger at enrollment than non-smokers (63.3±9.1 years vs 72.4±7.8 years; p<0.001). In addition, patients who smoke were also more likely to have bilateral renal artery stenoses and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Longitudinal analysis showed that smokers experienced composite endpoint events (defined as first occurrence of: stroke; cardiovascular or renal death; myocardial infarction; hospitalization for congestive heart failure; permanent renal replacement; and progressive renal insufficiency defined as 30% reduction of GFR from baseline sustained for ≥ 60 days) at a substantially younger age compared to non-smokers (67.1±9.0 versus 76.1±7.9, p<0.001). Using linear regression and generalized linear modeling analysis controlled by age, sex, and ethnicity, smokers had significantly higher cystatin C levels (1.3±0.7 vs 1.2±0.9, p<0.01) whereas creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were not different from non-smokers. From these data we conclude that smoking has a significant association with deleterious cardio-renal outcomes in patients with renovascular hypertension.

  15. Measurement and Estimation of Renal Size by Computed Tomography in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adequate organ growth is an important aspect of growth evaluation in children. Renal size is an important indicator of adequate renal growth; computed tomography (CT) can closely estimate actual kidney size. However, insufficient data are available on normal renal size as measured by CT. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of anthropometric indices with renal length and volume measured by CT in Korean pediatric patients. Renal length and volume were measured using CT images in 272 pediatric patients (age < 18 years) without renal disease. Data for anthropometric indices—including height, weight, and body surface area (BSA)—were obtained using medical records. Using the equation for an ellipsoid, renal volume was calculated in cubic centimeters. Height showed greatest correlation with renal length on stepwise multiple linear regression analysis; BSA showed the strongest significant correlation with renal volume. The mean renal size for each age group and height group was determined; it showed a tendency to increase with age and height. This is the first Korean study to report the relationship between body indices and renal size measured by CT. These results can serve as normative standards for assessing adequate renal growth. PMID:28145648

  16. Measurement and Estimation of Renal Size by Computed Tomography in Korean Children.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Won; Yu, Nali; Yun, Sin Weon; Chae, Soo Ahn; Lee, Na Mi; Yi, Dae Yong; Choi, Young Bae; Lim, In Seok

    2017-03-01

    Adequate organ growth is an important aspect of growth evaluation in children. Renal size is an important indicator of adequate renal growth; computed tomography (CT) can closely estimate actual kidney size. However, insufficient data are available on normal renal size as measured by CT. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of anthropometric indices with renal length and volume measured by CT in Korean pediatric patients. Renal length and volume were measured using CT images in 272 pediatric patients (age < 18 years) without renal disease. Data for anthropometric indices-including height, weight, and body surface area (BSA)-were obtained using medical records. Using the equation for an ellipsoid, renal volume was calculated in cubic centimeters. Height showed greatest correlation with renal length on stepwise multiple linear regression analysis; BSA showed the strongest significant correlation with renal volume. The mean renal size for each age group and height group was determined; it showed a tendency to increase with age and height. This is the first Korean study to report the relationship between body indices and renal size measured by CT. These results can serve as normative standards for assessing adequate renal growth.

  17. Stenting and medical therapy for atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher J; Murphy, Timothy P; Cutlip, Donald E; Jamerson, Kenneth; Henrich, William; Reid, Diane M; Cohen, David J; Matsumoto, Alan H; Steffes, Michael; Jaff, Michael R; Prince, Martin R; Lewis, Eldrin F; Tuttle, Katherine R; Shapiro, Joseph I; Rundback, John H; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Dworkin, Lance D

    2014-01-02

    Atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis is a common problem in the elderly. Despite two randomized trials that did not show a benefit of renal-artery stenting with respect to kidney function, the usefulness of stenting for the prevention of major adverse renal and cardiovascular events is uncertain. We randomly assigned 947 participants who had atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis and either systolic hypertension while taking two or more antihypertensive drugs or chronic kidney disease to medical therapy plus renal-artery stenting or medical therapy alone. Participants were followed for the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular and renal events (a composite end point of death from cardiovascular or renal causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, progressive renal insufficiency, or the need for renal-replacement therapy). Over a median follow-up period of 43 months (interquartile range, 31 to 55), the rate of the primary composite end point did not differ significantly between participants who underwent stenting in addition to receiving medical therapy and those who received medical therapy alone (35.1% and 35.8%, respectively; hazard ratio with stenting, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.17; P=0.58). There were also no significant differences between the treatment groups in the rates of the individual components of the primary end point or in all-cause mortality. During follow-up, there was a consistent modest difference in systolic blood pressure favoring the stent group (-2.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, -4.4 to -0.2; P=0.03). Renal-artery stenting did not confer a significant benefit with respect to the prevention of clinical events when added to comprehensive, multifactorial medical therapy in people with atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis and hypertension or chronic kidney disease. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00081731.).

  18. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  19. Primary renal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kanodia, K V; Vanikar, A V; Patel, R D; Suthar, K S; Kute, V B; Modi, P R; Trivedi, H L

    2013-09-01

    Primary renal carcinoid tumor is extremely rare and, therefore, its pathogenesis and prognosis is not well known. We report a primary renal carcinoid in a 26-year-old man treated by radical nephrectomy.

  20. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  1. Renal vein thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys. Possible Complications Complications may include: Acute renal failure (especially if thrombosis occurs in a dehydrated child) ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood ... embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: ...

  2. Fragile X-Associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI): Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... genes cause it? What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at ... Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is Fragile ...

  3. [Chronic venous insufficiency: Update on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gkogkolou, P; Meyer, V; Goerge, T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency is very common and has an important socioeconomic impact. It is associated with a high morbidity for the patients and causes high costs for the healthcare systems. In recent years novel treatment modalities have evolved and their efficacy has been evaluated in many studies. Knowledge of pathophysiology, the diagnostic procedures and therapeutic options for chronic venous insufficiency is important for effective treatment of affected patients.

  4. Malakoplakia of the Kidney Extending to the Descending Colon in a Patient with Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soo Jin; Choi, Jun Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Malakoplakia is an uncommon but distinctive type of chronic granulomatous inflammation that occurs most commonly in the genitourinary tract, especially the urinary bladder. Most patients have associated conditions characterized by some degree of immunosuppression, as seen in solid-organ transplants, autoimmune diseases requiring steroid use, chemotherapy, chronic systemic diseases, alcohol abuse and poorly controlled diabetes. We report an unusual case of the renal malakoplakia that involved the perirenal space, extending to the descending colon in a 65-year-old Korean woman with secondary adrenal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. PMID:22745875

  5. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Guo, Jin-he; Teng, Gao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic diseases of multiple etiologies. Although great progress has been made, researchers are still working on the pathogenesis of T2DM and how to best use the treatments available. Aside from several novel pharmacological approaches, catheter-based sympathetic renal denervation (RDN) has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. In this article, we will summarize herein the role sympathetic activation plays in the progression of T2DM and review the recent clinical RDN experience in glucose metabolism. We performed systematic review in online databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science, from inception until 2015. Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investigated between RDN and T2DM. The quality of each included study was assessed by Newcastle–Ottawa scale score. To synthesize these studies, a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model was applied as appropriate. Then, we calculated heterogeneity, performed sensitivity analysis, tested publication bias, and did meta-regression analysis. Finally, we identified 4 eligible articles. In most studies, RDN achieved via novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency energy has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. But the DREAMS-Study showed that RDN did not change median insulin sensitivity nor systemic sympathetic activity. Firstly, the current published studies lacked a proper control group, along with the sample capacity was small. Also, data obtained in the subgroups of diabetic patients were not separately analyzed and the follow-up period was very short. In addition, a reduction in blood pressure accounts for the improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance cannot be excluded. If the favorable result of better glucose metabolism is confirmed in large-scale, randomized studies

  6. [Study of left ventricular function in valvular cardiopathies (mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Herreman, F; Brun, P; Cannet, G; Savin, E; Vannier, D

    1974-10-01

    A study of the left ventricular function based on the haemodynamic data combined with those provided by biplane cineangiography was performed in 35 cases with left ventricular volume overload (20 cases of mitral incompetence and 15 of aortic insufficiency). The importance of the haemodynamic changes and of the adaptation mechanisms set up were described. The more intense dilatation-hypertrophy of aortic incompetence than of mitral incompetence plays an essential part. The role of Starling's mechanism is underlined. Estimation of the contractile value of the myocardium, taken into account the mechanical overload and the conditions of late-diastolic lengthening of the fibre and of impedance to left ventricular ejection was determined. An obvious myocardial failure, demonstrated in approximately one third of the cases, by determination of some contractility indices estimated in the ejection phase, Vf sigma max in particular, the only one valid in the presence of valvular regurgitation. In the other cases, the moderate decrease of myocardial contractility was masked by compensatory mechanisms.

  7. [Idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S

    1996-06-01

    The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed.

  8. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome. PMID:27635229

  9. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  10. Correlation between hepcidin level and renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, L-N; Zhang, P; Tang, F; Wang, G; Li, F-E

    2014-09-12

    Anemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is related to the chronic inflammatory state, low iron absorption rate, and low utilization rate. As a key protein for iron metabolism, hepcidin plays an important role in CRI anemia. The study aimed to determine the correlation between hepcidin level and renal anemia. Ninety CRI anemia patients treated in our hospital from February 2012 to December 2012 were enrolled in the study to compare with a healthy control group of 40 cases by measuring the hepcidin level and analyzing the correlation between hepcidin level and CRI anemia. The hepcidin level was significantly higher in the CRI anemia group than the control group; there was a positive correlation between hepcidin level and serum ferritin as well as IL-6 level. Hepcidin level was significantly related to degree of anemia, indicating that an increase in hepcidin level will result in anemia.

  11. Obstructive uropathy and acute renal failure due to ureteral calculus in renal graft: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lusenti, T.; Fiorini, F.; Barozzi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive uropathy caused by kidney stones is quite rare in transplant kidneys. Clinical case The authors report the case of a patient, previously gastrectomized for gastric carcinoma. He underwent renal transplantation using uretero-ureterostomy, and presented an episode of acute renal failure 7 years after surgery. Ultrasound (US) examination showed no sign of rejection but allowed detection of moderate hydronephrosis in the transplant kidney. Subsequent computed tomography (CT) revealed a kidney stone in the middle ureter at the crossing of the iliac vessels. The patient therefore urgently underwent percutaneous nephrostomy of the graft and recovered diuresis and renal function. The patient was transferred to the Transplant Center where he underwent ureterotomy with removal of the stone and subsequent ureteropyelostomy. Also transureteral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed due to urinary retention of prostatic origin. Histological examination showed prostate carcinoma, Gleason stage 3, which was treated conservatively using radiotherapy without suspension of the administered low dose of immunotherapy. Discussion Calculosis is one of the least common causes of obstructive uropathy in transplant kidneys. In the described case, US examination performed after onset of renal insufficiency led to subsequent radiological investigation and resulting interventional procedures (nephrostomy and surgical removal of the stone) with complete recovery of pre-existing renal function. PMID:23397045

  12. Renal microenvironments and macrophage phenotypes determine progression or resolution of renal inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim; Ryu, Mi

    2011-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease involves renal inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular and vascular atrophy. Macrophages seem to foster all of these histomorphological abnormalities, but their specific contributions remain controversial. Recruited monocytes differentiate into different tissue macrophage phenotypes, but current classifications are largely based on in vitro studies that do not adequately mirror tissue environments in vivo. To overcome this limitation, we propose to classify tissue macrophages according to their predominant roles in the phases of wound healing tissue environments, that is, inflammation, epithelial healing, mesenchymal healing, and fibrolysis. In this review, we discuss the evidence on respective macrophage phenotypes in renal pathology. This view sheds light on several aspects of renal remodeling in kidney disease: (1) renal infection or cell necrosis induces proinflammatory 'M1' macrophages that exacerbate renal cell damage, (2) uptake of apoptotic cells induces anti-inflammatory 'M2c/suppressor' macrophages that promote epithelial and vascular repair, (3) insufficient vascular and epithelial healing despite abundant growth factor secretion promotes profibrotic 'M2a/wound healing' macrophages that accelerate fibrogenesis, and (4) theoretically, fibrolytic macrophages should exist and await investigation.

  13. Renal artery stenosis presenting as crescendo angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Tami, L F; McElderry, M W; al-Adli, N M; Rubin, M; Condos, W R

    1995-07-01

    The coexistence of different clinical syndromes due to atherosclerosis in different organs is not rare and emphasizes the diffuse nature of this vascular process. Although renovascular disease may cause hypertension and/or renal insufficiency, it may also occur in the absence of the usual clinical markers that suggest renovascular hypertension. We report a patient with stable coronary anatomy who presented with crescendo angina pectoris. Diagnosis of renovascular hypertension was made by screening renal angiography at the time of the cardiac catheterization. Renal artery stenting resulted in stabilization of the coronary syndrome and obviated the need for further coronary intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first case of renovascular hypertension precipitating an unstable coronary syndrome in a patient with documented stable coronary anatomy. Review of the literature supports that patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are a high risk population for renovascular disease, particularly in the presence of other predictive factors such as documented coronary artery disease, older age, female gender, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, renal insufficiency, and smoking. Firm recommendations for routine screening renal angiography in patients undergoing peripheral or coronary angiography will need further studies.

  14. Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Guglielmo M; Pirri, Clara; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Trovato, Francesca; Catalano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nutrition and atherosclerosis is known, even dissociated from protein malnutrition. Cardiovascular impact of several nutrients is known; among them the action of coffee is still debated and cardiovascular effect of caffeine has been investigated without definite results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated. This study was done with 221 consecutive patients, without diabetes, cancer, liver, renal, and heart disease, referred for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling: 124 essential hypertensive and 97 nonhypertensive patients were eligible. Personalized Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By multiple linear regression, fat-free mass (FFM), HOMA (positive relationship), and number of cups of coffee/day (negative relationship) account for 17.2% of the variance to RRI. By odds ratios lower risk to increased RRI is associated with higher serum albumin, higher hemoglobin, and FFM; greater risk is associated with hypertension, insulin resistance (HOMA ≥ 3.0), and renal insufficiency (GFR ≤ 90); coffee, assessed by number of cups/day, reduces risk. Coffee use is inversely associated with RRI. Habitual coffee users have risk protection to higher RRI; lower serum albumin, insulin resistance, and renal insufficiency are associated with greater RRI.

  15. Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with chronic renal failure: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is related to several diseases, including chronic renal insufficiency. The disequilibrium in the oxidant-antioxidant balance is the result of several metabolic changes. The majority of studies to-date have evaluated the grade of oxidative stress with a single biomarker, or a very limited number of them. Findings The present study used several important biomarkers to establish a score relating to oxidative stress status (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hemolysis test). The score of oxidative stress (SOS) was then applied to a group of patients with renal insufficiency not on hemodialysis, and compared to healthy control individuals. The score for patients with chronic renal insufficiency was significantly different from that of the healthy control group (0.62 ± 1.41 vs. -0.05 ± 0.94; p < 0.001). The comparison between patients with chronic renal insufficiency and control individuals showed significant differences with respect to changes in the enzymatic antioxidant systems (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase), non-enzymatic antioxidant system (oxidized glutathione) and oxidizability (hemolysis test) indicating significant oxidative stress associated with chronic renal insufficiency. Conclusions Patients with chronic renal insufficiency not on hemodialysis are susceptible to oxidative stress. The mechanisms that underlie this status are the consequence of changes in glutathione and related enzymes. The SOS scoring system is a useful biochemical parameter to evaluate the influence of oxidative stress on the clinical status of these patients. PMID:20181004

  16. Renal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

    2014-01-01

    A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes.

  17. [Specificities of the diagnostics and therapy of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Díté, P; Novotny, I; Kocna, P; Bojková, M; Kupka, T; Nechutová, H; Kianicka, B

    2013-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency develops steadily; however, the initial reduction in secretion is practically not diagnosable. More advanced stages, which usually replicate morphological changes, can be determined with tests which asses the exocrine pancreatic capacity. Substantial damage of the pancreas and replacement of viable parenchyma with connective tissue is accompanied by the occurrence of steatorrhoea. This corresponds to a reduction in exocrine pancreatic secretion below 10% of physiological secretion. Exocrine pancreatic secretion tests are still not sufficiently sensitive for diagnosing early stages of pancreas defects and thus are not suitable for diagnostics. Furthermore, detecting reduced exocrine secretion does not provide any information about the aetiology of the disease, e.g. inflammation/tumor. The most precise test is a costly examination, including a stimulation of the gland with enterohormones; however, breath tests are usually recommended for the assessment of exocrine insufficiency therapy. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency therapy consists of administering drugs containing pancreatin (amylase, lipase, and peptidase) to patients diagnosed with steatorrhoea, manifest pancreatic insufficiency. As standard, capsules containing microparticles of 1-2mm are recommended. They have a protective coating that prevents inactivation in the microparticles of the contained enzymes by gastric hydrochloric acid. The drug should be administered during each meal, i.e. several times a day. The most common mistake during pancreatic enzyme therapy is under dosage. The following rule applies to patients with digestive insufficiency: 40,000-50,000 UNT of lipase are to be administered during "main meals" and 25,000 UNT of lipase during morning or afternoon snacks. The drug should be taken during the meal; insufficient treatment and dosage are associated with insufficient digestion and absorption ofa number of substances and also with pancreatic malabsorption.

  18. [Ultrastructure of the gastric mucosa in chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Matos-Villalobos, D; Rosa-Arevalo, M

    1975-01-01

    Electromicroscopy (EM) findings of gastric mucosa from four patients with renal failure are reported. In these patients, the renal insufficiency appeared from different etiologies and ligth microscopy showed only corion edema. It was only through the EM studies that we could show great autophagic vacuoles in almost all surface epithelial cells; some of them, containing citoplasmic structure residues. In the four patients we found a remarkable activity of autophagocitosis. The autodestructive celular changes suggest two possibilities: a) the mucosal edema could obstruct a poorer nutrition of the tissues and/or b) It could represent a high flucagon activity.

  19. Rare Presentations of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Renal Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common viral infection after kidney transplantation. Clinical presentations of cytomegalovirus infection range from asymptomatic infection to organ-specific involvement. Most symptomatic infections manifest as fever and cytopenia. The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site of tissue-invasive infection, often presenting as diarrhea or gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal obstruction, perforation, thrombosis of large gastrointestinal veins, splenic artery thrombosis, and pancreatitis are rare gastrointestinal presentations of cytomegalovirus infection. Renal-allograft ureteral stricture and skin involvement are other rare presentations of cytomegalovirus infection. hemophagocytic syndrome, thrombotic microangiopathy, adrenal insufficiency, and renal allograft artery stenosis are other rare symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:23573461

  20. Bisphosphonate therapy in renal osteodystrophy--a review.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have become a standard treatment for osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. Most are contraindicated in severe renal insufficiency because they are eliminated exclusively by the kidneys. However, the marked impairment of bone metabolism in many dialysis patients provides a rationale for their judicious use in this setting. Animal studies reveal that bisphosphonates inhibit hyperparathyroid bone changes. Clodronate, pamidronate and ibandronate are also readily dialyzable, enabling them to be used in dialysis patients. Initial pilot studies in dialysis patients have confirmed the positive effect on hyperparathyroid bone disease observed in animal models. However, large randomized placebo-controlled trials are required before the use of bisphosphonates in renal osteopathy can be generally recommended.

  1. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, Maria G

    2009-06-01

    Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency.

  2. [Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD), growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week) administered by subcutaneous injection.

  3. [Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome].

    PubMed

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan; Poskurica, Mina

    2016-01-01

    `Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure.The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat) significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn't possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase). Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex with end-stage renal failure.

    PubMed

    Neumann, H P; Brüggen, V; Berger, D P; Herbst, E; Blum, U; Morgenroth, A; Schollmeyer, P; Wetterauer, U

    1995-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is common in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), the classic features of which are facial angiofibroma, seizures, and mental retardation. We report a family with three affected members demonstrating the wide spectrum of TSC-associated lesions ranging from asymptomatic findings to life-threatening complications. The predominant symptoms of the index patient were hypertension and mild renal insufficiency at age 48, resulting in end-stage renal failure at age 63 due to giant bilateral angiomyolipoma of the kidneys. The two TSC-affected siblings had died years previously, one from pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and the other during an epileptic state; the latter had situs inversus totalis as another remarkable finding. The diagnosis of TSC may be overlooked if CNS symptoms are absent and if cutaneous lesions are masked by cosmetic procedures, as occurred in the index case. Chronic renal failure due to angiomyolipoma is not widely known to clinical nephrologists, but develops in approximately 15% of TSC patients. Displacement of functional renal parenchyma by abnormal tissue appears to be the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to end-stage renal failure. Angiomyolipomas can be diagnosed from this characteristic sonographic pattern and the demonstration of fatty tissue in CT or MRI. Multiple renal cysts are also common in TSC. Therefore TSC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease.

  5. Predicting angiography-induced acute renal function impairment: clinical risk model

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, S.T.; Wong, W.S.; Roe, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Two hundred sixty-six patients were evaluated for development of acute renal function impairment after renal angiography. Forty-five (16.9%) had a significant increase in serum level of creatinine (sCr), six developed oliguria or anuria, and one required permanent dialysis. Age, proteinuria, abnormal baseline sCr, use of Renografin 76, and preexisting renal disease were the five independent risk factors in the series. An odds-ratio analysis establishes the relative risk (i.e., likelihood) of developing acute renal insufficientcy after renal angiography on the basis of the number of risk factors present. An increasing relation was demonstrated; the more factors present, the more likely it becomes that a patient will develop acute renal insufficiency.

  6. The role of dietary phosphorus restriction in the conservative management of chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Barsotti, Giuliano; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2005-01-01

    Evidence exists that phosphate retention plays a major role in causing secondary hyperparathyroidism, cardiovascular morbidity, and loss of residual renal function in chronic renal disease patients, and that a subtle elevation in serum phosphate occurs at early stages in the course of renal insufficiency. The implementation of a low-phosphorus, low-protein dietary regimen plays a special role in the conservative management of chronic renal disease patients, for the prevention and correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism and for the renal and cardiovascular protection. However, the success and safety of dietary phosphate restriction largely depends on good compliance with dietary recommendations, which must represent a major goal to be regularly pursued in the clinical practice. To this aim, it is crucial that dietitians expert in renal nutrition give education and personalized dietary advice, with the aim of enhancing the patient's adherence to nutritional prescriptions.

  7. Relationship of Albuminuria and Renal Artery Stent Outcomes: Results From the CORAL Randomized Clinical Trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes With Renal Artery Lesions).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy P; Cooper, Christopher J; Pencina, Karol M; D'Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Cutlip, Donald E; Jamerson, Kenneth; Matsumoto, Alan H; Henrich, William; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tuttle, Katherine R; Cohen, David J; Steffes, Michael; Gao, Qi; Metzger, D Christopher; Abernethy, William B; Textor, Stephen C; Briguglio, John; Hirsch, Alan T; Tobe, Sheldon; Dworkin, Lance D

    2016-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials have not shown an additional clinical benefit of renal artery stent placement over optimal medical therapy alone. However, studies of renal artery stent placement have not examined the relationship of albuminuria and treatment group outcomes. The CORAL study (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) is a prospective clinical trial of 947 participants with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis randomized to optimal medical therapy with or without renal artery stent which showed no treatment differences (3(5.8% and 35.1% event rate at mean 43-month follow-up). In a post hoc analysis, the study population was stratified by the median baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (n=826) and analyzed for the 5-year incidence of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, stroke, renal replacement therapy, progressive renal insufficiency, or cardiovascular disease- or kidney disease-related death), for each component of the primary end point, and overall survival. When baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was ≤ median (22.5 mg/g, n=413), renal artery stenting was associated with significantly better event-free survival from the primary composite end point (73% versus 59% at 5 years; P=0.02), cardiovascular disease-related death (93% versus 85%; P≤ 0.01), progressive renal insufficiency (91% versus 77%; P=0.03), and overall survival (89% versus 76%; P≤0.01), but not when baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was greater than median (n=413). These data suggest that low albuminuria may indicate a potentially large subgroup of those with renal artery stenosis that could experience improved event-free and overall-survival after renal artery stent placement plus optimal medical therapy compared with optimal medical therapy alone. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

  8. The relationship between renal volume and renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Shino; Muto, Satoru; China, Toshiyuki; Horie, Shigeo

    2011-08-01

    In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal cysts grow exponentially. Since remaining renal parenchyma has a capacity to compensate for the loss of glomerular filtration, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be sustained until the disease progresses. The purpose of this study was to determine if renal volumetric indices and clinical parameters are associated with renal function in Japanese patients with ADPKD. In 73 ADPKD patients (28 men, 45 women), the associations of mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, estimated GFR (eGFR), the amount of proteinuria and albuminuria, body mass index (BMI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index, and total kidney volume (TKV) were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that eGFR was significantly and independently inversely correlated with patients' age and BMI. The median change in eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/y) was -2.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ΔeGFR/y was significantly and independently inversely correlated with the change in TKV per year (ΔTKV/y). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ΔTKV/y was significantly related to initial TKV and the change in albuminuria per year. This study demonstrated a significant relationship between the change in renal function and the change in renal volume in Japanese ADPKD patients without renal insufficiency. It is possible that the volume measurements can be used as useful markers for disease progression in Japanese ADPKD patients.

  9. Severe chronic venous insufficiency: primary treatment with sclerofoam.

    PubMed

    Bergan, John J; Pascarella, Luigi

    2005-03-01

    Venous insufficiency, for practical purposes, can be divided into primary venous insufficiency and chronic venous insufficiency. The latter is characterized by advanced skin changes of hyperpigmentation, edema, ulceration, scarring from healed ulcers or open ulcerations. These are summarized in the CEAP classification as Classes 4, 5 and 6. Pretreatment evaluation is done with a standing ultrasound reflux examination. Thorough mapping of the extremity reflux is desirable. Physiologic tests of venous function, such as plethysmography, are unnecessary. Treatment is directed at closing refluxing axial veins as well as controlling those perforating veins with outward flow. Varicose veins contribute to axial reflux and must be obliterated. Arterial occlusive disease may complicate venous ulceration in as many as 15% of cases. Initial treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency is usually carried out by controlling the edema with elastic bandaging or nonelastic support, such as the Unna boot or the CircAid dressing. Surgical intervention has been successful but the advent of foam sclerotherapy has proven to be an attractive alternative to surgery and has added a new tool for the treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency. In this preliminary experience, the results are quite satisfactory and the technique has been shown to be effective, pain-free, inexpensive, with very little morbidity. Guidelines for obtaining sclerosants for use in foam sclerotherapy legally are provided.

  10. [Primary adrenal insufficiency in adults: 150 years after Addison].

    PubMed

    Silva, Regina do Carmo; Castro, Margaret de; Kater, Claudio E; Cunha, Andréa Aparecida; Moraes, Andréia M de; Alvarenga, Daniela B de; Moreira, Ayrton C; Elias, Lucila L K

    2004-10-01

    Thomas Addison first described, 150 years ago, a clinical syndrome characterized by salt-wasting and skin hyperpigmentation, associated with a destruction of the adrenal gland. Even today, over a century after Addison's report, primary adrenal insufficiency can present as a life-threatening condition, since it frequently goes unrecognized in its early stages. In the 1850s, tuberculous adrenalitis was present in the majority of patients, but nowadays, autoimmune Addison's disease is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency. In the present report, we show the prevalence of different etiologies, clinical manifestations and laboratorial findings, including the adrenal cortex autoantibody, and 21-hydroxylase antibody in a Brazilian series of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency followed at Divisão de Endocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) and at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto-USP (FMRP-USP).

  11. Long-term renal function in heart transplant children on cyclosporine treatment.

    PubMed

    Dello Strologo, Luca; Parisi, Francesco; Legato, Antonia; Pontesilli, Claudia; Pastore, Anna; Ravà, Lucilla; Tozzi, Alberto E; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2006-04-01

    Renal function deterioration is a reason of concern in heart transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate long-term renal function in heart transplant children on cyclosporine (CsA) treatment and to investigate the effect of several variables possibly involved in renal function deterioration. Creatinine clearances were retrospectively reviewed in 50 children (median follow 99.7 months after heart transplant). Gender, age, and body weight at transplant, rejection episodes, CsA cumulative dose, and trough levels were analyzed. After an initial increase of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal function worsened in most patients; 28% of the children developed renal insufficiency (defined as GFR <80 ml/min per 1.73 m2), which was already evident in the first 3 years. Neither CsA dose, trough levels, nor other patient characteristics were found to be associated with renal function deterioration. In this study renal failure occurred in one-third of the patients. The lack of association of CsA with renal insufficiency may be explained by several reasons, including the limitations of the retrospective design of the study. However, it is possible that the nephrotoxic effect of CsA is more likely to occur in a set of predisposed patients. These must be soon identified to evaluate early a calcineurin inhibitor-sparing strategy.

  12. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  13. Renal scintiscanning. A review

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Rhys

    1970-01-01

    Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447

  14. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1–2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50–60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion’s pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  15. Chronic workplace stress and insufficient physical activity: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Väänänen, Ari K P; Heponiemi, Tarja; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether exposure to workplace stressors predicts changes in physical activity and the risk of insufficient physical activity. Prospective data from the Finnish Public Sector Study. Repeated exposure to low job control, high job demands, low effort, low rewards and compositions of these (job strain and effort-reward imbalance) were assessed at Time 1 (2000-2002) and Time 2 (2004). Insufficient physical activity (<14 metabolic equivalent task hours per week) was measured at Time 1 and Time 3 (2008). The effect of change in workplace stressors on change in physical activity was examined using fixed-effects (within-subject) logistic regression models (N=6665). In addition, logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the associations between repeated exposure to workplace stressors and insufficient physical activity (N=13 976). In these analyses, coworker assessed workplace stressor scores were used in addition to individual level scores. The proportion of participants with insufficient physical activity was 24% at baseline and 26% at follow-up. 19% of the participants who were sufficiently active at baseline became insufficiently active at follow-up. In the fixed-effect analysis, an increase in workplace stress was weakly related to an increase in physical inactivity within an individual. In between-subjects analysis, employees with repeated exposure to low job control and low rewards were more likely to be insufficiently active at follow-up than those with no reports of these stressors; fully adjusted ORs ranged from 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) to 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.39). Workplace stress is associated with a slightly increased risk of physical inactivity.

  16. Self-management support in patients with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Nick T M; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Zelissen, Pierre M J

    2016-10-01

    Patient education is an important intervention to prevent an adrenal crisis in patients with adrenal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of adjusting the dose of glucocorticoids in special circumstances in patients with adrenal insufficiency who had previously been educated on this topic. In patients with insufficient knowledge, we tried to identify the underlying causes and care needs. Quantitative and qualitative study. Adult patients with chronic primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency who received glucocorticoid stress management education were invited to participate in a telephone interview in which we tested their knowledge using hypothetical situations of physical and mental stress. In respondents with insufficient knowledge, we conducted a qualitative semistructured interview to elicit the underlying reasons from patients' perspective for their lack of knowledge and determine their care needs. Forty-three of the 83 patients who previously received education had insufficient knowledge about how to act during stressful situations. We found a significant association between education level and level of knowledge after the educational consult. The following underlying factors were identified: unawareness of the seriousness of their condition, ineffective coping strategies, the lack of experience with self-management skills and misconceptions. The most important care needs were repetition of education, the use of guidelines, learning from experience and optimizing social support. One or two educational consults are not effective to achieve adequate self-management skills. There is a need for structural follow-up where education is repeated and practical implementation of this knowledge is tested in order to identify the potential inadequate action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency--pathophysiology and treament].

    PubMed

    Tuchendler, Marek; Zwolinski, Jerzy; Stankowski, Jacek; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Piatkowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (sclerosis multiplex--SM) is a chronic nervous sytem disease, which through formation of demyenilisation focus in the central nervous system leads to deterioration of its various functions. In the consequence it may cause invalidity of patient. Etiology of this disease is still unknown. In this article authors describe theory of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis and methods of treatment of this pathology, with all doubts and controversies connected with this method. Autors also present an experimental treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is being performed as a scientific program to evaluate neurological outcomes of endovasculat treatment of CCSVI.

  18. Pubic and sacral insufficiency fractures: clinical course and radiologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Neff, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    Distinctive vertical insufficiency fractures of the pelvis were found in nine osteopenic patients. Each patient had subacute pelvic pain without antecedent trauma. The sacral fractures healed fairly quickly, but the pubic fractures often had a protracted course. All nine patients had skeletal demineralization due to metabolic bone disease, radiation therapy, or multiple myeloma. Recognition of the association between public and sacral insufficiently fractures should aid in recognizing the diffuse nature of the skeletal disease so that unnecessary biopsy of the fracture sites can be avoided. Plain films, tomographic scans, and radionuclide bone scans are reviewed.

  19. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Professional Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Mehran, Nima; Schulz, Brian M.; Neri, Brian R.; Robertson, William J.; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that plays a role in bone health, muscle function, and athletic performance. Studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D can lead to slower muscle recovery and function, increased rates of stress fractures, and even poorer athletic performance. Insufficient vitamin D levels have been demonstrated in professional basketball and football players, however, there have been no studies to date reviewing vitamin D insufficiency in professional hockey players. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-sectional review to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in professional hockey players. The hypothesis was that there would be a high percentage of players with vitamin D insufficiency. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The preseason serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D laboratory test results of 105 professional hockey players were retrospectively reviewed. All players on 3 National Hockey League (NHL) teams were included. Player parameters evaluated included age, height, weight, body mass index, and 25(OH) vitamin D level. Players were divided into 4 groups based on serum vitamin D levels: deficient (<20 ng/mL), insufficient (20-31.9 ng/mL), sufficient (≥32 ng/mL), and ideal (≥40 ng/mL). Descriptive statistics were performed, in addition to 2-group and 3-group comparisons. Results: The average 25(OH) vitamin D level of 105 players was 45.8 ± 13.7 ng/mL (range, 24-108 ng/mL). No players in the study were considered deficient. A total of 14 players (13.3%) were considered insufficient, while 91 players (86.7%) were considered sufficient. However, only 68 players (64.8%) were considered ideal. When comparing groups, athletes with sufficient vitamin D levels were older than athletes with insufficient vitamin D levels (25.9 vs 23.1 years; P = .018). All other player parameters demonstrated no significant difference between groups

  20. Transcranial Doppler validation of hemodynamic vertebrobasilar insufficiency diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1996-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can be useful in the diagnosis and validation of surgical treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). A case is reported in which TCD confirmed the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency and validated the indication of surgery by detecting a bidirectional flow in a stenotic and compressed vertebral artery. In the postoperative period and at late follow-up TCD demonstrated a restored antegrade flow, as a consequence of a well functioning revascularization. Surgical indication of VBI is rare and TCD can be proposed as part of routine patients' study before a surgical decision is taken.

  1. Multiple pelvic insufficiency fractures in rheumatoid patients with mutilating changes

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Shigeo; Fukui, Tomokazu; Nishio, Shoji; Imamura, Fumiaki; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple insufficiency fractures occurred in two patients with mutilating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), leading to substantial disabilities. Both patients received long-term oral glucocorticoid therapy and underwent multiple lower-extremity surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) or Total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The multiple fractures were located in the pelvis and lumbosacral region. Fractures in both patients were treated conservatively. Although bony union and resumption of activities were achieved in one patient, the other patient was not able to resume ambulation. For RA patients with combined risk factors for insufficiency fractures, aggressive preventive intervention and careful clinical assessment for early detection and management are warranted. PMID:21808685

  2. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  3. Bilateral Renal Lymphangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Vaidehi K; Shah, Maulin K; Gandhi, Shruti P; Patel, Himanshu V

    2016-09-01

    Renal Lymphangiectasia (RLM) is very rare benign lymphatic malformation. It can be misdiagnosed for other cystic renal masses, most commonly polycystic kidneys. Though incidentally found in most cases, it may be the cause for hypertension and renal failure in undiagnosed patients. Here, we report a case of an adult asymptomatic male with bilateral RLM which was detected as an incidental finding on ultrasound. Confirmation by CT-scan and laboratory diagnosis of aspirated fluid was done, and patient was managed conservatively.

  4. Diagnosis of acute renal failure in very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Choker, G; Gouyon, J B

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to improve the definition of acute renal failure (ARF) in very preterm infants. Twenty-eight newborn infants with gestational age < or =32 weeks were prospectively studied in the first 5 days of life and made up a control group as they did not present risk factors for vasomotor renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency was defined as an increase in daily serum creatinine concentration above the 99th interval limit obtained in this control group, i.e., 43 micromol/l on day 1 and/or 21 micromol/l on day 2 and/or 14 micromol/l/day on day 3 and/or 22 micromol/l/day on day 4. According to this definition, 20 very preterm infants with ARF were identified. As compared with the control group, the ARF group showed more prolonged oliguric episodes, lower diuresis, insufficient weight loss (in spite of a reduction in water intake) and also more episodes with natremia <130 mEq/l (35 vs. 0%; p <0.05) and/or kalemia >6 mEq/l (40 vs. 11%; p <0.05). Therefore, assessment of daily changes in serum creatinine concentration in very preterm infants allows the diagnosis of clinically significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate.

  5. Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Megumi, Y; Nishimura, K

    1998-01-01

    Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma is a recently established subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Herein we report a case of chromophobe cell renal carcinoma in a 67-year-old male patient who occasionally underwent computed tomography. In a microscopic study with hematoxylin and eosin stain, clear eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a moderately atypical nucleus were observed. And it was stained positively by Hale's colloidal iron. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm was filled with numerous microvesicles. From these results, this tumor was pathologically diagnosed as chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

  6. Scintigraphic demonstration of lower extremity periostitis secondary to venous insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Gensburg, R.S.; Kawashima, A.; Sandler, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The scintigraphic findings on bone imaging in two patients with extensive lower extremity periostitis secondary to venous insufficiency are presented. One of these patients had bilateral disease. The use of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scanning in an attempt to exclude concurrent osteomyelitis is also addressed.

  7. A case of chronic adrenocortical insufficiency with iatrogenic anasarca.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Campana, E; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Borgia, M C

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in active hormones that characterizes chronic adrenal insufficiency results in hypovolemia. In some patients, residual adrenal function, mineralocorticoid therapy, and concomitant heart or liver failure, or both, can paradoxically provoke edema. The case report that follows describes a patient with iatrogenically induced anasarca resulting from the unhappy confluence of usually appropriate therapy and coexisting medical conditions.

  8. Traumatic Tricuspid Insufficiency Requiring Valve Repair in an Acute Setting.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yoshinori; Sudo, Yoshio; Sueta, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Tricuspid insufficiency due to penetrating cardiac trauma is rare. Patients with tricuspid insufficiency due to trauma can tolerate this abnormality for months or even years. We report a case of a 66-year-old female with penetrating cardiac trauma on the right side of her heart that required tricuspid valve repair in an acute setting. She sustained cut and stab wounds on her bilateral forearms and in the neck and epigastric region. She had cardiac tamponade and developed pulseless electrical activity, which required emergency surgery. The right ventricle and superior vena cava were dissected approximately 5 cm and 2 cm, respectively. After these wounds had been repaired, the patient's inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass suggested rightsided heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed tricuspid insufficiency. Right atriotomy was performed, and a detailed examination revealed that the tricuspid valve septal leaflet was split in two. There was also an atrial septal injury that created a connection with the left atrium; these injuries were not detected from the right ventricular wound. After repair, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass with mild tricuspid insufficiency was achieved, and she recovered uneventfully. This case emphasized the importance of thoroughly investigating intracardiac injury and transesophageal echocardiography.

  9. [Etiology, nomenclature and pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Salmhofer, W

    2016-06-01

    This article presents current notions and conceptions of the aetiopathogenesis of primary varicosis and chronic venous insufficiency, as well as an updated version of the nomenclature and terminology of venous disorders, which was recently agreed on in an international consensus conference. Furthermore, both CEAP-classification and venous severity score system are discussed.

  10. 26 CFR 20.2043-1 - Transfers for insufficient consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfers for insufficient consideration. 20.2043-1 Section 20.2043-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate...

  11. 26 CFR 20.2043-1 - Transfers for insufficient consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transfers for insufficient consideration. 20.2043-1 Section 20.2043-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2043-1 - Transfers for insufficient consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Transfers for insufficient consideration. 20.2043-1 Section 20.2043-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2043-1 - Transfers for insufficient consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfers for insufficient consideration. 20.2043-1 Section 20.2043-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate...

  14. 26 CFR 20.2043-1 - Transfers for insufficient consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers for insufficient consideration. 20.2043-1 Section 20.2043-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate...

  15. Thyroid insufficiency in developing rat brain: A genomic analysis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid Insufficiency in the Developing Rat Brain: A Genomic Analysis. JE Royland and ME Gilbert, Neurotox. Div., U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Endocrine disruption (ED) is an area of major concern in environmental neurotoxicity. Severe deficits in thyroid hormone (TH) levels have bee...

  16. Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: the sunlight consortium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Vitamin D is crucial for maintaining musculoskeletal health. Recently, vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to a number of extraskeletal disorders, including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) include sun exposure an...

  17. Aneuploidy as a mechanism of adaptation to telomerase insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Millet, Caroline; Makovets, Svetlana

    2016-08-01

    Cells' survival is determined by their ability to adapt to constantly changing environment. Adaptation responses involve global changes in transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications of proteins. In recent years, karyotype changes in adapting populations of single cell organisms have been reported in a number of studies. More recently, we have described aneuploidy as an adaptation mechanism used by populations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive telomerase insufficiency induced by elevated growth temperature. Genetic evidence suggests that telomerase insufficiency is caused by decreased levels of the telomerase catalytic subunit Est2. Here, we present experiments arguing that the underlying cause of this phenomenon may be within the telomerase RNA TLC1: changes in the expression of TLC1 as well as mutations in the TLC1 template region affect telomere length equilibrium and the temperature threshold for the induction of telomerase insufficiency. We discuss what lies at the root of telomerase insufficiency, how cell populations overcome it through aneuploidy and whether reversible aneuploidy could be an adaptation mechanism for a variety of environmental stresses.

  18. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep.

    PubMed

    Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work.

  19. Thyroid insufficiency in developing rat brain: A genomic analysis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid Insufficiency in the Developing Rat Brain: A Genomic Analysis. JE Royland and ME Gilbert, Neurotox. Div., U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Endocrine disruption (ED) is an area of major concern in environmental neurotoxicity. Severe deficits in thyroid hormone (TH) levels have bee...

  20. Acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) in Sri Lanka: Exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jeevagan, Vijayabala; Katulanda, Prasad; Gnanathasan, Christeine Ariaranee; Warrell, David A

    2013-03-01

    Russell's viper envenoming is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers is a well recognized sequel in Burma and parts of India but has been reported only once in Sri Lanka. Hypokalaemia following envenoming by Russell's viper has not been described. Here we describe the association of acute pituitary insufficiency and hypokalaemia following Russell's viper envenoming in Sri Lanka and review the literature in order to understand its pathophysiological basis. A previously healthy 21-year-old man was envenomed by a Russell's viper and treated with antivenom. Ten hours after the bite, he developed persistent hypotension, which responded promptly to intravenous dexamethasone. His hormone profiles were consistent with hypocortisolism secondary to acute pituitary insufficiency. He also developed hypokalaemia. Analysis of urine and serum electrolytes suggested redistribution of potassium in to the cells rather than renal loss. Hypotension and hypoglycaemic coma are life-threatening manifestations of acute pituitary insufficiency. Therefore prompt steroid administration in these setting is life saving. Awareness of these complications among physicians would help to make prompt diagnosis and initiate immediate life saving treatment.

  1. [Renal involvement in benign monoclonal gammopathies: an underdiagnosed condition].

    PubMed

    Ramos, R; Poveda, R; Bernís, C; Ara, J; Sunyer, M; Arrizabalaga, P; Grinyó, J M

    2008-01-01

    Renal involvement is observed frequently in association with malignant gammopathies, mainly those related to light chain deposition, although has also been described in non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy. This study reports the clinicopathological findings and outcome in 9 patients with nephropaty secondary to monoclonal immunoglobulin deposit in absence of malignancy. They were three men and six women and they were 59.2+/-12 years old. All patients presented proteinuria and different levels of renal insufficiency (mean creatinin = 315+/-187 micromol/L) at the moment of diagnostic. Two patients required dialysis at the time of renal biopsy. The pathology studies revealed a nodular sclerosing glomerulopathy in four cases, mesangiocapilary glomerulonephritis in three cases, only tubular lesions in one and mesangial lesions in the other one. The treatment applied was: Prednisone alone (two cases), with chemotherapy associated (melfalan in two, clorambucil in one and ciclophosphamide in another one). One patient received plasmapheresis and mycophenolate and another patient undergone a bone marrow authotransplant associated to mycophenolate and prednisone. One of the two patients who required dialysis at the moment of presentation was not treated. After a follow-up of more than 4 years (4.89 +/-DE: 3.69) renal function improved or remained stable in three patients and proteinuria was disappeared in more than 50% of patients. Four patients had a worsening of renal function and they required dialysis during the time of follow-up (in 2,4 years +/- DE: 4,3). In any case malignitation was observed. Chemotherapy stabilized or improved renal function in 3 of nine patients (33%) with non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy. Non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy could go unnoticed. Appearance of abnormalities in renal routine tests deserves more in-depth diagnostic procedures, including renal biopsy. Evolution to end stage renal disease could probably be avoided or reduced in

  2. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  3. Value of Renal Biopsy in Diagnosing Infantile Nephropathic Cystinosis Associated With Secondary Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Emily; Ho, Jacqueline; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Salgado, Cláudia M; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Cystinosis is the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi syndrome in young children, and typically presents with laboratory findings of a proximal tubulopathy and corneal crystals by one year of age. We describe here renal biopsy findings in a 20-month-old patient with an atypical presentation of distal renal tubular acidosis, diabetes insipidus, and the absence of corneal crystals. Although renal biopsy is usually not necessary to establish the diagnosis of cystinosis, when the patient presents with atypical signs and symptoms, a renal biopsy may be extremely valuable. A 20-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive, polyuria, polydipsia, and rickets. He initially showed evidence of a renal tubular acidosis, mild renal insufficiency, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. His initial ophthalmologic examination did not demonstrate corneal crystals. His subsequent workup revealed phosphaturia, suggesting a partial proximal tubulopathy. Concomitantly, a renal biopsy revealed prominent podocytes with an immature glomerular appearance, and electron microscopy analysis showed numerous intracellular crystals within tubular epithelial cells. Subsequent laboratory and genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of infantile nephropathic cystinosis. This case highlights the variability in the clinical presentation of cystinosis, resulting in an uncommon clinical picture of a rare disease. Given that treatment is available to prolong renal function and minimize the extra-renal manifestations of this disorder, early diagnosis is essential. It is important to raise the index of suspicion of cystinosis by recognizing its subtle morphological changes in young patients, and that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be secondary to this disorder.

  4. Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Giorgio; Calabria, Santo; Lai, Silvia; Moscaritolo, Eleonora; Nofroni, Italo; Ronga, Giuseppe; Rossi, Michele; Ventroni, Guido; Sardella, Daniela; Ferrannini, Michele; Zaccaria, Alvaro; Cianci, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease. Methods All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238) or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224), and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS), were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and/or Selective Angiography (SA). An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA). Results Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above. Conclusions A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis. PMID:12622875

  5. Proteinuria and baseline renal function predict mortality and renal outcomes after sirolimus therapy in liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Lung-Chih; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Chih-Che; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chen, Ding-Wei; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Nakano, Toshiaki; Chen, Chao-Long

    2017-04-20

    Chronic kidney disease is a significant complication after liver transplantation (LT), but the role of pre-existing renal insufficiency and proteinuria remains unclear among LT recipients receiving sirolimus. We assessed the effects of proteinuria and baseline renal function on long-term renal and survival outcomes among 576 LT recipients who received SRL in a medical center between 2005 and 2014. Renal outcomes were the incidences of >50% reduction in their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and end stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Proteinuria was identified using morning dipstick results (≥30 mg/dL) at baseline and within the first year after the initiation of SRL therapy. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate time to event. Factors associated with the outcomes were determined using the Cox proportional hazards model with a significance level set at P <0.05. During the study period, renal function deteriorated in 135 (25.3%) patients and 68 (11.8%) patients died. Persistent and new onset proteinuria contributed to a high rate of mortality and the deterioration of renal function (both log-rank tests, P <0.0001). After adjustments, new onset proteinuria within the first year after the initiation of SRL therapy increased the risk of deteriorating renal function, regardless of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. Moreover, pre-existing (hazard ratio = 1.91; P <0.001) and new onset diabetes (hazard ratio = 2.34; P <0.0001) were significantly associated with new onset proteinuria among SRL users. These findings support the effective monitoring and early management of the predictable risks for proteinuria among new SRL users in order to delay the progression of renal disease.

  6. Renal cortical thickness and PON1 activity both decrease in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Ak, Gülçin; Ozgönül, Mert; Sözmen, Eser Y; Aslan, S Leyla; Sözmen, Bülent

    2002-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with a tendency to atherosclerosis due to the enhanced oxidative stress and insufficient antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and paraoxonase (PON 1), together with abnormalities in lipid parameters. We determined the in vitro susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation and PON1 activities in patients with chronic renal insufficiency to see how PON1 affected the progression of the disease and whether hemodialysis influenced these parameters. Thirty-seven patients (21 men, 16 women, mean age 43.9 +/- 16) with CRF were included, 23 were receiving hemodialysis treatment. Exclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus and acute coronary disease. Eighteen healthy subjects (9 men and 9 women, mean age 39.9 +/- 10.5) volunteered to participate as controls. All patients were evaluated by renal ultrasound (USG) and two-dimensional echography, and their lipid profiles, PON1 activity, basal and Cu-induced LDL oxidation were determined. PON1 activities of patients were lower than controls (14.4 +/- 11 vs 30.9 +/- 19 U/L, p < 0.05) while basal ox-LDL levels determined by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method were higher (0.6 +/- 0.4 vs 0.4+/- 0.2 nmol/mg LDL protein, p<0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups treated with hemodialysis or not. There was a positive correlation between renal cortical thickness and HDL levels (r=0.47, p=0.006) and PON1 activity (r=0.45, p=0.01). Our data showed that HDL cholesterol levels and PON1 activities were both lower in patients, indicating depletion of the protective antioxidant capacity. PON1 activities and phenotypes were no different in patients with coronary disease and others so it does not appear to be a significant indicator of coronary artery disease in patients with CRF.

  7. [Twin pregnancy after renal transplantation: first case reported in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Skhiri, Habib; Guedri, Yousr; Achour, Abdellatif; Sabra, Aloui; Hadj, Youssef Dorsaf; Bouraoui, Samia; Frih, Ameur; Ben Dhia, Nasr; Sakkouhi, Mohamed; Gahbiche, Mourad; Saad, Hamadi; El May, Mezni

    2005-04-01

    Women with end-stage renal disease or on regular dialysis have low fertility. Renal transplantation restores not only normal renal and endocrine functions but also the reproductive function as well and this conception becomes possible. Pregnancy in transplanted women is at higher risk and necessitates a multidisciplinary follow up. We report the course and out come of two successful pregnancies, the second was the first case of twin pregnancy in Tunisia in a transplanted woman. Our patient is 35 years old had a chronic renal insufficiency, secondary to interstitial nephropathy. After six years of hemodialysis, she had received a renal graft from a living donor (his brother). A double drug immunosuppression was given (Prednisolone - Azathioprine). Two years later, she became pregnant and delivered a normal baby at term, and one year later she had a twin pregnancy that ended successfully and delivered by caesarian section a two babies with different sex. Pregnancy after renal transplantion must be considered as a risk factor for any subsquent pregnancy, and the risk nicreases in case of twin pregnancy.

  8. Renal denervation: tips and tricks to perform a technically successful procedure.

    PubMed

    Bertog, Stefan C; Blessing, Erwin; Vaskelyte, Laua; Hofmann, Ilona; Id, Dani; Sievert, Horst

    2013-05-01

    To most practitioners involved in catheter-based interventions, percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation is not technically challenging. However, under specific clinical circumstances (e.g., renal insufficiency) or when faced with more complex abdominal aortic anatomy (e.g., tortuosity) some procedural tips may come in handy. Here we review the equipment, antiplatelet and anticoagulant strategy as well as the procedural technique, including tips and tricks for the successful performance of catheter-based renal denervation. Among other topics, carbon dioxide angiography and brachial artery access are discussed.

  9. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption. PMID:26131261

  10. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption.

  11. Bilateral ureteric obstruction secondary to renal papillary necrosis.

    PubMed

    Broadis, Emily; Barbour, Louise; O'Toole, Stuart; Fyfe, Alasdair; Flett, Martyn; Irwin, Greg; Ramage, Ian J

    2010-08-01

    A 2-year-old male presented to hospital with a 5-day history of vomiting and pyrexia. He was initially treated with non-steroidal medication as an anti-pyretic. Initial investigations demonstrated a raised urea and creatinine and he was treated with intravenous fluids. Within 24 h he became anuric with progressive renal insufficiency. Ultrasound scan demonstrated minimal bilateral hydronephrosis with debris in the lower pole calyces. The bladder was empty. Cystoscopy and retrograde contrast imaging revealed bilateral ureteric obstruction. Double J stents were inserted and his renal function returned to normal within 4 days. We believe the aetiology to be renal papillary necrosis and bilateral ureteric obstruction secondary to the administration of ibuprofen in association with dehydration.

  12. Angiogenic factors and renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Julie S; Young, Brett C; Rana, Sarosh

    2011-01-01

    Background. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in patients with underlying renal disease and proteinuria. Prior studies show that there is an angiogenic factor imbalance with elevated levels of antiangiogenic proteins soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) and reduced levels of the proangiogenic protein, placental growth factor (PlGF) in women with preeclampsia. These angiogenic biomarkers may be useful in distinguishing preeclampsia from other conditions of pregnancy, which may present with overlapping clinical characteristics. Cases. Case 1: A multiparous woman at 18 weeks gestation with nephrotic syndrome presented with hypertensive emergency and worsening renal insufficiency. She underwent induction of labor for severe preeclampsia. Her sFlt1 and sEng levels were at the 97 percentile while her PlGF level was undetectable (less than the 1st percentile). Case 2: A nulliparous woman with lupus nephritis at 22 weeks gestation presented with fetal demise and heart failure. Three weeks previously, the patient had developed thrombocytopenia and hypertensive urgency. She underwent dilation and evacuation. Her angiogenic profile was consistent with severe preeclampsia. Conclusion. Angiogenic factors may provide evidence to support a diagnosis of preeclampsia in patients with preexisting renal disease and proteinuria, conditions in which the classical definition of hypertension and proteinuria cannot be used.

  13. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. Recent findings New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver–kidney transplantation is advised. Summary Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes. PMID:25763790

  14. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  15. Renal osteodystrophy and aging.

    PubMed

    Sherrard, Donald J

    2009-11-01

    The bone disease seen in our aging dialysis population is a complex mixture of osteoporosis and renal osteodystrophy. Attention must be paid to both of these issues. Hip fractures are increased with aging and this increase is further aggravated by renal failure. Preventive management with Vitamin D and bisphosphonates is reviewed.

  16. Protective Effects of the Segmental Renal Artery Clamping Technique on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in db/db Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Wang, Shangqian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Pu

    2017-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is inevitable in partial nephrectomy and other kidney surgeries, with a higher incidence in patients with renal insufficiency. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of precise segmental renal artery clamping (SRAC) against renal I/R injury in db/db diabetic mice, compared with conventional renal artery clamping (RAC). Grape seed extract, a powerful free radical scavenger, was administered to diabetic mice for 4 weeks before operation in subgroups (30 mg/kg/d). The unilateral renal pedicle was ligatured, and I/R injury to the contralateral kidney was induced (ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h). Blood glucose value, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio increased gradually and showed no preoperative statistical differences among six subgroups. These parameters were significantly lower in the SRAC than in the RAC group 24 h postoperatively. Moreover, the nonischemic area in the SRAC group expressed less KIM-1 and TNF-α mRNA and also revealed minor histopathological damage induced by I/R. These findings suggest that SRAC effectively reduces early renal injury induced by I/R and accelerates the recovery of renal function in diabetic mice. Thus, SRAC may be an ideal technique in partial nephrectomy, especially for patients with diabetic nephropathy and other renal insufficiencies. PMID:28299325

  17. Quick and Easy Screening for Vitamin D Insufficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Sutton, Angela; Charnaux, Nathalie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Ezzedine, Khaled; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D is essential regarding several health outcomes. Prevention of insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ≤20 ng/mL) generally entails blood testing and/or supplementation, strategies that should target at-risk individuals because blood testing is costly, and unwarranted supplementation could result in vitamin D overload with unknown long-term consequences. Our objective was to develop a simple score (Vitamin D Insufficiency Prediction score, VDIP) for identifying adults at risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Subjects were 1557 non–vitamin D-supplemented middle-aged adults from the SU.VI.MAX cohort. Scoring points corresponded to the rounded odds ratio for each individual-level characteristic associated with vitamin D insufficiency in a multivariable logistic regression model. Receiver operating characteristic curve (area under curve), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were computed. External validation was performed in an independent cohort (NutriNet-Santé, N = 781). For female sex, overweight, low physical activity, winter season, moderate sun exposure, and very fair or dark skin 1.5 points were attributed; 2 points for latitude ≥48°N and spring season; 2.5 points for obesity and late winter; 3 points for low sun exposure. Points were then summed up for each participant. The VDIP score had an AUC = 0.70 ± 0.01 (validation: 0.67 ± 0.02). With a score of 7 or more, 70% of the participants were vitamin D-insufficient (80% in those with a score ≥9), sensitivity/specificity were 0.67/0.63, and positive and negative predictive values were 0.70/0.59. The VDIP score performed well in identifying middle-aged adults at risk of vitamin D insufficiency (score ≥7, moderate risk; score≥9, high risk), using only simple individual-level characteristics easily assessable in day-to-day clinical practice. Implementation of this simple and costless score could thus obviate unwarranted

  18. Atheroembolic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Ravani, Pietro

    2010-05-08

    Atheroembolic renal disease develops when atheromatous aortic plaques rupture, releasing cholesterol crystals into the small renal arteries. Embolisation often affects other organs, such as the skin, gastrointestinal system, and brain. Although the disease can develop spontaneously, it usually develops after vascular surgery, catheterisation, or anticoagulation. The systemic nature of atheroembolism makes diagnosis difficult. The classic triad of a precipitating event, acute or subacute renal failure, and skin lesions, are strongly suggestive of the disorder. Eosinophilia further supports the diagnosis, usually confirmed by biopsy of an affected organ or by the fundoscopic finding of cholesterol crystals in the retinal circulation. Renal and patient prognosis are poor. Treatment is mostly preventive, based on avoidance of further precipitating factors, and symptomatic, aimed to the optimum treatment of hypertension and cardiac and renal failure. Statins, which stabilise atherosclerotic plaques, should be offered to all patients. Steroids might have a role in acute or subacute progressive forms with systemic inflammation.

  19. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmy, P S; Jose, Merin; Feroze, M; Kumar, Rajesh K

    2017-09-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a newly described rare neoplasm. This tumour is characterised microscopically by admixture of three components- epithelial cells arranged in tubules and nests, angiomyomatous stroma and capillary sized interconnecting vascular channels in close association with the epithelial cell clusters. Microscopically it has wide range of differential diagnoses which include mixed epithelial and stromal tumour of kidney, angiomyolipoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma with angiomyolipomatous/angiomyoadenomatous areas. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour should be differentiated from these tumours. Till now, only 10 cases have been reported in English medical literature. Here, we are reporting a case of renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour in a 29 year- old female patient who presented with hematuria and low backache and describing its main features so as to differentiate this entity from other renal tumours. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported from India.

  20. [Sarcoidosis : Renal manifestations].

    PubMed

    Löffler, C; Bergner, R

    2017-04-12

    Renal involvement in sarcoidosis is much more common than generally assumed from old epidemiological studies and is often only detected when actively searched for. Many patients with renal sarcoidosis present with no or only few symptoms. The diagnostic work-up of sarcoidosis should always include a possible renal involvement. In cases of impaired renal function, proteinuria or a pathological urine sediment, a renal biopsy specimen should be obtained to assess the type, severity and prognosis of the kidney disease. Treatment is primarily based on the use of corticosteroids. Steroid-sparing agents, such as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and infliximab can be applied; however, the evidence for efficacy of these therapies is mostly based on case series and expert opinions. Discontinuation of immunosuppression therapy bears a high risk of relapse.

  1. Measuring venous insufficiency objectively in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Bonham, Phyllis A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a screening procedure to assess venous insufficiency with a hand-held photoplethysmography (PPG) instrument in the clinical setting. PPG is noninvasive technology that is used as part of venous assessment of the lower extremities. Although duplex ultrasound remains the industry gold standard for assessment, there are many situations in which access or expertise is not available. The measurement of venous refill time with PPG, one measure of venous insufficiency, is becoming increasingly more prevalent in research settings; however, PPG is underused in clinical settings. Rapid venous refill time

  2. Medical and surgical therapy for advanced chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Word, Ronnie

    2010-12-01

    Venous ulceration is the most serious consequence of chronic venous insufficiency. The disease has been known for more than 3.5 millennia with wound care centers established as early as 1500 bc. Unfortunately, still today it is a very poorly managed medical condition by most physicians despite that a great deal has been learned about the pathogenesis and treatment for venous ulcerations. We find that many wound care clinics treat the wound and not the cause of the problem. In this article, we review the basic pathophysiology of advanced chronic venous insufficiency and review the most up-to-date information with regard to medical therapy and different options of surgical therapy to address the underlying venous pathology responsible for chronic ulcers.

  3. Three treatments for chronic venous insufficiency: escin, hydroxyethylrutoside, and Daflon.

    PubMed

    Frick, R W

    2000-03-01

    Escin, hydroxyethylrutoside (HR), and Daflon have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). They seem to work differently than compression therapy, suggesting that they would usefully augment this therapy. All three phlebotonics attenuate the drop in adenosine triphosphate in venous endothelial cells during hypoxia. This attenuates (1) the inflammation response, (2) the attraction of neutrophils, (3) damage to the veins, and (4) the release of growth factors. These factors otherwise would perpetuate venous insufficiency and contribute to varicose veins. Additional independent effects that would be useful for the treatment of CVI are that they reduce permeability and fragility; HR, Daflon, and perhaps escin increase venous tone; escin inhibits hyaluronidase; Daflon and probably HR are attracted to the veins. With regard to similarity, no differences in effect have been established among these phlebotonics.

  4. An endocrinologist's view on relative adrenocortical insufficiency in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Imrich, Richard; Vlcek, Miroslav; Aldag, Jean C; Kerlik, Jana; Radikova, Zofia; Rovensky, Jozef; Vigas, Milan; Masi, Alfonse T

    2010-04-01

    The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) has been originally introduced to describe a situation in which critically ill patients, without any prior risk or evidence for adrenal insufficiency, have total serum cortisol levels inadequate for the severity of patients' illness. The concept provided a framework for other disease states, in which higher than normal adrenal function could be expected, such as in chronic inflammation. An intense research in RAI field highlighted some new methodological aspects that significantly improved assessment of adrenal function in chronic illness. Measurement of salivary cortisol may provide additional information on locally available cortisol in target tissues. Low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) for given age and gender were confirmed as a simple and reliable indicator of decreased adrenal function, even in subjects with normal baseline cortisol or normal corticotropin-stimulated cortisol response. Combined lower DHEAS and lower baseline cortisol levels could be an example of hypocompetence of adrenocortical function, yet clinically not apparent.

  5. [Irreversible coma following hypoglycemia in Sheehan syndrome with adrenocortical insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Sas, A M; Meynaar, I A; Laven, J S; Bakker, S L; Feelders, R A

    2003-08-23

    A 24-year-old woman of Somali origin delivered at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy. Post-partum haemorrhage resulted in hypovolaemic shock which was treated by hysterectomy. Five days later she became comatose due to unrecognised hypoglycaemia which caused severe irreversible brain damage and status epilepticus. Treatment in the intensive care unit with artificial respiration, prednisolone, desmopressin, inotropic support, barbiturates and an anaesthetic under EEG guidance was unsuccessful. The patient died 28 days post-partum. The hypoglycaemia was due to a combination of (a) inadequate glucose intake and (b) lack of counter-regulatory mechanisms due to a deficiency of steroids and growth hormone as a result of loss of pituitary function (Sheehan syndrome) together with adrenocortical insufficiency. The combination of Sheehan syndrome and primary adrenocortical insufficiency has not been described previously in the literature.

  6. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Part 2. Microsurgical treatment of intracranial vertebrobasilar disease.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, L N; Martin, N A; Hadley, M N; Spetzler, R F; Budny, J; Carter, L P

    1987-05-01

    Posterior circulation transient ischemic attacks have an associated risk of subsequent infarction of approximately 5% per year. Intracranial vertebrobasilar thrombo-occlusive lesions appear particularly likely to result in repetitive ischemic symptoms and in infarction due to hemodynamic insufficiency. The authors present their experience with 45 patients with symptomatic intracranial vertebrobasilar vascular disease despite maximal medical therapy. The specific operative approaches for intracranial vertebral artery endarterectomy and extracranial to intracranial posterior circulation revascularization procedures are outlined.

  7. Venous insufficiency and thromboembolic disease in bariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Bellen, Bonno van; Godoy, Ivan de Barros; Reis, Andrea Almeida; Bertevello, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Morbid obesity is associated with various co-morbidities, including chronic venous insufficiency. Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity, but with potential risks and possible complications, including venous thromboembolism. To determine the prevalence of clinical and ultrasonographic signs of chronic venous insufficiency in morbid obese patients in preparation for bariatric surgery and the incidence of post-operative venous thromboembolic disease. Patients on work-up for bariatric surgery of Centro Terapêutico Especializado em Fígado (CETEFI) and Pro-Gastro surgical teams of the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo were included. The analysed data were pre-operative findings for venous insufficiency (CEAP - clinical, etiological, anatomical, physiopathologic - classification and venous ultrasonographic findings), type of surgery (open or laparoscopic), abdominal circumference, body mass index (BMI) and post-operative ultrasonography search for venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Between March 2007 and December 2009, 95 patient candidates for bariatric surgery had clinical and duplex scan evaluation of the lower limbs venous system. Of the 95 patients, 53 were submitted to the surgical procedure. There was a predominance of women (77.9%), the average age was 38.5 years, average preoperative weight 124.6 kg and average BMI of 45.5 kg/m2. Regarding obesity, 16.8% were obese, and 83.1% were morbidly obese. In relation to the venous findings, 86.3% of the patients did fit CEAP classification less than 3 and 13.7% greater than or equal to 3. Among the post-operative complications, there were four cases of wound infection. Three patients developed post-operative distal venous thrombosis (7.5%), but no one had clinically manifested pulmonary embolism. No relation between BMI, CEAP classification and venous ultrasonographic findings were found. Although prophylaxis was used in all patients, the incidence of post

  8. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trump, Donald L.; Chadha, Manpreet K.; Sunga, Annette Y.; Fakih, Marwan G.; Ashraf, Umeer; Silliman, Carrie G.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Nesline, Mary K.; Tian, Lili; Tan, Wei; Johnson, Candace S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of vitamin D deficiency among men with prostate cancer, as considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer outcome. Patients, subjects and methods The study included 120 ambulatory men with recurrent prostate cancer and 50 with clinically localized prostate cancer who were evaluated and serum samples assayed for 25-OH vitamin D levels. Then 100 controls (both sexes), matched for age and season of serum sample, were chosen from a prospective serum banking protocol. The relationship between age, body mass index, disease stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, season and previous therapy on vitamin D status were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 25.9 ng/mL in those with recurrent disease, 27.5 ng/mL in men with clinically localized prostate cancer and 24.5 ng/mL in controls. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20–31 ng/mL) was 40% and 32% in men with recurrent prostate; 28% had vitamin D levels that were normal (32–100 ng/mL). Among men with localized prostate cancer, 18% were deficient, 50% were insufficient and 32% were normal. Among controls, 31% were deficient, 40% were insufficient and 29% were normal. Metastatic disease (P = 0.005) and season of blood sampling (winter/spring; P = 0.01) were associated with vitamin D deficiency in patients with prostate cancer, while age, race, performance status and body mass index were not. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among men with prostate cancer and apparently normal controls in the western New York region. PMID:19426195

  9. Predictors of development of chronic vestibular insufficiency after vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Ivan; Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Ozretić, David; Habek, Mario

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the role of clinical parameters, MRI and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) as predictors of development of chronic vestibular insufficiency after vestibular neuritis. Twenty-six patients with vestibular neuritis were included: 15 patients (58%) showed complete clinical recovery, and 11 patients (41%) were diagnosed with the syndrome of chronic vestibular insufficiency. Clinical parameters (vomiting, nystagmus, postural stability, and nausea) were assessed at diagnosis. MRI was performed within 3 months and VEMP within 6 days and at 1 year after the initial presentation. The amplitude asymmetry ratio (AR) was calculated using the following formula: AR=((healthy side-affected side)/(healthy side+affected side) × 100). Of all studied parameters, only chronic white matter supratentorial lesions present on brain MRI negatively correlated with clinical recovery (Phi coefficient=-0.637, p=0.001). The logistic regression analysis showed that positive brain MRI and older age reduced odds for clinical recovery. There was no correlation between clinical recovery and oVEMP AR recovery between groups (p=0.781). Seven patients showed improvement, and 19 showed worsening on oVEMP AR after a 1-year follow-up. Statistical regression model for predicting the outcome of clinical recovery using asymmetry score recovery, as an independent variable, was not statistically significant. Older age and chronic white matter lesions on brain MRI are positive predictors of development of chronic vestibular insufficiency after vestibular neuritis. VEMPs are not useful in predicting the development of chronic vestibular insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D insufficiency in preadolescent African-American children.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Fernstrom, John D; Janosky, Janine E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2005-10-01

    To determine the proportion of vitamin D insufficiency in 6- to 10-year-old preadolescent African-American children residing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and to estimate their therapeutic response to vitamin D 400 IU/day for 1-month, an open-label pre- and post-comparison of vitamin D status following vitamin D 400 IU daily for 1 month during winter and early spring was conducted. Outcomes included serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D], 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1, 25 (OH) (2) D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone turnover (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urine n-telopeptide crosslinked collagen type 1 [NTX]). Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Forty-one of the 42 enrolled subjects (mean age: 8.9 +/- 1.2 yrs [SD]) were analyzed, and 20/41 (49%) were vitamin D insufficient. Vitamin D insufficient group had a suggestive trend of being older (9.2 +/- 1.0 years vs. 8.5 +/- 1.3 years, p = 0.06) and more pubertally advanced (Tanner II: 7/20 vs. Tanner II: 1/21, p = 0.02). Mean dietary intake of vitamin D was 277 ( 146 IU/day (n = 41). Adequate intake for vitamin D (200 IU/day) was not met in 16/41 (39%); however, the dietary intake of vitamin D was not significantly different between the vitamin D insufficient and vitamin D sufficient groups.

  11. Vitamin D insufficiency and chronic diseases: hype and reality.

    PubMed

    Peterlik, Meinrad

    2012-08-01

    In recent years an increasing number of observational studies have suggested that a low vitamin D status contributes to the development of all sorts of chronic diseases. In reality, however, studies that had been adequately controlled for confounding factors ruled out any link between vitamin D insufficiency and, for example, metabolic disorders, arterial hypertension, multiple sclerosis or cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, a role of vitamin D insufficiency in autoimmune diseases is evident only in animal models but has not yet been established in humans. In respect to many malignancies, vitamin D insufficiency is only one out of many risk factors and its specific impact on disease incidence has never been assessed. There is convincing evidence, however, that vitamin D insufficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer as well as for cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, it is debatable that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of 100-150 nmol l(-1) are required for optimal health outcomes. These are overestimates which would afford to raise vitamin D intake to 4000 IU day(-1). In reality, high doses of vitamin D can cause serious health problems because of the U-shaped dose-response relationships that exist in some cases. Data from large cohort studies clearly indicate that serum 25-(OH)D concentrations around 50 nmol l(-1) are sufficient to minimize the risk of osteoporotic fractures, colorectal and breast cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. The fact that the risk-reducing potential of vitamin D depends on adequate calcium nutrition is widely ignored. I here summarize the evidence that efficient disease prevention does not require intake of more vitamin D and calcium than currently recommended for maintaining optimal bone health.

  12. Congenital tetraplegia, respiratory insufficiency, and hypoplasia of medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Bode, H; Bubl, R; Rutishauser, M; Nars, P W

    1994-03-01

    A term infant with normal delivery presented with congenital tetraplegia and respiratory insufficiency just after birth. Magnetic resonance tomography on days 8 and 72 of life revealed an extreme thinning of the lower medulla oblongata. Endoscopy confirmed this and demonstrated the presence of vascular anomalies around the lesion which were not detectable by angiography. It is presumed that this is a malformation of the lower medulla oblongata.

  13. [Fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and in placental insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, B; Malinova, M

    2010-01-01

    The fetal circulation is different from the adult circulation. One of the quite common conditions that are challenging to the developing fetus is placental hypoxia. Regardless of its cause, placental vascular insufficiency is commonly assumed to be an important factor in the development of intrauterine growth retardation. Several mechanisms are involved in the fetal adaptation to the decompensation during hypoxemia. Doppler Ultrasound technologies can help to evaluate of the fetal wellbeing.

  14. Relationship between Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Convergence Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Annette; Boas, Mark; Gallaway, Michael; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Scheiman, Mitchell; Kulp, Marjean T.; Cotter, Susan A.; Rouse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The percentage of children who are symptomatic has been shown to increase with the number of signs of convergence insufficiency (CI). Our goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity of the clinical signs of CI and symptom level reported in children with 3-sign symptomatic CI. Methods The Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) enrolled 221 children with symptomatic CI from ages 9 to 17 years. Inclusion criteria included the following three signs of CI: (1) exophoria at near at least 4Δ greater than at distance, (2) insufficient positive fusional vergence (PFV) at near, and (3) a receded near point of convergence (NPC) of ≥ 6cm break. The relationships between the severity of each sign of CI (mild, moderate and severe) and the level of symptoms as measured by the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) at baseline were evaluated. Results Mean CISS scores were not significantly different between mild, moderate or severe exophoria (p=0.60), PFV blur (p=0.99), Sheard's criterion (p=0.89) or NPC break (p=0.84). There was also no difference in the frequency of subjects scoring at mild, moderate or severe levels on the CISS and the severity of each sign of CI. Correlations between individual clinical signs and the CISS score were very low and not statistically significant. Conclusions Among symptomatic children with a CISS score ≥ 16 and three clinical signs of CI, there is no further association between the severity of the clinical signs and their level of symptoms. PMID:23958713

  15. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Chadha, Manpreet K; Sunga, Annette Y; Fakih, Marwan G; Ashraf, Umeer; Silliman, Carrie G; Hollis, Bruce W; Nesline, Mary K; Tian, Lili; Tan, Wei; Johnson, Candace S

    2009-10-01

    To assess the frequency of vitamin D deficiency among men with prostate cancer, as considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer outcome. The study included 120 ambulatory men with recurrent prostate cancer and 50 with clinically localized prostate cancer who were evaluated and serum samples assayed for 25-OH vitamin D levels. Then 100 controls (both sexes), matched for age and season of serum sample, were chosen from a prospective serum banking protocol. The relationship between age, body mass index, disease stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, season and previous therapy on vitamin D status were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. The mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 25.9 ng/mL in those with recurrent disease, 27.5 ng/mL in men with clinically localized prostate cancer and 24.5 ng/mL in controls. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-31 ng/mL) was 40% and 32% in men with recurrent prostate; 28% had vitamin D levels that were normal (32-100 ng/mL). Among men with localized prostate cancer, 18% were deficient, 50% were insufficient and 32% were normal. Among controls, 31% were deficient, 40% were insufficient and 29% were normal. Metastatic disease (P = 0.005) and season of blood sampling (winter/spring; P = 0.01) were associated with vitamin D deficiency in patients with prostate cancer, while age, race, performance status and body mass index were not. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among men with prostate cancer and apparently normal controls in the western New York region.

  16. Insufficient Evidence of Purported Lunar Effect on Pollination in Ephedra.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that the timing of pollination in Ephedra foeminea coincides with the full moon in July. The implication is that the plant can detect the full moon through light or gravity and that this trait is an evolutionary adaptation that aids the navigation by pollinating insects. Here we show that there are insufficient data to make such a claim, and we predict that pollinations of E. foeminea do not in general coincide with the full moon.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of insufficient dialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Kamper, L; Faizy, T D; Haage, P

    2015-05-01

    A wide variety of diagnostic and minimally invasive modalities is currently available to radiologists for providing sufficient medical care for dialysis patients. In addition to clinical examination, ultrasound is the first line imaging method in suspected dialysis vascular access dysfunction. The percutaneous approach is the primarily recommended therapeutic option in many cases. This article reviews the current diagnostic and therapeutic methods in dialysis vascular access insufficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Chronic venous insufficiency in postthrombotic syndrome and varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jürg; Mayer, D; Amann, B; French, L E; Läuchli, S; Hofer, T; Ramelet, A-A; Jeanneret, Ch

    2010-10-06

    Venous disorders have a high prevalence and require approximately 1% of health budgets of industrialized countries. The postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is defined by subjective symptoms and morphologic trophical skin changes following deep venous thrombosis. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in risk situations, easy availability of diagnostic tools (D-dimers, colour-coded duplex sonography) and early detection of deep venous thrombosis, as well as immediate therapeutic anticoagulation along with leg compression during the acute phase and over a two year period of time significantly reduce the incidence of PTS. Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) includes trophical skin and soft tissue pathologies of the lower leg due to venous hypertension in the distal venous system of the lower extremity. Roughly, two main causes can be distinguished. (A) Deep venous insufficiency (A1 in postthrombotic syndrome; A2 in primary deep venous insufficiency) and (B) superficial venous reflux, usually varicose veins. Compression therapy, surgical ablation of superficial venous reflux, and tangential ablation with split skin graft (shave treatment) of refractory venous ulcers are the mainstays in the treatment of CVI.

  19. Delayed posterior circulation insufficiency in pediatric moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Choi, Young-Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Ryu, Hye Won; Kim, Ki Joong; Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Chae, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) have presented with involvement of the posterior circulation, mainly the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Diagnosis of delayed progression of PCA stenosis in MMD may be difficult due to the diversity in clinical features. The goal of this study was to evaluate pediatric MMD patients with delayed PCA involvement after completion of revascularization of the anterior circulation. Forty-one pediatric MMD patients who underwent revascularization of the PCA territory due to delayed posterior circulation insufficiency MMD from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The average interval between the initial operation and the occipital artery (OA) procedure was 5.0 years. Common symptoms were headaches and transient visual symptoms. The decision to operate was made based on a combination of diagnostic tools. The results obtained with perfusion MRI, SPECT, MR angiography, and EEG supported posterior circulation