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Sample records for renal mass lesions

  1. Use of functional mass in renal scintigraphy to detect segmental arterial lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Stibolt, T.B. Jr.; Bacher, J.D.; Dunnick, N.R.; Lock, A.; Jones, A.E.; Bailey, J.J.

    1982-04-01

    Renography using a gamma camera, a minicomputer, (/sup 123/I)orthoiodohippurate ((/sup 123/I)OIH), and a canine model was employed to evaluate computer-generated maps of regional renal function. Renograms were obtained before and after ligations of the right renal arterial branch in four dogs, with subsequent angiographic and histologic confirmation of the lesions. Postoperative time-activity curves were normal. Washout and persistence index in three of four right kidneys showed regional abnormality. Functional renal mapping may provide a clinical technique for evaluating human renal vascular hypertension.

  2. Exophytic renal masses: angular interface with renal parenchyma for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions at MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sachit K; Mitchell, Donald G; Yang, Roberta; Roth, Christopher G; O'Kane, Patrick; Verma, Manisha; Parker, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    To retrospectively determine whether benign exophytic renal masses can be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of angular interface at single-shot fast spin-echo (SE) T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This retrospective study was compliant with HIPAA and was approved by the institutional review board. Patient informed consent was waived. A total of 162 exophytic (2 cm or greater) renal masses in 152 patients (103 men, 49 women; mean age, 58 years; age range, 23-85 years) were included. Two radiologists independently recorded the mass size and angular interface on single-shot fast SE T2-weighted MR images. Surgical pathologic report and MR follow-up were used as reference standards. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the usefulness of these variables for differentiating benign masses from RCCs. Diagnostic performance was analyzed by comparing values for area under receiver operating characteristic curve (A(z)). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of angular interface for diagnosing benign masses were calculated. Reader agreement was assessed with kappa-weighted statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Of 162 masses, 65 were benign, and 97 were RCCs. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and A(z) of angular interface for diagnosing benign masses were 78%, 100%, 100%, 87%, and 0.813, respectively. Angular interface (P < .001) was a significant predictor of benign renal mass but mass size (P = .66) was not. There was almost perfect interobserver agreement for mass size (ICC = 0.96) and angular interface (kappa = 0.91). The presence of an angular interface with the renal parenchyma at single-shot fast SE T2-weighted MR imaging is a strong predictor of benignity in an exophytic renal mass 2 cm or greater in diameter with high specificity and diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Solid renal masses in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Sureka, Binit

    2016-01-01

    With the ever increasing trend of using cross-section imaging in today's era, incidental detection of small solid renal masses has dramatically multiplied. Coincidentally, the number of asymptomatic benign lesions being detected has also increased. The role of radiologists is not only to identify these lesions, but also go a one step further and accurately characterize various renal masses. Earlier detection of small renal cell carcinomas means identifying at the initial stage which has an impact on prognosis, patient management and healthcare costs. In this review article we share our experience with the typical and atypical solid renal masses encountered in adults in routine daily practice. PMID:28104933

  4. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging of Solid Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Kay, Fernando U; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    Detection of solid renal masses has increased, although it has not resulted in significant mortality reduction from renal cell carcinoma. Efforts for improved lesion characterization have been pursued and incorporated in management algorithms, in order to distinguish clinically significant tumors from favorable or benign conditions. Concurrently, imaging methods have produced evidence supporting their role as useful tools not only in lesion detection but also characterization. In addition, newer modalities, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, and advanced applications of MR imaging, are being investigated. This article reviews the current role of different imaging methods in the characterization of solid renal masses.

  6. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population.

  7. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of induced renal lesions

    SciTech Connect

    London, D.A.; Davis, P.L.; Williams, R.D.; Crooks, L.E.; Sheldon, P.E.; Gooding, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images obtained after unilateral ligation of the ureter, renal artery, or renal vein in the rat were analyzed and compared with NMR images of the normal rat kidney. Anatomic and functional correlation of the induced renal lesions was made by concurrent CT and by gross examination of the excised kidneys. Many normal anatomic structures at the level of the renal hilum can be identified by high resolution NMR imaging. Differentiation of urine from renal parenchyma permits detection of gross changes both in renal function and in the mass of the renal parenchyma. NMR imaging is capable of diagnosing hydronephrosis, acute renal ischemia, and acute venous congestion in this rat model. In addition, a trend toward prolongation of the relaxation times T1 and T2 for abnormal renal parenchyma is demonstrated.

  9. Improved assessment of renal lesions in pregnancy with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Putra, Lydia G Johns; Minor, Thomas X; Bolton, Damien M; Appu, Sreevinas; Dowling, Caroline R; Neerhut, Gregory J

    2009-09-01

    To ascertain the potential utility of magnetic resonance imaging in providing additional clarification of those solid renal mass lesions identified at routine antenatal ultrasonography in early pregnancy and influencing the management of such lesions. We present 7 patients in whom magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose, stage, and monitor renal lesions detected during pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging provided for improved imaging of renal mass lesions identified at antenatal ultrasonography, without the use of ionizing radiation, and permitted management determined by optimal radiographic assessment of such lesions without fetal irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most appropriate method to further investigate renal masses identified at routine antenatal ultrasonography early in pregnancy.

  10. Update on Renal Mass Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Kutikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Renal masses are diagnosed with an increasing frequency. However, a significant proportion of these masses are benign, and the majority of malignant tumors are biologically indolent. Furthermore, renal tumors are often harbored by the elderly and comorbid patients. As such, matching of renal tumor biology to appropriate treatment intensity is an urgent clinical need. Renal mass biopsy is currently a very useful clinical tool that can assist with critical clinical decision-making in patients with renal mass. Yet, renal mass biopsy is associated with limitations and, as such, may not be appropriate for all patients.

  11. Optimising assessment of kidney function when managing localised renal masses.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert J; Joshi, Andre; Ng, Keng L; Francis, Ross S; Gobe, Glenda C; Wood, Simon T

    2017-08-07

    Increased early and incidental detection, improved surgical techniques and technological advancement mean that the management of renal mass lesions is constantly evolving. The treatment of choice for renal mass lesions has historically been radical nephrectomy. Partial nephrectomy is now recommended for localised renal masses, owing to favourable renal functional outcomes. Ablative renal surgery confers a significant risk of chronic kidney disease. There are few studies assessing long term outcomes of nephrectomy on renal outcomes, and virtually no studies assessing long term outcomes for less invasive therapies such as ablation. Unless a renal mass is clearly benign on imaging, management decisions will be made with an assumption of malignancy. The content of this review applies to both benign and malignant renal mass lesions. We advocate for improved strategies for kidney function assessment and risk stratification, early targeted referral, and regular screening for chronic kidney disease for all patients after surgery.

  12. Multimodality imaging of renal inflammatory lesions

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J; Ahmad, Zohra; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum of acute renal infections includes acute pyelonephritis, renal and perirenal abscesses, pyonephrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous cystitis. The chronic renal infections that we routinely encounter encompass chronic pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and eosinophilic cystitis. Patients with diabetes, malignancy and leukaemia are frequently immunocompromised and more prone to fungal infections viz. angioinvasive aspergillus, candida and mucor. Tuberculosis and parasitic infestation of the kidney is common in tropical countries. Imaging is not routinely indicated in uncomplicated renal infections as clinical findings and laboratory data are generally sufficient for making a diagnosis. However, imaging plays a crucial role under specific situations like immunocompromised patients, treatment non-responders, equivocal clinical diagnosis, congenital anomaly evaluation, transplant imaging and for evaluating extent of disease. We aim to review in this article the varied imaging spectrum of renal inflammatory lesions. PMID:25431641

  13. Multimodality imaging of renal inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandan J; Ahmad, Zohra; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-11-28

    Spectrum of acute renal infections includes acute pyelonephritis, renal and perirenal abscesses, pyonephrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous cystitis. The chronic renal infections that we routinely encounter encompass chronic pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and eosinophilic cystitis. Patients with diabetes, malignancy and leukaemia are frequently immunocompromised and more prone to fungal infections viz. angioinvasive aspergillus, candida and mucor. Tuberculosis and parasitic infestation of the kidney is common in tropical countries. Imaging is not routinely indicated in uncomplicated renal infections as clinical findings and laboratory data are generally sufficient for making a diagnosis. However, imaging plays a crucial role under specific situations like immunocompromised patients, treatment non-responders, equivocal clinical diagnosis, congenital anomaly evaluation, transplant imaging and for evaluating extent of disease. We aim to review in this article the varied imaging spectrum of renal inflammatory lesions.

  14. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man.

  15. Renal vascular lesions in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Descombes, E; Droz, D; Drouet, L; Grünfeld, J P; Lesavre, P

    1997-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the prevalence, histologic features, clinical correlations, and long-term outcome of the intrarenal vascular lesions of lupus nephritis (LN) in a series of 169 renal biopsies performed between 1980 and 1994 in 132 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The most common vascular lesions were nonspecific sclerotic changes, found in 37% of the biopsies (24% if only the cases with moderate to severe changes are considered). The other common vascular lesions were "immunoglobulin microvascular casts," found in 24% of the biopsies. Vasculitis and thrombotic microangiopathy were rare lesions and were seen in only 4 (2.4%) and 1 (0.6%) cases, respectively. Isolated sclerotic vascular changes were present in biopsies from older patients with a longer duration of LN, compared with the group with no vascular lesions, and were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Overall, however, the long-term renal and patient survival of this group did not differ significantly from that of the patients without vascular changes. Immunoglobulin microvascular casts (IMCs) ("lupus vasculopathy") were characterized by the presence of immunoglobulin deposition within the glomerular capillaries and small arterioles. In the present study we extensively investigated the morphologic and immunologic features of this lesion. The lesions were notable for the absence of endothelial or parietal vascular lesions and of fibrin, platelets, and leukocytes, which indicates that thrombosis is not involved in the vascular obstruction. According to our data immunoglobulin precipitation in the microvasculature seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this lesion, which is why we propose the term "immunoglobulin microvascular casts." In general, IMCs were associated with the most severe and active forms of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (World Health Organization [WHO] class IV). However our data show that, in contrast to previous studies

  16. Histological Characterisation of Small Renal Masses and Incidence of Silent Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Almenar Medina, Sergio; Calatrava Fons, Ana

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of sonographic and CT examinations, the number of small renal masses detected has increased. Benign neoplastic lesions are usually smaller than 4 cm in size, whilst the most common types of renal cell carcinomas have a mean size greater than that, but we must not forget that a significant number of small masses are renal cell carcinomas; even though the rate of benign cases increases as the diameter of the lesions decreases, therefore, size itself cannot be used to rule out a diagnostic of malignancy and often image characteristics are not enough to predict the nature of the lesion with certainty. In this case, histological confirmation must be recommended. Ideally, the histological study must be conducted on the surgical specimen, even though biopsy can be an option in selected cases. PMID:19009035

  17. Mass spectrometry and renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Purcarea, VL; Sisu, I; Sisu, E

    2010-01-01

    The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004–2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI–TOF, QTOF, MS–MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC–MS, LC–MS, CE–MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, drugs and metabolites from renal calculi is presented. PMID:20968197

  18. Evaluation of renal masses considered indeterminate on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Balfe, D.M.; McClennan, B.L.; Stanley, R.J.; Weyman, P.J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1982-02-01

    Of 815 renal masses studied by computed tomography (CT), 60 did not fit the criteria for cyst or neoplasm and thus were called indeterminate. When artifacts were present, the likely diagnosis was a simple cyst; when no artifacts were present to explain atypical features in cyst-like masses, further investigation was necessary. Angiography was useful in only 16%, while ultrasound combined with cyst aspiration was diagnostic in 84%. All solid lesions required surgical investigation. Ultrasound with or without aspiration is recommended for all cyst-like renal masses thought to be indeterminate on CT.

  19. Integrated imaging of neonatal renal masses.

    PubMed

    Kirks, D R; Rosenberg, E R; Johnson, D G; King, L R

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-three neonatal renal masses were evaluated during a 2-year interval. The final diagnoses in these 33 patients were hydronephrosis [14], multicystic dysplastic kidney [10], renal vein thrombosis [3], obstructed upper pole duplication [2], polycystic kidney disease [2], nephroblastomatosis [1], and mesoblastic nephroma [1]. We recommend an integrated imaging approach that utilizes sonography to clarify anatomy and renal scintigraphy or excretory urography to determine renal function.

  20. Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seung Beom

    2014-01-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

  1. Renal mass biopsy--a renaissance?

    PubMed

    Lane, Brian R; Samplaski, Mary K; Herts, Brian R; Zhou, Ming; Novick, Andrew C; Campbell, Steven C

    2008-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the natural history and limited aggressive potential of many small renal masses, expanding treatment options and the integration of molecular factors into prognostic and therapeutic algorithms have stimulated renewed interest in percutaneous renal mass biopsy. A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed to evaluate the indications, techniques, complications and efficacy of renal mass biopsy. Reported techniques of renal mass biopsy vary widely with different modes of radiographic guidance, needle size, number of cores and pathological analyses. Percutaneous renal mass biopsy with 2 or 3 cores using 18 gauge needles may improve diagnostic accuracy without increasing morbidity. Serious complications of percutaneous biopsy are rare and the minor complication rate in recent series has been less than 5%. The reported rate of technical failure of renal mass biopsy due to insufficient material was about 9% before 2001 and 5% in more recent studies. The likelihood of indeterminate or inaccurate pathological findings has decreased from 10% to 4% when comparing clinical studies before and since 2001. Currently a total success rate of greater than 90% is attainable using renal mass biopsy with standard histopathological analysis. Recent studies demonstrated that combining immunohistochemical and molecular analyses may further improve renal mass biopsy accuracy. Research on expanded analysis of percutaneous renal mass biopsy specimens should remain a top priority. Enhanced renal mass biopsy should not change treatment in most patients with small renal masses, who should be treated with surgical excision. However, future clinical algorithms will likely incorporate enhanced biopsy in situations in which decision making is more challenging.

  2. Common and uncommon adult unilateral renal masses other than renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ott; Roy, Anjali; Silverman, Paul M.; Kundra, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Many different masses can involve the kidney other than the commonly encountered renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The purpose of this article is to review the characteristic clinical and imaging findings of common and uncommon masses that predominantly present unilaterally in the adult patient, other than RCC. Awareness of such lesions and knowing the clinical scenario is important for appropriate diagnosis and management, especially in a multidisciplinary care setting. PMID:22752221

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney: renal masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Williams, R.D.; Moon, K.L. Jr.; Moss, A.A.; Alpers, C.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-06-01

    Fifteen patients with a variety of renal masses were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), computed tomography, ultrasound, and intravenous urography. NMR clearly differentiated between simple renal cysts and other renal masses. On spin echo images, the simple renal cyst appeared as a round or slightly oval, homogeneous low-intensity mass with characteristically long T1 and T2 values. The thickness of the cyst wall was not measurable. The cyst had a smooth outer margin and a distict, sharp interface with normal parenchyma. Hemorrhagic cysts were seen as high-intensity lesions. Renal cell carcinomas displayed a wide range of intensity. The T1 and T2 values of the tumors were always different from those of the surrounding renal parenchyma. Tumor pseudocapsule was identified in four of five patients examined. All carcinomas were accurately staged by NMR and extension of the tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava was demonstrated. The authors predict that if these preliminary results are confirmed by data from a larger number of patients, NMR will play a significant role in renal imaging.

  4. Multiple Renal and Splenic Lesions in Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Manaka; Kodama, Yuichi; Miyazono, Akinori; Seki, Shunji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-09-21

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Atypical clinical presentations of CSD include prolonged fever and multiple hepatosplenic lesions. Furthermore, multiple renal lesions are extremely rare in CSD. An 11-year-old Japanese girl presented at our hospital with a prolonged fever of unknown cause after being scratched and bitten by a kitten. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small, round hypodense lesions in both kidneys and the spleen. Based on her history and the CT results, her diagnosis was CSD. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological tests, which indicated antibodies against B. henselae. After treatment with azithromycin, her fever immediately improved. Careful history taking and imaging are essential for the diagnosis of atypical CSD. In CT images, not only hepatosplenic lesions but also renal lesions are important features indicative of a diagnosis of atypical CSD. Subsequently, a diagnosis of CSD can be confirmed by specific serological tests. This is the first reported Japanese case of multiple renal and splenic lesions in a patient with CSD. Although difficult to diagnose, an early diagnosis atypical CSD and appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications and the need for invasive examinations.

  5. Renal vascular lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Katz, S M; Korn, S; Umlas, S L; DeHoratius, R J

    1990-01-01

    In the past, necrotizing vasculitis has been considered to be one of the dominant intrarenal vascular abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To test the validity of this statement, 70 consecutive renal biopsies from patients with SLE were reviewed. Light microscopy (LM) and immunofluorescence (IF) studies documented abnormalities, including thrombosis and nephrosclerosis, in 30 patients (43 percent), but no cellular infiltration of the vessel walls or other evidence of acute necrotizing vasculitis was seen. It is concluded that while intrarenal vasculopathy with thrombosis and nephrosclerosis is a common finding in SLE, our data and recently published studies suggest that acute necrotizing vasculitis occurs rarely, if at all, in SLE nephritis.

  6. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of maxillofacial lesions in renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to describe the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of maxillofacial lesions in renal osteodystrophy. We retrospectively reviewed the CT and MR imaging of maxillofacial region in 9 patients (6 females and 3 males with mean age of 31 yr) with renal osteodystrophy. They presented with facial swelling (n = 6), facial disfigurement (n = 2), and oral cavity mass (n = 1). They underwent CT and MR imaging of the maxillofacial region. Brown tumors (n = 6) were seen in the mandible (n = 4) and maxilla (n = 2). They appeared as mixed lytic and sclerotic (n = 4) and sclerotic (n = 2) lesions at CT. The lesions appeared as hypointense at T1-weighted images and of mixed signal intensity at T2-weighted images with intense contrast enhancement (n = 6). Uremic leontiasis ossea (n = 2) appeared at CT as diffuse hyperostosis with protruded maxilla and obliterated sinus. At MR imaging, there was expansion of the maxilla with obliteration of the maxillary sinuses and protrusion of the mandible. The lesion exhibited low signal intensity at T1-weighed images. At T2-weighted images, the lesion showed low signal intensity with small hyperintense lesions. Dystrophic calcification (n = 2) was seen in the parotid and the check. We concluded that CT and MR imaging are helpful for diagnosis and treatment planning of maxillofacial lesions of patients with renal osteodystrophy.

  7. INTERPRETING SPONTANEOUS RENAL LESIONS IN SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interpreting Spontaneous Renal Lesions in Safety and Risk Assessment
    Douglas C. Wolf, D.V.M., Ph.D.

    Introduction

    Risk assessment is a process whereby the potential adverse health effects from exposure to a xenobiotic are predicted after evaluation of the availab...

  8. [Skin lesions in chronic renal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Peres, Luis Alberto Batista; Passarini, Sandra Regina; Branco, Michele Ferreira de Barros Tocollini; Kruger, Luci Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal disorders are the most common problems in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The dialysis prolongs the life expectancy, giving time of these changes to manifest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatologic problems among patients with chronic renal disease (CRD) undergoing hemodialysis. One hundred forty-five patients with chronic renal disease undergoing hemodialysis were studied. All patients were thoroughly examined for skin changes, hair, nails and mucous membranes by a single examiner and laboratory tests were assessed. The data were stored in a database Microsoft Excel and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables the chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. The study included 145 patients, mean age of 53.6 ± 14.7 years, predominantly male (64.1%) and caucasian (90.0%). The average time of dialysis was 43.3 ± 42.3 months. The main underlying diseases were: hypertension in 33.8%, diabetes mellitus in 29.6% and chronic glomerulonephritis in 13.1% of the patients. The main dermatologic manifestations observed were: xerosis in 109 (75.2%), ecchymosis in 87 (60.0%), pruritus in 78 (53.8%) and lentigo in 33 (22.8%) patients. Our study showed the presence of more than one alteration per patient. Cutaneous alterations are frequent in patients on dialysis. Further studies are needed to better characterization and management of these dermatosis.

  9. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of unclear solid renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rübenthaler, J; Paprottka, K; Marcon, J; Hameister, E; Hoffmann, K; Joiko, N; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of unclear renal lesions to the histopathological outcome. A total of 36 patients with a single unclear solid renal lesion with initial imaging studies between 2005 and 2015 were included. CEUS and MRI were used for determining malignancy or benignancy and initial findings were correlated with the histopathological outcome. Out of the 36 renal masses a total of 28 lesions were malignant (77.8%) and 8 were found to be benign (22.2%). Diagnostic accuracy was testes by using the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. CEUS showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88,9%. MRI showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 75.0%, a PPV of 93.1% and a NPV of 85.7%. Out of the 28 malignant lesions a total of 18 clear cell renal carcinomas, 6 papillary renal cell carcinomas and 4 other malignant lesions, e.g. metastases, were diagnosed. Out of the 8 benign lesions a total 3 angiomyolipomas, 2 oncocytomas, 1 benign renal cyst and 2 other benign lesions, e.g. renal adenomas were diagnosed. Using CEUS, 1 lesion was falsely identified as benign. Using MRI, 2 lesions were falsely identified as benign and 1 lesion was falsely identified as malignant. CEUS is an useful method which can be additionally used to clinically differentiate between malignant and benign renal lesions. CEUS shows a comparable sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV to MRI. In daily clinical routine, patients with contraindications for other imaging modalities can particularly benefit using this method.

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cystic renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Balyemez, Fikret; Aslan, Ahmet; Inan, Ibrahim; Ayaz, Ercan; Karagöz, Vildan; Özkanli, Sıdıka Şeyma; Acar, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to introduce the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for distinguishing benign and malignant renal cystic masses. Methods: Abdominal DWI-MRIs of patients with Bosniak categories 2F, 3, and 4 cystic renal masses were evaluated retrospectively. Cystic masses were assigned as benign or malignant according to histopathological or followup MRI findings and compared with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Results: There were 30 patients (18 males and 12 females, mean age was 59.23 ± 12.08 years [range 38–83 years]) with cystic renal masses (eight Bosniak category 2F, 12 Bosniak category 3, 10 Bosniak category 4). Among them, 14 cysts were diagnosed as benign and 16 as malignant by followup imaging or histopathological findings. For the malignant lesions, the mean ADC values were lower than for benign lesions (p=0.001). An ADC value of ≤2.28 ×10−6 mm2/s or less had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 92.86% for detecting malignancy. Conclusions: ADC can improve the diagnostic performance of MRI in the evaluation of complex renal cysts when used together with conventional MRI sequences. PMID:28163806

  11. Diphenylamine-induced renal lesions in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, F; Fella, A; Pota, A

    1978-01-01

    Chronic intoxication with diphenylamine (DPA), which causes a cystic kidney disease in the rat and the guinea-pig, caused degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium in the chicken. This was similar to but much more serious than that preceding the formation of cysts in the rodents, but did not actually result in cyst formation, probably because of the high mortality rate observed in the birds even at this early stage. In the chicken until now it had been possible to obtain a pattern of renal cysts only with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) which also induce the "chick oedema" syndrome. The renal lesions due to DPA in the chicken were similar to those produced by PCB, but were not accompanied by oedema, which suggests that "chick oedema" caused by PCB is not due to renal insufficiency. The differences in the renal lesions noted in the various animal species give credit to the hypothesis that DPA may have two effects on the tubular epitelium, one stimulating cell proliferation and one leading to degeneration. Cysts may be formed only in those species in which there is cell proliferation.

  12. Renal lesions in leprosy amongst north Indian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, K. S.; Damle, P. B.; Kaur, S.; Sharma, B. K.; Kumar, B.; Sakhuja, V.; Nath, I. V.; Datta, B. N.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty consecutive patients with leprosy were investigated for renal involvement. Clinically overt renal disease was present in 4 patients; 3 presented with a nephrotic state and one patient with progressive renal failure. Urinalysis showed daily protein loss ranging from 0.4 to 8.9 g in 8 patients and microscopic haematuria in 4 cases. Elevated levels of blood urea and creatinine were seen only in one patient with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Of the 36 patients in whom distal tubular functions were evaluated, concentration and/or acidification defects were detected in 9 patients (25%). Renal histology revealed no abnormality in any of these patients. Serum C3 levels were decreased in 5 patients with lepromatous leprosy and 3 patients with borderline leprosy. Histological evidence of renal involvement was detected in 9 patients (15%). Amyloid deposits were seen in 3 (5%) patients of whom 2 had lepromatous leprosy and one had tuberculoid leprosy with chronic trophic ulcers. Mesangial proliferative lesions were seen in 5 (8.3%) and diffuse proliferative lesions (with crescents in more than 70% of glomeruli) in one patient. All of them had lepromatous leprosy. Three of the 5 patients with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis had erythema nodosum leprosum at the time of biopsy. Immunofluorescence studies revealed granular deposits of IgA, IgM and C3 in one patient with mesangial proliferation and IgA/IgM with or without C3 in 3 more patients in whom renal histology was normal. Glomerulonephritis associated with leprosy appears to be immune mediated but confirmation requires identification of lepra antigen in the glomerular immune complex deposits. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6647188

  13. [Immunological features of renal lesion in chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Tarasova, N S; Beloborodova, E I

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and sixty males whose mean age was 42 years were examined. Of them there were 122 patients with stage II chronic alcoholism (CA), 92 with renal lesion following the type of chronic glomerulonephritis (CG) (Group 1); 30 patients with CA without renal lesion (Group 2), and 42 patients had CG alone (Group 3). Methods that characterize humoral immunity were used. These included detection of circulating immune complexes (CIC) by polyethylene glycol precipitation, measurement of the concentrations of IgA, IgM, and IgG by the Mancini radial immunodiffusion assay, detection DNA antibodies by the Farre test modified by V. V. Koshelev, that of serum anticomplement activity, measurement of the levels of complement by its hemolytic activity, determination of the activity of the lysosomal enzymes acid RNAase, acid DNAase, and cathepsin by the procedure of A. A. Pokrovsky et al. Complex estimation of the content of CIC, immunoglobulins, DNA antibodies and the activity of the lysosomal enzymes in patients with renal lesion makes it possible to evaluate the severity of a pathological process and to make its prognosis.

  14. Inclusion of renal vascular lesions in the 2003 ISN/RPS system for classifying lupus nephritis improves renal outcome predictions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Hua; Yu, Feng; Tan, Ying; Qu, Zhen; Chen, Meng-Hua; Wang, Su-Xia; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2013-04-01

    The 2003 International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) pathological classification system of lupus nephritis specified the importance of vascular damage and indicated this should be included in the diagnostic summary. Few pathological studies of lupus nephritis, however, focus on the patterns of renal vascular involvement. Here we assessed renal vascular lesions in lupus nephritis based on the 2003 ISN/RPS classification system and evaluated their association with clinical and pathological data in a large cohort from a single center in China. Among 341 patients with lupus nephritis, 279 were diagnosed with single or multiple renal vascular lesions that included 253 with vascular immune complex deposits, 82 with atherosclerosis, 60 with thrombotic microangiopathy, 13 with noninflammatory necrotizing vasculopathy, and 2 with true renal vasculitis. Patients with thrombotic microangiopathy had the poorest renal outcome. In multivariate Cox hazard analysis after inclusion of renal vascular lesions, the new chronicity index score became a significantly better independent risk factor for renal outcome (hazard ratio 2.32). Thus, renal vascular lesions are common in lupus nephritis and closely correlate with clinical disease activity and renal outcome. Inclusion of a detailed description of renal vascular lesions in the ISN/RPS classification of lupus nephritis may strengthen its predictive value for renal outcome.

  15. Accuracy of radionuclide imaging in distinguishing renal masses from normal variants

    SciTech Connect

    Older, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.; Cleeve, D.M.; Cleeve, L.K.; Sullivan, D.; Webster, G.D.

    1980-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of scintigraphy in distinguishing true renal masses from normal variants, 40 patients with excretory urographic findings indicating a possible, but not definite, mass lesion were studied. Scintigraphy correctly identified 17 true masses and 17 normal variants. Four false positive and two false negative results were obtained.

  16. [Biochemical evaluation of renal lesions produced by electrohydraulic shock waves].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Vela, L; Abadia Bayona, T; Lazaro Castillo, J; Guallar Labrador, A; Rioja Sanz, C; Rioja Sanz, L A

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a biochemical study of the renal lesions produced during extracorporeal electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The sequential variation (before and after ESWL) of various biochemical parameters of the blood and 24-hour urine was analysed in 50 patients. A significant increase of urinary N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase (NAG), urinary NAG/urinary creatinine quotient, proteinuria, serum creatinine and potassium was detected during the 24 hours following ESWL. A significant fall in creatinine clearance, urinary osmolarity and uric acid clearance was also detected. A positive correlation was observed between these alterations, the number of shocks and the kilovoltage used. On the 7th and 15th days, no significant difference was observed compared to the baseline values before ESWL. This can be explained by the fact that the lesions caused by shock waves are already in the repair phase.

  17. Renal imaging: a comparison of radionuclide, ultrasound, and computed tomographic scanning in investigation of renal space-occupying lesions.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, P H; Osborn, D E; Testa, H J; Asbury, D L; Best, J J; Barnard, R J

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out in which 27 and 23 patients respectively with renal space-occupying lesions were assessed by different techniques and the results compared. Instead of proceeding to renal arteriography after the lesion had been found on urography, radionuclide and ultrasound scanning were used in the first study to clarify the nature of the lesions, while in the second study computed tomography was used as well. Results were good with all three methods, although ultrasonography and radionuclide scanning cannot resolve lesions of under 2 cm in diameter and the radiation dose with computed tomography is similar to that used in renal arteriography. Probably the best method of evaluating renal space-occupying lesions after urography is to use both ultrasound and radionuclide scanning. If further information is required computed tomography or arteriography is indicated. PMID:6781661

  18. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and a renal mass: renal cell carcinoma, renal tuberculosis, renal malakoplakia, or xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis?

    PubMed

    Chandrankunnel, Joseph; Cunha, Burke A; Petelin, Andrew; Katz, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Often patients with fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) present with loss of appetite, weight loss, and night sweats, without localizing signs. Some are found to have a renal mass during diagnostic evaluation. In patients with FUOs and a renal mass, the differential diagnosis includes renal tuberculosis, renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma), renal malakoplakia, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A 68-year-old woman presented with an FUO during her diagnostic workup. She manifested an irregularly enlarged kidney on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, as well as a highly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate of more than 100 mm/hour, an elevated serum ferritin level, and chronic thrombocytosis, which favored a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Renal malakoplakia and renal tuberculosis comprised further differential diagnostic considerations. Microscopic hematuria may be present with any of the disorders in the differential diagnosis, but was absent in this case. An abdominal CT scan was suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Because of concerns regarding renal cell carcinoma, the patient received a nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, without renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Percutaneous cryoablation of renal lesions with radiographic ice ball involvement of the renal sinus: analysis of hemorrhagic and collecting system complications.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Michael D; Kim, Charles Y; Tsivian, Matvey; Suberlak, Matthew N; Sopko, David R; Polascik, Thomas J; Nelson, Rendon C

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of collecting system and hemorrhagic complications resulting from CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors in which the radiographic ice ball abuts or involves the renal sinus. From November 2005 through July 2009 at our institution, we performed 129 CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation procedures on 107 patients (mean age, 64 years) with renal masses suspicious of being renal cell carcinoma. Radiographic ice balls that abutted or overlapped the renal sinus were classified as central; the other lesions were classified as noncentral. Medical records and follow-up images were retrospectively reviewed for hemorrhage requiring intervention and for evidence of collecting system injury. The mean follow-up period was 9.3 months. The radiographic ice ball was classified as central in 67 cases. In these central ablations, the mean sinus involvement was 6.2 mm (range, 0-19 mm), 41 ice balls overlapping the renal sinus by 6 mm or more (mean, 9.4 mm). No cases of collecting system injury were identified for any ablation. Overall, there was only one hemorrhagic complication requiring intervention, and it occurred in a noncentral ablation. CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal masses with ice ball overlap of the renal sinus resulted in no cases of collecting system injury or serious hemorrhagic complications in our series.

  20. Imaging the renal mass: a historical review.

    PubMed

    McClennan, Bruce L

    2014-11-01

    A matter of months after Roentgen's landmark discovery in 1895, Roentgen's rays were focused on diseases and disorders of the urinary tract, specifically the kidney. At the dawn of the 20th century, urologists in the United States and around the world quickly recognized that by using a variety of metal stylets and radiopaque contrast agents, such as silver salts, the upper urinary tract, namely the ureter, pelvis, and calyces, could be depicted with radiography. Renal cysts and tumors were diagnosed on the basis of deformities in the kidney. Retrograde pyelography dominated the imaging evaluation of the kidney until the discovery of a safe intravenous method for urinary tract imaging (ie, intravenous pyelography). Pioneers and pathfinders in the field of contrast media development and radiologic procedures helped give radiologists the lead role in the work-up of renal masses, an area where urologists once held forth. The subspecialty of uroradiology was born in the middle of the 20th century. Intravenous urography, nephrotomography, and diagnostic angiography with pharmacologic manipulation followed by cyst or mass puncture and biopsy yielded unrivaled specificity for the diagnosis and staging of benign and malignant renal masses. The advent of cross-sectional and multiplanar imaging and the profound effects they had and continue to have on the discovery and characterization of renal masses has been detailed in the pages of Radiology since the 1920s. Ultrasonography, nuclear imaging, computed tomographic scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography each have made a claim to a part of the imaging algorithm of modern uroradiologic practice.

  1. Management of incidental renal masses: Time to consider contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Di Vece, Francesca; Tombesi, Paola; Ermili, Francesca; Sartori, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Proliferation of imaging studies for different clinical purposes and continuous improvement of imaging technology have led to an increasing number of incidental findings of renal masses. It is estimated that over 50% of patients older than 50 years have at least one renal mass. The majority of incidental renal masses are simple cysts that can be easily diagnosed by conventional ultrasonography. However, some incidental renal masses are not simple cysts, and differentiation between benign and malignant entities requires further imaging modalities. In the past, multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were considered the primary imaging modalities used to characterize and stage complex cystic and solid renal lesions. Currently, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography represents a novel alternative to contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography employs microbubble contrast agents that allow the study of different enhancement phases of the kidney without risk of nephrotoxicity and radiation exposure. The diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of complex renal cysts is comparable to that of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and several studies have demonstrated its reliability also in identifying solid lesions such as pseudotumors, typical angiomyolipomas, and clear cell renal carcinomas. Considering the high incidence of incidental renal masses and the need for rapid and reliable diagnosis, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography could be proposed as the first step in the diagnostic work-up of renal masses because of its safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for the characterization of cystic and solid renal masses.

  2. Renal masses presenting 25 and 50 years following blunt renal trauma.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, R S; Issa, M M; Kabalin, J N; Terris, M K

    1998-10-01

    The long-term consequences of blunt renal trauma are not well described. We report on 2 patients with a history of blunt renal trauma who presented with radiographically detected renal masses suspicious for renal tumor. Both patients suffered blows to the kidney during boxing matches followed by flank pain and hematuria. The injuries occurred 25 and 50 years prior to the detection of renal masses. Subsequent nephrectomy and histopathological evaluation revealed benign dystrophic renal tissue. These presentations represent probable long-term sequelae of blunt renal trauma.

  3. A type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma presenting as an intracystic necrotic lesion: A case report

    PubMed Central

    FU, ZHENYU; SUN, LIGUO; HUANG, YUHUA; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, ZICHAO; WANG, LIJUN; WANG, SHENGYU; ZHANG, GE

    2013-01-01

    Papillary renal carcinoma (papillary RCC) is a histological subtype of the renal carcinoma, which in turn, has two morphological subtypes that correlate with prognosis. The present study reported an unexpected finding of type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (papillary RCC) presenting intracystic necrosis cavity. A cystic renal lesion was identified incidentally in a 66-year-old man during an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan performed for the evaluation of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Subsequent contrast material-enhanced CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination labeled the mass as category III degree on the basis of the Bosniak classification scheme. Surgical exploration by laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed to determine the diagnosis. Definitive pathological study confirmed a type 2 papillary RCC with an intracystic necrosis cavity. To the best of our knowledge, this case demonstrated for the first time a cavity within a papillary RCC, supporting the hypothesis that type 2 papillary RCC could develop cavity avascular necrosis during its cystic degeneration. PMID:24649168

  4. Radiologic Evaluation of Small Renal Masses (I): Pretreatment Management

    PubMed Central

    Marhuenda, A.; Martín, M. I.; Deltoro, C.; Santos, J.; Rubio Briones, Jose

    2008-01-01

    When characterizing a small renal mass (SRM), the main question to be answered is whether the mass represents a surgical or nonsurgical lesion or, in some cases, if followup studies are a reasonable option. Is this a task for a urologist or a radiologist? It is obvious that in the increasing clinical scenario where this decision has to be made, both specialists ought to work together. This paper will focus on the principles, indications, and limitations of ultrasound, CT, and MRI to characterize an SRM in 2008 with a detailed review of relevant literature. Special emphasis has been placed on aspects regarding the bidirectional information between radiologists and urologists needed to achieve the best radiological approach to an SRM. PMID:19343187

  5. The characterization of small hypoattenuating renal masses on contrast-enhanced CT☆

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neesha S.; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J.; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Qayyum, Aliya; Jin, Hua; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine if small hypoattenuating renal masses can be characterized as simple cysts or renal cell carcinomas on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods We retrospectively identified 20 small (≤1.5 cm) hypoattenuating renal masses seen on contrast enhanced CT, consisting of 14 simple cysts and six renal cell carcinomas. Three independent readers recorded subjective visual impression (five-point scale from 1=definitely fluid to 5=definitely solid), CT attenuation, border (well circumscribed or ill defined), and shape (ovoid or irregular) for each lesion. Results The overall area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for subjective visual impression, CT attenuation, border, and shape were 0.97, 0.82, 0.59, and 0.55, respectively. Using dichotomized ratings (1–2=cyst and 3–5=carcinoma), subjective impression had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 79–100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Using a threshold of 50 Hounsfield Units (HU) or more, CT attenuation had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 43–64%, respectively. Conclusion Small hypoattenuating renal masses can be characterized with reasonable accuracy by subjective impression and CT attenuation; lesions that appear solid on visual inspection or have an attenuation value of 50 HU or more are likely to be renal cell carcinoma. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:19559352

  6. Computer-Aided Detection of Exophytic Renal Lesions on Non-Contrast CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Renal lesions are important extracolonic findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). They are difficult to detect on non-contrast CTC images due to low image contrast with surrounding objects. In this paper, we developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis system to detect a subset of renal lesions, exophytic lesions, by 1) exploiting efficient belief propagation to segment kidneys, 2) establishing an intrinsic manifold diffusion on kidney surface, 3) searching for potential lesion-caused protrusions with local maximum diffusion response, and 4) exploring novel shape descriptors, including multi-scale diffusion response, with machine learning to classify exophytic renal lesions. Experimental results on the validation dataset with 167 patients revealed that manifold diffusion significantly outperformed conventional shape features (p < 1e − 3) and resulted in 95% sensitivity with 15 false positives per patient for detecting exophytic renal lesions. Five-fold cross-validation also demonstrated that our method could stably detect exophytic renal lesions. These encouraging results demonstrated that manifold diffusion is a key means to enable accurate computer-aided diagnosis of renal lesions. PMID:25189363

  7. Endovascular Management of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis: Post-Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions Era Winner or False Alarm?

    PubMed Central

    Karanikola, Evridiki; Karaolanis, Georgios; Galyfos, George; Barbaressos, Emmanuel; Palla, Viktoria; Filis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is frequently associated with severe comorbidities such as reduced renal perfusion, hypertension, and end-stage renal failure. In approximately 90% of patients, renal artery atherosclerosis is the main cause for RAS, and it is associated with an increased risk for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular and renal complications. Endovascular management of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS) has been recently evaluated by several randomized controlled trials that failed to demonstrate benefit of stenting. Furthermore, the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions study did not demonstrate any benefit over the revascularization approach. In this review, we summarized the available data from retrospective, prospective and randomized trials on ARAS to provide clinicians with sufficient data in order to produce useful conclusions for everyday clinical practice. PMID:28377906

  8. Kidney function outcomes following thermal ablation of small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Jay D; Jafri, Syed M; Qi, David

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of small renal masses (SRMs) continues to increase likely attributable to widespread use of axial cross-sectional imaging. Many of these SRMs present in elderly patients with abnormal baseline renal function. Such patients are at risk for further decline following therapeutic intervention. Renal thermal ablation presents one approach for management of SRMs whereby tumors are treated in situ without need for global renal ischemia. These treatment characteristics contribute to favorable renal function outcomes following kidney tumor ablation particularly in patients with an anatomic or functional solitary renal unit. PMID:27152264

  9. Focal therapy in the management of small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Maria del Pilar; Zondervan, Patricia J; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2012-09-01

    Focal therapy has gained attention in the treatment of small renal masses. However its use is encased by scarce data on long-term outcomes and low evidence regarding perioperative complications. Our purpose is to review the emerging data in the past 18 months. Population US-based studies show steady increase in the use of thermal ablation. Clinical series and comprehensive reviews support safety and mid/long-term efficacy. Comparative studies and meta-analysis outlined oncological inferiority against partial nephrectomy in local tumor control. There are profound demographic and tumor differences between patients treated by one or another. Complication rate is lower after ablation but the lack of standard reporting weakens conclusions on this point. Generalizable cost-benefit studies are yet missed. Clinical and basic research aims to diminish radiological associated burden, improving lesion targeting and developing new energy-based technologies. Data confirm acceptable outcomes of focal therapy in the small renal masses treatment.Although these are inferior in terms of local control compared with partial nephrectomy, patients and tumor characteristics differ between treatments.Current data remain of low evidence but for some meta-analysis. Preliminary reports suggest the possibility to decrease radiation burden and bipolar radiofrequency and photodynamic therapy as focus of future interest.

  10. Targeted expression of a dominant-negative EGF-R in the kidney reduces tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury.

    PubMed

    Terzi, F; Burtin, M; Hekmati, M; Federici, P; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Friedlander, G

    2000-07-01

    The role of EGF in the evolution of renal lesions after injury is still controversial. To determine whether the EGF expression is beneficial or detrimental, we generated transgenic mice expressing a COOH-terminal-truncated EGF-R under the control of the kidney-specific type 1 gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase promoter. As expected, the transgene was expressed exclusively at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells. Under basal conditions, transgenic mice showed normal renal morphology and function. Infusion of EGF to transgenic animals revealed that the mutant receptor behaved in a dominant-negative manner and prevented EGF-signaled EGF-R autophosphorylation. We next evaluated the impact of transgene expression on the development of renal lesions in two models of renal injury. After 75% reduction of renal mass, tubular dilations were less severe in transgenic mice than in wild-type animals. After prolonged renal ischemia, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. The beneficial effect of the transgene included a reduction of tubular cell proliferation, interstitial collagen accumulation, and mononuclear cell infiltration. In conclusion, functional inactivation of the EGF-R in renal proximal tubular cells reduced tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury. These data suggest that blocking the EGF pathway may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce the progression of chronic renal failure.

  11. Renal Masses With Equivocal Enhancement at CT: Characterization With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Cicero, Calogero; Perrone, Rosaria; Degrassi, Ferruccio; Cacciato, Francesca; Cova, Maria A

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to retrospectively investigate in two radiology centers the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the characterization of renal masses with equivocal enhancement at CT (i.e., with a density increase of 10-20 HU between unenhanced and contrast-enhanced scans) not characterized with conventional ultrasound modes. Forty-seven renal lesions (range, 0.8-7.7 cm; average, 2.6 cm) with equivocal enhancement at CT underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound using sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles. Examinations were digitally recorded for retrospective blinded evaluation by two radiologists with 20 and 10 years' experience in urologic imaging. Histologic results were available for 30 of 47 (64%) lesions (25 primary malignant tumors, two metastases, and three primary benign lesions). Two lesions increased in size and complexity during the follow-up and were considered malignant. One Bosniak category III and 14 category IIF cysts were stable after a follow-up of at least 3 years and were considered benign. ROC curve analysis was used to assess the capability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Twelve likely complex cystic lesions at gray-scale ultrasound were cystic also on contrast-enhanced ultrasound and reference procedures. Eleven of 34 lesions that appeared solid at gray-scale ultrasound were cystic on contrast-enhanced ultrasound and reference procedures. One lesion considered likely solid by one radiologist and possibly cystic by the other was a solid tumor at contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histologic analysis. The diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound to characterize the lesions as benign or malignant was high for both readers (AUC, 0.958 and 0.966, respectively). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is effective for characterizing renal lesions presenting with equivocal enhancement at CT.

  12. Evaluation of indeterminate renal masses with contrast-enhanced US: a diagnostic performance study.

    PubMed

    Barr, Richard G; Peterson, Cynthia; Hindi, Ammar

    2014-04-01

    To determine the utility of contrast material-enhanced ultrasonography (US) in the characterization of indeterminate renal masses. This retrospective performance study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant, with waiver of informed consent. Patients included 721 individuals referred for contrast-enhanced US with 1018 indeterminate renal masses from 1999 to 2010, identified initially with an imaging study. Three hundred twenty patients (44.4%) were female, and 401 (55.6%) were male. Patient ages ranged from 17 to 95 years (mean ± standard deviation, 70 years ± 15). Lesion size varied from 2 to 161 mm (mean, 26.6 mm ± 19.5). Contrast-enhanced US enhancement patterns were used to characterize masses as benign or malignant. For lesions with a definitive diagnosis, 306 of 1018 (30.0%) were correlated with contrast-enhanced US findings: 167 (54.6%) were benign, and 139 (45.4%) were malignant. For lesions without a pathologic diagnosis, 712 (70.0%) were followed for as long as 10 years. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated by using pathologic diagnosis as the reference standard, as well as lesion stability at 3 and 5 years. Contrast-enhanced US had a sensitivity of 100% (126 of 126; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.1%, 100%), specificity of 95.0% (132 of 139; 95% CI: 89.9%, 98.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.7% (126 of 133), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (132 of 132). The five false-positive masses included three oncocytomas and two Bosniak category 3 cystic lesions. Of the 290 lesions that had follow-up of at least 36 months, none of the lesions demonstrated changes that necessitated lesion reclassification. If these lesions were included, assuming lesions classified as malignant were malignant, then of the 596 lesions, sensitivity was 100% (161 of 161), specificity was 96.6% (420 of 435), PPV was 91.5% (161 of 176), and NPV was 100% (420 of 420). Contrast-enhanced US evaluation is a highly sensitive and

  13. Renal biopsies for small renal masses. For whom, when and how.

    PubMed

    Stakhovsky, Oleksandr; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Yap, Stanley A; Finelli, Antonio; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Lenoir, Stéphane; Strauss, Christiane; Validire, Pierre; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective of this manuscript is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives in kidney biopsies in small renal masses (BSRM). A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding BSRM. A literature research of English, French and Spanish languages was performed using the Pubmed database from 2000 to February 2012 using the terms renal mass biopsy and renal tumor biopsy. Manuscripts providing a highest level of evidence were selected for the review.Clinical experience from author's Institutions is also reflected in the manuscript. Considerable technical advances have been made in imaging over the last decade. The latter allow for a comprehensive sharp diagnosis of small renal masses (SRM). Therapeutic decision for SRM's is supported by objective knowledge of histological features and renal biopsy represents an accurate and safe option to particularize treatment in renal incidentalomas. Furthermore, renal biopsies are incorporated in the application and follow-up of patients undergoing ablative therapies. An important number of clinical reports have been published in the subject but there is lack of technical standardization. The available experience is limited to referral centers and there are still up to 30% of biopsies that fail to provide clear diagnosis. Renal biopsies have significantly improved in its diagnostic accuracy and it is indicated when tissue diagnosis can change the therapeutic approach of SRM's. Meantime, the role of renal biopsies keeps on growing and limitations of the procedure are less when compared to the benefits it provides.

  14. Bosniak classification of renal cystic lesions according to multidetector computed tomography findings*

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha; Maranhão, Carol Pontes de Miranda; dos Santos, Carla Jotta Justo; Padilha, Igor Gomes; de Farias, Lucas de Pádua Gomes; da Rocha, Milzi Sarmento

    2014-01-01

    Renal cystic lesions are usually diagnosed in the radiologists’ practice and therefore their characterization is crucial to determine the clinical approach to be adopted and prognosis. The Bosniak classification based on computed tomography findings has allowed for standardization and categorization of lesions in increasing order of malignancy (I, II, IIF, III and IV) in a simple and accurate way. The present iconographic essay developed with multidetector computed tomography images of selected cases from the archives of the authors’ institution, is aimed at describing imaging findings that can help in the diagnosis of renal cysts. PMID:25741060

  15. Renal dysplasia characterized by prominent cartilaginous metaplasia lesions in VACTERL association: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Takeo; Hyuga, Taiju; Tanaka, Yukichi; Kawai, Shina; Nakai, Hideo; Niki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Akira

    2017-04-01

    Renal dysplasia is the most important cause of end-stage renal disease in children. The histopathological characteristic of dysplasia is primitive tubules with fibromuscular disorganization. Renal dysplasia often includes metaplastic cartilage. Metaplastic cartilage in renal dysplasia has been explained as occurring secondary to vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Additionally, renal dysplasia is observed in renal dysplasia-associated syndromes, which are combinations of multiple developmental malformations and include VACTERL association. We observed the following multiple developmental malformations in a 108-day-old male infant during a nephrectomy: a nonfunctioning right kidney with VUR, hemidiaphragmatic eventration, a ventricular septal defect (VSD) with tetralogy of Fallot in the heart, cryptorchidism, and hyperdactylia. These developmental anomalies satisfied the diagnostic criteria for VACTERL association. A surgical specimen of the right nonfunctioning kidney revealed prominent cartilaginous metaplasia in the renal dysplasia with VUR. The densities of the ectopic cartilaginous lesions in this nonfunctioning kidney were extraordinarily high compared with other renal dysplasia cases. Giemsa banding of his genome produced normal results. The patient has not undergone further detailed genomic investigation. This case might be a novel type of VACTERL association, that is, renal dysplasia combined with prominent cartilaginous metaplasia, tetralogy of Fallot and VSD of the heart, hemidiaphragmatic eventration, and hyperdactylia.

  16. PARP Inhibition Attenuates Histopathological Lesion in Ischemia/Reperfusion Renal Mouse Model after Cold Prolonged Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    del Moral, Raimundo M. G.; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; Aguilar, David; Caballero, Trinidad; Aneiros-Fernández, Jose; Caba-Molina, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Martínez, Mª  Dolores; Peralta, Andreina; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Oliver, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition can decrease acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and other renal lesions related to prolonged cold ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in kidneys preserved at 4°C in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution. Material and Methods. We used 30 male Parp1+/+ wild-type and 15 male Parp10/0 knockout C57BL/6 mice. Fifteen of these wild-type mice were pretreated with 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxyl]-1(2H)-isoquinolinone (DPQ) at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight, used as PARP inhibitor. Subgroups of mice were established (A: IR 45 min/6 h; B: IR + 48 h in UW solution; and C: IR + 48 h in UW solution plus DPQ). We processed samples for morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and western-blotting studies. Results. Prolonged cold ischemia time in UW solution increased PARP-1 expression and kidney injury. Preconditioning with PARP inhibitor DPQ plus DPQ supplementation in UW solution decreased PARP-1 nuclear expression in renal tubules and renal damage. Parp10/0 knockout mice were more resistant to IR-induced renal lesion. In conclusion, PARP inhibition attenuates ATN and other IR-related renal lesions in mouse kidneys under prolonged cold storage in UW solution. If confirmed, these data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of PARP activity may have salutary effects in cold-stored organs at transplantation. PMID:24319370

  17. Loss of heterozygosity at the FLCN locus in early renal cystic lesions in dogs with renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bønsdorff, Tina B; Jansen, Johan H; Thomassen, Ragnar F; Lingaas, Frode

    2009-05-01

    Small, macroscopically visible cysts on the surface of the kidneys were observed in eight 6-8-week-old puppies diagnosed with renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis (RCND). Histologic examination of the renal cortices in these puppies reveals numerous small cystic tubular changes. Hyperplastic change of the epithelial lining of cysts is frequently observed. By laser-capture microdissection we have sampled epithelial cells from such early renal cystic lesions in eight paternal half-sibs diagnosed with RCND. DNA was obtained from the laser-captured material, and all coding exons of the germline-mutated FLCN gene were sequenced to detect putative second hits. Samples from 31 independent hyperplastic epithelial cell sections of tubular microcysts of the RCND siblings were examined as well as normal control samples of the tissue sections. Loss of heterozygosity was detected in 35% of the transformed samples. The frequently observed loss of heterozygosity at the FLCN locus in atypical epithelial cells lining the cysts suggests that loss of heterozygosity/function of the FLCN gene may contribute to neoplastic transformation of renal epithelial cells at a very early age of RCND-affected dogs. The transformed renal epithelial cells seem to grow slowly in young puppies, which indicates that other mutational events are required for the development of tumors in adult dogs.

  18. Cryoablation of small peripheral renal masses: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bradley F; Rewcastle, John C; Powell, Timothy; Whelan, Christopher; Manny, Ted; Vestal, J Clifton

    2006-07-01

    Renal cryoablation is a minimally invasive, nephron-sparing option that has shown promise in the treatment of patients with solitary small renal lesions suspicious for malignancy. Few large clinical studies have used this promising technology, although intermediate-term data are encouraging. We present a retrospective review and report the outcomes of a large cohort of patients who underwent renal cryotherapy. Patients who were candidates for partial nephrectomy with peripheral lesions < or = 5.0 cm in maximum diameter and no history of bleeding disorders were offered cryoablation as definitive therapy. Two freeze-thaw cycles were used for all lesions, and all were characterized by intraoperative ultrasound immediately before freezing. Data were collected as part of standard care, and chart review was performed only in cases of missing data. From February 2001 to March 2005, 85 consecutive patients with an average age of 67 years and a mean tumor size of 2.6 cm (range, 1.2-4.7 cm; median, 2.5 cm), underwent renal cryoablation; 70 procedures were performed laparoscopically. Mean estimated blood loss was 58 mL, with 2 patients requiring transfusion. Mean hospital stay was 3.0 days (range, 0-14 days; median, 2 days) for the entire cohort and 2.2 days (range, 0-7 days; median, 2 days) for the laparoscopic group. A total of 7 laparoscopic cases were converted to an open approach early in the experience, 2 of which were considered technical failures. Mean follow-up was 10 months (range, 3-36 months). Abnormal postoperative enhancement occurred in 2 patients at 3 months and 12 months. Radical nephrectomy in the first revealed no viable tumor; needle biopsy in the second revealed renal cell carcinoma, which prompted nephrectomy. Intraoperative needle biopsy yielded a 59% malignancy rate. We conclude that renal cryotherapy is a viable option for nephron-sparing surgery in small, peripheral renal lesions. The procedure is well tolerated, may be considered in patients who are

  19. Endobronchial non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as mass lesion.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P R; Bhuniya, S; Garg, S; Dimri, K; Janmeja, A K

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with clinical and radiological manifestations of right lung atelectasis and post-obstructive pneumonia. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed gross narrowing of the right upper lobe bronchus and a smooth, white endobronchial mass completely occluding the right lower lobe bronchus. Endobronchial biopsy from the mass lesion yielded low grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This is one of the rarest presentation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  20. Intracranial hypertension secondary to a skull lesion without mass effect.

    PubMed

    Serlin, Yonatan; Benifla, Mony; Kesler, Anat; Cohen, Avi; Shelef, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    We report and discuss five patients with intracranial hypertension due to a skull lesion reducing cerebral sinus patency with a compressive, non-thrombotic mechanism. We illustrate the importance of a high level of suspicion for this condition in patients presenting with headache, papilledema and increased intracranial pressure in the absence of focal signs or radiological evidence of mass effect.

  1. Radiation therapy of lymphoblastic renal masses - benefit or hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Saarinen, U.M.

    1985-05-01

    A child with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and massively enlarged kidneys received a single dose of 300 rad (3 Gy) to the right kidney before initiation of chemotherapy. Measurement of the split renal function with 99m-Tc-DTPA four days postirradiation revealed that the function of the right kidney had substantially deteriorated, suggesting that hazards may be involved with the use of radiation therapy for lymphoblastic renal masses.

  2. Spectrum of Lesions Affecting the Renal Pelvis and Pelviureteric Junction: A 13-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Hema; Suresh, Pooja Kundapur; Guni, Laxman Prabhu Gurupur; Bhat, Shaila; Kini, Jyoti Ramanath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both, the renal pelvis and the ureter, are affected by developmental, reactive and neoplastic disorders, though rare in incidence. Aim This series of cases were analysed to study the clinicopathological characteristics of the common and comparatively rare lesions involving the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction. Materials and Methods A retrospective collection of 476 nephrectomies and pelviureteric junction resections, received over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was done. The patients’ clinical details were obtained and the histopathological findings reviewed. The lesions were classified into non-neoplastic and neoplastic categories. Results Primary involvement of the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction was seen in 105 of 476 specimens. The mean age was 54.5 years with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The non-neoplastic lesions accounted for 76.2% of cases with a majority being pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy (68.6%) causing hydronephrosis. Urothelial carcinomas were encountered in 20% of the cases. A majority of the urothelial carcinomas were infiltrative (81%) and high grade (71%) tumours. Conclusion Renal pelvis, a conduit to propel urine, can be the site for numerous disorders. Non-neoplastic lesions were more common than neoplasms. Pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy was the commonest lesion in our study. In the neoplastic category, urothelial carcinoma was most common. However, rare lesions such as hamartomatous fibroepithelial polyp, Von Brunn’s nests, flat urothelial hyperplasia and intramuscular haemangioma of upper ureter at the pelviureteric junction were encountered along with occasional cases of tuberculosis and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27042468

  3. Role of tissue harmonic imaging in characterization of cystic renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmi; Sandhu, Manavjit S; Lal, Anupam; Sodhi, Kushaljit S; Sud, Kamal; Kohli, Harbir S

    2008-12-01

    To determine the utility of tissue harmonic imaging in evaluating cystic renal lesions and to compare these findings with conventional ultrasound guidance (USG) and CT. Thirty patients, detected with cystic renal lesions on routine USG (over a period of 18 months from July 2004 to December 2005 at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study. All patients underwent a conventional gray scale ultrasound study (GSI), followed by tissue harmonic imaging (THI) sonography on the same machine (advance technology limited high definition imaging 5000). Computed tomography of abdomen was carried out within one week of the ultrasound examinations. All images were evaluated for size, number, and location of lesions. The findings of THI sonography, conventional USG and CT of abdomen were recorded in their respective proformas. The images obtained by GSI, THI, and contrast enhanced CT were also evaluated for image quality, lesion conspicuity, and fluid-solid differentiation. Tissue harmonic imaging showed better image quality in 27 of 34 lesions, improvement in lesion conspicuity was found in 27 of 34 cystic lesions, and an improved solid-fluid differentiation in 30 of 34 lesions when compared to GSI. The THI provided additional information as compared to GSI in 8 patients. The grading of CT scan was significantly higher in overall image quality (p=0.007) and lesion conspicuity (p=0.004), but was non-significant for fluid-solid differentiation (p=0.23). Tissue harmonic imaging provides better image quality, lesion delineation, and superior characterization than conventional gray scale sonography.

  4. Lesson of the month 2: IgG4-related renal mass with spontaneous resolution.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Vijaya B P; Trefor, Rhiannon; Rajamani, Kaushik; Santosh, Divya; Griffiths, David; Donovan, Kieron

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic inflammatory condition that may involve any organ in the body, including the kidneys. However, renal parenchymal lesions are not seen frequently and the treatment strategy remains unclear. We describe a case of IgG4-related renal mass, which resolved spontaneously. The patient presented with right loin pain, constitutional symptoms and raised inflammatory markers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large infiltrative mass centered on the right renal hilum and biopsy demonstrated histological changes in keeping with IgG4-RD. A careful 'watch-and-wait' approach was taken and at six months following initial presentation, the patient's symptoms had fully resolved and inflammatory markers had normalised. Repeat MRI showed almost complete resolution of the mass. We propose that a careful 'watch-and-wait' approach could be considered as an alternative to immune suppression for IgG4-related renal masses, especially if they are not causing symptoms or organ compromise.

  5. Multiple periradicular radiolucencies mimicking endodontic lesions in renal osteodystrophy of the mandible: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jalali, P; Kim, S G

    2016-07-01

    To report a finding of multiple periapical radiolucencies mimicking endodontic lesions in a patient with renal osteodystrophy of the mandible. A 47-year-old woman was referred by her general dentist to the postgraduate endodontic clinic for assessment and root canal treatment of multiple teeth with associated periapical radiolucencies. The patient's medical history included chronic renal failure. All mandibular teeth with periapical radiolucencies except tooth 37 had positive responses to pulp sensibility testing. A diagnosis of pulpal necrosis and associated periapical periodontitis was made on tooth 37, and root canal treatment was carried out. To determine the possible relationship between the patient's renal disease and the multiple periapical radiolucencies, an additional physician consultation and laboratory tests were requested. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was confirmed with the laboratory report showing an elevated level of parathyroid hormone and a normal serum calcium level. Renal osteodystrophy of the mandible caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism was the probable aetiology of the multiple mandibular periapical radiolucencies, and no root canal treatment was required. Key learning points Renal osteodystrophy of the mandible caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism can present as multiple periapical radiolucencies but is a rare finding. Diverse orofacial manifestations such as loss of lamina dura, widening of periodontal ligament and demineralization of bone can be observed in renal osteodystrophy. Thorough clinical and radiographic assessment along with the review of patient's medical history and haematological analysis is essential for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Simple cyst-appearing renal masses at unenhanced CT: can they be presumed to be benign?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Stacy D; Silverman, Stuart G; Ip, Ivan K; Maehara, Cleo K; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-12-01

    To determine renal cancer incidence in simple cyst-appearing renal masses detected at unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Institutional review board approval and an informed consent waiver for this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study were obtained. Patients who had renal masses with homogeneous water attenuation, hairline-thin smooth walls, and no calcifications or septations were identified by applying a validated natural language processing algorithm to radiology reports for 15 695 unique patients who underwent unenhanced abdominal CT at our institution between 2000 and 2005. Reports that included renal masses were selected, then categorized through manual report review as pertaining to simple cyst-appearing renal masses, nonsimple or solid renal masses, or no renal masses. Medical records were reviewed for subsequent renal cancer diagnoses. Patients without renal cancer were evaluated for a minimum of 5 years (mean, 8 years; range, 5-12 years). The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare renal cancer incidence for patients who had simple cyst-appearing renal masses with those who had nonsimple cystic or solid renal masses and those who had no renal masses. Simple cyst-appearing renal masses were identified in 2669 patients (17%), no renal masses in 11844 (75%), and nonsimple cystic or solid renal masses in 1182 (8%). Of 1159 patients with simple cyst-appearing renal masses and a minimum of 5 years of follow-up, six (0.52%) subsequently developed renal cancers, all of which were separate from the simple cyst-appearing renal mass, rather than within it. Of 446 patients with nonsimple or solid renal masses and sufficient follow-up, 50 (11%) developed renal cancer. There was no difference in renal cancer incidence in patients with simple cyst-appearing renal masses versus those without renal masses (P = .54). The incidence of renal cancer was significantly lower in patients with simple cyst-appearing renal masses than that in nonsimple cystic

  7. The Renal Lesion in Angiokeratoma Corporis Diffusum (Fabry's Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, E. W.; Rally, C. R.

    1963-01-01

    Electron microscopic details of the glomerular and tubular lesions in a 26-year-old man with angiokeratoma corporis diffusum are presented. Though unable to concentrate urine above a specific gravity of 1.012, this patient showed preservation of the ability to acidify and alkalinize the urine following oral loads of ammonium chloride (150 mEq./day) and sodium bicarbonate (158 mEq./day) for several days. This observation is in contrast to previously reported findings and suggests that the regularly observed hyposthenuria in this disease does not depend on defects in ion transfer in the distal tubule system. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13953819

  8. Management, pathology and outcomes of Bosniak category IIF and III cystic renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Weibl, Peter; Hora, Milan; Kollarik, Boris; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Klatte, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the management, pathology and outcomes of Bosniak category IIF and III cystic renal lesions. This retrospective study included 85 consecutive patients with Bosniak category IIF and III lesions, who were actively surveilled or surgically treated at three academic urology centers between 2003 and 2012. Outcomes of interest included the rates of cyst progression and pathology. Overall, 27 patients with Bosniak category IIF lesions were initially managed by active surveillance, from which eighteen (67 %) did not progress after a median interval of 64 months, while 9 (33 %) underwent surgery within a median interval of 18 months. There were 58 patients with Bosniak category III lesions, 54 (93 %) of which were managed by surgery. Compared with Bosniak category IIF, Bosniak category III lesions had more frequently proven RCC (64 vs. 30 %, p = 0.005). Of the tumors that underwent surgical extirpation, the T stage, grade (p = 0.65) and subtype distribution (p = 0.36) did not differ between the Bosniak categories. The majority of RCCs were low-stage and low-grade tumors. One patient developed a local recurrence. There were no RCC-specific deaths. As only a minority of Bosniak IIF lesions are malignant and the majority are low-stage and low-grade tumors, initial active surveillance is the standard of care for these lesions. Progressive Bosniak IIF lesions may undergo later RCC treatment without seemingly loosing the window of cure. Bosniak III lesions harbor a high risk of malignancy and should be managed as solid renal tumors according to contemporary guidelines.

  9. African American female with renal failure presenting with skin lesions: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Nejla; Markova, Tsveti

    2009-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a lethal disorder seen in patients with end-stage renal disease and is characterized by painful necrotic skin lesions. The pathophysiology is still unknown. Elevated calcium, phosphorous and parathormone appear to play a role in causing small and medium sized vasculopathy. Diagnosis is delayed, prognosis is poor and mortality remains high. In this article we describe the case of calciphylaxis in a patient with chronic renal failure and multiple medical comorbidities, and discuss diagnostic management, prognosis and treatment options. PMID:19830094

  10. POEMS syndrome with vascular lesions and renal carcinoma - possible role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Pasqui, A L; Bova, G; Saletti, M; Bruni, F; Di Renzo, M; Auteri, A

    1998-06-17

    We describe here the case of a 60 years man with POEMS syndrome associated with renal tumor and vascular lesions. The patient had osteosclerotic myeloma IgA-lambda, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy and skin changes. In addition, he developed renal clear cell carcinoma and gangrena of lower limbs. The humoral study showed thrombocytosis, high levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 and of some coagulative/fibrinolytic and endothelial factors (von Willebrand factor, plasmin-antiplasmine complexes, plasminogen activator). We suggest the hypothesis that these factors are capable of determining some manifestations of POEMS syndrome.

  11. Renal masses in children. An integrated imaging approach to diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, B.J.; Gainey, M.A.; Faerber, E.N.; Capitanio, M.A.

    1985-11-01

    In view of the continuing technologic advancements in the development and availability of diagnostic imaging modalities, it is appropriate to assess periodically the currently accepted approaches to the evaluation of renal masses in children. The roles, advantages, and disadvantages of plain film, intravenous urography, ultrasonography, radionuclide scintigraphy, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the approach to the evaluation of renal masses in children are discussed. An integrated imaging approach that provides the most accurate and necessary information for diagnosis and treatment is recommended. 70 references.

  12. Texture analysis of common renal masses in multiple MR sequences for prediction of pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Uyen N.; Malayeri, Ashkan A.; Lay, Nathan S.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    This pilot study performs texture analysis on multiple magnetic resonance (MR) images of common renal masses for differentiation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Bounding boxes are drawn around each mass on one axial slice in T1 delayed sequence to use for feature extraction and classification. All sequences (T1 delayed, venous, arterial, pre-contrast phases, T2, and T2 fat saturated sequences) are co-registered and texture features are extracted from each sequence simultaneously. Random forest is used to construct models to classify lesions on 96 normal regions, 87 clear cell RCCs, 8 papillary RCCs, and 21 renal oncocytomas; ground truths are verified through pathology reports. The highest performance is seen in random forest model when data from all sequences are used in conjunction, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 83.7%. When using data from one single sequence, the overall accuracies achieved for T1 delayed, venous, arterial, and pre-contrast phase, T2, and T2 fat saturated were 79.1%, 70.5%, 56.2%, 61.0%, 60.0%, and 44.8%, respectively. This demonstrates promising results of utilizing intensity information from multiple MR sequences for accurate classification of renal masses.

  13. APOL1 renal-risk variants associate with reduced cerebral white matter lesion volume and increased gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Bryan, R Nick; Palmer, Nicholette D; Hicks, Pamela J; Ma, Lijun; Rocco, Michael V; Smith, S Carrie; Xu, Jianzhao; Whitlow, Christopher T; Wagner, Benjamin C; Langefeld, Carl D; Hawfield, Amret T; Bates, Jeffrey T; Lerner, Alan J; Raj, Dominic S; Sadaghiani, Mohammad S; Toto, Robert D; Wright, Jackson T; Bowden, Donald W; Williamson, Jeff D; Sink, Kaycee M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Divers, Jasmin

    2016-08-01

    To assess apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk-variant effects on the brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral volumes and cognitive function were assessed in 517 African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) Memory IN Diabetes (MIND) and 2568 hypertensive African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants without diabetes. Within these cohorts, 483 and 197 had cerebral MRI, respectively. AA-DHS participants were characterized as follows: 60.9% female, mean age of 58.6 years, diabetes duration 13.1 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate of 88.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and a median spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 10.0 mg/g. In additive genetic models adjusting for age, sex, ancestry, scanner, intracranial volume, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, statins, nephropathy, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, APOL1 renal-risk-variants were positively associated with gray matter volume (β = 3.4 × 10(-3)) and negatively associated with white matter lesion volume (β = -0.303) (an indicator of cerebral small vessel disease) and cerebrospinal fluid volume (β= -30707) (all significant), but not with white matter volume or cognitive function. Significant associations corresponding to adjusted effect sizes (β/SE) were observed with gray matter volume (0.16) and white matter lesion volume (-0.208), but not with cerebrospinal fluid volume (-0.251). Meta-analysis results with SPRINT Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (MIND) participants who had cerebral MRI were confirmatory. Thus, APOL1 renal-risk-variants are associated with larger gray matter volume and lower white matter lesion volume suggesting lower intracranial small vessel disease.

  14. Age, Gender and R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score do not Improve the Accuracy of a Risk Stratification Algorithm Based on Biopsy and Mass Size for Assigning Surveillance versus Treatment of Renal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takahiro; Hafez, Khaled S; Miller, David C; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Todd M; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Weizer, Alon Z; Caoili, Elaine M; Ellis, James H; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Wolf, J Stuart

    2016-03-01

    A previously published risk stratification algorithm based on renal mass biopsy and radiographic mass size was useful to designate surveillance vs the need for immediate treatment of small renal masses. Nonetheless, there were some incorrect assignments, most notably when renal mass biopsy indicated low risk malignancy but final pathology revealed high risk malignancy. We studied other factors that might improve the accuracy of this algorithm. For 202 clinically localized small renal masses in a total of 200 patients with available R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, hilar tumor touching main renal artery or vein and location relative to polar lines) nephrometry score, preoperative renal mass biopsy and final pathology we assessed the accuracy of management assignment (surveillance vs treatment) based on the previously published risk stratification algorithm as confirmed by final pathology. Logistic regression was used to determine whether other factors (age, gender, R.E.N.A.L. score, R.E.N.A.L. score components and nomograms based on R.E.N.A.L. score) could improve assignment. Of the 202 small renal masses 53 (26%) were assigned to surveillance and 149 (74%) were assigned to treatment by the risk stratification algorithm. Of the 53 lesions assigned to surveillance 25 (47%) had benign/favorable renal mass biopsy histology while in 28 (53%) intermediate renal mass biopsy histology showed a mass size less than 2 cm. Nine of these 53 masses (17%) were incorrectly assigned to surveillance in that final pathology indicated the need for treatment (ie intermediate histology and a mass greater than 2 cm or unfavorable histology). Final pathology confirmed a correct assignment in all 149 masses assigned to treatment. None of the additional parameters assessed improved assignment with statistical significance. Age, gender, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score, R.E.N.A.L. score components and nomograms

  15. Acute Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection induced renal ischemic/reperfusion lesion in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo; da Silva, Tshaca Mahatma; Batista, Wanderson Silva; Franco, Marcello; Schor, Nestor

    2009-12-01

    Experimental acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice promotes an intense myocarditis and other systemic changes. However, the network of pathophysiological disorders and renal injury caused by the infection has not been elucidated. Our previous results with a murine model observed a discrete acute myocarditis and high mortality with significant inflammatory kidney injury with T. cruzi infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of kidney injury caused by the parasite in mice during the experimental acute phase. Results employing BALB/c mice infected with T. cruzi of Y strain showed renal injury on the 6th day postinfection (dpi) caused by a transitory decrease of renal blood flow. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was also observed similar to the model of ischemia/reperfusion lesion in these infected mice. The injury was not related to the presence (or multiplication) of parasites. Only rare nests were microscopically detected, and the presence of scattered parasites in renal parenchyma was seen on the 15th dpi. Thus, it was observed that during the acute phase of the disease, AKI in infected mice is linked to early cardiovascular effects, including heart failure, caused by striking inflammatory lesions in the myocardium, which lead to the high mortality rate of animals.

  16. Benign mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like lesions in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Maike; Kufer, Verena; Brunner, Kathrin; Hartmann, Arndt; Amann, Kerstin; Agaimy, Abbas

    2013-01-01

      Mesenchymal neoplasms of the kidney are rare, and most represent sporadic angiomyolipomas. A few haemangiomas have been reported in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but, to date, no study has focused on the frequency and morphological spectrum of mesenchymal lesions in ESRD.   We evaluated retrospectively 90 nephrectomy specimens with ESRD. Haemangiomas were detected in eight cases (8.8%; six males and two females; mean age: 55 years); four were multifocal and four had concurrent renal epithelial neoplasms. Lesions involved the medulla (three), cortex (two) or both (three), and the size range was 1-25 mm (mean 4.8 mm). Histologically, all were capillary haemangiomas with an at least focally detectable spleen-like anastomosing pattern. All tumours stained positively for CD31 and FLI-1, but none expressed pankeratin (KL-1), podoplanin/D2-40, HHV8 or GLUT-1. Minute angiomyolipomas (mean size 2.3 mm) were detected in four patients (mean age 49.5 years). Tumour-like smooth muscle proliferations were seen surrounding muscular arteries (eight), occasionally admixed with fat extending from the renal sinus mimicking angiomyolipoma. No similar tumours were found in 105 control kidneys.   Benign haemangiomas are not uncommon in ESRD, but may be under-recognized. They display distinctive morphology and should be distinguished from angiosarcomas and capillary-rich renal cell carcinomas. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  17. Congenital capillary proliferation of the kidney: a distinctive renal vascular lesion of childhood.

    PubMed

    Cajaiba, Mariana M; North, Paula E; Gong, Shunyou; Dickman, Paul S; Mroczek-Musulman, Elizabeth; Sauer, David A; Perlman, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-01

    Renal vascular lesions (RVL) are rare, and their morphological spectrum remains largely unknown, particularly in children. In this study, we characterize the clinicopathological features of RVL in a cohort of 12 children. Seven lesions were classified as previously recognized entities: vascular malformations (4), papillary endothelial hyperplasia (2), and pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary hemangioma; 1). An eighth lesion showed nonspecific findings, which were interpreted as reactive during our review. The remaining 4 cases presented either prenatally, at birth, or shortly after birth and were morphologically similar. These were characterized by a peculiar pattern of capillary proliferation with entrapment of native renal structures, variable amounts of extramedullary hematopoiesis and reactive lymphocytes, foci of infarction and hemorrhage, and the presence of feeding and draining vessels at their periphery. To our knowledge, this represents a previously undescribed congenital vascular lesion involving the kidney, which we have descriptively and provisionally termed congenital capillary proliferation of the kidney (CCPK). While it is unclear whether CCPK represents a malformation or neoplastic proliferation, it shows overlapping features with congenital hemangioma of the liver (solitary congenital hepatic hemangioma) and congenital nonprogressive hemangioma (CNH) of the skin and soft tissue, suggesting a possible common pathogenesis among these 3 entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency and type of renal lesions in dogs naturally infected with leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Colin-Flores, R F; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Jiménez-Coello, M

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and type of renal lesions associated with positive titers against Leptospira sp. in a stray dog population. Three hundred fifty pairs of kidneys and an equal number of serum samples were collected from dogs captured by the dog pound of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Euthanasia of dogs was performed following the regulations of the Official Mexican Health Ministry (NOM-033-ZOO-1995). Serum samples were evaluated with the microscopic agglutination test, and tissue samples were processed and fixed in paraffin. After staining with hematoxylin and eosin, the frequency of renal lesions was determined and classified. As an additional evaluation, samples with interstitial nephritis were stained by the Warthin-Starry method in order to observe the presence of spirochete forms that could be morphologically compatible with Leptospira spp. We found that 98% of cases presented at least one type of lesion. The main histological lesions found were mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in 63.7% (n= 223), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis (MPGN+IN) in 34% (n= 119), nephrosclerosis in 0.57% (n= 2), mesangial glomerulonephritis in 0.28% (n= 1), and interstitial nephritis (IN) in 0.28% (n= 1). Thirty-four percent (n= 122) of the dogs were seropositive to Leptospira sp., mainly against serovar canicola. Among dogs with IN (alone or associated with MPGN) (n= 120), 49.1% were seropositive to Leptospira sp., but only 17% of them showed spirochete forms compatible with the bacteria. A statistical association between seropositive dogs and the presence of MPGN+IN was determined (P < 0.0001; odds ratio 2.7, confidence interval 1.7-4.5). We concluded that the frequency of renal lesions found in this study is high and L. canicola is probably the most common circulating serovar in dogs from this area. Dogs that have been in contact with Leptospira spp. have a higher risk of developing renal lesions of

  19. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Dispelling Confusing Pathology Terminology: Recognition and Interpretation of Selected Rodent Renal Tubule Lesions.

    PubMed

    Seely, John Curtis; Frazier, Kendall S

    2015-06-01

    Renal tubule lesions often prove troublesome for toxicologic pathologists because of the diverse nature and interrelated cell types within the kidney and the presence of spontaneous lesions with overlapping morphologies similar to those induced by renal toxicants. Although there are a number of guidance documents available citing straightforward diagnostic criteria of tubule lesions for the pathologist to refer to, most are presented without further advice on the when to or to the why and the why not of diagnosing one lesion over another. Documents presenting diagnostic perspectives and recommendations derived from an author's experience are limited since guidance documents are generally based on descriptive observations. In this Regulatory Forum opinion piece, the authors attempt to dispel confusing renal tubule lesion terminology in laboratory animal species by suggesting histological advice on the recognition and interpretation of these complex entities. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  20. A2 Noradrenergic Lesions Prevent Renal Sympathoinhibition Induced by Hypernatremia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Freiria-Oliveira, André Henrique; Almeida Colombari, Débora Simões; Rosa, Daniel Alves; Cravo, Sergio Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Renal vasodilation and sympathoinhibition are recognized responses induced by hypernatremia, but the central neural pathways underlying such responses are not yet entirely understood. Several findings suggest that A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are found in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), play a role in the pathways that contribute to body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of selective lesions of A2 neurons on the renal vasodilation and sympathoinhibition induced by hypertonic saline (HS) infusion. Male Wistar rats (280–350 g) received an injection into the NTS of anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin (A2 lesion; 6.3 ng in 60 nl; n = 6) or free saporin (sham; 1.3 ng in 60 nl; n = 7). Two weeks later, the rats were anesthetized (urethane 1.2 g⋅kg−1 b.wt., i.v.) and the blood pressure, renal blood flow (RBF), renal vascular conductance (RVC) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded. In sham rats, the HS infusion (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml⋅kg−1 b.wt., i.v.) induced transient hypertension (peak at 10 min after HS; 9±2.7 mmHg) and increases in the RBF and RVC (141±7.9% and 140±7.9% of baseline at 60 min after HS, respectively). HS infusion also decreased the RSNA (−45±5.0% at 10 min after HS) throughout the experimental period. In the A2-lesioned rats, the HS infusion induced transient hypertension (6±1.4 mmHg at 10 min after HS), as well as increased RBF and RVC (133±5.2% and 134±6.9% of baseline at 60 min after HS, respectively). However, in these rats, the HS failed to reduce the RSNA (115±3.1% at 10 min after HS). The extent of the catecholaminergic lesions was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that A2 noradrenergic neurons are components of the neural pathways regulating the composition of the extracellular fluid compartment and are selectively involved in hypernatremia-induced sympathoinhibition. PMID:22629424

  1. Characteristics of Renal Cystic and Solid Lesions Based on Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography of Potential Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Sasiwimonphan, Kewalee; Lieske, John C.; Keddis, Mira T.; Torres, Vicente E.; Vrtiska, Terri J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Presence of a few renal cysts are considered of little relevance in healthy adults, though acquired renal cystic disease occurs in advanced kidney failure. The objective of this study was to detail renal cystic and solid lesions and to identify any association with clinical characteristics. Study Design Clinical-pathological correlation Setting & Participants Potential kidney donors undergoing a standardized evaluation at the Mayo Clinic from 2000 to 2008. Predictors Age, kidney function, and chronic kidney disease risk factors Measurements Renal cystic and solid lesions by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images Outcomes Cyst number, diameter, and location Results After excluding 8 with cystic disease, 7 of whom had ADPKD, there were 1948 potential kidney donors (42% men; mean age, 43 years). A cortical, medullary or parapelvic cyst ≥5 mm was present in 12, 14 or 2.8%. For ages 19 to 49 y, 39%, 22%, 7.9%, and 1.6% had a cortical or medullary cyst ≥ 2, 5, 10, and 20 mm in diameter. For ages 50 to 75 y, 63%, 43%, 22%, and 7.8% had a cortical or medullary cyst ≥ 2, 5, 10, and 20 mm in diameter. The 97.5th percentile for number of cortical and medullary cysts ≥5 mm increased with age (10 for men and 4 for women in the 60–69 y group). After age-sex-adjustment, cortical and medullary cysts ≥5 mm associated with higher 24-h urine albumin excretion, as well as increased body surface area, hypertension, and higher GFR in some analyses. Angiomyolipomas, hyperdense cysts, and enhancing masses or cysts with concerning features for malignancy occurred in 2.2%, 1.2%, and 0.6% and associated with older age (p≤0.05 for each). Limitations Persons with known chronic kidney disease were excluded Conclusions Renal cysts are common, particularly in older men, and may be a marker of early kidney injury since they associate with albuminuria, hypertension, and hyperfiltration. PMID:22398108

  2. Renal Masses Detected on FDG PET/CT in Patients With Lymphoma: Imaging Features Differentiating Primary Renal Cell Carcinomas From Renal Lymphomatous Involvement.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Carlos; Sala, Evis; Kumar, Anita; Goldman, Debra A; Schoder, Heiko; Hricak, Hedvig; Vargas, Hebert Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the (18)F-FDG PET/CT features of solid renal masses detected in patients with lymphoma and to evaluate the ability of PET/CT to differentiate renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from renal lymphomatous involvement. Thirty-six patients with solid renal masses on PET/CT performed for staging or follow-up of lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. The features recorded for each renal mass included the following standardized uptake values (SUVs) on PET/CT: the maximum SUV (SUVmax), the mean SUV (SUVmean), the ratio of the SUVmax of the tumor to that of the normal kidney cortex, the ratio of the SUVmean of the tumor to that of the normal kidney cortex, the ratio of the SUVmax of the tumor to that of the normal liver, and the ratio of the SUVmean of the tumor to that of the normal liver. Renal mass size and margins (well defined vs infiltrative) and the presence of calcifications were evaluated on CT. Renal biopsy results were used as the reference standard. Relationships between imaging parameters and histopathologic findings were assessed. Of the 36 renal masses evaluated, 22 (61.1%) were RCCs and 14 (38.9%) were renal lymphomas. All SUV metrics were higher for renal lymphomas than for RCCs (p < 0.0001, for all). All renal lymphomas had an SUVmax higher than 5.98 g/mL (median, 10.99 g/mL), whereas all RCCs had an SUVmax lower than 5.26 g/mL (median, 2.91 g/mL). No statistically significant differences in mass size or margins were found between RCCs and renal lymphoma. PET/CT features may be useful for differentiating RCCs from renal involvement in patients with lymphoma with solid renal masses.

  3. Effects of the antioxidant drug tempol on renal oxygenation in mice with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed

    Lai, En Yin; Luo, Zaiming; Onozato, Maristela L; Rudolph, Earl H; Solis, Glenn; Jose, Pedro A; Wellstein, Anton; Aslam, Shakil; Quinn, Mark T; Griendling, Kathy; Le, Thu; Li, Ping; Palm, Fredrik; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed to renal hypoxia in C57BL/6 mice with ⅚ surgical reduction of renal mass (RRM). ROS can activate the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and increase O(2) usage. However, UCP-2 can be inactivated by glutathionylation. Mice were fed normal (NS)- or high-salt (HS) diets, and HS mice received the antioxidant drug tempol or vehicle for 3 mo. Since salt intake did not affect the tubular Na(+) transport per O(2) consumed (T(Na/)Q(O2)), further studies were confined to HS mice. RRM mice had increased excretion of 8-isoprostane F(2α) and H(2)O(2), renal expression of UCP-2 and renal O(2) extraction, and reduced T(Na/)Q(O2) (sham: 20 ± 2 vs. RRM: 10 ± 1 μmol/μmol; P < 0.05) and cortical Po(2) (sham: 43 ± 2, RRM: 29 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.02). Tempol normalized all these parameters while further increasing compensatory renal growth and glomerular volume. RRM mice had preserved blood pressure, glomeruli, and patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The patterns of protein expression in the renal cortex suggested that RRM kidneys had increased ROS from upregulated p22(phox), NOX-2, and -4 and that ROS-dependent increases in UCP-2 led to hypoxia that activated transforming growth factor-β whereas erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), glutathione peroxidase-1, and glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 were upregulated independently of ROS. We conclude that RRM activated distinct processes: a ROS-dependent activation of UCP-2 leading to inefficient renal O(2) usage and cortical hypoxia that was offset by Nrf-2-dependent glutathionylation. Thus hypoxia in RRM may be the outcome of NADPH oxidase-initiated ROS generation, leading to mitochondrial uncoupling counteracted by defense pathways coordinated by Nrf-2.

  4. Improved diagnostic differentiation of renal cystic lesions with phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Peter B.; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander; Herzen, Julia; Münzel, Daniela; Hahn, Dieter; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-03-01

    The diagnostic quality of phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) is one the unexplored areas in medical imaging; at the same time, it seems to offer the opportunity as a fast and highly sensitive diagnostic tool. Conventional computed tomography (CT) has had an enormous impact on medicine, while it is limited in soft-tissue contrast. One example that portrays this challenge is the differentiation between benign and malignant renal cysts. In this work we report on a feasibility study to determine the usefulness of PCCT in differentiation of renal cysts. A renal phantom was imaged with a grating-based PCCT system consisting of a standard rotating anode x-ray tube (40 kV, 70 mA) and a Pilatus II photoncounting detector (pixel size: 172 μm). The phantom is composed of a renal equivalent soft-tissue and cystic lesions grouped in non-enhancing cyst and hemorrhage series and an iodine enhancing series. The acquired projection images (absorption and phase-contrast) are reconstructed with a standard filtered backprojection algorithm. For evaluation both reconstructions are compared in respect to contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and subjective image quality. We found that with PCCT a significantly improved differentiation between hemorrhage renal cysts from contrast enhancing malignant cysts is possible. If comparing PCCT and CT with respect to CNR and SNR, PCCT shows significant improvements. In conclusion, PCCT has the potential to improve the diagnostics and characterization of renal cysts without using any contrast agents. These results in combination with a non-synchrotron setup indicate a future paradigm shift in diagnostic computed tomography.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Identify Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in cT1a Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Canvasser, Noah E; Kay, Fernando U; Xi, Yin; Pinho, Daniella F; Costa, Daniel; de Leon, Alberto Diaz; Khatri, Gaurav; Leyendecker, John R; Yokoo, Takeshi; Lay, Aaron; Kavoussi, Nicholas; Koseoglu, Ersin; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    The detection of small renal masses is increasing with the use of cross-sectional imaging, although many incidental lesions have negligible metastatic potential. Among malignant masses clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent and aggressive subtype. A method to identify such histology would aid in risk stratification. Our goal was to evaluate a likelihood scale for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of clear cell histology. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with cT1a masses who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and partial or radical nephrectomy from December 2011 to July 2015. Seven radiologists with different levels of experience who were blinded to final pathology findings independently reviewed studies based on a predefined algorithm. They applied a clear cell likelihood score, including 1-definitely not, 2-probably not, 3-equivocal, 4-probably and 5-definitely. Binary classification was used to determine the accuracy of clear cell vs all other histologies. Interobserver agreement was calculated with the weighted κ statistic. A total of 110 patients with 121 masses were identified. Mean tumor size was 2.4 cm and 50% of the lesions were clear cell. Defining clear cell as scores of 4 or greater demonstrated 78% sensitivity and 80% specificity while scores of 3 or greater showed 95% sensitivity and 58% specificity. Interobserver agreement was moderate to good with a mean κ of 0.53. A clear cell likelihood score used with magnetic resonance imaging can reasonably identify clear cell histology in small renal masses and may decrease the number of diagnostic renal mass biopsies. Standardization of imaging protocols and reporting criteria is needed to improve interobserver reliability. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic criteria for mass lesions differentiating in electrical impedance mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karpov; M, Korotkova

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the diagnostic criteria for differentiating volumetric lesions in the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography. The research was carried out utilizing the electrical impedance computer mammograph llMEIK v.5.6gg®, which enables to acquire images of 3-D conductivity distribution layers within mamma's tissues up to 5 cm depth. The weighted reciprocal projection method was employed to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. The results of 3,710 electrical impedance examinations were analyzed. The analysis of a volumetric lesion included assessment of its shape, contour, internal electrical structure and changes of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, mammary gland status was evaluated with the help of comparative and age-related electrical conductivity curves. The diagnostic chart is provided. Each criterion is measured in points. Using the numerical score for evaluation of mass and non-volumetric lesions within the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography allowed comparing this information to BI-RADS categories developed by American College of Radiology experts. The article is illustrated with electrical impedance mammograms and tables.

  7. A renal mass in a patient with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Boughan, Kirsten M; Setrakian, Sebouh; Lee, Chi Hoon; Spiro, Timothy P; Daw, Hamed A

    2009-10-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency room with significant weight loss. Laboratory analysis revealed elevations in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and white blood cell count. Computed tomography imaging showed a large, infiltrative mass in the right renal vein, with metastasis to the brain. Biopsy of soft tissue mass and kidney revealed positive staining for malignant melanoma. Malignant melanoma to the kidney is extremely rare, and imaging modalities alone cannot differentiate neoplasms in the kidney. It is therefore necessary to use specific immunocytochemical staining along with imaging modalities to make a specific diagnosis when the primary origin of the tumor is unknown.

  8. Cost Comparisons Between Different Techniques of Percutaneous Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rahul; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Vernez, Simone L; Kaler, Kamaljot; Gulati, Anjalie T; Youssef, Ramy F; Nelson, Kari; Lotan, Yair; Landman, Jaime

    2016-05-01

    To compare the costs associated with ultrasound (US)-guided hospital-based (UGHB), CT-guided hospital-based (CTG), and US-guided office-based (UGOB) percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) for small renal masses (SRMs). We retrospectively analyzed patient demographics, tumor characteristics, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores, and cost data of patients undergoing PRB for SRM at our institution from May 2012 to September 2015. Cost data, including facility costs, professional fees, and pathology, were obtained from the departments of urology, radiology, and pathology. A total of 78 patients were included in our analysis: 19, 31, and 28 UGHB, CTG, and UGOB, respectively. There was no difference in age, gender distribution, or tumor size among the three groups (p-values 0.131, 0.241, and 0.603, respectively). UGOB tumors had lower R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores (p=0.008). There were no differences in nondiagnostic rates between the UGHB, CTG, and UGOB groups [4 (21%), 5 (16%), and 6 (21%)] (p=0.852). There were no differences in final tumor treatment strategies utilized among the UGHB, CTG, and UGOB groups (p=0.447). There were 0, 2 (6%), and 0 complications in the UGHB, CTG, and UGOB biopsy groups. Total facility costs were $3449, $3280, and $1056 for UGHB, CTG, and UGOB PRB, respectively (p<0.0001). There was no difference between the urologist's and radiologist's professional fees (p=0.066). Total costs, including facility costs, pathology fees, and professional fees, were $4598, $4470, and $2129 for UGHB, CTG, and UGOB renal biopsy, respectively (p<0.0001). For select patients with less anatomically complex, exophytic, and posteriorly located tumors, UGOB PRB provides equivalent diagnostic and complication rates while being significantly more cost-effective than either UGHB or CTG renal biopsy.

  9. Management of Renal Masses and Localized Renal Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Johnson, Michael H.; Patel, Hiten D.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Sharma, Ritu; Iyoha, Emmanuel; Bass, Eric B.; Allaf, Mohamad E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Several options exist for management of clinically localized renal masses suspicious for cancer, including active surveillance, thermal ablation and radical or partial nephrectomy. We summarize evidence on effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of these treatment approaches for patients with a renal mass suspicious for localized renal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods We searched MEDLINE®, Embase® and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1, 1997 through May 1, 2015. Paired investigators independently screened articles to identify controlled studies of management options or cohort studies of active surveillance, abstracted data sequentially and assessed risk of bias independently. Strength of evidence was graded by comparisons. Results The search identified 107 studies (majority T1, no active surveillance or thermal ablation stratified outcomes of T2 tumors). Cancer specific survival was excellent among all management strategies (median 5-year survival 95%). Local recurrence-free survival was inferior for thermal ablation with 1 treatment but reached equivalence to other modalities after multiple treatments. Overall survival rates were similar among management strategies and varied with age and comorbidity. End-stage renal disease rates were low for all strategies (0.4% to 2.8%). Radical nephrectomy was associated with the largest decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate and highest incidence of chronic kidney disease. Thermal ablation offered the most favorable perioperative outcomes. Partial nephrectomy showed the highest rates of urological complications but overall rates of minor/major complications were similar among interventions. Strength of evidence was moderate, low and insufficient for 11, 22 and 30 domains, respectively. Conclusions Comparative studies demonstrated similar cancer specific survival across management strategies, with some differences in renal functional outcomes, perioperative outcomes

  10. Management of Renal Masses and Localized Renal Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierorazio, Phillip M; Johnson, Michael H; Patel, Hiten D; Sozio, Stephen M; Sharma, Ritu; Iyoha, Emmanuel; Bass, Eric B; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2016-10-01

    Several options exist for management of clinically localized renal masses suspicious for cancer, including active surveillance, thermal ablation and radical or partial nephrectomy. We summarize evidence on effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of these treatment approaches for patients with a renal mass suspicious for localized renal cell carcinoma. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase® and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1, 1997 through May 1, 2015. Paired investigators independently screened articles to identify controlled studies of management options or cohort studies of active surveillance, abstracted data sequentially and assessed risk of bias independently. Strength of evidence was graded by comparisons. The search identified 107 studies (majority T1, no active surveillance or thermal ablation stratified outcomes of T2 tumors). Cancer specific survival was excellent among all management strategies (median 5-year survival 95%). Local recurrence-free survival was inferior for thermal ablation with 1 treatment but reached equivalence to other modalities after multiple treatments. Overall survival rates were similar among management strategies and varied with age and comorbidity. End-stage renal disease rates were low for all strategies (0.4% to 2.8%). Radical nephrectomy was associated with the largest decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate and highest incidence of chronic kidney disease. Thermal ablation offered the most favorable perioperative outcomes. Partial nephrectomy showed the highest rates of urological complications but overall rates of minor/major complications were similar among interventions. Strength of evidence was moderate, low and insufficient for 11, 22 and 30 domains, respectively. Comparative studies demonstrated similar cancer specific survival across management strategies, with some differences in renal functional outcomes, perioperative outcomes and postoperative harms that should be considered

  11. Modification of spontaneous renal lesion of APA hamsters by streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    NISHIDA, ETSUKO; YAMANOUCHI, JUN; OGATA, SEIYA; DOI, KUNIO; ITAGAKI, SHIN-ICHI

    1997-01-01

    Syrian hamsters of the APA strain (APA hamsters) develop spontaneous mesangial thickening in the renal glomeruli from an early age. They also develop focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSG) at and after 6 months of age. In this study, histopathological, immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical examinations were conducted to clarify the modification of the spontaneous renal lesions of APA hamsters by streptozotocin(SZ)-induced diabetes. Histopathological analysis revealed that the expansion of the mesangial region was more prominent and the thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was weaker in SZ-treated animals than in non-treated ones. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that type IV collagen and laminin were involved in the expansion of the mesangial region and thickening of the GBM. In lectin histochemical analysis, podocytes, capillary endothelial cells, GBM and a part of mesangial region of SZ-treated animals were positive for RCA120 and GSL-I with neuraminidase-pretreatment although they were negative for these lectins in non-treated animals. These results suggest that the spontaneous glomerular lesion of APA hamsters is modified qualitatively and quantitatively by SZ-induced diabetes. PMID:9306924

  12. Large cerebellar mass lesion: A rare intracranial manifestation of blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Munich, Stephan A; Johnson, Andrew K; Ahuja, Sumeet K; Venizelos, Alexander; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus found endemically in the Mississippi and Ohio River basins and in the Midwestern and Canadian provinces that border the Great Lakes. Unlike other fungal infections, it most commonly affects immunocompetent hosts. Blastomycosis typically manifests as pulmonary infection, but may affect nearly any organ, including the skin, bone, and genitourinary system. Central nervous system (CNS) blastomycosis is rare, but potentially fatal manifestation of this disease. When it does occur, it most commonly presents as acute or chronic meningitis. We present a case of a patient who suffered intractable nausea and vomiting for several months before discovery of a large cerebellar blastomycoma causing mass effect and obstructive hydrocephalus. The enhancing lesion with unusual peripheral cystic structures is a unique radiographic appearance of CNS blastomycosis. We review this patient's purely intraparenchymal manifestation of CNS blastomycosis and describe the unique imaging characteristics encountered.

  13. Left ventricular mass: correlation with fatness, hemodynamics and renal morphology.

    PubMed

    Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  14. Left Ventricular Mass: Correlation with Fatness, Hemodynamics and Renal Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. Material/Methods 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Conclusions Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon. PMID:25436020

  15. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, proteinuria, and progression of renal damage in rats with renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Romero, Freddy; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2008-02-01

    The progressive deterioration of renal function and structure resulting from renal mass reduction are mediated by a variety of mechanisms, including oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin, the major product of the pineal gland, has potent_antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and its production is impaired in chronic renal failure. We therefore investigated if melatonin treatment would modify the course of chronic renal failure in the remnant kidney model. We studied rats followed 12 wk after renal ablation untreated (Nx group, n = 7) and treated with melatonin administered in the drinking water (10 mg/100 ml) (Nx + MEL group, n = 8). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) were used as controls. Melatonin administration increased 13-15 times the endogenous hormone levels. Rats in the Nx + MEL group had reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels in plasma and in the remnant kidney as well as nitrotyrosine renal abundance) and renal inflammation (p65 nuclear factor-kappaB-positive renal interstitial cells and infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages). Collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-beta renal abundance were all increased in the remnant kidney of the untreated rats and were reduced significantly by melatonin treatment. Deterioration of renal function (plasma creatinine and proteinuria) and structure (glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage) resulting from renal ablation were ameliorated significantly with melatonin treatment. In conclusion, melatonin administration improves the course of chronic renal failure in rats with renal mass reduction. Further studies are necessary to define the potential usefulness of this treatment in other animal models and in patients with chronic renal disease.

  16. Oral mucosa symptoms, signs and lesions, in end stage renal disease and non-end stage renal disease diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa García, Estela; Mondragón Padilla, Arnoldo; Aranda Romo, Saray; Bustamante Ramírez, Martha Alicia

    2006-11-01

    To assess oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions (OL) type and prevalence, in diabetic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD DM), and compare them with analogous findings in a non-ESRD DM group; analyze the possible association between oral manifestations, as well as with relevant laboratory findings. Research design. Two adult groups were studied: Group A: ESRD DM on dialysis, and group B: non-ESRD DM (serum creatinine <2.0 mg/dl). Known DM evolution time, dialysis treatment type and duration, and laboratory results were recorded. An oral exam was performed, searching for signs, symptoms and ESRD-associated OL. Associations were analyzed using Chi square, Fisher s exact test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Ages, time on dialysis, and laboratory results were compared with Student s t test. 229 individuals were examined, group A 99, and group B 130 pts. Signs and symptoms prevalence was higher in group A: 77.8% vs. 57.6%, (P<0.001), uremic breath (48.5%), unpleasant taste (45.5%) and xerostomia (44.4%) being the most frequent ones. OL were also more prevalent in group A; 65.6% vs. 36.9% (P<0.001). The most frequent OL were dry, fissured lips (28.3%), saburral tongue (18.2%) and candidiasis (17.2%). No difference was found in candidiasis prevalence between groups. Candidiasis was found associated to xerostomia (P<0.05) and smooth tongue (P<0.05) only in group A. ESRD DM patients had a significantly higher prevalence of signs, symptoms and OLs, as compared to non-ESRD DM pts. The high prevalence of uremic fetor, xerostomia, saburral tongue and candidiasis in group A, could be tried as warning signs on the possibility of non diagnosed advanced renal disease in other diabetic patients.

  17. Conservation of Mass: An Important Tool in Renal Research.

    PubMed

    Sargent, John A

    2016-05-01

    The dialytic treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is based on control of solute concentrations and management of fluid volume. The application of the principal of conservation of mass, or mass balance, is fundamental to the study of such treatment and can be extended to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in general. This review discusses the development and use of mass conservation and transport concepts, incorporated into mathematical models. These concepts, which can be applied to a wide range of solutes of interest, represent a powerful tool for quantitatively guided studies of dialysis issues currently and into the future. Incorporating these quantitative concepts in future investigations is key to achieving positive control of known solutes, and in the analysis of such studies; to relate future research to known results of prior studies; and to help in the understanding of the obligatory physiological perturbations that result from dialysis therapy.

  18. Relationship of Albuminuria and Renal Artery Stent Outcomes: Results From the CORAL Randomized Clinical Trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes With Renal Artery Lesions).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy P; Cooper, Christopher J; Pencina, Karol M; D'Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Cutlip, Donald E; Jamerson, Kenneth; Matsumoto, Alan H; Henrich, William; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tuttle, Katherine R; Cohen, David J; Steffes, Michael; Gao, Qi; Metzger, D Christopher; Abernethy, William B; Textor, Stephen C; Briguglio, John; Hirsch, Alan T; Tobe, Sheldon; Dworkin, Lance D

    2016-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials have not shown an additional clinical benefit of renal artery stent placement over optimal medical therapy alone. However, studies of renal artery stent placement have not examined the relationship of albuminuria and treatment group outcomes. The CORAL study (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) is a prospective clinical trial of 947 participants with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis randomized to optimal medical therapy with or without renal artery stent which showed no treatment differences (3(5.8% and 35.1% event rate at mean 43-month follow-up). In a post hoc analysis, the study population was stratified by the median baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (n=826) and analyzed for the 5-year incidence of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, stroke, renal replacement therapy, progressive renal insufficiency, or cardiovascular disease- or kidney disease-related death), for each component of the primary end point, and overall survival. When baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was ≤ median (22.5 mg/g, n=413), renal artery stenting was associated with significantly better event-free survival from the primary composite end point (73% versus 59% at 5 years; P=0.02), cardiovascular disease-related death (93% versus 85%; P≤ 0.01), progressive renal insufficiency (91% versus 77%; P=0.03), and overall survival (89% versus 76%; P≤0.01), but not when baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was greater than median (n=413). These data suggest that low albuminuria may indicate a potentially large subgroup of those with renal artery stenosis that could experience improved event-free and overall-survival after renal artery stent placement plus optimal medical therapy compared with optimal medical therapy alone. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

  19. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for complex renal masses.

    PubMed

    Patton, Michael W; Salevitz, Daniel A; Tyson, Mark D; Andrews, Paul E; Ferrigni, Erin N; Nateras, Rafael N; Castle, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether the approach for partial nephrectomy is influenced by tumor complexity and if the introduction of robotic techniques has allowed us to treat more complex tumors minimally invasively. Data from 292 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for renal masses from November 1999 to July 2013 at a tertiary referral center were retrospectively reviewed. Nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes were stratified based on when robotic techniques were introduced. Mean follow-up time was 2.6 years. Preoperative RENAL nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Of the 292 patients, 31.5 % underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, 46.2 % laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and 22.9 % open partial nephrectomy. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy mean nephrometry score was significantly higher than laparoscopic and equivalent to open. Significant perioperative differences were estimated blood loss (p = 0.0001), length of stay (p = 0.0001) and Clavien score (p = 0.0069), all favoring robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Limitations include retrospective design and single center data. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy is a safe and effective surgical modality that allows for complex renal tumors that were previously reserved for open partial nephrectomy in the pure laparoscopic era to be managed with a minimally invasive approach.

  20. Malignant renal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:28326263

  1. Combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Kif3a causes cystic and neoplastic renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Anna; Lehmann, Holger; Wild, Peter J; Frew, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene is bi-allelically inactivated in the majority of cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); however, Vhl knockout mouse models do not recapitulate human ccRCC, implying that additional mutations are required for tumour formation. Mutational inactivation of VHL sensitises renal epithelial cells to lose the primary cilium in response to other mutations or extracellular stimuli. Loss of cilia is believed to represent a second hit in VHL mutant cells that causes the development of cystic lesions that, in some cases, can progress to ccRCC. Supporting this idea, genetic ablation of the primary cilium by deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene cooperates with loss of Vhl to accelerate cyst formation in mouse kidneys. Additionally, aged Vhl/Trp53 double-mutant mice develop renal cysts and tumours at a relatively low incidence, suggesting that there is a genetic cooperation between VHL and TP53 mutation in the development of ccRCC. Here we generated renal epithelium-specific Kif3a/Trp53 and Vhl/Kif3a/Trp53 mutant mice to investigate whether primary cilium deletion would accelerate the development of cystic precursor lesions or cause their progression to ccRCC. Longitudinal microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging and histopathological analyses revealed an increased rate of cyst formation, increased proportion of cysts with proliferating cells, higher frequency of atypical cysts as well as the development of neoplasms in Vhl/Kif3a/Trp53 mutant kidneys compared to Kif3a/Trp53 or Vhl/Kif3a mutant kidneys. These findings demonstrate that primary cilium loss, in addition to Vhl and Trp53 losses, promotes the transition towards malignancy and provide further evidence that the primary cilium functions as a tumour suppressor organelle in the kidney. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography in the preoperative evaluation of renal masses

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, K.K.; Braun, S.D.; Miller, G.A. Jr.; Newman, G.E.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1985-08-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 23 patients with renal masses to document tumor extension into the main renal vein or inferior vena cava. The DSA findings were compared with computed tomographic as well as surgical and pathologic findings. Additional data regarding the number of renal arteries present and the relative vascularity of the tumor were also gathered. In 17 of 19 cases, single renal arteries to the affected kidney were correctly identified. In three patients, two renal arteries to the involved kidney were correctly identified. The renal masses were avascular in two patients, hypovascular in five, moderately vascular in eight, and hypervascular in seven. In one case the mass was out of the field of view, and vascularity was not evaluated. In these patients, DSA was an accurate and relatively noninvasive method to assist in the preoperative evaluation of renal masses.

  3. Cost of care for malignant and benign renal masses.

    PubMed

    Asnis-Alibozek, Aviva G; Fine, Michael J; Russo, Paul; McLaughlin, Trent; Farrelly, Eileen M; LaFrance, Norman; Lowrance, William

    2013-08-01

    Limitations of current diagnotic techniques may allow some patients with presumed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to undergo nephrectomy without definitive confirmation of malignancy. To confirm previous estimates of postnephrectomy renal mass diagnosis and to assess the economic impact of nephrectomy. This retrospective cohort analysis identified commercial enrollees who underwent nephrectomy with a diagnosis of RCC between July 1, 2000, and March 30, 2008. Study subjects were stratified based on medical claims for benign or malignant disease after the nephrectomy date. Cohorts were compared on resource utilization before and after nephrectomy, occurrence of postsurgical complications, and associated 1-year costs of care. Of 10,404 patients undergoing nephrectomy for presumed RCC, 1613 (15.5%) were subsequently identified as having benign disease, despite median presurgical diagnostic expenditures of $1311 per patient (interquartile range [IQR], $467-$2606). Median expenditures for the 12 months postnephrectomy were $26,920 per patient (IQR, $16,851-$46,982) for those with malignant disease and $23,951 per patient (IQR, $14,873-$38,190) for those with benign disease (P<.0001). For patients with benign disease, 17.5% experienced a postsurgical adverse event, resulting in a 1.5-fold increase in expenditures (median $31,838 per patient for those with event vs $22,770 per patient for those without event; P<.0001). In this study, approximately 1 in 6 patients were found to have a benign renal mass postnephrectomy. Given the risk of surgical complications and related economic consequences, methods for better identifying malignant versus benign disease prior to surgery could provide significant benefits to patients and payers.

  4. [Treatment of small renal masses with laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation].

    PubMed

    Estébanez, Javier; Gutiérrez, Miguel Angel; Linazasoro, Ione; Belloso, Ion; Cano, Carlos; Sanz, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To perform a bibliographic review of the laparoscopic approach for radiofrequency ablation of small renal masses. For this review we used the Medline database. We reviewed the clinical guidelines of the American Urological Association, the European Association of Urology and other institutions. Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive treatment in which a needle is introduced in the tumor once it is identified, and it produces an increase of temperature high enough to destroy tumor cells. This technique may be used by percutaneous approach, or during a laparoscopic approach. The choice of one technique or another depends on tumor site, closeness to the bowels or other organs and patient conditions. It would be indicated in patients with small tumors or important comorbidity who are not candidates for surgery. There are not randomized studies comparing these ablation techniques with the surgical techniques. There is no randomized study comparing the efficacy of percutaneous and laparoscopic techniques either but a metanalysis comparing them has been performed. The treatment of small renal masses keeps being surgical excision. Radiofrequency ablation represents an alternative for carefully selected patients due to its low morbidity and few complications. There are not long term efficacy studies to date. Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation would be indicated in cases in which the percutaneous approach is complicated due to tumor site.

  5. Retrocochlear mass lesion in mid-frequency sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Tsen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2008-01-01

    This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of mid-frequency sudden deafness to understand the clinical significance of this hallmark finding. Retrospective study. From 1992 to 2006, a total of 556 patients with sudden deafness were experienced. Based on the audiographic configuration, these patients were classified into: flat-type group, 272 cases; high-frequency group, 146 cases; low-frequency group, 70 cases; mid-frequency group, 30 cases; and unclassified group, 38 cases. All patients underwent a battery of audiovestibular function testing. Among 556 sudden deafness patients, 17 patients (3%) were proved to have a retrocochlear tumor, including mid-frequency group (10), high-frequency group (4), flat-type group (2), and low-frequency group (1). Thus, the mid-frequency group had significantly higher (33%) association with a retrocochlear tumor than other groups. One-third of the patients with mid-frequency sudden deafness harbor a true retrocochlear mass lesion; hence, MR imaging is mandatory in such cases.

  6. Kidney transplantation: the use of living donors with renal artery lesions.

    PubMed

    Nahas, W C; Lucon, A M; Mazzucchi, E; Scafuri, A G; Neto, E D; Ianhez, L E; Arap, S

    1998-10-01

    A shortage of organs for transplantation has forced surgeons to optimize the use of marginal organs, such as kidneys with arterial disease. We present a retrospective study of the outcome of donors with renal artery disease and recipients of kidneys from living related and unrelated donors. Kidneys with vascular abnormalities from healthy living donors were grafted into 11 recipients. These kidney transplants comprised 1.8% of those performed at our institution. The vascular abnormalities were aneurysms in 3 cases, atherosclerotic lesions in 4 and fibromuscular dysplasia in 4. After nephrectomy all abnormalities were corrected under hypothermic conditions during bench surgery except in 3 cases of ostial atherosclerotic plaque, which was left in the donors. The renal artery was anastomosed to the external iliac artery in 5 cases and to the internal iliac artery in 6. The ureter was reimplanted using an extravesical technique. All patients had immediate diuresis and no delayed post-transplant graft dysfunction was observed. One patient died of an unrelated cause and 3 had post-transplant graft function loss due to acute vasculopathy in 1, post-diarrhea with acute arterial thrombosis in 1 and recurrence of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome in 1. All remaining patients are well with median serum creatinine of 1.4 mg./dl. (normal 0.4 to 1.4). All donors are well and normotensive with normal renal function. The use of kidneys with arterial disease from living donors with unilateral disease is safe. Complete informed consent regarding the risks and benefits by donor and recipient is mandatory.

  7. Percutaneous Kidney Biopsy for a Small Renal Mass: A Critical Appraisal of Results.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Seo, Seong Il; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han-Yong; Song, Cheryn; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong; Jeong, In Gab

    2016-03-01

    We report the diagnostic accuracy of renal mass biopsy for a small renal mass (4 cm or less) and identify predictors of successful renal mass biopsy in a contemporary cohort of patients from 2 large tertiary referral centers. A total of 442 biopsies of renal tumors 4 cm or less at 2 tertiary centers between 2008 and 2015 were included in study. Biopsy outcomes (malignant, benign or nondiagnostic) and concordance rates between renal mass biopsy and final surgical pathology were determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors indicative of nondiagnostic biopsy. The initial biopsy was diagnostic in 393 cases (88.9%) and nondiagnostic in 49 (11.1%). Of diagnostic biopsies 76% revealed renal cell carcinoma and 24% were benign. Renal cell carcinoma histological subtyping and grading was possible in 90.2% and 31.3% of cases, respectively. A second biopsy was performed in 11 of the 49 nondiagnostic cases and a diagnosis was possible in 100%, including renal cell carcinoma in 10 and oncocytoma in 1. Small tumor size, cystic nature of tumors and biopsy during the initial years of the study were independent predictors of nondiagnostic biopsy. The rates of accuracy in identifying malignancies, histiotyping and 2-tier grading between renal mass biopsy and surgical pathology were 97.1%, 95.1% and 68.8%, respectively. Renal mass biopsy for a small renal mass can be performed accurately. Nondiagnostic renal mass biopsy was common for smaller masses and cystic masses, and during the initial years of the study. A second biopsy should be considered in nondiagnostic biopsy cases. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arachidonic acid supplementation does not affect N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced renal preneoplastic lesions in young Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Tsubura, Airo

    2013-04-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is naturally found in human breast milk. AA, together with docosahexaenoic acid, is commonly added as a functional food ingredient to commercial infant formula worldwide, in accordance with the international standards of Codex Alimentarius. However, few studies of the possible renal carcinogenic effects of AA supplementation during neonatal life have been performed. The effect of dietary AA supplementation in dams during gestation and lactation was investigated on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced preneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of young Lewis rats. Dams were fed a 2.0% AA diet or a basal diet (<0.01% AA). At birth (postnatal day 0), male and female pups received a single intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg MNU or vehicle. Renal morphology was examined after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days. Histopathologically, renal preneoplastic lesions, such as nephroblastomatosis and mesenchymal cell proliferation, were found on day 60 in both the MNU-treated groups. There was no significant difference in lesion incidence of 38% in the basal diet group and 31% in the AA diet group. In conclusion, an AA-rich diet for dams during gestation and lactation does not modify MNU-induced renal preneoplastic lesions in their offspring.

  9. Urinary Albumin Levels are Independently Associated with Renal Lesion Severity in Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Little or No Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jin; Zheng, Zhaohui; Li, Xueyi; Feng, Yuan; Leng, Nan; Wu, Zhenbiao; Zhu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to renal lesions, which may be clinically silent in patients with little or no proteinuria. Early detection of these lesions may improve prognosis, but early markers are controversial. This study aimed to determine renal marker proteins associated with renal lesion severity in patients with lupus nephropathy (LN) and little or no proteinuria. Material/Methods Patients with LN and little or no proteinuria (<0.5 g/24 hours) (n=187) that underwent kidney biopsy were grouped according to: low severity (Class I or II; n=116) versus high severity (Class III, IV, or V; n=71). Disease status was determined according to the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Renal marker proteins (serum β2-macroglobulin, urinary β2-macroglobulin, albumin, IgG, and α1-macroglobulin) were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with the low severity group, patients in the high severity group had higher urinary albumin (11.60±8.94 versus 7.08±10.07 μg/mL, p=0.008) and urinary IgG (13.21±9.35 versus 8.74±8.90 μg/mL, p=0.007) levels. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that urinary albumin (odds ratio (OR)=1.417, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.145–1.895, p=0.001) and SLEDAI (OR=2.004, 95% CI: 1.264–3.178, p=0.003) were independently associated with severe renal lesions in these patients. Using an optimal cutoff point of urinary albumin of 7.53 μg/mL resulted in 67% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the detection of high severity renal lesions. Conclusions Urinary albumin levels and SLEDAI were independently associated with histological severity of renal lesions in patients with LN and little or no proteinuria. These parameters could be used to help select patients for renal biopsy. PMID:28157833

  10. Protective effects of leflunomide on renal lesions in a rat model if diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Ji, Yongqiang; Lv, Wei; He, Tianwei; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes with poor efficacy of clinical treatment. This study investigated the protective effects of leflunomide, a new immunosuppressant, on tubulointerstitial lesions in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in male Wistar rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats were treated daily for 8 weeks with low (5 mg/kg) and high dose (10 mg/kg) of leflunomide, and benazepril hydrochloride (4 mg/kg) as a positive control. In diabetic rats, the 24-h urine volume, urine protein and microalbumin, blood creatinine and urea nitrogen significantly increased, which were attenuated by leflunomide treatment in a dose-dependent manner (all p < 0.05). The increase of kidney weight/body weight and the histopathological findings of tubulointerstitial lesion in diabetic rats were mitigated by leflunomide treatment. Immunohistochemistry study and real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin and CD68 expression in the renal tubulointerstitial region were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while these increases were inhibited by leflunomide treatment. These findings suggest that leflunomide protects the kidney injury of diabetic rats might through its inhibition of OPN/TGF-β1 mediated extracellular matrix deposition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as its inhibition on tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

  11. The relationship between the level of serum creatinine, modified diet and renal disease formula, Cockcroft-Gault formula, and renal tubulointerstitial lesion.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fengqing; Ren, Li; Liu, Hong; Fang, Yi; Jiang, Suhua; Xu, Xunhui; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the levels of serum creatinine (SCr), the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the degree of tubulointerstitial injury. A total of 511 patients of Zhongshan hospital in China were hospitalized due to physical abnormalities and diagnosed with kidney disease by renal biopsy. The clinical and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed. The level of SCr was determined in all patients, and the eGFR was calculated with modification of diet in renal disease and Cockcroft-Gault formulae, whereas the renal histopathology was quantified according to the Katafuchi semi-quantitative standards. With the aggravation of tubulointerstitial injury, SCr level increased and eGFR decreased gradually. The degree of tubulointerstitial lesion showed a positive correlation with SCr level and negative correlation with Cockcroft-Gault formula and modification of diet in renal disease (r = 0.627, -0.649, -0.626; p < 0.001). When the SCr was in the normal range, above 90% of the patients had various degrees of tubulointerstitial damage and 12.2% of the patients had moderate-to-severe tubulointerstitial lesions. The correlation between SCr level and tubulointerstitial damage became weak. The morphologic changes of tubulointerstitium are closely linked with renal function, but incompletely parallel. SCr in the abnormal range could be used to diagnose tubulointerstitial injury well. However, when the level of SCr was in the so-called normal range, eGFR by the modification of diet in renal disease or Cockcroft-Gault formula may be preferred to assess renal tubulointerstitial injury.

  12. Distinguishing splenosis from renal masses using ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Berman, Adam J; Zahalsky, Michael P; Okon, Stephen A; Wagner, Joseph R

    2003-10-01

    A 43-year-old man with a history of splenectomy was found to have a solid renal mass on computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging with ferumoxide characterized this mass as ectopic splenic tissue and nephrectomy was avoided.

  13. Detection of renal ischemic lesions using Gd-DTPA enhanced turbo FLASH MRI: Experimental and clinical results

    SciTech Connect

    Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI in the evaluation of renal ischemic lesions. With a turbo FLASH sequence before and after injection of Gd-DTPA, nine foxhound dogs after 60-120 min of renal ischemia underwent MR examination. In addition, five patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney were examined before and after nephron-sparing renal surgery to evaluate renal perfusion and function. The experimental and clinical findings were correlated with conventional measurements of kidney function and with histological findings. Complete renal ischemia leads to a poor corticomedullary differentiation in Gd-DTPA-enhanced turbo FLASH MRI. The signal-intensity-versus-time plots of kidneys with significant postischemic changes show a less steep increase of signal intensity in the cortex and a steeper increase of signal intensity in the medulla than those of normal kidneys. Dynamic MRI demonstrate renal morphology and reflect the functional status of the renal vasculature. 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided techniques for diagnosing pancreatic mass lesions: Can we do better?

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic approach to a possible pancreatic mass lesion relies first upon various non-invasive imaging modalities, including computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Once a suspect lesion has been identified, tissue acquisition for characterization of the lesion is often paramount in developing an individualized therapeutic approach. Given the high prevalence and mortality associated with pancreatic cancer, an ideal approach to diagnosing pancreatic mass lesions would be safe, highly sensitive, and reproducible across various practice settings. Tools, in addition to radiologic imaging, currently employed in the initial evaluation of a patient with a pancreatic mass lesion include serum tumor markers, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). EUS-FNA has grown to become the gold standard in tissue diagnosis of pancreatic lesions. PMID:27818584

  15. A regional registration method to find corresponding mass lesions in temporal mammogram pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Timp, Sheila; Engeland, Saskia van; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2005-08-15

    In this paper we develop an automatic regional registration method to find corresponding masses on prior and current mammograms. The method contains three steps. In the first, we globally align both images. Then, for each mass lesion on the current view, we define a search area on the prior view, which is likely to contain the same mass lesion. Third, at each location in this search area we calculate a registration measure to quantify how well this location matches the mass lesion on the current view. Finally we select the best location. To determine the performance of our method we compare it to several other registration methods. On a dataset of 389 temporal mass pairs our method correctly links 82% of prior and current mass lesions, whereas other methods achieve at most 72%.

  16. Image-Guided Embolization Coil Placement for Identification of an Endophytic, Isoechoic Renal Mass During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Forauer, Andrew; Seigne, John D.; Hyams, Elias S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative ultrasonography has proven to be a useful tool for tumor identification during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). However, its utility is limited in renal tumors that are completely endophytic and isoechoic in nature. We present a novel approach to intraoperative tumor identification using preoperative percutaneous intratumoral embolization coil placement that may be utilized in the management of such cases. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian male was referred with an incidentally discovered right renal mass that was posterior and completely endophytic. He desired a RALPN; however, preoperative renal ultrasound demonstrated an isoechoic lesion. Thus, the patient underwent preoperative image-guided placement of an embolization coil within the tumor. This facilitated identification of the tumor intraoperatively using intracorporeal ultrasound centered on the coil and enabled resection with negative margins. Conclusion: Utilizing a novel approach analogous to preoperative localization of other solid malignancies, such as breast cancer, we were able to effectively identify and resect an isoechoic renal mass during RALPN. PMID:27579392

  17. Sonography of Abdominal Wall Masses and Masslike Lesions: Correlation With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won

    2016-01-01

    Sonography is usually regarded as a first-line imaging modality for masses and masslike lesions in the abdominal wall. A dynamic study focusing on a painful area or palpable mass and the possibility of ultrasound-guided aspiration or biopsy are the major advantages of sonography. On the other hand, cross-sectional imaging clearly shows anatomy of the abdominal wall; thereby, it is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of diseases. Cross-sectional imaging can help differentiate neoplastic lesions from non-neoplastic lesions. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of abdominal wall lesions compared with computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

  18. Influence of different degrees of reduced renal mass on the renal and hepatic disposition of administered cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K.

    1997-06-27

    The present study was designed to evaluate, in rats, the effect of varying degrees of reduced renal mass on the disposition of administered cadmium. As part of this evaluation, the intrarenal, hepatic, and hematological disposition of cadmium and the urinary and fecal excretion of cadmium were studied and characterized in control, uninephrectomized (NPX), and 75% nephrectomized (75% NPX) rats 1 d, 2 d, and 7 d after the intravenous injection of a nonnephrotoxic 8.9 {mu}mol/kg dose of cadmium chloride. Renal accumulation of cadmium was reduced significantly in the 75% NPX rats, but not in the NPX rats, between d 2 and 7 after the injection of cadmium. This diminution in cadmium accumulation was most likely due to diminished glomerular filtration rate and renal clearance of cadmium induced by 75% nephrectomy. Despite reduced glomerular filtration rate, the cumulative urinary excretion of cadmium in the 75% NPX rats was significantly greater than that in either the NPX rats or the control rats. However, that very little of the administered dose of cadmium was excreted in the urine by any of the three groups of rats. Interestingly, the content of cadmium in the liver was significantly greater in 75% NPX rats than in NPX or control rats between d 1 and 7 after the injection of cadmium. Moreover, the 75% NPX rats excreted significantly less cadmium in the feces over the 7 d of study than did the other 2 groups of rats, indicating that 75% nephrectomy causes a significant alteration in one or more of the mechanisms involved in the fecal excretion of cadmium. in summary, the findings from the present study indicate that the renal and hepatic handling of administered cadmium in rats changes significantly when renal mass is reduced by 75%. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of reductions of renal mass, which impair renal function significantly, on both the disposition and toxicity of cadmium in renal and hepatic tissues. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The human Bosniak model applied to a cat with renal cystadenoma. A classification to differentiate benign and malignant cystic renal masses via computed tomography and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Baloi, P; Del Chicca, F; Ruetten, M; Gerber, B

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with weight loss and azotemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large cystic space- occupying lesion with multiple septae in the left kidney. A core needle biopsy yielded a renal cystadenoma originating from the epithelial cells. This report describes the clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features and the growth progression of a renal cystadenoma. We describe the first attempt to apply the human Bosniak classification to a cat with renal cystic neoplasia to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Cystadenoma should be a differential diagnosis in cases of renal cystic space-occupying lesions. Other differentials, imaging features to differentiate benign and malignant lesions and the risk of malignant transformation will be discussed.

  20. Non-mass-like lesions on breast ultrasonography: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews various non-mass-like ultrasonography (US) findings of the breast and the sonographic-pathologic correlation with Doppler techniques, elastography, and MRI. High-resolution US allows for identification of small, clinically occult non-mass-like US findings. Ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma usually manifest as a non-mass-like lesion on US. It is useful to classify non-mass-like lesions on US in a similar manner to the classification of non-mass-like enhancement on MRI.

  1. Percutaneous needle biopsy for indeterminate renal masses: a national survey of UK consultant urologists

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Azhar A; Shergill, Iqbal S; Quereshi, Sheila; Arya, Manit; Vandal, Mohammed T; Gujral, Sandeep S

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of percutaneous needle biopsy in the evaluation of indeterminate renal masses is controversial and its role in management remains largely unclear. We set to establish current practice on this issue in UK urology departments. Methods We conducted a national questionnaire survey of all consultant urologists in the UK, to establish current practice and attitudes towards percutaneous needle biopsy in the management of indeterminate renal masses. Results 139 (43%) consultant urologists never use biopsy, whereas 111 (34%) always employ it for the diagnosis of indeterminate renal masses. 75 (23%) urologists use biopsy only for a selected patient group. Mass in a solitary kidney, bilateral renal masses and a past history of non-renal cancer were the main indications for use of percutaneous biopsy. The risk of false negative results and biopsy not changing the eventual management of their patients were the commonest reasons not to perform biopsy. Conclusion There is a wide and varied practice amongst UK Consultant Urologists in the use of percutaneous biopsy as part of the management of indeterminate renal masses. The majority of urologists believe biopsy confers no benefit. However there is a need to clarify this issue in the wake of recent published evidence as biopsy results may provide critical information for patients with renal masses in a significant majority. It not only differentiates benign from malignant tissue but can also help in deciding the management option for patients undergoing minimally invasive treatments. PMID:17610739

  2. Urine aquaporin 1 and perilipin 2 differentiate renal carcinomas from other imaged renal masses and bladder and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Mobley, Jonathan; Figenshau, R Sherburne; Vetter, Joel; Bhayani, Sam; Kharasch, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of urine aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2) concentrations to diagnose clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by comparing urine concentrations of these unique biomarkers in patients with RCC, noncancer renal masses, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer. From February 1, 2012, through October 31, 2012, preoperative urine samples were obtained from patients with a presumptive diagnosis of RCC based on an imaged renal mass, prostate cancer, or transitional cell bladder cancer. Imaged renal masses were diagnosed postnephrectomy—as malignant or benign—by histology. Urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations were measured by using a sensitive and specific Western blot and normalized to urine creatinine concentration. Median concentrations of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 in patients with clear cell and papillary RCC (n=47) were 29 and 36 relative absorbance units/mg urine creatinine, respectively. In contrast, median concentrations in patients with bladder cancer (n=22) and prostate cancer (n=27), patients with chromophobe tumors (n=7), and patients with benign renal oncocytomas (n=9) and angiomyolipomas (n=7) were all less than 10 relative absorbance units/mg urine creatinine (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<.001 vs RCC for both biomarkers) and comparable with those in healthy controls. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.99 to 1.00 for both biomarkers. These results support the specificity and sensitivity of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations for RCC. These novel tumor-specific proteins have high clinical validity and high potential as specific screening biomarkers for clear cell and papillary RCC as well as in the differential diagnosis of imaged renal masses. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00851994. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-Time 3D Fluoroscopy-Guided Large Core Needle Biopsy of Renal Masses: A Critical Early Evaluation According to the IDEAL Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeze, Stephanie G. C.; Huisman, Merel; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Diest, Paul J. van; Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2012-06-15

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT is a promising new technique for image-guided biopsy of solid tumors. We evaluated the technical feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and complications of this technique for guidance of large-core needle biopsy in patients with suspicious renal masses. Methods: Thirteen patients with 13 suspicious renal masses underwent large-core needle biopsy under 3D real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT guidance. Imaging acquisition and subsequent 3D reconstruction was done by a mobile flat-panel detector (FD) C-arm system to plan the needle path. Large-core needle biopsies were taken by the interventional radiologist. Technical success, accuracy, and safety were evaluated according to the Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study (IDEAL) recommendations. Results: Median tumor size was 2.6 (range, 1.0-14.0) cm. In ten (77%) patients, the histological diagnosis corresponded to the imaging findings: five were malignancies, five benign lesions. Technical feasibility was 77% (10/13); in three patients biopsy results were inconclusive. The lesion size of these three patients was <2.5 cm. One patient developed a minor complication. Median follow-up was 16.0 (range, 6.4-19.8) months. Conclusions: 3D real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT-guided biopsy of renal masses is feasible and safe. However, these first results suggest that diagnostic accuracy may be limited in patients with renal masses <2.5 cm.

  4. Effect of reduced renal mass on renal ammonia transporter family, Rh C glycoprotein and Rh B glycoprotein, expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young; Baylis, Chris; Verlander, Jill W; Han, Ki-Hwan; Reungjui, Sirirat; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2007-10-01

    Kidneys can maintain acid-base homeostasis, despite reduced renal mass, through adaptive changes in net acid excretion, of which ammonia excretion is the predominant component. The present study examines whether these adaptations are associated with changes in the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg). We used normal Sprague-Dawley rats and a 5/6 ablation-infarction model of reduced renal mass; control rats underwent sham operation. After 1 wk, glomerular filtration rate, assessed as creatinine clearance, was decreased, serum bicarbonate was slightly increased, and Na(+) and K(+) were unchanged. Total urinary ammonia excretion was unchanged, but urinary ammonia adjusted for creatinine clearance, an index of per nephron ammonia metabolism, increased significantly. Although reduced renal mass did not alter total Rhcg protein expression, both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated hypertrophy of both intercalated cells and principal cells in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct that was associated with increased apical and basolateral Rhcg polarization. Rhbg expression, analyzed using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of cell-specific expression, was unchanged. We conclude that altered subcellular localization of Rhcg contributes to adaptive changes in single-nephron ammonia metabolism and maintenance of acid-base homeostasis in response to reduced renal mass.

  5. Circulating thrombomodulin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and renal vascular lesion in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Yao, G H; Liu, Z H; Zhang, X; Zheng, C X; Chen, H P; Zeng, C H; Li, L S

    2008-08-01

    Currently, the detection of renal vascular lesions (VLS) in lupus nephritis (LN) mainly depends on biopsy examination, and lack surrogate biomarkers for clinical dynamic evaluation. The aim of the present study is to explore the correlation between circulatory endothelial damage biomarkers and VLS. Soluble E-selectin, thrombomodulin (TM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured by ELISA. TM and VCAM-1 levels both were significantly elevated in LN with VLS than in LN without VLS (P < 0.01). However, the serum E-selectin was not significantly changed in LN patients with and without VLS. A positive correlation was found between TM and serum creatinine (r = 0.617, P < 0.05) in patients with vascular lesions. In order to further analyse the relationship between TM level and severity degree of vascular lesions in LN patients, we subdivided the patients with vascular lesions into two groups: with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and without TMA. TM level of the patients with TMA is significantly higher than those without TMA (P < 0.01). In conclusion, combined with renal pathological examination, monitoring the circulatory levels of TM and VCAM-1, can provide circulating biomarkers of VLS in LN patients.

  6. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in tubulointerstitial lesions of cats with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sawashima, K; Mizuno, S; Mizuno-Horikawa, Y; Shimada, A; Kudo, T; Kurosawa, T

    2000-09-01

    To examine renal expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and fibronectin in cats with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) for use in predicting progression to renal fibrosis. 19 cats with TIN and 9 cats without nephritis. Serum creatinine and BUN concentrations were measured. Indices for glomerular extra-cellular matrix (ECM), tubular injury (TI), and fibronectin were determined in renal specimens to quantify the extent of injury and fibrotic lesions. Expression of alpha-SMA in renal tissue was immunohistochemically detected, and correlations were evaluated between the alpha-SMA index and other histologic and clinical variables. The alpha-SMA index in tubulointerstitial areas (1.63 +/- 0.78) was significantly higher in cats with TIN, especially in the periglomerular and peritubular areas, than in cats without nephritis (0.20 +/- 0.14). The alpha-SMA index was significantly associated with the TI index (r2 = 0.70), fibronectin index (r2 = 0.95), BUN concentration (r = 0.64), and serum creatinine concentration () = 0.66). Of special interest was that interstitial alpha-SMA expression appeared evident in the kidneys at an early stage of TIN, prior to the onset of ECM deposition. Analysis of results of histologic and clinical examinations revealed that interstitial alpha-SMA expression may have clinical importance and may be a useful early histologic marker for development of chronic renal failure in cats. An immunohistochemical examination for fibrogenic molecules (such as alpha-SMA expression) may provide fundamental information on the pathogenesis of early-stage renal disease and aid clinical management of cats with chronic renal failure, including TIN.

  7. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  8. Orbital masses: CT and MRI of common vascular lesions, benign tumors, and malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sarah N.; Sepahdari, Ali R.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of space occupying lesions may be encountered in the orbit. CT and MR imaging frequently help confirm the presence of a mass and define its extent. Characteristic imaging features may help distinguish among lesions that have overlapping clinical presentations. This review focuses on some of the common orbital masses. Common vascular lesions that are reviewed include: capillary (infantile) hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma (solitary encapsulated venous-lymphatic malformation), and lymphangioma (venous-lymphatic malformation). Benign tumors that are reviewed include: optic nerve sheath meningioma, schwannoma, and neurofibroma. Malignancies that are reviewed include: lymphoma, metastasis, rhabdomyosarcoma, and optic glioma. Key imaging features that guide radiological diagnosis are discussed and illustrated. PMID:23961022

  9. Sociodemographic Disparities in the Nonoperative Management of Small Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Vincent; Larcher, Alessandro; Sun, Maxine; Boehm, Katharina; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Meskawi, Malek; Sosa, José; Tian, Zhe; Fossati, Nicola; Briganti, Alberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2016-04-01

    Local tumor ablation (LTA) and expectant management (EM) represent competing treatment modalities for patients with small renal masses (SRMs) who are unfit for surgery. We examined the potential social discrepancies in the access of LTA and EM. A total of 1860 patients with cT1a kidney cancer who had undergone either LTA (n = 553) or EM (n = 1307) from 2000 to 2009 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. The baseline patient data (age, comorbidity status, defined as Charlson comorbidity index [CCI], and several sociodemographic variables) and tumor characteristics were examined. A multivariable analysis predicting access to LTA compared with EM was fitted. The subgroup analyses focused on patients aged ≥ 75 years with a CCI of ≥ 2. Compared with LTA patients, the EM patients were significantly older (median age, 78 vs. 77 years; P < .001), more frequently unmarried (43% vs. 37%; P = .02), more frequently of African-American ethnicity (14% vs. 8%; P = .005), and more frequently of low socioeconomic status (SES; 55% vs. 46%; P = .001). No differences were seen according to gender, population density, CCI, or tumor size. In a multivariable analysis predicting access to LTA over EM, older age, African-American ethnicity, male gender, low SES, and unmarried status were associated with lower access to LTA (P ≤ .04 for all). In the subgroup of older and sicker patients, none of the previous sociodemographic characteristics represented barriers to LTA access (P ≥ .1 for all). Sociodemographic characteristics might represent barriers to LTA access for patients with SRMs managed nonoperatively. However, these associations vanished when older and sicker patients were examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang-Yu; Suo, Shi-Teng; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Wan-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Rong

    2015-01-01

    To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade. Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign) who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest) and from the whole tumour (R2*whole). Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8). The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79) was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68), as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2]) and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1]) was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p<0.01 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2]) than R2*largest for observer 2 (AUC=0.64). For the grading of clear-cell RCC, both R2*whole and R2*largest were good (all > 0.7) and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1]). BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter

  11. Light Chain Deposition Disease Diagnosed with Laser Micro-dissection, Liquid Chromatography, and Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Nodular Glomerular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kasagi, Tomomichi; Nobata, Hironobu; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miura, Naoto; Banno, Shogo; Takami, Akiyoshi; Yamashita, Taro; Ando, Yukio; Imai, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 42-year-old man developed nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressive renal failure. Kidney biopsy demonstrated nodular glomerulosclerosis, negative Congo red staining, and no deposition of light or heavy chains. Laser micro-dissection and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry of nodular lesions revealed the presence of a kappa chain constant region and kappa III variable region, which signified light chain deposition disease. Dexamethasone and thalidomide were effective in decreasing the serum levels of free kappa light chain from 147.0 to 38.0 mg/L, eliminating proteinuria, and halting the worsening of the kidney dysfunction, with serum creatinine levels stable around 4.0 mg/dL for 3 years. PMID:28050001

  12. Dose-mass inverse optimization for minimally moving thoracic lesions.

    PubMed

    Mihaylov, I B; Moros, E G

    2015-05-21

    In the past decade, several different radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation and optimization schemes have been proposed as viable approaches, aiming for dose escalation or an increase of healthy tissue sparing. In particular, it has been argued that dose-mass plan evaluation and treatment plan optimization might be viable alternatives to the standard of care, which is realized through dose-volume evaluation and optimization. The purpose of this investigation is to apply dose-mass optimization to a cohort of lung cancer patients and compare the achievable healthy tissue sparing to that one achievable through dose-volume optimization. Fourteen non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient plans were studied retrospectively. The range of tumor motion was less than 0.5 cm and motion management in the treatment planning process was not considered. For each case, dose-volume (DV)-based and dose-mass (DM)-based optimization was performed. Nine-field step-and-shoot IMRT was used, with all of the optimization parameters kept the same between DV and DM optimizations. Commonly used dosimetric indices (DIs) such as dose to 1% the spinal cord volume, dose to 50% of the esophageal volume, and doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung volumes were used for cross-comparison. Similarly, mass-based indices (MIs), such as doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung masses, 1% of spinal cord mass, and 33% of heart mass, were also tallied. Statistical equivalence tests were performed to quantify the findings for the entire patient cohort. Both DV and DM plans for each case were normalized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescribed dose. DM optimization resulted in more organs at risk (OAR) sparing than DV optimization. The average sparing of cord, heart, and esophagus was 23, 4, and 6%, respectively. For the majority of the DIs, DM optimization resulted in lower lung doses. On average, the doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung were lower by approximately 3 and 4%, whereas lung

  13. Dose-mass inverse optimization for minimally moving thoracic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, I. B.; Moros, E. G.

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade, several different radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation and optimization schemes have been proposed as viable approaches, aiming for dose escalation or an increase of healthy tissue sparing. In particular, it has been argued that dose-mass plan evaluation and treatment plan optimization might be viable alternatives to the standard of care, which is realized through dose-volume evaluation and optimization. The purpose of this investigation is to apply dose-mass optimization to a cohort of lung cancer patients and compare the achievable healthy tissue sparing to that one achievable through dose-volume optimization. Fourteen non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient plans were studied retrospectively. The range of tumor motion was less than 0.5 cm and motion management in the treatment planning process was not considered. For each case, dose-volume (DV)-based and dose-mass (DM)-based optimization was performed. Nine-field step-and-shoot IMRT was used, with all of the optimization parameters kept the same between DV and DM optimizations. Commonly used dosimetric indices (DIs) such as dose to 1% the spinal cord volume, dose to 50% of the esophageal volume, and doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung volumes were used for cross-comparison. Similarly, mass-based indices (MIs), such as doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung masses, 1% of spinal cord mass, and 33% of heart mass, were also tallied. Statistical equivalence tests were performed to quantify the findings for the entire patient cohort. Both DV and DM plans for each case were normalized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescribed dose. DM optimization resulted in more organs at risk (OAR) sparing than DV optimization. The average sparing of cord, heart, and esophagus was 23, 4, and 6%, respectively. For the majority of the DIs, DM optimization resulted in lower lung doses. On average, the doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung were lower by approximately 3 and 4%, whereas lung

  14. IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor of the renal pelvis involving renal parenchyma, mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho Gyun; Kim, Kyoung Min

    2016-01-22

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic disease characterized by storiform fibrosis with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. In rare incidences, IgG4-related renal disease can present as a solitary mass lesion at renal pelvis and can pose a diagnostic challenge since these lesions mimic malignancy. Herein, we present a rare case of IgG4-related disease presenting as inflammatory pseudotumor lesion, involving the renal pelvis and also neighboring renal parenchyma. A 75-year-old man with no history of IgG4-related disease underwent computed tomography (CT) scan for evaluation of prostatic cancer. The CT scan incidentally revealed a mass lesion located at the right renal pelvis. Radiologic findings were highly suggestive of malignancy. Therefore, the patient underwent right nephroureterectomy. Microscopically, the mass lesion showed storiform fibrosis with diffuse and intense inflammatory cell infiltration. Infiltrating cells were mainly histiocytes and plasma cells. Tubulointerstitium adjacent to the lesion also showed fibrosis with abundant plasmacytic infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells in both the mass lesion and tubulointerstitium (mean of 94/HPF per field). Considering these findings, we diagnosed the mass lesion as IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor of the renal pelvis. In patients with renal pelvic masses, IgG4-related inflammatory pesudotumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  15. Comparative study of multiport laparoscopy and umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with reusable platform for treating renal masses.

    PubMed

    Chantada, C; García-Tello, A; Esquinas, C; Moraga, A; Redondo, C; Angulo, J C

    Umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an increasingly used modality for treating renal masses. We present a prospective comparison between LESS renal surgery and conventional laparoscopy. A comparative paired study was conducted that evaluated the surgical results and complications of patients with renal neoplasia treated with LESS surgery (n=49) or multiport laparoscopy (n=53). The LESS approach was performed with reusable material placed in the navel and double-rotation curved instruments. An additional 3.5-mm port was employed in 69.4% of the cases. We assessed demographic data, the type of technique (nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy), surgical time, blood loss, haemoglobin, need for transfusion, number and severity of complications (Clavien-Dindo), hospital stay, histological data and prognosis. There were no differences in follow-up, age, sex, body mass index, preoperative haemoglobin levels or type of surgery. Conversion occurred in 2 cases (1 in each group). The surgical time was equivalent (P=.6). Intraoperative transfusion (P=.03) and blood loss (P<.0001) was lower with LESS, postoperative haemoglobin levels were higher (P<.0001) and haemostatic agents were used more frequently (P<.0001). There were no differences in the number (P=.6) or severity (P=.47) of complications. The length of stay (P<.0001), the proportion of patients with drainage (P=.04) and the number of days with drainage (P=.0004) were lower in LESS. Twenty-five percent of the lesions operated on with LESS were benign, but the mean size was similar in the 2 groups (P=.5). Tumour recurrence and/or progression were more frequent in multiport laparoscopy (P=.0013). Umbilical LESS surgery with reusable platform enables various surgical techniques to be performed when treating renal masses, with time consumption and safety comparable to conventional laparoscopy. The LESS approach is advantageous in terms of blood loss and hospital stay. Copyright © 2016

  16. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chaoqun; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Zhen; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an accurate technique for sampling the pancreas and mediastinum; however, limited data are available for other mass lesions. The aim of this study was to explore the value of EUS-FNA in the differential diagnosis of all mass lesions. Data from patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of mass lesions, including pancreatic, mediastinal, celiac and retroperitoneal lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The accuracy was calculated by comparing the results of FNA with the results of pathological examination or follow-up surveillances in non-operated cases. A total of 150 cases were included. The location of the mass varied from the pancreas (n=62) to the mediastinum (n=29), gastrointestinal tract (n=36), celiac cavity and retroperitoneum (n=23). The sensitivity and Youdens index of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of all lesions were 92.97% and 0.93 respectively. The accuracy of diagnosis of pancreatic, mediastinal, gastrointestinal, celiac and retroperitoneal lesions was 85.48, 89.66, 83.33 and 78.23%, respectively. Masses were categorized into parenchymal organs (n=66), luminal organs (n=36) and enlarged lymph nodes (n=33). Lesions in parenchymal organs were likely to be bigger than those in luminal organs (P=0.03) and enlarged lymph nodes (P=0.01). For solid and cystic masses, which constituted 63.3 and 14.7% of the total masses, no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed (P=0.56); however, lesion sizes were significantly different between these two groups (P=0.04) and the majority of cystic masses were identified in women (P=0.03). Malignant lesions were more common in older (P=0.01) and male (P=0.03) patients. In conclusion, EUS-FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of unexplained mass lesions; it influences the management of patients by enabling the appropriate treatment to be identified. PMID:27446324

  17. Retroperitoneal and transperitoneal laparoscopic cryotherapy for small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, A; Bellido, J A; Muñoz-Rodríguez, J; Abascal-Junquera, J M; Hannaoui, N; Banús, J M

    2015-11-01

    Cryotherapy is a minimally invasive ablative technique that is considered an alternative to conventional surgery for preserving renal function in small renal tumors and in selected cases. We present our results from laparoscopic renal cryotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed 17 renal tumors diagnosed in 16 patients treated with cryotherapy. The patients' mean age was 66 years (43-80). The mean tumor size was 1.8cm (0.7-3.7cm). Cryotherapy with double-freeze cycle was performed laparoscopically in all cases (10 by transperitoneal approach and 7 by retroperitoneal approach). Perioperative biopsies were performed on all patients and were positive for malignancy in 10 cases (59%). The mean stay was 2.8 days. The mean operative time was 162 minutes. Only 1 case reverted to open surgery due to bleeding. One patient required a blood transfusion in the immediate postoperative period. The majority of complications were Clavien-Dindo grades I and II. Some 76.5% of the patients had no complications. After a mean follow-up of 31 months (6-102), 1 patient died from nontumor-related causes, and 12 patients (75%) still show no evidence of local recurrence or progression. One patient had tumor persistence and therefore underwent partial nephrectomy at 6 months. One patient had a metachronous recurrence in the same kidney at 36 months, and another patient had a recurrence at 23 months. Laparoscopic renal cryotherapy is a safe and feasible technique and is a good alternative to surgery for selected renal tumors. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions associated with toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, Folusakin; Todd, John; Al-Delfi, Firas; King, John

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of enhancing brain lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is typically associated with low CD4-lymphocyte counts. Extensive toxoplasma encephalitis when the CD4-lymphocyte count is above 100 cells/µl is unusual. Cavitary lung lesions are also not typically associated with toxoplasmosis. Here, we present a case of toxoplasmosis associated with extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions, both of which improved with directed toxoplasmosis therapy, in an AIDS patient with a CD4 cell count of 120 cells/µl.

  19. Characterization of Small (< 4 cm) Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectral Analysis Using Single-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy CT.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavik N; Bibbey, Alex; Choudhury, Kingshuk R; Leder, Richard A; Nelson, Rendon C; Marin, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis improves the accuracy of diagnosis of small (< 4.0 cm) renal lesions, compared with conventional single-energy attenuation measurements. In this retrospective study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign and 33 malignant) underwent single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained, and an attenuation change of 15 HU or greater was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy spectral attenuation curves were generated for each lesion. The slope of each curve was measured between 40 and 50 keV (λHU40-50), 40 and 70 keV (λHU40-70), and 40 and 140 keV (λHU40-140). Mean lesion attenuation values and spectral attenuation curve parameters were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by use of the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed and validated using cross-validation analysis. With the use of cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions improved significantly when both λHU40-70 and λHU40-140 were used, compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103/111; 95% CI, 86-97%] vs 81% [90/111; 95% CI, 73-88%]) (p = 0.02). The sensitivity of λHU40-70 and λHU40-140 was also higher than that of conventional enhancement measurements, although it was not statistically significant. Single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis significantly improves the specificity for characterization of small (< 4.0 cm) renal lesions, compared with conventional single-energy attenuation measurements.

  20. Scintigraphic diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma: its role in the management of hepatic mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Moinuddin, M.; Allison, J.R.; Montgomery, J.H.; Rockett, J.F.; McMurray, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver that are often an incidental finding. They are usually asymptomatic but may cause symptoms when traumatized, may bleed spontaneously, or may produce pain by virtue of their large size and mass effect. A retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation, liver function tests, and diagnostic imaging procedures in 20 patients with hepatic hemangiomas is presented and the literature is reviewed. The 20 patients had 27 mass lesions as seen on liver scintigraphy, computed tomography, or sonography. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell flow studies and blood pool scintigrams showed delayed filling of the mass lesions, diagnostic of hemangiomas. This finding was not encountered in any other type of lesion. A new diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which flood-flow and blood-pool scintigraphy play a more prominent role in the diagnostic workup.

  1. Renal Mass Biopsy to Guide Treatment Decisions for Small Incidental Renal Tumors: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Gervais, Debra A.; Hartman, Rebecca I.; Harisinghani, Mukesh G.; Feldman, Adam S.; Mueller, Peter R.; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of using renal mass biopsy to guide treatment decisions for small incidentally detected renal tumors. Materials and Methods: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to estimate life expectancy and lifetime costs for patients with small (≤4-cm) renal tumors. Two strategies were compared: renal mass biopsy to triage patients to surgery or imaging surveillance and empiric nephron-sparing surgery. The model incorporated biopsy performance, the probability of track seeding with malignant cells, the prevalence and growth of benign and malignant tumors, treatment effectiveness and costs, and patient outcomes. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to identify strategy preference under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $75 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Effects of changes in key parameters on strategy preference were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. Results: Under base-case assumptions, the biopsy strategy yielded a minimally greater quality-adjusted life expectancy (4 days) than did empiric surgery at a lower lifetime cost ($3466), dominating surgery from a cost-effectiveness perspective. Over the majority of parameter ranges tested in one-way sensitivity analysis, the biopsy strategy dominated surgery or was cost-effective relative to surgery based on a $75 000-per-QALY willingness-to-pay threshold. In two-way sensitivity analysis, surgery yielded greater life expectancy when the prevalence of malignancy and propensity for biopsy-negative cancers to metastasize were both higher than expected or when the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy were both lower than expected. Conclusion: The use of biopsy to guide treatment decisions for small incidentally detected renal tumors is cost-effective and can prevent unnecessary surgery in many cases. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.10092013/-/DC1 PMID

  2. 18F-FDG PET-CT Findings Before and After Laparoscopic Cryoablation of Small Renal Mass: An Initial Report

    PubMed Central

    Sivro, Ferida; van der Zee, Johan A.; Baars, Phillippe C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging combined with low-dose computed tomography (CT) in small renal mass (SRM) treated with cryoablation (CA). Currently, treatment success is defined by the absence of contrast enhancement at CT. However, the use of contrast is relatively contraindicated in patients with renal function impairment, mandating alternative follow-up strategies. Several reasons were identified as criteria for performing PET-CT before and/or after SRM-CA in 9 patients, and the results were retrospectively studied. The histology revealed renal cell carcinoma in 7 patients and oncocytoma in 2 patients. In 6 patients, a PET-CT was performed before and after CA. In one patient, the PET-CT was performed only before CA and in 2 patients only after CA. Before CA, clearly there was metabolic uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the SRM in all patients. Following CA, the absence of 18F-FDG uptakes in the SRM could clearly be noticed. However, the tracer cannot always be distinguished from focal recurrence or reactive inflammatory tissue. In one patient, asymptomatic metastatic bone lesions were noticed when performing PET-CT at follow-up. This pilot study with 18F-FDG PET-CT for the follow-up of SRM cryosurgery showed that 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging could be used to characterize cryoablative tissue injury at different times after CA. PMID:28326272

  3. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  4. Inferior vena cava aneurysm in an infant presenting with a renal mass.

    PubMed

    Unzueta-Roch, José L; García-Abós, Miriam; Sirvent-Cerdá, Sara; de Prada, Inmaculada; Martínez de Azagra, Amelia; Ollero, Jose M; Madero-López, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Aneurysm of the inferior vena cava is a rare finding in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 5-month-old infant presenting with anemia, hypertension, and dehydration in the emergency room. A renal mass was found with ultrasound and MRI and a renal tumor was first considered. Histopathologic review of the surgical specimen led to the diagnosis of aneurysmal dilatation of the vena cava.

  5. Synchronous malignant renal mass in patient with a Lung cancer: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mazouz, Aicha; Amaadour, Lamiae; souaf, Ihsane; El Fatemi, Hinde; Amarti, Afaf; Erraisse, Mohamed Ait; Oubelkacem, Essaadia; Bouhafa, Touria; Tahiri, Yassir; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Mellas, Soufiane; Arifi, Samia; Mellas, Nawfel

    2015-01-01

    The finding on imaging (computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging) of synchronous malignant renal mass in patient with an active nonrenal malignancy without renal specific symptoms is not frequent and diagnostic evaluation can be challenging. We describe a 54-year-old Moroccan male former chronic smoker who presented to our hospital with dry cough and impairment of the performance status. The imaging found a tumor mass in the left upper lobe of the lung associated to mediastinal lymph node and a scanno-guided biopsy of this tumor showed a non small cell lung cancer. The radiological staging revealed a solitary renal mass in the right kidney. The patient received firstly two cycles of a lung cancer chemotherapy with a partial response in the lung and a stability of the renal mass. Consequently, he underwent a scanno-guided biopsy of this mass which confirmed a synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma. The patient got chemo radiotherapy for the lung cancer and then after that he got a partial nephrectomy. He is still under a good control with more than 2 years after the initial diagnosis.

  6. Synchronous malignant renal mass in patient with a Lung cancer: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mazouz, Aicha; Amaadour, Lamiae; Souaf, Ihsane; El Fatemi, Hinde; Amarti, Afaf; Erraisse, Mohamed Ait; Oubelkacem, Essaadia; Bouhafa, Touria; Tahiri, Yassir; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Mellas, Soufiane; Arifi, Samia; Mellas, Nawfel

    2015-01-01

    The finding on imaging (computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging) of synchronous malignant renal mass in patient with an active nonrenal malignancy without renal specific symptoms is not frequent and diagnostic evaluation can be challenging. We describe a 54-year-old Moroccan male former chronic smoker who presented to our hospital with dry cough and impairment of the performance status. The imaging found a tumor mass in the left upper lobe of the lung associated to mediastinal lymph node and a scanno-guided biopsy of this tumor showed a non small cell lung cancer. The radiological staging revealed a solitary renal mass in the right kidney. The patient received firstly two cycles of a lung cancer chemotherapy with a partial response in the lung and a stability of the renal mass. Consequently, he underwent a scanno-guided biopsy of this mass which confirmed a synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma. The patient got chemo radiotherapy for the lung cancer and then after that he got a partial nephrectomy. He is still under a good control with more than 2 years after the initial diagnosis. PMID:26015842

  7. Characterization of Small Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy with Single-Phase Contrast-enhanced Dual-Energy CT with Material Attenuation Analysis Compared with Conventional Attenuation Measurements.

    PubMed

    Marin, Daniele; Davis, Drew; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Patel, Bhavik; Gupta, Rajan T; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C

    2017-03-28

    Purpose To determine whether single-phase contrast material-enhanced dual-energy material attenuation analysis improves the characterization of small (1-4 cm) renal lesions compared with conventional attenuation measurements by using histopathologic analysis and follow-up imaging as the clinical reference standards. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign, 33 malignant) measuring 1-4 cm underwent single-energy unenhanced and contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained; attenuation change of greater than or equal to 15 HU was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy attenuation measurements were also obtained by using iodine-water, water-iodine, calcium-water, and water-calcium material basis pairs. Mean lesion attenuation values and material densities were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by using the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy of attenuation measurements and dual-energy material densities was assessed and validated by using 10-fold cross-validation to limit the effect of optimistic bias. Results By using cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, iodine-water material attenuation images significantly improved specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 86%, 97%; vs 81% [90 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 73%, 88%) (P = .02). Sensitivity with iodine-water and calcium-water material attenuation images was also higher than that with conventional enhancement measurements, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT with material attenuation analysis improves specificity for

  8. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography.

  9. Contribution of Raman spectroscopy in nephrology: a candidate technique to detect hydroxyethyl starch of third generation in osmotic renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Vuiblet, V; Nguyen, T T; Wynckel, A; Fere, M; Van-Gulick, L; Untereiner, V; Birembaut, P; Rieu, P; Piot, O

    2015-11-07

    HydroxyEthyl Starch (HES) has been one of the most commonly used colloid volume expanders in intensive care units for over 50 years. The first and second generation HES, with a high molecular weight (≥200 kD) and a high degree of substitution (≥0.5), has been associated with both renal dysfunction and osmotic nephrosis-like lesions in histological studies. Recently, third generation HES (130 kD/<0.5) has also been shown to impair renal function in critically ill adult patients although tubular accumulation of HES has never been proven in the human kidney. Our objective was to demonstrate the potential of Raman micro-imaging to bring out the presence of third generation-HES in the kidney of patients having received the volume expander. Four biopsies presenting osmotic nephrosis-like lesions originated from HES-administrated patients with impaired renal function were compared with HES-negative biopsies (n = 10) by Raman microspectroscopy. The first step was dedicated to the identification of a specific vibration of HES permitting the detection of the cellular and tissue accumulation of the product. This specific vibration at 480 cm(-1) is assigned to a collective mode of the macromolecule; it is located in a spectral region with a limited contribution from biological materials. Based on this finding, HES distribution within tissue sections was investigated using Raman micro-imaging. Determination of HES positive pixels permitted us to clearly distinguish positive cases from HES-free biopsies (proportions of positive pixels from the total number of pixels: 23.48% ± 28 vs. 0.87% ± 1.2; p = 0.004). This study shows that Raman spectroscopy is a candidate technique to detect HES in kidney tissue samples currently manipulated in nephrology departments. In addition, on the clinical aspect, our approach suggests that renal impairment related to third generation HES administration is associated with osmotic nephrosis-like lesions and HES accumulation in the kidney.

  10. [OSTEOPOROSIS AND BODY MASS INDEX IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS].

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, María del Carmen; Ortega Martínez, Ana Raquel; Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael José; Bravo Soto, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Introducción y objetivos: tras el trasplante renal es frecuente un aumento de peso, así como un elevado porcentaje de obesidad en estos pacientes. Por otro lado, tras el trasplante se produce una pérdida de la masa ósea, siendo la prevalencia de osteoporosis y fracturas óseas mayor que en la población general. Objetivos: explorar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal y la prevalencia de osteopenia y osteoporosis en una población de trasplantados renales. Material y método: estudio longitudinal prospectivo sobre una muestra de 306 trasplantados renales. Se exploraron las relaciones entre el peso y el índice de masa corporal con la prevalencia de osteopenia y osteoporosis a nivel femoral y lumbar en el momento del trasplante y a los 12 meses del mismo. Resultados: se halló una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso (35,6%) y obesidad (14,1%) tras el trasplante renal y al año del mismo (42,2% y 24,2%, respectivamente). Se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,049) entre el peso en el momento del trasplante y la presencia de osteopenia u osteoporosis al año del mismo a nivel lumbar, siendo el peso medio más elevado entre los pacientes con osteoporosis. La media del IMC fue más elevada (p = 0,028) en los pacientes osteoporóticos (26,59 kg/m2) que en los pacientes con osteopenia (24,23 kg/m2). Conclusiones: nuestros resultados parecen estar en concordancia con recientes estudios realizados en la población general, que muestran el sobrepeso como un posible factor perjudicial para el hueso.

  11. Prognostic Relationships between Microbleed, Lacunar Infarction, White Matter Lesion, and Renal Dysfunction in Acute Ischemic Stroke Survivors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jae Woong; Jeong, Hye Seon; Choi, Dae Eun; Ham, Young Rok; Na, Ki Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Jei

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that renal dysfunction and cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD), including microbleed, lacunar infarction, and white matter lesion (WML), are associated with poor prognosis after ischemic stroke. However, the prognostic relationship between renal dysfunction and SVD has not been well evaluated in acute ischemic stroke survivors. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the prognostic relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cerebral SVD after acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological data of acute ischemic stroke survivors with decreased eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), n = 128) and controls (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), n = 128). The presence of SVD was evaluated according to magnetic resonance imaging performed on admission. Mortality data were obtained from medical chart reviews and telephone interviews. Patients with silent lacunar infarction, WML, or microbleed had lower eGFR than patients without such lesions (60.4 ± 34.8 versus 87.5 ± 28.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 60.5 ± 37.1 versus 73.9 ± 33.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 57.6 ± 33.3 versus 73.9 ± 32.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively). In addition, the multivariate adjusted odds ratio for the presence of SVD increased inversely with eGFR. Three-year survival was lower in patients with renal dysfunction and each type of SVD. The presence of WML was an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death. Renal impairment was associated with the presence of SVD in acute ischemic stroke survivors. Both renal impairment and the presence of SVD were predictors of poor poststroke survival. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Renal mass biopsy using Raman spectroscopy identifies malignant and benign renal tumors: potential for pre-operative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufei; Du, Zhebin; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Haowen

    2017-05-30

    The accuracy of renal mass biopsy to diagnose malignancy can be affected by multiple factors. Here, we investigated the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish malignant and benign renal tumors using biopsy specimens. Samples were collected from 63 patients who received radical or partial nephrectomy, mass suspicious of cancer and distal parenchyma were obtained from resected kidney using an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Four Raman spectra were obtained for each sample, and Discriminant Analysis was applied for data analysis. A total of 383 Raman spectra were eventually gathered and each type of tumor had its characteristic spectrum. Raman could separate tumoral and normal tissues with an accuracy of 82.53%, and distinguish malignant and benign tumors with a sensitivity of 91.79% and specificity of 71.15%. It could classify low-grade and high-grade tumors with an accuracy of 86.98%. Besides, clear cell renal carcinoma was differentiated with oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma with accuracy of 100% and 89.25%, respectively. And histological subtypes of cell carcinoma were distinguished with an accuracy of 93.48%. When compared with final pathology and biopsy, Raman spectroscopy was able to correctly identify 7 of 11 "missed" biopsy diagnoses. These results suggested that Raman may serve as a promising non-invasive approach in the future for pre-operative diagnosis.

  13. Compressibility of thyroid masses: a sonographic sign differentiating benign from malignant lesions?

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Lan; Yoon, Dae Young; Yoon, Soo Jeong; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the manual compressibility of thyroid masses with an ultrasound probe and to determine whether this ultrasound feature can be used to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. We prospectively compared images obtained during compression with an ultrasound probe and noncompressed ultrasound images of 180 pathologically proven thyroid masses (51 malignant, 129 benign) smaller than 2 cm in 169 patients (127 women, 42 men; mean age, 51.2 years). The size (anteroposterior and transverse dimensions) and shape (ratio of anteroposterior to transverse dimension) of the selected lesions were measured on both noncompressed and compressed ultrasound images at a computer workstation, and the compressibility (anteroposterior-to-transverse ratio on noncompressed images minus anteroposterior-to-transverse ratio on compressed images) was calculated. Compressibility was analyzed to determine its association with histopathologic results (benign versus malignant) and the characteristics of the thyroid mass (involved lobe, location in lobe, halo, and composition). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used as an indicator of performance. The mean anteroposterior-to-transverse ratio of a thyroid mass on compressed ultrasound images was significantly lower than that on noncompressed images (0.78 ± 0.28 vs 0.92 ± 0.30; p < 0.001). The compressibility of masses was greater for benign than for malignant lesions (0.19 ± 0.16 vs 0.05 ± 0.12; p < 0.001). No statistically significant association was identified between compressibility and other characteristics of a lesion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for compressibility of thyroid masses was 0.78. On the basis of a cutoff value for malignancy of compressibility less than 0.10, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 72.5%, 72.9%, and 72.8%. Compressibility with an ultrasound probe is a useful criterion for differentiating benign

  14. The Past, Present, and Future in Management of Small Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sarah C.; Zlomke, Haley A.; Cost, Nicholas; Wilson, Shandra

    2015-01-01

    Management of small renal masses (SRMs) is currently evolving due to the increased incidence given the ubiquity of cross-sectional imaging. Diagnosing a mass in the early stages theoretically allows for high rates of cure but simultaneously risks overtreatment. New consensus guidelines and treatment modalities are changing frequently. The multitude of information currently available shall be summarized in this review. This summary will detail the historic surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma with current innovations, the feasibility and utility of biopsy, the efficacy of ablative techniques, active surveillance, and use of biomarkers. We evaluate how technology may be used in approaching the small renal mass in order to decrease morbidity, while keeping rates of overtreatment to a minimum. PMID:26491445

  15. Historical Incidence of Spontaneous Lesions in Kidneys from Naïve Swine Utilized In Interventional Renal Denervation Studies.

    PubMed

    Rouselle, Serge D; Dillon, Krista N; Rousselle-Sabiac, Theo H; Brady, Dane A; Tunev, Stefan; Tellez, Armando

    2016-08-01

    retrospective study presents the historical incidence of spontaneous lesions recorded in the kidneys from naive pigs enrolled in renal denervation studies. There were commonly encountered changes of little pathological consequence such as pyelonephritis or pelvic cysts and rare vascular changes such as arteritis and arteriolar dissection that were of greater potential impact on study data interpretation. These results offer a benchmark by which to gage the potential effect of a procedure or treatment on renal histopathology in swine and assist in data interpretation.

  16. [The role of therapies in the treatment of small renal masses].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Puche-Sanz, Ignacio; Flores Martín, José; Martínez-Morcillo, Antonio; Vicente-Prados, Francisco Javier; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To analize the current role of target therapies in the treatment of small renal masses. We performed a bibliographic review on the effect of target therapies on primary renal tumor, including our initial experience with two cases of small renal tumor in single kidneys treated with sunitinib. There is very limited experience with target therapies, being possible to use them, as the reviewed literature shows, to increase safety in nephron sparing surgery or tissue ablation technique, or as the treatment for small renal tumors in patients with single kidney in whom nephron sparing surgery is not feasible. Of our two cases with small renal tumors in patients with single kidney, the first case has had complete response to sunitinib after 21 months of follow up, and the second has had tumor stabilization after 33 months of follow up, shifting from sunitinib to pazopanib due to intolerance. The indication of target therapies in the treatment of metastatic renal cancer could be expanded. These therapies could be useful in localized small renal cancer and, although experience with this indication is limited, results are promising.

  17. Rapidly Growing Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Mass in Patient with Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jongmin; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jeong Su; Hwang, Ki Won; Lee, Sang Hyun; Chon, Min Ku; Lee, Soo Yong; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvements is extremely rare with few reported cases. Sarcomatoid RCC with rhabdoid feature is a rare pathologic type of RCC having aggressive behavior due to great metastatic potential. Here, we report a case of rapidly growing cardiac metastasis of RCC which brought on right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction without IVC and right atrial involvement in a 61-year-old woman. Cardiac arrest occurred during radical nephrectomy and echocardiography revealed mass nearly obstructing the RVOT which was not recognized by preoperative echocardiography 1 month ago. Postoperative immunohistochemical evaluation of renal mass revealed sarcomatoid RCC with rhabdoid feature. PMID:28090262

  18. Simulated cystic renal lesions: quantitative X-ray phase-contrast CT--an in vitro phantom study.

    PubMed

    Fingerle, Alexander A; Willner, Marian; Herzen, Julia; Münzel, Daniela; Hahn, Dieter; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-09-01

    To determine if grating-based x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) can allow differentiation of simulated simple, protein-rich, hemorrhagic, and enhancing cystic renal lesions in an in vitro phantom. An in vitro phantom specifically designed to simulate simple, protein-rich, hemorrhagic, and enhancing renal cysts was scanned with an experimental grating-based phase-contrast CT setup consisting of a Talbot-Lau interferometer with a rotating anode x-ray tube and a single photon counting detector. Various combinations of serum and saline (100% and 0% to 0% and 100%), blood and saline, blood and serum (100% and 0% to 6.25% and 93.75% for both), and an iodinated contrast agent and saline (7.6-1.6 mg per milliliter of saline) were used to reproduce the chemical composition of the different types of cysts. A thickened solution of an iodinated contrast agent calibrated with a clinical multidetector CT scanner served as contrast agent-enhanced renal parenchyma (195 HU at 80 kVp, 400 mAs and 98 HU at 140 kVp, 200 mAs). Standard attenuation- and phase-contrast images were reconstructed from the raw projection data. Quantitative values for attenuation and phase contrast and image noise were determined. Contrast-to-noise ratios were calculated. Simulated lesions were assessed for visual differentiability by means of pairwise comparison of the attenuation- and phase-contrast images and both images simultaneously. Attenuation-contrast imaging showed large differences in Hounsfield units with increasing concentrations of iodine (118.9 HU for 1.6 mg/mL vs 331.4 HU for 7.6 mg/mL). Values for phase-contrast imaging were substantially distinguishable for saline, serum, and blood (7.9, 23.7, and 52.8 HU, respectively). Both imaging modalities combined allowed differentiation of all four types of simulated cysts (100% saline, 100% serum, 100% blood, and 1.6-7.6 mg of iodine per milliliter of saline) with one imaging acquisition. Grating-based phase-contrast CT allows

  19. Comparison of percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation for the treatment of solid renal masses.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, J Louis; Shadid, Anthony M; Nakada, Stephen Y; Hedican, Sean P; Winter, Thomas C; Lee, Fred T

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the outcome, complications, and charges of percutaneous renal cryoablation and laparoscopic cryoablation of solid renal masses. A total of 30 percutaneous renal cryoablations (mean tumor size, 2.1 cm) in 30 patients (mean age, 67.0 years) and 60 laparoscopic renal cryoablations (mean tumor size, 2.5 cm) in 46 patients (mean age, 67.4 years) were compared. The size of the tumor, procedural complications, hospital charges, length of hospital stay, and tumor follow-up parameters were recorded. Monitoring after ablation was performed every 3 months using contrast-enhanced MRI or CT. Both percutaneous cryoablation and laparoscopic cryoablation of solid renal masses had a high technical success rate (30/30 [100%] and 59/60 [98.3%]). There was no significant difference in the rate of residual disease (3/30 [10%] and 4/60 [6.7%], p = 0.68), and the secondary effectiveness rate is 100% for both groups to date. One renal mass treated using laparoscopic cryoablation had a local recurrence, but none of the masses treated using percutaneous cryoablation had a recurrence. The disease-specific survival is 100% in both groups with no significant difference in the mean follow-up time (14.5 vs 14.6 months, p = 1.0) or major complication rate (0/30 [0%] vs 3/60 [5.0%], p = 0.55). For the treatment of solid renal masses, percutaneous cryoablation was associated with 40% lower hospital charges (mean, $14,175 vs $23,618, p < 0.00001) and a shorter hospital stay (mean +/- SD, 1.1 +/- 0.3 vs 2.4 +/- 2.1 days; p < 0.0001) than laparoscopic cryoablation. Although certain tumors require laparoscopic intervention because of the location or size of the tumor, percutaneous renal cryoablation is safe and effective and is associated with lower charges when used for the treatment of small renal tumors.

  20. Seizure syndrome as a first manifestation of solitary tumor-like mass lesion of PACNS

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, De-Sheng; Yang, Xiao-Li; Lv, Hui-Hui; Bai, Chen-Guang; Yang, Pang-Pan; Li, Ze-Zhi; Hao, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Guan, Yang-Tai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an inflammatory disease involving cerebrovascular and parenchymal, and solitary tumor-like mass lesion of PACNS (TLML-PACNS) is frequently misdiagnosed as neoplastic or other inflammatory diseases. However, seizure syndrome as a first manifestation of TLML-PACNS has rarely reported before. Patient concerns: Here, we report 2 cases of seizure syndrome, which was the first sign that presented prior to the diagnosis of TLML-PACNS by brain biopsy. Diagnoses: A mass lesion in the white and gray matters was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The pathology for leptomeningeal lesion biopsy observed a transmural inflammation of the artery, with T lymphocyte infiltration. Patients were diagnosed with PACNS and epileptic seizure by biopsy and electroencephalogram. Interventions: Patients were treated with glucocorticoid pulse therapy for 3 days, and subsequently oral prednisone was continued, in combination with immunosuppressant. Outcomes: Luckily, both two patients were improved after treatment, and only mild cognitive impairment remained without adverse event. Lessons: Patient with mass lesion in CNS, which is similar to tumor, presented with seizure, headache, or cerebrovascular events without any other risk factors for stroke or tumor, should be considered the feasible with the disease of TLML-PACNS. PMID:28248859

  1. Five-year analysis of a multi-institutional prospective clinical trial of delayed intervention and surveillance for small renal masses: the DISSRM registry.

    PubMed

    Pierorazio, Phillip M; Johnson, Michael H; Ball, Mark W; Gorin, Michael A; Trock, Bruce J; Chang, Peter; Wagner, Andrew A; McKiernan, James M; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2015-09-01

    A growing body of retrospective literature is emerging regarding active surveillance (AS) for patients with small renal masses (SRMs). There are limited prospective data evaluating the effectiveness of AS compared to primary intervention (PI). To determine the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients who chose AS for management of their SRM. From 2009 to 2014, the multi-institutional Delayed Intervention and Surveillance for Small Renal Masses (DISSRM) registry prospectively enrolled 497 patients with solid renal masses ≤4.0cm who chose PI or AS. AS versus PI. The registry was designed and powered as a noninferiority study based on historic recurrence rates for PI. Analyses were performed in an intention-to-treat manner. Primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Of the 497 patients enrolled, 274 (55%) chose PI and 223 (45%) chose AS, of whom 21 (9%) crossed over to delayed intervention. AS patients were older, had worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scores, total comorbidities, and cardiovascular comorbidities, had smaller tumors, and more often had multiple and bilateral lesions. OS for PI and AS was 98% and 96% at 2 yr, and 92% and 75% at 5 yr, respectively (log rank, p=0.06). At 5 yr, CSS was 99% and 100% for PI and AS, respectively (p=0.3). AS was not predictive of OS or CSS in regression modeling with relatively short follow-up. In a well-selected cohort with up to 5 yr of prospective follow-up, AS was not inferior to PI. The current report is among the first prospective analyses of patients electing for active surveillance of a small renal mass. Discussion of active surveillance should become part of the standard discussion for management of small renal masses. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The emerging role of percutaneous biopsy in diagnosis and management of small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Yap, Stanley A; Stakhovskyi, Oleksandr; Finelli, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Percutaneous biopsy has an emerging role in the diagnosis and management of small renal masses. The increasing importance of percutaneous biopsy is related to both a better understanding of the natural history of these tumors as well as new developments in treatment strategies. We discuss the emerging role of biopsy in the current practice setting. Additionally, we review recent data regarding its diagnostic accuracy, important technical considerations, and possible complications. Finally, we speculate on its future role in managing these patients. The role of percutaneous renal biopsy in the management of small renal masses continues to evolve. It is critically important at this juncture to evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of such an approach.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of Whipple's disease confined to the CNS presenting with multiple intracerebral mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Poureisa, Masoud; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaili, Haidar; Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient diagnosed with Whipple's disease (WD) who presented only with neurological symptoms. Neuroimaging (MRI) showed lesions with marked mass effect similar to infiltrative tumors, which were hypersignal on long TR and hyposignal on short TR images, located in several areas of the brain. In serial controls, lesions resolved with gliosis and atrophic changes as well as migration of active infiltrative-like lesions to new areas. MR findings of the brain WD are discussed, which confirmed by stereotactic brain biopsy. Familiarity with the range of possible MR imaging appearances of WD enables the radiologist to place WD more effectively on the differential diagnosis which motivates the clinician to consider both the diagnosis and early initiation of treatment; so, this may significantly impact outcome. Moreover, repeated MR investigations may serve as a valuable method to evaluate efficacy of treatment and long term follow-up of WD involving the CNS.

  4. A method for mass candidate detection and an application to liver lesion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Maria J.; Tsymbal, Alexey; Nguatem, William; Suehling, Michael; Zhou, S. Kevin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-03-01

    Detection and segmentation of abnormal masses within organs in Computed Tomography (CT) images of patients is of practical importance in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), treatment planning, and analysis of normal as well as pathological regions. For intervention planning e.g. in radiotherapy the detection of abnormal masses is essential for patient diagnosis, personalized treatment choice and follow-up. The unpredictable nature of disease often makes the detection of the presence, appearance, shape, size and number of abnormal masses a challenging task, which is particularly tedious when performed by hand. Moreover, in cases in which the imaging protocol specifies the administration of a contrast agent, the contrast agent phases at which the patient images are acquired have a dramatic influence on the shape and appearance of the diseased masses. In this paper we propose a method to automatically detect candidate lesions (CLs) in 3D CTs of liver lesions. We introduce a novel multilevel candidate generation method that proves clearly advantageous in a comparative study with a state of the art approach. A learning-based selection module and a candidate fusion module are then introduced to reduce both redundancy and the false positive rate. The proposed workflow is applied to the detection of both hyperdense and hypodense hepatic lesions in all contrast agent phases, with resulting sensitivities of 89.7% and 92% and positive predictive values of 82.6% and 87.6% respectively.

  5. Utility of the RENAL index -Radius; Exophytic/endophytic; Nearness to sinus; Anterior/posterior; Location relative to polar lines- in the management of renal masses.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, C; Trilla, E; Lorente, D; Morote, J

    2016-12-01

    The growing incidence of renal masses and the wide range of available treatments require predictive tools that support the decision making process. The RENAL index -Radius; Exophytic/endophytic; Nearness to sinus; Anterior/posterior; Location relative to polar lines- helps standardise the anatomy of a renal mass by differentiating 3 groups of complexity. Since the introduction of the index, there have been a growing number of studies, some of which have been conflicting, that have evaluated the clinical utility of its implementation. To analyse the scientific evidence on the relationship between the RENAL index and the main strategies for managing renal masses. A search was conducted in the Medline database, which found 576 references on the RENAL index. In keeping with the PRISM Declaration, we selected 100 abstracts and ultimately reviewed 96 articles. The RENAL index has a high degree of interobserver correlation and has been validated as a predictive nomogram of histological results. In active surveillance, the index has been related to the tumour growth rate and probability of nephrectomy. In ablative therapy, the index has been associated with therapeutic efficacy, complications and tumour recurrence. In partial nephrectomy, the index has been related to the rate of complications, conversion to radical surgery, ischaemia time, function preservation and tumour recurrence, a finding also observed in radical nephrectomy. The RENAL index is an objective, reproducible and useful system as a predictive tool of highly relevant clinical parameters such as the rate of complications, ischaemia time, renal function and oncological results in the various currently accepted treatments for the management of renal masses. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis as the sole renal lesion in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Salwa

    2010-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis usually presents with focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescents. We present here a 45-year old man who was treated for tuberculosis and later presented with bilateral ankle swelling. His serum creatinine was 2.4 mg/dL and urine analysis revealed hematuria and proteinuria. His 24-hour urine protein excretion was 1.9 g. Anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) test was positive with cytoplasmic florescence pattern. Renal biopsy revealed focal segmental sclerosis with no active vasculitis and lung biopsy revealed extensive breakdown with cavitations and scattered granulomas.

  7. Successful treatment of highly advanced immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease presenting renal mass-like regions with end-stage kidney failure: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Taichi; Mima, Akira; Shibata, Eriko; Tamaki, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ueda, Sayo; Kishi, Fumi; Kishi, Seiji; Kawanaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Motokazu; Nagai, Kojiro; Abe, Hideharu; Harada, Masashi; Doi, Toshio

    2017-08-03

    Immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease characterized by immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis has distinctive serological and radiological findings. Renal prognosis is good because of a good response to glucocorticoids. Here we report a case of successful treatment of highly advanced immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease presenting renal mass-like regions with end-stage kidney failure. A 59-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital because of uremia with a creatinine level of 12.36 mg/dL. Urinalysis revealed mild proteinuria and hyperβ2microglobulinuria, and blood tests showed hyperglobulinemia with an IgG level of 3243 mg/dL and an IgG4 level of 621 mg/dL. Non-contrast computed tomography revealed renal mass-like regions. Based on the findings, immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease was suspected, however, further radiological examination showed unexpected results. Ga-67 scintigraphy showed no kidney uptake. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high-intensity signals which corresponded to mass-like regions and multiple patchy low-intensity signals in kidney cortex. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease by renal pathology of severe immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis and characteristic fibrosis. He received 50 mg oral prednisolone, which was tapered with a subsequent decrease of serum creatinine and IgG4 levels. One year after initiation of treatment, he achieved normalization of serum IgG4 level and proteinuria, and remained off dialysis with a creatinine level of 3.50 mg/dL. After treatment with steroids, repeat imaging suggested bilateral severe focal atrophy. However, mass-like regions did not show atrophic change although renal atrophy was evident in patchy low-intensity lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that multiple patchy low-intensity signals and high-intensity mass

  8. Association of Different MRI BIRADS Descriptors With Malignancy in Non Mass-Like Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gity, Masoumeh; Ghazi Moghadam, Koosha; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies on the diagnostic efficacy of MRI has not real consensus for the accuracy of MRI characteristics in non mass like breast lesions, and the number of malignant lesions in different studies is insufficient. Objectives: In this study we aimed to analyze the diagnostic role of MRI BIRADS features for diagnosis of malignancy in non mass like breast lesions. Patients and Methods: All patients with positive findings (BIRADS 3, 4, 5), which had either biopsy proved pathology or follow-up MRI data at least for 12 months were included in the study. Finally, 213 breasts MRI that showed non mass like enhancing lesions among our patients were assessed in study. One experienced breast radiologist who was unaware of any clinical information or the histopathologic diagnosis evaluated all images retrospectively. The morphologic parameters evaluated consisted of distribution modifiers and pattern of internal enhancement. The kinetic enhancement parameters were assessed as showing washout, plateau, or persistent patterns. In the enhancement kinetic analysis, thew most worrisome curve type in each lesion was considered for interpretation, if it was more than 2% enhancement. We have evaluated the visual findings by comparison of the signal intensity on the first and third dynamic series. Data for the study were extracted from the breast MRI database and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Results: Totally 188 patients had 213 non mass like lesions. Mean age of the patients was 44.9 ± 8.3 years (24-63). Totally 46 of lesions were malignant (21.6%). The most common BIRADS score was 4 (116; 54.5%). The most prevalent feature of distribution, internal enhancement and curve type were focal (59.2%), clumped (27.2%) and washout (34.3%). Distribution of different subgroups of MR BIRADS features was different among benign and malignant lesions (All Pvalues < 0.05). Regarding association with malignancy, odds ratio of lesions with segmental or ductal

  9. Association of Different MRI BIRADS Descriptors With Malignancy in Non Mass-Like Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gity, Masoumeh; Ghazi Moghadam, Koosha; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2014-12-01

    Several studies on the diagnostic efficacy of MRI has not real consensus for the accuracy of MRI characteristics in non mass like breast lesions, and the number of malignant lesions in different studies is insufficient. In this study we aimed to analyze the diagnostic role of MRI BIRADS features for diagnosis of malignancy in non mass like breast lesions. All patients with positive findings (BIRADS 3, 4, 5), which had either biopsy proved pathology or follow-up MRI data at least for 12 months were included in the study. Finally, 213 breasts MRI that showed non mass like enhancing lesions among our patients were assessed in study. One experienced breast radiologist who was unaware of any clinical information or the histopathologic diagnosis evaluated all images retrospectively. The morphologic parameters evaluated consisted of distribution modifiers and pattern of internal enhancement. The kinetic enhancement parameters were assessed as showing washout, plateau, or persistent patterns. In the enhancement kinetic analysis, thew most worrisome curve type in each lesion was considered for interpretation, if it was more than 2% enhancement. We have evaluated the visual findings by comparison of the signal intensity on the first and third dynamic series. Data for the study were extracted from the breast MRI database and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Totally 188 patients had 213 non mass like lesions. Mean age of the patients was 44.9 ± 8.3 years (24-63). Totally 46 of lesions were malignant (21.6%). The most common BIRADS score was 4 (116; 54.5%). The most prevalent feature of distribution, internal enhancement and curve type were focal (59.2%), clumped (27.2%) and washout (34.3%). Distribution of different subgroups of MR BIRADS features was different among benign and malignant lesions (All Pvalues < 0.05). Regarding association with malignancy, odds ratio of lesions with segmental or ductal linear distribution was 3.4 (95% CI = 1.7-6.8), Clumped

  10. Contemporary results of percutaneous biopsy of 100 small renal masses: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Alessandro; Mattar, Kamal; Finelli, Antonio; Kachura, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Geddie, William R; Jewett, Michael A S

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous biopsy of small renal tumors has not been historically performed because of concern about complications and accuracy. We reviewed our experience with percutaneous needle biopsy of small renal masses to assess the safety and accuracy of the procedure, the potential predictors of a diagnostic result and the role of biopsy in clinical decision making. A total of 100 percutaneous needle biopsies of renal masses less than 4 cm were performed between January 2000 and May 2007 with 18 gauge needles and a coaxial technique under ultrasound and/or computerized tomography guidance. A retrospective chart review was performed to document the complication rate and the ability to obtain sufficient tissue for diagnosis. Tumor size, tumor type (solid vs cystic), image guidance, biopsy number and core length were assessed for the ability to predict a diagnostic biopsy. No tumor seeding or significant bleeding was observed. Of the core biopsies 84 (84%) were diagnostic for a malignant (66) or a benign (18) tumor. Larger tumor size and a solid pattern were significant predictors of a diagnostic result. Histological subtyping and grading were possible on core biopsies in 93% and 68% of renal cell carcinomas, respectively. A total of 20 patients underwent surgery after a diagnostic biopsy. The histological concordance of biopsies and surgical specimens was 100%. Percutaneous needle biopsy of renal masses less than 4 cm is safe and provides adequate tissue for diagnosis in most cases. Larger tumor size and a solid pattern are significant predictors of a successful biopsy. Renal tumor biopsy decreases the rate of unnecessary surgery for benign tumors and can assist the clinician with treatment decision making, especially in elderly and unfit patients.

  11. Germline mutations in the VHL gene associated with 3 different renal lesions in a Chinese von Hippel-Lindau disease family

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ping; Sun, Qipeng; Liang, Hao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Ling; Wang, Ye; Deng, Huan; Lai, Luhua; Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiangfu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina, renal cell carcinoma and cysts, pancreatic tumors and cysts, and pheochromocytoma. The underlying gene in this disease is the VHL tumor suppressor gene. We characterized a family with 2 affected siblings. The brother and sister displayed VHL type 2B and type 2A features, respectively. Renal lesions in the brother exhibited 3 different phenotypes, including simple renal cysts, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The phenotypes of the 3 concurrent renal lesions were first reported in this study. Mutation detection of the VHL gene revealed 2 recurrent mutations, namely c.256C>T (p.P86S) and c.340 + 5G > C. The former was predicted to be deleterious and to destabilize the hydrophobic core and lead to VHL dysfunction; however, the latter was predicted to be a benign variant. Our findings provided new data for the genotype-phenotype of VHL diseases and elucidated the pathogenic mechanism with in silico analysis. PMID:27057652

  12. Germline mutations in the VHL gene associated with 3 different renal lesions in a Chinese von Hippel-Lindau disease family.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ping; Sun, Qipeng; Liang, Hao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Ling; Wang, Ye; Deng, Huan; Lai, Luhua; Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiangfu

    2016-06-02

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina, renal cell carcinoma and cysts, pancreatic tumors and cysts, and pheochromocytoma. The underlying gene in this disease is the VHL tumor suppressor gene. We characterized a family with 2 affected siblings. The brother and sister displayed VHL type 2B and type 2A features, respectively. Renal lesions in the brother exhibited 3 different phenotypes, including simple renal cysts, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The phenotypes of the 3 concurrent renal lesions were first reported in this study. Mutation detection of the VHL gene revealed 2 recurrent mutations, namely c.256C>T (p.P86S) and c.340 + 5G > C. The former was predicted to be deleterious and to destabilize the hydrophobic core and lead to VHL dysfunction; however, the latter was predicted to be a benign variant. Our findings provided new data for the genotype-phenotype of VHL diseases and elucidated the pathogenic mechanism with in silico analysis.

  13. Oral exposure to aristolochic acid I induces gastric histological lesions with non-specific renal injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xue-Yan; Shen, Jia-Ying; Deng, Zhong-Ping; Zhang, Ze-An

    2016-06-01

    Many Aristolochia species herbal drugs, used for diseases treatment since antiquity, contain active component aristolochic acid mixture, which consists of aristolochic acid I and II. However, it remains unclear whether aristolochic acid I is gastrotoxic, though evidence has shown that aristolochic acid mixture is nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, and genotoxic. The present study aimed to investigate the gastrotoxicity in rats treated with aristolochic acid I alone. Four groups of rats were orally administrated with vehicle (1% NaHCO3), or 30mg, 60mg, and 90mg/kg/day of aristolochic acid I for twelve days. The results showed that aristolochic acid I can induce obvious body weight loss, forestomach injury characterized by necrosis, ulcer, hyperkeratosis, and hyperplasia of epithelial cells. The severity of these forestomach lesions was presented in a dose-dependent mode. Meanwhile, only non-specific, slight renal tubule degeneration, and occasionally single necrotic epithelial cell were found in aristolochic acid I-treated rats' kidney. These resulst indicated aristolochic acid I had obvious gastrotoxicity, and such aristolochic acid I-induced forestomach toxicity probably presented much prior to kidney injury. Such irritation lesions may play a partial role in gastric cancer development of rats induced by aristolochic acid. Therefore, these results expanded our understanding on the digestive system toxicity of aristolochic acid I. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Benign nodal lesions mimicking metastases from pediatric renal neoplasms: a report of the National Wilms' Tumor Study Pathology Center.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D A; Beckwith, J B; Mierau, G W

    1990-12-01

    Regional lymph node status is a key factor in the staging of pediatric renal tumors on the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS). A review of cases entered on the NWTS has uncovered a number of cases where benign lymph node findings were mistaken for metastases. Most frequently, this was due to the presence of complexes of epithelial cells and Tamm-Horsfall protein within nodal sinuses. The epithelial cells were derived from damaged nephrons, usually resulting from obstruction by tumor. Another epithelial pseudometastic lesion, intranodal squamous epithelial cells, was found to originate from metaplastic calyceal urothelium. Benign mesothelial or coelomic inclusions similar to those previously described in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes of adult females were found in nodes of four patients, including two boys, who are, to our knowledge, the first to be described with this finding. Other sources of confusion included protrusion of lymphoid follicles or germinal centers into nodal sinuses, thick endothelial cells of postcapillary venules mimicking epithelial tubules, nodal megakaryocytes resembling anaplastic nuclear changes, and histiocytic granulomas. Immunocytochemical methods were useful in evaluating some of these phenomena. Recognition of these pseudometastatic lesions is essential in order to avoid unnecessary and potentially hazardous therapeutic intensification.

  15. [A case of an intracerebral mass lesion consisting of traumatic granulation tissue].

    PubMed

    Wanibuchi, M; Uede, T; Ishiguro, M; Tatewaki, K; Kurokawa, Y; Yoshida, Y

    1994-10-01

    We reported a rare case of an intracerebral granulomatous lesion accompanying severe edema formation in the healing stage of traumatic brain contusions. A 44-year-old male patient came to our outpatient clinic due to progressing headache and nausea. Upon computed tomographic examination, a low density mass with strong surrounding edema was detected at the right frontal base. Magnetic resonance images revealed a high intensity mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the right frontal base. Upon intravenous injection of a contrast agent, this lesion exhibited multifocal marginal contrast enhancement. Two additional small enhanced mass lesions were detected at the tip of the right temporal lobe and the medial portion of the left temporal lobe. We tentatively diagnosed it as a right frontal brain tumor and attempted the total removal of the right frontal mass. Unexpectedly, pathological diagnosis was intracerebral granulation tissue associated with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and capillary wall thickening. In addition, there was no reactive gliosis. We speculated on the pathogenesis of intracerebral granulation tissue as follows. Since the patient was a heavy drinker and often fell down when he was drunk, it is likely that he might be suffering from intracerebral hematomas due to traumatic contusions. This assumption may be supported by the fact that an old subdural hematoma was observed during the operation and the radiological examination revealed multiple lesions. The gathering and proliferation of mesenchymal cells possibly derived from blood circulation probably began at the site of the damaged brain tissue, thus forming intracerebral granulation tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Outcome of surgical decompression of spinal mass lesions in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bujung; Hermann, Elvis J; Reuter, Christoph; Brandis, Almuth; Krauss, Joachim K

    2013-12-01

    Surgical treatment for spinal mass lesions due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or plasmacytoma is necessary only in rare instances. The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term outcome and quality of life of surgery combined with postoperative chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy. The data of patients, who underwent spinal surgery for mass lesions in a 10-year periods were reviewed, identifying 10 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of NHL or plasmacytoma. Functional outcome were assessed by the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), quality of life by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire, and pain by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Clinical presentations included pain (n=10), paresis (n=5), and sensory deficits (n=5). Surgical treatment included removal of the mass lesion (total, n=5; subtotal, n=5) for decompression, interbody fusion (n=3), and corporectomy followed by stabilization (n=1). Histopathological findings revealed NHL in five patients and plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma in five other patients. Postoperatively, all patients underwent chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Mean follow-up time was 38 months. At the last follow-up, 2 patients had succumbed to progression of disease. Pain intensity remained significantly reduced as compared to preoperatively (p=0.049). The KPS was 90-100% in five patients still alive, 70% in two, and 60% in one. SF-36 subscores were lower as compared to age-matched healthy controls. This retrospective study shows that surgical decompression of spinal mass lesions is a valuable option in selected patients with NHL or plasmacytoma to improve neurological deficits and control pain. Long-term outcome after postoperative adjuvant therapy confirms prolonged stability of quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving needle biopsy accuracy in small renal mass using tumor-specific DNA methylation markers.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Liu, Jie; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Nichols, Peter W; Aron, Manju; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Collings, Clayton K; Syan, Sumeet; Hu, Brian; Desai, Mihir; Aron, Monish; Duddalwar, Vinay; Gill, Inderbir; Liang, Gangning; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2017-01-17

    The clinical management of small renal masses (SRMs) is challenging since the current methods for distinguishing between benign masses and malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are frequently inaccurate or inconclusive. In addition, renal cancer subtypes also have different treatments and outcomes. High false negative rates increase the risk of cancer progression and indeterminate diagnoses result in unnecessary and potentially morbid surgical procedures. We built a predictive classification model for kidney tumors using 697 DNA methylation profiles from six different subgroups: clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCC, benign angiomylolipomas, oncocytomas, and normal kidney tissues. Furthermore, the DNA methylation-dependent classifier has been validated in 272 ex vivo needle biopsy samples from 100 renal masses (71% SRMs). In general, the results were highly reproducible (89%, n=70) in predicting identical malignant subtypes from biopsies. Overall, 98% of adjacent-normals (n=102) were correctly classified as normal, while 92% of tumors (n=71) were correctly classified malignant and 86% of benign (n=29) were correctly classified benign by this classification model. Overall, this study provides molecular-based support for using routine needle biopsies to determine tumor classification of SRMs and support the clinical decision-making.

  18. Is laparoscopic partial nephrectomy already the gold standard for small renal masses?.

    PubMed

    Power, Nicholas E; Silberstein, Jonathan L; Touijer, Karim

    2013-01-01

    To examine the role of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the management of small renal masses. We searched MEDLINE (through March 2012) using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Search Library (though March 2012), and Web of Science (through March 2012). We retrieved citations using the text terms "small renal mass," "laparoscopic," "partial nephrectomy,"and "radical nephrectomy." We limited the search to articles in the English language, to T1a renal tumors, and expanded the search using the related articles function. We also performed hand searches of references identified in electronically abstracted articles. There is a paucity of well conducted clinical trials to elucidate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy's role. A number of assumptions had to be made to complete the review. Other than possibly less operative blood loss, less operative time, less inpatient stay time, and less cost, there was insufficient evidence to support laparoscopic partial nephrectomy over other modalities. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy appears to have a higher rate of radical nephrectomy conversion. There is insufficient evidence to clearly state that laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is the gold standard in the management of small renal masses. If this skill is part of a surgeon's armamentarium, it is certainly not inferior to other modalities, and may offer some benefit to patients.

  19. Small renal masses in the elderly: Contemporary treatment approaches and comparative oncological outcomes of nonsurgical and surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vetterlein, Malte W.; Jindal, Tarun; Becker, Andreas; Regier, Marc; Kluth, Luis A.; Tilki, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, there has been a significant stage migration in renal cell carcinoma and especially older patients are getting diagnosed more frequently with low stage disease, such as small renal masses ≤4 cm of size. Considering the particular risk profile of an older population, often presenting with a nonnegligible comorbidity profile and progressive renal dysfunction, treatment approaches beyond aggressive radical surgical procedures have come to the fore. We sought to give a contemporary overview of the available different treatment strategies for incidental small renal masses in an elderly population with the focus on comparative oncological outcomes of nonsurgical and surgical modalities. PMID:27437532

  20. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica).

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Bergstrand, A; Bignert, A

    2001-11-01

    A severe reduction in the populations of grey and ringed seals in the Baltic occurred during the 1960s and 1970s. Adult animals showed (and still show) a series of lesions inter alia in the female reproductive organs, intestines, integument, kidneys, adrenals, and skulls (the Baltic seal disease complex). The morphology and prevalence of light microscopic changes in the kidneys of 76 grey seals and 29 ringed seals collected in the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Bothnia during 1977-1996 are presented in this report. Specific changes in the glomeruli were diffuse thickening of the capillary walls and the presence of large, rounded, hyaline bodies in the capillary or capsular walls. Specific changes in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts included focal replacement of the normal epithelium by multilayered cell proliferations. The prevalence and extent of the changes were age-related and thus correlated with the time of exposure to environmental toxicants. The lesions were more conspicuous in Baltic grey seals than in Baltic ringed seals. Similar findings were recorded in 5 grey seals from Swedish zoological gardens. These animals had been fed Baltic fish for most of their lives. Electron microscopy was performed on 5 of the Baltic grey seals and on one of the grey seals from zoological gardens. Electron microscopy results mainly based on findings in one of the Baltic grey seals, included mesangial inter-position in the glomerular capillary walls and the characteristics of intercalated cells in cell proliferations in the distal parts of the nephrons. Eleven grey seals from the Scottish coast and 23 ringed seals from Svalbard served as reference material. None of the reference seals showed the specific lesions described above. The authors propose that organochlorine pollution of the Baltic environment is a factor in the cause of these kidney changes.

  1. Benign liver masses and lesions in children: 53 cases over 12 years.

    PubMed

    Kochin, Israel N; Miloh, Tamir A; Arnon, Ronen; Iyer, Kishore R; Suchy, Frederick J; Kerkar, Nanda

    2011-09-01

    Primary liver masses in children may require intervention because of symptoms or concern about malignant transformation. To review the management and outcome of benign liver masses in children. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with liver masses referred to our institution during the period 1997-2009. Benign liver masses were identified in 53 children. Sixteen of these children (30%) had hemangioma/infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) and 15 (28%) had focal nodular hyperplasia. The remainder had 6 cysts, 4 hamartomas, 3 nodular regenerative hyperplasia, 2 adenomas, 2 vascular malformations, and one each of polyarteritis nodosa, granuloma, hepatic hematoma, lymphangioma, and infarction. Median age at presentation was 6 years, and 30 (57%) were female. Masses were initially noticed on imaging studies performed for unrelated symptoms in 33 children (62%), laboratory abnormalities consistent with liver disease in 11 (21%), and palpable abdominal masses in 9 (17%). Diagnosis was made based on characteristic radiographic findings in 31 (58%), but histopathological examination was required for the remaining 22 (42%). Of the 53 children, 27 (51%) were under observation while 17 (32%) had masses resected. Medications targeting masses were used in 9 (17%) and liver transplantation was performed in 4 (8%). The only death (2%) occurred in a child with multifocal IHH unresponsive to medical management and prior to liver transplant availability. IHH and focal nodular hyperplasia were the most common lesions. The majority of benign lesions were found incidentally and diagnosed radiologically. Expectant management was sufficient in most children after diagnosis, although surgical intervention including liver transplant was occasionally necessary.

  2. Quantitative Features of Liver Lesions, Lung Nodules, and Renal Stones at Multi-Detector Row CT Examinations: Dependency on Radiation Dose and Reconstruction Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Justin; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    To determine if radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm affect the computer-based extraction and analysis of quantitative imaging features in lung nodules, liver lesions, and renal stones at multi-detector row computed tomography (CT). Retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved clinical trial was performed by extracting 23 quantitative imaging features (size, shape, attenuation, edge sharpness, pixel value distribution, and texture) of lesions on multi-detector row CT images of 20 adult patients (14 men, six women; mean age, 63 years; range, 38-72 years) referred for known or suspected focal liver lesions, lung nodules, or kidney stones. Data were acquired between September 2011 and April 2012. All multi-detector row CT scans were performed at two different radiation dose levels; images were reconstructed with filtered back projection, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction, and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithms. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess the effect of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm on extracted features. Among the 23 imaging features assessed, radiation dose had a significant effect on five, three, and four of the features for liver lesions, lung nodules, and renal stones, respectively (P < .002 for all comparisons). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction had a significant effect on three, one, and one of the features for liver lesions, lung nodules, and renal stones, respectively (P < .002 for all comparisons). MBIR reconstruction had a significant effect on nine, 11, and 15 of the features for liver lesions, lung nodules, and renal stones, respectively (P < .002 for all comparisons). Of note, the measured size of lung nodules and renal stones with MBIR was significantly different than those for the other two algorithms (P < .002 for all comparisons). Although lesion texture was significantly affected by the

  3. Acute renal failure following Bull ant mass envenomation in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Abraham, L A; Hinkley, C J; Tatarczuch, L; Holloway, S A

    2004-01-01

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in a German Short Haired Pointer bitch and a Kelpie cross-bred dog following envenomation by Bull ants. Both dogs had been tethered over a Bull ant nest and had experienced mass envenomation. There was local reaction at the envenomation sites and each dog had experienced vomiting that was poorly controlled by symptomatic therapy. Intensive treatment of renal failure was successful in the German Short Haired Pointer and the bitch remains well 19 months after envenomation. The Kelpie cross-bred deteriorated despite intensive treatment and was euthanased 36 hours after presentation. Necropsy examination revealed haemorrhage and necrosis of the small intestine and myocardium, bilateral nephrosis with tubular necrosis, and patchy haemorrhage of the lung alveoli, pancreas and adrenal cortices. Electron microscopy revealed necrosis of the small intestine and hydropic swelling of proximal renal tubules with necrosis of medullary tubules.

  4. Hereditary Kidney Cancer Syndromes and Surgical Management of the Small Renal Mass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Shuch, Brian

    2017-05-01

    The management of patients with hereditary kidney cancers presents unique challenges to clinicians. In addition to an earlier age of onset compared with patients with sporadic kidney cancer, those with hereditary kidney cancer syndromes often present with bilateral and/or multifocal renal tumors and are at risk for multiple de novo lesions. This population of patients may also present with extrarenal manifestations, which adds an additional layer of complexity. Physicians who manage these patients should be familiar with the underlying clinical characteristics of each hereditary kidney cancer syndrome and the suggested surgical approaches and recommendations of genetic testing for at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects central adiposity, and renal hemodynamics in 315 healthy persons with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.9 kg/m2 and a mean 125I-iothalamate GFR of 109 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In multivariate analyses, WHR was associated with lower GFR, lower effective renal plasma flow, and higher filtration fraction, even after adjustment for sex, age, mean arterial pressure, and BMI. Multivariate models produced similar results regardless of whether the hemodynamic measures were indexed to body surface area. Thus, these results suggest that central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is associated with an unfavorable pattern of renal hemodynamic measures that could underlie the increased renal risk reported in observational studies. PMID:23578944

  6. "Ovarian vascular pedicle" sign revealing organ of origin of a pelvic mass lesion on helical CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Jeong, Yoong Ki; Park, Ji Kang; Hwang, Jae Choel

    2003-07-01

    We evaluated the "ovarian vascular pedicle" sign as a way of differentiating ovarian from subserosal uterine lesions on single-detector helical CT. We prospectively evaluated 131 patients who had a pelvic mass suspected of originating in the ovary or subserosal zone of the uterus and had undergone helical CT before surgery. A total of 108 ovarian lesions and 23 subserosal uterine myomas were confirmed. CT images were analyzed prospectively by consensus of two radiologists who thoroughly evaluated the retrograde tracing of the gonadal veins to the ovary or pelvic mass. To assess the value of analyzing the ovarian vascular pedicle sign in identifying the organ of origin of a pelvic mass, we compared statistical proportions for the frequencies of the sign in ovarian tumors and subserosal uterine myomas by performing the chi-square test. The probabilities for the presence of the ovarian vascular pedicle sign as a positive finding for a pelvic mass of ovarian origin were calculated. The presence of the ovarian vascular pedicle sign was identified in 92% (99/108) of ovarian masses and in 13% (3/23) of subserosal uterine myomas. The sign was statistically significant (p < 0.01) for differentiating a mass of ovarian origin from a mass of subserosal uterine origin. When the ovarian vascular pedicle sign on helical CT confirmed the ovarian origin, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 92% (99/108), 87% (20/23), 97% (99/102), 69% (20/29), and 91% (119/131), respectively. The presence of the ovarian vascular pedicle sign on helical CT is valuable for confirming the ovarian origin of a pelvic tumor and for differentiating an ovarian tumor from subserosal uterine myoma.

  7. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as a Paranasal Sinus Mass: The Importance of Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Altissimi, Giancarlo; Turchetta, Rosaria; Rigante, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Metastases in the paranasal sinuses are rare; renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer that metastasizes to this region. We present the case of a patient with a 4-month history of a rapidly growing mass of the nasal pyramid following a nasal trauma, associated with spontaneous epistaxis and multiple episodes of hematuria. Cranial CT scan and MRI showed an ethmoid mass extending to the choanal region, the right orbit, and the right frontal sinus with an initial intracranial extension. Patient underwent surgery with a trans-sinusal frontal approach using a bicoronal incision combined with an anterior midfacial degloving; histological exam was compatible with a metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Following histological findings, a total body CT scan showed a solitary 6 cm mass in the upper posterior pole of the left kidney identified as the primary tumor. Although rare, metastatic renal cell carcinoma should always be suspected in patients with nasal or paranasal masses, especially if associated with symptoms suggestive of a systemic involvement such as hematuria. A correct early-stage diagnosis of metastatic RCC can considerably improve survival rate in these patients; preoperative differential diagnosis with contrast-enhanced imaging is fundamental for the correct treatment and follow-up strategy. PMID:28168075

  8. Effect of chronic antioxidant therapy with superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, tempol, on progression of renal disease in rats with renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in the progression of renal damage and antioxidants are potentially useful therapeutic options in chronic renal disease. We investigated if treatment with tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic that has beneficial effects in several experimental models of hypertension and acute kidney injury, ameliorates the chronic renal damage resulting in renal mass reduction. Rats with surgical 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (CRF group, n = 10) or tempol, 1 mmol/l in the drinking water (CRF-tempol group, n = 10). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) served as controls. All rats were followed for 12 weeks post-nephrectomy. Tempol treatment reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and halved the number of superoxide-positive cells in the remnant kidney; however, the number of hydrogen peroxide-positive cells increased and the overall renal oxidative stress (MDA and nitrotyrosine abundance) and inflammation (interstitial p65 NF-kappaB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration) were unchanged. Proteinuria, renal function and glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the remnant kidney were similar in the CRF and CRF-tempol groups. In conclusion, tempol administration, at the dose used in these studies, decreased plasma MDA and heightened superoxide dismutation in the kidney, but was incapable of reducing renal oxidative stress or improving renal function or structure in the remnant kidney model.

  9. Are liver and renal lesions in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) associated with high mercury levels?

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, Pall S; Asmund, Gert; Born, Erik W; Kirkegaard, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Background In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. Methods We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59) and kidney (n = 57) tissues. Results Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1–35.6 μg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1–50 μg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 μg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p < 0.02) and a similar trend was found for lipid granulomas (p = 0.07). Liver mercury levels were significantly lower in individuals with portal bile duct proliferation/fibrosis (p = 0.007) and a similar trend was found for proximal convoluted tubular hyalinisation in renal tissue (p = 0.07). Conclusion Based on these relationships and the nature of the chronic inflammation we conclude that the lesions were likely a result of recurrent infections and ageing but that long-term exposure to mercury could not be excluded as a co-factor. The information is important as it is likely that tropospheric mercury depletion events will continue to increase the concentrations of this toxic heavy metal in the Sub Arctic and Arctic marine food webs. PMID:17439647

  10. Inter-observer variation and diagnostic efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements obtained by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Ponhold, Lothar; Javor, Domagoj; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; Sevcenco, Sabina; Hofstetter, Martin; Baltzer, Pascal Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is increasingly used to diagnose renal lesion subtypes. Especially in small renal masses, identification of less aggressive tumor types is of clinical interest, as active surveillance strategies can be applied. To evaluate the inter-observer variation and diagnostic efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements obtained by DWI in small renal masses ≤4 cm (SRM). This retrospective IRB-approved study included 39 patients (46 SRM: 12 benign, 34 malignant). All underwent a 3 T DWI of SRM prior to surgery. Two radiologists independently analyzed all imaging data by three measurements. Limits of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), group comparisons by t-tests, and ROC analysis were performed. Reliability of ADC measurements was very high with an ICC of >0.9 for both observers. Inter-rater reliability was high with an ICC of 0.82. Limits of agreement for average ADC values between both observers were -23.5% to 38.3% with a mean difference of 7.5% between both observers. No significant differences were found between benign and malignant lesions (P value Observer 1: 0.362, Observer 2: 0.622). Papillary carcinoma showed lower ADC values compared to non-papillary carcinoma (P value Observer 1: 0.008, Observer 2: 0.012). Consequently, ROC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.001, respectively) area under the ROC curve of 0.853 (Observer 1) and 0.837 (Observer 2) without significant differences between both readers (P = 0.772). ADC measurements of SRM at 3 T show a high reproducibility and differentiate papillary from non-papillary carcinoma subtypes. However, measurement variability may limit the application of fixed ADC thresholds for lesion diagnosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  11. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry analysis-A new approach for protein mapping in multiple sclerosis brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Nischwitz, Sandra; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Hornung, Joachim; König, Fatima Barbara; Stadelmann, Christine; Turck, Christoph W; Weber, Frank

    2017-03-15

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the early disease stage. Lesion formation and mechanisms leading to lesion remyelination are not fully understood. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry imaging (MALDI-IMS) is a technology which analyses proteins and peptides in tissue, preserves their spatial localization, and generates molecular maps within the tissue section. In a pilot study we employed MALDI imaging mass spectrometry to profile and identify peptides and proteins expressed in normal-appearing white matter, grey matter and multiple sclerosis brain lesions with different extents of remyelination. The unsupervised clustering analysis of the mass spectra generated images which reflected the tissue section morphology in luxol fast blue stain and in myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry. Lesions with low remyelination extent were defined by compounds with molecular weight smaller than 5300Da, while more completely remyelinated lesions showed compounds with molecular weights greater than 15,200Da. An in-depth analysis of the mass spectra enabled the detection of cortical lesions which were not seen by routine luxol fast blue histology. An ion mass, mainly distributed at the rim of multiple sclerosis lesions, was identified by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry as thymosin beta-4, a protein known to be involved in cell migration and in restorative processes. The ion mass of thymosin beta-4 was profiled by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry in brain slides of 12 multiple sclerosis patients and validated by immunohistochemical analysis. In summary, our results demonstrate the ability of the MALDI-IMS technology to map proteins within the brain parenchyma and multiple sclerosis lesions and to identify potential markers involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis and/or remyelination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of atypical cystic renal masses with MDCT: comparison of 5-mm axial images and thin multiplanar reconstructed images.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Zappetti, Roberta; Cavallaro, Marco; Perrone, Rosaria; Perretti, Leonardo; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cystic renal masses are better characterized on thin axial and multiplanar reconstructed MDCT images than on 5-mm images. The records of 70 complex cystic renal masses in 59 patients (45 men, 14 women; mean age, 68 +/- 13 years) who underwent 64-MDCT at two medical centers were studied. Twenty-three of the masses were confirmed on the basis of the histologic findings and 47 in 2-4 years of follow-up. Images were reviewed in two sessions by two radiologists with 12 and 2 years of experience. In the first session, 5-mm axial images were analyzed, and in the second, thin axial images and multiplanar reconstructions. To assess intraobserver variability, analysis was repeated after 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon's signed rank test, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and weighted kappa statistics. Radiologists 1 and 2 detected thicker cystic walls (p < 0.001, p < 0.005) and septa (p < 0.03, p < 0.05) and fewer septa (p < 0.005, p < 0.002) on 5-mm axial images and assigned significantly different Bosniak categories than they did in analysis of the volume data (p < 0.04, p < 0.05). Variability was reduced in thin axial and multiplanar views. No significant differences were found in characterization of lesions as benign or malignant in review of 5-mm axial images and volume data sets. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.89 for 5-mm images and 0.96 for volume data sets for radiologist 1 and 0.87 and 0.90 for radiologist 2. Analysis of volume data sets is associated with less intraobserver and interobserver variability than review of 5-mm axial images. Wall thickness and the number and thickness of septa may differ, resulting in assignment of different Bosniak categories. Diagnostic performance in characterizing lesions as benign or malignant, however, is not statistically different for the thick and thin images.

  13. Huge right ventricular mass lesion associated with genital malignant tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Masaya; Hodatsu, Akihiko; Uchiyama, Katsuharu; Tada, Hayato; Mori, Mika; Ohira, Miho; Hayashi, Kenshi; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki

    2017-10-03

    Primary heart tumors are rare, whereas metastatic heart tumors occur more frequently. We report a case of a 75-year-old Japanese woman who had metastatic heart tumors of the right ventricle. Although she initially received antibiotic therapy following a diagnosis of pneumonia and pleuritis, her symptoms worsened, and she developed dyspnea and bilateral lower limb edema. Echocardiography showed a huge mass lesion occupying the entire right ventricle. Because the patient's tumor markers were elevated, we used computed tomography to search for the primary lesion, which was located in the vagina or the uterus. Histology demonstrated the presence of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the vaginal tissue. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin was initiated. These data suggest that the tumor in the right ventricle metastasized from the genital organs.

  14. Rhabdoid meningioma presenting with subependymal and diffuse meningeal involvement but no mass lesion.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Kate E; Al-Jahdhami, Suad; Ahmad, Omar

    2010-12-01

    Rhabdoid meningiomas are rare, aggressive tumours of the meninges that have a generally poor prognosis. We report a 49-year-old man with a background history of sarcoidosis who presented with nausea and vomiting. Imaging showed generalised leptomeningeal and subependymal enhancement suggestive of chronic meningitis. He had multiple lumbar punctures and a brain biopsy, none of which led to a pathological diagnosis. He died within months, and a postmortem examination was performed. At this stage, a diagnosis of rhabdoid meningioma was made. The clinical and radiological presentation of rhabdoid meningioma as a diffuse leptomeningeal process without a mass lesion is unique. All other published cases of rhabdoid meningioma have been of a discrete lesion. This highlights the importance of a tissue diagnosis in patients where the imaging is non-specific. A brief review of rhabdoid meningioma follows. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Meta-analysis of cryoablation versus microwave ablation for small renal masses: is there a difference in outcome?

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason; Athreya, Sriharsha

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare local and metastatic recurrence of small renal masses primarily treated by cryoablation or microwave ablation. The MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PUBMED databases were searched to review the treatment of small renal masses with cryoablation or microwave ablation. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one studies representing 3950 kidney lesions were analyzed. No differences were detected in the mean patient age (P = 0.150) or duration of follow-up (P = 0.070). The mean tumor size was significantly larger in the microwave ablation group compared with the cryoablation group (P = 0.030). There was no difference between microwave ablation and cryoablation groups in terms of primary effectiveness (93.75% vs. 91.27%, respectively; P = 0.400), cancer-specific survival (98.27% vs. 96.8%, respectively; P = 0.470), local tumor progression (4.07% vs. 2.53%, respectively; P = 0.460), or progression to metastatic disease (0.8% vs. 0%, respectively; P = 0.120). Patient age was predictive of overall complications in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.020). Local tumor progression with cryoablation was predicted by the mean follow-up duration using univariate (P = 0.009) and multivariate regression (P = 0.003). Clear cell and angiomyolipoma were more frequent in the microwave ablation group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03328, respectively), and papillary, chromophobe, and oncocytoma were more frequent in the cryoablation group (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0004, respectively). Open access was used more often in the microwave ablation group than in the cryoablation group (12.20% vs. 1.04%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and percutaneous access was used more frequently in the cryoablation group than in the microwave ablation group (88.64% vs. 37.20%, respectively; P = 0.0021). There is no difference in local or metastatic recurrence between cryoablation- and microwave ablation-treated small renal masses.

  16. Early Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Biliopancreatic Mass Lesions, a Prospective, Randomized Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Janine; Meffert, Peter J.; Vogt, Lena J.; Gärtner, Simone; Steveling, Antje; Kraft, Matthias; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Aghdassi, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with biliopancreatic tumors frequently suffer from weight loss and cachexia. The in-hospital work-up to differentiate between benign and malignant biliopancreatic lesions requires repeated pre-interventional fasting periods that can aggravate this problem. We conducted a randomized intervention study to test whether routine in-hospital peripheral intravenous nutrition on fasting days (1000 ml/24 h, 700 kcal) has a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition. Material and Methods 168 patients were screened and 100 enrolled in the trial, all undergoing in-hospital work-up for biliopancreatic mass lesions and randomized to either intravenous nutrition or control. Primary endpoint was weight loss at time of hospital discharge; secondary endpoints were parameters determined by bioelectric impedance analysis and quality of life recorded by the EORTC questionnaire. Results Within three months prior to hospital admission patients had a median self-reported loss of 4.0 kg (25*th: -10.0 kg and 75*th* percentile: 0.0kg) of body weight. On a multivariate analysis nutritional intervention increased body weight by 1.7 kg (95% CI: 0.204; 3.210, p = 0.027), particularly in patients with malignant lesions (2.7 kg (95% CI: 0.71; 4.76, p < 0.01). Conclusions In a hospital setting, patients with suspected biliopancreatic mass lesions stabilized their body weight when receiving parenteral nutrition in fasting periods even when no total parenteral nutrition was required. Analysis showed that this effect was greatest in patients with malignant tumors. Further studies will be necessary to see whether patient outcome is affected as well. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02670265 PMID:27861546

  17. Cost-effectiveness of Management Options for Small Renal Mass: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Chen, Yu-Wei; Leow, Jeffrey J; Levy, Alison C; Chang, Steven L; Gelpi, Francisco-Hammerschmidt

    2016-10-01

    Costs of surgery for small renal masses (SRMs) are high. This study aimed to systematically review and evaluate the cost-effectiveness analyses of management options for SRMs. Six databases were searched from inception to August 2015. Inclusion criteria were full original research, full economic evaluation of management options for SRM, and written in English. Among 776 studies screened, 6 met the inclusion criteria. Ablation was cost-effective versus nephron-sparing surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was cost-effective versus the open approach. Renal mass biopsy dominated immediate treatment in the United States, but not in Canada. According to the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards, all the studies had relatively good quality. Despite the observed evidence, future research is needed to fill in the knowledge gap. A few suggestions should be kept in mind such as conducting the cost-effectiveness analysis in a variety of countries.

  18. Isolated primary intracerebral mycetoma: presenting as a mass lesion in a patient with prostate cancer and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Shyam; Gutin, Philip H; Holodny, Andrei; Raizer, Jeffrey J

    2005-01-01

    We report a patient with a history of prostate cancer and multiple myeloma, with a solitary indolent intracerebral mass lesion without any constitutional symptoms and minimal neurologic symptoms. The radiographic appearance of the lesion was that of a tumor but resection revealed a mycetoma, consistent with Aspergillus. A brief review of the literature discusses the rarity, presentation, diagnosis, and management of primary intracerebral mycetomas.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of nephron sparing options for the management of small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steven L; Cipriano, Lauren E; Harshman, Lauren C; Garber, Alan M; Chung, Benjamin I

    2011-05-01

    A recent increase in the detection of contrast enhancing renal masses 4 cm or smaller suspicious for malignancy has led to the widespread use of nephron sparing options. Limited data exist to help clinicians decide which of these competing nephron sparing therapies is most appropriate. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate the relative clinical and economic merits of commonly available nephron sparing strategies for small renal masses. We developed a decision analytic Markov model estimating the costs and health outcomes of treating a healthy 65-year-old patient with an asymptomatic unilateral small renal mass using competing nephron sparing options of immediate intervention (ie open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy as well as laparoscopic and percutaneous ablation), active surveillance with possible delayed intervention and nonsurgical management with observation. Benefits were measured in quality adjusted life-years. We used a societal perspective, lifetime horizon and willingness to pay threshold of $50,000 per quality adjusted life-year gained. Model results were assessed with sensitivity analyses. In the base case scenario the least costly option was observation and the optimal option was immediate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, which had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36,645 per quality adjusted life-year gained compared to surveillance with possible delayed percutaneous ablation. Results were sensitive to age at diagnosis, health status and tumor size. Immediate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is the preferred nephron sparing option for healthy patients younger than 74 years old with a small renal mass. Surveillance with possible delayed percutaneous ablation is a cost-effective alternative for patients with advanced age or significant comorbidities. Observation maximizes quality adjusted life-years in patients who are poor surgical candidates or with limited life expectancy (less than 3 years). Copyright © 2011

  20. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of small renal masses: Clinical effectiveness and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, G.; Goodman, C.; Melzer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined. PMID:21116349

  1. Representation of lesion similarity by use of multidimensional scaling for breast masses on mammograms.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Nishimura, Kohei; Endo, Tokiko; Oiwa, Mikinao; Shiraiwa, Misaki; Doi, Kunio; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Presentation of similar reference images can be useful for diagnosis of new lesions. A similarity map which can visually present the overview of the relationship between the lesions with different types may provide the supplemental information to the reference images. A new method for constructing the similarity map by multidimensional scaling (MDS) for breast masses on mammograms was investigated. Nine pathologic types were included; three regions of interests each from the nine groups were employed in this study. Subjective similarity ratings by expert readers were obtained for all possible 351 pairs of masses. Using the average ratings, MDS similarity map was created. Each axis of the MDS configuration was fitted by the linear model with 13 image features to reconstruct the similarity map. Dissimilarity based on the distance in the reconstructed space was determined and compared with the subjective rating. The MDS map consistently represented the similarity between cysts and fibroadenomas, invasive lobular carcinomas and scirrhous carcinomas, and ductal carcinomas in situ, solid-tubular carcinomas, and papillotubular carcinomas with the experts' data. The correlation between the average subjective ratings and the dissimilarities based on the distance in the reconstructed feature space was much greater (-0.87) than that of the dissimilarities based on the distance in the conventional feature space (-0.65). The new similarity map by MDS can be useful for visualizing the relationship between breast masses with different pathologic types. It has potential usefulness in selecting the similarity measures and providing the supplemental information.

  2. In Vivo, Percutaneous, Needle Based, Optical Coherence Tomography of Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Peter G.; Swaan, Abel; Ingels, Alexandre; Zondervan, Patricia J.; van Delden, Otto M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de la Rosette, Jean J.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Laguna Pes, M. Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical equivalent of ultrasound imaging, based on the backscattering of near infrared light. OCT provides real time images with a 15 µm axial resolution at an effective tissue penetration of 2-3 mm. Within the OCT images the loss of signal intensity per millimeter of tissue penetration, the attenuation coefficient, is calculated. The attenuation coefficient is a tissue specific property, providing a quantitative parameter for tissue differentiation. Until now, renal mass treatment decisions have been made primarily on the basis of MRI and CT imaging characteristics, age and comorbidity. However these parameters and diagnostic methods lack the finesse to truly detect the malignant potential of a renal mass. A successful core biopsy or fine needle aspiration provides objective tumor differentiation with both sensitivity and specificity in the range of 95-100%. However, a non-diagnostic rate of 10-20% overall, and even up to 30% in SRMs, is to be expected, delaying the diagnostic process due to the frequent necessity for additional biopsy procedures. We aim to develop OCT into an optical biopsy, providing real-time imaging combined with on-the-spot tumor differentiation. This publication provides a detailed step-by-step approach for percutaneous, needle based, OCT of renal masses. PMID:25867845

  3. [Some histological criteria for the renal and hepatic lesions in the case of death from acute intoxication with ethyl alcohol].

    PubMed

    Os'minkin, D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of the microscopic studies of acute intoxication with ethyl alcohol at the territory of the Udmurtian Republic during the period from 2003 till 2013. A total of 5941 cases of death caused by acute intoxication with ethyl alcohol were documented among both men and women, largely able-bodied ones. Concentration of ethyl alcohol in their blood corresponded to the one known to result in severe or lethal intoxication, The forensic histological study of the available tissue samples gave evidence of vascular disturbances, enhanced permeability of the vascular walls, dystrophic changes in the internal organs, the signs of necronephrosis, and concomitant disorders. Epithelium of renal tubules obtained from 0.4% of the corpses contained the pigment particles of different structure and colour; other pathological changes included cholestasis, necrosis of hepatocytes, various lesions and injuries. Similar alterations were identified in the detoxificating organs of the subjects who had died from causes other than acute intoxication with ethyl alcohol. These findings suggest disturbances of pigment metabolism and make it possible to elucidate the peculiar features of patho- and tanatogenesis.

  4. The effects of various horse serum fractions in producing cardiovascular and renal lesions in rabbits.

    PubMed

    WISSLER, R W; SMULL, K; LESH, J B

    1949-12-01

    Five groups of 10 rabbits each were injected intravenously 2 times at 15 day intervals with either whole horse serum or one of its cold alcohol-precipitated fractions. Suitable serological and general observations were made at appropriate intervals before and after each injection. All animals were sacrificed on the 22nd day of the experiment. A study of the antemortem and pathological findings led to the following conclusions. 1. Allergie arteritis, valvulitis, and to a lesser degree, focal pericarditis, Aschoff-like nodules, and glomerulitis can be produced by several of the cold alcohol-precipitated fractions of horse serum as well as by whole serum. 2. Most of the acute arteritis was seen in rabbits receiving fraction V (albumin). These rabbits showed the largest amounts of circulating antigen, low antibody titers, low tissue sensitivity, and slight elevation in sedimentation rate and temperature. 3. There was a high incidence of chronic arteritis in the rabbits receiving fraction III which is almost devoid of albumin, suggesting that the alpha and beta globulins in addition to albumin may produce arteritis. 4. A state most nearly resembling that of acute rheumatic fever was produced by either fractions III or IV-3,4 (alpha and beta globulins). Pancarditis (pericarditis, Aschoff-like lesions, and valvulitis) was found relatively frequently. Many of the rabbits developed a high sedimentation rate, elevated temperature, and high tissue sensitivity, but little acute arteritis was found in this group. 5. Gamma globulin (fraction II) produced little reaction either in the antemortem determinations or histopathologically. 6. Glomerulitis of an acute necrotizing type was seen in a few rabbits without particular correlation to the fraction injected. 7. The frequency of involvement of heart valves in rabbit serum disease follows a pattern very similar to that of rheumatic heart disesae. 8. Attempts to correlate antemortem observations and pathological findings either on

  5. MMP9 is protective against lethal inflammatory mass lesions in the mouse colon

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Andreas; Rønø, Birgitte; Melander, Maria C.; Ding, Ming; Holck, Susanne; Lund, Leif R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is responsible for extracellular matrix degradation during physiological and pathophysiological tissue remodeling processes such as embryogenesis, tissue repair and cancer progression. Despite these important roles of MMPs, inhibition or ablation of individual members of the MMP family in animal models have been shown to have little effect. It has been speculated that this results from a functional overlap between individual MMPs and (as-yet-unclassified) functional overlaps between MMPs and other protease systems. We here present genetic data showing that concomitant ablation of MMP9 (gelatinase B) and the serine protease plasmin results in lethal inflammatory mass lesions in the colon. These lesions possessed several histological attributes that are characteristic of mucosal prolapse seen in humans, and they were found to be associated with splenomegaly, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, decreased thymus size and altered populations of circulating immune cells. A time-course study provided evidence that the massive lymphoid hyperplasia and reactive changes were secondary to discrete fibrinous lesions also observed in mice only deficient for plasminogen (Plg), the zymogen for plasmin. These data demonstrate a non-appreciated vital protective role for MMP9 in the absence of Plg. PMID:21123624

  6. Age dependent regulation of bone-mass and renal function by the MEPE ASARM-motif

    PubMed Central

    Zelenchuk, Lesya V; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S N

    2015-01-01

    Context Mice with null mutations in Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) have increased bone mass, increased trabecular density and abnormal cancellous bone (MN-mice). These defects worsen with age and MEPE over expression induces opposite effects. Also, Genome Wide Association studies show MEPE plays a major role in bone mass. We hypothesized the conserved C-terminal MEPE ASARM-motif is chiefly responsible for regulating bone mass and trabecular structure. Design To test our theory we over expressed C-terminal ASARM-peptide in MN-mice using the Col1α1 promoter (MNAt-mice). We then compared the bone and renal phenotypes of the MNAt-mouse with the MN-mouse and the X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets mouse (HYP). The HYP mouse over expresses ASARM-peptides and is defective for the PHEX gene. Results The MN-mouse developed increased bone mass, bone strength and trabecular abnormalities that worsened markedly with age. Defects in bone formation were chiefly responsible with suppressed sclerostin and increased active β-catenin. Increased uric acid levels also suggested abnormalities in purine-metabolism and a reduced fractional excretion of uric acid signaled additional renal transport changes. The MN mouse developed a worsening hyperphosphatemia and reduced FGF23 with age. An increase in the fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP) despite the hyperphosphatemia confirms an imbalance in kidney-intestinal phosphate regulation. Also, the MN mice showed an increased creatinine clearance suggesting hyperfiltration. A reversal of the MN bone-renal phenotype changes occurred with the MNAt mice including the apparent hyperfiltration. The MNAt mice also developed localized hypomineralization, hypophosphatemia and increased FGF23. Conclusions The C-terminal ASARM-motif plays a major role in regulating bone–mass and cancellous structure as mice age. In healthy mice, the processing and release of free ASARM-peptide is chiefly responsible for preserving normal bone and

  7. Multiple intracranial space-occupying lesions in a renal transplant recipient from an area endemic for tuberculosis (TB): TB vs. toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, S; Sachdev, S S; Nalwa, A; Das, C J; Sinha, S; Suri, V; Mahajan, S; Bhowmik, D; Agarwal, S

    2014-10-01

    Renal transplant recipients may present with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs) due to infections as well as a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Here, we discuss a renal transplant recipient who presented with neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed multiple focal SOLs. Tuberculosis (TB), toxoplasmosis, nocardiosis, fungal infections, and PTLD were considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI spectroscopy was suggestive of an infectious cause, such as toxoplasmosis or TB. Serologic tests using Toxoplasma were negative. A brain biopsy followed by immunohistochemical staining using Toxoplasma antibody demonstrated multiple intravascular cysts of toxoplasma. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma in an immunocompromised patient with multiple focal brain lesions, especially in areas where TB is endemic. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Man with Pancreatic Head Mass Lesion on Endoscopic Ultrasound and Granuloma on Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Neda; Heidarnezhad, Arash; Soheili, Setareh; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Amir Houshang; Nikmanesh, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma is an unlikely malignancy accounting for less than 0.5% of pancreatic tumors. Clinical presentation is often nonspecific and may be clinically misdiagnosed as pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here we present an Iranian case of primary pancreatic lymphoma in a 47-year-old male suffering from jaundice and 20% weight loss. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a mixed echoic mass lesion at the head of pancreas. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic mass and histopathologic diagnosis revealed granuloma. Computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy was performed and eventually histological examination showed granuloma that was coherent with the diagnosis of primary pancreatic lymphoma. Primary pancreatic lymphoma is a rare entity presenting with nonspecific symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings. Computed tomography results in combination with clinical and radiological studies generally provide guidance for appropriate investigation. PMID:28100998

  9. Partial Nephrectomy for Small Renal Masses: Do Teaching and Nonteaching Institutions Adhere to Guidelines Equally?

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, Hari T; Lec, Patrick; Brito, Joseph; Turini, George; Pareek, Gyan; Golijanin, Dragan

    2016-06-01

    The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend partial nephrectomy (PN) as the gold standard for treatment of small renal masses (SRMs). This study examines the change in utilization of partial and radical nephrectomies at teaching and nonteaching institutions from 2003 to 2012. The data sample for this study came from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2012. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Clinical Modification codes were used to identify patients undergoing PN and radical nephrectomy for renal masses limited to the renal parenchyma. Teaching hospitals were defined, but not limited to any institution with an American Medical Association-approved residency program. Linear regression, bivariate, multivariate, and odds ratio analysis were used to demonstrate statistical significance. 39,685 patients were identified in teaching hospitals, and 22,239 were identified in nonteaching hospitals. Prior to the 2009 AUA guidelines, cumulative rates of PN were 33% vs 20% in teaching vs nonteaching hospitals (p < 0.0001) compared with postguideline rates of 48% vs 33% in teaching vs nonteaching hospitals (p < 0.0001). During the 10-year study period, the use of PN to treat SRMs has significantly increased in both teaching hospitals and in nonacademic centers; however, these changes are occurring at a slower rate in nonteaching hospitals.

  10. Body mass index and body fat distribution as renal risk factors: a focus on the role of renal haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Toering, Tsjitske J; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-11-01

    Weight excess and/or central body fat distribution are associated with increased long-term renal risk, not only in subjects with renal disease or renal transplant recipients, but also in the general population. As the prevalence of weight excess is rising worldwide, this may become a main renal risk factor on a population basis, even more so because the risk extends to the overweight range. Understanding the mechanisms of this detrimental effect of weight excess on the kidneys is needed in order to design preventive treatment strategies. The increased risk associated with weight excess is partly attributed to associated comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes; however, current evidence supports a direct pathogenetic role for renal haemodynamics as well. Weight excess is associated with an altered renal haemodynamic profile, i.e. an increased glomerular filtration rate relative to effective renal plasma flow, resulting in an increased filtration fraction (FF). This renal haemodynamic profile is considered to reflect glomerular hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension, resulting from a dysbalance between afferent and efferent arterial vasomotor balance. This unfavorable renal haemodynamic profile was found to be associated with renal outcome in experimental models and in human renal transplant recipients, and is associated with a blunted sodium excretion, and reversible by weight loss, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade or by dietary sodium restriction. More recent evidence showed that a central body fat distribution is also associated with an increased FF, even independent of overall weight excess. In this review, we provide an overview on current literature on the impact of weight excess and central body fat distribution on the renal haemodynamic profile in humans, and its possible role in progressive renal damage.

  11. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal mass: FNA or core needle biopsy?

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Shun; Choi, Euna; Idrees, Muhammad T; Chen, Shaoxiong; Wu, Howard H

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing indications for percutaneous renal biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA), with or without core needle biopsy (CB), has been used increasingly in the management of renal tumors at the study institution. A computerized search of laboratory records was conducted to retrieve FNA cases of renal masses as well as the correlating CB and/or nephrectomy specimens. The cases spanned a period of 10 years (2006-2015). The diagnoses were classified into 5 categories: malignant, suspicious for malignancy, neoplastic, atypical, and negative/nondiagnostic. Based on the results of the nephrectomy specimens, the diagnostic rate, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated among 3 groups of specimens: FNA only, CB only, and combined FNA and CB. A total of 247 cases of FNA with 123 correlating CB and 101 follow-up nephrectomy specimens were identified. The diagnostic rate, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy were 72%, 78%, and 96%, respectively, for FNA; 87%, 92%, and 94%, respectively, for CB; and 92%, 92%, and 94%, respectively, for the combined FNA and CB group. Renal cell carcinoma and its variants were the most common histologic diagnoses (112 of 174 cases; 64%). Significant diagnostic discrepancy was noted in one case: a malignant melanoma that was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma in both the preoperative FNA specimen and in the CB specimen. In the current study, both FNA and CB demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy (96% and 94%, respectively). The combination of FNA and CB was found to significantly improve the diagnostic rate when compared with either FNA alone (92% vs 72%; P<.05) or CB alone (92% vs 87%). Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:407-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. The role of ultrasonography for diagnosis the renal masses in children. Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Fufezan, Otilia; Asavoaie, Carmen; Blag, Cristina; Popa, Gheorge

    2011-03-01

    In children abdominal masses usually arises from the kidney and urinary tract. The reasons for patient's presentation may be abdominal pain, palpable abdominal mass (usually discovered during the physical exam) and hematuria. Ultrasonography should be the first imaging investigation performed in children with an abdominal mass. It can be performed safely regardless of the clinical status of the patient, it is noninvasive and painless, requires no radiological contrast media and it is a relatively inexpensive. Ultrasonography is usually able to give an accurate localization of the lesion to a specific area or organ of the abdomen and provides good differentiation of solid from fluid or blood-filled masses. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to demonstrate the ultrasonographic features of the most frequently encountered reno-urinary masses in children.

  13. Myeloid Sarcoma Presenting With Multiple Skin and Subcutaneous Mass Without Leukemic Manifestations After Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Du, X; Diao, X; Zhao, L; Wang, W; Yu, Y; Luo, H

    2015-09-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is well described and known in clinical practice, however, it is a rare condition after receiving renal transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy is thought to be the main cause in these cases. A 45-year-old woman accepted a right kidney transplantation because of her chronic renal insufficiency and uremia in May 2011. She had to receive a left kidney transplantation again in February 2012 because she had renal failure again after receiving the right kidney transplantation. She received immune inhibitors treatment. After the latter operation, her renal function was normal. The third operation was done to remove the right transplanted kidney in July 2012. The diagnosis of the kidney was myeloid sarcoma. The blood and bone marrow biopsy had no evidence of leukemia. She then received chemotherapy. There was a small skin nodule on the left arm of approximately 0.5 cm in August 2012; after that its diameter enlarged progressively to about 5 cm and more nodules and masses gradually appeared on her face, arms, trunk, lower limbs, and feet over the course of 1 year. The skin biopsy specimen obtained from her left arm showed myeloid sarcoma too. She was admitted to the Orthopedics Department for severe pain and swelling in the left foot in September 2014 and underwent an operation for resecting the mass in the left foot. Pain was apparently alleviated and the incision healed well. The patient is still alive with no evidence of leukemia after a 30-month follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Renal mass dosing and graft function in children transplanted from pediatric donors.

    PubMed

    de Petris, L; Faraggiana, Tullio; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2002-06-01

    It has been suggested that "renal mass dosing" may affect graft evolution. Between 1993 and 1999, 43 children, aged 4-17 years, received 43 pediatric cadaveric grafts. The ratio between graft volume (calculated by ultrasound within the first 24 h from transplantation, by ellipsoid formula) and the recipient's body surface area (BSA) ranged between 14.1 and 110 ml/m(2). Three groups were identified: group 1, 14-29 ml/m(2) (13 patients); group 2, 30-39 ml/m(2) (16 patients); group 3, 40-110 ml/m(2) (14 patients). As a consequence of the different renal volume increments in the three groups during the first year after transplant, no differences in the absolute renal volume were observed at the end of follow-up. The average follow-up was 38 months (range 12-80). In the 37 routine graft biopsies, performed on average 13 months after transplantation and with more than five glomeruli, maximum mean glomerular diameters were mostly above normal values. There were no significant differences among the three groups. At the end of follow-up, the three groups did not differ in microalbuminuria, proteinuria, glomerular function or in incidence of hypertension. From this retrospective study, we conclude that the very wide range of renal mass dosing did not cause differences in medium-term graft evolution. A longer follow-up will be necessary to ascertain the possible influence of disproportion between pediatric donors and recipients, on a long-term graft outcome.

  15. A classification tree for the prediction of benign versus malignant disease in patients with small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Ricardo A; Mason, Ross J; Kirkland, Susan; Lawen, Joseph G; Abdolell, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    To develop a classification tree for the preoperative prediction of benign versus malignant disease in patients with small renal masses. This is a retrospective study including 395 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for a renal mass < 5 cm in maximum diameter between July 1st 2001 and June 30th 2010. A classification tree to predict the risk of having a benign renal mass preoperatively was developed using recursive partitioning analysis for repeated measures outcomes. Age, sex, volume on preoperative imaging, tumor location (central/peripheral), degree of endophytic component (1%-100%), and tumor axis position were used as potential predictors to develop the model. Forty-five patients (11.4%) were found to have a benign mass postoperatively. A classification tree has been developed which can predict the risk of benign disease with an accuracy of 88.9% (95% CI: 85.3 to 91.8). The significant prognostic factors in the classification tree are tumor volume, degree of endophytic component and symptoms at diagnosis. As an example of its utilization, a renal mass with a volume of < 5.67 cm3 that is < 45% endophytic has a 52.6% chance of having benign pathology. Conversely, a renal mass with a volume ≥ 5.67 cm3 that is ≥ 35% endophytic has only a 5.3% possibility of being benign. A classification tree to predict the risk of benign disease in small renal masses has been developed to aid the clinician when deciding on treatment strategies for small renal masses.

  16. A quantification strategy for missing bone mass in case of osteolytic bone lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Fränzle, Andrea Giske, Kristina; Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean

  17. Non-mass breast lesions on ultrasound: final outcomes and predictors of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Won; Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2017-09-01

    Background Breast cancer can present as non-mass lesions (NMLs) on ultrasound. However, knowledge of and understanding about NMLs are scarce. Purpose To retrospectively investigate the final outcomes of sonographic breast NMLs and determine the clinical and radiologic variables associated with malignancy Material and Methods In our radiologic database of breast ultrasound examinations between 2011 and 2014, we found 119 women with 121 NMLs with available histopathologic or sonographic follow-up (over 2 years) data. We collected the clinical variables (patient's age, symptoms, and mammographic density) and histopathologic data as well as radiologic variables (mammographic and ultrasound findings) after retrospective review by two radiologists, the authors of the current paper, in consensus. We classified the ultrasound findings according to distribution (focal, linear or segmental, and regional) and associated features (calcification, architectural distortion, and ductal changes) and analyzed the associations between variables and malignancy using the t test and χ(2) test. Results Of the 121 NMLs, 88 (72.7%) were benign and 33 (27.3%) were malignant. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (17/33, 51.5%) and invasive ductal cancer with or without DCIS (13/33, 39.4%) comprised the main malignancies, and malignancy was significantly associated with palpability ( P = 0.000). Mammographic findings and sonographic distribution and associated features were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions ( P = 0.000, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). Malignant lesions showed more frequent calcifications combined with asymmetry ( P = 0.000) on mammography and linear-segmental distributions ( P = 0.001) and associated calcifications ( P = 0.019) or architectural distortions ( P = 0.015) on ultrasound. Conclusion Breast NMLs on ultrasound showed high risk of malignancy. Symptoms and mammographic and ultrasound findings can be

  18. Analysis of preneoplastic and neoplastic renal lesions in Tsc2 mutant Long-Evans (Eker) rats following exposure to a mixture of drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    McDorman, Kevin S; Hooth, Michelle J; Starr, Thomas B; Wolf, Douglas C

    2003-05-01

    Disinfection of surface water for human consumption results in the generation of a complex mixture of chemicals in potable water. Cancer risk assessment methodology assumes additivity of carcinogenic effects in the regulation of mixtures. A rodent model of hereditary renal cancer was used to investigate the carcinogenic response to a mixture of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Rats carrying a mutation in the Tsc2 tumor suppressor gene (Eker rats) readily develop renal preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, and are highly susceptible to the effects of renal carcinogens. Male and female Eker rats were exposed via drinking water to individual or a mixture of DBPs for 4 or 10 months. Potassium bromate, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), chloroform, and bromodichloromethane were administered at low concentrations of 0.02, 0.005, 0.4 and 0.07 g/l, respectively, and high concentrations of 0.4, 0.07, 1.8 and 0.7 g/l, respectively. Low and high dose mixture solutions were comprised of all four chemicals at either low concentrations or high concentrations, respectively, Following necropsy, each kidney was examined microscopically for preneoplastic lesions (atypical tubules and hyperplasias) and tumors. While some of the mixture responses observed in male rats did fall within the range expected for an additive response, especially at the high dose, predominantly antagonistic effects on renal lesions were observed in response to the low dose mixture in male rats and the high dose mixture in female rats. These data suggest that current default risk assessments assuming additivity may overstate the cancer risk associated with exposure to mixtures of DBPs at low concentrations. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  19. Frequency of Angiomyolipomas Among Echogenic Nonshadowing Renal Masses (> 4 mm) Found at Ultrasound and the Utility of MRI for Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Copping, Ross; Malouf, David; Hutton, Anthony; Maclean, Fiona; Aslan, Peter

    2017-08-23

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate what percentage of echogenic nonshadowing renal lesions larger than 4 mm found at ultrasound are angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and to review how to diagnose AMLs, with particular emphasis on the increasing role played by MRI. The study data were obtained at a single institution over a period of 45 months. Although some patients were being reviewed for specific symptoms, such as hematuria, pain, or recurrent urinary tract infections, most of the findings were incidental. Follow-up data on 158 lesions in 132 patients were available. Confirmation of diagnosis was made with follow-up imaging or with histopathologic examination. Ninety-eight (62.0%) of the lesions were AMLs, eight (5.1%) were renal cell carcinomas, three (1.9%) were oncocytomas, 17 (10.8%) were artifacts, seven (4.4%) were fat, five (3.2%) were calculi, another eight (5.1%) were scars, and 12 (7.6%) were complicated cysts. The mean age of patients with AML was significantly lower than that of patients without AML (61.71 [SD, 13.25] years vs 68.80 [SD, 17.85] years; p = 0.005). There was a female association with AMLs (p < 0.001). Echogenic nonshadowing renal lesions larger than 4 mm seen at ultrasound should not be assumed to represent an AML without follow-up because a percentage of renal cell carcinomas will be missed. Although certain ultrasound features can be useful in differentiating an AML from a renal cell carcinoma and CT is frequently diagnostic, an understanding of MRI is important because it can potentially detect lipid-poor AMLs.

  20. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of a Small Renal Mass Complicated by Appendiceal Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Judith; Bex, Axel; Prevoo, Warner

    2012-06-15

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained wide acceptance as nephron-sparing therapy for small renal masses in select patients. Generally, it is a safe procedure with minor morbidity and acceptable short-term oncologic outcome. However, as a result of the close proximity of vital structures, such as the bowel, ureter, and large vessels, to the ablative field, complications regarding these structures may occur. This is the first article describing appendiceal perforation as a complication of computed tomography-guided RFA despite hydrodissection. When performing this innovative and promising procedure one should be aware of the possibility of particular minor and even major complications.

  1. Enhancing Mass Lesion of the Sphenoid: Atypical Presentation of Ongoing Pneumatization

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhaneni, Deepak; Badar, Zain; Mangla, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Sinus pneumatization is a complex variable process that begins in early life and continues for many years. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with progressive headaches and neurologic symptoms suggestive of intracranial pathology. The presence of enhancing tissue within the sphenoid sinus created a diagnostic dilemma which leads to a transsphenoidal biopsy. Knowledge of imaging characteristics associated with incomplete pneumatization can help differentiate it from more ominous skull base pathology and prevent unnecessary testing. We describe four-year imaging follow-up in a patient with incomplete pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus presenting as an enhancing mass lesion with subsequent follow-up imaging demonstrating gradual regression and increased aeration of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:28058123

  2. MALDI Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Profiling of Dysregulated Sulfoglycosphingolipids in Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásko, Robert; Holčapek, Michal; Khalikova, Maria; Vrána, David; Študent, Vladimír; Prouzová, Zuzana; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MALDI-Orbitrap-MS) is used for the clinical study of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as the most common type of kidney cancer. Significant changes in sulfoglycosphingolipid abundances between tumor and autologous normal kidney tissues are observed. First, sulfoglycosphingolipid species in studied RCC samples are identified using high mass accuracy full scan and tandem mass spectra. Subsequently, optimization, method validation, and statistical evaluation of MALDI-MS data for 158 tissues of 80 patients are discussed. More than 120 sulfoglycosphingolipids containing one to five hexosyl units are identified in human RCC samples based on the systematic study of their fragmentation behavior. Many of them are recorded here for the first time. Multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, i.e., unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), are used for the visualization of differences between normal and tumor samples to reveal the most up- and downregulated lipids in tumor tissues. Obtained results are closely correlated with MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and histologic staining. Important steps of the present MALDI-Orbitrap-MS approach are also discussed, such as the selection of best matrix, correct normalization, validation for semiquantitative study, and problems with possible isobaric interferences on closed masses in full scan mass spectra.

  3. Primary Renal Hydatid Cyst: Mis-Interpretation as a Renal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jae-Heon; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Primary renal echinococcosis, a rare disease involving the kidney, accounts for 2-3% of human echinococcosis. A 64-year-old female patient from Uzbekistan presented with complaints of left flank pain. A CT scan revealed a cystic mass in the upper to midpole of the left kidney. We regarded this lesion as a renal malignancy and hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed to remove the renal mass. The mass consisted of a large unilocular cyst and multiple smaller cysts without any grossly visible renal tissue. The final pathologic diagnosis was a renal hydatid cyst. For patients from endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis. Here, we present a case of renal hydatid cyst in a female patient who relocated from Uzbekistan to Korea. PMID:25031471

  4. Ultrasound-guided cable-free 13-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy of non-mass breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jiwoon; Jang, Mijung; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, So Yeon; Moon, Woo Kyung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Bohyoung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcomes of ultrasound-guided core biopsy for non-mass breast lesions by the novel 13-gauge cable-free vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) and by the conventional 14-gauge semi-automated core needle biopsy (CCNB). Materials and methods Our institutional review board approved this prospective study, and all patients provided written informed consent. Among 1840 ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsies performed from August 2013 to December 2014, 145 non-mass breast lesions with suspicious microcalcifications on mammography or corresponding magnetic resonance imaging finding were subjected to 13-gauge VAB or 14-gauge CCNB. We evaluated the technical success rates, average specimen numbers, and tissue sampling time. We also compared the results of percutaneous biopsy and final surgical pathologic diagnosis to analyze the rates of diagnostic upgrade or downgrade. Results Ultrasound-guided VAB successfully targeted and sampled all lesions, whereas CCNB failed to demonstrate calcification in four (10.3%) breast lesions with microcalcification on specimen mammography. The mean sampling time were 238.6 and 170.6 seconds for VAB and CCNB, respectively. No major complications were observed with either method. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) lesions were more frequently upgraded after CCNB (8/23 and 3/5, respectively) than after VAB (2/26 and 0/4, respectively P = 0.028). Conclusion Non-mass breast lesions were successfully and accurately biopsied using cable-free VAB. The underestimation rate of ultrasound-detected non-mass lesion was significantly lower with VAB than with CCNB. Trial registration CRiS KCT0002267. PMID:28628656

  5. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone.

  6. Intraventricular mass lesions at magnetic resonance imaging: iconographic essay - part 2*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Felipe Damásio; Reis, Fabiano; Guerra, José Guilherme Giocondo

    2014-01-01

    The present essay is illustrated with magnetic resonance images obtained at the authors' institution over the past 15 years and discusses the main imaging findings of intraventricular tumor-like lesions (colloid cyst, oligodendroglioma, astroblastoma, lipoma, cavernoma) and of inflammatory/infectious lesions (neurocysticercosis and an atypical presentation of neurohistoplasmosis). Such lesions represent a subgroup of intracranial lesions with unique characteristics and some imaging patterns that may facilitate the differential diagnosis. PMID:25741092

  7. Metastatic potential of a renal mass according to original tumour size at presentation.

    PubMed

    Umbreit, Eric C; Shimko, Mark S; Childs, M Adam; Lohse, Christine M; Cheville, John C; Leibovich, Bradley C; Blute, Michael L; Thompson, R Houston

    2012-01-01

    To determine the metastatic potential of renal masses based on original tumour size. We identified 2651 patients who had undergone surgical resection for a unilateral, sporadic renal tumour between 1990 and 2006. Associations of tumour size with synchronous metastasis at presentation [M1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC)] and development of metastases, death from RCC, and death from any cause after surgery were evaluated using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of the 2651 patients studied, 182 (6.9%) presented with M1 RCC. Tumour size was significantly greater in patients with M1 RCC than in patients with M0 RCC (a median size of 10 vs 4.5 cm; P < 0.001). Only 1 of the 629 patients (0.2%) with a tumour <3 cm had M1 RCC and that tumour was 2.5 cm. The risk of M1 RCC increased from 1.1% for patients with tumours 3-3.9 cm to 16.5% for patients with tumours ≥7 cm. Of the 2124 patients with M0 RCC, 430 developed distant metastases at a median (range) of 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years after surgery. Only 9 of the 498 patients (1.8%) with a tumour <3 cm developed distant metastases after surgery. Each 1-cm increase in tumour size increased the risk of death from RCC by 20%[hazard ratio (HR) 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-1.22; P < 0.001] and death from any cause by 10% (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.09-1.12; P < 0.001). For the 1346 patients who were still alive at last follow-up, the median (range) duration of follow-up was 6.9 (0.1-19.7) years. Tumour size is significantly associated with metastases in patients with renal masses. Patients with tumours <3 cm have a low risk of synchronous metastatic disease. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  8. Comparative effectiveness, costs and trends in treatment of small renal masses from 2005 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Keith J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Nguyen, Paul L; Lynch, John H; Hu, Jim C

    2013-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and what does the study add?: Retrospective data have suggested an increased survival benefit for patients undergoing partial nephrectomy compared to radical nephrectomy, possibly as a result of the avoidance of long-term renalin sufficiency and subsequent sequelae. However, recent level-one evidence has questioned this benefit. Both retrospective studies and randomized controlled trials are not without limitations. There are few population-based data available with respect to the outcomes of partial nephrectomy vs radical nephrectomy. Additionally, there are no population-based studies analyzing the surgical approach (minimally-invasive vs open), as well as other modalities, such as ablation and surveillance. Finally, there is very little information available on the potential differences in cost for each approach. The present study comprises the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the trends, outcomes and costs of all treatment modalities for T1a renal masses from 2005 to 2007. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the outcomes and costs for treatments for small renal masses (SRM) using a population-based approach. Partial nephrectomy may be associated with improved survival, although level-one evidence has questioned this survival advantage. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data, we identified 1682 subjects who were diagnosed with SRM from 2005 to 2007. Treatment included open radical nephrectomy (ORN; n = 404), minimally-invasive radical nephrectomy (MIRN; n = 535), open partial nephrectomy (OPN; n = 330), minimally-invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN; n = 160), ablation (n = 211) and surveillance (n = 42). Postoperative complications, renal insufficiency diagnosis, overall mortality, cancer-specific mortality and postoperative costs were compared. Covariates were balanced before outcomes analysis using propensity score methods. Although the use of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) increased over

  9. Cost comparison of nephron-sparing treatments for cT1a renal masses.

    PubMed

    Castle, Scott M; Gorbatiy, Vladislav; Avallone, Michael A; Eldefrawy, Ahmed; Caulton, Darryl E; Leveillee, Raymond J

    2013-10-01

    Treatment options for small renal tumors have evolved from radical nephrectomy (RN) to partial nephrectomy (PN), thermal ablation, or active surveillance. With the advancement of techniques, costs differences are unclear. The objective of this study is to compare the 6-month costs associated with nephron-sparing procedures for cT1a renal tumors. We performed a review of patients diagnosed with a solitary cT1a renal mass who underwent surgical treatment from June 2008 to May 2011. Open partial nephrectomy (OPN), robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RLPN), laparoscopic radio-frequency ablation (LRFA), or computed tomography guided radio frequency ablation (CTRFA) was performed on 173 patients. Cost data were collected for surgical costs, associated hospital stay, and the 6-month postoperative period. Patients underwent surgery, including 52 OPN, 48 RLPN, 44 LRFA, and 29 CTRFA. Median total costs associated were $17,018, $20,314, $13,965, and $6,475, for OPN, RLPN, LRFA, and CTRFA, respectively. When stratified by approach differences were noted for total cost (P < 0.001), operating room (OR) time (P < 0.001), surgical supply (P < 0.001), and room and board (P < 0.001) in univariable analysis. Multivariable linear regression (R(2) = 0.966) showed surgical approach (P = 0.007), length of stay (P < 0.001), and OR time (P < 0.001) to be significant predictors of total cost. However, tumor size (P = 0.175), and Charlson comorbidity index (P = 0.078) were not statistically significant. Six-month cost of nephron-sparing surgery is lowest with radio frequency ablation (RFA) by either laparoscopic or computed tomography (CT)-guided approach compared to RLPN and OPN. As oncologic and safety outcomes improve and become comparable in all nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) approaches, cost of each procedure will start to play a stronger role in the clinical and healthcare policy setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Left ventricular mass changes after renal transplantation: influence of dietary sodium and change in serum uric acid.

    PubMed

    du Cailar, Guilhem; Oudot, Carole; Fesler, Pierre; Mimran, Albert; Bonnet, Benjamin; Pernin, Vincent; Ribstein, Jean; Mourad, Georges

    2014-07-27

    We hypothesized that dietary sodium may modulate the effect of systolic blood pressure and other nonhemodynamic factors, such as high uric acid and renal dysfunction, on changes in the left ventricular mass after renal transplantation. The objective of the present 3-year follow-up longitudinal study was to assess the concomitant influence of these factors on changes in the left ventricular mass after renal transplantation. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion, glomerular filtration rate (isotopic clearance), and left ventricular mass (echocardiography) assessment were done in 165 renal transplant patients during the first year and after a follow-up of 3 years after renal transplantation. At follow-up, therapy of hypertension was associated with normalization of blood pressure in 64% and a decrease in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy from 66% to 56%. At baseline and follow-up, systolic blood pressure, sodium intake, and serum uric acid emerged as independent and significant determinants of the final left ventricular mass index. When the population was divided according to sex-specific tertiles of the final 24-hr urinary sodium excretion, the relationship between change in serum uric acid during follow-up, final left ventricular mass index, and final glomerular filtration rate was significant only on the highest tertile of 24-hr urinary sodium excretion. The decrease in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy after renal transplantation is blunted by high sodium intake. Persistence of the left ventricular hypertrophy may result from the combined adverse influences of excessive dietary sodium intake and increased serum uric acid during follow-up despite pharmacological control of blood pressure.

  11. Characterization of Incidental Renal Mass With Dual-Energy CT: Diagnostic Accuracy of Effective Atomic Number Maps for Discriminating Nonenhancing Cysts From Enhancing Masses.

    PubMed

    Mileto, Achille; Allen, Brian C; Pietryga, Jason A; Farjat, Alfredo E; Zarzour, Jessica G; Bellini, Davide; Ebner, Lukas; Morgan, Desiree E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of effective atomic number maps reconstructed from dual-energy contrast-enhanced data for discriminating between nonenhancing renal cysts and enhancing masses. Two hundred six patients (128 men, 78 women; mean age, 64 years) underwent a CT renal mass protocol (single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced nephrographic imaging) at two different hospitals. For each set of patients, two blinded, independent observers performed measurements on effective atomic number maps from contrast-enhanced dual-energy data. Renal mass assessment on unenhanced and nephrographic images, corroborated by imaging and medical records, was the reference standard. The diagnostic accuracy of effective atomic number maps was assessed with ROC analysis. Significant differences in mean effective atomic numbers (Zeff) were observed between nonenhancing and enhancing masses (set A, 8.19 vs 9.59 Zeff; set B, 8.05 vs 9.19 Zeff; sets combined, 8.13 vs 9.37 Zeff) (p < 0.0001). An effective atomic number value of 8.36 Zeff was the optimal threshold, rendering an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89-0.94), sensitivity of 90.8% (158/174 [95% CI, 85.5-94.7%]), specificity of 85.2% (445/522 [95% CI, 81.9-88.2%]), and overall diagnostic accuracy of 86.6% (603/696 [95% CI, 83.9-89.1%]). Nonenhancing renal cysts, including hyperattenuating cysts, can be discriminated from enhancing masses on effective atomic number maps generated from dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT data. This technique may be of clinical usefulness when a CT protocol for comprehensive assessment of renal masses is not available.

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness sum in assessing body fat mass of renal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Natália Cristina Lima; Sala, Priscila Campos; Horie, Lilian Mika; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda; Romão, João Egídio; Cecconello, Ivan; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2012-07-01

    In chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis (HD) treatment, the availability of simple, safe, and effective tools to assess body composition enables evaluation of body composition accurately, in spite of changes in body fluids that occur in dialysis therapy, thus contributing to planning and monitoring of nutritional treatment. We evaluated the performance of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the skinfold thickness sum (SKF) to assess fat mass (FM) in chronic renal failure patients before (BHD) and after (AHD) HD, using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the standard method. This single-center cross-sectional trial involved comparing the FM of 60 HD patients estimated BHD and AHD by BIA (multifrequential; 29 women, 31 men) and by SKF with those estimated by the reference method, ADP. Body fat-free mass (FFM) was also obtained by subtracting the total body fat from the individual total weight. Mean estimated FM (kg [%]) observed by ADP BHD was 17.95 ± 0.99 kg (30.11% ± 1.30%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 16.00 to 19.90 (27.56 to 32.66); mean estimated FM observed AHD was 17.92 ± 1.11 kg (30.04% ± 1.40%), with a 95% CI of 15.74 to 20.10 (27.28 to 32.79). Neither study period showed a difference in FM and FFM (for both kg and %) estimates by the SKF method when compared with ADP; however, the BIA underestimated the FM and overestimated the FFM (for both kg and %) when compared with ADP. The SKF, but not the BIA, method showed results similar to ADP and can be considered adequate for FM evaluation in HD patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Follow-up after focal therapy in renal masses: an international multidisciplinary Delphi consensus project.

    PubMed

    Zondervan, P J; Wagstaff, P G K; Desai, M M; de Bruin, D M; Fraga, A F; Hadaschik, B A; Köllermann, J; Liehr, U B; Pahernik, S A; Schlemmer, H P; Wendler, J J; Algaba, F; de la Rosette, J J M C H; Laguna Pes, M P

    2016-12-01

    To establish consensus on follow-up (FU) after focal therapy (FT) in renal masses. To formulate recommendations to aid in clinical practice and research. Key topics and questions for consensus were identified from a systematic literature research. A Web-based questionnaire was distributed among participants selected based on their contribution to the literature and/or known expertise. Three rounds according to the Delphi method were performed online. Final discussion was conducted during the "8th International Symposium on Focal Therapy and Imaging in Prostate and Kidney Cancer" among an international multidisciplinary expert panel. Sixty-two participants completed all three rounds of the online questionnaire. The panel recommended a minimum follow-up of 5 years, preferably extended to 10 years. The first FU was recommended at 3 months, with at least two imaging studies in the first year. Imaging was recommended biannually during the second year and annually thereafter. The panel recommended FU by means of CT scan with slice thickness ≤3 mm (at least three phases with excretory phase if suspicion of collecting system involvement) or mpMRI. Annual checkup for pulmonary metastasis by CT thorax was advised. Outside study protocols, biopsy during follow-up should only be performed in case of suspicion of residual/persistent disease or radiological recurrence. The consensus led to clear FU recommendations after FT of renal masses supported by a multidisciplinary expert panel. In spite of the low level of evidence, these recommendations can guide clinicians and create uniformity in the follow-up practice and for clinical research purposes.

  14. The Effects of Long-Term Chaetomellic Acid A Administration on Renal Function and Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Renal Mass Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, António; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Pires, Carlos André; Colaço, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with chaetomellic acid A (CAA) on oxidative stress and renal function in a model of renal mass reduction. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (RMR) or sham-operated (SO). One week after surgery, rats have been divided into four experimental groups: RMR: RMR rats without treatment (n = 14); RMR + CAA: RMR rats treated with CAA (n = 13); SO: SO rats without treatment (n = 13); and SO + CAA: SO rats treated with CAA (n = 13). CAA was intraperitoneally administered in a dose of 0.23 µg/Kg three times a week for six months. Results. RMR was accompanied by a significant reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (p < 0.05) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio. CAA administration significantly increased catalase and GR activity (p < 0.05) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio, but no significant difference between the treated and nontreated groups was found in this ratio. No significant differences were found between the RMR groups in any of the parameters of renal function. However, CAA administration slightly improves some parameters of renal function. Conclusions. These data suggest that CAA could attenuate 5/6 RMR-induced oxidative stress. PMID:28326323

  15. Outcome of radiofrequency ablation over partial nephrectomy for small renal mass (<4 cm): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Shouzhen; Chen, Fan; Zhu, Kejia; Deng, Qiming; Luo, Li; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken to provide evidence-based clinical trials comparing radiofrequency ablation with partial nephrectomy for small renal mass. We searched through the major medical databases such as Pub Med, EMBASE, Medline, Science Citation Index, Web of Science and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database) and Wangfang (Database of Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology) for all published studies without any limit on language from May 2007 until May 2015. The following search terms wereused: partial nephrectomy, radiofrequency ablation, renal cell carcinoma, small renal tumor or mass. Furthermore, additional related studies were manually searched in the reference lists of all published reviews and retrieved articles. We found there were no statistical differences between groups in 5y-DFS, recurrence rates, complications, but a less percentage decease rate of GFR than PN, and RFA may be a better application for SRM (<4 cm).

  16. Determination of similarity measures for pairs of mass lesions on mammograms by use of BI-RADS lesion descriptors and image features.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li, Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio

    2009-04-01

    To determine similarity measures for selection of pathology-known similar images that would be useful for radiologists as a reference guide in the diagnosis of new breast lesions on mammograms. The images were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. For determination and evaluation of similarity measures, the "gold standard" of similarities for 300 pairs of masses was determined by 10 breast radiologists. For determining similarity measures that would agree with radiologists' similarity determination, an artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings and the image features. The image features were determined subjectively using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lesion descriptors and objectively by computerized image analysis. The similarity measures determined by the ANN were compared to the gold standard and evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient. The similarity measures determined using the BI-RADS descriptors only were not as useful as those determined by use of the image features only. When the BI-RADS margin ratings were combined with the image features, the correlation coefficient between the subjective ratings and the objective measures improved slightly (r = 0.76) compared to those based on the image features alone (r = 0.74). The inclusion of the BI-RADS margin descriptors may be useful for determination of similarity measures, especially when it is difficult to obtain the manual outlines of the masses and if the BI-RADS descriptors were provided consistently by radiologists.

  17. Fiber-Optic Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy of Small Renal Masses: Toward Real-Time Optical Diagnostic Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Ming; Kuo, Jennifer; Allan, Robert W; Liao, Joseph C; Ritari, Kellie L; Tomeny, Patrick E; Carter, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    The incidental detection of small renal masses is increasing. However, not all require aggressive treatments as up to 20% are benign and the majority of malignant tumors harbor indolent features. Improved preoperative diagnostics are needed to differentiate tumors requiring aggressive treatment from those more suitable for surveillance. We evaluated and compared confocal laser endomicroscopy with standard histopathology in ex vivo human kidney tumors as proof of principle towards diagnostic optical biopsy. Patients with a solitary small renal mass scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy were enrolled in study. Two kidneys were infused with fluorescein via intraoperative intravenous injection and 18 tumors were bathed ex vivo in dilute fluorescein prior to confocal imaging. A 2.6 mm confocal laser endomicroscopy probe was used to image tumors and surrounding parenchyma from external and en face surfaces after specimen bisection. Confocal laser endomicroscopy images were compared to standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis of corresponding areas. Ex vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging revealed normal renal structures that correlated well with histology findings. Tumor tissue was readily distinguishable from normal parenchyma, demonstrating features unique to benign and malignant tumor subtypes. Topical fluorescein administration provided more consistent confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging than the intravenous route. Additionally, en face tumor imaging was superior to external imaging. We report what is to our knowledge the first feasibility study using confocal laser endomicroscopy to evaluate small renal masses ex vivo and provide a preliminary atlas of images from various renal neoplasms with corresponding histology. These findings serve as an initial and promising step toward real-time diagnostic optical biopsy of small renal masses. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Renal vascular lesions as a marker of poor prognosis in patients with lupus nephritis. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Nefrite Lupica (GISNEL).

    PubMed

    Banfi, G; Bertani, T; Boeri, V; Faraggiana, T; Mazzucco, G; Monga, G; Sacchi, G

    1991-08-01

    The frequency of renal vascular lesions (RVL) and their relevance in the progression of renal damage were evaluated by the Pathology Group of the "Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Nefrite Lupica" (GISNEL). Of 285 patients with lupus nephritis collected from 20 nephrology centers in Italy and classified according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 79 cases (27.7%) with RVL were identified and classified as follows: (1) lupus vasculopathy (n = 27); (2) hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP) malignant hypertension-like lesions (n = 24); (3) vasculitis (n = 8); (4) arterio-arteriosclerosis (n = 20). At the time of renal biopsy, patients with RVL had mean serum creatinine levels significantly higher than patients without RVL (201.8 +/- 195.9 mumol/L [2.2 +/- 2.2 mg/dL] v 108.1 +/- 108.0 mumol/L [1.2 +/- 1.2 mg/dL]; P less than 0.01). Hypertension was more frequent in patients with RVL than in those without (68.4% v 30.5%; P less than 0.01). The probability of kidney survival assessed according to the Kaplan-Meier method at 5 and 10 years was, respectively, 74.3% +/- 5.9% and 58.0% +/- 8.9% in patients with RVL, compared with 89.6% +/- 2.7% and 85.9% +/- 3.7% in patients without RVL. However, the two groups did not differ significantly as regards overall survival, the probability of survival at 5 and 10 years being 86.5% +/- 4.5% and 78.8% +/- 6.6% in patients with RVL and 92.2% +/- 2.2% and 83.3% +/- 4.4% in patients without RVL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Arterial Spin-labeling MR Imaging of Renal Masses: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Robson, Phil M.; Sun, Maryellen R.; Patel, Amish D.; Mentore, Kimiknu; Wagner, Andrew A.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Alsop, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the characterization of solid renal masses by using histopathologic findings as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was compliant with HIPAA and approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before imaging. Forty-two consecutive patients suspected of having renal masses underwent ASL MR imaging before their routine 1.5-T clinical MR examination. Mean and peak tumor perfusion levels were obtained by one radiologist, who was blinded to the final histologic diagnosis, by using region of interest analysis. Perfusion values were correlated with histopathologic findings by using analysis of variance. A linear correlation model was used to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and perfusion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). P < .05 was considered indicative of a statistically significant difference. Results: Histopathologic findings were available in 34 patients (28 men, six women; mean age ± standard deviation, 60.4 years ± 11.7). The mean perfusion of papillary RCC (27.0 mL/min/100 g ± 15.1) was lower than that of clear cell RCC (171.6 mL/min/100 g ± 61.2, P = .001), chromophobe RCC (152.9 mL/min/100 g ± 80.7, P = .04), unclassified RCC (208.0 mL/min/100 g ± 41.1, P = .001), and oncocytoma (373.9 mL/min/100 g ± 99.2, P < .001). The mean and peak perfusion levels of oncocytoma (373.9 mL/min/100 g ± 99.2 and 512.3 mL/min/100 g ± 146.0, respectively) were higher than those of papillary RCC (27.0 mL/min/100 g ± 15.1 and 78.2 mL/min/100 g ± 39.7, P < .001 for both), chromophobe RCC (152.9 mL/min/100 g ± 80.7 and 260.9 mL/min/100 g ± 61.9; P < .001 and P = .02, respectively), and unclassified RCC (208.0 mL/min/100 g ± 41.1 and 273.3 mL/min/100 g ± 83.4; P = .01 and P = .03, respectively). The mean tumor perfusion of oncocytoma was higher than that of clear cell

  20. IgG4-related disease: description of a case with pulmonary lesions, mediastinal lymphadenopathies and rapidly progressive renal failure.

    PubMed

    Fernández Lorente, Loreto; Álvarez, Dolores López; López, Virginia García; Kollros, Vesna Abujder; Ariza, Aurelio; Gálvez, Alejandro; Bonet, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of a 73-year-old man with new-onset acute renal failure while being investigated for pulmonary infiltrates and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Urine tests showed tubular range proteinuria with no microhaematuria. Immunology tests showed elevated serum IgG and hypocomplementaemia (classical pathway activation). Renal biopsy and clinical-pathological correlation were crucial in this case, reinforcing their important role in the final diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Intra-articular soft-tissue masses of the ankle. Meniscoid lesions and transarticular fibrous bands.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, J J

    1994-07-01

    Meniscoid lesions and fibrous bands are unique lesions, most likely of differing origin. Although they are similar in clinical presentation, their appearance at arthroscopy is clearly different. The meniscoid lesion is attached only at its origin at the inferolateral gutter on the anterior talofibular ligament. Fibrous bands are attached at two ends and may be found anywhere in the joint but are most common extending dramatically over the anterior joint line. Unexpected encountering of a fibrous band should alert the surgeon to carefully inspect the joint for other associated (occult) pathology. Because of the frequent association of bands with antecedent fracture, the observation of this lesion should lead the clinician to consider antecedent intra-articular fracture (transchondral fracture, malleolar fracture, and tibial pilon fracture) as a likely co-pathology. Careful examination of the ankle and review of the radiographs and other available images may be helpful in assessing the joint for these injuries when fibrous bands are encountered. The association of meniscoid lesion with prior soft tissue injury (sprain) is also important to understanding this lesion. Excision of both these abnormal lesions in concert with repair of coexistent pathology is associated with improvement of symptoms. Finally, both fibrous bands and meniscoid lesions are associated with symptoms that warrant closer inspection and observation. Whether the operative intervention is open or closed, the reader can benefit from the information presented.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric kidney: benign and malignant masses.

    PubMed

    Gee, Michael S; Bittman, Mark; Epelman, Monica; Vargas, Sara O; Lee, Edward Y

    2013-11-01

    The differential diagnosis of renal masses in pediatric patients includes benign and malignant tumors, as well as nonneoplastic mass-like lesions mimicking tumors. Although the spectrum of renal masses in children has some overlap with that of adults, it is important to understand the renal pathologic processes specific to the pediatric population, as well as their characteristic imaging appearances and clinical presentations. This article reviews benign and malignant renal masses in children, with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features that are specific to each lesion type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of biliary stents on EUS-guided FNA of pancreatic mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Nathaniel; Phadnis, Milind; Trevino, Jessica; Ramesh, Jayapal; Wilcox, C Mel; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of biliary stents on EUS-guided FNA. To compare diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA in patients with or without biliary stents. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center. Patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to solid pancreatic mass lesions who underwent EUS-FNA over 5 years. The primary objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA in patients with or without biliary stents and between patients with plastic stents or self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs). Secondary objectives were to assess the technical difficulty of EUS-FNA by comparing the number of passes required to establish diagnosis and to identify predictors of a false-negative diagnosis. Of 214 patients who underwent EUS-FNA, 150 (70%) had biliary stents and 64 (30%) had no stents in place. Of 150 patients with biliary stents, 105 (70%) were plastic and 45 (30%) were SEMSs. At EUS-FNA, the diagnosis was pancreatic cancer in 155 (72%), chronic pancreatitis in 17 (8%), other cancer in 31 (14%), and indeterminate in 11 (5%). There was no difference in rates of diagnostic accuracy between patients with or without stents (93.7% vs 95.3%; P = .73) and between plastic or SEMSs (95.2% vs 95.5%, P = .99), respectively. Median number of passes to diagnosis was not significantly different between patients with or without stents (2 [interquartile ratio range (IQR) = 1-3] vs 2 [IQR = 1-4]; P = .066) and between plastic or SEMS (2.5 [IQR = 1-4] vs 2 [IQR = 1-4], P = .69), respectively. On univariate analysis, EUS-FNA results were false-negative in patients with large pancreatic masses (>3 cm vs <3 cm, 9.35% vs 0.93%, P = .005) that required more FNA passes (<2 vs >2 passes, 0% vs 11.8%, P < .0001). Retrospective study. The presence or absence of a biliary stent, whether plastic or metal, does not have an impact on the diagnostic yield or technical difficulty of EUS-FNA. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  4. Impact of biliary stents on EUS-guided FNA of pancreatic mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Nathaniel; Phadnis, Milind; Trevino, Jessica; Ramesh, Jayapal; Wilcox, C. Mel; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the impact of biliary stents on EUS-guided FNA. Aim To compare diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA in patients with or without biliary stents. Design Retrospective study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to solid pancreatic mass lesions who underwent EUS-FNA over 5 years. Main Outcome Measures The primary objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA in patients with or without biliary stents and between patients with plastic stents or self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs). Secondary objectives were to assess the technical difficulty of EUS-FNA by comparing the number of passes required to establish diagnosis and to identify predictors of a false-negative diagnosis. Results Of 214 patients who underwent EUS-FNA, 150 (70%) had biliary stents and 64 (30%) had no stents in place. Of 150 patients with biliary stents, 105 (70%) were plastic and 45 (30%) were SEMSs. At EUS-FNA, the diagnosis was pancreatic cancer in 155 (72%), chronic pancreatitis in 17 (8%), other cancer in 31 (14%), and indeterminate in 11 (5%). There was no difference in rates of diagnostic accuracy between patients with or without stents (93.7% vs 95.3%; P = .73) and between plastic or SEMSs (95.2% vs 95.5%, P = .99), respectively. Median number of passes to diagnosis was not significantly different between patients with or without stents (2 [interquartile ratio range (IQR) = 1–3] vs 2 [IQR = 1–4]; P = .066) and between plastic or SEMS (2.5 [IQR = 1–4] vs 2 [IQR = 1–4], P = .69), respectively. On univariate analysis, EUS-FNA results were false-negative in patients with large pancreatic masses (>3 cm vs <3 cm, 9.35% vs 0.93%, P = .005) that required more FNA passes (<2 vs >2 passes, 0% vs 11.8%, P < .0001). Limitations Retrospective study. Conclusions The presence or absence of a biliary stent, whether plastic or metal, does not have an impact on the diagnostic yield or technical difficulty of EUS

  5. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Electrospray Droplet Ion Beams

    PubMed Central

    Ninomiya, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Chen, Lee Chuin; Takeda, Sen; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2017-01-01

    Tissue samples from renal cell carcinoma patients were analyzed by electrospray droplet ion beam-induced secondary ion mass spectrometry (EDI/SIMS). Positively- and negatively-charged secondary ions were measured for the cancerous and noncancerous regions of the tissue samples. Although specific cancerous species could not be found in both the positive and negative secondary ion spectra, the spectra of the cancerous and noncancerous tissues presented different trends. For instance, in the m/z range of 500–800 of the positive secondary ion spectra for the cancerous tissues, the intensities for several m/z values were lower than those of the m/z+2 peaks (indicating one double bond loss for the species), whereas, for the noncancerous tissues, the inverse trend was obtained. The tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was also performed on the tissue samples using probe electrospray ionization (PESI), and some molecular ions produced by PESI were found to be fragmented into the ions observed in EDI/SIMS analysis. When the positive secondary ion spectra produced by EDI/SIMS were analyzed by principal component analysis, the results for cancerous and noncancerous tissues were separated. The EDI/SIMS method can be applied to distinguish between a cancerous and a noncancerous area with high probability. PMID:28149705

  6. Radiation Exposure During Percutaneous Ablation of Small Renal Masses: A Multi-Institutional Multimodality Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Chad Robert; Kogan, Paul; Gupta, Amit; Gahan, Jeffrey C; Theckumparampil, Nithin P J; Elsamra, Sammy E; Okunov, Zhamshid; Sun, Shiliang; Lall, Chandana; Lobko, Igor; Landman, Jaime; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2015-11-01

    To understand the effective radiation dose during percutaneous cryoablation (CA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and characterize variables that may affect the individual dose. The effective radiation dose was determined by conversion of the dose-length product from CT scans performed during percutaneous CA or RFA for patients with solitary renal masses (<4 cm) at four academic centers. Radiation dose per case was compared between patients and institutions using multivariate and univariate analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of cancer was calculated for each institution and utilized to determine the number needed to harm for a range of ages at the time of exposure. One hundred twenty-three patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 71 years. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male, mean body-mass index (BMI) was 29.4, and mean tumor size was 2.2 cm. The mean effective radiation dose per ablation was 40 mSv (range 3.7-147). On multivariate analysis, only BMI and institution were associated with the radiation dose. No significant difference in radiation exposure was seen for RFA or CA procedures. Radiation exposure during percutaneous ablation is similar to a multiphase CT scan. However, there is wide variability in individual treatment exposure, varying from 3.7 to 147 mSv, depending primarily on institution and BMI. Standardization of protocols is required to achieve as low as reasonably achievable levels of radiation.

  7. Improving the Accuracy of Computer-aided Diagnosis for Breast MR Imaging by Differentiating between Mass and Nonmass Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-03-01

    To determine suitable features and optimal classifier design for a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to differentiate among mass and nonmass enhancements during dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast. Two hundred eighty histologically proved mass lesions and 129 histologically proved nonmass lesions from MR imaging studies were retrospectively collected. The institutional research ethics board approved this study and waived informed consent. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification of mass and nonmass enhancement was obtained from radiologic reports. Image data from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were extracted and analyzed by using feature selection techniques and binary, multiclass, and cascade classifiers. Performance was assessed by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Bootstrap cross validation was used to predict the best classifier for the classification task of mass and nonmass benign and malignant breast lesions. A total of 176 features were extracted. Feature relevance ranking indicated unequal importance of kinetic, texture, and morphologic features for mass and nonmass lesions. The best classifier performance was a two-stage cascade classifier (mass vs nonmass followed by malignant vs benign classification) (AUC, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 0.94) compared with one-shot classifier (ie, all benign vs malignant classification) (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.92). The AUC was 2% higher for cascade (median percent difference obtained by using paired bootstrapped samples) and was significant (P = .0027). Our proposed two-stage cascade classifier decreases the overall misclassification rate by 12%, with 72 of 409 missed diagnoses with cascade versus 82 of 409 missed diagnoses with one-shot classifier. Separately optimizing feature selection and training classifiers for mass and nonmass lesions improves the accuracy

  8. Use of volumetric features for temporal comparison of mass lesions in full field digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Jelena Grgic, Mislav; Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Temporal comparison of lesions might improve classification between benign and malignant lesions in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). The authors compare the use of volumetric features for lesion classification, which are computed from dense tissue thickness maps, to the use of mammographic lesion area. Use of dense tissue thickness maps for lesion characterization is advantageous, since it results in lesion features that are invariant to acquisition parameters. Methods: The dataset used in the analysis consisted of 60 temporal mammogram pairs comprising 120 mediolateral oblique or craniocaudal views with a total of 65 lesions, of which 41 were benign and 24 malignant. The authors analyzed the performance of four volumetric features, area, and four other commonly used features obtained from temporal mammogram pairs, current mammograms, and prior mammograms. The authors evaluated the individual performance of all features and of different feature sets. The authors used linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross validation to classify different feature sets. Results: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs achieved the best individual performance, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z} value). Volume change (A{sub z} = 0.88) achieved higher A{sub z} value than projected lesion area change (A{sub z} = 0.78) in the temporal comparison of lesions. Best performance was achieved with a set that consisted of a set of features extracted from the current exam combined with four volumetric features representing changes with respect to the prior mammogram (A{sub z} = 0.90). This was significantly better (p = 0.005) than the performance obtained using features from the current exam only (A{sub z} = 0.77). Conclusions: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs combined with features from the single exam significantly improve discrimination of benign and malignant lesions in FFDM mammograms

  9. Unusual presentation of neurobrucellosis: a solitary intracranial mass lesion mimicking a cerebral tumor : a case of encephalitis caused by Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Mehtap; Namiduru, Mustafa; Karaoglan, Ilkay; Kecik, Vuslat Bosnak; Aydin, Abdullah; Tanriverdi, Mustafa

    2012-10-01

    Among the diverse presentations of neurobrucellosis, solitary intracranial mass lesions are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, we describe here the second case of neurobrucellosis mimicking a cerebral tumor caused by Brucella melitensis. The mass lesion was clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from a brain tumor. The diagnosis was established by isolating Brucella melitensis in a blood culture and a positive Wright's agglutination test on the cerebrospinal fluid at 1:320 titers. Paraffin sections of the cerebral mass showed nongranulomatous encephalitis. We suggest that patients with an isolated intraparenchymal mass lesion with nongranulomatous encephalitis should also be studied for brucellosis in endemic areas.

  10. Angiotensin II receptor blockade limits glomerular injury in rats with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed Central

    Lafayette, R A; Mayer, G; Park, S K; Meyer, T W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (AII) blockade were compared with the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in rats with reduced nephron number. Rats were subjected to five-sixths renal ablation and divided into four groups with similar values for blood pressure and serum creatinine after 2 wk. Group 1 then served as untreated controls, while group 2 received the AII receptor antagonist MK954 (which has previously been designated DuP753), group 3 received the converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and group 4 received a combination of reserpine, hydralazine, and hydrochlorothiazide. Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed 10 wk later. Converting enzyme inhibition, AII receptor blockade, and the combination regimen were equally effective in reversing systemic hypertension (time-averaged systolic blood pressure: group 1, 185 +/- 5 mmHg; group 2, 125 +/- 2 mmHg; group 3, 127 +/- 2 mmHg; group 4, 117 +/- 4 mmHg). Micropuncture studies showed that glomerular transcapillary pressure was reduced significantly by converting enzyme inhibition and by AII blockade but not by the combination regimen (delta P: group 1, 49 +/- 1 mmHg; group 2, 42 +/- 1 mmHg; group 3, 40 +/- 2 mmHg, group 4, 47 +/- 1 mmHg). Reduction of systemic blood pressure was associated with the development of markedly less proteinuria and segmental glomerular sclerosis in rats receiving enalapril and MK954 but not in rats receiving the combination regimen (prevalence of glomerular sclerotic lesions: group 1, 41 +/- 4%; group 2, 9 +/- 1%; group 3, 9 +/- 1%; group 4, 33 +/- 6%). These results indicate that the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on remnant glomerular function and structure depend on reduction in AII activity and are not attributable simply to normalization of systemic blood pressure. PMID:1522231

  11. Acoustic streaming cannot discriminate reliably between endometriomas and other types of adnexal lesion: a multicenter study of 633 adnexal masses.

    PubMed

    Van Holsbeke, C; Zhang, Jingh; Van Belle, V; Paladini, D; Guerriero, S; Czekierdowski, A; Muggah, H; Ombelet, W; Jurkovic, D; Testa, A C; Valentin, L; Van Huffel, S; Bourne, T; Timmerman, D

    2010-03-01

    To determine the ability of acoustic streaming to discriminate between endometriomas and other adnexal masses. We used data from 1938 patients with an adnexal mass included in Phase 2 of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) study. All patients had been examined by transvaginal gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound following a standardized research protocol. Assessment of acoustic streaming was voluntary and was carried out only in lesions containing echogenic cyst fluid. Acoustic streaming was defined as movement of particles inside the cyst fluid during gray-scale and/or color Doppler examination provided that the probe had been held still for two seconds to ensure that the movement of the particles was not caused by movement of the probe or the patient. Only centers where acoustic streaming had been evaluated in > 90% of cases were included. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of acoustic streaming with regard to endometrioma were calculated. 460 (24%) masses were excluded because they were examined in centers where masses with echogenic cyst fluid had been evaluated for the presence of acoustic streaming. Acoustic streaming was evaluated in 633 of 646 lesions containing echogenic cyst fluid. It was present in 19 (9%) of 209 endometriomas and in 55 (13%) of 424 other lesions. This corresponds to a sensitivity of absent acoustic streaming with regard to endometrioma of 91% (190/209), a specificity of 13% (55/424), LR+ of 1.04, LR- of 0.69, PPV of 34% (190/559) and NPV of 74% (55/74). Acoustic streaming cannot discriminate reliably between endometriomas and other adnexal lesions, and the presence of acoustic streaming does not exclude an endometrioma. Copyright (c) 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pex11a deficiency is associated with a reduced abundance of functional peroxisomes and aggravated renal interstitial lesions.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Ji, Xu; Endo, Kosuke; Iwai, Naoharu

    2014-11-01

    Although proteinuria is known to be associated with the deterioration of chronic kidney disease, the molecular basis of this mechanism is not fully understood. We previously found that Pex11a deficiency was associated with a reduction of functional peroxisomes and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes and resulted in steatosis. Proximal tubule cells are rich in peroxisomes. We assessed whether Pex11a deficiency might result in the derangement of peroxisome systems in proximal tubule cells and the aggravation of tubulointerstitial lesions in chronic kidney disease. Histological analyses showed that the number of functional peroxisomes in proximal tubule cells was reduced in Pex11a knockout (Pex11a(-/-)) mice. To clarify whether a decrease in the number of tubular peroxisomes might aggravate interstitial lesions, we assessed 2 models in which proximal tubule cells are overloaded with fatty acids (ie, deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt hypertension and the overload of fatty acid-bound albumin). Deoxycorticosterone acetate -salt-treated Pex11a(-/-) mice exhibited greater interstitial lesions than deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated wild-type mice in terms of tubular lipid accumulation, blood pressure, urinary albumin, urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, urinary 8-iso-prostane, and the histological evaluation of fibrosis and inflammation. An overload of fatty acid-bound albumin also resulted in more severe tubulointerstitial lesions in Pex11a(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, restored the abundance of peroxisomes and reduced the tubulointerstitial lesions induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. In conclusion, our results indicate that proximal tubule peroxisomes play an important role in proteinuria-induced interstitial lesions. The activation of tubular peroxisomes might be an excellent therapeutic strategy against chronic kidney disease. © 2014 American Heart

  13. High-Dosage Intravenous Immunoglobulin–Associated Macrovacuoles Are Associated with Chronic Tubulointerstitial Lesion Worsening in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bollée, Guillaume; Anglicheau, Dany; Loupy, Alexandre; Zuber, Julien; Patey, Natacha; Gregor, Duncan Mac; Martinez, Frank; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Snanoudj, Renaud; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Noël, Laure-Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) may induce acute renal failure associated with tubular vacuolization. Although the use of IVIg is increasing in kidney transplantation, their impact on graft histology and function remains unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Twenty-seven kidney transplant recipients who had high immunologic risk and were treated with four courses of IVIg after transplantation were studied retrospectively at a transplant center, and findings were compared with those of 27 control subjects. Protocol kidney biopsies were performed at time of transplantation and at 3 mo and 1 yr after transplantation. Results: No episode of IVIg-related acute renal failure occurred. Nevertheless, screening biopsies revealed the presence of “microvacuoles” and “macrovacuoles.” Widespread microvacuolizations were often detected (70%) on preimplantation biopsy and not associated with IVIg. Macrovacuoles, which were absent on preimplantation biopsies, were observed exclusively in IVIg-treated patients. Macrovacuoles among IVIg-treated patients were seen in kidneys from older donors and were associated with chronic tubulointerstitial changes at 3 mo, with similar trends at 1 yr. Macrovacuoles were associated with lower creatinine clearance at last follow-up in IVIg-treated patients. Conclusions: IVIg frequently induce tubular macrovacuoles in kidney transplant recipients. These are more frequently observed in grafts from older donors, suggesting a higher vulnerability to IVIg. These data suggest a deleterious impact of IVIg-induced macrovacuoles on chronic tubulointerstitial changes and long-term renal function. PMID:18525007

  14. Menstruation. A hazard in radionuclide renal transplant evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Jaffers, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.

  15. Menstruation. A hazard in radionuclide renal transplant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Orzel, J A; Jaffers, G J

    1986-06-01

    Serial Tc-99m DTPA studies were performed to evaluate renal transplant blood flow and function in a 34-year-old woman. A hypervascular pelvic mass with increased blood pool activity was intermittently identified. This hypervascular lesion suggested a pathologic condition of the pelvis, and its blood pool simulated bladder activity, confusing interpretation of renal function. This perplexing vascular lesion was the uterus, with varying degrees of blood flow and blood pool activity depending on the timing of the renal study in relation to the menstrual cycle.

  16. Vascular lesions induced by renal nerve ablation as assessed by optical coherence tomography: pre- and post-procedural comparison with the Simplicity catheter system and the EnligHTN multi-electrode renal denervation catheter.

    PubMed

    Templin, Christian; Jaguszewski, Milosz; Ghadri, Jelena R; Sudano, Isabella; Gaehwiler, Roman; Hellermann, Jens P; Schoenenberger-Berzins, Renate; Landmesser, Ulf; Erne, Paul; Noll, Georg; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2013-07-01

    Catheter-based renal nerve ablation (RNA) using radiofrequency energy is a novel treatment for drug-resistant essential hypertension. However, the local endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA has not been characterized, although this importantly determines the long-term safety of the procedure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables in vivo visualization of morphologic features with a high resolution of 10-15 µm. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological features of the endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA using OCT. In a prospective observational study, 32 renal arteries of patients with treatment-resistant hypertension underwent OCT before and after RNA. All pre- and post-procedural OCT pullbacks were evaluated regarding vascular changes such as vasospasm, oedema (notches), dissection, and thrombus formation. Thirty-two renal arteries were evaluated, in which automatic pullbacks were obtained before and after RNA. Vasospasm was observed more often after RNA then before the procedure (0 vs. 42%, P < 0.001). A significant decrease in mean renal artery diameter after RNA was documented both with the EnligHTN (4.69 ± 0.73 vs. 4.21 ± 0.87 mm; P < 0.001) and with the Simplicity catheter (5.04 ± 0.66 vs. 4.57 ± 0.88 mm; P < 0.001). Endothelial-intimal oedema was noted in 96% of cases after RNA. The presence of thrombus formations was significantly higher after the RNA then before ablation (67 vs. 18%, P < 0.001). There was one evidence of arterial dissection after RNA with the Simplicity catheter, while endothelial and intimal disruptions were noted in two patients with the EnligHTN catheter. Here we show that diffuse renal artery constriction and local tissue damage at the ablation site with oedema and thrombus formation occur after RNA and that OCT visualizes vascular lesions not apparent on angiography. This suggests that dual antiplatelet therapy may be required during RNA.

  17. Vascular lesions induced by renal nerve ablation as assessed by optical coherence tomography: pre- and post-procedural comparison with the Simplicity® catheter system and the EnligHTN™ multi-electrode renal denervation catheter

    PubMed Central

    Templin, Christian; Jaguszewski, Milosz; Ghadri, Jelena R.; Sudano, Isabella; Gaehwiler, Roman; Hellermann, Jens P.; Schoenenberger-Berzins, Renate; Landmesser, Ulf; Erne, Paul; Noll, Georg; Lüscher, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Catheter-based renal nerve ablation (RNA) using radiofrequency energy is a novel treatment for drug-resistant essential hypertension. However, the local endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA has not been characterized, although this importantly determines the long-term safety of the procedure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables in vivo visualization of morphologic features with a high resolution of 10–15 µm. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological features of the endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA using OCT. Methods and results In a prospective observational study, 32 renal arteries of patients with treatment-resistant hypertension underwent OCT before and after RNA. All pre- and post-procedural OCT pullbacks were evaluated regarding vascular changes such as vasospasm, oedema (notches), dissection, and thrombus formation. Thirty-two renal arteries were evaluated, in which automatic pullbacks were obtained before and after RNA. Vasospasm was observed more often after RNA then before the procedure (0 vs. 42%, P < 0.001). A significant decrease in mean renal artery diameter after RNA was documented both with the EnligHTN™ (4.69 ± 0.73 vs. 4.21 ± 0.87 mm; P < 0.001) and with the Simplicity® catheter (5.04 ± 0.66 vs. 4.57 ± 0.88 mm; P < 0.001). Endothelial-intimal oedema was noted in 96% of cases after RNA. The presence of thrombus formations was significantly higher after the RNA then before ablation (67 vs. 18%, P < 0.001). There was one evidence of arterial dissection after RNA with the Simplicity® catheter, while endothelial and intimal disruptions were noted in two patients with the EnligHTN™ catheter. Conclusion Here we show that diffuse renal artery constriction and local tissue damage at the ablation site with oedema and thrombus formation occur after RNA and that OCT visualizes vascular lesions not apparent on angiography. This suggests that dual antiplatelet therapy may be required during RNA

  18. Analysis of Renal Cell Carcinoma as a First Step for Developing Mass Spectrometry-Based Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kentaro; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nakazawa, Tadao; Yu, Zhan; Uchiyama, Takahito; Hori, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Kunio; Kubota, Takeo; Fujii, Hideki; Katoh, Ryohei; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Takeda, Sen

    2012-10-01

    Immediate diagnosis of human specimen is an essential prerequisites in medical routines. This study aimed to establish a novel cancer diagnostics system based on probe electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PESI-MS) combined with statistical data processing. PESI-MS uses a very fine acupuncture needle as a probe for sampling as well as for ionization. To demonstrate the applicability of PESI-MS for cancer diagnosis, we analyzed nine cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) by PESI-MS and processed the data by principal components analysis (PCA). Our system successfully delineated the differences in lipid composition between non-cancerous and cancerous regions. In this case, triacylglycerol (TAG) was reproducibly detected in the cancerous tissue of nine different individuals, the result being consistent with well-known profiles of ccRCC. Moreover, this system enabled us to detect the boundaries of cancerous regions based on the expression of TAG. These results strongly suggest that PESI-MS will be applicable to cancer diagnosis, especially when the number of data is augmented.

  19. [Treatment of small renal masses: Effectiveness and cost-comparison analysis].

    PubMed

    Piechaud-Kressmann, J; Bellec, L; Delchier-Bellec, M-C; Beauval, J-B; Roumiguié, M; Gamé, X; Soulie, M; Rischmann, P; Malavaud, B

    2016-02-01

    The stage of discovery and treatment of kidney cancer have changed. Partial nephrectomy is the standard treatment for small renal masses (SRM). Also are recommended the thermal ablative techniques. The cost of these treatments for the establishment and society is often unclear. The purpose of this study was to calculate the cost of treatment of SRM in order to assess the profitability for a health institution that invests in innovation. A retrospective single-center study was conducted with 124 patients treated for SMR (T1a) by open partial nephrectomy (OPN), laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (LRPN), radio frequency (RF) and cryotherapy (CT) between 2009 and 2011. We calculated the price of stay of each patient, searched the amount billed to health insurance and calculated the profitability of treatment for the establishment. The OPN cost on average 7884±1201€ and reported 451±1861€, the LPN cost on average 6973±3503€ and reported 2271±3370€, the cost of the LRPN was on average 9600±4595€ and resulted in a deficit of 838±3007€. The radiofrequency cost on average 2724±813€ and caused a deficit of 954±684€, cryotherapy cost on average 6702±857€ and resulted in a deficit of 4723±941€. According to current repayment terms, the LPN was the treatment of SRM that offered the best profitability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating nephrotoxicity of polymyxin derivatives by mapping renal distribution using mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna; Goodwin, Richard J A; Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard; Shankaran, Harish; Sathe, Abhishek; Pradeepan, Selvi; Xue, Aixiang; Keirstead, Natalie; Sasaki, Jennifer C; Andren, Per E; Gupta, Anshul

    2015-09-21

    Colistin and polymyxin B are effective treatment options for Gram-negative resistant bacteria but are used as last-line therapy due to their dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. A critical factor in developing safer polymyxin analogues is understanding accumulation of the drugs and their metabolites, which is currently limited due to the lack of effective techniques for analysis of these challenging molecules. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) allows direct detection of targets (drugs, metabolites, and endogenous compounds) from tissue sections. The presented study exemplifies the utility of MSI by measuring the distribution of polymyxin B1, colistin, and polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN) within dosed rat kidney tissue sections. The label-free MSI analysis revealed that the nephrotoxic compounds (polymyxin B1 and colistin) preferentially accumulated in the renal cortical region. The less nephrotoxic analogue, polymyxin B nonapeptide, was more uniformly distributed throughout the kidney. In addition, metabolites of the dosed compounds were detected by MSI. Kidney homogenates were analyzed using LC/MS/MS to determine total drug exposure and for metabolite identification. To our knowledge, this is the first time such techniques have been utilized to measure the distribution of polymyxin drugs and their metabolites. By simultaneously detecting the distribution of drug and drug metabolites, MSI offers a powerful alternative to tissue homogenization analysis and label or antibody-based imaging.

  1. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition prevents glomerular hypertrophy in a model of renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Jordi; Arellano, Edgar M; Carreras, Joaquim; Campos, Begoña; Vodenik, Barbara; Bañón-Maneus, Elisenda; Ramírez-Bajo, María José; Moya-Rull, Daniel; Solé-González, Amanda; Hernández, Astrid; Revuelta, Ignacio; Quintana, Luis F; Howat, William J; Campistol, Josep M; Diekmann, Fritz

    2009-09-15

    Sirolimus (SRL) is a potent and specific immunosuppressive drug used in organ transplantation, as basic therapy or in combination with calcineurin inhibitors. Although SRL is a nonnephrotoxic drug, many reports have related its use with the development of proteinuria, especially after conversion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the interrelation between early and late SRL administration on the development of glomerular hypertrophy and proteinuria in a model of renal mass reduction (RMR). Rats underwent 2/3 cryoablation of the left kidney and subsequent right nephrectomy (n=42) or sham operations (n=29). Two weeks before (early study) or 12 weeks after (late study) surgery, SRL or vehicle was administered three times weekly. Creatinine clearance and proteinuria were determined throughout the study, and a complete histologic analysis was performed at the end of the study. Treatment with SRL had no effect on creatinine clearance, independently of the administration time. Four weeks after RMR, a significant increase in proteinuria was observed. Proteinuria was stabilized after early and late SRL administration, whereas vehicle-treated animals showed a further increase in proteinuria. Glomerular hypertrophy was strongly associated with proteinuria, and early SRL introduction prevented glomerular enlargement. The histologic analysis showed less structural damage in the two groups of animals treated with SRL than in the control group. Although early SRL introduction blocked glomerular hypertrophy, SRL treatment revealed the potential to halt progression of proteinuria and histologic damage at any time of administration in a model of RMR.

  2. Tumor Vascularity in Renal Masses: Correlation of Arterial Spin-Labeled and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Kapur, Payal; Yuan, Qing; Xi, Yin; Carvo, Ingrid; Signoretti, Sabina; Dimitrov, Ivan; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Margulis, Vitaly; Muradyan, Naira; Brugarolas, James; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate potential correlations between perfusion by arterial spin-labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI derived quantitative measures of vascularity in renal masses >2 cm and to correlate these with microvessel density (MVD) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods Informed written consent was obtained from all patients before imaging in this HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved, prospective study. 36 consecutive patients scheduled for surgery of a known renal mass >2 cm underwent 3T ASL and DCE MRI. ASL measures (PASL) of mean, peak, and low perfusion areas within the mass were correlated to DCE-derived Ktrans, Kep, and Ve in the same locations using a region of interest analysis. MRI data were correlated to MVD measures in the same tumor regions in ccRCC. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between PASL and DCE-derived measurements, and MVD. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 36 patients (25 men; mean age 58 ±12 years). PASL correlated with Ktrans (ρ=0.48, P=0.0091 for the entire tumor and ρ=0.43, P=0.03 for the high flow area, respectively) and Kep (ρ=0.46, P=0.01 for the entire tumor and ρ=0.52, P=0.008 for the high flow area, respectively). PASL (ρ=0.66, P=0.0002), Ktrans (ρ=0.61, P=0.001), and Kep (ρ=0.64, P=0.0006) also correlated with MVD in high and low perfusion areas in ccRCC. Conclusions PASL correlate with the DCE-derived measures of vascular permeability and flow, Ktrans and Kep, in renal masses >2cm in size. Both measures correlate to MVD in clear cell histology. MICROABSTRACT Arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been proposed to quantitatively assess vascularity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However there are intrinsic differences between these two imaging methods, such as the relative contribution of vascular permeability

  3. Tumor Vascularity in Renal Masses: Correlation of Arterial Spin-Labeled and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Kapur, Payal; Yuan, Qing; Xi, Yin; Carvo, Ingrid; Signoretti, Sabina; Dimitrov, Ivan; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Margulis, Vitaly; Muradyan, Naira; Brugarolas, James; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Arterial spin-labeled (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been proposed to quantitatively assess vascularity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there are intrinsic differences between these 2 imaging methods, such as the relative contribution of vascular permeability and blood flow to signal intensity for DCE MRI. We found a correlation between ASL perfusion and the DCE-derived volume transfer constant and rate constant parameters in renal masses > 2 cm in size and these measures correlated with microvessel density in clear cell RCC. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlations between perfusion using arterial spin-labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI-derived quantitative measures of vascularity in renal masses > 2 cm and to correlate these with microvessel density (MVD) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Informed written consent was obtained from all patients before imaging in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved, prospective study. Thirty-six consecutive patients scheduled for surgery of a known renal mass > 2 cm underwent 3T ASL and DCE MRI. ASL perfusion measures (PASL) of mean, peak, and low perfusion areas within the mass were correlated to DCE-derived volume transfer constant (K(trans)), rate constant (Kep), and fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space (Ve) in the same locations using a region of interest analysis. MRI data were correlated to MVD measures in the same tumor regions in ccRCC. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between PASL and DCE-derived measurements, and MVD. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. Histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 36 patients (25 men; mean age 58 ± 12 years). PASL correlated with K(trans) (ρ = 0.48 and P = .0091 for the entire tumor and ρ = 0.43 and P = .03 for the

  4. Development of growth and body mass index after pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vester, Udo; Schaefer, Antonia; Kranz, Birgitta; Wingen, Anne-Margret; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Malagò, Massimo; Broelsch, Christoph E; Hoyer, Peter F

    2005-08-01

    Suboptimal final height and marked weight gain after renal transplantation (RTx) are common and may result in obesity. Steroid free immunosuppression has been advocated to improve growth and limit weight gain. We evaluated retrospectively the evolution of growth and body mass index (BMI) after renal transplantation to study risk factors for weight gain under steroid based treatment. Sixty-four pediatric patients (age 9.9 +/- 5.0 yr) were included in the study. To allow comparison between different age groups, standard deviation scores (SDS) for height and BMI for height age were calculated at time of transplantation and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months later. Induction immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporine and prednisone. Growth retardation at time of RTx was obvious with a SDS for height of -2.20 +/- 1.34. Height during the first year improved to an SDS of -2.0 +/- 1.27 (p < 0.01) but did further not increase in year 2 and 3. More than 40% of all patients remained 2 SDS below normal mean. SDS BMI for height age at transplantation was -0.19 +/- 0.98 and increased significantly during the first 3 months after transplantation to +0.64 +/- 1.07 (p < 0.01). Thereafter, BMI remained stable but did not decline to pretransplant values. A SDS BMI for height age of more than 2 SDS was observed in 2, 6, 9 and 11% of children at RTx and 1, 2 and 3 yr later respectively. BMI gain over 3 yr was significantly enhanced in children whose parents (especially the mother) were overweight. No influence of gender, BMI at RTx, dialysis modality prior to RTx or rejection episodes could be detected. We conclude that after RTx children exhibit some improvement in growth but height remains suboptimal. The BMI does increase significantly during the first months after RTx and does not return to baseline values under steroid-based immunosuppression. Obesity (>2 SDS above normal) does not occur more often than in the normal population. The most predictive parameter of

  5. A scalp lesion over an extracerebral mass: a sign of a radiation-induced meningioma.

    PubMed

    García Santos, J M; Climent, V

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas have a characteristic biological behaviour, so that their recognition is important as regards follow-up. We stress the importance of a scalp lesion over the meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging as a sign of previous radiotherapy.

  6. Freiburg neuropathology case conference: a midline mass lesion in an infant.

    PubMed

    Taschner, C A; Staszewski, O; van Velthoven, V; Müller, M; Kontny, U; Hader, C; Prinz, M

    2011-06-01

    This article presents the case of a 10-month-old baby girl with an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The differential diagnosis relied on the findings from magnetic resonance with T1 and T2-weighted imaging as well as histological and immunohistochemical methods. The characteristics of the possible candidate lesions considered for the differential diagnosis are described.

  7. Optical characterization of lesions and identification of surgical margins in pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma by using two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Hong; Chen, Youting; Xu, Yahao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Shi, Zheng; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy has become a powerful instrument for imaging unstained tissue samples in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TPEF imaging of histological sections without hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) stain can be used to characterize lesions and identify surgical margins in pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The specimens of a pancreatic metastasis from RCC, as well as a primary RCC from a patient, were examined by TPEF microscopy and compared with their corresponding H-E stained histopathological results. The results showed that high-resolution TPEF imaging of unstained histological sections of pancreatic metastasis from RCC can reveal that the typical morphology of the tissue and cells in cancer tissues is different from the normal pancreas. It also clearly presented histopathological features of the collagenous capsule, which is an important boundary symbol to identify normal and cancerous tissue and to instruct surgical operation. It indicated the feasibility of using TPEF microscopy to make an optical diagnosis of lesions and identify the surgical margins in pancreatic metastasis from RCC.

  8. Malignancy rates and diagnostic performance of the Bosniak classification for the diagnosis of cystic renal lesions in computed tomography - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sevcenco, Sabina; Spick, Claudio; Helbich, Thomas H; Heinz, Gertraud; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Klingler, Hans C; Rauchenwald, Michael; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2017-06-01

    To systematically review the literature on the Bosniak classification system in CT to determine its diagnostic performance to diagnose malignant cystic lesions and the prevalence of malignancy in Bosniak categories. A predefined database search was performed from 1 January 1986 to 18 January 2016. Two independent reviewers extracted data on malignancy rates in Bosniak categories and several covariates using predefined criteria. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Meta-analysis included data pooling, subgroup analyses, meta-regression and investigation of publication bias. A total of 35 studies, which included 2,578 lesions, were investigated. Data on observer experience, inter-observer variation and technical CT standards were insufficiently reported. The pooled rate of malignancy increased from Bosniak I (3.2 %, 95 % CI 0-6.8, I(2) = 5 %) to Bosniak II (6 %, 95 % CI 2.7-9.3, I(2) = 32 %), IIF (6.7 %, 95 % CI 5-8.4, I(2) = 0 %), III (55.1 %, 95 % CI 45.7-64.5, I(2) = 89 %) and IV (91 %, 95 % CI 87.7-94.2, I(2) = 36). Several study design-related influences on malignancy rates and subsequent diagnostic performance indices were identified. The Bosniak classification is an accurate tool with which to stratify the risk of malignancy in renal cystic lesions. • The Bosniak classification can accurately rule out malignancy. • Specificity remains moderate at 74 % (95 % CI 64-82). • Follow-up examinations should be considered in Bosniak IIF and Bosniak II cysts. • Data on the influence of reader experience and inter-reader variability are insufficient. • Technical CT standards and publication year did not influence diagnostic performance.

  9. Primary renal carcinoid tumor: A rare cystic renal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man with an incidentally detected cystic renal mass. A well-defined, solid mass measuring approximately 8 cm x 6 cm with a cystic component was identified in the left kidney by abdominal multidetector computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. The mass was well-enhanced on the corticomedullary CT phase and washout of enhancement occurred on the nephrographic phase. The mass contained peripheral wall and septal calcifications in the cystic component. The lesion was resected and diagnosed as a primary renal carcinoid tumor. Primary carcinoid tumors of the kidney are extremely rare. This case is notable because of the rarity of this neoplasm and its unique radiologic and pathologic findings. A review of previously reported cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:24003360

  10. Renal cyst puncture studies.

    PubMed

    Lang, E K

    1987-02-01

    The edict to contain costs and meet goals imposed by DRG remuneration policies mandates the work-up of asymptomatic renal mass lesions on an outpatient basis. This proved feasible in 98 per cent of patients. The vast majority of such mass lesions (82 to 90 per cent) is diagnosed with acceptable confidence by computed tomography and sonography alone. For a shrinking group of such patients, yet still 16 to 18 per cent, guided percutaneous aspiration biopsy is necessary to affirm the diagnosis. However, this technique has been refined during recent years to incorporate the use of thin needle equipment and can now be performed on an outpatient basis without significant risk of morbidity. For diagnosing hyperdense inflammatory and infected renal cysts, guided percutaneous aspiration is recommended as the most effective method. This procedure should take precedence over surgical exploration because it can diagnose and provide pertinent bacteriologic information that may determine the course of therapy. In many instances inflammatory cysts or even silent renal abscesses are diagnosed by a percutaneous aspiration technique that is then expanded to serve therapeutic purposes such as percutaneous drainage. Even these procedures can be performed safely on an outpatient basis provided the patient is followed closely. Because complications of percutaneous aspiration procedures are extremely rare, the procedure can be used safely on an outpatient basis. The impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the diagnosis of asymptomatic space-occupying lesions of the kidney is as yet not fully determined; however, this method appears promising for diagnosing some of the refractory lesions such as hemorrhagic cysts, aneurysms, or arteriovenous malformations.

  11. Effect of slice thickness on detectability in breast CT using a prewhitened matched filter and simulated mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Nathan J.; Abbey, Craig K.; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated breast CT (bCT) is an emerging technology with the potential to improve the detection of breast cancer in screening and diagnostic capacities. Typically, the 3D volume reconstructed from the scanner is displayed as sectional images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of section thickness on the detectability of simulated masses using a prewhitened matched filter (PWMF) as a model observer. Methods: A breast CT scanner has been designed and fabricated in the authors’ laboratory with more than 200 women imaged in IRB-approved phase I and phase II trials to date. Of these, 151 bilateral data sets were selected on the basis of low artifact content, sufficient breast coverage, and excluding cases with breast implants. BIRADS breast density ratings were available for 144 of these patients. Spherical mass lesions of diameter 1, 2, 3, 5, 11, and 15 mm were mathematically generated and embedded at random locations within the parenchymal region of each bCT volume. Microcalcifications were not simulated in this study. For each viewing plane (sagittal, axial, and coronal) and section thickness (ranging from 0.3 to 44 mm), section images of the breast parenchyma containing the lesion were generated from the reconstructed bCT data sets by averaging voxels over the length of the section. Using signal known exactly (SKE) model observer methodology, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each generated projected image using a PWMF based model observer. ROC curves were generated for each breast data set, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was evaluated as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. Results: For all lesion sizes, performance rises modestly to a peak before falling off substantially as section thickness increases over the range of the study. We find that the optimal section thickness tracks the size of the lesion to be detected linearly with a small positive offset and slopes ranging from 0

  12. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  13. Automated analysis of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI based on morphological, kinetic, and spatio-temporal moments and joint segmentation-motion compensation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Shutler, Jamie D.; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) represents an established method for the detection and diagnosis of breast lesions. While mass-like enhancing lesions can be easily categorized according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon, a majority of diagnostically challenging lesions, the so called non-mass-like enhancing lesions, remain both qualitatively as well as quantitatively difficult to analyze. Thus, the evaluation of kinetic and/or morphological characteristics of non-masses represents a challenging task for an automated analysis and is of crucial importance for advancing current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have no well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. To overcome these difficulties and pave the way for novel CAD systems for non-masses, we will evaluate several kinetic and morphological descriptors separately and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio-temporal behavior of these lesions, and additionally consider the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  14. Commercial flight and patients with intracranial mass lesions: a caveat. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zrinzo, Ludvic U; Crocker, Matthew; Zrinzo, Laurence V; Thomas, David G T; Watkins, Laurence

    2006-10-01

    The authors report two cases of neurological deterioration following long commercial flights. Both individuals harbored intracranial space-occupying lesions. The authors assert that preexisting reduced intracranial compliance diminishes an individual's reserve to accommodate the physiological changes resulting from a commercial flight. Airline passengers are exposed to a mild degree of hypercapnia as well as conditions that simulate those of high-altitude ascents. High-altitude cerebral edema following an ascent to great heights is one facet of acute mountain sickness and can be life threatening in conditions similar to those present on commercial flights. Comparable reports documenting neurological deterioration at high altitudes in patients with coexisting space-occupying lesions were also reviewed.

  15. The impact of non-hilar clamping open partial technique performed for the treatment of patients with small renal masses with lower R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores on renal functions during the early postoperative period

    PubMed Central

    Atılgan, Doğan; Kılıç, Şahin; Gençten, Yusuf; Uluocak, Nihat; Fırat, Fatih; Kölükçü, Engin; Parlaktaş, Bekir Süha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Herein, the impact of off-clamp open partial nephrectomy on early postoperative period renal functions were evaluated in patients with low RENAL nephrometry scoring small renal masses. Material and methods: Twenty-three patients (12 women, and 11 men) who had undergone non-hilar clamping open partial nephrectomy in our clinic between the years 2010, and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), operative time, blood loss, renal nephrometry score, mean hospital stay, pre-, and postoperative serum creatinine (Cr), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the patients were assessed. Results: Mean age, BMI, tumor size, and preoperative renal nephrometry scores were 56.09±10.49 years (36–70 yrs), 24.81±2.44 kg/m2, 3.68±1.125 cm, and 6.41±1.77 pts, respectively. Mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and hospital stay were detected as 139.14±33.60 min, 274.9±77.02 mL, and 4.27±1.12 days, respectively. Preoperative mean serum Cr, and GFR levels were 0.804±0.216 mg/dL, and 93.97±25.83 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Postoperative 1. day mean serum Cr, and GFR levels were 0.896±0.25 mg/dL, and 85.94±28.85 mL/min/1,73 m2, while corresponding 3. month-values were 0.81±0.205 mg/dL, and 93.59±21.00 mL/dk/1.73 m2, respectively. A statistically significant difference was not found between preoperative, and postoperative 3. month- serum Cr, and GFR levels. However, postoperative 3. month-serum Cr, and GFR levels were lower than corresponding values estimated on postoperative 1. day (p<0.016). Conclusion: One of the important considerations in partial nephrectomy is to preserve renal functions. Therefore, non-hilar clamping open partial nephrectomy should be taken into consideration for surgeons unexperienced especially in laparoscopic surgery with its lower morbidity, and complication rates. PMID:26328158

  16. Analysis of 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Signals from Patients with Known Breast Masses for Lesion Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ductal carcinomas (23/35) made up the majority of the malignant cases, while fibroadenoma (30/99) was the most prevalent classification of the benign...heterogeneity plot of a benign case (a fibroadenoma ) across the peripheral and central sections. The presence of vascularity in the central sections is...heterogeneity plots of (a) benign ( fibroadenoma ) and (b) malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma) across the peripheral and central sections of the lesion

  17. Management of Small Renal Masses: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Antonio; Ismaila, Nofisat; Bro, Bill; Durack, Jeremy; Eggener, Scott; Evans, Andrew; Gill, Inderbir; Graham, David; Huang, William; Jewett, Michael A S; Latcha, Sheron; Lowrance, William; Rosner, Mitchell; Shayegan, Bobby; Thompson, R Houston; Uzzo, Robert; Russo, Paul

    2017-02-20

    Purpose To provide recommendations for the management options for patients with small renal masses (SRMs). Methods By using a literature search and prospectively defined study selection, we sought systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, prospective comparative observational studies, and retrospective studies published from 2000 through 2015. Outcomes included recurrence-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Results Eighty-three studies, including 20 systematic reviews and 63 primary studies, met the eligibility criteria and form the evidentiary basis for the guideline recommendations. Recommendations On the basis of tumor-specific findings and competing risks of mortality, all patients with an SRM should be considered for a biopsy when the results may alter management. Active surveillance should be an initial management option for patients who have significant comorbidities and limited life expectancy. Partial nephrectomy (PN) for SRMs is the standard treatment that should be offered to all patients for whom an intervention is indicated and who possess a tumor that is amenable to this approach. Percutaneous thermal ablation should be considered an option if complete ablation can reliably be achieved. Radical nephrectomy for SRMs should only be reserved for patients who possess a tumor of significant complexity that is not amenable to PN or for whom PN may result in unacceptable morbidity even when performed at centers with expertise. Referral to a nephrologist should be considered if chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) or progressive chronic kidney disease occurs after treatment, especially if associated with proteinuria.

  18. Hypertension induced by high salt intake in absence of volume retention in reduced renal mass rats.

    PubMed

    Cowley, A W; Skelton, M M; Papanek, P E; Greene, A S

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of renal mass (RRM) combined with a high-salt diet results in volume retention, a rise of cardiac output, and hypertension. The present studies were designed to determine whether prevention of volume retention would alter the rise of mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM rats given high salt. Rats were studied in a modified metabolic cage to permit continuous determination of total body weight (TBW). In group 1, NaCl was increased from 1 to 14.5 meq/day and delivered isotonically. In group 2, NaCl was increased while TBW was servo-controlled to a constant level. Group 3 was also servo-controlled, but rats received an intravenous infusion of an arginine vasopressin V1 antagonist throughout the study. MAP in group 1 rose 24 mmHg by day 4 of high salt with a parallel increase of TBW of 26 g. In group 2, MAP rose 48 mmHg by day 4 of high salt, while TBW was controlled to within 0.6% of control body weight. With inhibition of vasopressin V1 receptors (group 3), MAP rose 39 mmHg. Nearly equivalent amounts of NaCl were retained in all groups, which was associated with no change of plasma Na in group 1 but an increase of nearly 7 meq/ml in groups 2 and 3. Hematocrit fell nearly 9% in groups 2 and 3 compared with a 4% reduction in group 1. The results suggest that under conditions where net retention cannot occur, high salt intake increases MAP by an osmotically driven fluid transfer from cells, which results in an even greater expansion of blood volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. [Clinical Study of Rs-EPI DWI to Improve Imaging Quality and Assessment on Intracranial Mass Lesions].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Xia, Chun-Chao; Yue, Qiang; Guo, Tao; Peng, Wan-Lin; Li, Yu-Ming; Li, Lei; Zhao, Fei; Pu, Jin; Leng, Qi; Li, Zhen-Lin

    2017-05-01

    To explore the clinical value of readout-segmented echo planar imaging (Rs-EPI) sequence in the assessment of intracranial mass lesions compared to the standard single-shot EPI (Ss-EPI) sequence. We included 21 patients with intracranial mass lesions who underwent both Ss-EPI diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and Rs-EPI DWI at 3.0T MR scanner with a twenty-channel head-neck coil. The quality of images was assessed by two experienced radiologists independently. The differences in image quality between two sequences were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-observer agreements were analyzed using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa test. All objectives were completed on 3.0T MR. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in Rs-EPI DWI were higher than those in Ss-EPI DWI (130.46±49.10 vs. 71.58±30.43, P=0.000; 33.22±18.86 vs. 17.92±18.72, P=0.003). The scores of overall image quality, ghost artifact where next to the paranasal sinuses, mastoid air cells and frontal sinus of Rs-EPI DWI were significantly higher than those of Ss-EPI DWI. Meanwhile, the geometric distortion of anatomical structures of Rs-EPI DWI were significantly lower compared to Ss-EPI DWI sequence (0.016±0.021 vs. 0.037±0.069, P=0.00). The inter-reader and intra-reader agreements for the assessment of qualitative parameters were good [0.74≤Kappa value or ICC≤0.92]. Rs-EPI DWI sequence is a potential technique to improve the imaging quality in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions.

  20. Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Ameliorates the Accuracy of Differential Diagnosis in Non-Metastatic Infiltrative Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jang Hee; Yoon, Young Eun; Kim, Sook Young; Cho, Young In; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Distinguishing infiltrative renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a challenging issue due to their radiologic similarities. We evaluated systemic inflammatory biomarkers as parameters for distinguishing tumor types. Materials and Methods A computerized search of medical records from November 2005 to October 2015 identified 116 patients with infiltrative renal masses who were difficult to diagnose confirmatively in radiological study. We investigated the diagnostic efficacy among these patients with their preoperative absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), absolute monocyte counts (AMC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR). Results The infiltrative RCC group demonstrated significantly lower ALC {1449/µL (1140–1896), median [interquartile range (IQR)]} than the TCC group [1860/µL (1433–2342), p=0.016]. LMR [median (IQR)] also was lower in the infiltrative RCC group [2.98 (2.32–4.14) vs. TCC group 4.10 (2.86–6.09); p=0.011]. In subgroup analysis, non-metastatic infiltrative RCC showed lower ALC and LMR and higher NLR than non-metastatic TCC. Within non-metastatic infiltrative renal masses, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that younger patient age and lower LMR were associated with infiltrative RCC [odds ratios (OR) 0.874, p=0.024 and OR 0.461, p=0.048, respectively]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that younger age and lower LMR were highly predictive of non-metastatic RCC (area under the curve=0.919, p<0.001). Conclusion Age and LMR were significantly different between patients with infiltrative renal mass. These are potential markers for distinguishing between infiltrative RCC and TCC without metastasis. PMID:28120570

  1. The Role of Cardiovascular Muscle Cell Na+-K+ Pump Activity in the Development and Maintenance of Reduced Renal Mass Hypertension in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-28

    experimental hypertensive reduced renal mass rats, the objectives of this study were to: 1) assay blood from these animals for presence of a U humoral...REGION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF REDUCED RENAL MASS HYPERTENSION, VASCULAR Na+-K^ PUMP ACTIVITY, AND CIRCULATING OUABAIN-LIKE FACTOR > 58 ASSAY FOR...clip or one-kidney, one wrap hypertension and bi- laterally nephrectomlzed, smaller, normotensive assay dogs to determine whether blood from the

  2. Cemento-ossifying fibroma presenting as a posterior fossa mass lesion.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Ritesh; Sharma, Arpit; Gaikwad, Ninad; Mahore, Amit; Goel, Atul

    2010-04-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign lesions of the jaw, which arise from the periodontal membrane. Histopathologically these are composed of fibrous tissues with calcified structures resembling bone and cementum. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice. They have rarely been reported in the ethmoid sinus, maxillary sinus and sphenoid sinus Mastoid bone is an extremely rare site of such tumors. Only one case of cemento-ossifying fibroma of petromastoid bone has been reported before. We present a case of cementoossifying fibroma involving the petromastoid bone, with the large intracranial component causing compression on the cerebellum. This unique case may provide insight into the etiopathogenesis of these tumors.

  3. Identification of prolyl carboxypeptidase as an alternative enzyme for processing of renal angiotensin II using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Weir, Nathan M.; Leiva, Orly; Ong, Frank S.; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Morris, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) catalyzes conversion of ANG II to ANG-(1–7). The present study uses newly established proteomic approaches and genetic mouse models to examine the contribution of alternative renal peptidases to ACE2-independent formation of ANG-(1–7). In situ and in vitro mass spectrometric characterization showed that substrate concentration and pH control renal ANG II processing. At pH ≥6, ANG-(1–7) formation was significantly reduced in ACE2 knockout (KO) mice. However, at pH <6, formation of ANG-(1–7) in ACE2 KO mice was similar to that in wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting alternative peptidases for renal ANG II processing. Furthermore, the dual prolyl carboxypeptidase (PCP)-prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitor Z-prolyl-prolinal reduced ANG-(1–7) formation in ACE2 KO mice, while the ACE2 inhibitor MLN-4760 had no effect. Unlike the ACE2 KO mice, ANG-(1–7) formation from ANG II in PEP KO mice was not different from that in WT mice at any tested pH. However, at pH 5, this reaction was significantly reduced in kidneys and urine of PCP-depleted mice. In conclusion, results suggest that ACE2 metabolizes ANG II in the kidney at neutral and basic pH, while PCP catalyzes the same reaction at acidic pH. This is the first report demonstrating that renal ANG-(1–7) formation from ANG II is independent of ACE2. Elucidation of ACE2-independent ANG-(1–7) production pathways may have clinically important implications in patients with metabolic and renal disease. PMID:23392115

  4. Frequent development of inflammatory lesions and lymphoid foci in the kidneys of Japanese wild crows (Corvus macrorhynchos and Corvus corone) as a result of the entry of causal agents via the renal portal blood.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akihiro; Yonemaru, Kayoko; Kubo, Masahito; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Masegi, Toshiaki

    2010-03-01

    Although the increase in the number of wild crows is causing social problems in urban areas, crows play an increasingly important role in monitoring serious infectious diseases, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and West Nile fever. To gain a better understanding of normal conditions and common disorders in crows, we conducted a retrospective study of wild crows captured in central Japan in the 1990s and examined the necropsy findings from 166 jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) and 74 carrion crows (Corvus corone). We found frequent development of lymphoid foci and inflammatory lesions in the kidneys of both species of crows. These findings were unrelated to place or date of capture, indicating the universality of renal lesion developments in the Corvus species. In the kidneys, suppurative granulomas were concentrated in the renal cortex and the vein wall, indicating the haematoegenous spread of causal agents. However, the glomeruli remained intact, unlike the spreading of causal agents via arterial blood, which strongly suggested the renal portal blood as a possible entry route of causal agents. The renal lymphoid foci showed the same distribution as the granulomas, supporting the possibility of external agents entering through renal portal blood. We also identified types of parasites in Japanese wild crows by means of histopathological analysis. We hope that our data will contribute to the appropriate evaluation and a better understanding of pathological conditions in Japanese wild crows.

  5. Value of three-dimensional volume rendering images in the assessment of the centrality index for preoperative planning in patients with renal masses.

    PubMed

    Sofia, C; Magno, C; Silipigni, S; Cantisani, V; Mucciardi, G; Sottile, F; Inferrera, A; Mazziotti, S; Ascenti, G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of the centrality index (CI) measurement on three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering technique (VRT) images in patients with renal masses, compared to its standard measurement on axial images. Sixty-five patients with renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT) for preoperative imaging. Two readers calculated the CI on two-dimensional axial images and on VRT images, measuring it in the plane that the tumour and centre of the kidney were lying in. Correlation and agreement of interobserver measurements and inter-method results were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Time saving was also calculated. The correlation coefficients were r=0.99 (p<0.05) and r=0.99 (p<0.05) for both the CI on axial and VRT images, with an ICC of 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. Correlation between the two methods of measuring the CI on VRT and axial CT images was r=0.99 (p<0.05). The two methods showed a mean difference of -0.03 (SD 0.13). Mean time saving per each examination with VRT was 45.5%. The present study showed that VRT and axial images produce almost identical values of CI, with the advantages of greater ease of execution and a time saving of almost 50% for 3D VRT images. In addition, VRT provides an integrated perspective that can better assist surgeons in clinical decision making and in operative planning, suggesting this technique as a possible standard method for CI measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Videostroboscopy to Stroboscopy Derived From High-Speed Videoendoscopy for Evaluating Patients With Vocal Fold Mass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Mehta, Daryush D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Videostroboscopy (VS) uses an indirect physiological signal to predict the phase of the vocal fold vibratory cycle for sampling. Simulated stroboscopy (SS) extracts the phase of the glottal cycle directly from the changing glottal area in the high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) image sequence. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of SS relative to VS for clinical assessment of vocal fold vibratory function in patients with mass lesions. Methods VS and SS recordings were obtained from 28 patients with vocal fold mass lesions before and after phonomicrosurgery and 17 controls who were vocally healthy. Two clinicians rated clinically relevant vocal fold vibratory features using both imaging techniques, indicated their internal level of confidence in the accuracy of their ratings, and provided reasons for low or no confidence. Results SS had fewer asynchronous image sequences than VS. Vibratory outcomes were able to be computed for more patients using SS. In addition, raters demonstrated better interrater reliability and reported equal or higher levels of confidence using SS than VS. Conclusion Stroboscopic techniques on the basis of extracting the phase directly from the HSV image sequence are more reliable than acoustic-based VS. Findings suggest that SS derived from high-speed videoendoscopy is a promising improvement over current VS systems. PMID:27716854

  7. Reliability of somatosensory evoked potentials in intraoperative localization of the central sulcus in patients with perirolandic mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Babu, K S; Chandy, M J

    1997-10-01

    Patients with parenchymatous mass lesions in the perirolandic area as seen by CT or MRI are unique in that identification of the central sulcus (CS) intraoperatively is crucial in determining the surgical strategy. Somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) responses were used under general anaesthesia for the intraoperative identification of the central sulcus (CS). Sixty-five patients with parenchymatous mass lesions were included in the study and a phase reversal in the hand area across the central sulcus was used to identify this sulcus. Based on the clinical findings the patients were classified into three groups: Group A were patients with predominant motor deficits, Group B, patients with predominant sensory deficits; and Group C were patients with gross sensory and motor deficits. This study shows that in patients with predominant motor deficits a phase reversal with good amplitude was obtained in all cases. In patients with predominant sensory deficits a phase reversal could be obtained, but their amplitudes were markedly decreased. In patients with predominant sensorimotor deficits no phase reversal could be obtained. The central sulcus could not be located accurately by somatosensory evoked potentials in these cases (group C).

  8. Prognostic significance of body mass index in Asian patients with localized renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Komura, Kazumasa; Inamoto, Teruo; Black, Peter C; Koyama, Kohei; Katsuoka, Yoji; Watsuji, Toshikazu; Azuma, Haruhito

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic value of BMI (body mass index) in Asian patients with RCC (renal cell carcinoma). We evaluated 170 Asian patients who underwent surgery for localized RCC (pathologic T1-4 tumors in the absence of nodal or distant metastases) between 1996 and 2004 at our institution. Patients were stratified by BMI: 22 or less vs. greater than 22. Overall, CSS (cancer-specific survival) and RFS (recurrence-free survival) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed with the Cox regression model. The mean age and BMI of all patients was 62.4 ± 11.4 yr and 23.1 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), respectively. Patients' population consisted of 114 (67.1%) men and 56 (32.9%) women. The median follow-up was 50 mo. The BMI was less than 22 in 83 (49%) patients and greater than 22 in 87 (51%). There was a trend toward worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, less likely to have an incidentaloma, higher pathological stage, and more frequent microvascular invasion with lower BMI. Only the correlations between BMI and ECOG performance status (P = 0.003) and pathological stage (P = 0.015) were statistically significant. Of other relevant factors including gender, mode of presentation, ECOG performance status, C-reactive protein, histological type, Fuhrman nuclear grade, microvascular invasion, pathological stage, and adjuvant cytokine therapy, smaller BMI remained an independent predictor for worse CSS (44.5 mo vs. 56.0 mo, P = 0.041, HR = 10.99) and RFS (43.0 mo vs. 55.0 mo, P = 0.03, HR = 2.653), but not for OS (overall survival) (46.0 mo vs. 55.5 mo, P = 0.13, HR = 2.217) on multivariate analysis. Our findings identify increasing BMI in the Asian population as an independent predictor for favorable CSS and RFS in patients with RCC treated by surgery. Further studies, including a multiinstitutional, prospective Asian cohort, are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Focal hepatic glycogenosis associated with metastatic insulinoma presenting as mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Monika; Zhang, Xuchen; Morrow, Jon S; Jain, Dhanpat; Salem, Ronald R; West, A Brian

    2016-01-01

    One of the important functions of the liver is glycogen storage. Most processes associated with increased hepatic glycogen, or glycogenoses, are metabolic and affect the entire liver leading to diffuse glycogenosis. We present a case in which the liver contained multiple small pale nodules that on initial assessment were recognized to be composed of glycogenated hepatocytes. Most of the known causes of hepatic glycogenosis were not pertinent to this case. After cutting many deeper levels and obtaining additional sections, small foci of insulinoma were revealed in the center of each of these lesions. The glycogenosis surrounding the foci of insulinoma can be best explained as a local effect of insulin on the hepatocytes, a phenomenon that has been previously described in primate models, but not in human subjects. Here, we report the first case of metastatic insulinoma causing local hepatic glycogenosis.

  10. [Renal actinomycosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Chelly, I; Bellil, K; Enneifer, M; Mekni, A; Bellil, S; Haouet, S; Kchir, N; Horchani, A; Zitouna, M M

    2006-06-01

    This report describes the case of a 26-year-old patient hospitalized for spontaneous abdominal pain. Palpation during clinical examination demonstrated a mass in the right abdomino-pelvic cavity. Radiological examination visualized the presence of grains suggestive of actinmycosis. The patient responded favorably to antimicrobial therapy. Actinomyces israeli is a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that can cause tumor-like lesions usually on the face and neck and more rarely on retroperitoneal structures. Because renal involvement can require nephrectomy, diagnosis of renal actinmycosis must be made during pre-operative work-up. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the lesion can achieve diagnosis and avoid nephrectomy since medical treatment using antimicrobial therapy is effective.

  11. Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Alone or in Combination: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Management of Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Cate, Frances; Kapp, Meghan E; Arnold, Shanna A; Gellert, Lan L; Hameed, Omar; Clark, Peter E; Wile, Geoffrey; Coogan, Alice; Giannico, Giovanna A

    2017-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration with and without concurrent core needle biopsy is a minimally invasive method to diagnose and assist in management of renal masses. We assessed the pathological accuracy of fine needle aspiration compared to and associated with core needle biopsy and the impact on management. We performed a single institution, retrospective study of 342 cases from 2001 to 2015 with small and large renal masses (4 or less and greater than 4 cm, respectively). Diagnostic and concordance rates, and the impact on management were analyzed. Adequacy rates for fine needle aspiration only, core needle biopsy only and fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy were 21%, 12% and 8% (aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p <0.026). In the aspiration plus biopsy group adding aspiration to biopsy and biopsy to aspiration reduced the inadequacy rate from 23% to 8% and from 27% to 8% for a total reduction rate of 15% and 19%, respectively, corresponding to 32 cases (9.3%). Rapid on-site examination contributed to a 22.5% improvement in fine needle aspiration adequacy rates. In this cohort 30% of aspiration only, 5% of biopsy only and 12% of aspiration plus biopsy could not be subtyped (aspiration vs biopsy p <0.0001, aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p <0.0127 and biopsy vs aspiration plus biopsy p = 0.06). The diagnostic concordance rate with surgical resection was 99%. Conversion of an inadequate specimen to an adequate one by a concurrent procedure impacted treatment in at least 29 of 32 patients. Limitations include the retrospective design and accuracy measurement based on surgical intervention. Fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy vs at least fine needle aspiration alone may improve diagnostic yield when sampling renal masses but it has subtyping potential similar to that of core needle biopsy only. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Robotic-assisted transperitoneal nephron-sparing surgery for small renal masses with associated surgical procedures: surgical technique and preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Graziano; Codacci-Pisanelli, Massimo; Patriti, Alberto; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Biancafarina, Alessia; Casciola, Luciano

    2013-09-01

    Small renal masses (T1a) are commonly diagnosed incidentally and can be treated with nephron-sparing surgery, preserving renal function and obtaining the same oncological results as radical surgery. Bigger lesions (T1b) may be treated in particular situations with a conservative approach too. We present our surgical technique based on robotic assistance for nephron-sparing surgery. We retrospectively analysed our series of 32 consecutive patients (two with 2 tumours and one with 4 bilateral tumours), for a total of 37 robotic nephron-sparing surgery (RNSS) performed between June 2008 and July 2012 by a single surgeon (G.C.). The technique differs depending on tumour site and size. The mean tumour size was 3.6 cm; according to the R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score 9 procedures were considered of low, 14 of moderate and 9 of hight complexity with no conversion in open surgery. Vascular clamping was performed in 22 cases with a mean warm ischemia time of 21.5 min and the mean total procedure time was 149.2 min. Mean estimated blood loss was 187.1 ml. Mean hospital stay was 4.4 days. Histopathological evaluation confirmed 19 cases of clear cell carcinoma (all the multiple tumours were of this nature), 3 chromophobe tumours, 1 collecting duct carcinoma, 5 oncocytomas, 1 leiomyoma, 1 cavernous haemangioma and 2 benign cysts. Associated surgical procedures were performed in 10 cases (4 cholecystectomies, 3 important lyses of peritoneal adhesions, 1 adnexectomy, 1 right hemicolectomy, 1 hepatic resection). The mean follow-up time was 28.1 months ± 12.3 (range 6-54). Intraoperative complications were 3 cases of important bleeding not requiring conversion to open or transfusions. Regarding post-operative complications, there were a bowel occlusion, 1 pleural effusion, 2 pararenal hematoma, 3 asymptomatic DVT (deep vein thrombosis) and 1 transient increase in creatinine level. There was no evidence of tumour recurrence in the follow-up. RNSS is a safe and feasible technique

  13. Evaluation of renal mass biopsy risk stratification algorithm for robotic partial nephrectomy--could a biopsy have guided management?

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Haider; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad; Marshall, Susan; Zargar, Homayoun; Ball, Mark W; Larson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Craig

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated a published biopsy directed small renal mass management algorithm using a large cohort of patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy for tumors 4 cm or smaller. A simplified algorithm of biopsy directed small renal mass management previously reported using risk stratified biopsies was applied to 1,175 robotic partial nephrectomy cases from 5 academic centers. A theoretical assumption was made of perfect biopsies that were feasible for all patients and had 100% concordance to final pathology. Pathology risk groups were benign, favorable, unfavorable and intermediate. The algorithm assigned favorable or intermediate tumors smaller than 2 cm to active surveillance and unfavorable or intermediate 2 to 4 cm tumors to treatment. Higher surgical risk patients were defined as ASA® 3 or greater and age 70 years or older. Patients were assigned to the pathology risk groups of benign (23%), favorable (13%), intermediate (51%) and unfavorable (12%). Patients were also assigned to the management groups of benign pathology (275, 23%), active surveillance (336, 29%) and treatment (564, 48%). Most of the 611 (52%) patients in the benign or active surveillance groups were low surgical risk and had safe treatment (2.6% high grade complications). A biopsy may not have been feasible or accurate in some tumors that were anterior (378, 32%), hilar (93, 7.9%) or less than 2 cm (379, 32%). Of 129 (11%) high surgical risk patients the biopsy algorithm assigned 70 (54%) to benign or active surveillance groups. The theoretical application of a biopsy driven, risk stratified small renal mass management algorithm to a large robotic partial nephrectomy database suggests that about half of the patients might have avoided surgery. Despite the obvious limitations of a theoretical assumption of all patients receiving a perfect biopsy, the data support the emerging role of renal mass biopsies to guide management, particularly in high surgical risk patients. Copyright

  14. Pathological characteristics and radiographic correlates of complex renal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Adam C.; Johnson, Pamela T.; Gorin, Michael A.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Netto, George J.; Pavlovich, Christian P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize pathological and cancer-specific outcomes of surgically resected cystic renal tumors and to identify clinical or radiographic features associated with these outcomes. Methods and materials All patients at our institution who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for complex renal cystic masses between 2004 and 2011 with available computed tomographic imaging were included. The Bosniak score was determined, as were 10 specific radiographic characteristics of renal cysts in patients with preoperative imaging available for review. These characteristics were correlated with cystic mass histopathology. Recurrence-free survival after surgery was determined. Results Overall, 133 patients underwent renal surgery for complex cystic lesions, 89 (67%) of whom had malignant lesions. Malignancy risk increased with Bosniak score (P ≤ 0.01) and presence of mural nodules (P = 0.01). Most (63%) malignancies demonstrated clear cell histology. The papillary renal cell carcinomas (25%) exhibited lower enhancement levels (P = 0.04) and were less often septated (P < 0.01). Of the malignancies, 79% were low stage (pT1), and 73% were Fuhrman grade 1 or 2. Large cyst size was associated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.05). Neither Bosniak score nor any other radiographic parameter was associated with Fuhrman grade. In 70 patients with a median follow-up of 43 months, only 1 (1.4%) developed disease recurrence. Conclusions Most cystic renal malignancies are low-stage, low-grade lesions. Papillary renal cell carcinomas account for nearly a quarter of cystic renal malignancies and have unique radiographic characteristics. Disease recurrence after surgical resection is rare. These findings suggest an indolent behavior for cystic renal tumors, and these lesions may be amenable to active surveillance. PMID:25022857

  15. Characterization of breast masses as benign or malignant at 3.0T MRI with whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Suo, Shiteng; Zhang, Kebei; Cao, Mengqiu; Suo, Xinjun; Hua, Jia; Geng, Xiaochuan; Chen, Jie; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Ji, Xiang; Lu, Qing; Wang, He; Xu, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the utility of whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in capturing breast lesion heterogeneity and determine which ADC metric may help best differentiate benign from malignant breast mass lesions at 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively included 101 women with breast mass lesions (benign:malignant = 36:65) who underwent 3.0T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and subsequently had histopathologic confirmation. ADC histogram parameters, including the mean, minimum, maximum, 10th/25th/50th/75th/90th percentile, skewness, kurtosis, and entropy ADCs, were derived for the whole-lesion volume in each patient. Mann-Whitney U-test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (Az ), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman test were used for statistical analysis. Mean, minimum, maximum, and 10th/25th/50th/75th/90th percentile ADCs were significantly lower (all P < 0.0001), while skewness and entropy ADCs were significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) in malignant lesions compared with benign ones. The Az values of minimum and 25th percentile ADCs were significantly higher than that of mean ADC (P = 0.0194 and P = 0.0154, respectively) or that of median ADC (P = 0.0300 and P = 0.0401, respectively), indicating that minimum and 25th percentile ADCs may be more accurate for lesion discrimination. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the minimum ADC was the unique independent predictor of breast malignancy. Minimum and 25th percentile ADCs had excellent interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.943 and 0.989, respectively; narrow width of 95% limits of agreement). These results suggest that whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis may facilitate the differentiation between benign and malignant breast mass lesions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lessons learned from the comparative study between renal mass biopsy and the analysis of the surgical specimen.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Esteban, M; Villacampa-Aubá, F; Garcia-Muñóz, H; Tejido Sánchez, A; Romero Otero, J; de la Rosa Kehrmann, F

    2014-12-01

    The role of renal mass (RM) biopsy is currently under discussion. As a result of the progressive increase in the incidental diagnosis of RMs (which have a higher percentage of benignity and well-differentiated cancers), new approaches have emerged such as observation, especially with elderly patients or those with significant comorbidity. RM biopsy (RMB) should provide sufficient information for making this decision, but so far this has not been the case. We examine our prospective series of in-bench RMBs after surgery and compare them with the anatomy of the removed specimen. We obtained (prospectively, in-bench and with a 16-gauge needle) 4 biopsies of RMs operated on in our department from October 2008 to December 2009. These RMs were analyzed by 2 uropathologists and compared with the results of the specimen. We analyzed 188 biopsies (47 RMs); 12.75% were "not valid". The ability of biopsy to diagnose malignancy or benignity was 100%, and the coincidence in the histological type was 95%. The success in determining the tumor grade was 100% when the cancer was low-grade and 62% when high-grade. None of the analyzed data (necrosis, size, etc.) influenced the results in a statistically significant manner. RMB with a 16-G needle enables the differentiation between malignancy and benignity in 100% of cases, with a very similar diagnostic accuracy in the tumor type. Tumor grade is still the pending issue with renal mass biopsy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Issues and challenges associated with classifying neoplasms in percutaneous needle biopsies of incidentally found small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous needle core biopsy has become acceptable for classifying renal tumours and guiding patient management in the setting of an incidentally-detected small renal mass (SRM), defined as an asymptomatic, non-palpable mass <4cm in maximum dimension. Long-held concerns preventing the incorporation of biopsies into routine patient care, including the perception of poor diagnostic yield and risks of complications such as bleeding or biopsy tract seeding, have largely been disproven. While needle biopsies for SRMs have traditionally been performed in academic centres, pathologists based in non-academic centres can expect to encounter these specimens as urologists and/or interventional radiologist trainees complete their training programs and begin work in non-academic centres. This review covers the rationale for performing these biopsies, the expected diagnostic yield, relevant differential diagnoses and an approach to classifying SRMs based on limited samples as well as the use of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining panels to aid in this process. There is also an undeniable learning curve for pathologists faced with reporting these biopsies and a number of issues and potential pitfalls attributable to sampling must be kept in mind by pathologists and clinicians alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of methimazole on low-renal-mass hypertension: changes in blood pressure and pressor responsiveness to vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed

    Andrade, J L; Haro, J M; Castillo, M A; de Luna, J D; Vargas, F

    1992-01-01

    The administration of the antithyroid drug methimazole to rats via drinking water prevented the development of hypertension that usually accompanies subtotal nephrectomy and saline drinking (1% NaCl). In methimazole-treated rats, elevated blood pressure induced 5 weeks previously returned to normotensive levels. Pressor responsiveness to angiotensin, vasopressin and norepinephrine in unanesthetized rats was studied after prevention of hypertension in control, low-renal-mass hypertensive (LRM) and low-renal-mass methimazole-treated (LRM-M) rats, and in the reversion study in LRM and LRM-M rats. In LRM rats, responsiveness to vasoconstrictors was increased, whereas responsiveness to vasoconstriction was clearly reduced in LRM-M rats after prevention and reversion studies. These results suggest that (a) thyroid hormones are required in the early and established phases of LRM hypertension, and (b) the decreased pressor responsiveness to vasoconstrictors may play a role in the prevention and reversion of this type of hypertension following methimazole administration. However, the changes in pressor responsiveness may also be secondary to the reduction in blood pressure.

  19. Metabolic signatures of malignant and non-malignant mass-forming lesions in the periampulla and pancreas in FDG PET/CT scan: an atlas with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Rana, Surinder Singh; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bhattacharya, Anish; Das, Ashim; Bhasin, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used for the characterization of pancreatic and periampullary lesions. Pancreatitis-associated inflammation affecting only a portion of the pancreas gives the appearance of a mass lesion on imaging. Consequently, the differential diagnosis between cancer and pancreatitis becomes a commonly encountered problem. Traditionally, PET was interpreted as positive (to denote malignancy) if fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) activity in the pancreas exceeded background activity and as negative (to denote benign) if activity was less than or equal to background activity. However, the specificity was limited with this method of interpretation. A relatively wide overlap has been reported between semiquantitative uptake values obtained in cancers and those in inflammatory lesions. Also, the qualitative (metabolic patterns) and quantitative variables (standardized uptake values) have been complementary and at sometimes controversial to each other in various clinical situations. There is paucity of data in the literature highlighting the role of FDG PET/CT in characterization of such mass lesions. The primary aim of this pictorial review is to list the various pathologic processes of pancreas and periampulla that could be studied with FDG PET/CT and recognize the different FDG uptake patterns and apply this information to characterize the different lesions affecting the pancreas and periampulla. We have also discussed the limitations of conventional imaging and advantages of FDG PET/CT for the evaluation mass-forming lesions of the pancreas and periampulla.

  20. Primary renal angiosarcoma with progressive clinical course despite surgical and adjuvant treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CELEBI, FILIZ; PILANCI, KEZBAN NUR; SAGLAM, SEZER; BALCI, NUMAN CEM

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is an extremely rare, high-grade malignancy, which accounts for <2% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Cases of primary renal angiosarcoma represent 1% of these. Angiosarcomas involving the kidney usually originate from metastatic skin lesions or primary visceral lesions and most often occur in the sixth and seventh decades of life. The present study describes a case of primary renal angiosarcoma that presented as a large right-sided renal mass with symptoms of flank pain. Despite surgical removal of the tumor, recurrent disease with associated lung metastases was identified at the surgical site following adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient succumbed to the disease 13 months after the diagnosis. PMID:25789072

  1. Reporting standards for the imaging-based diagnosis of renal masses on CT and MRI: a national survey of academic abdominal radiologists and urologists.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Matthew S; Hu, Eric M; Smith, Andrew D; Chandarana, Hersh; Hafez, Khaled; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Stuart Wolf, J; Silverman, Stuart G

    2017-04-01

    To define important elements of a structured radiology report of a CT or MRI performed to evaluate an indeterminate renal mass. IRB approval was waived for this multi-site prospective quality improvement study. A 35-question survey investigating elements of a CT or MRI report describing a renal mass was created through an iterative process by the Society of Abdominal Radiology Disease-Focused Panel on renal cell carcinoma. Surveys were distributed to consenting abdominal radiologists and urologists at nine academic institutions. Consensus within and between specialties was defined as ≥70% agreement. Respondent rates were compared with Chi Square test. The response rate was 68% (117/171; 55% [39/71] urologists, 78% [78/100] radiologists). Inter-specialty consensus was that the following were essential: mass size with comparison to prior imaging, mass type (cystic vs. solid), presence of fat, presence of enhancement, and radiologic stage. Urologists were more likely to prefer the Nephrometry score (75% [27/36] vs. 22% [17/76], p < 0.0001), quantitative reporting of enhancement on CT (85% [32/38] vs. 46% [36/77], p < 0.0001), and mass position with respect to the renal polar lines (67% [24/36] vs. 36% [27/76], p = 0.002). There was inter-specialty consensus that the Bosniak classification for cystic masses was preferred. Most urologists (60% [21/35]) preferred management recommendations be omitted for solid masses or Bosniak III-IV cystic masses. Important elements to include in a CT or MRI report of an indeterminate renal mass are critical diagnostic features, the Bosniak classification if relevant, and the most likely specific diagnosis when feasible; including management recommendations is controversial.

  2. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Michelle E; Mebius, Mirthe J; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Bos, Arend F; Berger, Rolf M F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W

    2017-07-14

    In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) between infants with LSOL with antegrade and retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta and with and without diastolic backflow in the descending aorta. Based on 2 echocardiograms, the study group was categorized according to the direction of blood flow in the ascending and descending aorta. We measured cerebral and renal rSO2 using near-infrared spectroscopy and calculated fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE). Nineteen infants with LSOL, admitted to the NICU between 0 and 28 days after birth, were included. Infants with antegrade blood flow (n = 12) and infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta (n = 7) had similar cerebral rSO2 and FTOE during both echocardiograms. Only during the first echocardiogram, infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta had lower renal FTOE (0.14 vs. 0.32, p = 0.04) and tended to have higher renal rSO2 (80 vs. 65%, p = 0.09). The presence of diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with cerebral or renal rSO2 and FTOE during the first (n = 8) as well as the second echocardiogram (n = 10). Retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta was not associated with cerebral oxygenation, while diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with renal oxygenation in infants with LSOL. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. MRI Phenotype in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Naomi; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is most commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding on cross-sectional imaging and represents a significant clinical challenge. Although most patients have a surgically curable lesion at the time of diagnosis, the variability in the biologic behavior of the different histologic subtypes and tumor grade of RCC, together with the increasing array of management options, creates uncertainty for the optimal clinical approach to individual patients. State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a comprehensive assessment of renal lesions that includes multiple forms of tissue contrast as well as functional parameters, which in turn provides information that helps to address this dilemma. In this article, we review this evolving and increasingly comprehensive role of MRI in the detection, characterization, perioperative evaluation, and assessment of the treatment response of renal neoplasms. We emphasize the ability of the imaging “phenotype” of renal masses on MRI to help predict the histologic subtype, grade, and clinical behavior of RCC. PMID:24690616

  4. MRI phenotype in renal cancer: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Naomi; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is most commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding on cross-sectional imaging and represents a significant clinical challenge. Although most patients have a surgically curable lesion at the time of diagnosis, the variability in the biologic behavior of the different histologic subtypes and tumor grade of RCC, together with the increasing array of management options, creates uncertainty for the optimal clinical approach to individual patients. State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a comprehensive assessment of renal lesions that includes multiple forms of tissue contrast as well as functional parameters, which in turn provides information that helps to address this dilemma. In this article, we review this evolving and increasingly comprehensive role of MRI in the detection, characterization, perioperative evaluation, and assessment of the treatment response of renal neoplasms. We emphasize the ability of the imaging "phenotype" of renal masses on MRI to help predict the histologic subtype, grade, and clinical behavior of RCC.

  5. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  6. Trends of partial and radical nephrectomy in managing small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Al Saidi, Ibrahim Khalid; Alqasem, Kholoud Saleh; Gharaibeh, Saeda Turki; Qamhia, Naim Z.N.; Abukhiran, Ibrahim; Al-Daghmin, Ali Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Objective Use of partial nephrectomy (PN) for renal tumors appears to have relatively lower incidence rates in Jordan. We sought to characterize its trend at King Hussein Cancer Center for the last 10 years. Material and methods A retrospective review of our renal cell cancer data was performed. We identified 169 patients who had undergone surgery for renal tumors measuring ≤7 cm between 2005 and 2015. We characterized tumor size, pathology, type of surgery and clinical outcomes. Factors associated with the use of PN were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the 169 patients, 34 (20%) and 135 (80%) had undergone partial and radical nephrectomy (RN) respectively for tumors ≤7 cm in diameter. Total number of 48 patients with tumors of ≤4 cm in diameter had undergone either PN (n=19; 40%) or RN (n=29; 60%). The frequency of PN procedures steadily increased over the years from 6% in 2005–2008, to 32% in 2013–2015, contrary to RN which was less frequently applied 94% in 2005–2008, and 68% in 2013–2015. In multivariable analysis, delayed surgery (p=0.01) and smaller tumor size (p=0.0005) were significant independent predictors of PN. During follow-up period, incidence of metastasis was lower in PN versus RN (13% and 32%, respectively, p=0.043). Local recurrence rates were not significantly different between PN (6.9%) and RN (7.2%) (p=0.99). The mean tumor sizes for patients who had undergone PN and RN were 4.1 and 5.5 cm respectively, (p<0.0001). The mean follow-up period for PN was 20 months, and for RN 33 months, (p=0.0225). Conclusion Partial nephrectomy for small renal tumors is relatively less frequently applied in Jordan, however an increase in its use has been observed over the years. Our data showed lower rates of distant metastasis and similar rates of local recurrence in favor of PN. PMID:28270950

  7. Renal mass reduction results in accumulation of lipids and dysregulation of lipid regulatory proteins in the remnant kidney.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Moradi, Hamid; Yuan, Jun; Norris, Keith; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2009-06-01

    A significant reduction of renal mass results in proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial injury, culminating in end-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). The accumulation of lipids in the kidney can cause renal disease. Uptake of oxidized lipoproteins via scavenger receptors, reabsorption of filtered protein-bound lipids via the megalin-cubilin complex, and increased glucose load per nephron can promote lipid accumulation in glomerular, tubular, and interstitial cells in CRF. Cellular lipid homeostasis is regulated by lipid influx, synthesis, catabolism, and efflux. We examined lipid-regulatory factors in the remnant kidney of rats 11 wk after nephrectomy (CRF) or sham operation. CRF resulted in azotemia, proteinuria, lipid accumulation in the kidney, upregulation of megalin, cubilin, mediators of lipid influx (scavenger receptor class A and lectin-like oxidized receptor-1), lipid efflux (liver X receptor alpha/beta and ATP-binding cassette transporter), and fatty acid biosynthesis (carbohydrate-response element binding protein, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase). However, factors involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (sterol regulatory element binding protein, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, SCAP, Insig-1, and Insig-2) and fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, acyl-CoA oxidase, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein) were reduced in the remnant kidney. Thus CRF results in heavy lipid accumulation in the remnant kidney, which is mediated by upregulation of pathways involved in tubular reabsorption of filtered protein-bound lipids, influx of oxidized lipoproteins and synthesis of fatty acids, and downregulation of pathways involved in fatty acid catabolism.

  8. Renal Medulla is More Sensitive to Cisplatin than Cortex Revealed by Untargeted Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Chen, Jia-Qing; Huang, Wan-Qiu; Li, Wei; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Xu, Feng-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity has long been the most severe and life-threatening side-effect of cisplatin, whose anticancer effect is therefore restricted. Previous pathological studies have shown that both renal cortex and medulla could be injured by cisplatin. Our TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) assay results further uncovered that medulla subjected more severe injury than cortex. In order to depict the underlying metabolic mechanism of spatial difference in response to cisplatin, in the present study, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach was applied to profile renal cortex and medulla metabolites of rat after receiving a single dose of cisplatin (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg). Eventually, 53 and 55 differential metabolites in cortex and medulla were screened out, respectively. Random forest, orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis and metabolic cumulative fold change analysis revealed that metabolic changes in medulla were more obviously dose-dependent than those in cortex, which confirmed the conclusion that medulla was more sensitive to cisplatin exposure. Furthermore, 29 intermediates were recognized as the most contributive metabolites for the sensitivity difference. Metabolic pathways interrupted by cisplatin mainly included amino acid, energy, lipid, pyrimidine, purine, and creatine metabolism. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism study of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:28300186

  9. Angiography of nonneoplastic retroperitoneal masses

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, J.F.; Levin, D.C.; Hooshmand, I.

    1982-01-01

    Although noninvasive imaging modalities can be used to initially detect retroperitoneal masses, angiography is still desirable for several reasons in those cases in which surgery is contemplated. The latter can forewarn the surgeon as to possible hemorrhagic complications in highly vascular lesions. In some cases it can predict the malignant potential of the lesion. Finally, since these masses may derive blood supply from multiple sources, a vascular ''road map'' is provided to the surgeon. The angiographic findings of malignant retroperitoneal tumors are well known, but very little has been published dealing with benign nonneoplastic retroperitoneal masses. We have performed angiography in 11 surgically proven nonneoplastic retroperitoneal masses (9 inflammatory lesions, 2 hematomas). Major arterial or renal displacement occurred in 10. The 2 hematomas and 3 inflammatory lesions were totally avascular; 6 of the 9 inflammatory lesions revealed fine neovascularity and 5 of these 6 had an associated capillary blush. Sources of vascular supply included the lumbar, renal capsular, superior mesenteric, and gastroduodenal arteries. Although angiography is helpful in preoperative evaluation of retroperitoneal masses for the aforementioned reasons, it may be difficult or impossible to differentiate benign from malignant lesions based on the angiographic findings alone.

  10. Renal Medullary and Cortical Correlates in Fibrosis, Epithelial Mass, Microvascularity, and Microanatomy Using Whole Slide Image Analysis Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Alton B.; Ellis, Carla L.; Rogers, Thomas E.; Lawson, Diane; Cohen, Cynthia; Rosen, Seymour

    2016-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial injury often leads to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). IF/TA is typically assessed in the renal cortex and can be objectively quantitated with computerized image analysis (IA). However, the human medulla accounts for a substantial proportion of the nephron; therefore, medullary scarring will have important cortical consequences and may parallel overall chronic renal injury. Trichrome, periodic acid–Schiff (PAS), and collagen III immunohistochemistry (IHC) were visually examined and quantitated on scanned whole slide images (WSIs) (N = 67 cases). When tuned to measure fibrosis, IA of trichrome and Trichrome-PAS (T-P) WSIs correlated for all anatomic compartments (among cortex, medulla, and entire tissue, r = 0.84 to 0.89, P all <0.0001); and collagen III deposition correlated between compartments (r = 0.69 to 0.89, P <0.0001 to 0.0002); however, trichrome and T-P measures did not correlate with collagen deposition, suggesting heterogeneous contributions to extracellular matrix deposition. Epithelial cell mass (EPCM) correlated between cortex and medulla when measured with cytokeratin IHC and with the trichrome red portion (r = 0.85 and 0.66, respectively, all P < 0.0001). Visual assessment also correlated between compartments for fibrosis and EPCM. Correlations were found between increasing medullary inner stripe (IS) width and fibrosis in all of the tissue and the medulla by trichrome morphometry (r = 0.56, P < 0.0001, and r = 0.48, P = 0.00008, respectively). Weak correlations were found between increasing IS width and decreasing visual assessment of all tissue EPCM. Microvessel density (MVD) and microvessel area (MVA) measured using a MVD algorithm applied to CD34 IHC correlated significantly between all compartments (r = 0.76 to 0.87 for MVD and 0.71 to 0.87 for MVA, P all < 0.0001). Overall, these findings demonstrate the interrelatedness of the cortex and medulla and the importance of considering the renal

  11. Spectrum of renal pathology in adult patients with congenital renal anomalies-a series from a tertiary cancer center.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasreman; Mohanty, Sambit K; Kim, Tim; Sexton, Wade J; Powsang, Julio; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Congenital renal anomalies (CRAs) detected in adults include horseshoe kidney (HK), crossed renal ectopia, and malrotation. Congenital renal anomalies are rare, and renal lesions associated with CRA are rarer. Thirteen patients (11 men and 2 women) were referred to our center with renal masses in the context of CRAs, which included HK (10 cases), crossed renal ectopia (2 cases), and a pelvic kidney (1 case). The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years (37-76 years). All patients were treated with open surgery; 10, partial nephrectomies; 4, radical nephrectomies; and 1, nephroureterectomy with division of the renal isthmus. Pathology ranged from benign (simple cortical cysts, chronic pyelonephritis with secondary hydronephrosis) to malignant (12 cases of renal cell carcinomas [RCCs] and 1 case of urothelial carcinoma). Two patients of HKs presented with bilateral renal masses. The size of the RCC ranged from 2.5 to 13 cm. There were 11 cases of clear cell RCC, 1 case of papillary RCC (type 1), and 1 case of urothelial carcinoma. All the cases of RCC had negative surgical margins. Follow-up available in all patients ranged from 1 month up to 49 months. None of the patients developed any locoregional recurrences or distant metastases. In this patient cohort, the most common congenital anomaly associated with RCC is HK. All tumors behaved in an indolent fashion with prognosis related to pathologic tumor stage. Partial nephrectomy is a safe and effective procedure in appropriately selected patients.

  12. Multidimensional Interactive Radiology Report and Analysis: standardization of workflow and reporting for renal mass tracking and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Ma, Kevin; Yepes, Fernando; Nadamuni, Mridula; Nayyar, Megha; Liu, Brent; Duddalwar, Vinay; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    A conventional radiology report primarily consists of a large amount of unstructured text, and lacks clear, concise, consistent and content-rich information. Hence, an area of unmet clinical need consists of developing better ways to communicate radiology findings and information specific to each patient. Here, we design a new workflow and reporting system that combines and integrates advances in engineering technology with those from the medical sciences, the Multidimensional Interactive Radiology Report and Analysis (MIRRA). Until recently, clinical standards have primarily relied on 2D images for the purpose of measurement, but with the advent of 3D processing, many of the manually measured metrics can be automated, leading to better reproducibility and less subjective measurement placement. Hence, we make use this newly available 3D processing in our workflow. Our pipeline is used here to standardize the labeling, tracking, and quantifying of metrics for renal masses.

  13. Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure causes permanent increases in renal erythropoietin expression and red blood cell mass in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Justin I; Seckl, Jonathan R; Nyirenda, Moffat J

    2011-07-01

    Glucocorticoids promote maturation of fetal systems, including erythropoiesis, in preparation for extrauterine life. However, recent studies have shown that prenatal glucocorticoid excess can cause long-term deleterious cardiometabolic and other consequences to the offspring. Here, we examined the effect of prenatal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) during the last week of gestation on red blood cell (RBC) mass in the rat offspring. DEX-treated offspring at 9 months of age had significantly higher RBC count (9.4 ± 0.1 vs. 8.8 ± 0.2 × 10(12) liter; P = 0.02), hematocrit (50.0 ± 0.5 vs. 46.7 ± 0.7%; P=0.004), hemoglobin (17.3 ± 0.2 vs. 16.2 ± 0.2 g/dl; P = 0.02) and number of reticulocytes (258.2 ± 8.8 vs. 235.7 ± 5.6 × 10(9) liter; P = 0.04), compared with offspring of vehicle-treated control pregnancies. White blood cells and platelets were unaltered. Renal mRNA expression and plasma concentrations of erythropoietin, the main regulator of erythropoiesis, were increased by nearly 100% in both newborn and adult DEX-treated rats (P < 0.01). This increase was accompanied by marked elevation in renal expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α mRNA, whereas other erythropoietin-regulating transcription factors, such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1, hypoxia-inducible factor 2, and GATA2 were unchanged. These data indicate that RBC mass can be programmed by prenatal glucocorticoid excess, and if extrapolatable to humans, provide a novel mechanism for fetal origins of polycythemia and its associated complications.

  14. Postoperative Urinary Leakage Following Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Mass: Risk Factors and a Proposed Algorithm for the Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Erlich, T; Abu-Ghanem, Y; Ramon, J; Mor, Y; Rosenzweig, B; Dotan, Z

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the current incidence, risk factors, management, and long-term follow-up of urinary leakage following partial nephrectomy, in order to propose an algorithm for diagnosis and evaluation of postoperative urinary leakage. The study included 752 patients who underwent elective partial nephrectomies for renal masses between the years 1988 and 2013. Patients' demographics, clinico-pathologic variables, and operative details were collected retrospectively. The associations between urinary leakage and patients' variables were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 752 patients, 21 (2.8%) experienced urinary leakage; 4 of the 21 patients with urinary leakage had spontaneous resolution, 1 patient underwent nephrectomy, and 16 patients were treated by retrograde ureteral stents insertion. One of them necessitated insertion of an additional percutaneous nephrostomy and another one deserved concomitant percutaneous drainage of a perirenal urinoma. The average period of time that elapsed from the operation until the insertion of stent was 8.5 ± 4.5 days. Stents were removed 68 ± 20.5 days postoperatively. None of the patients had either persistent or repeated leakage. On univariate analysis, hilar renal masses (p < 0.04) and higher preoperative creatinine levels (p < 0.01) were found to be associated with higher rates of urinary leakage. None of these variables was significant on a multivariate analysis. Review of the urinary leakage rate over time revealed it has been constantly decreasing over time, from 4% in early cases to 1.3% among the most recent ones. None of the preoperative variables that were examined in this study was significantly associated with increased risk of urinary leakage. However, cumulative surgical experience was associated with lower rates of urinary leakage, suggesting that the decrease in its incidence is related to the improved surgical skills, rather than to differences in tumors' or patients

  15. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram Nv; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, M L; Reddy, Yogesh Nv

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft-Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2), 25-29.99 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2) were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.

  16. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram NV; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, ML; Reddy, Yogesh NV

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. PMID:27729810

  17. A Molecular Analysis of Tumor Margins by MALDI Mass Spectrometry in Renal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Stacey R.; Mi, Deming; Sanders, Melinda E.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of tumor recurrence post resection suggests that there are underlying molecular changes in nearby histologically normal tissue that go undetected by conventional diagnostic methods that utilize contrast agents and histochemistry. MALDI MS is a molecular technology that has the specificity and sensitivity to monitor and identify molecular species indicative of these processes. The current study utilizes this technology to assess molecular distributions within a tumor and adjacent normal tissue in clear cell renal cell carcinoma biopsies. Results indicate that the histologically normal tissue adjacent to the tumor expresses many of the molecular characteristics of the tumor. Proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport system are examples of such distributions. This work demonstrates the utility of MALDI MS for the analysis of tissue biopsies in the elucidation of molecular processes in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:20141219

  18. Prospective randomized evaluation of therapeutic decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury with mass lesions (PRECIS): study protocol for a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He-xiang; Liao, Yi; Xu, Ding; Wang, Qiang-ping; Gan, Qi; You, Chao; Yang, Chao-hua

    2016-01-05

    For cases of severe traumatic brain injury, during primary operation, neurosurgeons usually face a dilemma of whether or not to remove the bone flap after mass lesion evacuation. Decompressive craniectomy, which involves expansion of fixed cranial cavity, is used to treat intra-operative brain swelling and post-operative malignant intracranial hypertension. However, due to indefinite indication, the decision to perform this procedure heavily relies on personal experiences. In addition, decompressive craniectomy is associated with various complications, and the procedure lacks strong evidence of better outcomes. In the present study, we designed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to clarify the effect of decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury patients with mass lesions. PRECIS is a prospective, randomized, assessor-blind, single center clinical trial. In this trial, 336 patients with traumatic mass lesions will be randomly allocated to a therapeutic decompressive craniectomy group or a prophylactic decompressive craniectomy group. In the therapeutic decompressive craniectomy group, the bone flap will be removed or replaced depending on the emergence of brain swelling. In the prophylactic decompressive craniectomy group, the bone flap will be removed after mass lesion evacuation. A stepwise management of intracranial pressure will be provided according to the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines. Salvage decompressive craniectomy will be performed for craniotomy patients once there is evidence of imaging deterioration and post-operative malignant intracranial hypertension. Participants will be assessed at 1, 6 and 12 months after randomization. The primary endpoint is favorable outcome according to the Extended Glasgow Outcome Score (5-8) at 12 months. The secondary endpoints include quality of life measured by EQ-5D, mortality, complications, intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure control and incidence of salvage craniectomy

  19. Case report: a left upper quadrant complex cystic mass.

    PubMed

    Choi, Lydia; Mirani, Neena; Kim, Steve H

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with left upper quadrant/flank pain and increasing abdominal girth. CT scan showed a large complex, multi-cystic lesion in the left abdomen. Laparotomy revealed a large retroperitoneal mass attached to the left kidney. Left nephrectomy was performed and pathology demonstrated a benign cystic nephroma. Surgical oncologists should be aware of this rare renal lesion as the clinical and radiographic presentation may mimic other intra-abdominal cystic lesions.

  20. Tumor Enucleation for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Malkowicz, S. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The increased number of small renal masses (SRMs) detected annually has led to a rise in the use of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). These techniques aim to preserve the largest amount of healthy renal tissue possible while maintaining the same oncologic outcomes as radical nephrectomy (RN). Additionally, partial nephrectomy (PN) has been linked to a lower risk of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality when compared to RN. There has been continual progress toward resecting less renal parenchyma. While the predominant surgical method of performing NSS is through traditional PN, simple enucleation (SE) of the tumor has increased in popularity over recent years. SE is a technique that aims to preserve the maximal amount of renal parenchyma possible by utilizing the renal tumor pseudocapsule to bluntly separate the lesion from its underlying parenchyma, offering the smallest possible margin of excised healthy renal tissue. Several studies have demonstrated the oncological safety of SE compared with PN in the treatment of SRMs, with lower overall incidence of positive surgical margins. Additionally, SE has been shown to have similar 5- and 10-year progression-free and cancer-specific survival as PN. We present a review of the literature and an argument for SE to be a routine consideration in the treatment of all renal tumors amenable to NSS.

  1. Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Xu, Hanjiang; Zhou, Jun; Hao, Zongyao; Wang, Jianzhong; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xia; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-12-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a malignant small round cell tumor and typically arises from bone or soft tissue in adolescents and young adults. Renal PNET is extraordinarily rare and exhibits highly aggressive biological behavior with poor prognosis.We present here a new case of renal PNET in a 31-year-old female. The patients were referred to our hospital because of left flank pain with nausea and vomiting for 1 week. A computed tomography scan revealed a 14.7 × 12.7 cm well-defined, unevenly mass lesion with both solid and cystic components and the tumor was not enhanced uniformly.A preoperative diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma and urinary tract infection was made. The patient undergone anti-inflammatory therapy followed by a left radical nephrectomy. Taken with morphological pattern and immunohistochemical markers, a diagnosis of renal PNET was made. Two cycles of combined chemotherapy were executed. At the 14-month follow-up, no evidence of metastasis or recurrence was indicated.This case reminds clinicians that for adolescents and young adults with a suspicious renal mass, a diagnosis of renal PNET should be always considered. An initial surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy is suggested for the therapeutic management.

  2. Laparoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Surgical Excision for Exophytic Renal Angiomyolipoma: A Novel Technique Based on Tumor Vasculature Features of Enhancing Renal Masses Toward Hilar Off-Clamping Nephron-Sparing Surgery.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Ran, Qing; Du, Yangchun; Lv, Ji; Chen, Fang; Zhong, Shan; Guo, Pu; Dou, Ke; Sun, Minghan

    2017-08-01

    Symptomatic angiomyolipoma (AML) and asymptomatic AML larger than 4 cm in size are usually treated with nephron-sparing surgery or transarterial embolization. We used radiofrequency ablation to treat the vascular pedicle of exophytic AML with low R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score and investigated its feasibility for hilar off-clamping nephron-sparing surgery. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed enhanced, well-defined lipomatous tumors with a maximum diameter of 4-8 cm in the kidney of 15 patients. Results indicated that the exophytic tumors featured in the enlarged tumor vasculatures extended into the parenchyma of the involved kidney. The patients underwent radiofrequency ablation by using a Cool-tip™ probe placed into the root of the AML mass from different directions under laparoscopic ultrasonography guidance. After sealing the vascular pedicle of the tumor, the bloodless tumors were resected en bloc without renal hilar clamping or suturing the resection defect of the kidney. All patients underwent the procedure smoothly, and no perioperative complications occurred. The contrast-enhanced CT scan showed small defects in the contrast-enhanced renal parenchyma at third month after the procedure, and the decrease in function of the treated kidneys was <10% during the 12-month follow-up. Our initial experience suggests that sealing the tumor vessels by radiofrequency ablation based on the tumor vasculature features of a renal mass is an alternative to hilar clamping in laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation and tumor excision are a definitive and safe minimally invasive procedure that allows the successful removal of exophytic sporadic AML mass with low R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score.

  3. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline attenuates renal injury and dysfunction in hypertensive rats with reduced renal mass: council for high blood pressure research.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tang-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Ping; D'Ambrosio, Martin; Zhang, Yanlu; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Carretero, Oscar A

    2010-02-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a naturally occurring peptide of which the plasma concentration is increased 4- to 5-fold by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We reported previously that, in models of both hypertension and postmyocardial infarction, Ac-SDKP reduces cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether Ac-SDKP can prevent or reverse renal injury and dysfunction in hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx)-induced hypertension, Ac-SDKP reduces renal damage, albuminuria, and dysfunction by decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration and renal fibrosis and by increasing nephrin protein. Ac-SDKP (800 microg/kg per day, SC via osmotic minipump) or vehicle was either started 7 days before 5/6Nx (prevention) and continued for 3 weeks or started 3 weeks after 5/6Nx (reversal) and continued for another 3 weeks. Rats with 5/6Nx developed high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, albuminuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and increased macrophage infiltration (inflammation) and renal collagen content (fibrosis). Ac-SDKP did not affect blood pressure or left ventricular hypertrophy in either group; however, it significantly reduced albuminuria, renal inflammation, and fibrosis and improved glomerular filtration rate in both prevention and reversal groups. Moreover, slit diaphragm nephrin protein expression in the glomerular filtration barrier was significantly decreased in hypertensive rats. This effect was partially prevented or reversed by Ac-SDKP. We concluded that Ac-SDKP greatly attenuates albuminuria and renal fibrosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6Nx. These effects may be related to decreased inflammation (macrophages) and increased nephrin protein.

  4. Stepwise algorithm using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of fat-poor angiomyolipoma in small renal masses: Development and external validation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hajime; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Saito, Kazutaka; Uehara, Sho; Numao, Noboru; Yuasa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Shinya; Masuda, Hitoshi; Yonese, Junji; Kihara, Kazunori

    2017-07-01

    To develop a stepwise diagnostic algorithm for fat-poor angiomyolipoma in small renal masses. Two cohorts of small renal masses <4 cm without an apparent fat component that was pathologically diagnosed were included: 153 cases (18 fat-poor angiomyolipomas/135 renal cell carcinomas) for model development and 71 cases (seven fat-poor angiomyolipomas/59 renal cell carcinomas/5 oncocytomas) for validation. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings were analyzed. Based on multivariate analysis, we developed two prediction models for fat-poor angiomyolipoma, the computed tomography model and the computed tomography + magnetic resonance imaging model, and a stepwise algorithm that proposes the sequential use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The computed tomography model, which was composed of female aged <50 years, high attenuation on unenhanced computed tomography, less enhancement than the normal renal cortex and homogeneity in the corticomedullary phase, differentiated tumors with none of the factors as the low angiomyolipoma-probability group, and the others were candidates for the computed tomography + magnetic resonance imaging model. The computed tomography + magnetic resonance imaging model, consisting of the first three factors of the computed tomography model, low signal intensity and absence of pseudocapsule on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, re-stratified the tumors into low, intermediate and high angiomyolipoma-probability groups. The incidence of fat-poor angiomyolipoma in each group was 0%, 26% and 93%, respectively (area under the curve 0.981). External validation by two readers showed a high area under the curve (0.912 and 0.924) for each. The interobserver agreement was good (kappa score 0.77). The present algorithm differentiates fat-poor angiomyolipoma in small renal masses with high accuracy by adding magnetic resonance imaging to computed tomography in

  5. Determination of apurinic/apyrimidinic lesions in DNA with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kenneth P; Sobrino, Justin A; Payton, Julie; Mason, Lavinnia B; Turesky, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    A new method has been developed to accurately measure apurinic and apyrimidinic (AP) DNA damage sites, which are lesions in DNA formed by loss of a nucleobase from oxidative stress or carcinogen adducts. If AP sites are left unrepaired (or if improperly repaired), these sites can lead to DNA mutations that may ultimately result in the formation of cancer. Hence, detection of AP sites may provide a useful indicator of exposure and susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and oxidative stress. AP detection is currently accomplished by immunodetection methods using an aldehyde reactive probe [Nakamura, J., Walker, V. E., Upton, P. B., Chiang, S.-Y., Kow, Y. W., and Swenberg, J. A. (1998) Cancer Res. 58, 222-225; Atamna, H., Cheung, I., and Ames, B. N. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 686-691]; however, these approaches lack the specificity required for unequivocal identification of the AP site. Therefore, we have developed an accurate method based on mass spectrometry detection of AP sites from AP DNA that have been prelabeled with O-4-nitrobenzylhydroxylamine (NBHA). Once labeled and once the excess labeling agent has been removed, enzymatic digestion of DNA to monomeric subunits can be accomplished, followed by isolation and detection with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Optimization and validation of the experimental procedures and detection limits have been established using a model DNA oligomer (11-mer) containing uracil. Enzymatic removal of uracil with uracil glycosylase generates well-defined AP sites in both single- and double-stranded DNA. The addition of NBHA labels the AP site in the oligomer, creating a labeled 11-mer. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the negative ionization mode was used to monitor and confirm binding of NBHA to the AP oligomer. The NBHA-tagged oligomer underwent endo- and exonuclease digestion to the 5'-deoxyribose monophosphate (5'-dRp) level, thereby releasing

  6. Radiation exposure from CT-guided ablation of renal masses: effects on life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D; Gervais, Debra A; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Sabir, Sharjeel H; Paul, Aaron B; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to project the effects of radiation exposure on life expectancy (LE) in patients who opt for CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) instead of surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We developed a decision-analytic Markov model to compare LE losses attributable to radiation exposure in hypothetical 65-year-old patients who undergo CT-guided RFA versus surgery for small (≤ 4 cm) RCC. We incorporated mortality risks from RCC, radiation-induced cancers (for procedural and follow-up CT scans), and all other causes; institutional data informed the RFA procedural effective dose. Radiation-induced cancer risks were generated using an organ-specific approach. Effects of varying model parameters and of dose-reduction strategies were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS. Cumulative RFA exposures (up to 305.2 mSv for one session plus surveillance) exceeded those from surgery (up to 87.2 mSv). In 65-year-old men, excess LE loss from radiation-induced cancers, comparing RFA to surgery, was 11.7 days (14.6 days for RFA vs 2.9 days for surgery). Results varied with sex and age; this difference increased to 14.6 days in 65-year-old women and to 21.5 days in 55-year-old men. Dose-reduction strategies that addressed follow-up rather than procedural exposure had a greater impact. In 65-year-old men, this difference decreased to 3.8 days if post-RFA follow-up scans were restricted to a single phase; even elimination of RFA procedural exposure could not achieve equivalent benefits. CONCLUSION. CT-guided RFA remains a safe alternative to surgery, but with decreasing age, the higher burden of radiation exposure merits explicit consideration. Dose-reduction strategies that target follow-up rather than procedural exposure will have a greater impact.

  7. Aggressive operative neurosurgical management in patients with extra-axial mass lesion and Glasgow Coma Scale of 3 is associated with survival benefit: A propensity matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Salottolo, Kristin; Carrick, Matthew; Levy, A Stewart; Morgan, Brent C; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta S; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 is poor, raising concern regarding the utility of aggressive operative neurosurgical management. Our purpose was to describe outcomes in a propensity matched population with TBI and GCS3 treated with operative neurosurgical procedures of craniotomy or craniectomy (CRANI). We conducted a five-year, multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with an ED GCS 3 and a positive head CT identified by ICD-9CM diagnosis codes. Two populations were examined: (1) patients with extra-axial mass lesion (subdural or epidural haematoma), (2) patients without mass lesion (subarachnoid and intraparenchymal haemorrhage including contusion, other intracerebral haemorrhage or intracranial injury including diffuse axonal injury). In patients with extra-axial mass lesion, propensity score techniques were used to match patients 1:1 by CRANI, and the following outcomes were analysed with conditional logistic regression: survival, favourable hospital disposition to home or rehabilitation, and development of complications. There were 541 patients with TBI and GCS3; 19% had a CRANI, 83% were initiated within 4h. In those with mass lesion, 27% (91/338) had a CRANI; after matching, a significant survival benefit was observed with CRANI vs. without CRANI (65% vs. 34% survival, OR: 3.9 (1.6-10.5) p<0.001). There was borderline increased odds of favourable disposition (43% vs. 26%, OR: 2.4 (0.99-6.3, p=0.052) with CRANI vs. without CRANI, and no difference in developing a complication (58% vs. 48%, OR: 1.5 (0.7-3.4), p=0.30). Survival was achieved in 65% of patients that underwent surgical intervention for subdural and epidural haematoma, despite a presenting GCS of 3. These results demonstrate prompt operative neurosurgical management of mass lesion is warranted for selected patients with a GCS of 3, contributing to a significant 4-fold survival benefit. In the absence of mass lesion the effect

  8. Commentary on "Radiofrequency ablation of incidental benign small renal mass: outcomes and follow-up protocol." Tan YK, Best SL, Olweny E, Park S, Trimmer C, Cadeddu JA, Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, TX.

    PubMed

    Meng, Maxwell V

    2013-01-01

    To review our 10-year experience with radiofrequency ablation, focusing on the outcomes for the incidental benign renal tumor. Tumor ablation is an alternative, minimally invasive approach for the treatment of small renal masses (SRMs), with published series appropriately emphasizing the outcomes for the renal cell carcinoma subset of treated tumors. However, similar to partial nephrectomy, approximately 20% of the SRMs are benign. The intermediate to long-term outcome of the incidentally ablated benign tumor and its appropriate follow-up protocol are unknown. All SRMs treated with temperature-based radiofrequency ablation from 2001 to 2011 were reviewed. Of a total of 280 enhancing SRMs biopsied at radiofrequency ablation, 47 were confirmed as benign tumors. Ablation success was defined as the lack of enhancement on the initial postablation axial imaging. Recurrence was defined as tumor growth and enhancement on follow-up axial imaging. Of the 47 benign tumors, 32 were treated percutaneously and 15 laparoscopically. The histologic biopsy finding was angiomyolipoma in 10 and oncocytoma in 37. The median tumor size was 2cm (range 1-3.6), and the mean follow-up was 45 months. No recurrences developed, and all lesions required only 1 treatment session. The median preoperative and postoperative glomerular filtration rate was 77ml/min/1.73m(2) (range 39-137) and 68ml/min/1.73m(2) (range 36-137). The present study was limited by its retrospective nature and small sample population. Radiofrequency ablation of SRMs<3.5cm, found to be benign on concurrent biopsy, can be efficaciously treated with a single treatment session. Long-term follow-up imaging might not be required if successful ablation is determined at the initial post-treatment cross-sectional imaging study. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Collaborative Review of Risk Benefit Trade-offs Between Partial and Radical Nephrectomy in the Management of Anatomically Complex Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Simon P; Campbell, Steven C; Gill, Inderbir; Lane, Brian R; Van Poppel, Hein; Smaldone, Marc C; Volpe, Alessandro; Kutikov, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    While partial nephrectomy (PN) is the recommended treatment for many small renal masses, anatomically complex tumors necessitate a clear understanding of the potential risks and benefits of PN and radical nephrectomy (RN). To critically review the comparative effectiveness evidence of PN versus RN; to describe key trade-offs involved in this treatment decision; and to highlight gaps in the current literature. A collaborative critical review of the medical literature was conducted. Patients who undergo PN for an anatomically complex or large mass may be exposed to perioperative and potential oncologic risks that could be avoided if RN were performed, while patients who undergo RN may forgo long-term benefits of renal preservation. Decision-making regarding the optimal treatment with PN or RN among patients with anatomically complex or large renal mass is highly nuanced and must balance the risks and benefits of each approach. Currently, high-quality evidence on comparative effectiveness is sparse. Retrospective comparisons are plagued by selection biases, while the one existing prospective randomized trial, albeit imperfect, suggests that nephron-sparing surgery may not benefit all patients. For anatomically complex tumors, PN preserves renal parenchyma but may expose patients to higher perioperative risks than RN. The risks and benefits of each surgical approach must be better objectified for identification of patients most suitable for complex PN. A prospective randomized trial is warranted and would help in directing patient counseling. Treatment decisions for complex renal masses require shared decision-making regarding the risk trade-offs between partial and radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass-like lesions as a rare form of neuro-Behçet's disease: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Nazife Şule Yasar; Şaylısoy, Suzan; Kaşifoglu, Timuçin; Korkmaz, Cengiz

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral mass-like lesion (MLL) is a rare form of Neuro-Behçet's (NB) disease. There is currently no detailed knowledge on this issue in the literature. Our aim was to describe a Behçet's disease (BD) patient with MLL, followed by a clinical analysis in light of the available literature regarding BD patients who suffered from an MLL or tumefactive lesion in the brain. We conducted a review of the English literature to analyse data on MLL in BD. The Pub-Med, Web of Science, Proquest and Ovid databases were searched for articles or abstracts using the term "Behçet's disease" combined with one of the following terms: mass-like lesion, tumour-like lesion and tumefactive lesion. We compared clinical and laboratory features of BD patients with MLL with NB patients. We found 12 cases plus our case (6 male, 7 female; mean age: 40 years) with BD who developed MLL alongside BD. Five out of 13 BD patients (38%) had a history of BD before the onset of neurological symptoms. In 8 patients (62%), BD was diagnosed after the onset of neurological involvement. Headache, hemiparesis, dizziness, aphasia, nausea and vomiting were the presenting manifestations of NB patients with MLL. Genital ulceration, eye involvement, skin lesion and arthritis/arthralgia were less commonly reported in NB patients with MLL compared to NB patients without MLL. NB disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral MLL even when other cardinal manifestations of BD are absent. Mucocutaneous manifestations, eye and joint involvement may be seen less often in these patients.

  11. [Longitudinal study of weight and body mass index after renal transplantation during 5 years of evolution].

    PubMed

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernandez Gallegos, Ruth; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael Jose; Peña Amaro, María Pilar

    2014-08-01

    Gain weight after transplantation is relatively common, also tends to be multifactorial and can be influenced by glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive medications, delayed graft function and cause serious health complications. Assess changes in weight, degree of obesity and body mass index as well as the effect of immunosuppressive treatment over these 5 years after kidney transplantation. The samples were 119 kidney transplant recipients, 70 men and 49 women, that attended the query post for five years. All patients were measured Pretransplant and post (from 1st year to the 5th year) weight, height and body mass index calculated by the formula weight/size2 relating it to immunosuppressive treatment taking. There is a considerable increase of body mass index, weight and degree of obesity in the first year after transplantation to increase more slowly in the next four years. The type of immunosuppressive treatment influence the weight and degree of obesity that occurs in this period of time. A high prevalence there are overweight and obesity after the transplant especially during the first year. A year patients earn an average of 6.6 kg in weight and an average of 2.5 kg/m2 in their BMI. During treatment should minimize doses of steroids and include dietary treatment and adequate physical exercise. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning. False-negative study in a renal abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Bedi, D.G.; Fawcett, H.D.; Winsett, M.Z.; Fagan, C.J.

    1986-04-01

    A 33-year-old man had clinical features of a right renal abscess. Results of excretory urography and ultrasonography showed a focal complex mass lesion in the right kidney. An In-111 leukocyte scan failed to detect the right renal abscess, which later was aspirated under CT guidance and explored surgically. The role of In-111 leukocyte imaging in the detection of intra-abdominal abscesses, with limitations of the procedure, is discussed.

  13. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler US in the diagnosis of renal pseudotumors.

    PubMed

    Ascenti, G; Zimbaro, G; Mazziotti, S; Gaeta, M; Lamberto, S; Scribano, E

    2001-01-01

    The term "pseudotumor" is used to refer to several anatomic variants that can simulate a renal mass, the most frequent of which are hypertrophied column of Bertin, persistence of fetal lobation, and the dromedary or splenic hump. We describe the findings of power Doppler US after the ultrasound contrast agent (Levovist, Schering, Berlin, Germany) administration in 4 patients with a renal focal lesion in whom gray-scale and baseline power Doppler US was not able to certainly differentiate pseudotumor from neoplasm.

  14. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1–2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50–60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion’s pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  15. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Cervera, Ricard

    2014-02-01

    Renal involvement can be a serious problem for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, this complication has been poorly recognized and studied. It can be present in patients who have either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus-associated APS. Clinical and laboratory features of renal involvement in APS include hypertension, hematuria, acute renal failure, and progressive chronic renal insufficiency with mild levels of proteinuria that can progress to nephrotic-range proteinuria. The main lesions are renal artery stenosis, venous renal thrombosis, and glomerular lesions (APS nephropathy) that may be acute (thrombotic microangiopathy) and/or chronic (arteriosclerosis, arterial fibrous intimal hyperplasia, tubular thyroidization, arteriolar occlusions, and focal cortical atrophy). APS can also cause end-stage renal disease and allograft vascular thrombosis. This article reviews the range of renal abnormalities associated with APS, and their diagnosis and treatment options.

  16. Primary renal carcinoid tumor: A radiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Leslie; Shaban, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor is the classic famous anonym of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Primary renal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare, first described by Resnick and colleagues in 1966, with fewer than a total of 100 cases reported in the literature. Thus, given the paucity of cases, the clinical and histological behavior is not well understood, impairing the ability to predict prognosis. Computed tomography and (occasionally) octreotide studies are used in the diagnosis and followup of these rare entites. A review of 85 cases in the literature shows that no distinctive imaging features differentiate them from other primary renal masses. The lesions tend to demonstrate a hypodense appearance and do not usually enhance in the arterial phases, but can occasionally calcify. Octreotide scans do not seem to help in the diagnosis; however, they are more commonly used in the postoperative followup. In addition, we report a new case of primary renal carcinoid in a horseshoe kidney. PMID:27186242

  17. Primary renal teratoma: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Teratomas are neoplasms that arise from pluripotent cells and can differentiate along one or more embryonic germ lines. Renal teratoma is an exceedingly rare condition. Teratomas commonly arise in the gonads, sacrococcygeal region, pineal gland, and retroperitoneum. They present mainly as an abdominal mass with few other symptoms. Majority of the tumors are benign, situated on the left side and para renal, occasional lesions are bilateral. If diagnosed early, they are amenable to curative excision. Renal teratomas are rare and most have been dismissed as cases of teratoid nephroblastomas or retroperitoneal teratomas secondarily invading the kidney. The differentiation between these two neoplasms in the kidney is often problematic. We present a case of intrarenal immature teratoma in a six-month-old baby girl. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1746249869599954. PMID:23800134

  18. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  19. Morphologic features of 211 adrenal masses at initial contrast-enhanced CT: can we differentiate benign from malignant lesions using imaging features alone?

    PubMed

    Song, Julie H; Grand, David J; Beland, Michael D; Chang, Kevin J; Machan, Jason T; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2013-12-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether morphologic features of adrenal masses detected at initial contrast-enhanced MDCT can differentiate benign from malignant disease. Two hundred eleven adrenal masses (1-4 cm) detected during standard contrast-enhanced MDCT with a proven final diagnosis were retrospectively identified in 188 patients through a computer search of CT, PET/CT, and pathology reports. Three authors blinded to the diagnoses independently reviewed the contrast-enhanced MDCT images of the adrenal masses and evaluated their morphologic features: lesion margin (smooth, lobulated, or irregular), density (homogeneous or heterogeneous), and additional features of central low density and enhancing rim. Using these criteria, the readers categorized each mass as probably benign, indeterminate, or suspicious. There were 171 (81%) benign and 40 (19%) malignant adrenal masses. All malignant masses were metastases diagnosed in patients with known extraadrenal malignancy. For individual morphologic features in diagnosing malignancy, irregular margins had 30-33% sensitivity and 95-96% specificity and an enhancing rim had 5-13% sensitivity and 98-99% specificity. None of the imaging features was reliable in predicting benignity. When an adrenal mass was deemed suspicious by a reader, the sensitivities for malignancy ranged from 54% to 74% and specificities from 96% to 97%. Notably, no malignant lesions occurred in patients without a known history of cancer. At routine contrast-enhanced MDCT, adrenal masses with irregular margins or a thick enhancing rim are likely to be malignant. Smooth margins and homogeneous density can be seen in both benign and malignant adrenal masses and are insufficient for characterization.

  20. Revealing a Pre-neoplastic Renal Tubular Lesion by p-S6 Protein Immunohistochemistry after Rat Exposure to Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gruia, Alexandra; Gazinska, Patrycja; Herman, Diana; Ordodi, Valentin; Tatu, Calin

    2015-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) has, in the last decade, become widely promoted as the cause of the Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated renal or urothelial tumours, although without substantial focal evidence of the quantitative dietary exposure via bread in specific households in hyperendemic villages. Occasional ethnobotanical use of Aristolochia clematitis might be a source of AA, and Pliocene lignite contamination of well-water is also a putative health risk factor. The aim of this study was two-fold: to verify if extracts of A. clematitis and Pliocene, or AA by itself, could induce the development of renal or urothelial tumours, and to test the utility of the ribosomal protein p-S6 to identify preneoplastic transformation. Rats were given extracts of A. clematitis in drinking water or AA I, by gavage. After seven months, renal morphology was studied using conventional haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry for ribosomal p-S6 protein. Plant extracts (cumulative AA approximately 1.8 g/kg b.w.) were tolerated and caused no gross pathology or renal histopathological change, with only faint diffuse p-S6 protein (except in the papilla) as in controls. Cumulative AA I (150 mg/kg b.w. given over 3 days) was also tolerated for seven months by all recipients, without gross pathology or kidney tumours. However, p-S6 protein over-expression was consistent particularly within the renal papilla. In one case given AA I, intense p-S6 protein staining of a proximal tubule fragment crucially matched the pre-neoplastic histology in an adjacent kidney section. We briefly discuss these findings, which compound uncertainty concerning the cause of the renal or upper urinary tract tumours of the Balkan endemic nephropathy. PMID:28326270

  1. MR angiography versus color Doppler sonography in the evaluation of renal vessels and the inferior vena cava in abdominal masses of pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Pfluger, T; Czekalla, R; Hundt, C; Schubert, M; Graubner, U; Leinsinger, G; Scheck, R; Hahn, K

    1999-07-01

    Involvement of renal vessels and the inferior vena cava (IVC) plays a decisive role during operative planning for removal of abdominal masses in pediatric patients. Advantages and limitations of MR angiography and color Doppler sonography for determining these factors were evaluated. MR angiography and color Doppler sonography were performed preoperatively in 42 neonates, infants, and children with abdominal masses and were compared with spin-echo MR imaging and with surgical findings. Variables evaluated were anatomic variants, vessel displacement, patency of vessels, collateral circulation, and intravascular tumor extension. Quality of vessel visualization was assessed in vessels not affected by tumor. In 88% of unaffected renal vessels, the entire vessel course could be visualized on MR angiography compared with 58% on color Doppler sonography and 43% on spin-echo MR imaging. In four of nine cases, color Doppler sonography revealed an accessory renal artery, whereas MR angiography revealed these variants in seven of nine cases. MR angiography showed 79% and color Doppler sonography 66% of displaced vessels. Unlike MR angiography, color Doppler sonography did not reveal five stenotic renal veins because they could not be completely imaged. In two cases, however, MR angiography falsely indicated an occlusion of the IVC, whereas color Doppler sonography showed residual flow. Anatomic variants, vessel displacement, collateral circulation, and neoplastic vessel infiltration were revealed more accurately by MR angiography than by color Doppler sonography. In cases in which patency of the IVC is unclear on MR angiography, color Doppler sonography should also be performed.

  2. Body mass index is inversely associated with mortality in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoungnae; Kim, Joohwan; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Jung, Su-Young; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Chang, Tae Ik; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2017-01-01

    Background Many epidemiologic studies have reported on the controversial concept of the obesity paradox. The presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) can accelerate energy-consuming processes, particularly in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Thus, we aimed to investigate whether obesity can provide a survival benefit in this highly catabolic condition. Methods We conducted an observational study in 212 patients who had undergone CRRT owing to various causes of AKI between 2010 and 2014. The study end point was defined as death that occurred within 30 days after the initiation of CRRT. Results Patients were categorized into three groups according to tertiles of body mass index (BMI). During ≥30 days after the initiation of CRRT, 39 patients (57.4%) in the highest tertile died, as compared with 58 patients (78.4%) in the lowest tertile (P = 0.02). In a multivariable analysis adjusted for cofounding factors, the highest tertile of BMI was significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–0.87; P = 0.01). This significant association remained unaltered for 60-day (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94; P = 0.03) and 90-day mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44–0.97; P = 0.03). Conclusion This study showed that a higher BMI confer a survival benefit over a lower BMI in AKI patients undergoing CRRT. PMID:28392996

  3. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Johannes; Maas, Renke; Arend, Michaela; Cordasic, Nada; Hilgers, Karl F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1), on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39) and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27) with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction) ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11) served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in this mouse model. PMID:24690995

  4. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  5. Small renal masses: The molecular markers associated with outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirina, L. V.; Usynin, Y. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Yurmazov, Z. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Pikalova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of molecular mechanisms of tumor cell behavior in small renal masses is required to achieve the better cancer survival. The aim of the study is to find molecular markers associated with outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less. A homogenous group of 20 patients T1N0M0-1 (mean age 57.6 ± 2.2 years) with kidney cancer was selected for the present analysis. The content of transcription and growth factors was determined by ELISA. The levels of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway components were measured by Western blotting analysis. The molecular markers associated with unfavorable outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less were high levels of NF-kB p50, NF-kB p65, HIF-1, HIF-2, VEGF and CAIX. AKT activation with PTEN loss also correlated with the unfavorable outcome of kidney cancer patients with tumor size 7 cm or less. It is observed that the biological features of kidney cancer could predict the outcome of patients.

  6. Body mass index and risk of renal cell cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of published cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Furan; Xu, Yinghua

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is accepted as one of the major risk factors for renal cell cancer (RCC). However, conflicting results persist for the pooled risks based on the results from case-control and cohort studies combined, and the exact shape of the dose-response relationship has not been clearly defined yet. To help elucidate the role of obesity, PubMed and Embase databases were searched for published cohort studies on associations between body mass index (BMI) and risk of RCC. Random-effects models and dose-response meta-analyses were used to pool study results. Subgroup analyses were conducted by the available characteristics of studies and participants. Cohort studies (21) with 15,144 cases and 9,080,052 participants were identified. Compared to normal weight, the pooled relative risks and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of RCC were 1.28(1.24-1.33) for preobesity and 1.77(1.68-1.87) for obesity, respectively. A nonlinear dose-response relationship was also found for RCC risk with BMI (p = 0.000), and the risk increased by 4% for each 1 kg/m(2) increment in BMI. There was no significant between-study heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 35.6% for preobesity and I(2) = 44.2% for obesity, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed a basically consistent result with the overall analysis. These results suggest that increased BMI are associated with increased risk of RCC both for men and women. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Impact of body mass index on graft loss in normal and overweight patients: retrospective analysis of 206 renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Teresa; Greco, Rosita; Lofaro, Danilo; Maestripieri, Simona; Mancuso, Domenico; Bonofiglio, Renzo

    2010-01-01

    Excess body mass is increasingly prevalent in transplant recipients. Currently, most investigators consider body mass index (BMI) a categorical variable, which assumes that all risk factors and transplant outcomes will be similar in all patients within the same category. We investigated the effect of categorical and continuous BMI increments on renal transplant outcome in normal weight (NW: BMI 18.5-24.9) and overweight (OW: BMI 25-30) patients. We retrospectively studied 206 patients. The mean BMI of our population was 24.3 ± 2.83 kg/m(2) . Patients of each group were similar regarding age, gender, time on dialysis, donor type, cold ischemia time, and number of HLA mismatches. The independent association of BMI with survival was determined using Cox multivariate regression. OW patients showed a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. In patients with graft loss, there was a higher incidence of delayed graft function, chronic allograft nephropathy, acute rejection, and hypertension. Graft survival was significantly lower in OW patients compared to NW patients upon Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.008). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, the initial BMI, evaluated as a continuous variable, remained an independent predictor of graft loss (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.47). However, with patient stratification into World Health Organization BMI category and, further, into quartiles of initial BMI, no significant correlation between BMI category and graft loss was found. We suggest that increasing BMI value, although without categorical variation, may represent an independent risk factor for graft loss. Our retrospective analysis of a small sample population will require further studies to confirm these data. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Renal Carcinoid Tumor Metastatic to the Uvea, Medial Rectus Muscle, and the Contralateral Lacrimal Gland.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Uzun, Salih; Tarlan, Berçin; Ateş, Deniz; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Söylemezoğlu, Figen

    2015-01-01

    Renal carcinoid tumor is an exceedingly rare malignancy. A 57-year-old man with a renal carcinoid tumor discovered after metastasizing to intraocular and bilateral orbital structures is described. The patient presented with a blind painful OS and a right superotemporal subconjunctival mass. Imaging studies revealed a large left intraocular tumor, a mass in the left medial rectus muscle, and right lacrimal gland enlargement. The OS was enucleated, and incisional biopsies were performed from the other 2 lesions. Histopathological studies demonstrated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor with chromogranin and synaptophysin positivity. Systemic work up revealed a right renal mass and multiple hepatic metastatic lesions. Radical nephrectomy was performed, and octreotide, capecitabine, and temozolomide were administered. Removal of the primary tumor and the eye that had no prospect for useful vision and further treatment with octreotide, capecitabine, and temozolomide provided a disease progression-free period of 24 months and allowed the patient to function normally.

  9. Delayed mTOR Inhibition with Low Dose of Everolimus Reduces TGFβ Expression, Attenuates Proteinuria and Renal Damage in the Renal Mass Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Kurdián, Melania; Herrero-Fresneda, Inmaculada; Lloberas, Nuria; Gimenez-Bonafe, Pepita; Coria, Virginia; Grande, María T.; Boggia, José; Malacrida, Leonel; Torras, Joan; Arévalo, Miguel A.; González-Martínez, Francisco; López-Novoa, José M.; Grinyó, Josep; Noboa, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are widely used in solid organ transplantation, but their effect on kidney disease progression is controversial. mTOR has emerged as one of the main pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed inhibition of mTOR pathway with low dose of everolimus on progression of renal disease and TGFβ expression in the 5/6 nephrectomy model in Wistar rats. Methods This study evaluated the effects of everolimus (0.3 mg/k/day) introduced 15 days after surgical procedure on renal function, proteinuria, renal histology and mechanisms of fibrosis and proliferation. Results Everolimus treated group (EveG) showed significantly less proteinuria and albuminuria, less glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis, fibroblast activation cell proliferation, when compared with control group (CG), even though the EveG remained with high blood pressure. Treatment with everolimus also diminished glomerular hypertrophy. Everolimus effectively inhibited the increase of mTOR developed in 5/6 nephrectomy animals, without changes in AKT mRNA or protein abundance, but with an increase in the pAKT/AKT ratio. Associated with this inhibition, everolimus blunted the increased expression of TGFβ observed in the remnant kidney model. Conclusion Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus significantly prevented progressive renal damage and protected the remnant kidney. mTOR and TGFβ mRNA reduction can partially explain this anti fibrotic effect. mTOR can be a new target to attenuate the progression of chronic kidney disease even in those nephropathies of non-immunologic origin. PMID:22427849

  10. The relative contribution of magnetic resonance imaging to the assessment and differential diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Worthington, B S; Mawhinney, R R; Holland, I M; Lowe, J; Punt, J; Bydder, G; Young, I R

    1986-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with a space occupying lesion in the cerebellopontine angle cistern were examined by computed tomography (CT), magnetic imaging (MRI) and, where appropriate, conventional neuroradiologic techniques. The presence of an intracanalicular extension and a high signal on T2 weighted sequences were typical of acoustic neuroma and allowed separation from meningioma. Contrast enhancement with gadolinium DTPA was particularly valuable in recurrent acoustic neuroma. Typically epidermoids had long T1 and T2 values. Sequences which highlight flow allow vascular lesions to be identified without the use of contrast media. In separating the several pathologies MRI was superior to CT and also gave information on tissue composition in acoustic neuroma.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma presenting with Melena from direct invasion into the duodenum: a case report and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Street, Ryan; Brady, Jordan; Slobodav, Gennady

    2013-12-01

    Today the classic triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable abdominal mass is rarely present at initial diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma due to the growing number of cases diagnosed incidentally on imaging studies. We report a case of a 58-year-old female who presented with melena where a subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated a bleeding duodenal lesion. Pathologic study of a biopsy revealed Clear Cell RCC and an ensuing abdominal CT revealed the direct duodenal invasion of a primary renal mass. We also provide a brief review of nephrectomy in the face of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  12. The usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis scheme for improving the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions on breast ultrasonographic images.

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, Mai; Nakayama, Ryohei; Okanami, Yuko; Kashikura, Yumi; Imai, Nao; Nakamura, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroko; Yamashita, Masako; Hanamura, Noriko; Ogawa, Tomoko

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for improving the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions appearing as hypoechoic areas on breast ultrasonographic images. The database included 97 ultrasonographic images with hypoechoic areas: 48 benign cases [benign lesion with benign mammary tissue or fibrocystic disease (n = 20), fibroadenoma (n = 11), and intraductal papilloma (n = 17)] and 49 malignant cases [ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 17) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 32)]. Seven clinicians, three expert breast surgeons, and four general surgeons participated in the observer study. They were asked their confidence level concerning the possibility of malignancy in all 97 cases with and without the use of the CAD scheme. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the CAD scheme. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) improved for all observers when they used the CAD scheme and increased from 0.649 to 0.783 (P = 0.0167). Notably, the AUC for the general surgeon group increased from 0.625 to 0.793 (P = 0.045). This study showed that the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions appearing as hypoechoic areas on breast ultrasonographic images was improved by the use of a CAD scheme.

  13. Mass spectrometry imaging of levofloxacin distribution in TB-infected pulmonary lesions by MALDI-MSI and continuous liquid microjunction surface sampling.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Brendan; ElNaggar, Mariam S; Zimmerman, Matthew; Wiseman, Justin M; Li, Xiaohua; Dartois, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    A multi-modal mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and profiling approach has been applied to assess the partitioning of the anti-TB fluoroquinolone levofloxacin into pulmonary lesions. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and a commercial liquid microjunction surface sampling technology (LMJ-SSP), or flowprobe, have been used to both spatially profile and image drug distributions in lung tissue sections from TB-infected rabbits following oral administration of a single human-equivalent dose. Levofloxacin levels were highest at 6 h post-dose in normal lung, cellular granuloma, and necrotic caseum compartments. The drug accumulated in the cellular granuloma regions with lower amounts partitioning into central caseous compartments. Flowprobe imaging at 630 μm (limited by the probe tip diameter) enabled visualization of drug distribution into lesion compartments, including limited differentiation of relative drug abundance in cellular versus caseous regions of the lesions. MALDI-MSI analysis at 75 μm provided more detailed drug distribution, which clearly accumulated in the cellular region immediately surrounding the central caseum core. Imaging and profiling data acquired by flowprobe and MALDI-MSI were validated by quantitative LC/MS/MS analysis of lung and granuloma homogenates taken from the same animals. The results of the investigation show flowprobe imaging and sampling as a rapid and sensitive alternative to MALDI-MSI for profiling drug distributions into tissues when spatial resolution of data below the threshold of the probe diameter is not required.

  14. A rapid and definitive diagnosis of kerosene dermatitis by an analysis of detached lesional epidermis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Yoshio; Hieda, Yoko; Morita, Eishin

    2005-08-01

    A 73-year-old woman, who suffered from erythema with bullae and pustules on her abdomen and anterior right thigh, visited our hospital without an awareness of the causative agents. The lesions appeared like first and second degree burns. The small amount of detached roof of bulla was sampled without skin biopsy before the ointment treatment. The sample was sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 1 min in n-pentane, and then 1 mul of the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The causative agent was determined to be kerosene. An examination of blood samples collected at the first visit failed to detect kerosene, though traces of trimethylbenzene were detected. A GC-MS analysis of the small sample of lesional epidermis was very useful to identify kerosene as a causative agent.

  15. Diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma intracerebral mass lesions. Usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and /sup 67/Ga citrate brain scans

    SciTech Connect

    Zidar, B.L.; Adatepe, M.; Hryschko, F.; Hartsock, R.J.; Kessler, L.; Lyons, T.A.

    1982-11-01

    This paper summarizes the clinical and diagnostic features of five reports of patients with intracerebral, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In three patients the brain lesion was the only evidence of lymphoma, while two patients also had concomitant systemic involvement. Four patients had diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and one had a mixed type of malignant lymphoma. In all patients, /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 67/Ga brain scans disclosed discrete areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with a mass. In each case, brain blood perfusion studies were normal and brain computerized tomographic (CT) scans and cerebral angiograms produced variable nondiagnostic patterns. Craniotomies in four patients provided histologic confirmation of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the areas of abnormality. The remaining patient had systemic histiocytic lymphoma with concomitant brain lesions that responded to irradiation. The combined use of the above noninvasive modalities in correlation with clinical findings may result in more accurate prebiopsy diagnoses of intracerebral lymphoma.

  16. What nephrolopathologists need to know about antiphospholipid syndrome-associated nephropathy: Is it time for formulating a classification for renal morphologic lesions?

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Muhammed; Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder which commonly affects kidneys. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. There is sufficient epidemiological, clinical and histopathological evidence to show that antiphospholipid syndrome is a distinctive lesion caused by antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with different forms of antiphospholipid syndrome. It is now time to devise a classification for an accurate diagnosis and prognostication of the disease. Now that the morphological lesions of APSN are sufficiently well characterized, it is prime time to devise a classification which is of diagnostic and prognostic utility in this disease.

  17. Increased body mass index is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease in the Chinese Singapore population.

    PubMed

    Lew, Quan-Lan Jasmine; Jafar, Tazeen Hasan; Talaei, Mohammad; Jin, Aizhen; Chow, Khuan Yew; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is confounded by co-morbidities associated with both conditions. Furthermore, the association at low range BMI is controversial. We studied this association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort that recruited Singaporean Chinese men and women 45-74 years of age from 1993 to 1998. Self-reported weight, height, lifestyle factors, usual diet, and medical history were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Incident ESRD cases were identified via record linkage with the nationwide ESRD registry. The computed Cox proportional hazard regression was adjusted for potential risk factors. After an average follow-up of 15.5 years, 827 incident ESRD cases were identified. Compared with a normal BMI of 18.5 to under 23 kg/m(2), the hazard ratios and (95% confidence intervals) of ESRD risk for BMIs under 18.5, 23 to under 27.5, and 27.5 kg/m(2) or more were 0.54 (0.37-0.79), 1.40 (1.20-1.64) and 2.13 (1.74-2.59), respectively. This significantly trended, linear, dose-dependent association was only present among those with no history of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke at baseline, but not significantly among those with any of these co-morbidities. Thus, BMI itself is a risk factor for ESRD in the general population and this association is present in those without pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving the performance of lesion-based computer-aided detection schemes of breast masses using a case-based adaptive cueing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maxine; Aghaei, Faranak; Wang, Yunzhi; Qian, Wei; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Current commercialized CAD schemes have high false-positive (FP) detection rates and also have high correlations in positive lesion detection with radiologists. Thus, we recently investigated a new approach to improve the efficacy of applying CAD to assist radiologists in reading and interpreting screening mammograms. Namely, we developed a new global feature based CAD approach/scheme that can cue the warning sign on the cases with high risk of being positive. In this study, we investigate the possibility of fusing global feature or case-based scores with the local or lesion-based CAD scores using an adaptive cueing method. We hypothesize that the information from the global feature extraction (features extracted from the whole breast regions) are different from and can provide supplementary information to the locally-extracted features (computed from the segmented lesion regions only). On a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) testing dataset with 785 cases (347 negative and 438 cancer cases with masses only), we ran our lesion-based and case-based CAD schemes "as is" on the whole dataset. To assess the supplementary information provided by the global features, we used an adaptive cueing method to adaptively adjust the original CAD-generated detection scores (Sorg) of a detected suspicious mass region based on the computed case-based score (Scase) of the case associated with this detected region. Using the adaptive cueing method, better sensitivity results were obtained at lower FP rates (<= 1 FP per image). Namely, increases of sensitivities (in the FROC curves) of up to 6.7% and 8.2% were obtained for the ROI and Case-based results, respectively.

  19. Comparison and Combination of Strain and Shear Wave Elastography of Breast Masses for Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Lesions by Quantitative Assessment: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mirinae; Ahn, Hye Shin; Park, Sung Hee; Lee, Jong Beum; Choi, Byung Ihn; Sohn, Yu-Mee; Shin, So Youn

    2017-07-08

    To compare the diagnostic performance of strain and shear wave elastography of breast masses for quantitative assessment in differentiating benign and malignant lesions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined strain and shear wave elastography. Between January and February 2016, 37 women with 45 breast masses underwent both strain and shear wave ultrasound (US) elastographic examinations. The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment on B-mode US imaging was assessed. We calculated strain ratios for strain elastography and the mean elasticity value and elasticity ratio of the lesion to fat for shear wave elastography. Diagnostic performances were compared by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The 37 women had a mean age of 47.4 years (range, 20-79 years). Of the 45 lesions, 20 were malignant, and 25 were benign. The AUCs for elasticity values on strain and shear wave elastography showed no significant differences (strain ratio, 0.929; mean elasticity, 0.898; and elasticity ratio, 0.868; P > .05). After selectively downgrading BI-RADS category 4a lesions based on strain and shear wave elastographic cutoffs, the AUCs for the combined sets of B-mode US and elastography were improved (B-mode + strain, 0.940; B-mode + shear wave; 0.964; and B-mode, 0.724; P < .001). Combined strain and shear wave elastography showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than each individual elastographic modality (P = .031). These preliminary results showed that strain and shear wave elastography had similar diagnostic performance. The addition of strain and shear wave elastography to B-mode US improved diagnostic performance. The combination of strain and shear wave elastography results in a higher diagnostic yield than each individual elastographic modality. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of mass-like lesion in breast MRI: differential analysis of the 3-D morphology between benign and malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Hao; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Wu, Tsung-Ju; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the value of using 3-D breast MRI morphologic features to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. The 3-D morphological features extracted from breast MRI were used to analyze the malignant likelihood of tumor from ninety-five solid breast masses (44 benign and 51 malignant) of 82 patients. Each mass-like lesion was examined with regards to three categories of morphologic features, including texture-based gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature, shape, and ellipsoid fitting features. For obtaining a robust combination of features from different categories, the biserial correlation coefficient (|r(pb)|)≧0.4 was used as the feature selection criterion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate performance and Student's t-test to verify the classification accuracy. The combination of the selected 3-D morphological features, including conventional compactness, radius, spiculation, surface ratio, volume covering ratio, number of inside angular regions, sum of number of inside and outside angular regions, showed an accuracy of 88.42% (84/95), sensitivity of 88.24% (45/51), and specificity of 88.64% (39/44), respectively. The AZ value was 0.8926 for these seven combined morphological features. In conclusion, 3-D MR morphological features specified by GLCM, tumor shape and ellipsoid fitting were useful for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses.

  1. Renal scintiscanning. A review

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Rhys

    1970-01-01

    Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447

  2. Prediction of complications after partial nephrectomy by RENAL nephrometry score

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, R; Parker, RA; Weston, J; Burgess, NA; Ho, ETS; Mills, RD; Rochester, MA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Discussing and planning the appropriate management for suspicious renal masses can be challenging. With the development of nephrometry scoring methods, we aimed to evaluate the ability of the RENAL nephrometry score to predict both the incidence of postoperative complications and the change in renal function after a partial nephrectomy. Methods This was a retrospective study including 128 consecutive patients who underwent a partial nephrectomy (open and laparoscopic) for renal lesions in a tertiary UK referral centre. Univariate and multivariate ordinal regression models were used to identify associations between Clavien–Dindo classification and explanatory variables. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient was used to examine an association between RENAL nephrometry score and a drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following surgery. Results An increase in the RENAL nephrometry score of one point resulted in greater odds of being in a higher Clavien–Dindo classification after controlling for RENAL suffix and type of surgical procedure (odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.64, p=0.043). Furthermore, a patient with the RENAL suffix ‘p’ (ie posterior location of tumour) had increased odds of developing more serious complications (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.07–6.30, p=0.042). A correlation was shown between RENAL nephrometry score and postoperative drop in eGFR (Kendall’s tau coefficient -0.24, p=0.004). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that has shown the predictive ability of the RENAL nephrometry scoring system in a UK cohort both in terms of postoperative complications and change in renal function. PMID:25198982

  3. PET/CT Helps Downgrade an Aggressive-Appearing Rib Mass to a Probable Benign Lesion in a 9-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Kimeya F; Yoo, Don C; Hart, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of a 9-year-old girl with no significant medical history who developed acute onset of shortness of breath and upper chest pain during cheerleading practice. Laboratory results and physical examination were unremarkable. Chest radiograph and chest CT showed an expansile lytic aggressive-appearing mass within the left sixth rib. Subsequent F-FDG PET/CT showed a left sixth rib lesion that was not hypermetabolic and appeared benign. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of enchondroma, a benign intramedullary tumor that accounts for 24% of all bone tumors in children as well as adolescents.

  4. Angiomyolipoma with hypertension mimicking a malignant renal tumor.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alexander M; Saxena, Amulya K; Willital, Günter H

    2002-09-01

    A 13-month-old girl with a unilateral renal angiomyolipoma causing severe hypertension is reported. The differential diagnosis of renal masses, a review of the literature, and the diagnostic algorithm for renal masses used at our center are presented.

  5. Usefulness of the ice-cream cone pattern in computed tomography for prediction of angiomyolipoma in patients with a small renal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Yun, Bu Hyeon; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, In Sang; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jin Woong

    2013-08-01

    A morphologic contour method for assessing an exophytic renal mass as benign versus malignant on the basis of the shape of the interface with the renal parenchyma was recently developed. We investigated the usefulness of this morphologic contour method for predicting angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for small renal masses (SRMs). From January 2004 to March 2013, among 197 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for suspicious renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the medical records of 153 patients with tumors (AML or RCC) ≤3 cm in diameter were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics including age, gender, type of surgery, size and location of tumor, pathologic results, and specific findings of the imaging study ("ice-cream cone" shape) were compared between the AML and RCC groups. AML was diagnosed in 18 patients and RCC was diagnosed in 135 patients. Gender (p=0.001), tumor size (p=0.032), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (p=0.001) showed statistically significant differences between the AML group and the RCC group. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR], 5.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 18.57; p=0.011), tumor size (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.92; p=0.034), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (OR, 18.12; 95% CI, 4.97 to 66.06; p=0.001) were predictors of AML. This study confirmed a high incidence of AML in females. Also, the ice-cream cone shape and small tumor size were significant predictors of AML in SRMs. These finding could be beneficial for counseling patients with SRMs.

  6. Usefulness of the Ice-Cream Cone Pattern in Computed Tomography for Prediction of Angiomyolipoma in Patients With a Small Renal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Yun, Bu Hyeon; Hwang, In Sang; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jin Woong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A morphologic contour method for assessing an exophytic renal mass as benign versus malignant on the basis of the shape of the interface with the renal parenchyma was recently developed. We investigated the usefulness of this morphologic contour method for predicting angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for small renal masses (SRMs). Materials and Methods From January 2004 to March 2013, among 197 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for suspicious renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the medical records of 153 patients with tumors (AML or RCC) ≤3 cm in diameter were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics including age, gender, type of surgery, size and location of tumor, pathologic results, and specific findings of the imaging study ("ice-cream cone" shape) were compared between the AML and RCC groups. Results AML was diagnosed in 18 patients and RCC was diagnosed in 135 patients. Gender (p=0.001), tumor size (p=0.032), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (p=0.001) showed statistically significant differences between the AML group and the RCC group. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR], 5.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 18.57; p=0.011), tumor size (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.92; p=0.034), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (OR, 18.12; 95% CI, 4.97 to 66.06; p=0.001) were predictors of AML. Conclusions This study confirmed a high incidence of AML in females. Also, the ice-cream cone shape and small tumor size were significant predictors of AML in SRMs. These finding could be beneficial for counseling patients with SRMs. PMID:23956824

  7. What nephrolopathologists need to know about antiphospholipid syndrome-associated nephropathy: Is it time for formulating a classification for renal morphologic lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Mubarak, Muhammed; Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder which commonly affects kidneys. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results: There is sufficient epidemiological, clinical and histopathological evidence to show that antiphospholipid syndrome is a distinctive lesion caused by antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with different forms of antiphospholipid syndrome. It is now time to devise a classification for an accurate diagnosis and prognostication of the disease. Conclusions: Now that the morphological lesions of APSN are sufficiently well characterized, it is prime time to devise a classification which is of diagnostic and prognostic utility in this disease. PMID:24644536

  8. Bioactivity of glomerular ultrafiltrate during heavy proteinuria may contribute to renal tubulo-interstitial lesions: evidence for a role for insulin-like growth factor I.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberg, R

    1996-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data have indicated that heavy proteinuria in renal glomerular diseases is associated with the formation of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and contributes to the progression of renal failure. Albumin in glomerular ultrafiltrate does not appear to cause this sequelae, rather than compounds that are associated with ultrafiltered plasma proteins. One such protein-bound factor could be insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The present studies show that in nephrotic rats, IGF-I is ultrafiltered in conjunction with IGF-binding protein-2 and is present in proximal tubular fluid at 1.35 nM. Proximal tubular fluid from nephrotic rats autophosphorylates IGF-I receptors in cultured proximal tubular cells. Nephrotic, but not control, rat proximal tubular fluid increases the [3H]thymidine incorporation in cultured tubular cells, and neutralizing IGF-I-receptor antibodies partially inhibit this activity. Incubation of cultured proximal tubular cells with an extract that was prepared from nephrotic rat urine increases the secretion of collagen types I and IV. Secretion of the two collagens is in part ameliorated by neutralizing IGF-I-receptor antibody. In concert, these findings suggest that the IGF-I present in nephrotic rat tubular fluid is bioactive and may contribute to the development of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis in chronic nephrotic glomerular diseases. PMID:8690782

  9. Anemia lessens and its prevention with recombinant human erythropoietin worsens glomerular injury and hypertension in rats with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, D L; Anderson, S; Rennke, H G; Brenner, B M

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal disease is frequently characterized by anemia, which may modify systemic and renal hemodynamics. In adult Munich-Wistar rats, the mild anemia (hematocrit, approximately equal to 42 vol/dl) that accompanies five-sixths nephrectomy was either made more severe (approximately equal to 30 vol/dl) by feeding a low iron diet or prevented (approximately equal to 50 vol/dl) by administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEpo). In functional studies performed 4 weeks after renal ablation, untreated rats exhibited mild anemia with systemic hypertension and elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate due to glomerular capillary hyperperfusion and hypertension. Preventing anemia with r-HuEpo worsened systemic and glomerular hypertension, effects largely obviated by induction of more marked anemia with the low iron diet. Untreated rats followed for 6 weeks postablation exhibited progressive proteinuria and sclerosis involving 12% of glomeruli, contrasted with 33% in rats given r-HuEpo. Even after 12 weeks, sclerosis involved only 6% of glomeruli in rats with more severe anemia but progressed to 30% in untreated rats. Thus, anemia limits systemic and glomerular hypertension and glomerular injury, whereas its prevention by r-HuEpo severely accelerates hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in this model. These results suggest that anemia is a hemodynamically favorable adaptation to chronic renal disease and that its overly vigorous correction may have adverse renal hemodynamic and structural consequences. PMID:3413082

  10. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma with egg-shell calcification mimicking a benign renal tumour: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenjie; Xu, Shunliang

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports the case of a 20-year-old female who was identified to have a left renal angiomyolipoma (AML) with hemorrhage. Following temporary conservative observation, the patient received continuous ultrasonic follow-up. Due to the rapid growth of the lesion, further examinations were performed. Computed tomography (CT) plain scans revealed a partly high-density mass with marginal egg-shell calcification. Enhanced CT revealed a solid tumor with a rich blood supply. Since no fats were detected, the possibility of a typical AML was excluded, but the diagnoses of epithelioid AML or renal cancer were considered. Finally, the left kidney was partially excised laparoscopically. The intraoperative frozen section indicated a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The left kidney was subsequently radically excised. Routine histopathological and immunohistochemical tests confirmed that the lesion was an RCC with an Xp11.2 translocation. The present study introduces the pitfalls in the diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation RCC, which is a rare RCC subtype accompanied with uncommon imaging manifestations. The study suggests that when a rapidly-growing AML is detected by ultrasound, renal cancer with marginal calcification should be considered. Moreover, although egg-shell calcification mostly occurs in benign renal lesions, further examinations, such as enhanced CT, are recommended for identifying the nature of the masses and excluding the possibility of malignant tumors.

  11. Short- and Mid-term Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Normal Renal Tissue: An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wendler, J. J. Porsch, M.; Huehne, S.; Baumunk, D.; Buhtz, P.; Fischbach, F.; Pech, M.; Mahnkopf, D.; Kropf, S.; Roessner, A.; Ricke, J.; Schostak, M.; Liehr, U.-B.

    2013-04-15

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel nonthermal tissue ablation technique by high current application leading to apoptosis without affecting extracellular matrix. Previous results of renal IRE shall be supplemented by functional MRI and differentiated histological analysis of renal parenchyma in a chronic treatment setting. Three swine were treated with two to three multifocal percutaneous IRE of the right kidney. MRI was performed before, 30 min (immediate-term), 7 days (short-term), and 28 days (mid-term) after IRE. A statistical analysis of the lesion surrounded renal parenchyma intensities was made to analyze functional differences depending on renal part, side and posttreatment time. Histological follow-up of cortex and medulla was performed after 28 days. A total of eight ablations were created. MRI showed no collateral damage of surrounded tissue. The highest visual contrast between lesions and normal parenchyma was obtained by T2-HR-SPIR-TSE-w sequence of DCE-MRI. Ablation zones showed inhomogeneous necroses with small perifocal edema in the short-term and sharp delimitable scars in the mid-term. MRI showed no significant differences between adjoined renal parenchyma around ablations and parenchyma of untreated kidney. Histological analysis demonstrated complete destruction of cortical glomeruli and tubules, while collecting ducts, renal calyxes, and pelvis of medulla were preserved. Adjoined kidney parenchyma around IRE lesions showed no qualitative differences to normal parenchyma of untreated kidney. This porcine IRE study reveals a multifocal renal ablation, while protecting surrounded renal parenchyma and collecting system over a mid-term period. That offers prevention of renal function ablating centrally located or multifocal renal masses.

  12. Bilateral Renal Lymphangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Vaidehi K; Shah, Maulin K; Gandhi, Shruti P; Patel, Himanshu V

    2016-09-01

    Renal Lymphangiectasia (RLM) is very rare benign lymphatic malformation. It can be misdiagnosed for other cystic renal masses, most commonly polycystic kidneys. Though incidentally found in most cases, it may be the cause for hypertension and renal failure in undiagnosed patients. Here, we report a case of an adult asymptomatic male with bilateral RLM which was detected as an incidental finding on ultrasound. Confirmation by CT-scan and laboratory diagnosis of aspirated fluid was done, and patient was managed conservatively.

  13. Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Pancreatic and Periampullary Lesions Using Combined Use of 1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Yarrow J.; Farshidfar, Farshad; Weljie, Aalim M.; Kopciuk, Karen A.; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G.; Sutherland, Francis R.; Vogel, Hans J.; Bathe, Oliver F.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that serum metabolomics can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign disease. However, in the clinic, non-pancreatic periampullary cancers are difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer. Therefore, to test the clinical utility of this technology, we determined whether any pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma could be distinguished from benign masses and biliary strictures. Sera from 157 patients with malignant and benign pancreatic and periampullary lesions were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multivariate projection modeling using SIMCA-P+ software in training datasets (n = 80) was used to generate the best models to differentiate disease states. Models were validated in test datasets (n = 77). The final 1H-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS metabolomic profiles consisted of 14 and 18 compounds, with AUROC values of 0.74 (SE 0.06) and 0.62 (SE 0.08), respectively. The combination of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS metabolites did not substantially improve this performance (AUROC 0.66, SE 0.08). In patients with adenocarcinoma, glutamate levels were consistently higher, while glutamine and alanine levels were consistently lower. Pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinomas can be distinguished from benign lesions. To further enhance the discriminatory power of metabolomics in this setting, it will be important to identify the metabolomic changes that characterize each of the subclasses of this heterogeneous group of cancers. PMID:28098776

  14. Intra-islet lesions and lobular variations in β-cell mass expansion in ob/ob mice revealed by 3D imaging of intact pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Saba; Kostromina, Elena; Nord, Christoffer; Eriksson, Maria; Lindström, Per; Ahlgren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The leptin deficient ob/ob mouse is a widely used model for studies on initial aspects of metabolic disturbances leading to type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance and obesity. Although it is generally accepted that ob/ob mice display a dramatic increase in β-cell mass to compensate for increased insulin demand, the spatial and quantitative dynamics of β-cell mass distribution in this model has not been assessed by modern optical 3D imaging techniques. We applied optical projection tomography and ultramicroscopy imaging to extract information about individual islet β-cell volumes throughout the volume of ob/ob pancreas between 4 and 52 weeks of age. Our data show that cystic lesions constitute a significant volume of the hyperplastic ob/ob islets. We propose that these lesions are formed by a mechanism involving extravasation of red blood cells/plasma due to increased islet vessel blood flow and vessel instability. Further, our data indicate that the primary lobular compartments of the ob/ob pancreas have different potentials for expanding their β-cell population. Unawareness of the characteristics of β-cell expansion in ob/ob mice presented in this report may significantly influence ex vivo and in vivo assessments of this model in studies of β-cell adaptation and function. PMID:27713548

  15. Renal dysplasia in Beagle dogs: four cases.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Marc C; Shoieb, Ahmed M; Shirai, Norimitsu; Boucher, Germaine G; Brodie, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Anomalies of renal development comprise abnormalities in the amount of renal tissue (agenesis and hypoplasia); anomalies of renal position, form, and orientation; and renal dysplasia. There are previous reports of canine renal dysplasia in different breeds but none in the Beagle breed. This is the first report of renal dysplasia in this breed of dog. Morphologic descriptions of the range of microscopic features observed in four cases of renal dysplasia from preclinical studies in laboratory Beagle dogs are presented (including persistent primitive mesenchyme, persistence of metanephric ducts, asynchronous differentiation of nephrons, and atypical tubular epithelium), along with a basis for the classification of the lesion.

  16. Atheroembolic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Ravani, Pietro

    2010-05-08

    Atheroembolic renal disease develops when atheromatous aortic plaques rupture, releasing cholesterol crystals into the small renal arteries. Embolisation often affects other organs, such as the skin, gastrointestinal system, and brain. Although the disease can develop spontaneously, it usually develops after vascular surgery, catheterisation, or anticoagulation. The systemic nature of atheroembolism makes diagnosis difficult. The classic triad of a precipitating event, acute or subacute renal failure, and skin lesions, are strongly suggestive of the disorder. Eosinophilia further supports the diagnosis, usually confirmed by biopsy of an affected organ or by the fundoscopic finding of cholesterol crystals in the retinal circulation. Renal and patient prognosis are poor. Treatment is mostly preventive, based on avoidance of further precipitating factors, and symptomatic, aimed to the optimum treatment of hypertension and cardiac and renal failure. Statins, which stabilise atherosclerotic plaques, should be offered to all patients. Steroids might have a role in acute or subacute progressive forms with systemic inflammation.

  17. Diagnostic Performance of CT for Diagnosis of Fat-Poor Angiomyolipoma in Patients With Renal Masses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sungmin; Suh, Chong Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2017-08-23

    The purpose of this article is to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of CT for diagnosis of fat-poor angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with renal masses. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched up to February 2, 2017. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used CT for diagnosis of fat-poor AML in patients with renal masses, using pathologic examination as the reference standard. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodologic quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity of included studies were calculated and were pooled and plotted in a hierarchic summary ROC plot. Sensitivity analyses using several clinically relevant covariates were performed to explore heterogeneity. Fifteen studies (2258 patients) were included. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48-0.81) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99), respectively. Substantial and considerable heterogeneity was present with regard to sensitivity and specificity (I(2) = 91.21% and 78.53%, respectively). At sensitivity analyses, the specificity estimates were comparable and consistently high across all subgroups (0.93-1.00), but sensitivity estimates showed significant variation (0.14-0.82). Studies using pixel distribution analysis (n = 3) showed substantially lower sensitivity estimates (0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.40) compared with the remaining 12 studies (0.81; 95% CI, 0.76-0.85). CT shows moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity for diagnosis of fat-poor AML in patients with renal masses. When methods other than pixel distribution analysis are used, better sensitivity can be achieved.

  18. Classification of breast mass lesions using model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve derived from fuzzy c-means clustering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chang, Pei-Kang; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the representative characteristic kinetic curve of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extracted by fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering for the discrimination of benign and malignant breast tumors using a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. About the research data set, DCE-MRIs of 132 solid breast masses with definite histopathologic diagnosis (63 benign and 69 malignant) were used in this study. At first, the tumor region was automatically segmented using the region growing method based on the integrated color map formed by the combination of kinetic and area under curve color map. Then, the FCM clustering was used to identify the time-signal curve with the larger initial enhancement inside the segmented region as the representative kinetic curve, and then the parameters of the Tofts pharmacokinetic model for the representative kinetic curve were compared with conventional curve analysis (maximal enhancement, time to peak, uptake rate and washout rate) for each mass. The results were analyzed with a receiver operating characteristic curve and Student's t test to evaluate the classification performance. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combined model-based parameters of the extracted kinetic curve from FCM clustering were 86.36% (114/132), 85.51% (59/69), 87.30% (55/63), 88.06% (59/67) and 84.62% (55/65), better than those from a conventional curve analysis. The A(Z) value was 0.9154 for Tofts model-based parametric features, better than that for conventional curve analysis (0.8673), for discriminating malignant and benign lesions. In conclusion, model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve of breast mass derived from FCM clustering provides effective lesion classification. This approach has potential in the development of a CAD system for DCE breast MRI.

  19. Nodular lesions and mesangiolysis in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takashi; Shimizu, Miho; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Furuichi, Kengo

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure all over the world. Advanced human diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the presence of specific lesions including nodular lesions, doughnut lesions, and exudative lesions. Thus far, animal models precisely mimicking advanced human diabetic nephropathy, especially nodular lesions, remain to be fully established. Animal models with spontaneous diabetic kidney diseases or with inducible kidney lesions may be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Based on pathological features, we previously reported that diabetic glomerular nodular-like lesions were formed during the reconstruction process of mesangiolysis. Recently, we established nodular-like lesions resembling those seen in advanced human diabetic nephropathy through vascular endothelial injury and mesangiolysis by administration of monocrotaline. Here, in this review, we discuss diabetic nodular lesions and its animal models resembling human diabetic kidney lesions, with our hypothesis that endothelial cell injury and mesangiolysis might be required for nodular lesions.

  20. National Trends in the Utilization of Partial Nephrectomy Before and After the Establishment of AUA guidelines for the Management of Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Walter, Dawn; Taksler, Glen B.; Huang, William C.; Wysock, James S.; Sivarajan, Ganesh; Loeb, Stacy; Taneja, Samir S.; Makarov, Danil V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the American Urological Association guidelines advocating partial nephrectomy for T1 tumors guidelines on the likelihood of undergoing partial nephrectomy. Materials and Methods We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a dataset encompassing 20% of all United States inpatient hospitalizations, from 2007 through 2010. Our dependent variable was receipt of radical vs. partial nephrectomy (55.50, 55.51, 55.52, and 55.54 vs. 55.4) for a renal mass (ICD-9 code 189.0). The independent variable of interest was time of surgery (before or after the establishment of AUA guidelines); covariates included a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), overall comorbidity, age, race, gender, geographic region, income, and hospital characteristics. Bivariate and multivariable adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the association between receipt of partial nephrectomy and time of guideline establishment. Results We identified 26,165 patients with renal tumors who underwent surgery. Prior to the guidelines, 4031 (27%) patients underwent partial nephrectomy compared to 3559 (32%) after. On multivariable analysis, undergoing surgery after the establishment of guidelines (OR 1.20 [95% Cl 1.08-1.32], p<0.01) was an independent predictor of partial nephrectomy. Other factors associated with partial nephrectomy were urban location, surgery at a teaching hospital, large hospital bed size, Northeast location, and Black race. Female gender and CKD were not associated with partial nephrectomy. Conclusions Although adoption of partial nephrectomy increased after establishment of new guidelines on renal masses, partial nephrectomy remains an underutilized procedure. Future research must focus on barriers to adoption of partial nephrectomy and how to overcome them. PMID:24295245

  1. Progressive glomerulosclerosis and renal failure following perinatal gamma radiation in the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenke, R.S.; Phemister, R.D.; Norrdin, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The renal effects of whole body irradiation in the perinatal period were studied in the dog. Ninety-three dogs received a single sublethal exposure in the range of 270 to 435 R in either late gestation (55 days postcoitus) or early postnatal life (2 days postpartum) and were sacrificed at 70 days, 2, or 4 years of age. Early renal lesions in 70-day-old irradiated dogs were characterized by arrested glomerular maturation and degeneration resulting in reduced functional renal mass. Mature glomeruli exhibited mesangial proliferation. At 2 and 4 years of age, surviving irradiated dogs exhibited sever renal disease associated with progressive glomerular damage which was characterized by mesangial proliferation and compression of capillary lumina, epithelial degeneration and focal capsular adhesions, and ultimately obliterative glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-one of the 93 irradiated dogs died in renal failure before 4 years of age with advanced glomerulosclerosis. The phatogenesis of this progressive renal lesion may be related to the interaction of three specific factors. These include (1) the effect of direct radiation damage to mature kidney components; (2) the loss of outer cortical nephrons resulting in increased work load of the surviving nephrons; and (3) the effect of compensatory hypertrophy related to the loss of renal parenchyma as the rapid growth rates associated with kidney maturation.

  2. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Decreased CK5 Levels in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinomas Compared to the Precursor Lesion Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Arentz, Georgia; Winderbaum, Lyron; Lokman, Noor A.; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Mittal, Parul; Carter, Christopher; Oehler, Martin K.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecological cancer worldwide. However, limited studies have been completed on the molecular characterization of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma resulting in a poor understanding of the disease initiation and progression. Analysis and early detection of the precursor lesion of HPV-independent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), is of great importance given dVIN lesions have a high level of malignant potential. Here we present an examination of adjacent normal vulvar epithelium, dVIN, and VSCC from six patients by peptide Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI). The results reveal the differential expression of multiple peptides from the protein cytokeratin 5 (CK5) across the three vulvar tissue types. The difference observed in the relative abundance of CK5 by MALDI-MSI between the healthy epithelium, dVIN, and VSCC was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue from eight VSCC patients. A decrease in CK5 immunostaining was observed in the VSCC compared to the healthy epithelium and dVIN. These results provide an insight into the molecular fingerprint of the vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia that appears to be more closely related to the healthy epithelium than the VSCC. PMID:27399691

  3. Relation of height, body mass, energy intake, and physical activity to risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-12-15

    Data from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were used to investigate the association between anthropometry, energy intake, and physical activity and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years who completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline (1986). A case-cohort approach was used. After 9.3 years of follow-up, 275 microscopically confirmed incident cases were available for analysis. Incidence rate ratios for RCC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Height was associated with RCC risk only in women (per 5-cm increment, rate ratio (RR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.46). Body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was associated with increased risk of RCC (per 1-kg/m(2 )increment, RR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12) for men and women, as was gain in body mass index from age 20 years to baseline (per 1-kg/m(2 )increment, RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10). Energy intake was not related to RCC risk, while a possible protective effect was observed for physical activity in men. These results suggest that body mass index and gain in body mass index since age 20 are associated with increased risk of RCC.

  4. Incidental Findings in Abdominal Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Correlation Between True Noncontrast and Virtual Noncontrast Images Considering Renal and Liver Cysts and Adrenal Masses.

    PubMed

    Slebocki, Karin; Kraus, Bastian; Chang, De-Hua; Hellmich, Martin; Maintz, David; Bangard, Christopher

    To assess correlation between attenuation measurements of incidental findings in abdominal second generation dual-energy computed tomography (CT) on true noncontrast (TNC) and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images. Sixty-three patients underwent arterial dual-energy CT (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens; pitch factor, 0.75-1.0; gantry rotation time, 0.28 seconds) after endovascular aneurysm repair, consisting of a TNC single energy CT scan (collimation, 128 × 0.6 mm; 120 kVp) and a dual-energy arterial phase scan (collimation, 32 × 0.6 mm, 140 and 100 kVp; blended, 120 kVp data set). Attenuation measurements in Hounsfield units (HU) of liver parenchyma and incidental findings like renal and hepatic cysts and adrenal masses on TNC and VNC images were done by drawing regions of interest. Statistical analysis was performed by paired t test and Pearson correlation. Incidental findings were detected in 56 (89%) patients. There was excellent correlation for both renal (n = 40) and hepatic cysts (n = 12) as well as adrenal masses (n = 6) with a Pearson correlation of 0.896, 0.800, and 0.945, respectively, and mean attenuation values on TNC and VNC images of 10.6 HU ± 12.8 versus 5.1 HU ± 17.5 (attenuation value range from -8.8 to 59.1 HU vs -11.8 to 73.4 HU), 6.4 HU ± 5.8 versus 6.3 HU ± 4.6 (attenuation value range from 2.0 to 16.2 HU vs -3.0 to 15.9 HU), and 12.8 HU ± 11.2 versus 12.4 HU ± 10.2 (attenuation value range from -2.3 to 27.5 HU vs -2.2 to 23.6 HU), respectively. As proof of principle, liver parenchyma measurements also showed excellent correlation between TNC and VNC (n = 40) images with a Pearson correlation of 0.839 and mean attenuation values on TNC and VNC images of 47.2 HU ± 10.5 versus 43.8 HU ± 8.7 (attenuation value range from 21.9 to 60.2 HU vs 4.5 to 65.3 HU). In conclusion, attenuation measurements of incidental findings like renal cysts or adrenal masses on TNC and VNC images derived from second generation dual-energy CT scans show excellent

  5. Icodextrin-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy effectively reduces left ventricular mass index and protects cardiac function in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Oba, Ikuko; Shinozaki, Michiya; Harada, Kenji; Mori, Takefumi; Kanai, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is commonly observed in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). The present study aimed to determine the effect of icodextrin (Ico) on LVMI in PD patients with maintained residual renal function (RRF). This retrospective study included 18 patients (12 men, 6 women; average age: 62 +/- 10 years) diagnosed with indications for PD therapy and divided into two groups: those treated with Ico (Ico group) and without Ico (non-Ico group). Echocardiography was performed at the beginning of continuous ambulatory PD and after 6 and 12 months. A significant reduction in LVMI (p < 0.01) and an increase in ultrafiltration (p < 0.01) were observed after 6 months of lco treatment and were maintained for 12 months. Ejection fraction was significantly lower in the non-Ico group after 12 months (p < 0.01), but was not altered in the Ico group. Blood pressure, cardiothoracic ratio, urine volume, and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide were unaffected by PD treatment up to 12 months. The year-averaged ultrafiltration and the reduction in LVMI were significantly correlated (p < 0.05). Ico effectively improved LVMI and maintained ejection fraction in end-stage renal disease patients within 1 year from PD initiation. Notably, treatment with Ico resulted in a reduction of LVMI (associated with increased ultrafiltration), with no significant reduction in RRF.

  6. Renal cell carcinoma survival and body mass index: a dose-response meta-analysis reveals another potential paradox within a paradox.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, M; Speakman, J R; Shemirani, F; Djafarian, K

    2016-12-01

    In healthy subjects increasing body mass index (BMI) leads to greater mortality from a range of causes. Following onset of specific diseases, however, the reverse is often found: called the 'obesity paradox'. But we recently observed the phenomenon called the 'paradox within the paradox' for stroke patients. The objective of our study was to examine the effect of each unit increase in BMI on renal cancer-specific survival (CSS), cancer-specific mortality, overall survival (OS) and overall mortality. Random-effects generalized least squares models for trend estimation were used to analyze the data. Eight studies, comprising of 8699 survivals of 10 512 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients met the inclusion criteria, including 5 on CSS and 3 on OS. The association of BMI with CSS and OS was non-linear (P<0.0001, P=0.004, respectively). We observed that CSS increased in relation to BMI, indicating that there was the obesity paradox in RCC. However, each unit increase in BMI over 25 was associated with decreased OS, indicating that RCC may also exhibit a paradox within the paradox. Inconsistent effects of increases in BMI on CSS and OS, as previously observed for stroke, creates a paradox (different directions of mortality for different causes) within the obesity paradox.

  7. How to manage hypertension with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis?

    PubMed

    Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Belmonte, Romain; Illuminati, Guilio; Barral, Xavier; Schneider, Fabrice; Chavent, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in patients with hypertension has been the topic of great controversy. Major contemporary clinical trials such as the Cardiovascular Outcomes for Renal Artery lesions (CORAL) and Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic lesions (ASTRAL) have failed to show significant benefit of revascularization over medical management in controlling blood pressure and preserving renal function. We present here the implications and limitations of these trials and formulate recommendations for management of ARAS.

  8. Impact of age, body mass index, insulin resistance and proteinuria on the kidney function in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Koch, M; Beien, A; Fusshã Ller, A; Zitta, S; Haastert, B; Trapp, R

    2008-01-01

    To date, several different equations to predict the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with renal insufficiency have been developed for different patients groups. Our aim was to determine the prognostic factors of GFR in our homogenous patient group of obese, water-loaded patients with Type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency, since we assumed that the endogenous creatinine clearance (ECC) alone may not be an accurate method to predict GFR. We recruited 46 obese patients (37 men) with Type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency in our nephrology center in Mettmann (Germany). However, two male patients were excluded from the analysis due to an outlying insulin level or low inulin clearance. The inulin clearance as a measure of renal function performed by the single shot method was compared with the GFR estimated by ECC, Cystatin C, and MDRD formula. Several multiple regression models were built to test the impact of the prognostic factors age, sex, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), body water (TBW), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and proteinuria on the inulin clearance. In the main regression model to predict the inulin clearance by ECC, only the statistically significant prognostic factors of these models were selected, as well as the interaction between GFR predicted by ECC (GFR_ECC) and BMI. The prognostic factors GFR_ECC, age, BMI, HOMA and proteinuria had a statistically significant impact on the inulin clearance (the gold standard of the GFR) in our patient population (p < 0.05). However, the interaction of GFR_ECC and BMI was not significant (p = 0.06) in our model. The model was validated and considered well-fitted with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.69. The independent prognostic factors to determine GFR in obese, water-loaded diabetic patients are GFR_ECC, age, BMI, HOMA and proteinuria. However, our model should be revalidated and tested in a larger sample size to probably

  9. Benefit of a second opinion for lung cancer: no metastasis to the kidney but a synchronous primary renal neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Ter Avest, Marleen J; Schook, Romane M; Koudstaal, Lyan G; Grünberg, Katrien; Paul, Marinus A; Smit, Egbert F; Postmus, Pieter E

    2014-01-01

    The finding of a renal mass on imaging is suggestive of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in the presence of a lung tumor but can also have another origin. We describe the case of a patient diagnosed with stage IV lung cancer based on a renal metastasis. A second opinion including review of histopathological data and additional imaging followed by lung surgery and cryoablation of the kidney lesion revealed two tumors of different origins, non-small cell lung cancer and a renal cell carcinoma. The presence of a renal mass diagnosed on a CT scan in a patient with lung cancer is not always synonymous with metastatic disease. Confirmation of diagnosis by tissue sampling is mandatory, especially if a synchronous primary tumor is possible.

  10. The impact of sex hormone changes on bone mineral deficit in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Doumouchtsis, Konstantinos K; Perrea, Despoina N; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K

    2009-01-01

    In chronic renal failure several factors affect bone homeostasis leading to the development of renal osteodystrophy. Common calcitropic hormone derangements in renal failure play a central role in bone structure and mineral defects, which in turn accompany osteodystrophy frequently resulting in low bone mineral density (BMD) values. However, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from several comorbidities, which may partly account for renal bone disease lesions. Hypogonadism in particular accompanies chronic renal failure frequently and exerts an additive effect on bone loss potential. Sex hormones contribute to the equilibrium of osteotropic hormones and cytokines, exerting a protective action on bone tissue. Estrogens have a regulatory effect on bone metabolism in women with renal failure as well. Hypogonadal ESRD women experience a higher bone turnover and more significant bone mass decrements than ESRD women with relatively normal hormone profile and menstrual habits. Female hemodialysis patients have lower BMD values than male patients on average, probably because of menstrual cycle irregularities. However, hypogonadal ESRD men may also experience bone mineral deficits and the severity of hypogonadism may correlate to their bone mineral status. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) appears to reverse bone mineral loss to some extent in both sexes. In conclusion hypogonadism in renal failure contributes to the bone structure and mineral defects as well as the low-energy fracture risk, reflected in BMD measurements. HRT in ESRD patients should therefore not be overlooked in these patients in the face of their significant comorbidities.

  11. Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part II

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986619

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A promising method for renal microvascular perfusion evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-09-01

    This article reviews the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in gauging renal microvascular perfusion in diverse renal diseases. The unique nature of the contrast agents used in CEUS provides real-time and quantitative imaging of the vasculature. In addition to the traditional use of CEUS for evaluation of kidney masses, it also emerges as a safe and effective imaging approach to assess microvascular perfusion in diffuse renal lesions, non-invasively. Although the precise CEUS parameters that may best predict disease still warrant systematic evaluation, animal models and limited clinical trials in humans raise hopes that CEUS could outcompete competing modalities as a first-line tool for assessing renal perfusion non-invasively, even in ailments such as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A promising method for renal microvascular perfusion evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in gauging renal microvascular perfusion in diverse renal diseases. The unique nature of the contrast agents used in CEUS provides real-time and quantitative imaging of the vasculature. In addition to the traditional use of CEUS for evaluation of kidney masses, it also emerges as a safe and effective imaging approach to assess microvascular perfusion in diffuse renal lesions, non-invasively. Although the precise CEUS parameters that may best predict disease still warrant systematic evaluation, animal models and limited clinical trials in humans raise hopes that CEUS could outcompete competing modalities as a first-line tool for assessing renal perfusion non-invasively, even in ailments such as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. PMID:28191530

  14. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  15. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  16. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  17. Hypertensive encephalopathy in cats with reduced renal function.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A; Munday, J S; Mathur, S; Brown, S A

    2005-09-01

    The clinical, hemodynamic, and pathologic features of hypertensive encephalopathy in two cats with reduced renal mass are described. The cats developed a progressive syndrome of lethargy, ataxia, blindness, stupor, and seizures following an abrupt increase in blood pressure associated with a surgical reduction in renal mass. The cats had severe gross brain edema, evidenced by cerebellar changes of caudal coning and cranial displacement over the corpora quadrigemina and cerebral changes of widening and flattening of the gyri. Histologically, interstitial edema was most pronounced in the cerebral white matter. Hypertensive vascular lesions were present as hyaline arteriolosclerosis in one cat and hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis in the other. Rare foci of parenchymal microhemorrhages and necrosis were also observed. Systemic hypertension (especially severe or rapidly developing) accompanied by neurologic signs and the pathologic findings of diffuse brain edema with cerebral arteriolosclerosis are consistent with an etiologic diagnosis of hypertensive encephalopathy.

  18. Pediatric Renal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sarangarajan

    2009-03-01

    Renal tumors in childhood consist of a diverse group of tumors ranging from the most common Wilms' tumor, to the uncommon and often fatal rhabdoid tumor. Diagnosis is based on morphologic features and aided by ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics. Molecular techniques have helped identify a group of pediatric renal cell carcinomas that have specific translocations, called translocation-associated carcinomas. Differential diagnosis of the various tumors is discussed. Pathogenesis and nephroblastomatosis, the precursor lesions of Wilms tumor, also are discussed briefly, as are the handling of these tumor specimens and prognostic factors. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and renal tubulopapillary adenomas: A rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Deval; Sengupta, Moumita; Das, Mou; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon inflammatory condition accounting for 1% of chronic pyelonephritis cases. Clinically and radiologically it mimics other renal space occupying lesions. Hence, correct preoperative diagnosis is not possible in all cases and nephrectomy is done in most patients. Renal tubulopapillary adenomas are benign epithelial lesions of kidney found to be associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma, acquired renal cystic disease, long term hemodialysis, arteriosclerotic renal vascular disease, etc. Here, we report two cases of Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with the rare finding of renal tubulopapillary adenomas.

  20. Comparison of Histologic Core Portions Acquired from a Core Biopsy Needle and a Conventional Needle in Solid Mass Lesions: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ban Seok; Cho, Chang-Min; Jung, Min Kyu; Jang, Jung Sik; Bae, Han Ik

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The superiority of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) over EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) remains controversial. Given the lack of studies analyzing histologic specimens acquired from EUS-FNB or EUS-FNA, we compared the proportion of the histologic core obtained from both techniques. Methods A total of 58 consecutive patients with solid mass lesions were enrolled and randomly assigned to the EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB groups. The opposite needle was used after the failure of core tissue acquisition using the initial needle with up to three passes. Using computerized analyses of the scanned histologic slide, the overall area and the area of the histologic core portion in specimens obtained by the two techniques were compared. Results No significant differences were identified between the two groups with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics. Fewer needle passes were required to obtain core specimens in the FNB group (p<0.001). There were no differences in the proportion of histologic core (11.8%±19.5% vs 8.0%±11.1%, p=0.376) or in the diagnostic accuracy (80.6% vs 81.5%, p=0.935) between two groups. Conclusions The proportion of histologic core and the diagnostic accuracy were comparable between the FNB and FNA groups. However, fewer needle passes were required to establish an accurate diagnosis in EUS-FNB. PMID:28208006

  1. Comparison of Histologic Core Portions Acquired from a Core Biopsy Needle and a Conventional Needle in Solid Mass Lesions: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ban Seok; Cho, Chang-Min; Jung, Min Kyu; Jang, Jung Sik; Bae, Han Ik

    2017-07-15

    The superiority of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) over EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) remains controversial. Given the lack of studies analyzing histologic specimens acquired from EUS-FNB or EUS-FNA, we compared the proportion of the histologic core obtained from both techniques. A total of 58 consecutive patients with solid mass lesions were enrolled and randomly assigned to the EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB groups. The opposite needle was used after the failure of core tissue acquisition using the initial needle with up to three passes. Using computerized analyses of the scanned histologic slide, the overall area and the area of the histologic core portion in specimens obtained by the two techniques were compared. No significant differences were identified between the two groups with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics. Fewer needle passes were required to obtain core specimens in the FNB group (p<0.001). There were no differences in the proportion of histologic core (11.8%±19.5% vs 8.0%±11.1%, p=0.376) or in the diagnostic accuracy (80.6% vs 81.5%, p=0.935) between two groups. The proportion of histologic core and the diagnostic accuracy were comparable between the FNB and FNA groups. However, fewer needle passes were required to establish an accurate diagnosis in EUS-FNB.

  2. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Thermal Ablation for Small Renal Masses in Solitary Kidney: Evidence from Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Nie, Qingyuan; Che, Zi; Liu, Min; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate comparative renal functional preservation, perioperative and oncologic outcomes, and complications of thermal ablation (TA) versus partial nephrectomy (PN) in management of Small renal masses (SRMs) in solitary kidney. Methods and Findings Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched. A meta-analysis for comparative studies comparing TA with PN was performed. According to predefined inclusion criteria, seven datasets were identified from 8 observational studies including a total of 628 patients. Cumulated data showed the changes of creatinine (p=0.02) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p<0.0001) in TA arm were significantly less than these in PN arm. Significantly less new-set chronic kidney disease (CKD) was observed in TA group (p=0.04). In terms of postoperative dialysis rate, the difference favoring TA was also noted, though there is no statistical significance (p=0.09). With regard to perioperative outcomes, our data demonstrated that patients who underwent TA had significantly shorter operation time (p=0.002), less blood loss (p<0.0001), shorter length of stay (p<0.00001), and less transfusion rate (p=0.01) than those underwent PN. In addition, patients underwent TA suffered less intra- and postoperative complications (p=0.007, p<0.00001; respectively). With regard to oncologic outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS) (p<0.00001) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p=0.01) in the PN arm were significantly better than these of the TA arm. But, TA yielded a comparable overall survival to PN (p=0.40). Sensitivity analyses led to very similar results with overall results, and confirmed its stability. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that PN have advantage in controlling cancer recurrence. However, TA is associated with significantly better renal functional preservation and perioperative outcomes, and less complications without increasing overall death. Our data suggest that indication for

  4. Protein and calorie effects on progression of induced chronic renal failure in cats.

    PubMed

    Finco, D R; Brown, S A; Brown, C A; Crowell, W A; Sunvold, G; Cooper, T L

    1998-05-01

    To determine effects of dietary protein and calories on progression of induced chronic renal failure in cats. 28 young adult female cats. Renal mass was reduced surgically, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined. Cats were alloted to 4 groups of 7 with similar mean GFR (1.52 to 1.55 ml/min/kg of body weight). Diets were formulated to provide: low protein and calorie (diet A), low protein and high calorie (diet B), high protein and low calorie (diet C), and high protein and calorie (diet D) intakes. Cats were fed their prescribed diet for 12 months, then blood and urine biochemical variables were measured, after which kidney specimens were examined microscopically. Protein intake by cats of groups C and D (9.0 g/d/kg) was substantially greater than that by cats of groups A and B (5.3 and 5.2 g/d/kg, respectively). Caloric intake by cats of groups B and D (73 and 71 calories/d/kg, respectively) was greater than that by cats of groups A and C (58 and 55 calories/d/kg, respectively). Renal glomerular lesions were mild and not affected by protein, calories or their interactions. Nonglomerular lesions, though mild, were significantly influenced by calorie intake, but not by protein or calorie-protein interactions. The GFR did not decrease in any group. Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio increased significantly in all groups after reduction of renal mass, but values from all groups remained within the reference range (0 to 0.3). Diets replete in protein were not associated with increased severity of glomerular or nonglomerular renal lesions, increased proteinuria, or decreased GFR. Diets replete in calories were not associated with increased severity of glomerular lesions, but were associated with mild increase of nonglomerular lesions. Factors other than protein and calorie intake must be considered potential causes of progression of renal failure in cats. Results raise questions about the practice of restricting quantity of protein in the diet of cats with

  5. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Pelayes, David; Diaz, María L; Lago, Nestor R; Fariña, Silvia L; Monserrat, Alberto J; Zarate, Jorge O

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001, CI 95%: 0.48-0.86); ocular lesion and creatinine (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001, Cl 95%: 0.72-0.93) and ocular lesion and urea (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001, Cl 95%: 0.44-0.85) were positive. Choline-deficiency induces ocular haemorrhagic lesions after the development of renal necrosis. The ocular pathology could be due to the immaturity of the ocular vasculature at this age. The hyaloid, choroid and retinal system are involved.

  6. Bilateral lacrimal caruncle lesions

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Yuta; Takai, Yoshiko; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a lesion on the medial lacrimal canthus of both eyes. He had a history of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, i.e., pANCA-positive interstitial pneumonia. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging excluded space occupying lesions, and laboratory testing excluded thyroid-related diseases. The masses were excised, and histopathological examinations showed sebaceous gland hyperplasia and inflammatory changes around the gland. In addition, the specimen from the left eye showed a retention cyst possibly caused by an infection. It was also possible that the use of steroid was involved in the development of the lesions. A relationship between the ANCA and the lesions was not completely eliminated. PMID:28303065

  7. Renal functional outcomes after surgery for renal cortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Julia B.; DeCastro, G. Joel; McKiernan, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, radical nephrectomy represented the gold standard for the treatment of small (≤ 4cm) as well as larger renal masses. Recently, for small renal masses, the risk of ensuing chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease has largely favored nephron-sparing surgical techniques, mainly partial nephrectomy. In this review, we surveyed the literature on renal functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy for renal tumors. The largest randomized control trial comparing radical and partial nephrectomy failed to show a survival benefit for partial nephrectomy. With regards to overall survival, surgically induced chronic kidney disease (GFR < 60 ml/min/ 1.73m2) caused by nephrectomy might not be as deleterious as medically induced chronic kidney disease. In evaluating patients who underwent donor nephrectomy, transplant literature further validates that surgically induced reductions in GFR may not affect patient survival, unlike medically induced GFR declines. Yet, because patients who present with a renal mass tend to be elderly with multiple comorbidities, many develop a mixed picture of medically, and surgically-induced renal disease after extirpative renal surgery. In this population, we believe that nephron sparing surgery optimizes oncological control while protecting renal function.

  8. Renal Artery Stent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cooper, Christopher J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Pencina, Karol M.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Henrich, William; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple randomized clinical trials comparing renal artery stent placement plus medical therapy with medical therapy alone have not shown any benefit of stent placement. However, debate continues whether patients with extreme pressure gradients, stenosis severity, or baseline blood pressure benefit from stent revascularization. OBJECTIVES The study sought to test the hypothesis that pressure gradients, stenosis severity, and/or baseline blood pressure affects outcomes after renal artery stent placement. METHODS Using data from 947 patients with a history of hypertension or chronic kidney disease from the largest randomized trial of renal artery stent placement, the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, we performed exploratory analyses to determine if subsets of patients experienced better outcomes after stent placement than the overall cohort. We examined baseline stenosis severity, systolic blood pressure, and translesion pressure gradient (peak systolic and mean) and performed interaction tests and Cox proportional hazards analyses for the occurrence of the primary endpoint through all follow-up, to examine the effect of these variables on outcomes by treatment group. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes based on the examined variables nor were there any consistent nonsignificant trends. CONCLUSIONS Based on data from the CORAL randomized trial, there is no evidence of a significant treatment effect of the renal artery stent procedure compared with medical therapy alone based on stenosis severity, level of systolic blood pressure elevation, or according to the magnitude of the transstenotic pressure gradient. (Benefits of Medical Therapy Plus Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions [CORAL]; NCT00081731) PMID:26653621

  9. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in a meningioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Han, H S; Kim, E Y; Han, J Y; Kim, Y B; Hwang, T S; Chu, Y C

    2000-10-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is rare. We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in meningioma. A 67-year-old woman presented a two-week history of motor dysphagia and decreased short-term memory. She had undergone a left radical nephrectomy for a renal cell carcinoma 7 years ago, and had not received any adjuvant therapy. MRI disclosed a 3.0 x 3.0 x 3.0-cm sized round tentorial-based extraaxial mass with peritumoral edema in the left posterior temporal lobe. During operation, the tumor was found to be an encapsulated mass firmly attached to the tentorium. Histologically, the tumor was a meningotheliomatous meningioma extensively infiltrated by metastatic renal cell carcinoma, accompanying widespread coagulative necrosis. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin revealed strong positivity only in the renal cell carcinoma component. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Post-operative radiation therapy was applied to the whole brain. Three months after operation, the patient developed right hemiparesis and dysphagia. Brain MRI at that time did not reveal recurrence or any other causative lesions, although the whole body scan disclosed uptake at the second lumbar vertebra and rib. The patient refused further treatment.

  10. Intracranial pressure changes following traumatic brain injury in rats: lack of significant change in the absence of mass lesions or hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gabrielian, Levon; Willshire, Luke W; Helps, Stephen C; van den Heuvel, Corinna; Mathias, Jane; Vink, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often causes raised intracranial pressure (ICP), with >50% of all TBI- related deaths being associated with this increase in ICP. To date, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for TBI, partly because widely used animal models of TBI may not replicate many of the pathophysiological responses observed in humans, and particularly the ICP response. Generally, rodents are the animal of choice in neurotrauma research, and edema formation has been demonstrated in rat models; however, few studies in rats have specifically explored the effects of TBI on ICP. The aim of the current study was to investigate the ICP response of rats in two different, focal and diffuse, injury models of TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain trauma by either lateral fluid percussion or impact-acceleration induced injury, in the presence or absence of secondary hypoxia. ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were monitored for 4 h after TBI. TBI alone or coupled with hypoxia did not result in any significant increase of ICP in rats unless there was an intracranial hemorrhage. At all other times, changes in CPP were the result of changes in MABP and not ICP. Our results suggest that rats may be able to compensate for the intracranial expansion associated with cerebral edema after TBI, and that they only develop a consistent post-traumatic increase in ICP in the presence of a mass lesion. Therefore, they are an inappropriate model for the investigation of ICP changes after TBI, and for the development of therapies targeting ICP.

  11. Solitary facial cutaneous metastasis as the primary presentation of a small renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Bhalani, Vishal; Jordan, Michael D; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2010-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been well described for its frequency to metastasize. Cutaneous facial lesions as the primary presentation of RCC is, however, extremely rare. We present clinical, radiographic, and histologic images of a 40-year-old man who presented with a cutaneous facial lesion that was diagnosed as metastatic RCC after excisional biopsy. A subsequent computed tomography demonstrated a small mass (3.5 × 2.6 cm) in the midpole of the right kidney. Partial nephrectomy with histologic analysis confirmed RCC, clear cell type.

  12. Transjugular renal biopsy in the treatment of patients with cirrhosis and renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Jouët, P; Meyrier, A; Mal, F; Callard, P; Guettier, C; Stordeur, D; Trinchet, J C; Beaugrand, M

    1996-11-01

    When renal lesions are suspected in patients with cirrhosis, clotting disorders often preclude percutaneous renal biopsy. This study was undertaken to determine whether transjugular renal biopsy is possible, safe, and useful in such patients. From 1987 to 1994, 70 patients with cirrhosis and clotting disorders underwent transjugular renal biopsies, providing renal tissue in 55. Of these 55 patients, 41 were Child-Pugh class B or C, 35 were alcoholic, serum creatinine levels were > or = 130 micromol/L in 46, and proteinuria was > or = 0.5 g/d in 37. Clinically significant complications of transjugular renal biopsy were persistent hematuria in 4 and perirenal hematoma in 4, requiring blood transfusions in 1 and 2 cases, respectively. There were no deaths related to renal biopsy. Renal lesions were identified as glomerular in 41 (74.5%), interstitial in 7, and end-stage in 2 and were absent in 5. Transjugular renal biopsy influenced treatment in 21 patients (38%), including 11 who were proposed for liver transplantation and 4 who had chronic liver rejection. Decisions based on results of transjugular renal biopsy were to perform liver transplantation in 8 and combined renal and liver transplantation in 5, whereas 2 were refused. In 6 other patients, the results of renal biopsy modified the medical regimen. We conclude that transjugular renal biopsy may be a useful procedure in patients with cirrhosis and clotting disorders. This technique does not entail undue risks and may influence treatment decisions, particularly in patients proposed for liver transplantation.

  13. Costs analysis of laparoendoscopic, single-site laparoscopic and open surgery for cT1 renal masses in a European high-volume centre.

    PubMed

    Pini, Giovannalberto; Ascalone, Luigi; Greco, Francesco; Mohammed, Nasreldin; Fornara, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    To analyse intraoperative costs and healthcare reimbursements of partial/radical nephrectomy in open and minimal invasive surgery (MIS), as laparoscopy and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), for the treatment of renal tumour. In a non-randomized retrospective study, we selected 90 patients who underwent (01/2010-12/2011) partial and radical nephrectomy for clinical renal masses ≤7 cm (cT1N0M0) and divided them into laparoscopic [laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN)], LESS [laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy (LESS-PN), laparoendoscopic single-site radical nephrectomy (LESS-RN)] and open groups [open partial nephrectomy (OPN), open radical nephrectomy (ORN)]. Patients were matched for age, sex, body mass index, ASA score and tumour side. Primary endpoints were evaluation of intraoperative costs (general, laparoscopic, sutures, haemostatic agents, anaesthesia, and surgeon/nurses fee), total insurance and estimated daily reimbursement. MIS showed longer operative time (p ≤ .02) and shorter hospital stay (p ≤ .04). Total costs were higher (p ≤ .03) in MIS (LRN: 4,091.5 ; LPN: 4,390.4 ; LESS-RN: 3,866 ; and LESS-PN: 3,450 ) if compared with open (OPN: 2,216.8.8 , ORN: 1,606.4 ). Laparoscopic materials incised mainly in total costs of MIS (38-58.1 %). Reusable instruments reduced LESS laparoscopic costs (LESS-PN: 1,312.2 vs. LRN: 2,212.2 , p < .0001). Intraoperative frozen section and DJ ureteric stenting (general costs) (p ≤ .008) and haemostatic agents use (p ≤ .01) were higher in nephron sparing surgery (NSS), due to more frequent use of ancillary procedures necessary for a safe management of such an approach. Estimated anaesthesia costs and doctor/nurses fee were higher in MIS (p ≤ .02). Whereas total final reimbursements were comparable (p ≥ .8), estimated daily reimbursements were lower in MIS (p < .001) due to higher intraoperative

  14. [Chronic renal insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in rats. Biochemical and histological evaluation].

    PubMed

    Virgós, M J; Menéndez-Rodríguez, P; Serrano, M; González-Carcedo, A; Braga, S; Cannata, J B

    1993-12-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats (surgical nephrectomy, 5/6) as well as its derived bone lesions have been studied. Eighty-five male Wistar rats were used, to which chronic renal failure was induced in 1 or 2 surgical times, the parameters of renal function in basal conditions and at different times after surgery being determined. With the method used chronic renal failure is induced with values of creatinine clearance 2/3 times lower than the initial ones (p < 0.05), which stabilize at the 7th week. On the other hand the parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) in serum triple (from 125 +/- 49 to 395 +/- 191, p < 0.05), and a decrease in the tubular phosphate reabsorption is produced (p < 0.001). In bone histology an increase in resorption and bone formation is observed as well as paratrabecular fibrosis, all of which is compatible with the histological diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism. The model of surgical renal insufficiency with ablation of 5/6 of the renal mass, reduces renal function to 1/3 of the initial values after 7 weeks, this procedure having a 20% global mortality without differences being observed between the carrying out of nephrectomies in 1 or 2 surgical times. This degree of CRF was accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism both at the biochemical and histological levels, findings which are of great usefulness for future experimental studies.

  15. Mass transfer, clearance and plasma concentration of procalcitonin during continuous venovenous hemofiltration in patients with septic shock and acute oliguric renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Level, Claude; Chauveau, Philippe; Guisset, Olivier; Cazin, Marie Cécile; Lasseur, Catherine; Gabinsky, Claude; Winnock, Stéphane; Montaudon, Danièle; Bedry, Régis; Nouts, Caroline; Pillet, Odile; Benissan, Georges Gbikpi; Favarel-Guarrigues, Jean Claude; Castaing, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To measure the mass transfer and clearance of procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with septic shock during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH), and to assess the mechanisms of elimination of PCT. Setting The medical department of intensive care. Design A prospective, observational study. Patients Thirteen critically ill patients with septic shock and oliguric acute renal failure requiring continuous venovenous postdilution hemofiltration with a high-flux membrane (AN69 or polyamide) and a 'conventional' substitution volume (< 2.5 l/hour). Measurements and main results PCT was measured with the Lumitest PCT Brahms® in the prefilter and postfilter plasma, in the ultrafiltrate at the beginning of CVVH (T0) and 15 min (T15'), 60 min (T60') and 6 hours (T6h) after setup of CVVH, and in the prefilter every 24 hours during 4 days. Mass transfer was determined and the clearance and the sieving coefficient were calculated according to the mass conservation principle. Plasma and ultrafiltrate clearances, respectively, at T15', T60' and T6h were 37 ± 8.6 ml/min (not significant) and 1.8 ± 1.7 ml/min (P < 0.01), 34.7 ± 4.1 ml/min (not significant) and 2.3 ± 1.8 ml/min (P < 0.01), and 31.5 ± 7 ml/min (not significant) and 5 ± 2.3 ml/min (P < 0.01). The sieving coefficient significantly increased from 0.07 at T15' to 0.19 at T6h, with no difference according to the nature of the membrane. PCT plasma levels were not significantly modified during the course of CCVH. Conclusions We conclude that PCT is removed from the plasma of patients with septic shock during CCVH. Most of the mass is eliminated by convective flow, but adsorption also contributes to elimination during the first hours of CVVH. The effect of PCT removal with a conventional CVVH substitution fluid rate (<2.5 l/hour) on PCT plasma concentration seems to be limited, and PCT remains a useful diagnostic marker in these septic patients. The impact of high-volume hemofiltration on the PCT clearance

  16. [Acute renal insufficiency and fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Ohresser, P; Sainty, J M; Belnet, M; Cano, N

    1975-10-01

    The authors report ten cases of renal insufficiency observed among a series of 43 cases of fat embolism. It is a matter of eraly oligoanuria (starting beween the 2nd and the 4th day). Its severity depends on the lesions involved : prolonged cardio-vascular collapse - cranio-encephalic lesion. The renal insufficiency does not seem typical of fat embolism. It must be essentially linked to a cardio-vascular collapse and/or to a disseminated intra-vascular coagulation.

  17. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Cuadrado, Maria José; Khamashta, Munther; Roccatello, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease defined by the presence of arterial or venous thrombotic events and/or pregnancy morbidity in patients who test positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). APS can be isolated (known as primary APS) or associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; known as secondary APS). The kidney is a major target organ in APS and renal thrombosis can occur at any level within the vasculature of the kidney (renal arteries, intrarenal arteries, glomerular capillaries and renal veins); events reflect the site and size of the involved vessels. Histological findings vary widely, including ischaemic glomeruli and thrombotic lesions without glomerular or arterial immune deposits on immunofluorescence. Renal prognosis is affected by the presence of aPLs in patients with lupus nephritis and can be poor. In patients with SLE and aPLs, biopsy should be performed because inflammatory and thrombotic lesions require different therapeutic approaches. Renal involvement in patients with definite APS is treated by anticoagulation with long-term warfarin. The range of renal manifestations associated with APS is broadening and, therefore, aPLs have increasing relevance in end-stage renal disease, transplantation and pregnancy.

  18. Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Marc; Moshfegh, Amiel; Talenfeld, Adam; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence linking radical nephrectomy and consequent suboptimal renal function to adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality, research into nephron-sparing techniques for renal masses widely expanded in the past two decades. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines now explicitly list partial nephrectomy as the standard of care for the management of T1a renal tumors. Because of the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, up to 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more amenable to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. Cryosurgery has emerged as a leading option for renal ablation, and compared with surgical techniques it offers benefits in preserving renal function with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization times, and allows for quicker convalescence. A mature dataset exists at this time, with intermediate and long-term follow-up data available. Cryosurgical recommendations as a first-line therapy are made at this time in limited populations, including elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, and those with a solitary kidney. As more data emerge on oncologic efficacy, and technical experience and the technology continue to improve, the application of this modality will likely be extended in future treatment guidelines. PMID:24596441

  19. The influence of birthweight, past poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and current body mass index on levels of albuminuria in young adults: the multideterminant model of renal disease in a remote Australian Aboriginal population with high rates of renal disease and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; White, Andrew V; Tipiloura, Bernard; Singh, Gurmeet R; Sharma, Suresh; Bloomfield, Hilary; Swanson, Cheryl E; Dowling, Alison; McCredie, David A

    2016-06-01

    Australian Aborigines in remote areas have very high rates of kidney disease, which is marked by albuminuria. We describe a 'multihit' model of albuminuria in young adults in one remote Aboriginal community. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) were measured in 655 subjects aged 15-39 years and evaluated in the context of birthweights, a history of 'remote' poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN; ≥5 years earlier) and current body mass index (BMI). Birthweight had been <2.5 kg (low birthweight, LBW) in 25.4% of subjects and 22.8% had a remote history of PSGN. ACR levels rose with age. It exceeded the microalbuminuria threshold in 33.6% of subjects overall (25% of males and 45% of females). In multivariate models, birthweight (inversely), remote PSGN and current BMI were all independent predictors of ACR levels. The effects of birthweight and PSGN and their combination were expressed through amplification of ACR levels in relation to age and around the group median BMI of 20.8 kg/m(2). In people with BMI <20.8 (57.8% of all males and 40.3% of the females), LBW and PSGN alone had minimal effects on ACR, but in combination they strikingly amplified ACR in relation to age. Those with BMI ≥20.8 (which included 42.2% of the males and 59.7% of the females) had higher ACR levels, and both LBW and a PSGN history, separately and in combination, were associated with striking further amplification of ACR in the context of age. Much of the great excess of disease in this population is explained by high rates of the early life risk factors, LBW and PSGN. Their effects are expressed through amplification of ACR in the context of increasing age and are further moderated by levels of current body size. Both early life risk factors are potentially modifiable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  20. A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahe, Etienne; El-Shinnawy, Ihab

    2010-12-01

    We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A 50-year-old female presented with dull right flank pain and hematuria. Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass. Both masses were surgically resected concurrently. Histology of the renal mass was consistent with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade III. There was no extra-renal extension or lymphovascular invasion. The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes. Mitoses were inconspicuous. The solid tumour component was strongly positive for vimentin, inhibin and CD56, focally positive for low-molecular-weight cytokeratin (Cam 5.2), calretinin and CD10 (chiefly in the myelolipomatous zones), and negative for chromogranin, S100, HMB-45, melan-A (A103), Mart-1, synaptophysin, SMA, CK7, CK20, ER, PR, TTF-1, CD99 and GCDFP (BRST-2). Ki67 (MIB1) staining indicated a low tumour proliferation index. Although well-described individually, a search of the English language literature suggests that this is the first such documented case of synchrony of these three lesions. We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions. In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.

  1. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  2. Immunoaffinity enrichment and liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for quantitation of carbonic anhydrase 12 in cultured renal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafalko, Agnes; Iliopoulos, Othon; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Hancock, William; Hincapie, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring (LC-SRM) is a highly specific and sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) technique that is widely being applied to selectively qualify and validate candidate markers within complex biological samples. However, in order for LC-SRM methods to take on these attributes, target-specific optimization of sample processing is required, in order to reduce analyte complexity, prior to LC-SRM. In this study, we have developed a targeted platform consisting of protein immunoaffinity enrichment on magnetic beads and LC-SRM for measuring carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) protein in a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line (PRC3), a candidate biomarker for RCC whose expression at the protein level has not been previously reported. Sample processing and LC-SRM assay were optimized for signature peptides selected as surrogate markers of CA12 protein. Using LC-SRM coupled with stable isotope dilution, we achieved limits of quantitation in the low fmol range sufficient for measuring clinically relevant biomarkers with good intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision (≤17%). Our results show that using a quantitative immunoaffinity capture approach provides specific, accurate, and robust assays amenable to high-throughput verification of potential biomarkers. PMID:20936840

  3. The association of clearance of middle and large molecular weight substance with arterial stiffness and left ventricular mass in children receiving renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, K; Yilmaz, E; Dincel, N; Bozabali, S; Apaydın, S; Gun, Z H; Sozeri, B; Mir, S

    2015-04-30

    The prominent cause of mortality in children receiving dialysis treatment is cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors related to chronic renal disease, are effective in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of study was to investigate cardiovascular system (CVS) involvement for functional and structural alterations in children receiving dialysis, and display any association between cardiovascular morbidity and uremic toxins. 20 dialysis patients and 20 healthy controls were included to the study. Clearance of small, middle and large molecular-weight uremic toxins was evaluated in blood samples collected 30 minutes before(D0) and 2 hour after dialysis(D2), and change value was calculated as; D0--D2/ D0. Cardiovascular involvement was determined by comparing arterial stiffness, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) with the control group. Four patients receiving hemodialysis and two patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) group who have significant differences in all functional and structural parameters were detected. 4 dialysis--patients with detected cardiovascular disease have distinctively lower beta--2 micro globulin and homocysteine clearances compared to the patients with no CVS involvement. The clearance of middle and large molecular--weight substances should be closely monitored in children receiving dialysis.

  4. Prognostic Significance of Left Ventricular Mass Index and Renal Function Decline Rate in Chronic Kidney Disease G3 and G4

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiun-Chi; Chen, Szu-Chia; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kuo, I-Ching; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2017-01-01

    The effect of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline rate on outcome prediction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We included 306 CKD G3 and G4 patients with LVMI assessed through echocardiography. Rapid decline in renal function was defined as the eGFR slope <−3 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. Patients were stratified into four groups using sex-specific median values of LVMI and rapid eGFR decline. The composite outcome was progression to maintenance dialysis or death. 32 patients had the composite outcome during a median follow-up of 2.7 years. In multivariate Cox analysis, compared with patients with non-rapid eGFR decline and lower LVMI, those with non-rapid eGFR decline and higher LVMI (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.908, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.304–26.780), rapid eGFR decline and lower LVMI (HR: 12.737, 95% CI = 2.297–70.636), and rapid eGFR decline and higher LVMI (HR: 15.249, 95% CI = 3.365–69.097) had an increased risk of progression to adverse outcomes. LVMI and eGFR decline synergistically effect the prognostic implications in CKD G3 and G4 patients. PMID:28195182

  5. Renal aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cura, Marco; Elmerhi, Fadi; Bugnogne, Alejandro; Palacios, Raul; Suri, Rajeev; Dalsaso, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of the vessel lumen. Pseudoaneurysm is a perfused hematoma contained by the adventitia and perivascular tissues that is in communication with the lumen of an adjacent artery or vein. Aneurysm is a dilatation of the vessel lumen involving all three layers of the blood vessel wall. Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are uncommon but the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging and incidental detection of RAA may result in an increasing number of cases diagnosed. Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are suspected in bleeding patients after penetrating renal trauma. Imaging plays a major role in the detection of renal pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms and diagnoses aneurysm rupture and active bleeding. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography can characterize lesion size, shape, and location and identify other aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, helping to narrow the differential diagnosis and to understand the vascular anatomy for guiding proper treatment. Endovascular treatments have contributed considerably in the management of renal pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms. The use of coil embolization or covered stent placement prevents the mortality and mobility of surgery. The article describes imaging features and the endovascular therapies to treat these vascular processes and their possible complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Small renal tumor with lymph nodal enlargement: A histopathological surprise

    PubMed Central

    Thottathil, Mujeeburahiman; Verma, Ashish; D’souza, Nischith; Khan, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Renal cancer with lymph nodal mass on the investigation is clinically suggestive of an advanced tumor. Small renal cancers are not commonly associated with lymph nodal metastasis. Association of renal cell carcinoma with renal tuberculosis (TB) in the same kidney is also rare. We report here a case of small renal cancer with multiple hilar and paraaortic lymph nodes who underwent radical nephrectomy, and histopathology report showed renal and lymph nodal TB too. PMID:27453671

  7. Pulmonary cystic disease associated with integumentary and renal manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Cayetano, Katherine S.; Albertson, Timothy E.; Chan, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with multiple skin lesions on his face, neck and upper torso, which first appeared in the 3rd decade of his life, was admitted to our hospital. He had cystic changes in his lungs noted on chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, as well as a left kidney mass. This patient exhibited a rare complex of renal, cutaneous and pulmonary manifestations, eponymously named Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, with characteristic skin features (fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas and acrochordons). This syndrome is due to an autosomal dominant germ-line mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene located at chromosome 17p11.2. Diagnosis and differentiation from other disease complexes including the skin, kidneys and lungs are important in prognostication and management of potentially life-threatening complications such as renal cell carcinoma and pneumothoraces. PMID:24285950

  8. Pulmonary cystic disease associated with integumentary and renal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cayetano, Katherine S; Albertson, Timothy E; Chan, Andrew L

    2013-11-01

    A 69-year-old man with multiple skin lesions on his face, neck and upper torso, which first appeared in the 3rd decade of his life, was admitted to our hospital. He had cystic changes in his lungs noted on chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, as well as a left kidney mass. This patient exhibited a rare complex of renal, cutaneous and pulmonary manifestations, eponymously named Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, with characteristic skin features (fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas and acrochordons). This syndrome is due to an autosomal dominant germ-line mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene located at chromosome 17p11.2. Diagnosis and differentiation from other disease complexes including the skin, kidneys and lungs are important in prognostication and management of potentially life-threatening complications such as renal cell carcinoma and pneumothoraces.

  9. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of small renal masses in real practice: sensitivity and specificity according to subjective radiologic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Cho, Yong Jin; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of small renal masses in real practice. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were performed between February 2008 and February 2013 on 68 patients who had suspected small (≤4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on ultrasonographic measurements. CT and MRI radiographs were reviewed, and the findings of small renal masses were re-categorized into five dichotomized scales by the same two radiologists who had interpreted the original images. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed, and sensitivity and specificity were determined. Among the 68 patients, 60 (88.2 %) had RCC and eight had benign disease. The diagnostic accuracy rates of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were 79.41 and 88.23 %, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was greater when using contrast-enhanced MRI because too many masses (67.6 %) were characterized as "4 (probably solid cancer) or 5 (definitely solid cancer)." The sensitivity of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for predicting RCC were 79.7 and 88.1 %, respectively. The specificities of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for predicting RCC were 44.4 and 33.3 %, respectively. Fourteen diagnoses (20.5 %) were missed or inconsistent compared with the final pathological diagnoses. One appropriate nephroureterectomy and five unnecessary percutaneous biopsies were performed for RCC. Seven unnecessary partial nephrectomies were performed for benign disease. Although contrast-enhanced CT and MRI showed high sensitivity for detecting small renal masses, specificity remained low.

  11. Computed tomography of renal oncocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a relatively rare tumor that has an excellent prognosis and usually may be treated adequately by local resection. Preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, which requires radical nephrectomy, is thus of importance. The computed tomographic (CT) and pathologic features of three incidentally-detected renal oncocytomas were compared with those of six renal cell carcinomas of comparable size. Renal cell carcinoma appears on CT as a solid mass that generally has an indistinct interface with normal renal parenchyma, a lobulated contour, and a nonhomogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement. These features correlate with the pathologic findings of an irregular tumor margin and the frequent presence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis. Oncocytoma, on the other hand, generally has a distinct margin, a smooth contour, and a homogeneous appearance on contrast-enhanced CT scans. These findings correlate with a smooth tumor margin and absence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis on pathologic examination. These features are not pathognomonic of oncocytoma, as angiographic evidence suggests that renal cell carcinoma may show both distinct margination and a homogeneous blush in 6% of cases. However, their demonstration by CT should alert radiologists and surgeons to the possibility that a renal mass may be an oncocytoma. Such a presumptive diagnosis then can lead to a surgical approach that allows for renal-conserving surgery.

  12. Imaging of haemodialysis: renal and extrarenal findings.

    PubMed

    Degrassi, Ferruccio; Quaia, Emilio; Martingano, Paola; Cavallaro, Marco; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2015-06-01

    Electrolyte alterations and extra-renal disorders are quite frequent in patients undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The native kidneys may be the site of important pathologies in patients undergoing dialysis, especially in the form of acquired renal cystic disease with frequent malignant transformation. Renal neoplasms represents an important complication of haemodialysis-associated acquired cystic kidney disease and imaging surveillance is suggested. Extra-renal complications include renal osteodistrophy, brown tumours, and thoracic and cardiovascular complications. Other important fields in which imaging techniques may provide important informations are arteriovenous fistula and graft complications. Teaching points • Renal neoplasms represent a dreaded complication of haemodialysis.• In renal osteodystrophy bone resorption typically manifests along the middle phalanges.• Brown tumours are well-defined lytic lesions radiographically, possibly causing bone expansion.• Vascular calcifications are very common in patients undergoing haemodialysis.• Principal complications of the AV fistula consist of thrombosis, aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.

  13. Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  14. [Renal transplantation and Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    De Paepe, J P; Michel, L; Pirson, Y; Squifflet, J P; Alexandre, G

    1987-01-01

    A kidney transplantation was performed in July 1981 on a 29 year old woman who presented the signs of tuberous sclerosis and suffered from chronic renal failure. The frequency and the genetic transmission of Bourneville's disease are explained. The signs of the disease are exposed with special emphasis on the renal lesions. Only the patients with minor neurological symptoms can survive. These patients are able to develop chronic renal failure. This occurs either when the kidneys are destructed by renal cysts or tumors, or when a bilateral nephrectomy must be performed for bleeding or tumoral compression. A kidney transplantation can give them an opportunity to live almost normally. When nephrectomy is not performed, a regularly follow-up is necessary because the unknown future of the renal lesions in place.

  15. Renal cystic disease associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: renal failure treated by cadaveric kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J C; Bernstein, J; Rosenberg, B

    1975-01-01

    Chronic renal failure in patients with tuberous sclerosis may be secondary to diffuse cystic disease, a lesion less common than the better known hamartomatous angiomyolipomas. Uremia, in the case of a nineteen-year old female with end-stage renal disease, was associated with severely atrophic kidneys that contained numerous collapsed and scarred cysts. No hamartomas were present. The patient survived for more than three years following cadaveric renal transplantation.

  16. Obesity and renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Asma; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Marrakchi, Raja; El Gaaied, Amel; Kourda, Nadia; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed; Caignard, Anne; Perier, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies link obesity, as measured by increased body mass index (BMI) to the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as well as to the cancer-related mortality of RCC patients. RCC is the third cancer most robustly associated with increased BMI. Understanding the role of the adipose tissue in renal carcinogenesis is therefore of major importance for the development of novel paradigms of RCC prevention and treatment. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on the impact of obesity on the development and progression of RCC as well as the role of adipose tissue-derived hormones (adipokines) in the conflict between growing tumors and the immune system. PMID:24804162

  17. A unique presentation of a renal clear cell carcinoma with atypical metastases

    PubMed Central

    Staderini, F.; Cianchi, F.; Badii, B.; Skalamera, I.; Fiorenza, G.; Foppa, C.; Qirici, E.; Perigli, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal cancer is a relatively common neoplasia with renal clear cell carcinoma being the most frequent histological type. This tumor has a strong tendency to metastasize virtually to all organs. Today, new diagnostic tools allow physicians to distinguish between those patients with “incidental findings” and those with advanced metastatic disease. Presentation of case A 70-year-old male with multiple indolent subcutaneous masses underwent colonoscopy after a positive fecal screening test for colorectal carcinoma. A rectal lesion was discovered but biopsy was negative. CT scan revealed advanced renal cancer involving the peritoneal cavity, retroperitoneum and lung. Biopsy of subcutaneous masses confirmed the suspected metastases. The patient underwent surgery (an open left nephrectomy with rectosigmoid resection and metastases debulking) because of a high risk of bowel obstruction and increasing anemia. After three years of multi-targeted therapy and follow-up, the patient is still asymptomatic and in good general condition. Discussion Treatment of metastatic renal cancer is still controversial even if more than 30% of patients have metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Recently introduced targeted therapies are encouraging but still present problems with side effects and an unlimited period of efficacy. Although there is no consensus, several studies and guidelines consider metastasectomy to be a valid option. Conclusion Recent series highlight surgery as a key-point in the management of advanced renal clear cell carcinoma. Our case demonstrates the validity of a surgical strategy supported by a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25911241

  18. Carcinoid tumor associated with adjacent dysplastic columnar epithelium in the renal pelvis: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Sun; Choi, Chan; Kang, Taek Won; Choi, Yoo Duk

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are well documented in the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, but very rare in the urinary tract, especially in the renal pelvis. We report on a 60-year-old female patient who presented with left flank pain and fever. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the left renal pelvis and a stone at the left proximal ureter. Multiple parenchymal lesions were also observed, which were identified as uneven caliectasis displaying air-fluid levels and renal parenchymal atrophy. The patient underwent simple nephro-ureterectomy. Macroscopically, a polypoid mass was observed in the renal pelvis. Microscopically, the tumor revealed acinar, tubular, and solid pattern and was composed of small, monotonous and hyperchromatic cells. Lining epithelia in renal pelvis and ureter revealed columnar epithelia with dysplastic change. The tumor cells were positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD56, and focally positive for cytokeratin. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin and chromogranin A highlighted the neuroendocrine cells in the columnar epithelium. Ki-67 (1:50; MIB-1) labeling index was less than 1% in the area with highest uptake. We report here a case of carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis that was associated with adjacent dysplastic columnar epithelium. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Covalently linked tandem lesions in DNA.

    PubMed

    Patrzyc, Helen B; Dawidzik, Jean B; Budzinski, Edwin E; Freund, Harold G; Wilton, John H; Box, Harold C

    2012-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate a type of DNA damage called tandem lesions, two adjacent nucleotides both modified. A subcategory of tandem lesions consists of adjacent nucleotides linked by a covalent bond. Covalently linked tandem lesions generate highly characteristic liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) elution profiles. We have used this property to comprehensively survey X-irradiated DNA for covalently linked tandem lesions. A total of 15 tandem lesions were detected in DNA irradiated in deoxygenated aqueous solution, five tandem lesions were detected in DNA that was irradiated in oxygenated solution.

  20. Covalently Linked Tandem Lesions in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Patrzyc, Helen B.; Dawidzik, Jean B.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Freund, Harold G.; Wilton, John H.; Box, Harold C.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate a type of DNA damage called tandem lesions, two adjacent nucleotides both modified. A subcategory of tandem lesions consists of adjacent nucleotides linked by a covalent bond. Covalently linked tandem lesions generate highly characteristic liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) elution profiles. We have used this property to comprehensively survey X-irradiated DNA for covalently linked tandem lesions. A total of 15 tandem lesions were detected in DNA irradiated in deoxygenated aqueous solution, five tandem lesions were detected in DNA that was irradiated in oxygenated solution. PMID:23106212