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Sample records for renal phosphate wasting

  1. Renal Phosphate Wasting in the Absence of Adenylyl Cyclase 6

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Robert A.; Murray, Fiona; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A.; Tang, Tong; Levi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) enhance phosphate excretion by the proximal tubule of the kidney by retrieval of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (Npt2a and Npt2c) from the apical plasma membrane. PTH activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) through PTH 1 receptors and stimulates the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. However, the precise role and isoform(s) of AC in phosphate homeostasis are not known. We report here that mice lacking AC6 (AC6−/−) have increased plasma PTH and FGF-23 levels compared with wild-type (WT) mice but comparable plasma phosphate concentrations. Acute activation of the calcium-sensing receptor or feeding a zero phosphate diet almost completely suppressed plasma PTH levels in both AC6−/− and WT mice, indicating a secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism. Pharmacologic blockade of FGF receptors resulted in a comparable increase in plasma phosphate between genotypes, whereas urinary phosphate remained significantly higher in AC6−/− mice. Compared with WT mice, AC6−/− mice had reduced renal Npt2a and Npt2c protein abundance, with approximately 80% of Npt2a residing in lysosomes. WT mice responded to exogenous PTH with redistribution of Npt2a from proximal tubule microvilli to intracellular compartments and lysosomes alongside a PTH-induced dose–response relationship for fractional phosphate excretion and urinary cAMP excretion. These responses were absent in AC6−/− mice. In conclusion, AC6 in the proximal tubule modulates cAMP formation, Npt2a trafficking, and urinary phosphate excretion, which are highlighted by renal phosphate wasting in AC6−/− mice. PMID:24854272

  2. FGF-23 in fibrous dysplasia of bone and its relationship to renal phosphate wasting.

    PubMed

    Riminucci, Mara; Collins, Michael T; Fedarko, Neal S; Cherman, Natasha; Corsi, Alessandro; White, Kenneth E; Waguespack, Steven; Gupta, Anurag; Hannon, Tamara; Econs, Michael J; Bianco, Paolo; Gehron Robey, Pamela

    2003-09-01

    FGF-23, a novel member of the FGF family, is the product of the gene mutated in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR). FGF-23 has been proposed as a circulating factor causing renal phosphate wasting not only in ADHR (as a result of inadequate degradation), but also in tumor-induced osteomalacia (as a result of excess synthesis by tumor cells). Renal phosphate wasting occurs in approximately 50% of patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD), which result from postzygotic mutations of the GNAS1 gene. We found that FGF-23 is produced by normal and FD osteoprogenitors and bone-forming cells in vivo and in vitro. In situ hybridization analysis of FGF-23 mRNA expression identified "fibrous" cells, osteogenic cells, and cells associated with microvascular walls as specific cellular sources of FGF-23 in FD. Serum levels of FGF-23 were increased in FD/MAS patients compared with normal age-matched controls and significantly higher in FD/MAS patients with renal phosphate wasting compared with those without, and correlated with disease burden bone turnover markers commonly used to assess disease activity. Production of FGF-23 by FD tissue may play an important role in the renal phosphate-wasting syndrome associated with FD/MAS.

  3. CYP24 inhibition as a therapeutic target in FGF23-mediated renal phosphate wasting disorders.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiuying; Miao, Dengshun; Xiao, Sophia; Qiu, Dinghong; St-Arnaud, René; Petkovich, Martin; Gupta, Ajay; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    CYP24A1 (hereafter referred to as CYP24) enzymatic activity is pivotal in the inactivation of vitamin D metabolites. Basal renal and extrarenal CYP24 is usually low but is highly induced by its substrate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Unbalanced high and/or long-lasting CYP24 expression has been proposed to underlie diseases like chronic kidney disease, cancers, and psoriasis that otherwise should favorably respond to supplemental vitamin D. Using genetically modified mice, we have shown that renal phosphate wasting hypophosphatemic states arising from high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are also associated with increased renal Cyp24 expression, suggesting that elevated CYP24 activity is pivotal to the pathophysiology of these disorders. We therefore crossed 2 mouse strains, each with distinct etiology for high levels of circulating FGF23, onto a Cyp24-null background. Specifically, we evaluated Cyp24 deficiency in Hyp mice, the murine homolog of X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and transgenic mice that overexpress a mutant FGF23 (FGF23R176Q) that is associated with the autosomal dominant form of hypophosphatemic rickets. Loss of Cyp24 in these murine models of human disease resulted in near-complete recovery of rachitic/osteomalacic bony abnormalities in the absence of any improvement in the serum biochemical profile. Moreover, treatment of Hyp and FGF23R1760-transgenic mice with the CYP24 inhibitor CTA102 also ameliorated their rachitic bones. Our results link CYP24 activity to the pathophysiology of FGF23-dependent renal phosphate wasting states and implicate pharmacologic CYP24 inhibition as a therapeutic adjunct for their treatment. PMID:26784541

  4. CYP24 inhibition as a therapeutic target in FGF23-mediated renal phosphate wasting disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiuying; Miao, Dengshun; Xiao, Sophia; Qiu, Dinghong; St-Arnaud, René; Petkovich, Martin; Gupta, Ajay; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    CYP24A1 (hereafter referred to as CYP24) enzymatic activity is pivotal in the inactivation of vitamin D metabolites. Basal renal and extrarenal CYP24 is usually low but is highly induced by its substrate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Unbalanced high and/or long-lasting CYP24 expression has been proposed to underlie diseases like chronic kidney disease, cancers, and psoriasis that otherwise should favorably respond to supplemental vitamin D. Using genetically modified mice, we have shown that renal phosphate wasting hypophosphatemic states arising from high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are also associated with increased renal Cyp24 expression, suggesting that elevated CYP24 activity is pivotal to the pathophysiology of these disorders. We therefore crossed 2 mouse strains, each with distinct etiology for high levels of circulating FGF23, onto a Cyp24-null background. Specifically, we evaluated Cyp24 deficiency in Hyp mice, the murine homolog of X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and transgenic mice that overexpress a mutant FGF23 (FGF23R176Q) that is associated with the autosomal dominant form of hypophosphatemic rickets. Loss of Cyp24 in these murine models of human disease resulted in near-complete recovery of rachitic/osteomalacic bony abnormalities in the absence of any improvement in the serum biochemical profile. Moreover, treatment of Hyp and FGF23R1760-transgenic mice with the CYP24 inhibitor CTA102 also ameliorated their rachitic bones. Our results link CYP24 activity to the pathophysiology of FGF23-dependent renal phosphate wasting states and implicate pharmacologic CYP24 inhibition as a therapeutic adjunct for their treatment. PMID:26784541

  5. Phosphate Bonded Solidification of Radioactive Incinerator Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B. W.

    1999-04-13

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  7. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  8. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys.

  9. Opsismodysplasia: Phosphate Wasting Osteodystrophy Responds to Bisphosphonate Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khwaja, Ansab; Parnell, Shawn E.; Ness, Kathryn; Bompadre, Viviana; White, Klane K.

    2015-01-01

    We present two siblings affected with opsismodysplasia (OPS), a rare skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 gene. The skeletal findings include short stature with postnatal onset micromelia, marked platyspondyly, squared metacarpals, delayed skeletal ossification, metaphyseal cupping, and postnatal micromelia. Respiratory compromise, delayed ambulation, and progressive lower extremity deformities are described. The severity of findings is variable. Renal phosphate wasting is associated with severe bone demineralization and a more severe phenotype. This report represents the first described cases of opsismodysplasia treated with intravenous bisphosphonate (pamidronate). Surgical management for lower extremity deformities associated with OPS is also reviewed. Level of Evidence: IV Case series PMID:26157786

  10. Renal threshold phosphate concentration (TmPO4/GFR).

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, K; Kracht, U; Göpfert, G

    1982-01-01

    The ratio of maximum rate of renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate to glomerular filtration rate (TmPO4/GFR) was determined in 546 schoolchildren, aged between 6 and 17.9 years, using the nomogram of Walton and Bijvoet.1 TmPO4/GFR correlated with chronological age in girls and boys and in each remained significantly higher than in adults. TmPO4/GFR in the children correlated neither with fasting serum immunoreactive calcitonin and parathyroid hormone levels nor with the urinary cyclic AMP excretion. The study showed a parallel decrease in TmPO4/GFR, excretion of total hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase activities after puberty, with a significant relationship of both these indices of bone turnover to TmPO4/GFR values. This indicates that the high renal phosphate threshold of children may be an important factor for bone mineralisation by providing high extracellular inorganic phosphate concentrations during normal growth. PMID:6280622

  11. Nutritional therapy, phosphate control and renal protection.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Cozzolino, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Dietary management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) focusses on limiting the intake of substances that might accumulate to toxic levels (such as potassium, phosphorus or salt) and, although still a matter of debate for some, restricting dietary protein to retard kidney damage. Recent evidence brings the opportunity to revisit the role of a healthy diet on disease progression and on some of the cardiometabolic complications of moderate/advanced CKD, such as inflammation or oxidative stress control. This review provides a brief overview of dietary strategies that delay CKD progression and CKD complications, and discusses currently limited data addressing the development of malnutrition and protein-energy wasting before dialysis initiation.

  12. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, Delbert E.

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  13. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  14. Renal transport of bisphosphonates: accumulation by renal cortical slices enhanced by calcium phosphate ions

    SciTech Connect

    Troehler, U.; Bonjour, J.P.; Fleisch, H.

    1985-07-01

    Bisphosphonates have been recognized as useful therapeutic agents in metabolic bone disease. Earlier studies showed a net renal secretion of 1-hydroxy-ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). They suggested a renal cellular uptake of this compound. The authors further studied this concept by investigating the uptake in vitro of /sup 14/C-HEBP by rat renal cortex slices. HEBP was accumulated against a concentration gradient, a process that was dependent on time, temperature, and substrate concentration. Unlike that of /sup 3/H-p-aminohippurate, the uptake was not affected by change in medium Na+ or glucose and acetate concentration, or by anoxia and various metabolic inhibitors. It was, however, markedly increased by raising the medium calcium and inorganic phosphate concentration. Equilibrium dialysis with renal cortex homogenates suggests that HEBP binds to a cytosolic macromolecule through a process that exhibits saturability and calcium dependency. In conclusion, the results suggest that the bisphosphonate HEBP can penetrate kidney cells by a process that does not appear to be energy dependent, but is markedly influenced by the extracellular calcium-phosphate concentration.

  15. Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe3+/Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass.

  16. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  17. Safety of new phosphate binders for chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Loghman-Adham, Mahmoud

    2003-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) retention is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly in those who have reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In addition to causing secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy, recent evidence suggests that, in ESRD patients, high serum phosphorus concentration and increased calcium and phosphorous (Ca x P) product are associated with vascular and cardiac calcifications and increased mortality. Dietary phosphorus restriction and Pi removal by dialysis are not sufficient to restore Pi homeostasis. Reduction of intestinal Pi absorption with the use of Pi binders is currently the primary treatment for Pi retention in patients with ESRD. The use of large doses of calcium-containing Pi binders along with calcitriol administration may contribute to over-suppression of parathyroid hormone secretion and adynamic bone disease as well as to a high incidence of vascular calcifications. When used in patients with impaired renal function, aluminium salts were found to accumulate in bone and other tissues, resulting in osteomalacia and encephalopathy.Sevelamer, an aluminium- and calcium-free Pi binder can reduce serum phosphorus concentration and is associated with a significantly lower incidence of hypercalcaemia, while maintaining the ability to suppress parathyroid hormone production. An additional benefit of sevelamer is its ability to lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Sevelamer attenuates the progression of vascular calcifications in haemodialysis patients, which may lead to lower mortality. The use of sevelamer in non-dialysed patients might aggravate metabolic acidosis, common in these patients. Several other calcium-free Pi binders are in development. Lanthanum carbonate has shown significant promise in clinical trials in ESRD patients. Magnesium salts do not offer a significant advantage over currently available Pi binders. Their use is restricted to patients receiving

  18. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) to treat low-level mixed wastes, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics that cannot be treated by conventional thermal processes. This work was begun under ANL`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds, followed by further development with support from EM-50`s Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH PHOSPHATE RADIOACTIVE TANK WASTE AND SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-10-15

    A sample of high-level radioactive tank waste was characterized to provide a basis for developing a waste simulant. The simulant is required for engineered-scaled testing of pretreatment processes in a non-radiological facility. The waste material examined was derived from the bismuth phosphate process, which was the first industrial process implemented to separate plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. The bismuth phosphate sludge is a complex mixture rich in bismuth, iron, sodium, phosphorus, silicon, and uranium. The form of phosphorus in this particular tank waste material is of specific importance because that is the primary component (other than water-soluble sodium salts) that must be removed from the high-level waste solids by pretreatment. This work shows unequivocally that the phosphorus present in this waste material is not present as bismuth phosphate. Rather, the phosphorus appears to be incorporated mostly into an amorphous iron(III) phosphate species. The bismuth in the sludge solids is best described as bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3. Infrared spectral data, microscopy, and thermal analysis data are presented to support these conclusions. The behavior of phosphorus during caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge solids is also discussed.

  20. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  1. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Hui; Adams, Jay W.; Kalb, Paul D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  2. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  3. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1--6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15--20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30--60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3--6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20--50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30--70 mole % phosphate, from about 3--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3--8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5--2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3--6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  4. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Hui; Adams, Jay W.; Kalb, Paul D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  5. Downregulation of renal type IIa sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shoko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Masuda, Masashi; Takei, Yuichiro; Nakahashi, Otoki; Kozai, Mina; Tanaka, Sarasa; Nakao, Mari; Taketani, Yutaka; Segawa, Hiroko; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-04-01

    The type IIa sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (Npt2a) plays a critical role in reabsorption of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by renal proximal tubular cells. Pi abnormalities during early stages of sepsis have been reported, but the mechanisms regulating Pi homeostasis during acute inflammation are poorly understood. We examined the regulation of Pi metabolism and renal Npt2a expression during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in mice. Dose-response and time-course studies with LPS showed significant increases of plasma Pi and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and renal Pi excretion, while renal calcium excretion was significantly decreased. There was no difference in plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, but the induction of plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels peaked 3 h after LPS treatment. Western blotting, immunostaining, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that LPS administration significantly decreased Npt2a protein expression in the brush border membrane (BBM) 3 h after injection, but there was no change in renal Npt2a mRNA levels. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α injection also increased plasma iPTH and decreased renal BBM Npt2a expression. Importantly, we revealed that parathyroidectomized rats had impaired renal Pi excretion and BBM Npt2a expression in response to LPS. These results suggest that the downregulation of Npt2a expression in renal BBM through induction of plasma iPTH levels alter Pi homeostasis during LPS-induced acute inflammation. PMID:24500689

  6. Synergism in polyethylene oxide dewatering of phosphatic clay waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smelley, A.G.; Scheiner, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of research conducted in its mission to effect pollution abatement, the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, is developing a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of phosphatic clay wastes, for reuse of water now lost with clays, and for reclamation of mined land. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater phosphatic clay wastes. A synergistic flocculation study was made to determine whether a portion of PEO could be replaced by other reagents. Several groups of reagents were tested: (1) those that increased the zeta potential of the phosphatic clay wastes; (2) those capable of hydrogen bonding; and (3) those which flocculated the phosphatic clay waste. Reduction in PEO consumption occurred only with addition of those reagents able to flocculate the slime. The use of natural guar gums resulted in a lower PEO requirement and also yielded a dewatered product of higher solids content, 43 to 45%, versus 33 to 35% obtained with PEO alone.

  7. Modification by phosphate of PTH-dependent renal cyclic AMP response.

    PubMed

    Guillemant, J; Guillemant, S

    1993-04-01

    The PTH response and the renal cAMP response obtained after oral administration of either tricalcium phosphate or calcium gluconolactate were compared in 12 young adult males. Each subject was studied during a control period of two hours before and during an experimental period of four hours after ingestion of a single oral dose of calcium salt. The respective dosages (1.2 g of calcium plus 0.6 g phosphorus for tricalcium phosphate; 0.5 g of calcium for gluconolactate calcium) were chosen to provide similar significant (p = 0.0001) increases in serum ionized calcium (from 1.23 to 1.29 mmol/l vs from 1.23 to 1.28 mmol/l). After tricalcium phosphate a modest (10%) but significant (p < 0.001) rise in serum phosphate was observed. In both series of experiments similar inhibitory effects on PTH circulating levels were obtained (from 22.6 to 12.4 pg/ml after tricalcium phosphate and from 24.1 to 10.6 pg/ml after calcium gluconolactate). After ingestion of calcium gluconolactate the renal secretion of cAMP fell from 12.68 to 8.64 nmol/l GF (p < 0.001), whereas no significant alterations of the mean values of nephrogenous cAMP were detected after ingestion of tricalcium phosphate. In accordance with the role of cAMP as a second messenger, after calcium gluconolactate we obtained a significant increase in tubular maximal reabsorption of phosphate (p < 0.0001) contrasting with the absence of significant effect after tricalcium phosphate. The present results confirm that suppression of PTH secretion only depends on the rise of serum ionized calcium and suggest that additional phosphate administration could have a decoupling effect between PTH and renal cAMP secretion. PMID:8390394

  8. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    PubMed

    Pulskens, Wilco P; Verkaik, Melissa; Sheedfar, Fareeba; van Loon, Ellen P; van de Sluis, Bart; Vervloet, Mark G; Hoenderop, Joost G; Bindels, René J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+) and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+) excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5), calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b), whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a) and type 3 (PIT2) were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+)/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  9. RENAL DAMAGE FOLLOWING THE INGESTION OF A DIET CONTAINING AN EXCESS OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE.

    PubMed

    Mackay, E M; Oliver, J

    1935-02-28

    The addition of an excess of inorganic phosphate in the form of orthophosphoric acid, acid, basic or neutral sodium or potassium phosphate to the diet of albino rats results in the development of an interesting and permanent renal lesion. The phosphate renal lesion is characterized by a necrosis of the cells of the convoluted tubules commencing at the terminal end, followed by a regeneration of atypical epithelium and calcification of the necrotic debris that fills the tubules. The entire outer stripe of the outer zone of the medulla is transformed into a zone of distorted structures and there is an increase in the interstitial connective tissue. The adjoining cortex is also involved with cystic dilatation of tubules and collapse. Such areas may reach the free surface of the organ and produce a retracted scar. In the gross the kidneys are enlarged and firm on section with a pebbled surface produced by numerous scars. The maximum changes in the kidney structure are reached after some 15 days although necrosis of the convoluted tubule cells is evident after a single day of phosphate feeding. The renal structure is not restored to its normal form when the excess of phosphate is removed from the diet.

  10. Iron Phosphate Glass-Containing Hanford Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2011-08-01

    Resolution of the nation’s high level tank waste legacy requires the design, construction, and operation of large and technically complex one-of-a-kind processing waste treatment and vitrification facilities. While the ultimate limits for waste loading and melter efficiency have yet to be defined or realized, significant reductions in glass volumes for disposal and mission life may be possible with advancements in melter technologies and/or glass formulations. This test report describes the experimental results from a small-scale test using the research scale melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to demonstrate the viability of iron phosphate-based glass with a selected waste composition that is high in sulfates (4.37 wt% SO3). The primary objective of the test was to develop data to support a cost-benefit analysis as related to the implementation of phosphate-based glasses for Hanford low activity waste (LAW) and/or other high-level waste streams within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The testing was performed by PNNL and supported by Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, and Mo-Sci Corporation.

  11. Iron Phosphate Glass-Containing Hanford Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Riley, Brian J.

    2012-01-18

    Resolution of the nation's high-level tank waste legacy requires the design, construction, and operation of large and technically complex one-of-a-kind processing waste treatment and vitrification facilities. While the ultimate limits for waste loading and melter efficiency have yet to be defined or realized, significant reductions in glass volumes for disposal and mission life may be possible with advancements in melter technologies and/or glass formulations. This test report describes the experimental results from a small-scale test using the research-scale melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to demonstrate the viability of iron-phosphate-based glass with a selected waste composition that is high in sulfate (4.37 wt% SO3). The primary objective of the test was to develop data to support a cost-benefit analysis related to the implementation of phosphate-based glasses for Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) and/or other high-level waste streams within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The testing was performed by PNNL and supported by Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, Missouri University of Science and Technology, and Mo-Sci Corporation.

  12. Characterization of phosphate/sulfate waste grout cores

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1993-09-01

    As part of efforts to clean up federal production sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is treating selected low-level liquid wastes by incorporating them into cementitious waste forms. At the Hanford Site, low-level radioactive liquid wastes will be mixed with a blend of Portland cement, fly ash, clays, and other ingredients in a continuous process at the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The resulting grout slurry will be pumped to lined, underground concrete vaults where the grout will harden, thereby immobilizing contaminants. Physical property measurements and American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach tests have been completed on 45 samples obtained from five cores from the phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) grout vault. A summary of the compressive strength, bulk density, and sonic velocity data is compared with data from other PSW grout samples. Results of moisture content, thermal conductivity, and the leaching of aluminium, calcium, sodium, sulfate, cobalt-60, and cesium-137 are given.

  13. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  14. Calcium Phosphate: A potential host for halide contaminated plutonium wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian L.; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-07-06

    The presence of significant quantities of fluoride and chloride in four types of legacy wastes from plutonium pyrochemical reprocessing required the development of a new wasteform which could adequately immobilize the halides in addition to the Pu and Am. Using a simulant chloride-based waste (Type I waste) and Sm as the surrogate for the Pu3+ and Am3+ present in the waste, AWE developed a process which utilised Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. The waste was successfully incorporated into two crystalline phases, chlorapatite, [Ca5(PO4)3Cl], and spodiosite, [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Radioactive studies performed at PNNL with 239Pu and 241Am confirmed the process. A slightly modified version of the process in which CaHPO4 was used as the host was successful in immobilizing a more complex multi-cation oxide–based waste (Type II) which contained significant concentrations of Cl and F in addition to 239Pu and 241Am. This waste resulted in the formation of cation-doped whitlockite, Ca3-xMgx(PO4)2, β-calcium phosphate, β-Ca2P2O7 and chlor-fluorapatite rather than the chlorapatite and spodiosite formed with Type I waste.

  15. Effect of chronic poisoning with aluminum on the renal handling of phosphate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L

    1998-01-16

    The effects of aluminum on renal function and phosphate handling were studied using clearance techniques in chronically-intoxicated rats. Rats were given aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w., i.p.), three times per week during 6 months. The phosphate tubular transport capacity was evaluated by determining the maximum tubular transport (TmRPi) and the fractional excretion of phosphate (FE% Pi) during the infusion of phosphate solutions with increasing concentrations (0, 9, 18, 33 mM). Parathyroid gland function was studied using indirect methods: calcemia recovery after EDTA administration and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP as indicative of renal PTH actions, by RIA. The systemic acid base status was determined and food intake and rat growth were controlled in both groups. No changes were observed in the renal function. Pi reabsorption values per ml glomerular filtration rate (TRPi/GFR microg/ml) for different Pi plasmatic concentrations were distributed following a saturation curve compatible with a saturation kinetics. Aluminum increased TmRPi/GFR in treated animals (T) 76+/-4 as compared with control animals (C) 57+/-7 microg/ml, without a statistical modification in the apparent affinity. The FE% Pi and FE% Na were significantly lower in treated animals than in control animals. There were neither systemic variations in the acid-base balance nor in the Ca and Pi concentrations in plasma. The calcemia recovery following a hypocalcemic stimulus and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP (T: 44+/-4; C: 91+/-7 pmol/min) were diminished. Considering all these facts, it can be postulated that the aluminum renal effect is associated from a decrease in PTH phosphaturic capacity. Nevertheless, other associated factors like minor phosphate intestinal absorption rate may not be disregarded, even though there were no significant intake variations. PMID:9544698

  16. Effect of chronic poisoning with aluminum on the renal handling of phosphate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L

    1998-01-16

    The effects of aluminum on renal function and phosphate handling were studied using clearance techniques in chronically-intoxicated rats. Rats were given aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w., i.p.), three times per week during 6 months. The phosphate tubular transport capacity was evaluated by determining the maximum tubular transport (TmRPi) and the fractional excretion of phosphate (FE% Pi) during the infusion of phosphate solutions with increasing concentrations (0, 9, 18, 33 mM). Parathyroid gland function was studied using indirect methods: calcemia recovery after EDTA administration and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP as indicative of renal PTH actions, by RIA. The systemic acid base status was determined and food intake and rat growth were controlled in both groups. No changes were observed in the renal function. Pi reabsorption values per ml glomerular filtration rate (TRPi/GFR microg/ml) for different Pi plasmatic concentrations were distributed following a saturation curve compatible with a saturation kinetics. Aluminum increased TmRPi/GFR in treated animals (T) 76+/-4 as compared with control animals (C) 57+/-7 microg/ml, without a statistical modification in the apparent affinity. The FE% Pi and FE% Na were significantly lower in treated animals than in control animals. There were neither systemic variations in the acid-base balance nor in the Ca and Pi concentrations in plasma. The calcemia recovery following a hypocalcemic stimulus and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP (T: 44+/-4; C: 91+/-7 pmol/min) were diminished. Considering all these facts, it can be postulated that the aluminum renal effect is associated from a decrease in PTH phosphaturic capacity. Nevertheless, other associated factors like minor phosphate intestinal absorption rate may not be disregarded, even though there were no significant intake variations.

  17. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and haematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350{degrees}C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy`s mixed waste streams.

  18. Fundamental mechanisms of phosphate stabilization in granular waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eighmy, T.T.

    1996-10-01

    Phosphate minerals are known to be both geochemically stable and very insoluble. Consequently, orthophosphate has been considered to be an excellent chemical stabilization agent for immobilizing divalent metal cations in waste materials. We are presently involved in fundamental research on one commercial system used for a variety of wastes. A number of bulk and surface spectroscopic techniques were used to identify reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The Dutch Availability Leaching test was used to generate leached solids. pH-dependent leaching and the geochemical thermodynamic equilibrium model MINTEQA2 was used to model solid phase control of leaching. For lime-based dry scrubber residues from a U.S. waste-to-energy facility, the data suggests that the immobilization mechanisms are surface-based or discrete solid precipitation rather than surface sorption/ion exchange. Results to date also show that apatite family minerals (for Ca, Cd, and Pb) and tertiary metal phosphates (for Zn, Cu, and Cd) are dominant reaction products; these insoluble phases remain after aggressive leaching. Research is continuing on slags, contaminated soils, furnace dusts, and smelter dusts.

  19. Method and compositions for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in chemical waste mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Stoner, Daphne L.; Tien, Albert J.

    1995-01-01

    A method and process for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in an organic waste mixture and a biologically pure, novel bacteria culture for accomplishing the same. A newly-discovered bacteria (a strain of Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 55587) is provided which is combined in a reactor vessel with a liquid waste mixture containing tributyl phosphate and one or more organic waste compounds capable of functioning as growth substrates for the bacteria. The bacteria is thereafter allowed to incubate within the waste mixture. As a result, the tributyl phosphate and organic compounds within the waste mixture are metabolized (degraded) by the bacteria, thereby eliminating such materials which are environmentally hazardous. In addition, the bacteria is capable of degrading waste mixtures containing high quantities of tributyl phosphate (e.g. up to about 1.0% by weight tributyl phosphate).

  20. Method and compositions for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in chemical waste mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Stoner, D.L.; Tien, A.J.

    1995-09-26

    A method and process are disclosed for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in an organic waste mixture and a biologically pure, novel bacteria culture for accomplishing the same. A newly-discovered bacteria (a strain of Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 55587) is provided which is combined in a reactor vessel with a liquid waste mixture containing tributyl phosphate and one or more organic waste compounds capable of functioning as growth substrates for the bacteria. The bacteria is thereafter allowed to incubate within the waste mixture. As a result, the tributyl phosphate and organic compounds within the waste mixture are metabolized (degraded) by the bacteria, thereby eliminating such materials which are environmentally hazardous. In addition, the bacteria is capable of degrading waste mixtures containing high quantities of tributyl phosphate (e.g. up to about 1.0% by weight tributyl phosphate). 6 figs.

  1. Leach characterization of phosphate-sulfate waste grouts

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is the first in the United States to process and dispose of large-scale, low-level, radioactive liquid wastes as solidified cement-based grout. (The GTF is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL).) Grout slurries are emplaced in near-surface concrete vaults, which include double-liner/leachate collection systems in accordance with regulations of the State of Washington and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Proper characterization of the grout and a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling radionuclide/pollutant release and potential migration to the surrounding biosphere is essential to ensure public health and safety. It is the ability to make predictions of the long-term durability of the grout that is central to public acceptance of grout as the final disposal form of low-level, radioactive liquid wastes. Leaching is an important process controlling radionuclide/pollutant release from the grout to the biosphere/geosphere. Leach testing of grout specimens, prepared from the actual wastes for disposal, will provide direct indication of the most likely species that may be released. This investigation serves as support for the safety evaluation of cement-based phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grouts. 4 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Thyroid hormones regulate phosphate homoeostasis through transcriptional control of the renal type IIa sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter (Npt2a) gene.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Mariko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Masuda, Masashi; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Sarasa; Sato, Tadatoshi; Segawa, Hiroko; Taketani, Yutaka; Arai, Hidekazu; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2010-03-15

    The type IIa renal sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) co-transporter Npt2a is implicated in the control of serum phosphate levels. It has been demonstrated previously that renal Npt2a protein and its mRNA expression are both up-regulated by the thyroid hormone T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine) in rats. However, it has never been established whether the induction was mediated by a direct effect of thyroid hormones on the Npt2a promoter. To address the role of Npt2a in T3-dependent regulation of phosphate homoeostasis and to identify the molecular mechanisms by which thyroid hormones modulate Npt2a gene expression, mice were rendered pharmacologically hypo- and hyper-thyroid. Hypothyroid mice showed low levels of serum phosphate and a marked decrease in renal Npt2a protein abundance. Importantly, we also showed that Npt2a-deficient mice had impaired serum phosphate responsiveness to T3 compared with wild-type mice. Promoter analysis with a luciferase assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of a reporter gene containing the Npt2a promoter and intron 1 was dependent upon TRs (thyroid hormone receptors) and specifically increased by T3 in renal cells. Deletion analysis and EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-shift assays) determined that there were unique TREs (thyroid-hormone-responsive elements) within intron 1 of the Npt2a gene. These results suggest that Npt2a plays a critical role as a T3-target gene, to control phosphate homoeostasis, and that T3 transcriptionally activates the Npt2a gene via TRs in a renal cell-specific manner.

  3. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-01

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams. PMID:22571620

  4. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-01

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  5. Separating and Stabilizing Phosphate from High-Level Radioactive Waste: Process Development and Spectroscopic Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Peterson, James M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2012-05-09

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  6. Phosphate control in end-stage renal disease: barriers and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Ahmed A.; Pedraza, Fernando; Lenz, Oliver; Isakova, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a nearly universal complication of end-stage renal disease that is widely recognized as one of the most important and most challenging clinical targets to meet in the care of dialysis patients. Left untreated, it can lead to bone pain, pruritus and worsening secondary hyperparathyroidism. Data from observational studies demonstrate that an elevated serum phosphorus level is an independent risk factor for mortality, and that treatment with phosphate binders is independently associated with improved survival. Experimental studies provide support for the epidemiologic findings: phosphate excess promotes vascular calcification, induces endothelial dysfunction and may contribute to other emerging chronic kidney disease-specific mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity. On the basis of this evidence, clinical practice guidelines recommend specific targets for serum phosphorus levels in the dialysis population. The purpose of this review is to summarize common challenges in meeting these targets and to identify potential opportunities for improvement. PMID:23901051

  7. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  8. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  9. Control of renal calcium, phosphate, electrolyte, and water excretion by the calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Tyler Miller, R

    2013-06-01

    Through regulation of excretion, the kidney shares responsibility for the metabolic balance of calcium (Ca(2+)) with several other tissues including the GI tract and bone. The balances of Ca(2+) and phosphate (PO4), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), and water (H2O) are linked via regulatory systems with overlapping effects and are also controlled by systems specific to each of them. Cloning of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) along with the recognition that mutations in the CaSR gene are responsible for two familial syndromes characterized by abnormalities in the regulation of PTH secretion and Ca(2+) metabolism (Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia, FHH, and Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia, ADH) made it clear that extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)o) participates in its own regulation via a specific, receptor-mediated mechanism. Demonstration that the CaSR is expressed in the kidney as well as the parathyroid glands combined with more complete characterizations of FHH and ADH established that the effects of elevated Ca(2+) on the kidney (wasting of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and H2O) are attributable to activation of the CaSR. The advent of positive and negative allosteric modulators of the CaSR along with mouse models with global or tissue-selective deletion of the CaSR in the kidney have allowed a better understanding of the functions of the CaSR in various nephron segments. The biology of the CaSR is more complicated than originally thought and difficult to define precisely owing to the limitations of reagents such as anti-CaSR antibodies and the difficulties inherent in separating direct effects of Ca(2+) on the kidney mediated by the CaSR from associated CaSR-induced changes in PTH. Nevertheless, renal CaSRs have nephron-specific effects that contribute to regulating Ca(2+) in the circulation and urine in a manner that assures a narrow range of Ca(2+)o in the blood and avoids excessively high concentrations of Ca(2

  10. A novel lipid natriuretic factor in the renal medulla: sphingosine-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Xia, Min; Wang, Zhengchao; Li, Pin-Lan; Li, Ningjun

    2011-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine. S1P has been indicated to play a significant role in the cardiovascular system. It has been shown that the enzymes for S1P metabolism are expressed in the kidneys. The present study characterized the expression of S1P receptors in the kidneys and determined the role of S1P in the control of renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that S1P receptors S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 were most abundantly expressed in the renal medulla. Immunohistochemistry revealed that all three types of S1P receptors were mainly located in collecting ducts. Intramedullary infusion of FTY720, an S1P agonist, produced a dramatic increase in sodium excretion by twofold and a small but significant increase in medullary blood flow (16%). Administration of W146, an S1P1 antagonist, into the renal medulla blocked the effect of FTY720 and decreased the sodium excretion by 37% when infused alone. The antagonists of S1P2 and S1P3 had no effect. FTY720 produced additive natriuretic effects in combination with different sodium transporter inhibitors except amiloride, an epithelial sodium channel blocker. In the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME, FTY720 still increased sodium excretion. These data suggest that S1P produces natriuretic effects via activation of S1P1 in the renal medulla and this natriuretic effect may be through inhibition of epithelial sodium channel, which is nitric oxide independent. It is concluded that S1P is a novel diuretic factor in the renal medulla and may be an important regulator of sodium homeostasis.

  11. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  12. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for low-level mixed waste stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Mayberry, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of mixed waste streams which are amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes due to presence of volatiles such as heavy metal chloride and fluorides and/or pyrophorics in the wastes. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na and Zr are being developed as candidate matrix materials. In this paper, we present the fabrication procedures of phosphate waste forms using surrogates compositions of three typical mixed wastes streams -- ash, cement sludges, and salts. The performance of the final waste forms such as compression strength, leachability of the contaminants, durability in aqueous environment were conducted. In addition, parameteric studies have been conducted to establish the optimal waste loading in a particular binder system. Based on the results, we present potential applications in the treatment of various mixed waste streams.

  13. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-08-15

    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 · 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 μg/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 μg/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties.

  14. Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate phosphate release from sediments and phosphate input from waste water treatment plants into Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, K.; Klass, T.; Watson, S.; Mah, B.; Paytan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus is often a limiting nutrient in freshwater systems; however increased inputs have been promoting eutrophication in many of these systems. Phosphate is one of the more bio-available forms of phosphate and it has been suggested by Elsbury et al., (2009) that in addition to riverin input some other yet unidentified phosphate source contributes to the phosphorous loading in Lake Erie. We are using the oxygen isotope of phosphate to identify two potential sources of phosphorus into Lake Erie. Specifically we determine the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate which is associated with various sedimentary phases at two sites in Lake Erie. The distinct sedimentary phases have different phosphate mobility and thus release potential to the lake. In addition we determine the isotopic signature of phosphate that is released into the lake from treated waste water effluent throughout the year. Results will be compared to the isotopic signature of phosphate in Lake water to evaluate the potential contribution form each of these sources.

  15. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  16. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALLY BONDED PHOSPHATE CERAMICS FOR MERCURY STABILIZATION OF A MIXED SYNTHETIC WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization and encapsulation technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory, called the Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics technology for Hg- and HgCl2-contaminated synthetic waste materials. Leachability ...

  17. Phosphate Binding with Sevelamer Preserves Mechanical Competence of Bone Despite Acidosis in Advanced Experimental Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jokihaara, Jarkko; Pörsti, Ilkka H.; Sievänen, Harri; Kööbi, Peeter; Kannus, Pekka; Niemelä, Onni; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Järvinen, Teppo L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phosphate binding with sevelamer can ameliorate detrimental histomorphometric changes of bone in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Here we explored the effects of sevelamer-HCl treatment on bone strength and structure in experimental CRI. Methods Forty-eight 8-week-old rats were assigned to surgical 5/6 nephrectomy (CRI) or renal decapsulation (Sham). After 14 weeks of disease progression, the rats were allocated to untreated and sevelamer-treated (3% in chow) groups for 9 weeks. Then the animals were sacrificed, plasma samples collected, and femora excised for structural analysis (biomechanical testing, quantitative computed tomography). Results Sevelamer-HCl significantly reduced blood pH, and final creatinine clearance in the CRI groups ranged 30%-50% of that in the Sham group. Final plasma phosphate increased 2.4- to 2.9-fold, and parathyroid hormone 13- to 21-fold in CRI rats, with no difference between sevelamer-treated and untreated animals. In the femoral midshaft, CRI reduced cortical bone mineral density (-3%) and breaking load (-15%) (p<0.05 for all versus Sham), while sevelamer increased bone mineral density (+2%) and prevented the deleterious changes in bone. In the femoral neck, CRI reduced bone mineral density (-11%) and breaking load (-10%), while sevelamer prevented the decrease in bone mineral density (+6%) so that breaking load did not differ from controls. Conclusions In this model of stage 3–4 CRI, sevelamer-HCl treatment ameliorated the decreases in femoral midshaft and neck mineral density, and restored bone strength despite prevailing acidosis. Therefore, treatment with sevelamer can efficiently preserve mechanical competence of bone in CRI. PMID:27658028

  18. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphates adsorbed on calcium carbonate are environmental friendly, as they do not require further treatment for the phosphate species desorption due to its effectiveness as the plant fertilizer. In this study, an inexpensive calcium carbonate obtained as a waste material from d...

  19. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  20. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to [approximately]50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  1. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to {approximately}50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  2. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  3. Phosphate binders: Sevelamer in the prevention and treatment of hyperphosphataemia in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Spaia, S

    2011-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease patients, bone and mineral abnormalities have a major impact on morbidity and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with increased mortality and with the development of cardiovascular calcification, an independent predictor of mortality. Sevelamer, or more precisely 'sevelamer hydrochloride', is a weakly basic anion-exchange resin in the chloride form that was introduced in 1997 for the treatment of the hyperphosphataemia of patients with end-stage renal failure. Sevelamer sequesters phosphate within the gastrointestinal tract, so prevents its absorption and enhances its faecal excretion. Over the succeeding years, large numbers of patients have been treated with sevelamer, and it has fulfilled expectations in helping to control the hyperphosphataemia of end-stage renal failure. Additionally treatment with sevelamer was accompanied with lower incidence of hypercalcemia, decreased incidence of low PTH levels, a 15-31% decrease of LDL-cholesterol both in dialysis and predialysis patients, decreased C-reactive protein, amelioration of hyperuricemia and low fetuin A, decrease of uremic toxins, suggesting an overall anti-inflammatory effect. In incident dialysis patients, treatment with sevelamer has been associated with better survival, while in prevalent patients a clear benefit could only be demonstrated in older patients and in patients treated for more than 2 years. In dialysis patients, the treatment of hyperphospathemia with calcium based compounds, when compared with sevelamer, is associated with more frequent episodes of hypercalcemia, suppression of intact PTH and with progression of coronary calcifications. In the presence of adynamic bone disease, calcium load has a significantly higher impact on aortic calcifications and stiffening. Sevelamer treatment resulted in no statistically significant changes in bone turnover or mineralization compared with calcium carbonate, but bone formation rate increased and trabecular

  4. Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1998-06-26

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

  5. Variability in properties of grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Bowen, W.M.; Harty, H.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-02-01

    A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) is being constructed at the Hanford site in Washington State to convert various low-level liquid wastes to a grout waste form for onsite disposal. The TGF Project is managed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided a grout formulation for Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste, the first waste stream scheduled for grouting beginning in late 1987. The formulation includes a blend of portland cement, fly ash, attapulgite clay, and an illitic clay. Grout will be produced by mixing the blend with Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste. These wastes result from decontamination and ion-exchange regeneration activities at Hanford's N-Reactor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting studies on grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste to verify that the grout can be successfully processed and, when hardened, that it will meet all performance and regulatory requirements. As part of these studies, PNL is assessing the variability that may be encountered when processing Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste grout. Sources of variability that may affect grout properties include the composition and concentrations of the waste and dry solids, temperature, efficiency of dry solids blending, and dry blend storage time. 13 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Immobilization of {sup 99}Tc in low-temperature phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Mandalika, V.; Wagh, A.; Strain, R.; Tlustochowicz, M.

    1997-05-01

    Radionuclides such as {sup 99}Tc are by-products of fission reactions in high-level wastes. Technetium poses a serious environmental threat because it is easily oxidized into its highly leachable pertechnetate form. Magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics have been developed to treat {sup 99}Tc that has been separated and eluted from simulated high-level tank wastes by sorption processes. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and wastes, and acid phosphate solutions. Standard leaching tests, such as ANS 16.1 and the Product Consistency Test, were conducted on the final waste forms to establish their performance. The fate of the contaminants in the final waste forms was established with scanning electron microscopy techniques. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated by long-term water immersion tests.

  7. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  8. Relationship of dietary phosphate intake with risk of end stage renal disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease stage 3-5: A Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study

    PubMed Central

    Selamet, Umut; Tighiouart, Hocine; Sarnak, Mark J.; Beck, Gerald; Levey, Andrew S.; Block, Geoffrey; Ix, Joachim H.

    2015-01-01

    KDIGO guidelines recommend dietary phosphate restriction to lower serum phosphate levels in CKD stage 3-5. Recent studies suggest that dietary phosphate intake is only weakly linked to its serum concentration, and the relationship of phosphate intake with adverse outcomes is uncertain. To further evaluate this, we used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of baseline 24 hour urine phosphate excretion with risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), all-cause mortality, and mortality subtypes (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease data. Models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, iothalamate GFR, and urine protein and nitrogen excretion. Phosphate excretion was modestly inversely correlated with serum phosphate concentrations. There was no association of 24 hour urinary phosphate excretion with risk of ESRD, CVD-, non-CVD- or all-cause mortality. For comparison, higher serum phosphate concentrations were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 0.7 mg/dL higher, 1.15 [95% CI 1.01, 1.30]). Thus, phosphate intake is not tightly linked with serum phosphate concentrations in CKD stage 3-5, and there was no evidence that greater phosphate intake, assessed by 24 hour phosphate excretion, is associated with ESRD, CVD-, non CVD-, or all-cause mortality in CKD stage 3-5. Hence, factors other than dietary intake may be key determinants of serum phosphate concentrations and require additional investigation. PMID:26422502

  9. Faropenem Transport across the Renal Epithelial Luminal Membrane via Inorganic Phosphate Transporter Npt1

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Tamai, Ikumi; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; China, Kayoko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji; Tsuji, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We previously showed that the mouse inorganic phosphate transporter Npt1 operates in the hepatic sinusoidal membrane transport of anionic drugs such as benzylpenicillin and mevalonic acid. In the present study, the mechanism of renal secretion of penem antibiotics was examined by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system. Faropenem (an oral penem antibiotic) was transported via Npt1 with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.77 ± 0.34 mM in a sodium-independent but chloride ion-sensitive manner. When the concentration of chloride ions was increased, the transport activity of faropenem by Npt1 was decreased. Since the concentration gradient of chloride ions is in the lumen-to-intracellular direction, faropenem is expected to be transported from inside proximal tubular cells to the lumen. So, we tested the release of faropenem from Xenopus oocytes. The rate of efflux of faropenem from Npt1-expressing oocytes was about 9.5 times faster than that from control water-injected Xenopus oocytes. Faropenem transport by Npt1 was significantly inhibited by β-lactam antibiotics such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, and cefazolin to 24.9, 40.5, 54.4, and 26.2% of that for the control, respectively. Zwitterionic β-lactam antibiotics showed lesser inhibitory effects on faropenem uptake than anionic derivatives, indicating that Npt1 preferentially transports anionic compounds. Other anionic compounds, such as indomethacin and furosemide, and the anion transport inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid significantly inhibited faropenem uptake mediated by Npt1. In conclusion, our results suggest that Npt1 participates in the renal secretion of penem antibiotics. PMID:10681320

  10. Faropenem transport across the renal epithelial luminal membrane via inorganic phosphate transporter Npt1.

    PubMed

    Uchino, H; Tamai, I; Yabuuchi, H; China, K; Miyamoto, K; Takeda, E; Tsuji, A

    2000-03-01

    We previously showed that the mouse inorganic phosphate transporter Npt1 operates in the hepatic sinusoidal membrane transport of anionic drugs such as benzylpenicillin and mevalonic acid. In the present study, the mechanism of renal secretion of penem antibiotics was examined by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system. Faropenem (an oral penem antibiotic) was transported via Npt1 with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.77 +/- 0.34 mM in a sodium-independent but chloride ion-sensitive manner. When the concentration of chloride ions was increased, the transport activity of faropenem by Npt1 was decreased. Since the concentration gradient of chloride ions is in the lumen-to-intracellular direction, faropenem is expected to be transported from inside proximal tubular cells to the lumen. So, we tested the release of faropenem from Xenopus oocytes. The rate of efflux of faropenem from Npt1-expressing oocytes was about 9.5 times faster than that from control water-injected Xenopus oocytes. Faropenem transport by Npt1 was significantly inhibited by beta-lactam antibiotics such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, and cefazolin to 24.9, 40. 5, 54.4, and 26.2% of that for the control, respectively. Zwitterionic beta-lactam antibiotics showed lesser inhibitory effects on faropenem uptake than anionic derivatives, indicating that Npt1 preferentially transports anionic compounds. Other anionic compounds, such as indomethacin and furosemide, and the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid significantly inhibited faropenem uptake mediated by Npt1. In conclusion, our results suggest that Npt1 participates in the renal secretion of penem antibiotics. PMID:10681320

  11. Development of chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    1997-11-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been developed by acid-base reactions between magnesium oxide and an acid phosphate at room temperature for stabilizing U.S. Department of Energy's low-level mixed waste streams that include hazardous chemicals and radioactive elements. Newberyite (MgHPOsb4.3Hsb2O)-rich magnesium phosphate ceramic was formed by an acid-base reaction between phosphoric acid and magnesium oxide. The reaction slurry, formed at room-temperature, sets rapidly and forms stable mineral phases of newberyite, lunebergite, and residual MgO. Rapid setting also generates heat due to exothermic acid-base reaction. The reaction was retarded by partially neutralizing the phosphoric acid solution by adding sodium or potassium hydroxide. This reduced the rate of reaction and heat generation and led to a practical way of producing novel magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic. This ceramic was formed by reacting stoichiometric amount of monopotassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, MgO, and water, forming pure-phase of MgKPOsb4.6Hsb2O (MKP) with moderate exothermic reaction. Using this chemically bonded phosphate ceramic matrix, low-level mixed waste streams were stabilized, and superior waste forms in a monolithic structure were developed. The final waste forms showed low open porosity and permeability, and higher compression strength than the Land Disposal Requirements (LDRs). The novel MKP ceramic technology allowed us to develop operational size waste forms of 55 gal with good physical integrity. In this improved waste form, the hazardous contaminants such as RCRA heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, etc) were chemically fixed by their conversion into insoluble phosphate forms and physically encapsulated by the phosphate ceramic. In addition, chemically bonded phosphate ceramics stabilized radioactive elements such U and Pu. This was demonstrated with a detailed stabilization study on cerium used as a surrogate (chemically equivalent but nonradioactive

  12. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content.

  13. Effects of acute sodium fluoride exposure on kidney function, water homeostasis, and renal handling of calcium and inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Santoyo-Sanchez, Mitzi Paola; del Carmen Silva-Lucero, Maria; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Barbier, Olivier Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Fluoride compounds are abundant and widely distributed in the environment at a variety of concentrations. Further, fluoride induces toxic effects in target organs such as the liver and kidney. In this study, we performed an early analysis of renal function using a clearance technique in Wistar rats acutely exposed to fluoride at a plasma concentration of 0.625 μg/ml. Our results revealed that fluoride, at a concentration close to the concentration present in the serum after environmental exposure, induced a significant tubular dysfunction, resulting in diluted urine, impaired protein reabsorption, and increased calcium and phosphate urinary excretion. Our work demonstrates that even acute exposures to low concentrations of NaF may induce renal damage and confirms that, after exposure, the kidney participates directly in the calcium and phosphate deficiencies observed in fluoride-exposed populations.

  14. Sepsis-associated renal salt wasting: how much is too much?

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented with an extremely high level of glomerular filtration rate and renal salt wasting during acute severe sepsis. Clinical implications for resuscitation and antibiotics dosage regimens are discussed. PMID:24408942

  15. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  16. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  17. Crystalline Phase Separation in Phosphate Containing Waste Glasses: Relevance to INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-09-21

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges have been studied. The type of phase separation that occurs in the phosphate rich borosilicate waste glasses, such as those investigated for INEEL, crystallizes upon cooling. This type of phase separation mechanism is less well studied than amorphous phase separation in phosphate poor borosilicate waste glasses. Therefore, the type of phase separation, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of INEEL-type glasses were examined and the data statistically analyzed in this study.

  18. Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2010-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

  19. Secondary waste form testing : ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y.

    2011-06-21

    The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3}, and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3} filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was {approx}5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted

  20. Stabilization and solidification of metal-laden wastes by compaction and magnesium phosphate-based binder.

    PubMed

    Rao, A J; Pagilla, K R; Wagh, A S

    2000-09-01

    Bench-scale and full-scale investigations of waste stabilization and volume reduction were conducted using spiked soil and ash wastes containing heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Hg. The waste streams were stabilized and solidified using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) binder, and then compacted by either uniaxial or harmonic press for volume reduction. The physical properties of the final waste forms were determined by measuring volume reduction, density, porosity, and compressive strength. The leachability of heavy metals in the final waste forms was determined by a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and a 90-day immersion test (ANS 16.1). The structural composition and nature of waste forms were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. CBPC binder and compaction can achieve 80-wt% waste loading and 39-47% reduction in waste volume. Compressive strength of final waste forms ranged from 1500 to 2000 psi. TCLP testing of waste forms showed that all heavy metals except Hg passed the TCLP limits using the phosphate-based binder. When Na2S was added to the binder, the waste forms also passed TCLP limits for Hg. Long-term leachability resistance of the final waste forms was achieved for all metals in both soil and ash wastes, and the leachability index was approximately 14. XRD patterns of waste forms indicated vermiculite in the ash waste was chemically incorporated into the CBPC matrix. SEM showed that waste forms are layered when compacted by uniaxial press and are homogeneous when compacted by harmonic press. PMID:11055158

  1. Phosphorus availability from rock phosphate: Combined effect of green waste composting and sulfur addition.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Ceglie, F G; Aly, A; Mihreteab, H T; Ciaccia, C; Tittarelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate.

  2. Phosphorus availability from rock phosphate: Combined effect of green waste composting and sulfur addition.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Ceglie, F G; Aly, A; Mihreteab, H T; Ciaccia, C; Tittarelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate. PMID:27543750

  3. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-12-28

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

  4. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  5. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  6. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  7. Erosion of magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1998-11-20

    Phosphate-based chemically bonded ceramics were formed from magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) binder and either industrial fly ash or steel slag. The resulting ceramics were subjected to solid-particle erosion by a stream of either angular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or rounded SiO{sub 2} sand. Particle impact angles were 30 or 90{degree} and the impact velocity was 50 m/s. Steady-state erosion rates, measured as mass lost from a specimen per mass of impacting particle, were dependent on impact angle and on erodent particle size and shape. Material was lost by a combination of fracture mechanisms. Evolution of H{sub 2}O from the MKP phase appeared to contribute significantly to the material loss.

  8. Site-specific cell proliferation in renal tubular cells by the renal tubular carcinogen tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, M L; Elwell, M R; Matthews, H B

    1993-01-01

    Our laboratory has been examining the mechanisms whereby chemicals are mutagenic in short-term in-vitro assays yet are not carcinogenic in 2-year rodent bioassays. Previous studies indicated that mutagenic carcinogens increased the amount of cell turnover in the target organ, but that mutagenic noncarcinogens failed to do so. The present study compares the incidence of cell proliferation in specific regions of the kidney, which is the site of carcinogenicity, with cell proliferation induced in a nontarget tissue, the liver, by the mutagenic renal tubular carcinogen tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (TRIS). Renal tubular adenocarcinoma induced by TRIS was the only tumor type identified in male F344 rats, and it was localized in the outer medulla. Male F344 rats were fed a diet containing 0, 50, or 100 ppm TRIS for 14 days. These doses were identical to the doses given in the National Toxicology Program cancer bioassay. Replicating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine administered by an osmotic minipump and identified in tissue sections from liver and kidney using immunohistochemical techniques. Examination of liver sections showed no chemically related increases in cell proliferation above control for either dose group. However, in the kidney, TRIS induced significant cell proliferation that was localized in the renal outer medulla region, the target area for carcinogenesis. The labeling index (number of labeled cells/total number of cells counted) in the kidneys of TRIS-exposed rats was increased approximately 4-fold in the outer medulla and was not increased in the cortex or inner medulla. The results of this study suggest an association between the chemically-induced renal cell proliferation and the renal carcinogenicity of TRIS. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. PMID:8013416

  9. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  10. Method of waste stabilization via chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep; Jeong, Seung-Young

    1998-01-01

    A method for regulating the reaction temperature of a ceramic formulation process is provided comprising supplying a solution containing a monovalent alkali metal; mixing said solution with an oxide powder to create a binder; contacting said binder with bulk material to form a slurry; and allowing the slurry to cure. A highly crystalline waste form is also provided consisting of a binder containing potassium and waste substrate encapsulated by the binder.

  11. Method of waste stabilization via chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1998-11-03

    A method for regulating the reaction temperature of a ceramic formulation process is provided comprising supplying a solution containing a monovalent alkali metal; mixing said solution with an oxide powder to create a binder; contacting said binder with bulk material to form a slurry; and allowing the slurry to cure. A highly crystalline waste form is also provided consisting of a binder containing potassium and waste substrate encapsulated by the binder. 3 figs.

  12. Reaction of Inconel 690 and 693 in Iron Phosphate Melts: Alternative Glasses for Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E. Kim, Cheol-Woon

    2005-09-13

    The corrosion resistance of candidate materials used for the electrodes (Inconel 690 & 693) and the melt contact refractory (Monofrax K-3) in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) has been investigated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) during the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (DE-FG02-04ER63831). The unusual properties and characteristics of iron phosphate glasses, as viewed from the standpoint of alternative glasses for vitrifying nuclear and hazardous wastes which contain components that make them poorly suited for vitrification in borosilicate glass, were recently discovered at UMR. The expanding national and international interest in iron phosphate glasses for waste vitrification stems from their rapid melting and chemical homogenization which results in higher furnace output, their high waste loading that varies from 32 wt% up to 75 wt% for the Hanford LAW and HLW, respectively, and the outstanding chemical durability of the iron phosphate wasteforms which meets all present DOE requirements (PCT and VHT). The higher waste loading in iron phosphate glasses, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass, can reduce the time and cost of vitrification considerably since a much smaller mass of glass will be produced, for example, about 43% less glass when the LAW at Hanford is vitrified in an iron phosphate glass according to PNNL estimates. In view of the promising performance of iron phosphate glasses, information is needed for how to best melt these glasses on the scale needed for practical use. Melting iron phosphate glasses in a JHM is considered the preferred method at this time because its design could be nearly identical to the JHM now used to melt borosilicate glasses at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Therefore, it is important to have information for the corrosion of candidate electrode

  13. [Phosphate binders in renal patients: a point estimate from rationale, through evidences to the real world setting].

    PubMed

    Galassi, Andrea; Giovenzana, Maria Enrica; Galbiati, Eleonora; Auricchio, Sara; Colzani, Sara; Scanziani, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders represent a common intervention in renal patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Although counteracting P overload through binders adoption is argued by a physiology-driven approach, the efficacy of this intervention on hard endpoints remains poorly evident. The inconsistencies between rationale and methodological weakness, concerning the clinical relevance of P binding in chronic kidney disease, will be herein discussed with special focus on the need of a multi-factorial treatment against CKD-MBD, which is currently more achievable due to the variety of P binders and the rapid evolution of nutritional therapy, dialysis techniques and nursing science. PMID:27545626

  14. Abnormal regulation of renal vitamin D catabolism by dietary phosphate in murine X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed Central

    Tenenhouse, H S; Jones, G

    1990-01-01

    Hyp mice exhibit increased renal catabolism of vitamin D metabolites by the C-24 oxidation pathway (1988. J. Clin. Invest. 81:461-465). To examine the regulatory influence of dietary phosphate on the renal vitamin D catabolic pathway in Hyp mice, we measured C-24 oxidation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in renal mitochondria isolated from Hyp mice and normal littermates fed diets containing 0.03% (low-Pi), 1% (control-Pi), and 1.6% (high-Pi) phosphate. In normal mice the low-Pi diet led to a rise in serum 1,25(OH)2D (22.2 +/- 1.8 to 48.1 +/- 6.8 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) and no change in C-24 oxidation products (0.053 +/- 0.006 to 0.066 +/- 0.008 pmol/mg protein per min) when compared with the control diet. In Hyp mice the low-Pi diet elicited a fall in serum 1,25(OH)2D (21.9 +/- 1.2 to 8.0 +/- 0.2 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) and a dramatic increase in C-24 oxidation products (0.120 +/- 0.017 to 0.526 +/- 0.053 pmol/mg protein per min, P less than 0.05) when compared with the control diet. The high-Pi diet did not significantly alter serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D or C-24 oxidation products in normal mice. Hyp mice on the high-Pi diet experienced a rise in serum 1,25(OH)2D (21.9 +/- 1.2 to 40.4 +/- 7.3, P less than 0.05) and a fall in C-24 oxidation products (0.120 +/- 0.017 to 0.043 +/- 0.007 pmol/mg protein per min, P less than 0.05). The present results demonstrate that the defect in C-24 oxidation of 1,25(OH)2D3 in Hyp mice is exacerbated by phosphate depletion and corrected by phosphate supplementation. The data suggest that the disorder in vitamin D metabolism in the mutant strain is secondary to the perturbation in phosphate homeostasis. Images PMID:2332500

  15. Recovery of phosphates from elemental phosphorus bearing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.E.; Moore, O.E.; Sullivan, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    A process for oxidizing aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues (sludges) to produce orthophosphate containing slurries suitable for subsequent reaction with ammonia to produce nitrogen and phosphate containing fertilizer products is presented. It comprises reacting aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues with certain special mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid to effect the conversion of the elemental phosphorus into mostly orthophosphoric acid and very little orthophosphorus acid with the relative ratios of the two acids being dependent upon the mole ratio of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HNO{sub 3} employed in the processing. The resulting aqueous reaction intermediate is neutralized with ammonia during processing to a fluid or solid fertilizer product. Prior to the conversion to products, the aqueous reaction intermediate may be subjected to a solids separation step to remove insoluble salts of certain environmentally undesirable metals, such as Pb, Cd, Ba, and Cr.

  16. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  17. Metabolomic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway identifies the central role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in clear cell-renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Galleggiante, Vanessa; Rutigliano, Monica; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cagiano, Simona; Bufo, Pantaleo; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico; Giglio, Andrea; Serino, Grazia; Vavallo, Antonio; Bettocchi, Carlo; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo; Battaglia, Michele; Ditonno, Pasquale

    2015-05-30

    The analysis of cancer metabolome has shown that proliferating tumor cells require a large quantities of different nutrients in order to support their high rate of proliferation. In this study we analyzed the metabolic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in human clear cell-renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and evaluate the role of these pathways in sustaining cell proliferation, maintenance of NADPH levels, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolomic analysis showed a clear signature of increased glucose uptake and utilization in ccRCC tumor samples. Elevated levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in association with higher levels of PPP-derived metabolites, suggested a prominent role of this pathway in RCC-associated metabolic alterations. G6PDH inhibition, caused a significant decrease in cancer cell survival, a decrease in NADPH levels, and an increased production of ROS, suggesting that the PPP plays an important role in the regulation of ccRCC redox homeostasis. Patients with high levels of glycolytic enzymes had reduced progression-free and cancer-specific survivals as compared to subjects with low levels. Our data suggest that oncogenic signaling pathways may promote ccRCC through rerouting the sugar metabolism. Blocking the flux through this pathway may serve as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25945836

  18. Metabolomic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway identifies the central role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in clear cell-renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Galleggiante, Vanessa; Rutigliano, Monica; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cagiano, Simona; Bufo, Pantaleo; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico; Giglio, Andrea; Serino, Grazia; Vavallo, Antonio; Bettocchi, Carlo; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo; Battaglia, Michele; Ditonno, Pasquale

    2015-05-30

    The analysis of cancer metabolome has shown that proliferating tumor cells require a large quantities of different nutrients in order to support their high rate of proliferation. In this study we analyzed the metabolic profile of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in human clear cell-renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and evaluate the role of these pathways in sustaining cell proliferation, maintenance of NADPH levels, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolomic analysis showed a clear signature of increased glucose uptake and utilization in ccRCC tumor samples. Elevated levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in association with higher levels of PPP-derived metabolites, suggested a prominent role of this pathway in RCC-associated metabolic alterations. G6PDH inhibition, caused a significant decrease in cancer cell survival, a decrease in NADPH levels, and an increased production of ROS, suggesting that the PPP plays an important role in the regulation of ccRCC redox homeostasis. Patients with high levels of glycolytic enzymes had reduced progression-free and cancer-specific survivals as compared to subjects with low levels. Our data suggest that oncogenic signaling pathways may promote ccRCC through rerouting the sugar metabolism. Blocking the flux through this pathway may serve as a novel therapeutic target.

  19. Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 μm and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt.

  20. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  1. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  2. Effect of dietary components on renal inorganic phosphate (Pi) excretion induced by a Pi-depleted diet.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Ritsuko; Segawa, Hiroko; Ohmoto, Tomoyo; Sasaki, Shohei; Hanazaki, Ai; Mori, Ayaka; Ikuta, Kayo; Furutani, Junya; Kawakami, Eri; Tatsumi, Sawako; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi) is the most important factor in the regulation of renal Pi excretion. Recent studies suggest the presence of an enteric-renal signaling axis for dietary Pi as well as the existence of a mechanism by which the intestine detects changes in luminal Pi concentrations. The mechanisms of intestinal Pi sensing, however, are unknown. In the present study, we focused on Pi depletion signals and investigated the effects of dietary components on intestinal Pi sensing. After feeding rats experimental diets for 3 days, we investigated urinary Pi excretion and plasma biochemical parameters. Renal Pi excretion was suppressed in rats fed a low-Pi diet (0.02% Pi). Elimination of dietary calcium (Ca) completely blocked the suppression of Pi excretion, suggesting that the presence of Ca is essential for the Pi depletion signal. Furthermore, a minimum Ca content of more than 0.02% was necessary for the Pi depletion signal. Magnesium, lanthanum, and strontium, which are agonists of calcium sensing receptor, instead of Ca, reduced Pi excretion. Therefore, dietary Ca appears to be important for the Pi depletion-sensing mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the calcium sensing receptor may be involved in the Pi depletion signal.

  3. Impact of endocrine hyperfunction and phosphate wasting on bone in McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lala, R; Matarazzo, P; Andreo, M; Defilippi, C; de Sanctis, C

    2002-01-01

    Skin dysplasia, as café-au-lait spots, bone fibrous dysplasia and peripheral endocrinopathies are the main clinical features of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). This illness is due to activating mutations of the Gsalpha protein and is spread with a mosaic pattern in affected tissues that consist of intermixed areas of normal and mutated cells. Peripheral endocrine secretion, free of hypothalamic pituitary control, is the hallmark of the endocrine syndromes: precocious puberty, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism and gigantism/acromegaly. In addition, phosphate wasting as hyperphosphaturia is often present. The impact of hormonal hypersecretion and phosphate loss on the bones of patients with MAS is poorly understood both in normal and fibrous bone tissue. As hypercortisolism and hyperthyroidism increase bone resorption, hyperestrogenism and growth hormone hypersecretion stimulate bone growth and mineralization, and phosphate wasting reduces bone mineral content. All these actions can be exerted at varying times and degrees in a single patient on lesional and non-lesional bones. Sonographic evidence of multiple diffused hyperechogenic spots in the testes of patients with MAS do not seem to be related to alterations in calcium-phosphate metabolism but rather to zonal dysplasia/hyperplasia of testicular tissue. PMID:12199350

  4. Fluorine and uranium in phosphate rock processing and waste materials. Report of investigations/1981

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, B.W.; Kramer, G.W.; Jolly, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Materials from phosphate rock mining and processing were analyzed for fluorine and uranium content as part of the Bureau of Mines program to more effectively recover resources from mining and mineral processing reject materials. The analysis of both feed and waste materials generated in the beneficiation and acidulation of phosphate rock was performed to obtain information on the disposition and concentration of these elements in phosphate rock processing streams. Fluorine was determined by a distillation-titration method and by ion chromatography. Uranium was determined by the dibenzoylmethane (DBM) method, the reliability being confirmed by roundrobin analysis of samples within Bureau of Mines research centers. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 120b-Phosphate Rock was also analyzed for fluorine and uranium to verify procedures and results. Fluorine values ranged from 0.3 wt-pct in gypsum filter cake to 3.7 wt-pct in phosphate rock concentrate. Uranium ranged from less than 5 micrograms/g in gypsum filter cake to 200 micrograms/g in a dried clay slime.

  5. Primary renal magnesium wasting: an unusual clinical picture of exercise-induced symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stark, Christopher M; Nylund, Cade M; Gorman, Gregory H; Lechner, Brent L

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium is one of the most abundant cations in the human body and plays a key role as a metabolic enzyme cofactor and regulatory ion for neurons and cardiomyocytes. Hypomagnesemia due to isolated primary renal magnesium wasting is a rare clinical condition typically associated with neurological hyperexcitability. Exercise-related gastrointestinal symptoms are caused by ischemic, mechanical, or neurohormonal changes. The role of hypomagnesemia in gastrointestinal symptoms is not well understood. We present a case of a 15-year-old male who presented with exercise-induced abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, who was found to have profound hypomagnesemia and inappropriately elevated fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg). Testing for multiple intrinsic and extrinsic etiologies of renal magnesium wasting was inconclusive. He was diagnosed with primary renal magnesium wasting and his symptoms resolved acutely with intravenous magnesium sulfate and with long-term oral magnesium chloride. Primary renal magnesium wasting is a rare clinical entity that can cause extreme hypomagnesemia. It has not been associated previously with exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms. The effects of hypomagnesemia on the human gastrointestinal tract are not well established. This case offers unique insights into the importance of magnesium homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. Exercise-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms observed in this chronically hypomagnesemic patient. PMID:27117800

  6. Lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa of patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Kanzaki, Hiromitzu; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    A 77-year-old Japanese man underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection twice over a 5-year period for the treatment of two separate early gastric cancers. He had been taking lanthanum carbonate, an orally administered phosphate binder, for 3 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed reddish mucosa in the greater curvature and anterior wall of the gastric angle, while granular, white deposits were also observed in some areas of this reddish mucosa. Additionally, biopsy specimens from the gastric mucosa revealed the deposition of fine, amorphous, eosinophilic material, which appeared bright on scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of lanthanum and phosphate in these bright areas, and elemental mapping confirmed that their distribution was identical to that seen in the bright areas. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa was determined. PMID:27383105

  7. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data for three phosphate industry waste-disposal sites in central Florida, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1982-01-01

    This report is a complilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at thee AMAX Phosphate, Inc., chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS AgriChemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximmmtely 5,400 field and laboratory water-quality determinations on water samples were collected from about 78 test holes and 31 surface-water, rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste-disposal operations. Maps show locations of sampling sites. (USGS)

  8. A review on immobilization of phosphate containing high level nuclear wastes within glass matrix--present status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pranesh

    2012-10-15

    Immobilization of phosphate containing high level nuclear wastes within commonly used silicate glasses is difficult due to restricted solubility of P(2)O(5) within such melts and its tendency to promote crystallization. The situation becomes more adverse when sulfate, chromate, etc. are also present within the waste. To solve this problem waste developers have carried out significant laboratory scale research works in various phosphate based glass systems and successfully identified few formulations which apparently look very promising as they are chemically durable, thermally stable and can be processed at moderate temperatures. However, in the absence of required plant scale manufacturing experiences it is not possible to replace existing silicate based vitrification processes by the phosphate based ones. A review on phosphate glass based wasteforms is presented here.

  9. Phosphate Control and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Administration in Preventing Experimental Renal Osteodystrophy in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, W. E.; Bordier, P.; Marie, P.; Hruska, K.; Harter, H.; Greenwalt, A.; Blondin, J.; Haddad, J.; Bricker, N.; Slatopolsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with chronic renal disease may occur, at least in part, as a consequence of the need for progressive adaptation in renal phosphorus (P) excretion that occurs as glomerular filtration rate falls. However, the studies were of relatively short duration. Moreover, no information emerged regarding a potential role of calcium malabsorption in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The short duration of the protocol did not lend itself to the study of the effect of P control or the administration of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy. In the present studies, 14 dogs with experimental chronic renal disease were studied serially for a period of 2 yr. Each animal was studied first with two normal kidneys on an intake of P of 1,200 mg/day. Then, renal insufficiency was produced by 5/6 nephrectomy. The dogs then were divided into three groups. In group I, 1,200 mg/day P intake was administered for the full 2 yr. In group II, P intake was reduced from the initial 1,200 mg/day, in proportion to the measured fall in glomerular filtration rate, in an effort to obviate the renal adaptation in P excretion. In group III, “proportional reduction” of P intake also was employed; but in addition, 20 μg of 25(OH)D3 were administered orally three times a week. In group I, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels rose throughout the 2-yr period reaching a final concentration of 557±70 U (normal 10-60). In group II, values for PTH remained normal throughout the 1st yr, increased modestly between the 12th and the 18th mo, but then did not rise after the 18th mo. In group III, no elevation of PTH levels was observed at any time; however, these animals were hypercalcemic. Histomorphologic analyses of the ribs of these dogs were performed serially throughout the 2-yr period. A linear relationship was obtained between the osteoclastic resorption surface and the concentration

  10. Severe metabolic changes following oral sodium phosphate in a patient of renal cell carcinoma - On dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Christopher Thiam Seong

    2016-01-01

    Oral sodium phosphate (OSP), an effective bowel purgative, is available over the counter (OTC) and requires a substantially lower volume than polyethylene glycol-based preparative agents. Rarely, OSP consumption has been associated with acute hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. We describe a case of chronic kidney disease patient developing symptomatic hypocalcemia following OTC OSP. PMID:27298508

  11. Characterization of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rock in the Xiangxi River watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-guo; Liang, Bing; Xue, Qiang; Yin, Cheng-wei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate mining waste rocks dumped in the Xiangxi River (XXR) bay, which is the largest backwater zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), are treated as Type I industry solid wastes by the Chinese government. To evaluate the potential pollution risk of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rocks, the phosphorus leaching behaviors of six phosphate waste rock samples with different weathering degrees under both neutral and acidic conditions were investigated using a series of column leaching experiments, following the Method 1314 standard of the US EPA. The results indicate that the phosphorus release mechanism is solubility-controlled. Phosphorus release from waste rocks increases as pH decreases. The phosphorus leaching concentration and cumulative phosphorus released in acidic leaching conditions were found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in neutral leaching conditions. In addition, the phosphorus was released faster during the period when environmental pH turned from weak alkalinity to slight acidity, with this accelerated release period appearing when L/S was in the range of 0.5-2.0 mL/g. In both neutral and acidic conditions, the average values of Total Phosphorus (TP), including orthophosphates, polyphosphates and organic phosphate, leaching concentration exceed the availability by regulatory (0.5 mg/L) in the whole L/S range, suggesting that the phosphate waste rocks stacked within the XXR watershed should be considered as Type II industry solid wastes. Therefore, the phosphate waste rocks deposited within the study area should be considered as phosphorus point pollution sources, which could threaten the adjacent surface-water environment. PMID:26901468

  12. Characterization of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rock in the Xiangxi River watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-guo; Liang, Bing; Xue, Qiang; Yin, Cheng-wei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate mining waste rocks dumped in the Xiangxi River (XXR) bay, which is the largest backwater zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), are treated as Type I industry solid wastes by the Chinese government. To evaluate the potential pollution risk of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rocks, the phosphorus leaching behaviors of six phosphate waste rock samples with different weathering degrees under both neutral and acidic conditions were investigated using a series of column leaching experiments, following the Method 1314 standard of the US EPA. The results indicate that the phosphorus release mechanism is solubility-controlled. Phosphorus release from waste rocks increases as pH decreases. The phosphorus leaching concentration and cumulative phosphorus released in acidic leaching conditions were found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in neutral leaching conditions. In addition, the phosphorus was released faster during the period when environmental pH turned from weak alkalinity to slight acidity, with this accelerated release period appearing when L/S was in the range of 0.5-2.0 mL/g. In both neutral and acidic conditions, the average values of Total Phosphorus (TP), including orthophosphates, polyphosphates and organic phosphate, leaching concentration exceed the availability by regulatory (0.5 mg/L) in the whole L/S range, suggesting that the phosphate waste rocks stacked within the XXR watershed should be considered as Type II industry solid wastes. Therefore, the phosphate waste rocks deposited within the study area should be considered as phosphorus point pollution sources, which could threaten the adjacent surface-water environment.

  13. Theanine, gamma-glutamylethylamide, is metabolized by renal phosphate-independent glutaminase.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Haruhito; Sano, Sachi; Hayakawa, Takashi; Kakuda, Takami; Unno, Tomonori

    2003-03-17

    The distribution of theanine-degrading activity in Wistar rats was examined and this activity was detected only in the kidney. Judging from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, theanine-degrading enzyme from rat kidney was purified almost to homogeneity. Theanine-degrading activity was co-purified with glutaminase activity, and the relative activity for theanine was about 85% of that for L-glutamine throughout purification. Substrate specificity of purified enzyme preparation coincided well with the data of phosphate-independent glutaminase [EC 3.5.1.2], which had been previously reported. It was very curious that gamma-glutamyl methyl and ethyl esters were more effectively hydrolyzed than theanine and L-glutamine, in view of relative activity and K(m) value. It was suggested that gamma-glutamyl moiety in theanine molecule was transferred to form gamma-glutamylglycylglycine with relative ease in the presence of glycylglycine. On the other hand, purified phosphate-dependent glutaminase did not show theanine-degrading activity at all. Thus, it was concluded that theanine was hydrolyzed by phosphate-independent glutaminase in kidney and suggested that, as for the metabolic fate of theanine, its glutamyl moiety might be transferred by means of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase reaction to other peptides in vivo.

  14. Immobilisation of molybdenum from fuel reprocessing wastes into sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pet'kov, V. I.; Sukhanov, M. V.

    2003-01-01

    A new possibility for the incorporation of molybdenum in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) nuclear waste form was examined. The existence of molybdenum containing NZP-type structures was assessed on the basis of crystal chemical principles. New data were deduced for the system Na1-xZr2(PO4)3-x(MoO4)x (0≤x≤1). The stability region for this solid solution having a NZP structure was determined. It was found that molybdenum can be incorporation into NZP-type ceramics without significant changes of the three-dimensional framework structure.

  15. Mutations in PCBD1 Cause Hypomagnesemia and Renal Magnesium Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Ferrè, Silvia; de Baaij, Jeroen H.F.; Ferreira, Patrick; Germann, Roger; de Klerk, Johannis B.C.; Lavrijsen, Marla; van Zeeland, Femke; Venselaar, Hanka; Kluijtmans, Leo A.J.; Hoenderop, Joost G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PCBD1 are causative for transient neonatal hyperphenylalaninemia and primapterinuria (HPABH4D). Until now, HPABH4D has been regarded as a transient and benign neonatal syndrome without complications in adulthood. In our study of three adult patients with homozygous mutations in the PCBD1 gene, two patients were diagnosed with hypomagnesemia and renal Mg2+ loss, and two patients developed diabetes with characteristics of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), regardless of serum Mg2+ levels. Our results suggest that these clinical findings are related to the function of PCBD1 as a dimerization cofactor for the transcription factor HNF1B. Mutations in the HNF1B gene have been shown to cause renal malformations, hypomagnesemia, and MODY. Gene expression studies combined with immunohistochemical analysis in the kidney showed that Pcbd1 is expressed in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), where Pcbd1 transcript levels are upregulated by a low Mg2+-containing diet. Overexpression in a human kidney cell line showed that wild-type PCBD1 binds HNF1B to costimulate the FXYD2 promoter, the activity of which is instrumental in Mg2+ reabsorption in the DCT. Of seven PCBD1 mutations previously reported in HPABH4D patients, five mutations caused proteolytic instability, leading to reduced FXYD2 promoter activity. Furthermore, cytosolic localization of PCBD1 increased when coexpressed with HNF1B mutants. Overall, our findings establish PCBD1 as a coactivator of the HNF1B-mediated transcription necessary for fine tuning FXYD2 transcription in the DCT and suggest that patients with HPABH4D should be monitored for previously unrecognized late complications, such as hypomagnesemia and MODY diabetes. PMID:24204001

  16. Renal cortical hexokinase and pentose phosphate pathway activation through the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway in endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua A; Stallons, L Jay; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2014-08-15

    While disruption of energy production is an important contributor to renal injury, metabolic alterations in sepsis-induced AKI remain understudied. We assessed changes in renal cortical glycolytic metabolism in a mouse model of sepsis-induced AKI. A specific and rapid increase in hexokinase (HK) activity (∼2-fold) was observed 3 h after LPS exposure and maintained up to 18 h, in association with a decline in renal function as measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN). LPS-induced HK activation occurred independently of HK isoform expression or mitochondrial localization. No other changes in glycolytic enzymes were observed. LPS-mediated HK activation was not sufficient to increase glycolytic flux as indicated by reduced or unchanged pyruvate and lactate levels in the renal cortex. LPS-induced HK activation was associated with increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity but not glycogen production. Mechanistically, LPS-induced HK activation was attenuated by pharmacological inhibitors of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and Akt, indicating that EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling is responsible. Our findings reveal LPS rapidly increases renal cortical HK activity in an EGFR- and Akt-dependent manner and that HK activation is linked to increased pentose phosphate pathway activity.

  17. Assay development of inducible human renal phosphate transporter Npt2A (SLC34A1) in Flp-In-Trex-HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongzhong; Mao, Chonghong; Duenstl, Georg; Su, Wan; Qian, Su

    2013-12-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is associated with severe decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease and elevates cardiovascular mortality. Type II sodium dependent phosphate transporter 2A (Npt2A) plays a major role in renal phosphate reabsorption and could be explored as a target for anti-hyperphosphatemia therapy. Human Npt2A transporter activity was examined upon transfection into CHO, MDCK, HEK293, Flp-In-CHO and Flp-In-HEK293 cells. Only kidney-derived cells expressed functional Npt2A. HEK293 and Flp-In-HEK293 cell lines stably transfected with hNpt2A could be selected, but these cells were inactive in phosphate transport. This suggests that high-level, constitutive Npt2A expression has deleterious effects on the cell. By using the conditional promoter in the Flp-In-Trex vector, functional expression of Npt2A was achieved by doxycycline induction in HEK293 cells. The EGFP tagged and non-tagged, inducible stable hNpt2A-HEK293 cell lines afforded development of a robust phosphate uptake assay mediated by hNpt2A, which can be used to screen hNpt2A inhibitors and inducers of hNpt2A expression. Using this assay, the small molecule LC-1 was identified as a potent inhibitor of hNpt2A, suggesting that it is feasible to develop potent specific hNpt2A inhibitors to control phosphate overloading for hyperphosphatemia therapy.

  18. Evidence that the Severity of Depletion of Inorganic Phosphate Determines the Severity of the Disturbance of Adenine Nucleotide Metabolism in the Liver and Renal Cortex of the Fructose-Loaded Rat

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R. Curtis; Nigon, Kathleen; Reed, Elizabeth B.

    1978-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that in both the liver and renal cortex of the fructose-loaded rat, severity of depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi), and not the magnitude of accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P), determines the severity of the dose-dependent reduction of ATP, we intraperitoneally injected fed rats with fructose, 20 and 40 μmol/g, alone, and at the higher load, in combination with (a) sodium phosphate, 20 μmol/g, administered shortly beforehand or subsequently or, (b) adenosine, 2 μmol/g, administered beforehand. The following observations were made: (a) With fructose loading alone, at the higher load, both Pi and total adenine nucleotides (TAN) were reduced by one third in the renal cortex and (as previously observed) by two thirds in the liver; and at either load, the reduction of ATP (and TAN) and the accumulation of F-1-P were less severe in the renal cortex than in the liver. (b) Prior phosphate loading largely prevented the reductions of ATP and TAN in the renal cortex and significantly attenuated them in the liver, yet doubled the renal cortical accumulation of F-1-P. (c) Adenosine loading substantially attenuated the reductions of ATP, TAN, and Pi only in the renal cortex. (d) ATP varied directly with Pi (P < 0.001, r = 0.98) in the domain of control and reduced values of Pi taken from both liver and renal cortex. (e) As judged from tissue and plasma concentrations of fructose and glucose, and tissue concentrations of fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate, the rate at which the renal cortex and liver converted fructose to glucose was much lower at the higher fructose load. (f) Prior phosphate loading prevented this decrease in rate in the renal cortex and attenuated it in the liver; adenosine loading attenuated it only in the renal cortex. We conclude that in both the renal cortex of the fructose-loaded rat: (a) Depletion of Pi is critical to the causation of the reductions in both ATP and TAN and, at the higher fructose load, of a

  19. The effects of uranium oxide high-level waste on the structure of iron phosphate glasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Badyal, Y.

    1998-12-23

    Because of their unusually good chemical durability, iron phosphate glasses are a natural candidate for a nuclear waste disposal glass. We have studied the effects of UO{sub 2} high-level waste on the structure of iron phosphate glasses with both neutron and high-energy x-ray diffraction using the GLAD instrument of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source and the 1-BM bending magnet beamline of the Advanced Photon Source, respectively. The results of neutron scattering, which is mostly sensitive to correlations involving light atoms i.e. O-O, Fe-O and P-O, suggest the main structural features of the base glass are largely unaffected by the addition of UO{sub 2}. The nearest-neighbor P-O, Fe-O and O-O peaks remain at the same position in real space and their intensities scale approximately with concentration. These findings are consistent with the earlier results of Raman scattering and EXAFS on the Fe-K edge wherein both cases the spectra remain similar to the base glass. High-energy x-ray scattering which is sensitive to correlations involving the heavier atoms and thus complements the neutron measurements, is also consistent with uranium occupying interstitial sites in the relatively undisturbed base glass structure. However, important questions remain as to the precise local structure and oxidation state of uranium in these glasses.

  20. Dexamethasone modulates rat renal brush border membrane phosphate transporter mRNA and protein abundance and glycosphingolipid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, M; Shayman, J A; Abe, A; Gross, S K; McCluer, R H; Biber, J; Murer, H; Lötscher, M; Cronin, R E

    1995-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are important regulators of renal phosphate transport. This study investigates the role of alterations in renal brush border membrane (BBM) sodium gradient-dependent phosphate transport (Na-Pi cotransporter) mRNA and protein abundance in the dexamethasone induced inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport in the rat. Dexamethasone administration for 4 d caused a 1.5-fold increase in the Vmax of Na-Pi cotransport (1785 +/- 119 vs. 2759 +/- 375 pmol/5 s per mg BBM protein in control, P < 0.01), which was paralleled by a 2.5-fold decrease in the abundance of Na-Pi mRNA and Na-Pi protein. There was also a 1.7-fold increase in BBM glucosylceramide content (528 +/- 63 vs. 312 +/- 41 ng/mg BBM protein in control, P < 0.02). To determine whether the alteration in glucosylceramide content per se played a functional role in the decrease in Na-Pi cotransport, control rats were treated with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoyl-amino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP). The resultant 1.5-fold decrease in BBM glucosylceramide content (199 +/- 19 vs. 312 +/- 41 ng/mg BBM protein in control, P < 0.02) was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in Na-Pi cotransport activity (1422 +/- 73 vs. 1048 +/- 85 pmol/5 s per mg BBM protein in control, P < 0.01), and a 1.5-fold increase in BBM Na-Pi protein abundance. Thus, dexamethasone-induced inhibition of Na-Pi cotransport is associated with a decrease in BBM Na-Pi cotransporter abundance, and an increase in glucosylceramide. Since primary alteration in BBM glucosylceramide content per se directly and selectively modulates BBM Na-Pi cotransport activity and Na-Pi protein abundance, we propose that the increase in BBM glucosylceramide content plays an important role in mediating the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on Na-Pi cotransport activity. Images PMID:7615789

  1. Evaluation of lead-iron-phosphate glass as a high-level waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.; Kissinger, H.E.; Hodges, F.N.

    1986-09-01

    The lead-iron-phosphate (Pb-Fe-P) glass developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was evaluated for its potential as an improvement over the current reference nuclear waste form, borosilicate (B-Si) glass. The evaluation was conducted as part of the Second Generation HLW Technology Subtask of the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of this work was to investigate possible alternatives to B-Si glass as second-generation waste forms. While vitreous Pb-Fe-P glass appears to have substantially better chemical durability than B-Si glass, severe crystallization or devitrification leading to deteriorated chemical durability would result if this glass were poured into large canisters as is the procedure with B-Si glass. Cesium leach rates from this crystallized material are orders of magnitude greater than those from B-Si glass. Therefore, to realize the potential performance advantages of the Pb-Fe-P material in a nuclear waste form, the processing method would have to cool the material rapidly to retain its vitreous structure.

  2. Formulation studies and grout development for fixation of variable phosphate/sulfate waste, Milestone 195

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, T.L.; McDaniel, E.W.; Tallent, O.K.; Francis, C.L.; Washburn, F.A.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a range of cement-based blended dry solids which, when mixed with variable phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW), produce grouts that are processible in the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). The selected formula(s) will also utilize commerically available materials requiring no custom processing and meet all criteria as identified and quantified by RHO, not only for grouts made with the reference formula, but also for those grouts made with reasonable deviations from the reference formula expected during routine TGF operation. This report presents experimental data for processibility and solid performance as well as graphical representations of the data. Based upon the results of the preliminary study, several grout formulas were found that produced acceptable grouts. One such formula, composed of Type III Portland cement (50 wt%), class F fly ash (28 wt%), Attapulgite-150 clay (14 wt%), and Indian red pottery clay (IRPC) (8 wt%), produced acceptable grouts with several of the waste concentrations studied. When mixed with 100% sulfate waste, this blend produced acceptable grouts at mix ratios of 8, 8.5, and 9 lb/gal. This particular blend also produced acceptable grouts at waste concentrations of 25/75 and 75/25 PSW. 12 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Long-term performance assessment of grouted phosphate/sulfate waste from N Reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sewart, G.H.; Farris, W.T.; Huizenga, D.G.; McMakin, A.H.; Streile, G.P.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    Phosphate sulfate waste (PSW) is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste include contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, the Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 38 refs., 17 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. PMID:25500531

  5. Data on the degree of saturation of urine with respect to calcium hydrogen phosphate in hypercalciuric children and renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Reusz, G S; Tulassay, T

    Calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO4) was considered as one of the main factors governing renal calculus formation. The degree of saturation with respect to this phase was therefore calculated in urines of 36 hypercalciuric children (20 absorptive, 16 renal subtype) with isolated hematuria, 10 renal stone patients, and 30 healthy controls. The effects of low calcium diet and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were also investigated in the patient groups. The results were compared to the widely used indicator of hypercalciuria (Ca/Cr ratio). Urines of both the hypercalciuric and the normocalciuric renal stone patients were saturated on basal conditions. On low calcium diet, 12 children of the absorptive hypercalciuric, 13 of the renal hypercalciuric and 7 of the renal stone-forming children had their urines in the saturated zone - irrespective of the evolution of Ca/Cr ratio. Thiazide normalized the activity product of CaHPO4 in all groups. The use of the Ca/Cr ratio as the sole parameter in the investigation of children with isolated hematuria and hypercalciuria or calcium nephrolithiasis seems to be insufficient; simultaneous determinations of the state of saturation of urines is recommended. This technique should also allow a quantitative assessment of the various therapeutic regimens recommended.

  6. Renal salt wasting as part of dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, T; Grimm, C; Ringleb, P A

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) are the most important causes of non-iatrogenic hyponatraemia that can significantly complicate various brain diseases. Salt wasting without an underlying CNS disease may have been disregarded so far by clinicians and has been described as renal salt-wasting (RSW) in patients as drug side effect (eg, cisplatin), in older people with various common diseases (eg, hip fracture, pulmonary infections) and other sporadic conditions. In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), however, hyponatraemia has been described mainly as SIAD. However, symptoms of hyponatraemia rarely develop in GBS. Here, we report on a woman with GBS with dominant symptoms of dysautonomia and moderate severe hyponatraemia. We could identify RSW as part of the autonomic dysfunction that significantly contributed to disease worsening.

  7. Heterologous desensitization of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors by purinoceptor activation in renal mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Cuiyan; Ren, Shuyu; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Huwiler, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is considered a potent mitogen for mesangial cells and activates the classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade via S1P receptors. In this study, we show that S1P signalling is rapidly desensitized upon S1P receptor activation. A complete loss of S1P sensitivity occurs after 10 min of S1P pretreatment and remains for at least 8 h. A similar desensitization is also seen with the S1P mimetic FTY720-phosphate, but not with the nonphosphorylated FTY720, nor with sphingosine or ceramide. Prestimulating the cells with extracellular ATP or UTP, which bind to and activate P2Y receptors on mesangial cells, a similar rapid desensitization of the S1P receptor occurs, suggesting a heterologous desensitization of S1P receptors by P2Y receptor activation. Furthermore, adenosine binding to P1 receptors triggers a similar desensitization. In contrast, two other growth factors, PDGF-BB and TGFβ2, have no significant effect on S1P-induced MAPK activation. S1P also triggers increased inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation, which is completely abolished by S1P pretreatment but only partially by ATP pretreatment, suggesting that IP3 formation and MAPK activation stimulated by S1P involve different receptor subtypes. Increasing intracellular cAMP levels by forskolin pretreatment has a similar effect on desensitization as adenosine. Moreover, a selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist, which couples to phospholipase C and increases IP3 formation, exerted a similar effect. Pretreatment of cells with various protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors prior to ATP prestimulation and subsequent S1P stimulation leads to a differential reversal of the ATP effect. Whereas the broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine potently reverses the effect, the PKC-α inhibitor CGP41251, the PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin and calphostin C show only a partial reversal at maximal concentrations. Suramin, which is reported as a selective S1P3 receptor antagonist

  8. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Ageing of a phosphate ceramic used to immobilize chloride contaminated actinide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian L.; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-03-31

    AWE has developed a process for the immobilization of ILW waste containing a significant quantity of chloride using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Waste ions are incorporated into two phosphate based phases, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. Non-active trials performed at AWE using samarium as the actinide surrogate demonstrated the durability of these phases in aqueous solution. Trials of the process using actinide-doped material were performed at PNNL which confirmed the immobilized wasteform resistant to aqueous leaching. Initial leach trials conducted on 239Pu /241Am loaded ceramic at 40°C/28 days gave normalized mass losses of 1.2 x 10-5 g.m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g.m-2 for Pu and Cl respectively. In order to assess the response of the phases to radiation-induced damage, accelerated ageing trials were performed on samples in which the 239Pu was replaced by 238Pu. No changes to the crystalline structure of the waste were detected using XRD after the samples had experienced a radiation dose of 4 x 1018 α.g-1. Leach trials showed that there had been an increase in the P and Ca release rates but no change in the Pu release rate.

  10. Ageing of a phosphate ceramic used to immobilize chloride contaminated actinide waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, B. L.; Donald, I. W.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2009-03-01

    A process for the immobilization of intermediate level waste containing a significant quantity of chloride using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material has been developed. Waste ions are incorporated into two phosphate-based phases, chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Non-active trials performed using Sm as the actinide surrogate demonstrated the durability of these phases in aqueous solution. Trials of the process, in which actinide-doped materials were used, were performed at PNNL which confirmed the wasteform resistant to aqueous leaching. Initial leach trials conducted on 239Pu/241Am loaded ceramic at 313 K/28 days gave normalized mass losses of 1.2 × 10-5 g m-2 and 2.7 × 10-3 g m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. In order to assess the response of the phases to radiation-induced damage, accelerated ageing trials were performed on samples in which the 239Pu was replaced with 238Pu. No changes to the crystalline structure of the waste were detected in the XRD spectra after the samples had experienced an α radiation fluence of 4 × 1018 g-1. Leach trials showed that there was an increase in the P and Ca release rates but no change in the Pu release rate.

  11. Phosphate release from waste stabilisation pond sludge: significance and fate of polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Powell, N; Shilton, A; Pratt, S; Chisti, Y

    2011-01-01

    Net phosphorus removal from waste stabilisation pond (WSP) systems is governed by the rate of phosphorus incorporation into the sludge layer and the rate of phosphorus release from this sludge back to the overlying wastewater. Luxury uptake of phosphorus by microalgae has been shown to occur under WSP conditions in the laboratory; however, the significance of this mechanism and the fate of polyphosphate contained in the settled solids have not previously been investigated. In this work the analysis of sludge samples from three WSP showed that up to 71% of the total phosphorus in the sludge was in the form of polyphosphate. This indicates that polyphosphate accumulation could potentially be an important mechanism for phosphorus sequestration in WSP and challenges the common view that chemical precipitation is the predominant phosphorus removal mechanism in these systems. The release of phosphate from WSP sludge samples was monitored in the laboratory. The samples from two different pond systems had release rates in the order of 4.3 microgP/gTSS.d. However, the third sample which was collected during an algal bloom had a release rate of 12.4 microgP/gTSS.d. Phosphate release from fresh microalgal sludge grown under laboratory conditions was also studied and was shown to have a release rate of 160 microgP/gTSS.d. Analysis of polyphosphate during the experiments on laboratory grown microalgal sludge showed that polyphosphate was indeed degraded resulting in phosphate release. Interestingly, after the initial release phase phosphorus was assimilated by the biomass and some polyphosphate was reformed. It is likely that this is due to bacterial growth in the sludge. PMID:21866769

  12. Ageing of a phosphate ceramic used to immobilize chloride-contaminated actinide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-03-31

    At AWE, we have developed a process for the immobilization of ILW waste containing a significant quantity of chloride with Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Waste ions are incorporated into two phosphate-based phases, chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Non-active trials performed at AWE with Sm as the actinide surrogate demonstrated the durability of these phases in aqueous solution. Trials of the process, in which actinide-doped materials were used, wer performed at PNNL where the waste form was found to be resistant to aqueous leaching. Initial leach trials conducted on 239Pu /241Am loaded ceramic at 40°C/28 days gave normalized mass losses of 1.2 x 10-5 g.m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g.m-2 for Pu and Cl respectively. In order to assess the response of the phases to radiation-induced damage, accelerated ageing trials were performed on samples in which the 239Pu was replaced with 238Pu. No changes to the crystalline structure of the waste were detected in the XRD patterns after the samples had experienced an α radiation dose of 4 x 1018 g-1. Leach trials showed that there was an increase in the P and Ca release rates but no change in the Pu release rate.

  13. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: A Challenging Combination.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Gerard; Hansford, Jordan R; Duke, Trevor

    2016-05-01

    We describe a 2-year-old female with a suprasellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central diabetes insipidus (DI) who developed polyuria with natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremia 36 hr after cisplatin administration. The marked urinary losses of sodium in combination with a negative sodium balance led to the diagnosis of cisplatin-induced renal salt wasting syndrome (RSWS). The subsequent clinical management is very challenging. Four weeks later she was discharged from ICU without neurological sequela. The combination of cisplatin-induced RSWS with DI can be confusing and needs careful clinical assessment as inaccurate diagnosis and management can result in increased neurological injury.

  14. Comparison of sodium zirconium phosphate-structured HLW forms and synroc for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zyryanov, V.N.; Vance, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    The incorporation of (a) Cs/Sr as simulated heat-generating isotopes contained in Purex reprocessing waste, (b) simulated actinides, and (c) simulated Purex waste in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been studied. The samples were prepared by sintering, by hot pressing and by hot isostatic pressing in metal bellows containers. The short-term chemical durability of the phosphate-based material containing Purex waste was within an order of magnitude of that for Synroc-C, as measured by 7-day MCC-1 tests at 90{degrees}C. The dissolution behavior showed evidence of re-precipitation phenomena, even after times as short as 28 days. Potential for improvement of NZP-based ceramics for HLW management is discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Stabilization and solidification of waste phosphate sludge using Portland cement and fly ash as cement substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Vedat Pinarli; Gizem Karaca; Guray Salihoglu; Nezih Kamil Salihoglu

    2005-07-01

    Stabilization and solidification of the waste phosphate sludge (WPS) using Portland cement (PC) and fly ash (FA) were studied in the present work. The WPS content in the cement mortars varied from 5% to 15%. Setting times were measured, and unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) were determined for the mortars cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Zinc and nickel leaching of the solidified products were measured according to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Setting times were extended as the WPS content in the paste samples increased. The UCS values of the mortar containing 5% WPS solidified by using 95% PC were similar to the reference sample. Use of 10% FA as cement substitute increased the UCS values by 10% at the end of curing period of 56 days. The WPS contained initially 130.2 mg L{sup -1} of zinc and 22.7 mg L{sup -1} of nickel. The zinc and nickel leached from the 5% WPS solidified by using 95% PC were measured as 3.8 mg L{sup -1} and 0.4 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. These metal concentrations were below the limits given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for landfilling the solidified wastes.

  16. Stabilization and solidification of waste phosphate sludge using portland cement and fly ash as cement substitute.

    PubMed

    Pinarli, Vedat; Karaca, Gizem; Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2005-01-01

    Stabilization and solidification of the waste phosphate sludge (WPS) using Portland cement (PC) and fly ash (FA) were studied in the present work. The WPS content in the cement mortars varied from 5% to 15%. Setting times were measured, and unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) were determined for the mortars cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Zinc and nickel leaching of the solidified products were measured according to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Setting times were extended as the WPS content in the paste samples increased. The UCS values of the mortar containing 5% WPS solidified by using 95% PC were similar to the reference sample. Use of 10% FA as cement substitute increased the UCS values by 10% at the end of curing period of 56 days. The WPS contained initially 130.2 mg L(-1) of zinc and 22.7 mg L(-1) of nickel. The zinc and nickel leached from the 5% WPS solidified by using 95% PC were measured as 3.8 mg L(-1) and 0.4 mg L(-1), respectively. These metal concentrations were below the limits given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for landfilling the solidified wastes.

  17. Multifunctional properties of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Maria; Serrano, Mercedes; Bravo, Vicente; Jurado, Encarnación; Nikolaeva, Iana; Martos, Vanessa; Vassilev, Nikolay

    2010-02-01

    One of the most studied approaches in solubilization of insoluble phosphates is the biological treatment of rock phosphates. In recent years, various techniques for rock phosphate solubilization have been proposed, with increasing emphasis on application of P-solubilizing microorganisms. The P-solubilizing activity is determined by the microbial biochemical ability to produce and release metabolites with metal-chelating functions. In a number of studies, we have shown that agro-industrial wastes can be efficiently used as substrates in solubilization of phosphate rocks. These processes were carried out employing various technologies including solid-state and submerged fermentations including immobilized cells. The review paper deals critically with several novel trends in exploring various properties of the above microbial/agro-wastes/rock phosphate systems. The major idea is to describe how a single P-solubilizing microorganism manifests wide range of metabolic abilities in different environments. In fermentation conditions, P-solubilizing microorganisms were found to produce various enzymes, siderophores, and plant hormones. Further introduction of the resulting biotechnological products into soil-plant systems resulted in significantly higher plant growth, enhanced soil properties, and biological (including biocontrol) activity. Application of these bio-products in bioremediation of disturbed (heavy metal contaminated and desertified) soils is based on another important part of their multifunctional properties.

  18. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    PubMed

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 23 regulates renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and phosphate metabolism via the MAP kinase signaling pathway in Hyp mice.

    PubMed

    Ranch, Daniel; Zhang, Martin Yh; Portale, Anthony A; Perwad, Farzana

    2011-08-01

    In X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and in its murine homologue, the Hyp mouse, increased circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) are critical to the pathogenesis of disordered metabolism of phosphate (P(i)) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. In this study, we hypothesized that in Hyp mice, FGF-23-mediated suppression of renal 1,25(OH)(2)D production and P(i) reabsorption depends on activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Wild-type and Hyp mice were administered either vehicle or the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (12.5 mg/kg) orally daily for 4 days. At baseline, the renal abundance of early growth response 1 (egr1) mRNA was approximately 2-fold greater in Hyp mice than in wild-type mice. Treatment with PD0325901 greatly suppressed egr1 mRNA abundance in both wild-type and Hyp mice. In Hyp mice, PD0325901 induced an 8-fold increase in renal 1α-hydroxylase mRNA expression and a 4-fold increase in serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations compared with vehicle-treated Hyp mice. Serum P(i) levels in Hyp mice increased significantly after treatment with PD0325901, and the increase was associated with increased renal Npt2a mRNA abundance and brush-border membrane Npt2a protein expression. These findings provide evidence that in Hyp mice, MAPK signaling is constitutively activated in the kidney and support the hypothesis that the FGF-23-mediated suppression of renal 1,25(OH)(2)D production and P(i) reabsorption depends on activation of MAPK signaling via MEK/ERK1/2. These findings demonstrate the physiologic importance of MAPK signaling in the actions of FGF-23 in regulating renal 1,25(OH)(2)D and P(i) metabolism.

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Regulates Renal 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Phosphate Metabolism via the MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway in Hyp Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ranch, Daniel; Zhang, Martin YH; Portale, Anthony A; Perwad, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    In X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and in its murine homologue, the Hyp mouse, increased circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) are critical to the pathogenesis of disordered metabolism of phosphate (Pi) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. In this study, we hypothesized that in Hyp mice, FGF-23-mediated suppression of renal 1,25(OH)2D production and Pi reabsorption depends on activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Wild-type and Hyp mice were administered either vehicle or the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (12.5 mg/kg) orally daily for 4 days. At baseline, the renal abundance of early growth response 1 (egr1) mRNA was approximately 2-fold greater in Hyp mice than in wild-type mice. Treatment with PD0325901 greatly suppressed egr1 mRNA abundance in both wild-type and Hyp mice. In Hyp mice, PD0325901 induced an 8-fold increase in renal 1α-hydroxylase mRNA expression and a 4-fold increase in serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations compared with vehicle-treated Hyp mice. Serum Pi levels in Hyp mice increased significantly after treatment with PD0325901, and the increase was associated with increased renal Npt2a mRNA abundance and brush-border membrane Npt2a protein expression. These findings provide evidence that in Hyp mice, MAPK signaling is constitutively activated in the kidney and support the hypothesis that the FGF-23-mediated suppression of renal 1,25(OH)2D production and Pi reabsorption depends on activation of MAPK signaling via MEK/ERK1/2. These findings demonstrate the physiologic importance of MAPK signaling in the actions of FGF-23 in regulating renal 1,25(OH)2D and Pi metabolism. PMID:21472778

  1. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    PubMed

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. PMID:24997095

  2. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  3. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Unuofin, F.O. Mnkeni, P.N.S.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  4. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process.

  5. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process. PMID:26453885

  6. Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Frank C

    2010-06-01

    Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p<.05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not. PMID:20138509

  7. Potential Application of Biohydrogen Production Liquid Waste as Phosphate Solubilizing Agent-A Study Using Soybean Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    With CO2 free emission and a gravimetric energy density higher than gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol, biohydrogen is a promising green renewable energy carrier. During fermentative hydrogen production, 60-70 % of the feedstock is converted to different by-products, dominated by organic acids. In the present investigation, a simple approach for value addition of hydrogen production liquid waste (HPLW) containing these compounds has been demonstrated. In soil, organic acids produced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria chelate the cations of insoluble inorganic phosphates (e.g., Ca3 (PO4)2) and make the phosphorus available to the plants. Organic acid-rich HPLW, therefore, has been evaluated as soil phosphate solubilizer. Application of HPLW as soil phosphate solubilizer was found to improve the phosphorus uptake of soybean plants by 2.18- to 2.74-folds. Additionally, 33-100 % increase in seed germination rate was also observed. Therefore, HPLW has the potential to be an alternative for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers available in the market. Moreover, the strategy can be useful for phytoremediation of phosphorus-rich soil.

  8. Potential Application of Biohydrogen Production Liquid Waste as Phosphate Solubilizing Agent-A Study Using Soybean Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    With CO2 free emission and a gravimetric energy density higher than gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol, biohydrogen is a promising green renewable energy carrier. During fermentative hydrogen production, 60-70 % of the feedstock is converted to different by-products, dominated by organic acids. In the present investigation, a simple approach for value addition of hydrogen production liquid waste (HPLW) containing these compounds has been demonstrated. In soil, organic acids produced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria chelate the cations of insoluble inorganic phosphates (e.g., Ca3 (PO4)2) and make the phosphorus available to the plants. Organic acid-rich HPLW, therefore, has been evaluated as soil phosphate solubilizer. Application of HPLW as soil phosphate solubilizer was found to improve the phosphorus uptake of soybean plants by 2.18- to 2.74-folds. Additionally, 33-100 % increase in seed germination rate was also observed. Therefore, HPLW has the potential to be an alternative for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers available in the market. Moreover, the strategy can be useful for phytoremediation of phosphorus-rich soil. PMID:26541163

  9. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion and Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia (sodium levels of <135 mEq/L) is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in clinical practice, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view. PMID:25657991

  10. Differential regulation of the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and PiT-2 in dietary potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Takahashi, Hideaki; Giral-Arnal, Hector; Wang, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Tao; Verlander, Jill W; Wilson, Paul; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Sutherland, Eileen; Caldas, Yupanqui; Blaine, Judith T; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Barry, Nicholas P; Levi, Moshe

    2009-08-01

    Dietary potassium (K) deficiency is accompanied by phosphaturia and decreased renal brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle sodium (Na)-dependent phosphate (P(i)) transport activity. Our laboratory previously showed that K deficiency in rats leads to increased abundance in the proximal tubule BBM of the apical Na-P(i) cotransporter NaPi-IIa, but that the activity, diffusion, and clustering of NaPi-IIa could be modulated by the altered lipid composition of the K-deficient BBM (Zajicek HK, Wang H, Puttaparthi K, Halaihel N, Markovich D, Shayman J, Beliveau R, Wilson P, Rogers T, Levi M. Kidney Int 60: 694-704, 2001; Inoue M, Digman MA, Cheng M, Breusegem SY, Halaihel N, Sorribas V, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Barry NP, Levi M. J Biol Chem 279: 49160-49171, 2004). Here we investigated the role of the renal Na-P(i) cotransporters NaPi-IIc and PiT-2 in K deficiency. Using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, we found that, in rats and in mice, K deficiency is associated with a dramatic decrease in the NaPi-IIc protein abundance in proximal tubular BBM and in NaPi-IIc mRNA. In addition, we documented the presence of a third Na-coupled P(i) transporter in the renal BBM, PiT-2, whose abundance is also decreased by dietary K deficiency in rats and in mice. Finally, electron microscopy showed subcellular redistribution of NaPi-IIc in K deficiency: in control rats, NaPi-IIc immunolabel was primarily in BBM microvilli, whereas, in K-deficient rats, NaPi-IIc BBM label was reduced, and immunolabel was prevalent in cytoplasmic vesicles. In summary, our results demonstrate that decreases in BBM abundance of the phosphate transporter NaPi-IIc and also PiT-2 might contribute to the phosphaturia of dietary K deficiency, and that the three renal BBM phosphate transporters characterized so far can be differentially regulated by dietary perturbations.

  11. More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. Results: One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW. PMID:19201917

  12. Promoting effects of potassium dibasic phosphate on early-stage renal carcinogenesis in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Hiasa, Y; Konishi, N; Nakaoka, S; Nakamura, T; Nishii, K; Ohshima, M

    1992-07-01

    The effects of potassium dibasic phosphate (PDP), potassium aluminum sulfate (PAS) and copper sulfate (CS) on early-stage renal carcinogenesis were investigated in unilaterally nephrectomized male Wistar rats after N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine (EHEN) administration. After feeding 1,000 ppm EHEN, or basal diet for 2 weeks and removal of the left kidney at week 3, male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 20 rats each. These groups received the following dietary treatments: 50,000 ppm PDP, 50,000 ppm PAS, 5,000 ppm CS or basal diet, respectively, for 18 weeks from weeks 3 to 20. The average numbers of adenomatous hyperplasias counted as preneoplastic lesions in the EHEN with 50,000 ppm PDP group were significantly higher than in the EHEN alone group or the EHEN followed by 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS group. The treatment with 50,000 ppm PDP induced renal calcification and promoted the development of preneoplastic lesions in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with EHEN, but that with 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS did not.

  13. The performance of Inconel 693 electrodes for processing an iron phosphate glass melt containing 26 wt.% of a simulated low activity waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jen-Hsien; Newkirk, Joseph W.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Brow, Richard K.; Schlesinger, Mark E.; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    2014-01-01

    Iron phosphate glass is a candidate fixation medium for storing radioactive waste. The Department of Energy supported a program to assess the viability of using Fe-phosphate glass for vitrifying low activity waste in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM). In this study, Inconel 693 electrodes were tested in a research-scale joule-heated melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. After a 10-day test at 1030 °C that yielded 124 kg of glass, the electrodes exhibited a dimensional loss rate of ∼1.6 mm/year, which is comparable to that of Inconel 690 electrodes used in a JHM for processing borosilicate melts. Microstructural changes occurred within the outermost 700 μm of the electrodes and are consistent with an earlier study of Inconel coupons in Fe-phosphate melts. The results indicate that Inconel 693 should have an acceptable corrosion resistance as the electrode for JHM processing of iron phosphate melts.

  14. [A Case of Severe Hyponatremia Caused by Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome in Oropharyngeal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Taro; Shirakura, Satoru; Hatanaka, Akio; Okano, Wataru; Tokumaru, Takao; Yamada, Masato; Saito, Yoshihiro; Beppu, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Hyponatremia is one of the electrolyte abnormalities frequently encountered in cancer therapy. Cisplatin is a well-known drug which can raise various adverse events, including hyponatremia. A male with advanced oropharyngeal cancer is presented in the present report, who was treated with radiotherapy with concurrent administration of cisplatin and who underwent a total of three episodes of severe hyponatremia in the course of therapy. The first two attacks of hyponatremia following cisplatin administration were accompanied by dehydration and excessive urination, and the patient recovered in one week with rehydration and salt supplementation. Excessive loss of salt in urine confirmed that these events were caused by renal salt wasting syndrome after cisplatin administration. On the other hand, the third attack was due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after surgery for a bone fracture. Estimation of the extracellular fluid volume and salt intake/output balance is always believed to be necessary for the diagnosis and proper management of severe hyponatremia after chemotherapy-based treatment with cisplatin. PMID:26548098

  15. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  16. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Heated blends of phosphate waste: Microstructure characterization, effects of processing factors and use as a phosphorus source for alfalfa growth.

    PubMed

    Loutou, M; Hajjaji, M; Mansori, M; Favotto, C; Hakkou, R

    2016-07-15

    Microstructure of expandable lightweight aggregates (LWAs), which was composed of phosphate waste (PW), cement kiln dust (CKD) and raw clay (RC) was investigated, and the effects of processing factors (temperature, waste content, soaking time) on their physical properties were quantified by using response surface methodology (RSM). The potential use of LWAs as a phosphorus source was assessed through the use of seeds of alfalfa. It was found that the main minerals of the waste, namely carbonates and fluorapatite, were involved in the formation of labradorite/anorthite and melt respectively. Stability of mullite- the main constituent of CKD- was sensitive to the melt content. The assemblage of the identified phases was discussed based on the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 phase diagram. The results of RSM showed that the change of compressive strength, firing shrinkage and water absorption of LWAs versus processing factors was well described with a polynomial model and the weights of the effects of the factors increased in the following order: sintering temperature > waste content (in the case of PW-RC) > soaking time. On the other hand, it was found that due to the release of phosphorus by soil-embedded pellets, the growth of alfalfa plants improved, and the rate enhanced in this order: PW-RC > PW-CKD > PW-CKD-RC. The absorbed quantity of phosphorus (0.12%) was still lower than the common uptake amount. PMID:27100329

  18. Demonstration of natriuretic activity in urine of neurosurgical patients with renal salt wasting

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Steven J; Fein, Miriam R; Wirkowski, Elizabeth; Maesaka, John K

    2013-01-01

    We have utilized the persistent elevation of fractional excretion (FE) of urate, > 10%, to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW) from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), in which a normalization of FEurate occurs after correction of hyponatremia.  Previous studies suggest as well  that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia, without pre-existing hyponatremia, is also consistent with RSW, including studies demonstrating induction of RSW in rats infused with plasma from normonatremic neurosurgical and Alzheimer’s disease patients.  The present studies were designed to test whether precipitates from the urine of normonatremic neurosurgical patients, with either normal or elevated FEurate, and patients with SIADH, display natriuretic activity.   Methods: Ammonium sulfate precipitates from the urine of 6 RSW and 5 non-RSW Control patients were dialyzed (10 kDa cutoff) to remove the ammonium sulfate, lyophilized, and the reconstituted precipitate was tested for its effect on transcellular transport of 22Na across LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluency in transwells. Results: Precipitates from 5 of the 6 patients with elevated FEurate and normonatremia significantly inhibited the in vitro transcellular transport of 22Na above a concentration of 3 μg protein/ml, by 10-25%, versus to vehicle alone, and by 15-40% at concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml as compared to precipitates from 4 of the 5 non-RSW patients with either normal FEurate and normonatremia (2 patients) or with SIADH (2 patients). Conclusion: These studies provide further evidence that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia is highly consistent with RSW.  Evidence in the urine of natriuretic activity suggests significant renal excretion of the natriuretic factor. The potentially large source of the natriuretic factor that this could afford, coupled with small analytical sample sizes required by the in-vitro bioassay used here, should facilitate future experimental

  19. Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

  20. Effects on ground-water quality of seepage from a phosphatic clayey waste settling pond, north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.D.; Seaber, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Water samples were taken from test wells drilled near an inactive phosphatic clayey waste storage settling pond, from the settling pond and its perimeter ditch, and from an active settling pond near White Springs, Hamilton County, in north-central Florida. The purpose was to document the seepage of chemical constituents from the inactive settling pond and ditch into the adjacent surficial groundwater system, and to assess the potential for movement of these constituents into the deeper Floridan aquifer system which is the major source of public supply in the area. The study area is underlain by a 2 ,500-ft-thick sequence of Coastal Plain sediments of Early Cretaceous to Holocene age. The rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age that underlie the test site area can be grouped into three major geohydrologic units. In descending order, these units are: surficial aquifer, Hawthorn confining unit, and Floridan aquifer system. Phosphate deposits occur in the upper part of the surficial aquifer. Water in the active settling pond is a calcium magnesium sulfate type with a dissolved solids concentration of 250 mg/L, containing greater amounts of phosphorus, iron, aluminum, barium, zinc, and chromium than the other surface waters. Water in the perimeter ditch is a calcium sulfate type with a dissolved solids concentration of 360 to 390 mg/L, containing greater amounts of calcium, sulfate, nitrogen, and fluoride than other surface waters. Water from the inactive settling pond is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with a dissolved solids concentration of 140 mg/L, containing more bicarbonate than the other surface waters. Large amounts of chemical constituents in the phosphate waste disposal slurry are apparently trapped in the sediments of the settling ponds. The quality of water in the upper part of the surficial aquifer from wells within 200 to 400 ft of the inactive settling pond shows no signs of chemical contamination from phosphate industry operations. The horizontal

  1. Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for the Immobilization of Chloride-containing Intermediate Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Scheele, Randall D.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2003-12-01

    Attention has recently been given to the immobilization of special categories of radioactive wastes, some of which contain high concentrations of actinide chlorides. Although vitrification in phosphate glass has been proposed, this was rejected because of the high losses of chloride. On the basis of non-radioactive and, more recently, radioactive studies, we have shown that calcium phosphate is an effective host for immobilizing the chloride constituents [1]. In this instance, the chlorine is retained as chloride, rather than evolved as a chlorine-bearing gas. The immobilized product is in the form of a free-flowing, non-hygroscopic powder, in which the chlorides are chemically combined within the mineral phases chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Data from studies on non-radioactive simulated waste consisting of a mixture of CaCl2 and SmCl3, and radioactive simulated waste composed of CaCl2 with PuCl3 or PuCl3 and AmCl3, are presented and compared. The XRD data confirm the presence of chlorapatite and spodiosite in the non-radioactive and radioactive materials. The durability of all specimens was measured with a modified MCC-1 test. Releases of Cl after 28 days were 1.6 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive specimens and 7 x 10-3 g m-2 for the Pu-bearing specimens. Releases of Ca after 28 days were 0.3 x 10-3 and 2.0 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive composition and the Pu composition, respectively, whilst release of Pu from the radioactive specimens was lower for the mixed Pu/Am specimen at 1.2 x 10-5g m-2. The release of Am from the mixed Pu/Am composition was exceptionally low at 2.4 x 10-7 g m-2. Overall, the release rate data suggest that the ceramics dissolve congruently, followed by precipitation of Sm, Pu and Am as less soluble phases, possibly oxides or phosphates. The differences in behaviour noted between non-radioactive and radioactive specimens are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemistry of the individual systems.

  2. An alternative host matrix based on iron phosphate glasses for the vitrification of specialized nuclear waste forms. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.E.; Ray, C.S.; Marasinghe, K.

    1997-09-23

    'Objectives of this project are to: (1) investigate the glass composition and processing conditions that yield optimum properties for iron phosphate glasses for vitrifying radioactive waste, (2) determine the atomic structure of iron phosphate glasses and the structure-property relationships, (3) determine how the physical and structural properties of iron phosphate glasses are affected by the addition of simulated high level nuclear waste components, and (4) investigate the process and products of devitrification of iron phosphate waste forms. The glass forming ability of about 125 iron phosphate melts has been investigated in different oxidizing to reducing atmospheres using various iron oxide raw materials such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O. The chemical durability, redox equilibria between Fe(II) and Fe(III), crystallization behavior and structural features for these glasses and their crystalline forms have been investigated using a variety of techniques including Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), and X-ray and neutron diffraction.'

  3. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and phosphate adsorption capability of biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae (Undaria pinnatifida roots).

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Kipal; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The collected roots of Undaria pinnatifida, the main waste in farming sites, accounting for 40-60% of annual production, was pyrolyzed under temperature ranging from 200 to 800°C to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties and phosphate adsorption capacity. It was confirmed that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature led to a decrease of the yield of biochar, while ash content remained almost due to carbonization followed by mineralization. Elemental analysis results indicated an increase in aromaticity and decreased polarity at a high pyrolysis temperature. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased up to 400°C, the phosphate adsorption capacity was enhanced, while a further increase in the pyrolysis temperature lowered the adsorption capacity due to blocked pores in the biochar during pyrolysis. Finally, a pot experiment revealed that biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae is a potent and eco-friendly alternative material for fertilizer after phosphate adsorption.

  4. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and phosphate adsorption capability of biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae (Undaria pinnatifida roots).

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Kipal; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The collected roots of Undaria pinnatifida, the main waste in farming sites, accounting for 40-60% of annual production, was pyrolyzed under temperature ranging from 200 to 800°C to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar properties and phosphate adsorption capacity. It was confirmed that an increase in the pyrolysis temperature led to a decrease of the yield of biochar, while ash content remained almost due to carbonization followed by mineralization. Elemental analysis results indicated an increase in aromaticity and decreased polarity at a high pyrolysis temperature. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased up to 400°C, the phosphate adsorption capacity was enhanced, while a further increase in the pyrolysis temperature lowered the adsorption capacity due to blocked pores in the biochar during pyrolysis. Finally, a pot experiment revealed that biochar derived from waste-marine macroalgae is a potent and eco-friendly alternative material for fertilizer after phosphate adsorption. PMID:26482944

  5. Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in waste clay sediment discharged through the phosphate beneficiation process in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad Salem; Brumsack, Hans Jurgen; Schnetger, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metal contamination of clay waste through the phosphate beneficiation process is a serious problem faced by scientists and regulators worldwide. Through the beneficiation process, heavy metals naturally present in the phosphate rocks became concentrated in the clay waste. This study evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and their fractions in the clay waste in order to assess the risk of environmental contamination. A five-step sequential extraction method, the risk assessment code (RAC), effects range low (ERL), effects range medium (ERM), the lowest effect level (LEL), the severe effect level (SEL), the redistribution index (U tf), the reduced partition index (I), residual partition index (I R), and the Nemerow multi-factor index (PC) were used to assess for clay waste contamination. Heavy metals were analyzed using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Correlation analyses were carried out to better understand the relationships between the chemical characteristics and the contents of the different phase fractions. Concentrations of Cd and Cu confirmed that both were bound to the exchangeable fraction (F1) and the carbonate fraction (F2), presenting higher mobility, whereas Pb was most abundant in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) and organic matter fraction (F4). The residual fraction (F5) contained the highest concentrations (>60%) of As, Cr, Mo, V, and Zn, with lower mobility. Application of the RAC index showed that Cd and Cu should be considered a moderate risk, whereas As, Cr, Mo, Pb, and Zn presented a low risk. Cadmium and Cu contents in mobile fractions F1 and F2 were higher than ERL but lower than ERM. On the other hand, As, Pb, and Zn contents of mobile fractions F1 and F2 were lower than ERL and ERM guideline values. Moreover, total Pb concentrations in the clay waste were below the lowest effect level (LEL) threshold value period, Cr and

  6. Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in waste clay sediment discharged through the phosphate beneficiation process in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad Salem; Brumsack, Hans Jurgen; Schnetger, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metal contamination of clay waste through the phosphate beneficiation process is a serious problem faced by scientists and regulators worldwide. Through the beneficiation process, heavy metals naturally present in the phosphate rocks became concentrated in the clay waste. This study evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and their fractions in the clay waste in order to assess the risk of environmental contamination. A five-step sequential extraction method, the risk assessment code (RAC), effects range low (ERL), effects range medium (ERM), the lowest effect level (LEL), the severe effect level (SEL), the redistribution index (U tf), the reduced partition index (I), residual partition index (I R), and the Nemerow multi-factor index (PC) were used to assess for clay waste contamination. Heavy metals were analyzed using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Correlation analyses were carried out to better understand the relationships between the chemical characteristics and the contents of the different phase fractions. Concentrations of Cd and Cu confirmed that both were bound to the exchangeable fraction (F1) and the carbonate fraction (F2), presenting higher mobility, whereas Pb was most abundant in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) and organic matter fraction (F4). The residual fraction (F5) contained the highest concentrations (>60%) of As, Cr, Mo, V, and Zn, with lower mobility. Application of the RAC index showed that Cd and Cu should be considered a moderate risk, whereas As, Cr, Mo, Pb, and Zn presented a low risk. Cadmium and Cu contents in mobile fractions F1 and F2 were higher than ERL but lower than ERM. On the other hand, As, Pb, and Zn contents of mobile fractions F1 and F2 were lower than ERL and ERM guideline values. Moreover, total Pb concentrations in the clay waste were below the lowest effect level (LEL) threshold value period, Cr and

  7. Biodegradation of organic compounds during co-composting of olive oil mill waste and municipal solid waste with added rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Barje, Farid; El Fels, Loubna; El Hajjouji, Houda; Winterton, Peter; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid olive oil mill waste was treated by com posting in a mixture with the organic part of municipal solid waste and rock phosphate. The transformations that occurred during the process were evaluated by physical, chemical and spectroscopic analyses. After five months of com posting, the final compost presented a C/N ratio under 20, an NH4+/NO3(-)] ratio under 1 and a pH around neutral. A high level of organic matter decomposition paralleled a notable abatement of phenols and lipids. The results show the effective dissolution of mineral elements during composting. This transformation was followed by Fourier transform infrared which showed a decrease in the absorption bands of aliphatic bonds (2925 and 2855 cm(-1)) and carbonyls of carboxylic origin (1740 cm (-1)). In addition to the increase in humic substances and the improvement of germination indices, the parameters studied confirm the stability and the maturity of the composts. The absence of phytotoxicity opens the way to agricultural spreading. PMID:24617055

  8. Iron-phosphate ceramics for solidification of mixed low-level waste

    DOEpatents

    Aloy, Albert S.; Kovarskaya, Elena N.; Koltsova, Tatiana I.; Macheret, Yevgeny; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Todd, Terry

    2000-01-01

    A method of immobilizing mixed low-level waste is provided which uses low cost materials and has a relatively long hardening period. The method includes: forming a mixture of iron oxide powders having ratios, in mass %, of FeO:Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 equal to 25-40:40-10:35-50, or weighing a definite amount of magnetite powder. Metallurgical cinder can also be used as the source of iron oxides. A solution of the orthophosphoric acid, or a solution of the orthophosphoric acid and ferric oxide, is formed and a powder phase of low-level waste and the mixture of iron oxide powders or cinder (or magnetite powder) is also formed. The acid solution is mixed with the powder phase to form a slurry with the ratio of components (mass %) of waste:iron oxide powders or magnetite:acid solution=30-60:15-10:55-30. The slurry is blended to form a homogeneous mixture which is cured at room temperature to form the final product.

  9. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  10. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  11. Phosphate flame retardants and novel brominated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an e-waste recycling region in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP)) were measured in free-range chicken eggs from three e-waste recycling sites and a negative control site located in Guangdong province, Southern China. BEH-TEBP, tris-(chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris-(chloropropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP, two isomers) and tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP) were detected in more than 50% of eggs samples with low concentrations. The median values of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs were 0.17-0.46 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 1.62-2.59 ng/g ww in eggs from the e-waste sites, respectively. The results indicate that EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PFRs are less persistent and bioaccumulative than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs, and possibly also in other bio-matrices. Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were identified in albumen with higher frequencies, but at similar concentrations compared to yolk, while BEH-TEBP was mainly detected in yolk. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs from consumption of chicken eggs ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 and 0.32-0.52 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.20-0.54 and 1.89-3.02 ng/kg bw/day for children in e-waste sites, respectively. Indoor dust ingestion seems to be a more important pathway for the intake of these FRs, while egg consumption is probably a more important exposure pathway for PBDEs.

  12. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and U), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 203}Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, {sup 125}I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by {sup 99}Tc, {sup 75}Se, and finally U, {sup 14}C, and {sup 110m}Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Chemical composition of samples collected from waste rock dumps and other mining-related features at selected phosphate mines in southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Causey, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    This report provides chemical analyses for 31 samples collected from various phosphate mine sites in southeastern Idaho (25), northern Utah (2), and western Wyoming (4). The sampling effort was undertaken as a reconnaissance and does not constitute a characterization of mine wastes. Twenty-five samples were collected from waste rock dumps, 2 from stockpiles, and 1 each from slag, tailings, mill shale, and an outcrop. All samples were analyzed for a suite of major, minor, and trace elements. Although the analytical data set for the 31 samples is too small for detailed statistical analysis, a summary of general observations is made.

  14. FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials for high level waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Remizov, M. B.; Belanova, E. A.; Kozlov, P. V.; Glazkova, Ya. S.; Sobolev, A. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Myasoedov, B. F.

    2015-11-01

    Complex sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials with various Al2O3 to Fe2O3 ratio containing high level waste (HLW) surrogate were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and studied in details by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The samples with high Al2O3 content and not containing Fe2O3 were predominantly amorphous but subjected to devitrification under annealing. Addition of B2O3 and partial Fe2O3 substitution for Al2O3 in the materials increases their resistance to devitrification whereas further substitution and NiO incorporation significantly increase the tendency to devitrification. FTIR spectra demonstrate changes in the structure of glassy materials caused by both structural variations in the anionic motif and occurrence of crystalline phases in the materials. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, iron in the glassy samples is present as octahedrally coordinated Fe3+ ions while in the partly devitrified samples iron is partitioned among vitreous and crystalline phases entering the vitreous phase mainly as Fe3+O6 units and crystalline phases as major Fe3+ and minor Fe2+ ions in a magnetically ordered state and participating in a "fast" electronic exchange.

  15. Acid-base properties and surface complexation modeling of phosphate anion adsorption by wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Bai, Chenguang; Xia, Wentang; An, Juan

    2014-08-15

    The adsorption phenomena and specific reaction processes of phosphate onto wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus (WLGIOWHP) were studied in this work. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were used to elucidate the interaction mechanism between WLGIOWHP and aqueous solution. The results implied that the main adsorption mechanism was the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by phosphate via the formation of inner-sphere complex. The adsorption process was characterized by chemical adsorption onto WLGIOWHP. The non-electrostatic model (NEM) was used to simulate the surface adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The total surface site density and protonation constants for NEM (N(T)=1.6×10(-4) mol/g, K(a1)=2.2×10(-4), K(a2)=6.82×10(-9)) were obtained by non-linear data fitting of acid-base titrations. In addition, the NEM was used to establish the surface adsorption complexation modeling of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The model successfully predicted the adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP from municipal wastewater.

  16. [Novel phosphate regulating genes and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenichi; Ito, Mikiko; Segawa, Hiroko

    2005-05-01

    The hormones currently believe to influence inorganic phosphate (Pi) metabolism are parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active metabolite to vitamin D. A new class of phosphate-regulating factors, collectively known as the phosphatonins have been shown to be associated with the hypophosphatemic diseases. The reabsorption of Pi in the kidney is a major determinant of the plasma Pi level. Reabsorption is largely regulated by the type II a sodium-dependent Pi cotransporter (NPT2a) that is expressed in renal proximal tubular cells. Phosphatonins cause Pi wasting by controlling the amount of NPT2a on the apical surface of the proximal tubular cell. A recent finding indicates that mutations in NPT2a can contribute to nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis in humans and suggests that changes in NPT2a levels may also cause other human disease. We discuss the roles of phosphatonins and NPT2a in bone formation. PMID:15876740

  17. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  18. Phosphate enhancing fermentative hydrogen production from substrate with municipal solid waste composting leachate as a nutrient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yu, Lijia; Zhou, Jizhi; Xu, Yunfeng; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    To overcome phosphorus deficiency in municipal solid waste composting leachate, orthophosphate (OP) and pyrophosphate (PP) were separately added into leachate to evaluate the possibility of fermentative H2 production with leachate and phosphorus-rich streams as a full nutrient source. Results indicate H2 production is significantly promoted by OP addition but slightly facilitated by PP in some cases, depending on initial pH and P dosage. The highest hydrogen yield (1.95±0.07mol H2/mol glucose) was achieved at a COD/P ratio of 27.64 (mg/mg) with OP as phosphorus source at initial pH 5. For PP, a maximum yield of 1.58±0.09mol H2/mol glucose can be attained at the optimal COD/P ratio of 221.12 (mg/mg) and initial pH 5. OP promotes H2 production via dual approaches: supplying nutrient and relieving inhibition from excessive Ca(2+) on granule sludge. However, both the roles in nutrient supply and Ca(2+) removal by PP addition are limited.

  19. Systematic investigation of the strontium zirconium phosphate ceramic form for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pet'kov, Vladimir; Asabina, Elena; Loshkarev, Vladimir; Sukhanov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    We have summarized our data and literature ones on the thermophysical properties and hydrolytic stability of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 compound as a host NaZr2(PO4)3-type (NZP) structure for immobilization of 90Sr-containing radioactive waste. Absence of any polymorphic transformations on the temperature dependence of its heat capacity between 7 and 665 K is caused by the stability of crystalline Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3. Calculated values of thermal conductivity coefficients at zero porosity in the range 298-673 K were 1.86-2.40 W·m-1 K-1. The compound may be classified as low thermal expanding material due to its average linear thermal expansion coefficient. Study of the hydrolytic stability in acid and alkaline media has shown that the relative mass fraction of Sr2+ ions, released into aggressive leaching media, didn't exceed 1% of the mass of sample. Soxhlet leaching studies have shown substantial resistance towards the release of Sr2+ ions into distilled water. Feeble sinterability constrains practical applications of NZP substances, that is why known in literature methods of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 dense ceramics obtaining have been reviewed.

  20. Mutations in the Tight-Junction Gene Claudin 19 (CLDN19) Are Associated with Renal Magnesium Wasting, Renal Failure, and Severe Ocular Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Martin; Schaller, André; Seelow, Dominik; Pandey, Amit V.; Waldegger, Siegfried; Lesslauer, Annegret; Vitzthum, Helga; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Luk, John M.; Becker, Christian; Schlingmann, Karl P.; Schmid, Marcel; Rodriguez-Soriano, Juan; Ariceta, Gema; Cano, Francisco; Enriquez, Ricardo; Jüppner, Harald; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A.; Hediger, Matthias A.; Gallati, Sabina; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.; Nürnberg, Peter; Weber, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Claudins are major components of tight junctions and contribute to the epithelial-barrier function by restricting free diffusion of solutes through the paracellular pathway. We have mapped a new locus for recessive renal magnesium loss on chromosome 1p34.2 and have identified mutations in CLDN19, a member of the claudin multigene family, in patients affected by hypomagnesemia, renal failure, and severe ocular abnormalities. CLDN19 encodes the tight-junction protein claudin-19, and we demonstrate high expression of CLDN19 in renal tubules and the retina. The identified mutations interfere severely with either cell-membrane trafficking or the assembly of the claudin-19 protein. The identification of CLDN19 mutations in patients with chronic renal failure and severe visual impairment supports the fundamental role of claudin-19 for normal renal tubular function and undisturbed organization and development of the retina. PMID:17033971

  1. [Muscle-wasting in end stage renal disease in dialysis treatment: a review].

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Yuri; Galeano, Dario; Cojocaru, Elena; Fiorini, Fulvio; Forcellini, Silvia; Zanoli, Luca; Storari, Alda; Granata, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass (muscle wasting) is a frequent complication in dialysis patients. Common uremic signs and symptoms such as insulin-resistance, increase in glucocorticoid activity, metabolic acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation and dialysis per se contribute to muscle wasting by modulating proteolytic intracellular mechanisms (ubiquitin-proteasome system, activation of caspase-3 and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway). Since muscle wasting is associated with an increase in mortality, bone fractures and worsening in life quality, a prompt and personalised diagnostic and therapeutic approach seems to be essential in dialysis patients. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), computed tomography (CT), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), impedance analysis, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements are the main tools used to assess skeletal muscle mass. Aerobic and anaerobic training programmes and treatment of uremic complications reduce muscle wasting and increase muscle strength in uremic patients. The present review analyses the most recent data about the physiopathology, diagnosis, therapy and future perspectives of treatment of muscle wasting in dialysis patients. PMID:27067216

  2. Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface.

  3. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  4. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is.

  5. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... Renal arteriography is often needed to help decide on the best treatment after other tests are done ...

  6. Influence of the pH on the accumulation of phosphate by red mud (a bauxite ore processing waste).

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2010-10-15

    In the present work we investigated the interactions established between red mud (RM) and phosphate anions (P) at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 10.0. The amount of P sorbed by RM (P-RM) increased as the pH decreased being equal to 4.871 mmol g(-1) at pH 4.0, 0.924 mmol g(-1) at pH 7.0, and 0.266 mmol g(-1) at pH 10.0. Sequential extractions' data of P-RM equilibrated at pH 4.0 and 7.0, suggested that the phosphate sorption at these pH values was mainly regulated by two different mechanisms that gave rise to a chemical adsorption on RM phases, and to the formation of metal phosphate precipitates. By contrast, at pH 10.0 the P-sorption was regulated by a chemisorption mechanism on Fe-Al phases of RM. These findings were supported by FT-IR analysis, which showed a broad band at 1114 and 1105 cm(-1) in P-RM spectra at pH 4.0 and 7.0 respectively, attributable to P-O(H) stretching nu(3)-modes associated to inner-sphere complexes of phosphate on Fe-Al phases, or alternatively to stretching vibrations of PO(4)(3-) tetrahedra, arising from a precipitate of aluminium phosphate. Importantly, the FT-IR spectroscopy showed a phosphate-promoted dissolution of tectosilicates, notably cancrinite and sodalite, in RM exchanged with phosphate at pH 4.0 and 7.0.

  7. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers. PMID:17905580

  8. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone.

  9. Radionuclide content of and /sup 222/Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, C.H.; Kessler, W.V.; Landolt, R.R.; Ziemer, P.L.; Paustenbach, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The radionuclide content and /sup 222/Rn emanation coefficients of selected construction materials were determined. The materials were analyzed for /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra and 40K by gamma-ray spectrometry. Mineral wool insulation, which is made from Tennessee phosphate slag, and commonly used insulation, which is made from blast furnace slag, had similar concentrations of these radionuclides. Concrete blocks made with phosphate slag had enhanced /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra contents when compared to ordinary concrete block. The mineral wool insulation materials which were examined had emanation coefficients that were a few (2-6) times 10(-3). All other materials had emanation coefficients that ranged from 6 X 10(-4) to 4 X 10(-2).

  10. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  11. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-12-08

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio.

  12. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Maesaka, John K.; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio. PMID:26237607

  13. Investigation of some factors affecting on release of radon-222 from phosphogypsum waste associated with phosphate ore processing.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; El Afifi, E M; Nayl, A A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is oriented to investigate the influence of some physicochemical factors such as radium distribution, grain size, moisture content and chemical constituents on releases of radon-222 from the accumulated phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The emanation fraction, activity concentration in the pore and the surface exhalation rate of radon-222 in the bulk PG waste are 34.5 ± 0.3%, 238.6 ± 7.8 kBq m(-3) and 213 ± 6.9 mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. These values were varied and enhanced slightly in the fine grain sizes (F1 < 0.125 mm) by a factor of 1.05 folds compared to the bulk residue. It was also found that release of radon from residue PG waste was controlled positively by radium (Ra-226), calcium (CaSO4) and strontium (SrO). About 67% of radon release attributed to the grain size below 0.5 mm, while 33% due to the large grain size above 0.5 mm. The emanation fraction of Rn-222 is increased with moisture content and the maximum emanation is ∼43% of moisture of 3-8%. It reduced slowly with the continuous increase in moisture till 20%. Due to PG waste in situ can be enhancing the background to the surround workers and/or public. Therefore, the environmental negative impacts due to release of Rn-222 can be minimized by legislation to restrict its civil uses, or increasing its moisture to ∼10%, or by the particle size separation of the fine fraction containing the high levels of Ra-226 followed by a suitable chemical treatment or disposal; whereas the low release amount can be diluted and used in cement industry, roads or dam construction. PMID:25863719

  14. Investigation of some factors affecting on release of radon-222 from phosphogypsum waste associated with phosphate ore processing.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; El Afifi, E M; Nayl, A A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is oriented to investigate the influence of some physicochemical factors such as radium distribution, grain size, moisture content and chemical constituents on releases of radon-222 from the accumulated phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The emanation fraction, activity concentration in the pore and the surface exhalation rate of radon-222 in the bulk PG waste are 34.5 ± 0.3%, 238.6 ± 7.8 kBq m(-3) and 213 ± 6.9 mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. These values were varied and enhanced slightly in the fine grain sizes (F1 < 0.125 mm) by a factor of 1.05 folds compared to the bulk residue. It was also found that release of radon from residue PG waste was controlled positively by radium (Ra-226), calcium (CaSO4) and strontium (SrO). About 67% of radon release attributed to the grain size below 0.5 mm, while 33% due to the large grain size above 0.5 mm. The emanation fraction of Rn-222 is increased with moisture content and the maximum emanation is ∼43% of moisture of 3-8%. It reduced slowly with the continuous increase in moisture till 20%. Due to PG waste in situ can be enhancing the background to the surround workers and/or public. Therefore, the environmental negative impacts due to release of Rn-222 can be minimized by legislation to restrict its civil uses, or increasing its moisture to ∼10%, or by the particle size separation of the fine fraction containing the high levels of Ra-226 followed by a suitable chemical treatment or disposal; whereas the low release amount can be diluted and used in cement industry, roads or dam construction.

  15. Hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Indridason, Olafur S; Quarles, L Darryl

    2002-07-01

    Hyperphosphatemia occurs universally in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) unless efforts are made to prevent positive phosphate balance. Positive phosphate balance results from the loss of renal elimination of phosphate and continued obligatory intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate. Increased efflux of phosphate from bone because of excess parathyroid hormone-mediated bone resorption can also contribute to increased serum phosphate concentrations in the setting of severe hyperparathyroidism. It is important to treat hyperphosphatemia because it contributes to the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcifications, and increased cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients. Attaining a neutral phosphate balance, which is the key to the management of hyperphosphatemia in ESRD, is a challenge. Control of phosphorus depends on its removal during dialysis and the limitation of gastrointestinal absorption by dietary phosphate restriction and chelation of phosphate. Knowledge of the quantitative aspects of phosphate balance is useful in optimizing our use of phosphate binders, dialysis frequency, and vitamin D sterols. The development of new phosphate binders and efforts to find new ways to inhibit gastrointestinal absorption of phosphate will lead to improvements in the control of serum phosphate levels in ESRD. PMID:12203200

  16. Development Of High Waste-Loading HLW Glasses For High Bismuth Phosphate Wastes, VSL-12R2550-1, Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing K.

    2012-12-13

    This report presents results from tests with new glass formulations that have been developed for several high Bi-P HLW compositions that are expected to be processed at the WTP that have not been tested previously. WTP HLW feed compositions were reviewed to select waste batches that are high in Bi-P and that are reasonably distinct from the Bi-limited waste that has been tested previously. Three such high Bi-P HLW compositions were selected for this work. The focus of the present work was to determine whether the same type of issues as seen in previous work with high-Bi HLW will be seen in HLW with different concentrations of Bi, P and Cr and also whether similar glass formulation development approaches would be successful in mitigating these issues. New glass compositions were developed for each of the three representative Bi-P HLW wastes and characterized with respect to key processing and product quality properties and, in particular, those relating to crystallization and foaming tendency.

  17. Effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on the activated sludge treatment of calcium-containing chemical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Salanitro, J.P.; Sun, P.T.; Thornton, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    Laboratory-scale biotreaters were used to study the effects of NH/sub 3/-N and PO/sub 4/-P nutrients on the activated sludge treatment of a chemical waste containing soluble calcium (1300 mg/L). Units receiving high or low levels of NH/sub 3/-N and PO/sub 4/-P were similar in their ability to remove organic compounds from the waste. Adaptation of sludges to low PO/sub 4/-P levels (<0.1 mg/L effluent) resulted in a marked accumulation of CaCO/sub 3/ in the biosolids, whereas those receiving high PO/sub 4/-P (2-4 mg/L effluent) had little CaCO/sub 3/. Microscopic observations of CaCO/sub 3/ containing sludges showed substantial amounts of CaCO/sub 3/ crystals imbedded in the biomass. These floes also appeared to be enriched with nonfilamentous bacterial species in contrast to floes devoid of CaCO/sub 3/ which had a floe structure of filamentous and nonfilamentous organisms. Scanning electron micrographs of floes grown under low NH/sub 3/-N showed a microbial fibrillar network of exocellular material interconnecting cells in the floe matrix. The sludges adapted to low NH/sub 3/-N also produced higher amounts of extractable polysaccharide. CaCO/sub 3/ containing biosolids were more dense, larger, and settled better (low SVI, high ISV) than floes devoid of the precipitates. It is not known from these experiments whether PO/sub 4/-P or some inorganic or organic polymer produced by the floe bacteria are involved in inhibiting CaCO/sub 3/ precipitation in the activated sludge treatment of calcium-containing wastes.

  18. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397

  19. [Phosphate binders].

    PubMed

    Heeb, Rita M

    2016-06-01

    Phosphate binders to treat hyperphosphataemia are part of the medication regime of every dialysis patient. Phosphate binders are taken with every meal (three times a day). Generally, the medication adherence rates of phosphate binders are very low. This is due to inconveniences like their bad taste or their size which makes them hard to swallow. Also nephrologists have differing opinions on phosphate binders as they are aware of the dialysis patients' difficulties to deal with the amount of drugs they are prescribed. Still, phosphate binders are important drugs which have shown potential in reducing mortality by regulating the level of serum phosphate. In order to improve adherence rates, pharmacists have to advise the patients on these drugs' side effects versus the risks associated with omitting their intake. PMID:27439258

  20. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  1. Muscle wasting in end-stage renal disease promulgates premature death: established, emerging and potential novel treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesus; von Walden, Ferdinand; Ikizler, T Alp; Nader, Gustavo A

    2016-07-01

    Muscle wasting (or sarcopenia) is a common feature of the uremic phenotype and predisposes this vulnerable patient population to increased risk of comorbid complications, poor quality of life, frailty and premature death. The old age of dialysis patients is in addition a likely contributor to loss of muscle mass. As recent evidence suggests that assessment of muscle strength (i.e. function) is a better predictor of outcome and comorbidities than muscle mass, this opens new screening, assessment and therapeutic opportunities. Among established treatment strategies, the benefit of resistance exercise and endurance training are increasingly recognized among nephrologists as being effective and should be promoted in sedentary chronic kidney disease patients. Testosterone and growth hormone replacement appear as the most promising among emerging treatments strategies for muscle wasting. As treatment of muscle wasting is difficult and seldom successful in this often old, frail, sedentary and exercise-hesitant patient group, novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies on stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, myogenic stem (satellite) cells and manipulation of transforming growth factor family members, all of which hold promise for more effective therapies to target muscle mass loss and function in the future.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: renal tubular acidosis with deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... a disorder characterized by kidney (renal) problems and hearing loss. The kidneys normally filter fluid and waste products ... In people with renal tubular acidosis with deafness , hearing loss caused by changes in the inner ear (sensorineural ...

  3. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    MedlinePlus

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  4. Crystal chemistry of sodium zirconium phosphate based simulated ceramic waste forms of effluent cations (Ba(2+), Sn(4+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Ni(2+) and Si(4+)) from light water reactor fuel reprocessing plants.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, O P; Chourasia, Rashmi

    2008-05-01

    A novel concept of immobilization of light water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing waste effluent through interaction with sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been established. Such conversion utilizes waste materials like zirconium and nickel alloys, stainless steel, spent solvent tri-butyl phosphate and concentrated solution of NaNO(3). The resultant multi component NZP material is a physically and chemically stable single phase crystalline product having good mechanical strength. The NZP matrix can also incorporate all types of fission product cations in a stable crystalline lattice structure; therefore, the resultant solid solutions deserve quantification of crystallographic data. In this communication, crystal chemistry of the two types of simulated waste forms (type I-Na(1.49)Zr(1.56)Sn(0.02)Fe(0).(28)Cr(0.07)Ni(0.07)P(3)O(12) and type II-Na(1.35)Ba(0.14)Zr(1.56)Sn(0.02)Fe(0).(28)Cr(0.07)Ni(0.07)P(2.86)Si(0.14)O(12)) has been investigated using General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) programming of the X-ray powder diffraction data. About 4001 data points of each have been subjected to Rietveld analysis to arrive at a satisfactory structural convergence of Rietveld parameters; R-pattern (R(p))=0.0821, R-weighted pattern (R(wp))=0.1266 for type I and R(p)=0.0686, R(wp)=0.0910 for type II. The structure of type I and type II waste forms consist of ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra linked by the corners to form a three-dimensional network. Each phosphate group is on a two-fold rotation axis and is linked to four ZrO(6) octahedra while zirconium octahedra lies on a three-fold rotation axis and is connected to six PO(4) tetrahedra. Though the expansion along c-axis and shrinkage along a-axis with slight distortion of bond angles in the synthesized crystal indicate the flexibility of the structure, the waste forms are basically of NZP structure. Morphological examination by SEM reveals that the size of almost rectangular parallelepiped crystallites varies

  5. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  6. Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2014-06-30

    A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.

  7. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, Ian W.; Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2007-03-31

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g∙m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g∙m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

  8. Renal Clearance of Mineral Metabolism Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Rhee, Eugene P; Elmariah, Sammy; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    CKD leads to disturbances in multiple interrelated hormones that regulate bone and mineral metabolism. The renal handling of mineral metabolism hormones in humans is incompletely understood. We determined the single-pass renal clearance of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D metabolites, and phosphate from paired blood samples collected from the abdominal aorta and renal vein in 17 participants undergoing simultaneous right and left heart catheterization and estimated associations of eGFR with the renal elimination of metabolites. The mean age ±SD of the study population was 71.4±10.0 years and 11 participants (65%) were male. We found a relatively large mean±SD single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone (44.2%±10.3%) that exceeded the extraction of creatinine (22.1%±7.9%). The proportionate renal extraction of parathyroid hormone correlated with eGFR. The renal extraction of fibroblast growth factor 23 was, on average, lower than that of parathyroid hormone with greater variability across individuals (17.1%±19.5%). There were no differences in the mean concentrations of vitamin D metabolites across the renal vein and artery. In summary, we demonstrate substantial single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone at a rate that exceeds glomerular filtration. Impaired renal clearance of parathyroid hormone may contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD.

  9. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to... for human food grade calcium phosphates accordingly must differ from the rest of the subcategory...

  10. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to... for human food grade calcium phosphates accordingly must differ from the rest of the subcategory...

  11. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to... for human food grade calcium phosphates accordingly must differ from the rest of the subcategory...

  12. 40 CFR 422.30 - Applicability; description of the phosphate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., animal feed grade, calcium phosphate and human food grade calcium phosphate from phosphoric acid. The production of human food grade calcium phosphate creates waste water pollutants not completely amenable to... for human food grade calcium phosphates accordingly must differ from the rest of the subcategory...

  13. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  15. Calcium and phosphate impact cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Heine, Gunnar H; Nangaku, Masaomi; Fliser, Danilo

    2013-04-01

    Non-traditional risk factors substantially contribute to cardiovascular (CV) disease. A deranged calcium-phosphate metabolism-first identified as a major non-traditional CV risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease-may be implicated in development and progression of CV disease even among individuals with intact renal function. This review thus summarizes epidemiological and experimental data on the role of calcium, phosphate, and its major regulating hormones-parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and fibroblast growth factor 23-in CV medicine. PMID:23109644

  16. [Phosphate nephropathy: how to avoid it?].

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Zellweger, Michael; Levy, Marc; Hadengue, Antoine; Moll, Solange

    2011-11-16

    Colonoscopy is a commonly used procedure for colon cancer screening. The ideal bowel preparation for a good visualization of the colonic mucosa would be effective and well tolerated. Sodium phosphate (NaP) and polyethylen glycol (PEG) are the two most frequently used solutions in this indication. However, although NaP has been described as more effective and better tolerated, it can cause severe acute electrolytes disturbances and, in rare cases, lead to irreversible renal failure, called phosphate nephropathy. NaP should therefore be prescribed with caution and be formally banned for patients with risk factors. PMID:22400350

  17. Trace element relations to renal stones phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Gazilka, M.

    1990-04-01

    The renal stones formation is still not well known and seems to be a very complex phenomenon. Therefore, the renal stones were analyzed by the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Using FTIR the samples were grouped into 5 types: phosphates, mixture of phosphates and oxalates, oxalates, mixture of oxalates and uric acid, and uric acid. PIXE was used to determine Trace Element (TE) contents. The combination of the two analysis methods enables us to find some TE relations to different renal stones phases. In general it appeared that TE contents in mixed structures are always between values of the respective pure phases. It was also found that some of the toxic elements are related to the structures but not necessarily to environmental influences as in the case of lead. All data were statistically analyzed and the correalations of the elements are presented.

  18. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  19. Osteocyte regulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone mineralization underlies the pathophysiology of the heritable disorders of rickets and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian Q; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; Yuan, Baozhi; White, Kenneth E; Drezner, Marc K

    2013-06-01

    Although recent studies have established that osteocytes function as secretory cells that regulate phosphate metabolism, the biomolecular mechanism(s) underlying these effects remain incompletely defined. However, investigations focusing on the pathogenesis of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), heritable disorders characterized by abnormal renal phosphate wasting and bone mineralization, have clearly implicated FGF23 as a central factor in osteocytes underlying renal phosphate wasting, documented new molecular pathways regulating FGF23 production, and revealed complementary abnormalities in osteocytes that regulate bone mineralization. The seminal observations leading to these discoveries were the following: 1) mutations in FGF23 cause ADHR by limiting cleavage of the bioactive intact molecule, at a subtilisin-like protein convertase (SPC) site, resulting in increased circulating FGF23 levels and hypophosphatemia; 2) mutations in DMP1 cause ARHR, not only by increasing serum FGF23, albeit by enhanced production and not limited cleavage, but also by limiting production of the active DMP1 component, the C-terminal fragment, resulting in dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, which contributes to impaired bone mineralization; and 3) mutations in PHEX cause XLH both by altering FGF23 proteolysis and production and causing dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, similar to abnormalities in ADHR and ARHR, but secondary to different central pathophysiological events. These discoveries indicate that ADHR, XLH, and ARHR represent three related heritable hypophosphatemic diseases that arise from mutations in, or dysregulation of, a single common gene product, FGF23 and, in ARHR and XLH, complimentary DMP1 and PHEX directed events that contribute to abnormal bone mineralization.

  20. Renal organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the absence of new treatment modalities has become a strong driver for innovation in nephrology. An increasing understanding of stem cell biology has kindled the prospects of regenerative options for kidney disease. However, the kidney itself is not a regenerative organ, as all the nephrons are formed during embryonic development. Here, we will investigate advances in the molecular genetics of renal organogenesis, including what this can tell us about lineage relationships, and discuss how this may serve to inform us about both the normal processes of renal repair and options for regenerative therapies. PMID:22198432

  1. Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  2. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CADMIUM IN PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium induced renal tubular dysfunction occurred where subsistence rice farmers produced their lifetime dietary rice on Zn-mine waste contaminated soils in Japan and other Asian countries. Research has shown that polished rice Cd is greatly increased while grain Zn is not incre...

  3. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  4. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  5. [Renal calcium excretion and urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Seiji; Honma, Yukio

    2011-10-01

    Patients with urolithiasis have been increasing in the world, especially morbidity of calcium nephrolithiasis has been increasing in the advanced countries. The changes in the environmental factors including alternation of diet are said to be associated with the increment of morbidity of kidney stone. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is one of the most important risk factor of calcium nephrolithiasis and is classified into absorptive, resorptive, and renal leak. Though the origins of these three types of hypercalciuria are different, increased bone resorption and increased calcium absorption from gut tend to be observed simultaneously. Not only genetic abnormalities in the proteins which are involved in calcium metabolisms but environmental factors such as high sodium intake and chronic acid load caused by increased ingestion of animal protein have been considered to be associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. Renal metabolisms of oxalate and phosphate which are important compositions of calcium containing stone, uric acid as a promoter and citrate as a inhibitor of nephrolithiasis are also described.

  6. Efficient phosphate binding using a combination of gluconolactate and carbonate calcium salts.

    PubMed

    Legendre, J Y; Cote, S; Pradeau, D; Hamon, M; Vitzling, C; Lavene, D; Tarral, A

    1994-08-01

    Although renal-failure-related hyperphosphataemia can be corrected by various phosphate binders, there remains a need for safer and more efficient formulations to precipitate phosphate. This work describes both a theoretical approach and a phosphate precipitation test in order to design efficient binding calcium salts formulations. The results show that the combination of a soluble calcium salt (the gluconolactate) and a proton-consuming calcium salt (the carbonate) can precipitate phosphate effectively. Furthermore, the theoretical computations correlate well with the ability of the salt to bind phosphate in vitro. PMID:7989401

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  8. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  9. Proteinuria Increases Plasma Phosphate by Altering Its Tubular Handling

    PubMed Central

    Courbebaisse, Marie; Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Wilhelm-Bals, Alexandra; Metzger, Marie; Khodo, Stellor Nlandu; Hasler, Udo; Chehade, Hassib; Dizin, Eva; Daryadel, Arezoo; Stengel, Bénedicte; Girardin, E.; Prié, Dominique; Wagner, Carsten A.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Houillier, Pascal; Feraille, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Proteinuria and hyperphosphatemia are cardiovascular risk factors independent of GFR. We hypothesized that proteinuria induces relative phosphate retention via increased proximal tubule phosphate reabsorption. To test the clinical relevance of this hypothesis, we studied phosphate handling in nephrotic children and patients with CKD. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) concentration, plasma phosphate concentration, and tubular reabsorption of phosphate increased during the proteinuric phase compared with the remission phase in nephrotic children. Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of 1738 patients with CKD showed that albuminuria≥300 mg/24 hours is predictive of higher phosphate levels, independent of GFR and other confounding factors. Albuminuric patients also displayed higher plasma FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone levels. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, we induced glomerular proteinuria in two animal models. Rats with puromycin-aminonucleoside–induced nephrotic proteinuria displayed higher renal protein expression of the sodium-phosphate co-transporter NaPi-IIa, lower renal Klotho protein expression, and decreased phosphorylation of FGF receptor substrate 2α, a major FGF-23 receptor substrate. These findings were confirmed in transgenic mice that develop nephrotic-range proteinuria resulting from podocyte depletion. In vitro, albumin did not directly alter phosphate uptake in cultured proximal tubule OK cells. In conclusion, we show that proteinuria increases plasma phosphate concentration independent of GFR. This effect relies on increased proximal tubule NaPi-IIa expression secondary to decreased FGF-23 biologic activity. Proteinuria induces elevation of both plasma phosphate and FGF-23 concentrations, potentially contributing to cardiovascular disease. PMID:25349200

  10. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Renal cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 57. National Cancer Institute: PDQ renal cell cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. ...

  11. Phosphatic fertiliser poisoning of sheep: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, P J; McCausland, I P; Coup, M R

    1982-11-01

    The toxicity of serpentine phosphate and superphosphate for non-pregnant dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes was investigated by oral dosing. An attempt was made to reproduce a natural episode of poisoning by exposing pregnant and lactating ewes to topdressed pasture. A total dose in the range of 1200 to 1800 g of serpentine phosphate was required to kill two ewes and it was concluded that natural episodes of poisoning with this material are unlikely. The toxic process was similar to that caused by superphosphate. The LD50 of superphosphate was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 6 g/kg and a dose in the range of 200 to 300 g was sufficient to kill most sheep. The apparently greater susceptibility of pregnant and lactating sheep to poisoning suggested by the study of natural outbreaks was not demonstrated in these experiments, but the numbers of experimental animals may have been too small to detect differing susceptibility. The clinical disease resembled that seen in natural episodes; anorexia, diarrhoea, progressive depression and death in a period of 5 to 8 days after the start of dosing. Sublethal doses produced a transient diarrhoea and, in two sheep, a severe wool-break. The principal biochemical changes were hyperphosphataemia and evidence of renal failure (oliguria, uraemia, azotaemia). Gross lesions were not consistently present but included abomasal ulceration and renal cortical swelling and pallor. The histopathological evidence of renal tubular obstruction by flocculant eosinophilic casts was characteristic. PMID:16030836

  12. Adaptive ammoniagenesis in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Dass, P D; Martin, D

    1990-01-01

    The role of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) in renal ammoniagenesis, glutamine (Gln), and glutathione (GSH) utilization was evaluated in the intact functioning rat kidney of subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) model of chronic renal failure (CRF). NH4+ derived from extracellular gamma-GT hydrolysis of Gln and GSH was differentiated from the intramitochondrial phosphate-dependent glutaminase by using acivicin, a gamma-GT-specific inhibitor. In the control (C) group Gln extraction accounted for 61% of total NH4+ production (sum of renal venous and urinary NH4+), but only 41% in SNX group. In the SNX group GSH extraction accounted for 10% of total NH4+ production, but only 1% in the C group. Acivicin inhibited 44% and 33% of total NH4+ production in SNX and C group respectively, as compared to baseline before acivicin. In CRF, gamma-GT a key enzyme of the gamma-glutamyl cycle plays a significant role in adaptive ammoniagenesis.

  13. The pathophysiology of acid-base changes in chronically phosphate-depleted rats: bone-kidney interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, M; Goldfarb, S; Agus, Z S; Narins, R G

    1977-01-01

    Acid-base disturbances may develop secondary to the changes in renal tubular function and bone dynamics which attend phosphate depletion (PD). This work characterizes the acid-base status of rats fed a low phosphate diet. After 18 days, PD rats had marked calciuria (pair-fed controls: 0.3 +/- 0.2; PD 32.2 +/- 2.5 mueq/h; P less than 0.001), severe bicarbonaturia (controls: 0; PD 17.6 +/- 0.2 meq/h; P less than 0.001), and negative net acid excretion (controls: 44.5 +/- 2.9; PD: --6.6 +/- 2.5 meq/h; P less than 0.001), but plasma pH, HCO3, and PCO2 were equal in both groups. After 45 days, plasma HCO3 fell to 21.1 +/- 0.9 meq/liter in PD (controls: 23.6 +/- 0.5 meq/liter; P less than 0.05), while bicarbonaturia (controls: 0.4 +/- 0.2; PD: 3.8 +/- 1 mueq/h; P less than 0.02) and calciuria were present but diminished. These data suggested the coexistence of bone HCO3 mobilization and renal HCO3 wasting in PD. To test this thesis, bicarbonaturia was eliminated by nephrectomy. 24 h later plasma HCO3 was higher in PD rats (controls: 19.3 +/- 0.02; PD: 22.6 +/- 0.8 meq/liter; P less than 0.05), consistend with the presence of extrarenal HCO3 production. After inhibition of bone resorption with colchicine (1 mg/kg), plasma HCO3 decreased to 16.8 +/- 0.6 meq/liter in PD rats (controls): 26.4 +/- 1 meq/liter; P less than 0.001) while bicarbonaturia persisted. These data indicate that the plasma HCO3 in PD is the net result of renal HCO3 wasting and bone HCO3 mobilization. These combined effects maintain normal blood HCO3 initially (18 days) but with time (45 days), bone resorption diminishes and the acidifying renal tubular defect predominates. PMID:833276

  14. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  17. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means.

  18. Laboratory Markers of Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk in Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death continues to be a major public health problem. Ventricular arrhythmia is a main cause of sudden cardiac death. The present review addresses the links between renal function tests, several laboratory markers, and ventricular arrhythmia risk in patients with renal disease, undergoing or not hemodialysis or renal transplant, focusing on recent clinical studies. Therapy of hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia should be an emergency and performed simultaneously under electrocardiographic monitoring in patients with renal failure. Serum phosphates and iron, PTH level, renal function, hemoglobin and hematocrit, pH, inflammatory markers, proteinuria and microalbuminuria, and osmolarity should be monitored, besides standard 12-lead ECG, in order to prevent ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. PMID:24982887

  19. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  20. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  1. Renal infarction after aerobics.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J H; Moinuddin, M; Buchignani, J S; Rockett, J F; Callison, M K

    1984-11-01

    Renal infarction is most frequently due to emboli from the heart or aorta. Other causes include atheromatous disease, renal artery aneurysm, vasculitis, hypotension, hypercoagulable states, aortic dissection, and major trauma. Most renal infarctions are segmental. The extent of disease is dependent upon the size and number of renal vessels involved, coexistent renal disease, and collateral circulation. Flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, hematuria, renal failure, or hypertension may suggest the diagnosis, but these findings are nonspecific and diagnosis will depend not only on history and physical examination, but also on the appropriate imaging tests. The type of treatment is dictated by the etiology of the infarction.

  2. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  3. Renal and Bone Toxicity with the Use of Tenofovir: Understanding at the End.

    PubMed

    Casado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has been associated with side effects on renal function and bone mineral density, but whether this toxicity is of clinical relevance in the middle or long term is highly debated. Current knowledge supports that the use of and time on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, modulated by other factors such as age, baseline renal function, or classical risk factors, could led to progressive wasting in the urine of low molecular weight proteins, phosphate, uric acid, or glucose. This "partial" Fanconi syndrome seems to be slowly progressive, with increases in the proportion of patients and in the severity of different tubular abnormalities with the long term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Although progression to chronic kidney disease is relatively rare in patients on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, in part attributed to the capacity of kidneys to compensate for loss of functioning nephrons, the severity of tubular dysfunction is associated with greater kidney function decline. In large cohorts, the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is one of the main risk factors associated to chronic kidney disease. In addition, hyperphosphaturia secondary to tubular dysfunction could alter the interplay between bone, kidney, and regulatory hormones, leading to progressive bone loss in a similar manner, but in a lesser extent, to hypophosphatemic osteomalacia observed in the Fanconi syndrome. This component of osteomalacia secondary to altered phosphate metabolism explains the partial improvement observed with vitamin D supplementation, the association with altered bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and the rapid benefit in terms of bone mineral density after tenofovir disoproxil fumarate discontinuation. PMID:27230467

  4. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2000-01-01

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  5. Method for Producing Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics and for Stabilizing Contaminants Encapsulated therein Utilizing Reducing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    1999-05-05

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions is stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  6. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  7. Renal vein thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys. Possible Complications Complications may include: Acute renal failure (especially if thrombosis occurs in a dehydrated child) ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood ... embolus Renal Tumor Update Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: ...

  8. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  9. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  10. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... renal function using ureteral stenting, nephrostomy, surgery or dialysis. What is kidney (renal) failure? How is kidney ... as a urinary stent or kidney stone removal. Dialysis , including hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: These procedures remove ...

  11. [Long-term management of patients with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Brunner, F P

    1989-07-01

    Any type of chronic renal disease is associated with functional deterioration of the kidney due to progressive glomerulosclerosis with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. This process is thought to be predominantly due either to glomerular hyperfiltration or mesangial overload with macromolecules. Antihypertensive therapy, particularly with ACE inhibitors, and protein restriction have been found to retard progressive glomerulosclerosis in animal experiments. There is no doubt that patients with renal disease benefit from antihypertensive therapy through both preservation of renal function and prevention of secondary organ damage due to hypertension. However, the value of protein restricted diets with or without supplements of essential amino acids or ketoacids is less clear. A patient treated with protein restriction is presented and the investigations necessary to monitor compliance, renal function and nutrition are discussed. Monthly to quarterly controls of renal function, blood pressure and mineral metabolism are suggested, particularly in the case of severe hypertension and of prophylactic treatment for renal osteodystrophy with phosphate binders and vitamin D metabolites. Finally, guidelines are provided for planning of renal replacement therapy by dialysis and renal transplantation in the individual patient.

  12. Metal-phosphate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Beth Ann; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  13. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Guo, Jin-he; Teng, Gao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic diseases of multiple etiologies. Although great progress has been made, researchers are still working on the pathogenesis of T2DM and how to best use the treatments available. Aside from several novel pharmacological approaches, catheter-based sympathetic renal denervation (RDN) has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. In this article, we will summarize herein the role sympathetic activation plays in the progression of T2DM and review the recent clinical RDN experience in glucose metabolism. We performed systematic review in online databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science, from inception until 2015. Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investigated between RDN and T2DM. The quality of each included study was assessed by Newcastle–Ottawa scale score. To synthesize these studies, a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model was applied as appropriate. Then, we calculated heterogeneity, performed sensitivity analysis, tested publication bias, and did meta-regression analysis. Finally, we identified 4 eligible articles. In most studies, RDN achieved via novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency energy has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. But the DREAMS-Study showed that RDN did not change median insulin sensitivity nor systemic sympathetic activity. Firstly, the current published studies lacked a proper control group, along with the sample capacity was small. Also, data obtained in the subgroups of diabetic patients were not separately analyzed and the follow-up period was very short. In addition, a reduction in blood pressure accounts for the improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance cannot be excluded. If the favorable result of better glucose metabolism is confirmed in large-scale, randomized studies

  14. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome. PMID:27635229

  15. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  16. [Idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S

    1996-06-01

    The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed. PMID:8763700

  17. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  18. Clinical management of disturbances of calcium and phosphate metabolism in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Eddington, Helen; Heaf, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Management of chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder can be difficult in renal patients. This review aims to explain why the control of disturbed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolism is important in dialysis patients. The methods available to regulate these parameters include diet, phosphate binders, dialysate calcium, native vitamin D, active vitamin D derivatives and calcimimetics. An overview of current treatment guidelines will be discussed. PMID:25984012

  19. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  20. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  1. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  2. Acute clinical tolerance of creatinol O-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Melloni, G F; Minoja, G M; Lureti, G F; Merlo, L; Pamparana, F; Brusoni, B

    1979-01-01

    Acute clinical tolerance to N-methyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl) guanidine O-phosphate (creatinol O-phosphate, COP) was investigated in volunteer human subjects without heart or renal disease and without other serious illness. COP was administered i.v. at three different dosages, 1020 mg (group A), 2040 mg (group B) and 3060 mg (group C), in comparison with a placebo (group D). Arterial pressure, heart rate, ECG pattern and a complete blood analysis showed no change at any COP dosage, with the exception of blood phosphate, which increased in groups B and C. Cumulative urinary excretion of phosphate and creatinine and diuresis increased, whereas other urine parameters did not change. The phosphate and creatinine increases derived from the COP molecule and the increase in diuresis from a simple osmotic process required to dilute the phosphate in the tubular fluid. All these alterations were statistically significant and dose-related with COP and had been expected. COP proved to be a very well tolerated drug without any evident side effect.

  3. An Update on Phosphate Binders: A Dietitian's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Control of serum phosphorus (PO4) has been long recognized as a goal in the nutritional and medical management of the patients with chronic kidney disease. Phosphate-binding compounds were introduced in the 1970s for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients on dialysis after it was observed that oral administration of aluminum hydroxide as an antacid also reduced serum PO4 levels. Forty years later, aluminum is very seldom used as a phosphate binder as many other safer compounds are now available. This article is a comprehensive review, geared to the renal dietitian, of the most common binder categories. It will discuss pharmacokinetics, side effects, initial and optimal doses, phosphate affinity, and controversies of use. It will also review two novel approaches to serum PO4 management in chronic kidney disease patients receiving dialysis and provide a new calculation by which binders can be compared. PMID:26920090

  4. Analysis of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jarolímová, Zdeňka; Lubal, Přemysl; Kanický, Viktor

    2012-08-30

    An analytical method for the determination of the composition of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis with conductometric detection was developed. Using different leading/terminating electrolyte systems, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds (urate, xanthate, oxalate) and inorganic ions (phosphate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NH(4)(+)) species commonly present in mixed renal stones in three separate steps can be carried out with limits of detection about 10 μmol/L. The developed method was validated by the analysis of real samples and can be used for urinary calculi classification. In addition, it was verified that this method can also be employed for the determination of the above mentioned analytes in some other samples (bones, teeth) concerning apatite biominerals (fluoro-, carbonate-, chloro-apatite). PMID:22939127

  5. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  6. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. PMID:27258275

  7. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. PMID:27258275

  8. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells.

  9. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-04-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

  11. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

  12. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  13. Atypical findings in a patient with a renal milky stone including a cake of stone.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takaharu

    2006-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our department with the diagnosis of a renal calculus. She exhibited dull left flank pain. A plain film revealed a round opaque calcific density in the left kidney in the supine and the upright position. There was no connection between the calcification and the renal collecting system by retrograde pyelography. Computed tomography in the supine position showed a rounded calcification in the left renal parenchyma without a semilunar configuration. She was diagnosed with left renal calyceal diverticula calculi. She underwent a surgical intervention which found a renal milky stone including a 10-mm. diameter stone. The examination of the fluid and the stone material disclosed three components: calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. The present case is interesting because its characteristics differ from the common features of renal milky stone.

  14. [Bone and Nutrition. Nutrition care of renal osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sarasa; Ito, Mikiko

    2015-07-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is the damage of bone morphology by CKD and treatment and occurred abnormal bone metabolism through renal dysfunction. It demonstrated that the control of P and Ca improves to normalization of mineral metabolism. Protein energy wasting and malnutrition are common in patients with CKD stage 5 and has been associated with life prognosis. In CKD patients, nutritional management is a critical role of treatment. Also it may be important of nutritional management that control P and Ca and improve nutritional status in renal osteodystrophy patients. PMID:26119320

  15. [Determination of the degree of saturation of calcium hydrogen phosphate in the urine].

    PubMed

    Reusz, G; Szabó, A; Tulassay, T

    1989-03-12

    Calcium-hydrogen-phosphate (CaHPO4) was considered as one of the main factors governing renal calculus formation. The degree of saturation (expressed as activity product) with respect to this phase was therefore calculated in urines of 36 hypercalciuric children (20 absorptive, 16 renal subtype) with isolated hematuria, 10 renal stone patients, and 30 healthy controls. On low calcium diet 12 children of the absorptive hypercalciuric-, 13 of the renal hypercalciuric and 7 of the renal stone forming children hat their urines in the saturated zone --irrespective of the evolution of hypercalciuria Ca/cr ratio. Thiazide normalised the activity product in all groups. The use of the Ca/cr ratio as the sole parameter in the investigation of children with isolated hematuria and hypercalciuria or calcium nephrolithiasis is therefore insufficient, simultaneous determinations of the state of saturation of urines is recommended. This technique should also allow a quantitative assessment of the various therapeutic regimens recommended.

  16. Phosphate uptake by a kidney cell line (LLC-PK1).

    PubMed

    Rabito, C A

    1983-07-01

    The uptake of inorganic phosphate was studied in an epithelial cell line of renal origin. Phosphate was accumulated through a mechanism with several features of a carrier-mediated process. The influx was accounted for by a saturable Na+-dependent and a nonsaturable Na+-independent process. Kinetic analysis at pH 6.6 and 7.4 suggests that the dibasic form of phosphate is the form transported by the saturable Na+-dependent system. The presence of Na+ in the incubation medium increased Vmax without affecting Km. Arsenate competitively inhibited the Na+-dependent phosphate transport with a Ki of 1.2 mM at 140 mM Na+ and pH 7.4. Other known inhibitors of phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubule also inhibited phosphate transport by this cell line. Uptake studies from either side of the monolayers indicated that this transport system is preferentially located in the apical membrane of the cultured renal cells. These results show a close similarity between the Na+-dependent phosphate transport system in LLC-PK1 cells and the system present in the apical membrane of the proximal tubular cells.

  17. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase show apparent specificity for a specific ribulose 5-phosphate species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L E

    1987-02-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase appear to show specificity for a particular ribulose 5-phosphate species. The effect of this specificity will be channeling of ribulose 5-phosphate from the isomerase to the kinase during photosynthesis.

  18. Regulation of Bone–Renal Mineral and Energy Metabolism: The PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, MEPE ASARM Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Peter S. N.

    2012-01-01

    More than 300 million years ago, vertebrates emerged from the vast oceans to conquer gravity and the dry land. With this transition, new adaptations occurred that included ingenious changes in reproduction, waste secretion, and bone physiology. One new innovation, the egg shell, contained an ancestral protein (ovocleidin-116) that likely first appeared with the dinosaurs and was preserved through the theropod lineage in modern birds and reptiles. Ovocleidin-116 is an avian homolog of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and belongs to a group of proteins called short integrin-binding ligand-interacting glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). These proteins are all localized to a defined region on chromosome 5q in mice and chromosome 4q in humans. A unifying feature of SIBLING proteins is an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM). Recent research has shown that the ASARM motif and the released ASARM peptide have regulatory roles in mineralization (bone and teeth), phosphate regulation, vascularization, soft-tissue calcification, osteoclastogenesis, mechanotransduction, and fat energy metabolism. The MEPE ASARM motif and peptide are physiological substrates for PHEX, a zinc metalloendopeptidase. Defects in PHEX are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP). There is evidence that PHEX interacts with another ASARM motif containing the SIBLING protein, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1). DMP1 mutations cause bone and renal defects that are identical with the defects caused by a loss of PHEX function. This results in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). In both HYP and ARHR, increased FGF23 expression plays a major role in the disease and in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), FGF23 half-life is increased by activating mutations. ASARM peptide administration in vitro and in vivo also induces increased FGF23 expression. FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of cytokines, which surfaced

  19. Regulation of bone-renal mineral and energy metabolism: the PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, MEPE ASARM pathway.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Peter S N

    2012-01-01

    More than 300 million years ago, vertebrates emerged from the vast oceans to conquer gravity and the dry land. With this transition, new adaptations occurred that included ingenious changes in reproduction, waste secretion, and bone physiology. One new innovation, the egg shell, contained an ancestral protein (ovocleidin-116) that likely first appeared with the dinosaurs and was preserved through the theropod lineage in modern birds and reptiles. Ovocleidin-116 is an avian homolog of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and belongs to a group of proteins called short integrin-binding ligand-interacting glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). These proteins are all localized to a defined region on chromosome 5q in mice and chromosome 4q in humans. A unifying feature of SIBLING proteins is an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM). Recent research has shown that the ASARM motif and the released ASARM peptide have regulatory roles in mineralization (bone and teeth), phosphate regulation, vascularization, soft-tissue calcification, osteoclastogenesis, mechanotransduction, and fat energy metabolism. The MEPE ASARM motif and peptide are physiological substrates for PHEX, a zinc metalloendopeptidase. Defects in PHEX are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP). There is evidence that PHEX interacts with another ASARM motif containing SIBLING protein, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1). DMP1 mutations cause bone and renal defects that are identical with the defects caused by a loss of PHEX function. This results in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). In both HYP and ARHR, increased FGF23 expression plays a major role in the disease and in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), FGF23 half-life is increased by activating mutations. ASARM peptide administration in vitro and in vivo also induces increased FGF23 expression. FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of cytokines, which surfaced 500

  20. Regulation of bone-renal mineral and energy metabolism: the PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, MEPE ASARM pathway.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Peter S N

    2012-01-01

    More than 300 million years ago, vertebrates emerged from the vast oceans to conquer gravity and the dry land. With this transition, new adaptations occurred that included ingenious changes in reproduction, waste secretion, and bone physiology. One new innovation, the egg shell, contained an ancestral protein (ovocleidin-116) that likely first appeared with the dinosaurs and was preserved through the theropod lineage in modern birds and reptiles. Ovocleidin-116 is an avian homolog of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and belongs to a group of proteins called short integrin-binding ligand-interacting glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). These proteins are all localized to a defined region on chromosome 5q in mice and chromosome 4q in humans. A unifying feature of SIBLING proteins is an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM). Recent research has shown that the ASARM motif and the released ASARM peptide have regulatory roles in mineralization (bone and teeth), phosphate regulation, vascularization, soft-tissue calcification, osteoclastogenesis, mechanotransduction, and fat energy metabolism. The MEPE ASARM motif and peptide are physiological substrates for PHEX, a zinc metalloendopeptidase. Defects in PHEX are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP). There is evidence that PHEX interacts with another ASARM motif containing SIBLING protein, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1). DMP1 mutations cause bone and renal defects that are identical with the defects caused by a loss of PHEX function. This results in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). In both HYP and ARHR, increased FGF23 expression plays a major role in the disease and in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), FGF23 half-life is increased by activating mutations. ASARM peptide administration in vitro and in vivo also induces increased FGF23 expression. FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of cytokines, which surfaced 500

  1. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  2. Phosphate ceramic solidification and stabilization of cesium-containing crystalline silicotitanate resins.

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.

    1999-05-11

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP)-bonded cesium-loaded crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resins. Typical waste loading of CST resins in the final waste forms was 50 wt.%. Physical and chemical characterization of the MKP materials has shown them to be physically, chemically, and mineralogically stable. Long-term durability studies (using the AN 16.1 standard test) showed a leachability index of {approx}18 for cesium in the phosphate matrix when exposed to deionized water under ambient and elevated temperatures. Leaching of cesium was somewhat higher than in glass waste forms as per PCT and MCC-1 tests. MKP-based final waste forms showed no significant weight changes after exposure to aqueous media for {approx}90 days, indicating the highly insoluble nature of the phosphate matrix. In addition, durability of the CST-MKP waste forms was further established by freeze-thaw cycling tests.

  3. [Rupture of simple renal cyst after minimal renal injury].

    PubMed

    Fernández Férnandez, A; Mayayo Dehesa, T; Rodríguez Luna, J M; Platas Sancho, A; Gómez Aguinaga, M A; Castaño Llaneza, C; Berenguer Sánchez, A

    1989-01-01

    A case is presented of minimum renal trauma, leading to a retroperitoneal hematoma as a consequence of a simple renal cyst rupture as well as an artery contained therein. The etiopathogenicity of this phenomenon is commented. The different clinical manifestations of renal trauma are highlighted, as well as the suspicion of previous renal pathology when a large renal lesion is found secondary to minimum renal trauma. The approach of the renal pediculum must be the first step in the surgical treatment of renal trauma.

  4. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  5. Phosphate homeostasis in CKD: report of a scientific symposium sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H; Ketteler, Markus; Martin, Kevin J; Thadhani, Ravi I; Tonelli, Marcello; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald; Hruska, Keith; Wheeler, David C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder is associated with diverse metabolic and endocrine disturbances that ultimately may contribute to further loss of kidney function, bone demineralization, and fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Recent insights into the pathophysiology of the events that unfold during the development of this disorder suggest that disturbances in phosphate metabolism are pivotal. The consequences of abnormal phosphate homeostasis are evident at estimated glomerular filtration rates <70 mL/min/1.73 m(2), long before serum phosphate levels increase. Healthy individuals with blood phosphate levels in the top quartile of the normal range have an increased risk of developing CKD, reaching end-stage renal disease, and experiencing cardiovascular events. Substantial public health consequences may be related to increased dietary phosphorus exposure from additives that contain phosphate in the food supply and from modest increases in serum phosphate levels; however, it remains to be established whether interventions aimed at these targets can impact on the development of adverse clinical outcomes. Current approaches involving dietary intervention and intestinal phosphate binders are based on principles and assumptions that need to be examined more rigorously. Compelling animal, observational, and clinical data indicate that interventions directed at lowering phosphate exposure and serum phosphate levels should be subject to rigorous clinical trials that use appropriate placebo comparators and focus on key clinical outcomes, such as cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, fractures, quality of life, and mortality.

  6. Bilateral renal lymphoangiomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Raed, Alqahtani; Sultan, Alkhateeb; Bader, Al-Mutairi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal lymphangiomatosis is a rare congenital benign disease of renal lymphatic system, here we are presenting a very rare form of disease which is bilateral form. Presentation of the case A young adult presented to our clinic after being referred from primary care clinic with intermittent bilateral flank pain and no other symptoms after extensive radiological investigations diagnosis has been made and confirmed by radiological finding of disease. Active treatment usually preserved for complex cases and for the complications of the disease but in our patient as needed analgesia worked well in controlling his intermittent pain and his wish not to pursue any intervention. The vague presentation with initial imaging rising suspicion of renal tumor or complex renal cyst might cause psychological street on the patient, which our patient had, but reassurance after extensive radiological work up relive that's stress. Discussion Although it is very rare disease to be bilateral but wide variety of other differential diagnoses make importance of disease recognition and accurate diagnosis is the key. Conclusion Renal lymphangiomatosis is a rare benign disease of renal lymphatic, which usually affect one side, but bilateral form is very rare form, which may raise the suspicions of genetic form of renal malignancy. Accurate diagnosis requires work up to role out malignant and other renal tumor, which require active surgical management. PMID:26719997

  7. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  12. Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) is a new bone renal hormone and vascularization modulator.

    PubMed

    David, Valentin; Martin, Aline; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S N

    2009-09-01

    Increased matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression occurs in several phosphate and bone-mineral metabolic disorders. To resolve whether MEPE plays a role, we created a murine model overexpressing MEPE protein (MEPE tgn) in bone. MEPE tgn mice displayed a growth and mineralization defect with altered bone-renal vascularization that persisted to adulthood. The growth mineralization defect was due to a decrease in bone remodeling, and MEPE tgn mice were resistant to diet-induced renal calcification. MEPE protein-derived urinary ASARM peptides and reduced urinary Ca X PO4 product mediated the suppressed renal calcification. Osteoblastic cells displayed reduced activity but normal differentiation. Osteoclastic precursors were unable to differentiate in the presence of osteoblasts. In the kidney, NPT2a up-regulation induced an increase in phosphate renal reabsorption, leading to hyperphosphatemia. We conclude MEPE and MEPE-phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (MEPE-PHEX) interactions are components to an age-diet-dependent pathway that regulates bone turnover and mineralization and suppresses renal calcification. This novel pathway also modulates bone-renal vascularization and bone turnover.

  13. Quantitation of renal function based on two-compartmental modeling of renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Kah Meng, Loh; Ng, David; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Rudolph, Heiko

    2005-01-01

    The primary functions of the kidney are: (i) to get rid of the body waste materials that are either ingested or produced by metabolism, and (ii) to control the volume and composition of the body fluids. Herein, we provide a noninvasive methodology to assess physiological function of the kidneys. For this purpose, we analyze the renograms with 2-compartmental modelling of the kidney-renal outflow system, and therefrom compute the amount of flow of renal radionuclide into and out of the renal pelvis compartment. The derived information of uptake (k/A) and washout (e(beta/2V2)t sinhAt) rates can be of considerable use. The paper provides a number of case studies for the verification of the derived system governing equations against clinical renograms.

  14. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  15. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  16. Renal systems biology of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsalik, Ephraim L; Willig, Laurel K; Rice, Brandon J; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Mohney, Robert P; McDunn, Jonathan E; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Miller, Neil A; Mayer, Eric S; Glickman, Seth W; Jaehne, Anja K; Glew, Robert H; Sopori, Mohan L; Otero, Ronny M; Harrod, Kevin S; Cairns, Charles B; Fowler, Vance G; Rivers, Emanuel P; Woods, Christopher W; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Langley, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    A systems biology approach was used to comprehensively examine the impact of renal disease and hemodialysis (HD) on patient response during critical illness. To achieve this, we examined the metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome of 150 patients with critical illness, stratified by renal function. Quantification of plasma metabolites indicated greater change as renal function declined, with the greatest derangements in patients receiving chronic HD. Specifically, 6 uremic retention molecules, 17 other protein catabolites, 7 modified nucleosides, and 7 pentose phosphate sugars increased as renal function declined, consistent with decreased excretion or increased catabolism of amino acids and ribonucleotides. Similarly, the proteome showed increased levels of low-molecular-weight proteins and acute-phase reactants. The transcriptome revealed a broad-based decrease in mRNA levels among patients on HD. Systems integration revealed an unrecognized association between plasma RNASE1 and several RNA catabolites and modified nucleosides. Further, allantoin, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and N-acetylaspartate were inversely correlated with the majority of significantly downregulated genes. Thus, renal function broadly affected the plasma metabolome, proteome, and peripheral blood transcriptome during critical illness; changes were not effectively mitigated by hemodialysis. These studies allude to several novel mechanisms whereby renal dysfunction contributes to critical illness.

  17. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  18. Renal systems biology of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Willig, Laurel K.; Rice, Brandon J.; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Mohney, Robert P.; McDunn, Jonathan; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Miller, Neil A.; Mayer, Eric; Glickman, Seth W.; Jaehne, Anja K.; Glew, Robert H.; Sopori, Mohan L.; Otero, Ronny M.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Cairns, Charles B.; Fowler, Vance G.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Woods, Christopher W.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Langley, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    A systems biology approach was used to comprehensively examine the impact of renal disease and hemodialysis (HD) on patient response during critical illness. To achieve this we examined the metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome of 150 patients with critical illness, stratified by renal function. Quantification of plasma metabolites indicated greater change as renal function declined, with the greatest derangements in patients receiving chronic HD. Specifically, 6 uremic retention molecules, 17 other protein catabolites, 7 modified nucleosides, and 7 pentose phosphate sugars increased as renal function declined, consistent with decreased excretion or increased catabolism of amino acids and ribonucleotides. Similarly, the proteome showed increased levels of low-molecular weight proteins and acute phase reactants. The transcriptome revealed a broad-based decrease in mRNA levels among patients on HD. Systems integration revealed an unrecognized association between plasma RNASE1 and several RNA catabolites and modified nucleosides. Further, allantoin, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and n-acetylaspartate were inversely correlated with the majority of significantly down-regulated genes. Thus, renal function broadly affected the plasma metabolome, proteome, and peripheral blood transcriptome during critical illness; changes not effectively mitigated by hemodialysis. These studies allude to several novel mechanisms whereby renal dysfunction contributes to critical illness. PMID:25993322

  19. Renal systems biology of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsalik, Ephraim L; Willig, Laurel K; Rice, Brandon J; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Mohney, Robert P; McDunn, Jonathan E; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Miller, Neil A; Mayer, Eric S; Glickman, Seth W; Jaehne, Anja K; Glew, Robert H; Sopori, Mohan L; Otero, Ronny M; Harrod, Kevin S; Cairns, Charles B; Fowler, Vance G; Rivers, Emanuel P; Woods, Christopher W; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Langley, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    A systems biology approach was used to comprehensively examine the impact of renal disease and hemodialysis (HD) on patient response during critical illness. To achieve this, we examined the metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome of 150 patients with critical illness, stratified by renal function. Quantification of plasma metabolites indicated greater change as renal function declined, with the greatest derangements in patients receiving chronic HD. Specifically, 6 uremic retention molecules, 17 other protein catabolites, 7 modified nucleosides, and 7 pentose phosphate sugars increased as renal function declined, consistent with decreased excretion or increased catabolism of amino acids and ribonucleotides. Similarly, the proteome showed increased levels of low-molecular-weight proteins and acute-phase reactants. The transcriptome revealed a broad-based decrease in mRNA levels among patients on HD. Systems integration revealed an unrecognized association between plasma RNASE1 and several RNA catabolites and modified nucleosides. Further, allantoin, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and N-acetylaspartate were inversely correlated with the majority of significantly downregulated genes. Thus, renal function broadly affected the plasma metabolome, proteome, and peripheral blood transcriptome during critical illness; changes were not effectively mitigated by hemodialysis. These studies allude to several novel mechanisms whereby renal dysfunction contributes to critical illness. PMID:25993322

  20. Cytosolic redox potential and phosphate transport in the proximal tubule of the rabbit. A study in the isolated perfused tubules.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, N; Nagami, G T; Kurokawa, K

    1985-01-01

    Recently it has been proposed that cytosolic NAD+ may play a regulatory role in phosphate transport across the renal proximal tubules. To test this thesis, we have examined the effect of altering the cytosolic redox potential (NAD+/NADH) on phosphate flux across the isolated perfused rabbit proximal tubules. The cytosolic redox potential was shifted to a more oxidized state either by changing the substrate in the bathing medium from lactate to pyruvate or by adding methylene blue to the bath medium. On the other hand, cytosolic redox potential was shifted to a more reduced state by changing the substrate in the bath medium from pyruvate to lactate. In either case the phosphate flux across the proximal tubule was unaffected. It was concluded that cytosolic redox potential may not play a significant role in regulating the phosphate transport in renal proximal tubules.

  1. [Hight-temperature matrices to immobilize radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Stefanovskiĭ, S V; Lashenova, T N; Ptashkin, A G

    2006-01-01

    To immobilize liquid radioactive waste with medium activity level, specialists of "RADON" Industrial Research Association use borosilicate glass incorporating up to 30-35 mass percent of radioactive waste, with sulfate and chloride ions content up to 1 mass percent. To increase those concentrations, the authors suggest putting phosphate or vanadate additives into borosilicate glass or using phosphate glass. In vitrification of solid waste, for instance burning oven slag, sodium silicate or dolomite and bentonite mixture are suggested as additives. PMID:16568844

  2. Anatrophic nephrolithotomy for removal of staghorn or branched renal calculi.

    PubMed

    James, R; Novick, A C; Straffon, R A; Stewart, B H

    1980-02-01

    Forty anatrophic nephrolithotomies were performed in 38 patients between November, 1965, and December, 1977, to remove staghorn or branched renal calculi. Thirty-six (95 per cent) of the patients' preoperative urine cultures were infected, and postoperatively 35 of the cultures (88 per cent) were sterile. Magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi were present in the majority of patients (67 per cent). In 6 patients (15 per cent) transient nephrocutaneous fistulas developed. Thirty-six of the 40 renal units (90 per cent) had improved or stable intravenous pyelograms postoperatively. The patients had been followed for an average of twenty months (four to one hundred and twelve months). In 6 patients (15 per cent) recurrent renal calculi developed, and 3 patients (8 per cent) had residual calculi during this period.

  3. Phosphate and FGF23 in the renoprotective benefit of RAAS inhibition.

    PubMed

    de Seigneux, Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves

    2016-04-01

    Renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade is a mainstay of chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment given its beneficial effects on proteinuria, nephroprotection, heart disease and global mortality. The FGF23/Klotho/phosphate axis is crucial for phosphate excretion. During CKD, loss of Klotho, decreased phosphate excretion and FGF23 elevation are early events contributing both to renal disease progression and to cardiovascular complications. Experimental evidence suggests that Klotho replacement may improve renal and cardiovascular disease during CKD. Recent evidence suggests that both RAAS activation and proteinuria decrease Klotho expression and lead to phosphate retention and FGF23 elevation. In opposition RAAS blockade may reverse Klotho loss during CKD in both experimental and human studies, with direct and indirect expected beneficial effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system. This effect of RAAS blockade on the FGF23/Klotho/phosphate axis may participate in explaining some of the beneficial effects of these drugs during CKD. In this article we review the evidence linking RAAS blockade to modulation of the FGF23/Klotho/phosphate axis and the beneficial effects of these regulations. PMID:26900884

  4. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  5. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1977-09-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included several ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  6. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  7. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  8. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  9. Sympatho-renal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zanchetti, A; Stella, A

    1987-10-01

    The renal nerves appear to be involved in the control of cardiovascular homeostasis and volume balance both in physiological and in pathological conditions such as experimental hypertension. Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that the kidney has a diffuse sensory innervation connected with areas in the brain and spinal cord that are known to regulate cardiovascular functions by both neural and humoral mechanisms. The demonstration of the existence of neural reno-renal reflexes controlling several renal functions indicates that a functional balance between the two kidneys exists and may play an important role in the moment-to-moment control of kidney functions.

  10. Solubilization of insoluble phosphates by thermophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Singh, C P; Mishra, M M; Yadav, K S

    1980-01-01

    The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and rock phosphate and assimilation of solubilized P by thermophilic fungi isolated from compost were studied. The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate was greater than that of rock phosphate on inoculation with fungi in liquid medium, but growth of most of the fungi was greater in rock phosphate. Torula thermophila solubilized tricalcium phosphate maximally. There was solubilization of rock phosphate in semi-solid lignocellulose medium by Aspergillus fumigatus.

  11. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  12. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.

  13. Gold Coated Lanthanide Phosphate Nanoparticles for Targeted Alpha Generator Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Mark F; Woodward, Jonathan; Boll, Rose Ann; Wall, Jonathan; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Kennel, Steve J; Mirzadeh, Saed; Robertson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapies maximize cytotoxicty to cancer cells. In vivo generators such as 225Ac, which emits four particles in its decay chain, can significantly amplify the radiation dose delivered to the target site. However, renal dose from unbound 213Bi escaping during the decay process limits the dose of 225Ac that can be administered. Traditional chelating moieties are unable to sequester the radioactive daughters because of the high recoil energy from alpha particle emission. To counter this, we demonstrate that an engineered multilayered nanoparticle-antibody conjugate can both deliver radiation and contain the decay daughters of the in vivo -generator 225Ac while targeting biologically relevant receptors. These multi-shell nanoparticles combine the radiation resistance of crystalline lanthanide phosphate to encapsulate and contain 225Ac and its radioactive decay daughters, the magnetic properties of gadolinium phosphate for easy separation, and established surface chemistry of gold for attachment of nanoparticles to targeting antibodies.

  14. Renal Mitochondrial Cytopathies

    PubMed Central

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Salviati, Leonardo; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Renal diseases in mitochondrial cytopathies are a group of rare diseases that are characterized by frequent multisystemic involvement and extreme variability of phenotype. Most frequently patients present a tubular defect that is consistent with complete De Toni-Debré-Fanconi syndrome in most severe forms. More rarely, patients present with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal diseases, or primary glomerular involvement. In recent years, two clearly defined entities, namely 3243 A > G tRNALEU mutations and coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis defects, have been described. The latter group is particularly important because it represents the only treatable renal mitochondrial defect. In this paper, the physiopathologic bases of mitochondrial cytopathies, the diagnostic approaches, and main characteristics of related renal diseases are summarized. PMID:21811680

  15. 'Transcollateral' Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S. Swamy, Ajay

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  16. Use of phosphorus-sorbing materials to remove phosphate from greenhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    High phosphate content in wastewater is currently a major issue faced by the North American greenhouse industry. Phosphate-sorbing material filters could provide a means of removing phosphate from wastewater prior to discharge to the environment, but the characterization of economically viable materials and specific recommendations for greenhouse wastewater are not available. Batch and column experiments were used to examine the capacity of two calcium-based waste materials, basic oxygen furnace slag and a concrete waste material, to remove phosphate from greenhouse nutrient solution at varied operating conditions. Material columns operating at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h consistently removed >99% of influent phosphate at a concentration of 60 mg/L over repeated applications and demonstrated high phosphate retention capacity (PRC) of 8.8 and 5.1 g P/kg for slag and concrete waste, respectively. Both materials also provided some removal of the micronutrients Fe, Mn and Zn. Increasing HRT to 24 h increased P retention capacity of slag to >10.5 g P/kg but did not improve retention by concrete waste. Decreasing influent phosphate concentration to 20 mg/L decreased PRC to 1.64 g P/kg in concrete waste columns, suggesting fluctuations in greenhouse wastewater composition will affect filter performance. The pH of filter effluent was closely correlated to final P concentration and can likely be used to monitor treatment effectiveness. This study demonstrated that calcium-based materials are promising for the removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater, and worthy of further research on scaling up the application to a full-sized system.

  17. [Hyperuricemia and renal risk].

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an association between elevated levels of uric acid and conditions correlated to chronic kidney diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebral disease, insulin resistance. Several pathogenetic mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels could justify a direct correlation between serum uric acid levels and renal damage. Growing evidence indicating a correlation between urate lowering therapy and renal morbidity could encourage the use of urate lowering therapy in primary or secondary prevention in chronic kidney disease.

  18. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal renal cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Munch, L C; Gill, I S; McRoberts, J W

    1994-01-01

    Laparoscopic manipulation of retroperitoneal organs is usually performed by the transperitoneal approach primarily because of the ease of access by way of the pneumoperitoneum. However, difficulty in adequately accessing structures that are surrounded by bowel, liver, spleen or postoperative adhesions makes this approach suboptimal in certain cases. We describe the use of the retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach to the upper pole of a kidney for marsupialization of a symptomatic, recurrent, complex renal cyst. An algorithm for current management of symptomatic renal cysts is discussed.

  19. Nephrolithiasis-induced end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Ounissi, M; Gargueh, T; Mahfoudhi, M; Boubaker, K; Hedri, H; Goucha, R; Abderrahim, E; Ben Hamida, F; Ben Abdallah, T; El Younsi, F; Ben Maiz, H; Kheder, A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis still remains a too frequent and underappreciated cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods and patients: Of the entire cohort of 7128 consecutive patients who started maintenance dialysis in our nephrology department between January 1992 and December 2006, a total of 45 patients (26 women, 19 men) had renal stone disease as the cause of ESRD. The type of nephrolithiasis was determined in 45 cases and etiology in 42. The treatment and evolution of stone disease and patient’s survival were studied. Results: The overall proportion of nephrolithiasis related ESRD was 0.63%. The mean age was 48.4 years. Infection stones (struvite) accounted for 40%, calcium stones, 26.67% (primary hyperparathyroidism:15.56%; familial hypercalciuria: 4.44%, unknown etiology: 6.66%), primary hyperoxaluria type 1, 17.78% and uric acid lithiasis in 15.56% of cases. The mean delay of the evolution of the stone renal disease to chronic renal failure was 85.8 months. The feminine gender, obesity and elevated alkaline phosphatases >128 IU/L were significantly correlated with fast evolution of ESRD. The median evolution to ESRD was 12 months. The normal body mass index (BMI), medical treatment of stone and primary hyperoxaluria type 1 were correlated with fast evolution to ESRD. All patients were treated by hemodialysis during a mean evolution of 60 months. Sixteen patients died. The patient's survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 97.6, 92.8 and 69% respectively. Hypocalcemia, cardiopathy and normal calcium-phosphate product were significantly correlated with lower survival rate. Conclusion: Severe forms of nephrolithiasis remain an underestimated cause of ESRD. These findings highlight the crucial importance of accurate stone analysis and metabolic evaluation to provide early diagnosis and efficient treatment for conditions leading to ESRD. PMID:21694924

  20. The cell biology of renal filtration

    PubMed Central

    Quaggin, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the kidney, filtering blood and concentrating metabolic waste into urine, takes place in an intricate and functionally elegant structure called the renal glomerulus. Normal glomerular function retains circulating cells and valuable macromolecular components of plasma in blood, resulting in urine with just trace amounts of proteins. Endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries, the podocytes wrapped around them, and the fused extracellular matrix these cells form altogether comprise the glomerular filtration barrier, a dynamic and highly selective filter that sieves on the basis of molecular size and electrical charge. Current understanding of the structural organization and the cellular and molecular basis of renal filtration draws from studies of human glomerular diseases and animal models of glomerular dysfunction. PMID:25918223

  1. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  2. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  3. Spontaneous renal artery dissection with renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sophie; Leray-Moraguès, Hélène; Chenine, Leila; Canaud, Ludovic; Vernhet-Kovacsik, Hélène; Canaud, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a rare entity, which often presents diagnostic difficulties because of its non-specific clinical presentation. We report six cases complicated with renal infarction, occurring in middle-aged male patients without risk factors, illustrating the difficulty and delay for diagnosing SRAD. Ultrasound and Doppler imaging were not sensitive enough to confirm the diagnosis, and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography was used to correct the diagnosis and allow the clinicians to propose appropriate treatment. We conclude that considering the urgency in diagnosing and treating SRAD, contrast enhanced abdominal tomography and/or abdominal magnetic resonance imaging should be proposed as soon as a suspicion of SRAD is evoked by the clinical presentation.

  4. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation.

  5. In situ formation of phosphate barriers in soil

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Reactive barriers and methods for making reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil ontaminants including actinides and heavy metals. The barrier includes phosphate, and techniques are disclosed for forming specifically apatite barriers. The method includes injecting dilute reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source such as a waste drum to achieve complete or partial encapsulation of the waste. Controlled temperature and pH facilitates rapid formation of apatite, for example, where dilute aqueous calcium chloride and dilute aqueous sodium phosphate are the selected reagents. Mixing of reagents to form precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  6. Glasses for nuclear waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M.I.; Batyukhnova, O.G.

    2007-07-01

    Vitrification of nuclear wastes is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting waste form. Vitrification is a mature technology and has been used for high level nuclear waste (HLW) immobilisation for more than 40 years in France, Germany and Belgium, Russia, UK, Japan and the USA. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material (GCM). Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes, moreover in addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel GCM are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. The spectrum of wastes which are currently vitrified increases from HLW to low and intermediate wastes (LILW) such as legacy wastes in Hanford, USA and nuclear power plant operational wastes in Russia and Korea. (authors)

  7. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  8. Formation of chemically bonded ceramics with magnesium dihydrogen phosphate binder

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2004-08-17

    A new method for combining magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium dihydrogen phosphate to form an inexpensive compactible ceramic to stabilize very low solubility metal oxides, ashes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast, and to reinforce and strengthen the ceramics formed by the addition of fibers to the initial ceramic mixture.

  9. ASARM peptides: PHEX-dependent and -independent regulation of serum phosphate.

    PubMed

    David, Valentin; Martin, Aline; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Drezner, Marc K; Rowe, Peter S N

    2011-03-01

    Increased acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM) peptides cause mineralization defects in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets mice (HYP) and "directly" inhibit renal phosphate uptake in vitro. However, ASARM peptides also bind to phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX) and are a physiological substrate for this bone-expressed, phosphate-regulating enzyme. We therefore tested the hypothesis that circulating ASARM peptides also "indirectly" contribute to a bone-renal PHEX-dependent hypophosphatemia in normal mice. Male mice (n = 5; 12 wk) were fed for 8 wk with a normal phosphorus and vitamin D(3) diet (1% P(i) diet) or a reduced phosphorus and vitamin D(3) diet (0.1% P(i) diet). For the final 4 wk, transplantation of mini-osmotic pumps supplied a continuous infusion of either ASARM peptide (5 mg·day(-1)·kg(-1)) or vehicle. HYP, autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), and normal mice (no pumps or ASARM infusion; 0.4% P(i) diet) were used in a separate experiment designed to measure and compare circulating ASARM peptides in disease and health. ASARM treatment decreased serum phosphate concentration and renal phosphate cotransporter (NPT2A) mRNA with the 1% P(i) diet. This was accompanied by a twofold increase in serum ASARM and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3) [1,25 (OH)(2)D(3)] levels without changes in parathyroid hormone. For both diets, ASARM-treated mice showed significant increases in serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23; +50%) and reduced serum osteocalcin (-30%) and osteopontin (-25%). Circulating ASARM peptides showed a significant inverse correlation with serum P(i) and a significant positive correlation with fractional excretion of phosphate. We conclude that constitutive overexpression of ASARM peptides plays a "component" PHEX-independent part in the HYP and ARHR hypophosphatemia. In contrast, with wild-type mice, ASARM peptides likely play a bone PHEX-dependent role in renal

  10. Mechanical properties of magnesium ammonium phosphate cements and their zeolite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-04-01

    Phosphate-bonded cements have been proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of mixed wastes. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) has been investigated as a candidate material. Detailed physical and mechanical properties of MAP cement are reported. It is synthesized by the route of reaction of calcined MgO and ammonium phosphate solution. Samples are made by setting the cement at room temperature and slight pressure. The porosity is reduced to {approximately}11% by impregnation of ammonium phosphate solution. Detailed mechanical properties such as flexural strength, fracture toughness and compression strength are reported and fracture mechanical analyses supported with scanning electron microscopy are provided. Properties of composites of these cements with zeolites, which may be used for containment of radioactive as well as chemical waste are studied. We demonstrate that the strengths of these composites compare well with portland cement even after 50% loading of zeolites. Fracture mechanical implications of such loadings are given.

  11. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  12. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  13. Visualizing renal primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Verghese, Elizabeth; Martelotto, Luciano G; Cain, Jason E; Galtseva, Alya; Rosenblum, Norman D; Watkins, D Neil; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2013-03-01

    Renal primary cilia are microscopic sensory organelles found on the apical surface of epithelial cells of the nephron and collecting duct. They are based upon a microtubular cytoskeleton, bounded by a specialized membrane, and contain an array of proteins that facilitate their assembly, maintenance and function. Cilium-based signalling is important for the control of epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cystic kidney diseases and in renal repair. As such, visualizing renal primary cilia and understanding their composition has become an essential component of many studies of inherited kidney disease and mechanisms of epithelial regeneration. Primary cilia were initially identified in the kidney using electron microscopy and this remains a useful technique for the high resolution examination of these organelles. New reagents and techniques now also allow the structure and composition of primary cilia to be analysed in detail using fluorescence microscopy. Primary cilia can be imaged in situ in sections of kidney, and many renal-derived cell lines produce primary cilia in culture providing a simplified and accessible system in which to investigate these organelles. Here we outline microscopy-based techniques commonly used for studying renal primary cilia.

  14. Nox and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Holterman, Chet E; Read, Naomi C; Kennedy, Chris R J

    2015-04-01

    Since the first demonstration of Nox enzyme expression in the kidney in the early 1990s and the subsequent identification of Nox4, or RENOX, a decade later, it has become apparent that the Nox family of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes plays an integral role in the normal physiological function of the kidney. As our knowledge of Nox expression patterns and functions in various structures and specialized cell types within the kidney grows, so does the realization that Nox-derived oxidative stress contributes significantly to a wide variety of renal pathologies through their ability to modify lipids and proteins, damage DNA and activate transcriptional programmes. Diverse studies demonstrate key roles for Nox-derived ROS in kidney fibrosis, particularly in settings of chronic renal disease such as diabetic nephropathy. As the most abundant Nox family member in the kidney, much emphasis has been placed on the role of Nox4 in this setting. However, an ever growing body of work continues to uncover key roles for other Nox family members, not only in diabetic kidney disease, but in a diverse array of renal pathological conditions. The objective of the present review is to highlight the latest novel developments in renal Nox biology with an emphasis not only on diabetic nephropathy but many of the other renal disease contexts where oxidative stress is implicated.

  15. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease. PMID:17162422

  16. [The focal renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  17. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report.

    PubMed

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha

    2011-01-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  18. Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Levels of phosphate--the only form of phosphorus that can be assimilated by plants--are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants use only approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to low-phosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to allow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing more efficient crops.

  19. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  20. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  1. Klotho, phosphate and FGF-23 in ageing and disturbed mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kuro-o, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    High concentrations of extracellular phosphate are toxic to cells. Impaired urinary phosphate excretion increases serum phosphate level and induces a premature-ageing phenotype. Urinary phosphate levels are increased by dietary phosphate overload and might induce tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. Extracellular phosphate exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming insoluble nanoparticles with calcium and fetuin-A; these nanoparticles are referred to in this Review as calciprotein particles. Calciprotein particles are highly bioactive ligands that can induce various cellular responses, including the osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cell death of vascular endothelial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells. Calciprotein particles are detected in the serum of animal models of kidney disease and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and might be associated with a (mal)adaptation of the endocrine axes mediated by fibroblast growth factors and Klothos that regulate phosphate homeostasis and ageing. These observations raise the possibility that calciprotein particles contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. This theory, if verified, is expected to provide novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in CKD. PMID:23774819

  2. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  3. BMP-2 promotes phosphate uptake, phenotypic modulation, and calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianwu; Yang, Hsueh-Ying; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2008-08-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events that are the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clinical and experimental studies indicate that hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Our previous studies demonstrated that phosphate transport through the type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, Pit-1, was necessary for phosphate-induced calcification and osteochondrogenic phenotypic change in cultured human smooth muscle cells (SMC). BMP-2 is a potent osteogenic protein required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation that has been implicated in vascular calcification. In the present study, we have examined the effects of BMP-2 on human SMC calcification in vitro. We found that treatment of SMC with BMP-2 enhanced elevated phosphate-induced calcification, but did not induce calcification under normal phosphate conditions. mRNAs for BMP receptors, including ALK2, ALK3, ALK6, BMPR-II, ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB were all detected in human SMCs. Mechanistically, BMP-2 dose-dependently stimulated phosphate uptake in SMC (200 ng/ml BMP-2 vs. vehicle: 13.94 vs. 7.09 nmol/30 min/mg protein, respectively). Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed the upregulation of Pit-1 mRNA and protein levels, respectively, by BMP-2. More importantly, inhibition of phosphate uptake by a competitive inhibitor of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransport, phosphonoformic acid, abrogated BMP-2-induced calcification. These results indicate that phosphate transport via Pit-1 is crucial in BMP-2-regulated SMC calcification. In addition, BMP-2-induced Runx2 and inhibited SM22 expression, indicating that it promotes osteogenic phenotype transition in these cells. Thus, BMP-2 may promote vascular calcification via increased phosphate uptake and induction of osteogenic phenotype modulation in SMC. PMID:18179800

  4. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  5. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  6. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  7. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  8. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  9. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... PKD1 genes, severe kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often ... of renal angiomyolipoma and TSC is in its infancy and we will have further information in a ...

  10. [Management of renal stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    The management of renal stones needs a recent and good quality imaging. Contrast medium injection is optional. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the most common treatment of renal stones. ESWL is indicated as first line treatment for less than 1.5cm stones. The stone-free (SF) rate at 3 months of ESWL is 70-80%. Results of ESWL for stones with more than 1000UH density or located in the lower calyx are poor. Flexible ureteroscopy (URS) is indicated in case of ESWL failure or for hyperdense, 1-2cm stones. The SF rate of flexible is 80%. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is indicated for complex or more than 2cm stones. Asymptomatic and non infected stones, especially if located in the lower calyx, do not need urological treatment but must be followed up. In all cases, renal stones needs a metabolic evaluation and treatment, and annual follow-up.

  11. Method and apparatus for ion sequestration and a nanostructured metal phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Li, Xiaohong; Parker, Kent E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2010-04-06

    A nanostructured substance, a process for sequestration of ionic waste, and an ion-sequestration apparatus are disclosed in the specification. The nanostructured substance can comprise a Lewis acid transition metal bound to a phosphate, wherein the phosphate comprises a primary structural component of the substance and the Lewis acid transition metal is a reducing agent. The nanostructured substance has a Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area greater than or equal to approximately 100 m.sup.2/g, and a distribution coefficient for an analyte, K.sub.d, greater than or equal to approximately 5000 ml/g. The process can comprise contacting a fluid and a nanostructured metal phosphate. The apparatus can comprise a vessel and a nanostructured metal phosphate. The vessel defines a volume wherein a fluid contacts the nanostructured metal phosphate.

  12. Quality control in production of suspensions from solid ammonium phosphates (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate). [Monoammonium phosphate; diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Achorn, F.P.; Balay, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Suspensions of good quality can be produced from MAP and DAP. Suspension quality depends on the amount of impurities in the ammonium phosphate solids used. Tests have shown that adding ammonium fluoride helps lower viscosity of suspensions containing a considerable amount of impurities. Also, adding polyphosphates (such as 10-34-0, 9-32-0, and 11-37-0) as a source of part of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (6 to 15% polyphosphate in the product) helps to produce a suspension that has excellent storage characteristics. When the polyphosphate content of the product (11-33-0 suspension) is between 10 and 15% it usually will not solidify during cold weather storage. Freight and production costs of granular ammonium phosphates are relatively low compared to other sources of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for the fluid fertilizer market; therefore, using MAP and DAP to produce suspensions is expected to continue to grow in popularity. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Moderator's view: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease patients: a clear 'No' at the moment, but stay tuned.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Particularly because the risk of harm cannot be safely excluded, the use of phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients demands caution. Yet, the clinical inertia concerning phosphate burden is unjustified. Inorganic, phosphate esters added to preserve food represent an important component of dietary phosphate load. These compounds are easily absorbable and have a measurable effect on serum phosphate, and therefore their use should be avoided in CKD patients. The ongoing CKD Optimal management with Binders and NicotinamidE (COMBINE) study, applying chelation by phosphate binders and intestinal Na-P channel blockade by nicotinamide, will establish whether this combination may effectively reduce serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 in pre-dialysis CKD patients and produce improvements in surrogate measures of cardiovascular and renal damages. On the other hand, the ANSWER study will ascertain whether phosphate reduction by sevelamer carbonate may have an antiproteinuric effect in CKD patients with residual proteinuria despite effective blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. At this stage of knowledge, the use of phosphate binders in pre-dialysis CKD patients cannot be recommended. Ongoing studies will tell us whether the application of these drugs may have beneficial health effects in CKD patients at the pre-dialysis stage.

  14. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  15. Renal adaptation during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Jani, Alkesh; Martin, Sandra L; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L

    2013-12-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation.

  16. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  17. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  18. Physiology of the Renal Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long overlooked as the virtual compartment and then strictly characterized through descriptive morphologic analysis, the renal interstitium has finally been associated with function. With identification of interstitial renin- and erythropoietin-producing cells, the most prominent endocrine functions of the kidney have now been attributed to the renal interstitium. This article reviews the functional role of renal interstitium. PMID:25813241

  19. Mechansims and components of renal tubular acidification.

    PubMed Central

    Cassola, A C; Giebisch, G; Malnic, G

    1977-01-01

    1. Renal cortical tubules of control and acetazolamide infused rats were perfused with 100 mM phosphate buffer at pH 5-5. The rate of alkalinization was measured by means of antimony micro-electrodes and was used to compute passive H ion fluxes from lumen to blood across the proximal and distal tubular epithelium. 2. The importance of other ionic movements that might contribute to pH changes of luminal buffers (chloride inflow into the lumen and bicarbonate diffusion across the epithelium) was assessed but found to be minor. H ion movements accounted for the majority of the observed pH changes. 3. H ion permeability of the tubular wall was calculated from the measured H fluxes and transepithelial concentration differences. It was 1-10 cm/sec, several orders of magnitude larger than those for other ions. However, such values are compatible with the mobility of protons in a medium of structure water within the limiting membrane. 4. A kinetic analysis of the mechanism of movement of H ions across the renal tubule is presented on the basis of experiments in which acidification and alkalinization of luminal buffers was followed in stationary microperfusions. The data are compatible with a pump-leak system in the proximal tubule, and with a model with low H ion permeability and a gradient dependent pump in the distal tubule. PMID:17737

  20. Leptospirosis: an ignored cause of acute renal failure in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, C W; Pan, M J; Wu, M S; Chen, Y M; Tsen, Y T; Lin, C L; Wu, C H; Huang, C C

    1997-12-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by a spirochete, is the most common zoonosis in domestic or wild animals. Animals excrete infected urine in soil or water and may cause human infections through abrased wound, mucosa, conjunctiva, or by swallowing contaminated water. Clinical presentations of leptospirosis are mostly subclinical. Five to ten percent of leptospirosis are fatal, causing fever, hemorrhage, jaundice, and acute renal failure (Weil's syndrome). Leptospirosis has been ignored as a cause of acute renal failure in Taiwan. We report two patients with leptospirosis who presented with high fever, abdominal pain, jaundice, and acute renal failure. Patient 1 died on day 12 of admission of multiple organ failure associated with pancytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and reactive hemophagocytosis. Leptospirosis was recognized after death. Patient 2 was admitted with similar presentations 2 weeks later. Penicillin and doxycycline were given early in the course, and azotemia, jaundice, respiratory failure, and aseptic meningitis gradually improved. Renal biopsy showed interstitial nephritis. Several tubular clearance tests showed proximal tubular defect with severe bicarbonate wasting (FeHCO3- 20.9%) and incomplete type II renal tubular acidosis without affecting the distal nephron. After 80 days of treatment, this patient was discharged with recovery of conscious level and renal function. This is the first leptospirosis patient with detailed tubular functional and morphological studies of the kidney. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was made by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to leptospira and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for leptospira DNA in blood and urine (interrogans serogroup australis in case 1 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup ballum in case 2). Because active surveillance has resulted in 13 cases diagnosed as leptospirosis islandwide thereafter, underestimation and ignorance of leptospirosis as a cause of acute renal failure may occur in Taiwan

  1. Serial Radiohippurate Renal Scintiphotography

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthall, Leonard; Greyson, N. David; Martin, Robert H.

    1970-01-01

    The results of serial radiohippurate scintiphotography in 222 patients are analyzed. The findings in various renal diseases are discussed and compared with those obtained from the excretory urogram, BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4aFIG. 4bFIG. 5aFIG. 5b PMID:5536740

  2. Management of Renal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  3. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  4. Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

    2001-08-01

    Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains

  5. Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Sharna Rossberg

    2011-09-01

    A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho National Laboratory. The test was conducted to demonstrate the vitrification of a Hanford low activity waste (LAW) that contains relatively large amounts of sulfate and sodium, compared to other radioactive Hanford waste streams. The high sulfate content limits the potential loading of this waste stream in conventional borosilicate glass, so this test demonstrated how this waste stream could be vitrified in an iron-phosphate glass that can tolerate higher levels of sulfate.

  6. Novel highly biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbao; Weng, Wenjian; Tam, Kim Chiu

    2007-03-01

    Novel biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates (BTCP) composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) were successfully synthesized by heating amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with different structures at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The ratio of alpha-TCP and beta-TCP in the calcium phosphate particle can be controlled by aging time and pH value during synthesis of the amorphous precursor.

  7. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  8. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  9. Effect of Phosphate Depletion on Magnesium Homeostasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kreusser, Wilhelm J.; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Aznar, Enrique; Sachtjen, Ellen; Massry, Shaul G.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of phosphate depletion on magnesium (Mg) homeostasis were evaluated in rats fed a diet containing 0.03% phosphorus for periods up to 8 wk. Plasma phosphorus fell significantly (P < 0.01) from 10.1±0.27 (SE) to 5.0±0.54 mg/100 ml within 1 day and continued to fall gradually to a level of 1.2±0.21 mg/100 ml by the end of the 8th wk. A significant (P < 0.01) increment in urinary Mg excretion (UMgV) from 46±2.7 to 126±24 μeq/24 h occurred during the 1st day of phosphate depletion; UMgV reached a peak of 300±24 μeq/24 h by the 3rd day and remained high ranging between 150-300 μeq/24 h, thereafter. The magnitude of the magnesuria was related to the degree of hypophosphatemia and was not affected by lowering the calcium intake and reducing the hypercalciuria. The concentration of plasma Mg fell significantly (P < 0.01) from 1.2±0.02 to 0.79±0.10 meq/liter by the 1st day of the study and remained low throughout. Mg balance became negative during the 1st day of phosphate depletion and remained so during the entire study. This occurred despite a significant increment in the fraction of ingested Mg absorbed which became evident by the 3rd wk of phosphate depletion. Mg content of muscle, kidney, and liver were not affected but bone Mg was reduced significantly. The change in bone Mg was not due to an overall reduction in bone mineral content because bone calcium content was not affected. Supplementation of large amounts of Mg (800-1,000 μeq/day) in the drinking water produced a normalization of serum Mg but did not bring about restoration of bone Mg despite a positive Mg balance. The disturbances in Mg metabolism were independent of the age or weight of the animals. Our results indicate that phosphate depletion is associated with (a) magnesuria due to a decrease in the net renal tubular reabsorption of Mg with the main source of the urinary losses being bone Mg; (b) hypomagnesemia secondary to the renal leak of Mg; (c) negative Mg balance; and (d

  10. Canaries in the Phosphate-Toxicity Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential mineral for cell structure and function but, when consumed in excess of the body’s requirements, has many adverse effects on metabolism and health. Recently published research has revealed that the average American consumes far more phosphorus than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (700 mg/d for adults). Some individuals’ daily phosphorus intake exceeds even an adult’s tolerable upper limit (4000 mg/d). Until now, understanding of the adverse effects caused by high phosphorus intake has come from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), in whom high levels of serum phosphates are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Due to their impaired renal function, CKD patients cannot clear excess phosphorus, for which reason they must avoid processed foods, virtually all of which are laden with phosphate-containing food additives. Recently, it has become apparent that CKD patients are our canaries in the phosphate-toxicity coal mines. Excessive phosphorus consumption has now been shown to be clearly associated with cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and all-cause mortality in the general, healthy population. PMID:26770122

  11. A Renal Olfactory Receptor Aids in Kidney Glucose Handling

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Blythe D.; Cheval, Lydie; Peterlin, Zita; Firestein, Stuart; Koepsell, Hermann; Doucet, Alain; Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors which serve important sensory functions beyond their role as odorant detectors in the olfactory epithelium. Here we describe a novel role for one of these ORs, Olfr1393, as a regulator of renal glucose handling. Olfr1393 is specifically expressed in the kidney proximal tubule, which is the site of renal glucose reabsorption. Olfr1393 knockout mice exhibit urinary glucose wasting and improved glucose tolerance, despite euglycemia and normal insulin levels. Consistent with this phenotype, Olfr1393 knockout mice have a significant decrease in luminal expression of Sglt1, a key renal glucose transporter, uncovering a novel regulatory pathway involving Olfr1393 and Sglt1. In addition, by utilizing a large scale screen of over 1400 chemicals we reveal the ligand profile of Olfr1393 for the first time, offering new insight into potential pathways of physiological regulation for this novel signaling pathway. PMID:27739476

  12. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  13. Transarterial embolization for serious renal hemorrhage following renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan; Liu, Guihua; Sun, Xiangzhou; Zhuang, Wenquan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wenbo; Yang, Jianyong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of serious renal hemorrhage after renal biopsy. Nine patients with renal hemorrhage had frank pain and gross hematuria as main symptoms after renal biopsy. Intrarenal arterial injuries and perinephric hematoma were confirmed by angiography in all cases. The arterial injuries led to two types of renal hemorrhage, Type I: severe renal injure or intrarenal renal artery rupture (n=5), with contrast medium spilling out of the artery and spreading into renal pelvis or kidney capsule in angiography; Type II, pseudo aneurysm or potential risk of intrarenal artery injure (n=4), where contrast medium that spilled out of intraartery was retained in the parenchyma as little spots less than 5 mm in diameter in angiography. Transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization was performed with coils or microcoils (Type I intrarenal artery injure) and polyvinyl alcohol particles (Type II injure). The intrarenal arterial injuries were occluded successfully in all patients. Light or mild back or abdominal pain in the side of the embolized kidney was found in three patients following embolization procedures and disappeared 3 days later. Serum creatinine and perinephric hematoma were stable, and gross hematuresis stopped immediately (n=4) or 3-5 days (n=3) after embolization. In conclusions, transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization as a minimally invasive therapy is safe and effective for treatment of serious renal hemorrhage following percutaneous renal biopsy.

  14. Adsorptive removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions using iron oxide tailings.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Le; Li, Xiaomei; Liu, Jindun

    2004-03-01

    This study explored the feasibility of utilizing industrial waste iron oxide tailings for phosphate removal in laboratory experiments. The experimental work emphasized on the evaluation of phosphate adsorption and desorption characteristics of the tailing material. The adsorption isotherm, kinetics, pH effect and desorption were examined in batch experiments. Five isotherm models were used for data fitting. The three-parameter equations (Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich) showed more applicability than the two-parameter equations (Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin). A modified equation for calculation of the separation factor using the Langmuir-Freundlich equation constants was developed. The initial phosphate adsorption on the tailings was rapid. The adsorption kinetics can be best described by either the simple Elovich or power function equation. The phosphate adsorption on the tailings tended to decrease with an increase of pH. A phosphate desorbability of approximately 13-14% was observed, and this low desorbability likely resulted from a strong bonding between the adsorbed PO(4)(3-)and iron oxides in the tailings. Column flow-through tests using both synthetic phosphate solution and liquid hog manure confirmed the phosphate removal ability of the tailings. Due to their low cost and high capability, this type of iron oxide tailings has the potential to be utilized for cost-effective removal of phosphate from wastewater.

  15. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  16. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  17. A phosphate-centric paradigm for pathophysiology and therapy of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuro-o, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular phosphate is toxic to the cell at high concentrations. When the phosphate level is increased in the blood by impaired urinary phosphate excretion, premature aging ensues. When the phosphate level is increased in the urine by dietary phosphate overload, this may lead to kidney damage (tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis). Extracellular phosphate exerts its cytotoxicity when it forms insoluble nanoparticles with calcium and fetuin-A, referred to as calciprotein particles (CPPs). CPPs are highly bioactive ligands that can induce various cellular responses, including osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cell death in vascular endothelium and renal tubular epithelium. CPPs are detected in the blood of animal models and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with adaptation of the endocrine axes mediated by fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho that regulate mineral metabolism and aging. These observations have raised the possibility that CPPs may contribute to the pathophysiology of CKD. This notion, if validated, is expected to provide new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:25019024

  18. A phosphate-centric paradigm for pathophysiology and therapy of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kuro-O, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular phosphate is toxic to the cell at high concentrations. When the phosphate level is increased in the blood by impaired urinary phosphate excretion, premature aging ensues. When the phosphate level is increased in the urine by dietary phosphate overload, this may lead to kidney damage (tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis). Extracellular phosphate exerts its cytotoxicity when it forms insoluble nanoparticles with calcium and fetuin-A, referred to as calciprotein particles (CPPs). CPPs are highly bioactive ligands that can induce various cellular responses, including osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cell death in vascular endothelium and renal tubular epithelium. CPPs are detected in the blood of animal models and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with adaptation of the endocrine axes mediated by fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho that regulate mineral metabolism and aging. These observations have raised the possibility that CPPs may contribute to the pathophysiology of CKD. This notion, if validated, is expected to provide new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:25019024

  19. Colonoscopy preparation-induced disorders in renal function and electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Florentin, Matilda; Liamis, George; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-05-01

    Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy are commonly used mainly for colon cancer screening and detection, but also in several other situations such as inflammatory bowel disease (for diagnosis and follow up) and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Bowel cleansing preparations mainly include polyethylene glycol and oral sodium phosphate solutions, with the later being most frequently used due to better toleration from patients. Despite their favourable safety profile these agents have been associated with renal function deterioration and electrolyte disorders, some of which were serious or even fatal. The present paper discusses the complications associated with colonoscopy preparation agents.

  20. Dynamics of renal electrolyte excretion in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Ripper, Maria; Tegtmeier, Ines; Humberg, Evelyn; Sterner, Christina; Reichold, Markus; Warth, Richard; Bandulik, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mice represent important models for elucidating renal pathophysiology, but gene deletions frequently cause severe failure to thrive. In such cases, the analysis of the phenotype is often limited to the first weeks of life when renal excretory function undergoes dramatic physiological changes. Here, we investigated the postnatal dynamics of urinary ion excretion in mice. The profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion of mice were examined from birth until after weaning using an automated ion chromatography system. Postnatally, mice grew about 0.4 g/day, except during two phases with slower weight gain: (i) directly after birth during adaptation to extrauterine conditions (P0-P2) and (ii) during the weaning period (P15-P21), when nutrition changed from mother's milk to solid chow and water. During the first 3 days after birth, remarkable changes in urinary Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and phosphate concentrations occurred, whereas K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations hardly changed. From days 4-14 after birth, Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Cl(-) concentrations remained relatively stable at low levels. Urinary concentrations of creatinine, NH4(+), phosphate, and sulfate constantly increased from birth until after weaning. Profiles of salt excretion in KCNJ10(-/-) mice exemplified the relevance of age-dependent analysis of urinary excretion. In conclusion, the most critical phases for analysis of renal ion excretion during the first weeks of life are directly after birth and during the weaning period. The age dependence of urinary excretion varies for the different ions. This should be taken into consideration when the renal phenotype of mice is investigated during the first weeks of life. PMID:24296675

  1. HSP70 Family in the Renal Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a shock induced family of proteins, whose most prominent members are a group of molecules dedicated to maintaining the function of other proteins. Interestingly, after being exposed to heat shock typical proinflammatory agonists modify the heat shock-induced transcriptional program and expression of HSP genes, suggesting a complex reciprocal regulation between the inflammatory pathway and that of the heat shock response. The specific task of Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70), the most widespread and highly conserved HSP, is to protect against inflammation through multiple mechanisms. So, the expression of immune reactivity to Hsp70 in the kidney could be a cause of hypertension. Hsp70 modulates inflammatory response, as well as down-regulates the nuclear factor kappa-lightchain- enhancer of activated B cells. Also, a decreased expression of renal Hsp70 may contribute to activate the toll-like receptor 4-initiating inflammatory signal pathway. In addition, several studies have revealed that Hsp70 is involved in the regulation of Angiotensin II, a peptide with proinflammatory activity. Increased inflammatory response is generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, following activation by Angiotensin II. Interestingly, Hsp70 protects the renal epithelium by modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, a fundamental step in the pro-inflammatory mechanism. This article aims to summarize our understanding about possible mechanisms improving the renal inflammatory process linked to Hsp70 expression. Finally, from a therapeutic point of view, the notion of antiinflammatory tools regulating Hsp70 could directly affect the inflammatory renal disease.

  2. Effect of polyaniline to enhance lithium iron phosphate conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayati, Anissa; Susanti, Susan; Rahayu, Iman; Hidayat, Sahrul

    2016-02-01

    Lithium cobalt oxide is commonly used as secondary battery. One of the disadvantages of lithium cobalt oxide is highly toxicity waste. One of the promising cathode is lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4). But it has poor conductivity (10-9 S/cm), so conductive material must be added to improve its conductivity. The present paper aims to study the effect of Polyaniline (PANI) and PVDF to enhance lithium iron phosphate conductivity. PANI was prepared through interfacial polymerization. Hydrochloric acid, ammonium persulfate, and toluene were used as dopant, oxidant, and organic solvent respectively. Their morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), molecular structure was investigated by Infrared Spectroscopy, and conductivity was confirmed by four point probes method. The composite products have conductivities in the range 9.14 × 10-3 - 6.2×10-1 S/cm. This result is expected to provide an alternative conductive material that can improve the conductivity of lithium iron phosphate, as well as the alternative cathode which is environmental friendly, and no harmful waste.

  3. Aflatoxicosis alters avian renal function, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed

    Glahn, R P; Beers, K W; Bottje, W G; Wideman, R F; Huff, W E; Thomas, W

    1991-11-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of aflatoxicosis on avian renal function, calcium (CA), inorganic phosphorous (Pi), and vitamin D metabolism, and to determine if the effects of aflatoxin are reversible upon discontinuation of toxin administration. Three-week-old male broiler chickens (n = 12 per treatment) received aflatoxin (AF; 2 mg/kg po) or an equal volume of corn oil, the AF carrier vehicle, for 10 consecutive days. After 10 d of treatment, half of the birds from each treatment group were anesthetized and prepared for renal function analysis, which included a 2-h phosphate loading period. Ten days after discontinuation of AF treatment, the remaining birds in each treatment group were anesthetized and prepared for renal function analysis. AF decreased plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels after 5 d of treatment. After 10 d of treatment, urine flow rate (V), fractional sodium excretion (FENa), and fractional potassium excretion (FEK) were lower in AF-treated birds. In addition, total plasma Ca tended to be lower (p = .10) and fractional Ca excretion (FECa) tended to be higher (p = .10) in the AF-treated birds. Intravenous phosphate loading produced a sharp increase in urine hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the AF-treated birds. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was reduced and plasma osmolality was increased in AF-treated birds 10 d after discontinuation of toxin administration. The results indicate that AF directly or indirectly affects Ca and Pi metabolism in avians. At the present time, the effects may be related to altered vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) metabolism. Aflatoxicosis may decrease endogenous PTH synthesis and the renal sensitivity to PTH. The AF-related increase in urine [H+] during phosphate loading is probably due to increased Na+/H+ counterport, suggesting that AF stimulates sodium reabsorption. Also, the decrease in GFR exhibited 10 d after toxin removal indicates

  4. Sevelamer therapy for pediatric end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Storms, Lara E; Chicella, Michael F; Dice, James E

    2006-03-01

    Sevelamer, a non-calcium-containing, non-aluminum-containing phosphate binder, is frequently prescribed for treatment in adults with hyperphosphatemia secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, published information regarding sevelamer use in children younger than 11 years is lacking. We report the use of sevelamer as a phosphate binder in a 19-month-old girl with ESRD who was receiving calcium carbonate 1250 mg 3 times/day for hyperphosphatemia. The patient's initial serum phosphorus concentration was 8.6 mg/dl, and the calcium-phosphorus product was 75 mg(2)/dl(2). This was well above the level that places patients at risk for complications such as joint, vessel, and soft-tissue calcification. An aluminum-containing phosphate binder was not an option given the patient's renal disease and the concern for neurotoxicity. Sevelamer was considered, but a MEDLINE search revealed no pediatric dosing information. An initial dosage of 100 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours was administered, as extrapolated from adult data, and then titrated to 130 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours based on the patient's response. The child's dietary phosphorus intake remained constant throughout her hospital stay. During sevelamer therapy, her serum phosphorus concentration dropped as low as 5.2 mg/dl; at discharge it was 6.5 mg/dl, with a corresponding calcium-phosphorus product in the upper 50s. No adverse effects associated with sevelamer were observed. In the dosages we used, sevelamer resulted in an acceptable calcium-phosphorus product and returned the patient's serum phosphorus concentration to near normal. Sevelamer appears to be a viable option as a phosphate binder in children with ESRD.

  5. Regulation of the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Pit-1 and its role in vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Magdalena; Martínez, Rafael; Amador, Cristián; Michea, Luis

    2009-10-01

    Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in blood vessels, myocardium, and/or cardiac valves. Calcification decreases artery wall compliance, and arterial calcification is associated to mortality in hyperphosphatemic renal failure and diabetes mellitus. The calcification of the tunica media characterizes the arteriosclerosis observed with age, diabetes and end stage-renal disease, and it can develop independently from intima calcification. As part of the vascular calcification mechanism, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) experience a transition from a contractile to an osteochondrogenic phenotype and a sequence of molecular events that are typical of endochondral ossification. The current evidence indicates a key role of increased phosphate uptake by VSMC for calcification, which supplies the substrate for hydroxyapatite formation and could trigger or potentiate VSMC transdiferentiation. The present review analyzes the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Pit-1, which is implicated in calcification. On the basis of the available data obtained in the study of vascular and osteoblastic experimental models, we discuss potential regulatory mechanisms that could lead to increased sodium-dependent phosphate uptake in vascular calcification. PMID:19485893

  6. Renal artery stenosis in kidney transplants: assessment of the risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Jalal; Rahbar, Khosro; Haghighi, Ali Nobakht; Bagheri, Nazila; Falaknazi, Kianoosh; Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Ghabili, Kamyar; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is an important cause of hypertension and renal allograft dysfunction occurring in kidney transplant recipients. However, conflicting predisposing risk factors for TRAS have been reported in the literature. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the potential correlation between possible risk factors and TRAS in a group of living donor renal transplant recipients 1 year after the renal transplantation. Methods: We evaluated the presence of renal artery stenosis in 16 recipients who presented with refractory hypertension and/or allograft dysfunction 1 year after renal transplantation. Screening for TRAS was made by magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosis was confirmed by conventional renal angiography. Age, gender, history of acute rejection, plasma lipid profile, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, calcium phosphate (CaPO4) product, alkaline phosphatase, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, and albumin were compared between the TRAS and non-TRAS groups. Results: Of 16 kidney transplant recipients, TRAS was diagnosed in three patients (two men and one woman). High levels of calcium, phosphorous, CaPO4 product, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly correlated with the risk of TRAS 1 year after renal transplantation (P < 0.05). Serum level of uric acid tended to have a significant correlation (P = 0.051). Conclusion: Correlation between high CaPO4 product, LDL cholesterol, and perhaps uric acid and TRAS in living donor renal transplant recipients 1 year after renal transplantation might suggest the importance of early detection and tight control of these potential risk factors. PMID:21915167

  7. Effects of aflatoxin chronic intoxication in renal function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de-Anda, A; Valdivia, A G; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Reyes, J L; Ortiz, R; Quezada, T; de Luna, M C; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) have a high impact in both human and animal health, causing significant economic losses in the poultry industry, especially by diminution of avian growth, feed efficiency, and product quality. Aflatoxins affect the whole organism, particularly liver and kidney. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal function alterations in laying hens during chronic AF ingestion. Randomly, 84 Leghorn Hy-Line laying hens (13 wk old) were assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 21): 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of AF/kg of feed. The AF (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) was obtained from 2 toxicogenic local strains of Aspergillus flavus grown in corn grains; the grain was sterilized, ground, and added to basal diets to achieve the selected AF concentrations. Hens ingested, during 17 and 42 wk, feed contaminated with AF. Data were analyzed in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Hens were anesthetized, ureteral urine samples were collected, and arterial blood samples were taken. The renal functional tests were evaluated by spectrophotometric and flame photometric methods, including a) Na, K, Ca, and phosphate fractional excretions; b) renal hemodynamic studies, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, respectively; and c) identification of macroscopic and histopathologic lesions. The hens intoxicated at all levels of AF showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in Ca, Na, and phosphate fraction excretions. Sodium and phosphates were excreted in a pattern of response time-dose. However, glomerular filtration rate exhibited a significant reduction (P < 0.05). The K fractional excretion and renal plasma flow remained unchanged. These results suggest that AF chronic ingestion affects renal functions of laying hens and induces Ca(++), (-3)PO(4), and Na(+) losses, which are of great concern to the poultry industry. PMID:20634516

  8. Absorption spectra and speciation of plutonium(VI) with phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, H.T.; Reed, D.

    1996-02-01

    Plutonium(VI)-phosphate species in aqueous solution, at pH < 2.4, formed two species: PuO{sub 2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +} (characterized by an 835 nm absorption band) and the solid phase PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The stability constant {beta} for the PuO{sub 2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +} species was determined to be log {beta} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 (ionic strength = 0.6--0.9 M) and log {beta}{sup T} = 2.6 {+-} 0.15 (zero ionic strength). Four Pu(VI)-phosphate species (absorption bands at 842, 846, 857, and 866 nm) formed at pH = 2.4 to 12.2 and are characterized by polynuclear behavior, the formation of precipitates, and colloidal properties. The 842 and 846 nm species are believed to be [PuO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub m}]{sub n} and [PuO{sub 2}(NaPO{sub 4}){sub m}]{sub n}. The 857 and 866 nm species area as yet unidentified. The speciation of plutonium with phosphate is of interest to radionuclide migration studies because phosphate is present in many groundwaters and may be used as an actinide getter in nuclear waste disposal. An actinide getter is a complexing agent that forms insoluble phases with actinides, thereby reducing their migration.

  9. Phosphate interference during in situ treatment for arsenic in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic is a problem in many areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh, where reducing conditions in groundwater are the cause. In situ treatment is a novel approach wherein, by introduction of dissolved oxygen (DO), advantages over other treatment methods can be achieved through simplicity, not using chemicals, and not requiring disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. A lab-scale test of in situ treatment by air sparging, using a solution with approximately 5.3 mg L(-1) ferrous iron and 200 μg L(-1) arsenate, showed removal of arsenate in the range of 59%. A significant obstacle exists, however, due to the interference of phosphate since phosphate competes for adsorption sites on oxidized iron precipitates. A lab-scale test including 0.5 mg L(-1) phosphate showed negligible removal of arsenate. In situ treatment by air sparging demonstrates considerable promise for removal of arsenic from groundwater where iron is present in considerable quantities and phosphates are low.

  10. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  11. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures. PMID:27512433

  12. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  13. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  14. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

  15. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers.

  16. Dissolution of phosphate matrices based on the thorium phosphate diphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacheux, N.; Thomas, A. C.; Brandel, V.; Genet, M.

    2000-07-01

    Several authors have reported the use of phosphate matrices like apatites, monazites or NZP for the immobilization of actinides coming from an advanced reprocessing or for the final disposal of the excess plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons. The thorium phosphate diphosphate Th4(PO4)4P2O7 (namely TPD) was also proposed for this purpose. Indeed, its structure allows the replacement of large amounts of tetravalent actinides like uranium, neptunium or plutonium leading to the obtention of solid solutions. The maximum weight loading was estimated to be equal to about 48% for uranium, 33% for neptunium and 26% for plutonium.

  17. Molecular glasses for nuclear waste encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, R.C.

    1982-09-28

    A molecular glass based upon a phosphate of aluminum, or other trivalent metal, provides significant improvement over prior art glasses for encapsulation of high level radioactive nuclear waste. When containing a controlled amount of those elemental oxides found in a typical nuclear waste, the waste-glass would not devitrify under conditions which produced devitrification in the non-nuclear-waste-containing glass, exhibited hydrolysis losses lower by an order of magnitude, had high solvency power for those elemental oxides, exhibited little tendency for internal crystallite formation, and possessed other desirable physical characteristics, all in direct antithesis to the properties of the best prior-known glasses used for this application.

  18. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. PMID:27282935

  19. Process for producing granular diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, W.D.

    1988-05-17

    A process for the production of solid granular diammonium phosphate is described comprising: reacting anhydrous ammonia with phosphoric acid in a reactor to form a partially reacted slurry of monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate; pumping the slurry to a granulator-reactor and further reacting the slurry with anhydrous ammonia to form a solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture having a particle range size consisting of undersize, oversize and product; drying the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture in a dryer; dividing the dried solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture being discharged from the dryer into a first portion and a second portion; diverting and feeding the first portion of the dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture back to the granulator-reactor; feeding the second portion of dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture to a classifying means consisting of a set of screens including an oversize screen and a product screen set to a narrow size separation to separate the mixture of the solid granular diammonium phosphate into undersize, oversize and product solid granular diammonium phosphate; milling the oversize granular diammonium phosphate; recycling to the granular-reactor the milled oversized granular diammonium phosphate and the undersized granular particles obtained during the classifying of the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture; and collecting the desired product granular particle thereby enhancing the production of a narrow range of granular diammonium phosphate particle size distribution within a broad range of particle size distribution.

  20. Renal implications of arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M

    1997-03-01

    Renal vascular damage caused by arterial hypertension participates in alterations of the systemic vascular function and structure. Nephrosclerosis seems to run in parallel with the systemic atherosclerosis that accounts for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in hypertensive patients. Parameters indicating the existence of an alteration in renal function (increased serum creatinine, proteinuria and microalbuminuria) are independent predictors for an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hence, parameters of renal function must be considered in any stratification of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.

  1. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  2. [Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries].

    PubMed

    Plouin, Pierre-François; Fiquet, Béatrice; Bobrie, Guillaume; Jeunemaître, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia is non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the medium caliber arteries causing segmental stenosis, and sometimes aneurysm and/or dissection. Renal involvement is either asymptomatic or revealed by hypertension, rarely acute complications (renal infarction/hemorrhage). Cross-sectional imaging or angiography differentiates multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia (pearl necklace appearance) and focal fibromuscular dysplasia (tubular stenosis). Several differential diagnoses are to be mentioned. Carotid and vertebral involvement are possible. Smoking cessation must be encouraged. Selected patients benefit from renal revascularization. The best indications are recent or resistant hypertension, and progressive renal atrophy. Angioplasty without stent revascularization is the technique of choice in purely stenotic forms. PMID:26968476

  3. Low Temperature Waste Immobilization Testing Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Smith, D. E.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Telander, Monty R.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2006-09-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating low-temperature technologies to immobilize mixed radioactive and hazardous waste. Three waste forms—alkali-aluminosilicate hydroceramic cement, “Ceramicrete” phosphate-bonded ceramic, and “DuraLith” alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer—were selected through a competitive solicitation for fabrication and characterization of waste-form properties. The three contractors prepared their respective waste forms using simulants of a Hanford secondary waste and Idaho sodium bearing waste provided by PNNL and characterized their waste forms with respect to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compressive strength. The contractors sent specimens to PNNL, and PNNL then conducted durability (American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society [ANSI/ANS] 16.1 Leachability Index [LI] and modified Product Consistency Test [PCT]) and compressive strength testing (both irradiated and as-received samples). This report presents the results of these characterization tests.

  4. Comparison of tar sands and phosphatic clay tailings properties, disposal, and reclamation options

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, W.A.; Carrier, W.D. III; Burns, R.

    1995-12-31

    The tar sands industry of northern Alberta, much like the phosphate mining industry of Florida, is having to deal with the long term management of a fine-grained tailings waste. The production of synthetic crude from surface deposits of tar sands results in a combined tailings mixture of sand, bitumen, and clay. The phosphate industry bonification process separates the clay and sand waste streams at the plant and these materials are generally deposited in separate disposal areas. Both the tar sands fine tailings and the waste phosphatic clays exhibit engineering characteristics associated with highly plastic clays. This behavior is typically characterized by large changes in void ratio and permeability with changes in effective stress. Recent technology exchanges between the phosphate and tar sands industries reveal some encouraging opportunities for waste disposal and reclamation planning in the tar sands industry. Studies involving the mixing of mature fine oil sands tailings and sand (with and without chemical additives) have provided some improvements in the tar sands tailings material consolidation and permeability properties.

  5. EVALUATION OF ULTRAFILTRATION TO RECOVER AQUEOUS IRON PHOSPHATING/DEGREASING BATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention efforts studied in the report summarized here targeted the hazardous waste generated from a 5000-gal iron phosphating/degreasing bath used by a metal fabricator to clean and precondition steel parts for painting. This project was carried out in four stages: (...

  6. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  7. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  8. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  9. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Yousef, Abraham L

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a) quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b), although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light. PMID:25246963

  10. Persistent Increase in Blood Pressure After Renal Nerve Stimulation in Accessory Renal Arteries After Sympathetic Renal Denervation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mark R; Hoogerwaard, Annemiek F; Gal, Pim; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoit; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Staessen, Jan A; Persu, Alexandre; Elvan, Arif

    2016-06-01

    Blood pressure response to renal denervation is highly variable, and the proportion of responders is disappointing. This may be partly because of accessory renal arteries too small for denervation, causing incomplete ablation. Renal nerve stimulation before and after renal denervation is a promising approach to assess completeness of renal denervation and may predict blood pressure response to renal denervation. The objective of the current study was to assess renal nerve stimulation-induced blood pressure increase before and after renal sympathetic denervation in main and accessory renal arteries of anaesthetized patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The study included 21 patients. Nine patients had at least 1 accessory renal artery in which renal denervation was not feasible. Renal nerve stimulation was performed in the main arteries of all patients and in accessory renal arteries of 6 of 9 patients with accessory arteries, both before and after renal sympathetic denervation. Renal nerve stimulation before renal denervation elicited a substantial increase in systolic blood pressure, both in main (25.6±2.9 mm Hg; P<0.001) and accessory (24.3±7.4 mm Hg; P=0.047) renal arteries. After renal denervation, renal nerve stimulation-induced systolic blood pressure increase was blunted in the main renal arteries (Δ systolic blood pressure, 8.6±3.7 mm Hg; P=0.020), but not in the nondenervated renal accessory renal arteries (Δ systolic blood pressure, 27.1±7.6 mm Hg; P=0.917). This residual source of renal sympathetic tone may result in persistent hypertension after ablation and partly account for the large response variability.

  11. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Gareth D; Taylor, Rebecca F; Ashton, Nick; Borland, Samantha J; Wu, Hon Sing Geoffrey; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  12. Early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure in dogs and cats is to enable timely application of therapeutic interventions that may slow or halt disease progression. Strategies for early diagnosis of renal disease use urine tests that detect proteinuria that is a manifestation of altered glomerular permselectivity or impaired urine-concentrating ability as well blood tests to evaluate plasma creatinine concentration. Animals with progressive renal disease should be carefully investigated and treated appropriately. Animals with mild, possibly nonprogressive, renal disease should be monitored adequately to detect any worsening trends,which should lead to further investigation and treatment even if the increments of change are small. PMID:15223206

  13. Role of renal metabolism in risk to toxic chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Lash, L H

    1994-01-01

    The kidneys are capable of carrying out extensive oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation reactions. Renal cortex has high activities of cytochrome P450 and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase. In contrast, renal medulla has high activity of prostaglandin synthetase, which can catalyze co-oxidation of xenobiotics. While these pathways are found in many tissues and at higher activities than in kidney, several key enzymes of the mercapturic acid pathway are found at especially high activities in cells of the renal proximal tubule. Investigations over the last two decades demonstrated that GSH conjugation is not only a mechanism for detoxification of reactive electrophiles. Rather, metabolism of GSH S-conjugates to the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates represents a branch point: cysteine S-conjugates may be metabolized by the cysteine S-conjugate N-acetyl-transferase to mercapturic acids, which are nontoxic and are excreted, or they may be substrates for the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, which catalyzes either a beta-elimination or a transamination reaction to produce unstable thiols. These thiols rearrange to form potent acylating species that can covalently bind to cellular macromolecules, thereby producing cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. In addition to the beta-lyase, two other renal enzymes, L-2-amino (2-hydroxy) acid oxidase and cysteine conjugate S-oxidase, can bioactivate chemicals to produce nephrotoxic species. Several halogenated alkanes and alkenes are bioactivated by these pathways. These findings show that mammalian kidney is highly active in bioactivation of xenobiotics. Although the properties of the corresponding enzymes in humans may differ, it is clear that renal metabolism can be a critical determinant of risk to chemical injury. PMID:7737046

  14. Renal metabolism of calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, R.E.; Hjelle, J.T.; Mahoney, C.; Deftos, L.J.; Lisker, W.; Kato, P.; Rabkin, R.

    1988-04-01

    The kidneys account for approximately two-thirds of the metabolism of calcitonin, but relatively little is known regarding the details thereof. To further characterize this process, we examined the renal handling and metabolism of human calcitonin (hCT) by the isolated perfused rat kidney. We also studied the degradation of radiolabeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) by subcellular fractions prepared from isolated rabbit proximal tubules. The total renal (organ) clearance of immunoreactive hCT by the isolated kidney was 1.96 +/- 0.18 ml/min. This was independent of the perfusate total calcium concentration from 5.5 to 10.2 mg/dl. Total renal clearance exceeded the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 0.68 +/- 0.05 ml/min), indicating filtration-independent removal. Urinary calcitonin clearance as a fraction of GFR averaged 2.6%. Gel filtration chromatography of medium from isolated kidneys perfused with /sup 125/I-labeled sCT showed the principal degradation products to be low molecular weight forms eluting with monoiodotyrosine. Intermediate size products were not detected. In the subcellular fractionation experiments, when carried out at pH 5.0, calcitonin hydrolysis exclusively followed the activities of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. Typically, at pH 7.5, 42% of total degradation occurred in the region of the brush-border enzyme alanyl aminopeptidase and 29% occurred in the region of the cytosolic enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Although 9% of the calcitonin-degrading activity was associated with basolateral membrane fractions, most of this activity could be accounted for by the presence of brush-border membranes.

  15. Renal failure in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Rohani, M

    2004-01-01

    Renal failure remains a serious cause of mortality in Yemen. Our region has 1.25 million population and our hospital is the central hospital, which has a nephrology department and performs dialysis for the region. Between January 1998 and December 2002, we admitted 547 patients; including children, with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF). CRF was observed in 400 patients, an incidence of 64 per million per year and a prevalence of 320 per million. ARF occurred in 147 persons with an incidence of 23.5 per million per year and a prevalence of 117.5 patients per million. Of all patients, 72% were adults (age range, 20-60 years) with a male preponderance. As a tropical country, malaria (27.9%), diarrhea (13.6%), and other infectious diseases were the main causes. Next most common were obstructive diseases causing CRF and ARF (26.8% and 12.9%, respectively), mainly urolithiasis, Schistosomiasis, and prostatic enlargement. However the cause of CRF in 57.5% of patients was unknown as most persons presented late with end-stage disease (64.7%), requiring immediate intervention. Other causes, such as hepatorenal syndrome, snake bite, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, showed low occurrence rates. Patients presented to the hospital mostly in severe uremia and without a clear history of prior medications. The major findings were vomiting, acidosis, and hypertension with serum creatinine values ranging between 2.8-45 mg/dL (mean value, 13.4 mg/dL). Anemia was observed in 80.4% of CRF versus 62.6% of ARF patients. Hypertension prevalence was 65.5% among CRF patients, of whom 25% were in hypertensive crisis, whereas among ARF the prevalence was only 26.5%. PMID:15350475

  16. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  17. Renal calculus disease.

    PubMed

    Schulsinger, D A; Sosa, R E

    1998-03-01

    We have seen an explosion in technical innovations for the management of urolithiasis. Today, the endourologist possesses an assortment of minimally invasive tools to treat renal stones. Most patients receive fast, safe and effective treatment in the outpatient setting. Despite the many technical advances, however, anatomical malformations and complex stones still provide significant challenges in diagnosis, access to a targeted stone, fragmentation, and clearance of the resulting fragments. This review examines a variety of urinary stone presentations and treatment strategies for cost-effective management.

  18. Ifosfamide induced renal rickets.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Arul P; Chinnaswamy, Girish; John, Rikki R; Mathai, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Ifosfamide is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic agent in children. The authors report a 4-y-old boy who developed proximal renal tubulopathy with florid rickets a year after completion of ifosfamide therapy for Ewing's sarcoma. After initiation of treatment, there was complete healing of rickets and he did not need supplements beyond 18 mo. Growth monitoring and musculoskeletal system examination is important in all children who have received ifosfamide therapy. Routine monitoring for nephrotoxicity during and after ifosfamide therapy helps in early identification and intervention. PMID:23912821

  19. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  17. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  18. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  19. [Renal oncocytoma: 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Boschi, L; Zamboni, W; Mandrioli, M

    1990-05-31

    Renal oncocytoma is an uncommon benign neoplasm of tubular epithelial origin. It usually occurs as single mass and clinically may be confused with renal cell carcinoma. Angiographic, CT and ultrasound studies may suggest the diagnosis but they are not pathognomonic. The clinical, diagnostic and anatomopathological features of two cases are presented and discussed.

  20. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419

  1. Heterogeneity of bilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, N.

    1977-01-01

    Bilateral and unilateral renal agenesis may be expressions of single dominant gene. Chromosome abnormalities may be present and the renal agenesis may be part of a syndrome of multiple abnormalities. Apparently normal relatives of affected individuals should be screened by intravenous pyelography before genetic counselling given. PMID:844022

  2. Renal response to environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Finn, W F

    1977-10-01

    Several characteristics of normal renal function increase the risk to the kidney of damage by environmental toxins. Due to the magnitude of renal blood flow the total amount of noxious substance delivered may be disproportionately high. Furthermore, the capacity to concentrate substances within the kidney by processes of filtration, reabsorption and secretion has the potential to increase the toxicity of agents which would otherwise not lead to tissue injury. Unfortunately, there are few tests of renal function which are able to detect early functional abnormalities and which, at the same time, are suited for screening purposes by virtue of their simplicity, cost and safety. Furthermore, interpretation of the tests is complicated by adaptive changes in renal function which occur with aging and in response to other disease processes. Environmental agents produce a wide spectrum of renal dysfunction. Acute renal damage follows exposure to glycols, organic solvents, heavy metals, diagnostic and therapeutic agents and a variety of miscellaneous substances. Chronic renal disease may take the form of isolated tubular defects as seen with cadmium, interstitial nephritis due to the ingestion of lead, or vascular damage induced by external radiation. Some forms of glomerulonephritis may also be related to environmental toxins as are certain tumors of the urinary tract. In a somewhat different fashion, patients whose renal function is limited by the presence of pre-existing disease may manifest toxicity from substances ordinarily excreted in the urine. Particular problems exist with the patients on dialysis, as they are at considerable risk to alterations in the environment.

  3. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  4. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301...

  5. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  6. Development of the Renal Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, R. Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The kidney is a highly vascularized organ that normally receives a fifth of the cardiac output. The unique spatial arrangement of the kidney vasculature with each nephron is crucial for the regulation of renal blood flow, GFR, urine concentration, and other specialized kidney functions. Thus, the proper and timely assembly of kidney vessels with their respective nephrons is a crucial morphogenetic event leading to the formation of a functioning kidney necessary for independent extrauterine life. Mechanisms that govern the development of the kidney vasculature are poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the anatomical development, embryological origin, lineage relationships, and key regulators of the kidney arterioles and postglomerular circulation. Because renal disease is associated with deterioration of the kidney microvasculature and/or the reenactment of embryonic pathways, understanding the morphogenetic events and processes that maintain the renal vasculature may open new avenues for the preservation of renal structure and function and prevent the progression of renal disease. PMID:22052047

  7. Renal biopsy: methods and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2004-07-01

    Renal biopsy most often is indicated in the management of dogs and cats with glomerular disease or acute renal failure. Renal biopsy can readily be performed in dogs and cats via either percutaneous or surgical methods. Care should be taken to ensure that proper technique is used. When proper technique is employed and patient factors are properly addressed, renal biopsy is a relatively safe procedure that minimally affects renal function. Patients should be monitored during the post biopsy period for severe hemorrhage, the most common complication. Accurate diagnosis of glomerular disease, and therefore, accurate treatment planning,requires that the biopsy specimens not only be evaluated by light microscopy using special stains but by electron and immunofluorescent microscopy. PMID:15223207

  8. Renal Denervation: Where to Now?

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Neil J; Mauri, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Resistant hypertension remains a growing problem worldwide. Renal sympathetic denervation was thought to be a new method for the treatment for resistant hypertension. Early studies demonstrated a marked benefit in patients who underwent renal denervation procedures, but the pivotal SYMPLICITY 3-HTN trial, the only sham-controlled randomized trial performed, did not show a benefit for patients treated with the procedure compared to sham. There is still much to learn about the physiology and anatomy of renal sympathetic pathways as well as careful attention to medication adherence in order to understand the role of renal sympathetic denervation in treating hypertensive patients. While renal denervation technology remains available in clinical practice outside of the USA, we expect further development of this technology in the upcoming years and the continued evaluation of this technology in patients with hypertension as well as other disease states to fully understand its role. PMID:26482759

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  16. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  17. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...